Science.gov

Sample records for 1998-1999 pesticide market

  1. Communicating with New and Existing Markets. A Task Force of Howard Community College's 1998-1999 Commission on the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard Community Coll., Columbia, MD.

    This is a report from a task force formed by Howard Community College (Maryland) to examine existing and future markets. The task force also explored ways to use marketing strategies to attract potential customers to the college. The task force recommends that the college use its strengths to attract customers, such as its commitment to open…

  2. CACD Journal, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickwire, Pat Nellor, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This publication of the California Association for Counseling and Development for 1998-1999 supports the organizational goals of leadership, inquiry, discovery, excellence, and innovation. It attempts to identify the current issues of concern in the counseling field and to share research to help improve the professional learning community. As a…

  3. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    The "Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1998-1999" is compiled from information supplied by the state's public libraries. The document is divided according to the following county groups: Apache, Cochise; Coconino, Gila; Graham, Greenlee, La Paz; Maricopa; Mohave, Navajo; Pima, Pinal; Santa Cruz, Yavapai; and Yuma. Within each of these…

  4. Officers and Council, 1998-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-10-01

    The 1998-1999 Council of the British Astronomical Association photographed on the steps of Burlington House, London, on 1999 May 26. Front row, left to right: Bob Marriott, Hazel McGee, Martin Mobberley, Nick James, Jonathan Shanklin, Ron Johnson; centre: Richard Miles, Gordon Taylor, Jacqueline Mitton, David Tucker, John Mason, Pat Barber, David Reid, Peter Hudson; back: Laurence Anslow, Guy Hurst, Lionel Mayling, Nick Hewitt, Owen Brazell, Tony Kinder, Mark Armstrong, Maurice Gavin. Photo by Hazel McGee and Linda Newton.

  5. Influenza activity in China: 1998-1999.

    PubMed

    Yuanji, Guo

    2002-05-15

    During 1989-1999, influenza A H3N2 and H1N1 subtypes and B type viruses were still co-circulating in human population in China, while influenza A (H3N2) virus was predominant strain. The two antigenically and genetically distinguishable strains of influenza B virus were also still co-circulating in men in southern China. The antigenic analysis indicated that most of the H3N2 viruses were A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2)-like strain, the most of the H1N1 viruses were antigenically similar to A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1) virus. However, most of the influenza B viruses were B/Beijing/184/93-like strain, but few of them were antigenically similar to B/Shandong/7/97 virus. In the summer of 1998, the influenza outbreaks caused by H3N2 subtype of influenza A virus occurred widely in southern China. Afterwards, during 1998-1999 influenza season, a severe influenza epidemic caused by H3N2 virus emerged in northern China. The morbidity was reached as high as 10% in Beijing area. It was interesting that during influenza, surveillance from 1998 to 1999, five strains of avian influenza A (H9N2) virus were isolated from outpatients with influenza-like illness in July-August of 1998, and another one was repeatedly isolated from a child suffering from influenza-like disease in November of 1999 in Guangdong province. The genetic analysis revealed that the five strains isolated in 1998 were genetically closely related to H9N2 viruses being isolated from chickens (G9 lineage virus), whereas, A/Guangzhou/333/99 (H9N2) virus was a reassortant derived from reassortment between G9 and G1 lineage of avian influenza A (H9N2) viruses due to its genes encoding the HA, NA, NP and NS proteins, closely related to G9 lineage virus, the rest of the genes encoding the M and three polymerase (PB2, PB1 and PA) were closely related to G1 lineage strain of H9N2 virus. However, no avian influenza A (H5N1) virus has so far been isolated neither from in or outpatients with influenza-like disease in mainland China

  6. Review on international observations and researches of 1998 - 1999 Leonids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongyuan

    2001-06-01

    Great achievements have been gained from Leonid Meteor Shower observations and researches during the period of 1998 - 1999. In this paper, some results and progresses, including visual, radar, airborne, balloon observations, satellite safe monitoring and observations of Leonid impact on the moon and the lunar sodium tail, are presented briefly.

  7. Review of US medical school finances, 1998-1999.

    PubMed

    Krakower, J Y; Coble, T Y; Williams, D J; Jones, R F

    2000-09-06

    Based on data from the Annual Medical School Questionnaire of the Liaison Committee on Medical Education, to which 100% of the 125 accredited allopathic US medical schools responded, we found that revenue supporting programs and activities of the 125 accredited medical schools in the United States totaled $39,761 million in 1998-1999. Three sources accounted for 79.3% of total revenues: practice plans ($13,724 million; 34.5%), grants and contracts ($11, 982 million; 30.1%), and hospital support ($5814 million; 14.6%). In the aggregate, total revenues increased by 7.4% between 1997-1998 and 1998-1999, a consequence at least in part due to a 2.9% increase in the number of full-time faculty. The largest increase in dollar amount came from grants and contracts ($1101 million; 10.2% increase). Revenue increases were not evenly distributed across the schools. Increases of 10% or more in key revenue sources-practice plans and hospital support-were reported by approximately one fourth of all schools. Another one fourth reported decreases in these same sources. JAMA. 2000;284:1127-1129

  8. Economic Development Program, California Community Colleges: ED>Net 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Economic Development Coordination Network (EDNet).

    This report describes economic development programs operated by California Community Colleges during fiscal year 1998-1999. Report highlights include: (1) 60 of 107 community colleges (48 of 72 districts) operated an economic development program; (2) eight economic development programs engaged primarily in delivering training and technical…

  9. Minnesota's Fiscal Years 1998-1999 Budget: An Opportunity for Children & Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferys, Marcie

    This report presents the Children's Defense Fund's (CDF) recommendations for spending the fiscal year 1998-1999 Minnesota state budget surplus. The intent of the CDF plan is four-fold: (1) emphasizing long-term investments in children's well-being; (2) address children's immediate health and safety concerns; (3) contribute to the continued…

  10. Mississippi's Public Community and Junior Colleges Statistical Data, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges, Jackson.

    This document presents the 1998-1999 statistical data for the following 15 Mississippi (MS) public community and junior colleges: Coahoma, Copiah-Lincoln, East Central, East MS, Hinds, Holmes, Itawamba, Jones, Meridian, MS Delta, MS Gulf Coast, Northeast MS, Northwest MS, Pearl River, and Southwest MS. It begins with a list of State Board members…

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 1998-1999 NASA CONNECT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Frank, Kari Lou; House, Patricia L.

    2000-01-01

    NASA CONNECT is a standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (satellite and television) programs for students in grades 5-8. Each of the five programs in the 1998-1999 NASA CONNECT series included a lesson, an educator guide, a student activity or experiment, and a web-based component. In March 1999, a mail (self-reported) survey (booklet) was sent to a randomly selected sample of 1,000 NASA CONNECT registrants. A total of 401 surveys (351 usable) were received by the established cut-off date. Most survey questions employed a 5-point Likert-type response scale. Survey topics included: (1) instructional technology and teaching, (2) instructional programming and technology in the classroom, (3) the NASA CONNECT program, (4) classroom use of computer technology, and (5) demographics. About 68% of the respondents were female, about 88% identified "classroom teacher" as their present professional duty, about 75% worked in a public school, and about 67% held a master's degree or master's equivalency. Regarding NASA CONNECT, respondents reported that: (1) they used the five programs in the 1998-1999 NASA CONNECT series; (2) the stated objectives for each program were met (4.49); (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards (4.61); (4) program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level (4.25); and (5) the programs in the 1998-1999 NASA CONNECT series enhanced/enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology (4.45).

  12. Usual sources of cigarettes for middle and high school students--Texas, 1998-1999.

    PubMed

    2002-10-11

    Persons often begin smoking when they are minors (aged <18 years), and easy access to cigarettes might contribute to this behavior. Laws and regulations were in place in Texas during 1998-1999 to reduce minors' access to cigarettes by 1) prohibiting the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors; 2) imposing fines against retailers caught selling cigarettes to minors; 3) prohibiting minors from purchasing, possessing, or using tobacco products; 4) limiting vending machines to adult-only locations; and 5) requiring tobacco retailers to ask for proof of identification from anyone attempting to purchase tobacco who appeared to be aged <27 years. To measure progress in reducing access to cigarettes among middle and high school students in Texas, CDC analyzed self-reported data from the 1998 and 1999 Texas Youth Tobacco Survey (TYTS). This report summarizes the results of that survey, which indicate that during 1998-1999, reported access to cigarettes from stores and vending machines (commercial sources) decreased among middle school students from 13.2% to 5.3% and from 7.6% to 1.7%, respectively, but access from noncommercial and other sources (e.g., stealing cigarettes and "getting them some other way") increased from 8.3% to 12.3% and from 16.6% to 23.3%, respectively. Among high school students, most sources did not change. Educating retailers and actively enforcing laws governing youth access to tobacco as part of a comprehensive tobacco-control approach are required to reduce youth access to cigarettes.

  13. Report on Community College Classes Offered in Conjunction with High Schools (R7-1-709), FY 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Board of Directors for Community Colleges, Phoenix.

    This publication presents the first 1998-1999 Report on Community College Classes Offered in Conjunction with High Schools in Arizona. This report contains the following sections: (1) a map of Arizona Community College Campuses, Centers, and Extension Sites; (2) an outline of Rule R7-1-709: Community College Classes Offered in Conjunction with…

  14. Johnson Space Center Research and Technology Annual Report 1998-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbey, George W. S.

    2004-01-01

    As the principle center for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise, the Johnson Space Center (JSC) leads NASA development of human spacecraft, human support systems, and human spacecraft operations. An important element in implementing this mission, JSC has focused on developing the infrastructure and partnerships that enable the technology development for future NASA programs. In our efforts to develop key technologies, we have found that collaborative relationships with private industry and academia strengthen our capabilities, infuse innovative ideas, and provide alternative applications for our development projects. The American public has entrusted NASA with the responsibility for space technology development, and JSC is committed to the transfer of the technologies that we develop to the private sector for further development and application. It is our belief that commercialization of NASA technologies benefits both American industry and NASA through technology innovation and continued partnering. To this end, we present the 1998-1999 JSC Research and Technology Report. As your guide to the current JSC technologies, this report showcases the projects in work at JSC that may be of interest to U.S. industry, academia, and other government agencies (federal, state, and local). For each project, potential alternative uses and commercial applications are described. To aid in your search, projects are arranged according to the Major Product Groups used by CorpTech to classify and index types of industry. Some projects fall into multiple categories and are placed under the predominant category, for example, an artificial intelligence project is listed under the Computer Software category, while its function is to automate a process (Automation category).

  15. The 1998-1999 seismic series at Deception Island volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, J. M.; Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Saccorotti, G.; Del Pezzo, E.; Abril, M.; Ortiz, R.

    2003-11-01

    During the 1998-1999 Antarctic summer the pattern of seismic activity at Deception Island volcano changed significantly. The change was characterized by the occurrence of an intense swarm of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes. More than 2000 VT earthquakes with S-P times smaller than 4 s were recorded in the period January-February 1999. Pure volcanic events were also detected; especially long-period (LP) events, volcanic tremor and some hybrid events. Seismic monitoring was performed using two short-period small-aperture arrays, among other instruments. Based on their signal-to-noise ratios we selected 863 VT earthquakes, 350 LP events and tremor episodes, and 9 hybrid events for analysis. We estimated apparent slowness and back-azimuth for all events using the Zero Lag Cross-Correlation array technique. Combining this information with S-P times and other indirect evidence, we identified two different source regions. LP seismicity is located less than 1-1.5 km southwest of the Fumarole array site. These events are likely to have a hydrothermal origin. VT earthquakes and hybrid events are located at depths of 0.3-10 km in an area under the bay of Deception Island. The area extends from the Fumarole array to the northeast with epicentral distances that range from 0.5 to 12 km. Most hypocenters are clustered in a small volume of around 8 km 3. The sources of the LP seismicity and the VT earthquakes are spatially distinct, which indicates that they are not produced by the same mechanisms. Moment magnitude analyses of the VT earthquakes provide an average magnitude of 0.5 and very low average stress drop, around 1 bar. A study of first motion of the P-waves suggests that the events in this small source region should have a variety of source mechanisms. This is supported by the existence of families of events with the same waveforms. The occurrence of repeating fracture processes with low stress drop and small fault dimensions can be explained by the lubrication of pre

  16. The 1998-1999 Seismic Series At Deception Island Volcano, Antarctica.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, J. M.; Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Saccorotti, G.; del Pezzo, E.; Abril, M.; Ortiz, R.; Martínez-Arévalo, C.

    During the 1998-1999 Antarctic summer, the pattern of seismic activity at Deception Island volcano suffered a significant change with respect to the previous years. This change was characterized by the occurrence of an intense swarm of local earthquakes. More than 2000 local earthquakes with S-P time smaller than 4 s were recorded in the period January-February 1999. Pure volcanic events have been also detected, spe- cially long period (LP) events and volcanic tremor, and some hybrid events. Seismic monitoring was performed using two short-period small-aperture arrays, among other instruments. We selected for the analysis 863 local earthquakes, 350 LP events and tremor episodes, and 9 hybrid events, based on their signal-to-noise ratios. Propaga- tion parameters (apparent slowness and back-azimuth) for all events were estimated using the zero lag cross-correlation (ZLCC) array technique. Combining this infor- mation with measures of S-P times and other indirect evidences, two different source regions have been identified. LP seismicity is located southwestward from the Fuma- role array site at distances smaller than 1-1.5 km. In this region we find the presence of glaciers, important fractures, and thermal anomalies, which supports the hypothesis of a hydrothermal origin. Local earthquakes and hybrid events are located in a region beneath Port Foster, the inner Bay of Deception Island. This region extends from the array site to the Northeast, between depths of 0.3 and 10 km. The epicentral distances range between 0.5 and 12 km. Most hypocenters are clustered in a small volume of around 8 km3 centered at 1.5 km depth and 1.5 km Northeast of the Fumarole ar- ray. The sources of the LP seismicity and the local earthquakes are spatially distinct, which indicates that they are not produced by the same mechanisms. Moment mag- nitude analyses of the local earthquakes show an energetic uniformity in the seismic series, with average magnitude of 0.5 and very low average

  17. Pesticide and pathogen contamination of vegetables in Ghana's urban markets.

    PubMed

    Amoah, P; Drechsel, P; Abaidoo, R C; Ntow, W J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine and compare the current level of exposure of the Ghanaian urban population to hazardous pesticide and fecal coliform contamination through the consumption of fresh vegetables produced in intensive urban and periurban smallholder agriculture with informal wastewater irrigation. A total of 180 vegetable samples (lettuce, cabbage, and spring onion) were randomly collected under normal purchase conditions from 9 major markets and 12 specialized selling points in 3 major Ghanaian cities: Accra, Kumasi and Tamale. The samples were analyzed for pesticide residue on lettuce leaves, total and fecal coliforms, and helminth egg counts on all three vegetables. Chlopyrifos (Dursban) was detected on 78% of the lettuce, lindane (Gamalin 20) on 31%, endosulfan (Thiodan) on 36%, lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate) on 11%, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane on 33%. Most of the residues recorded exceeded the maximum residue limit for consumption. Vegetables from all 3 cities were fecally contaminated and carried fecal coliform populations with geometric mean values ranging from 4.0 x 10(3) to 9.3 x 10(8) g(-1) wet weight and exceeded recommended standards. Lettuce, cabbage, and spring onion also carried an average of 1.1, 0.4, and 2.7 helminth eggs g(-1), respectively. The eggs were identified as those of Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Schistosoma heamatobium, and Trichuris trichiura. Because many vegetables are consumed fresh or only slightly cooked, the study shows that intensive vegetable production, common in Ghana and its neighboring countries, threatens public health from the microbiologic and pesticide dimensions. Standard recommendations to address this situation (better legislations, law enforcement, or integrated pest management) often do not match the capabilities of farmers and authorities. The most appropriate entry point for risk decrease that also addresses postharvest contamination is washing vegetables before food

  18. Water quality monitoring of Sweetwater and Loveland reservoirs--Phase one results 1998-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael S.; Sidhu, Jagdeep S.; Mendez, Gregory O.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study to assess the overall health of the watershed feeding the Sweetwater Reservoir in southern San Diego County, California. The study focussed on monitoring for organic chemical contamination and the effects of construction and operation of State Route 125 on water quality. Three environmental compartments (air, water, and bed sediments) are being sampled regularly for chemical contaminants, including volatile organic compounds, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, and major and trace elements. The study is divided into two phases. Phase I sampling is designed to establish baseline conditions for target compounds in terms of detection frequency and concentration in air, water, and bed sediments. Phase II sampling will continue at the established monitoring sites during and after construction of State Route 125 to assess chemical impact on water quality in the reservoir resulting from land-use changes and development in the watershed. This report describes the study design, the sampling and analytical methods, and presents the data results for the first year of the study, September 1998 to September 1999.

  19. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... and pets. Proper disposal of pesticides is also important - it can help protect the environment. Biologically-based pesticides are becoming more popular. They often are safer than traditional pesticides. Environmental Protection Agency

  20. Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherma, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    This review is devoted to methods for the determination of residues of pesticides and some related industrial chemicals. Topics include: residue methods, sampling, chromatography, organochlorine pesticides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamate insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, pyrethrins, fumigants, and related chemicals. (MVL)

  1. Report on Attainment of Goals of the 1998-1999 Strategic Plan (1999-2000 Report for Performance Indicator 1E).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Clifton R.

    This report provides a summary on the attainment or progress of the goals and objectives established by Williamsburg Technical College (South Carolina) for the 1998-1999 academic year. Williamsburg Technical College established 10 major goals in support of its mission during this year. To varying degrees of success, all of these major goals have…

  2. Salmonella in healthy pigs: prevalence, serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance observed during 1998-1999 and 2004-2005 in Japan.

    PubMed

    Futagawa-Saito, K; Hiratsuka, S; Kamibeppu, M; Hirosawa, T; Oyabu, K; Fukuyasu, T

    2008-08-01

    To determine prevalence, serotype diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in healthy pigs, faecal samples from 6771 pigs on 73 farms collected during 1998-1999 and 2004-2005 were examined. Salmonella isolates were serotyped and tested for susceptibility to 22 antimicrobials: benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefazolin, cephaloridine, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, fradiomycin, colistin, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethoxypyridazine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Farm-level and pig-level Salmonella prevalences were 35.5% and 2.2% in 1998-1999, and 35.7% and 3.3% in 2004-2005. Prevalence by growth stage was 2.4% for sows, 3.3% for weaned pigs, 2.7% for fattening pigs and 3.8% for finishing pigs. The predominant serotypes identified were Agona (28.4%), Typhimurium (17.9%) and Infantis (16.4%) in 1998-1999, and Typhimurium (32.5%), Anatum (24.6%) and Infantis (13.5%) in 2004-2005. Compared with the 1998-1999 isolates, the 2004-2005 isolates showed significantly higher rates of resistance to all the antimicrobials except tetracyclines (P<0.01 to P<0.05) and resistance to 2 antimicrobials [19.4% (13/67) vs. 39.7% (50/126), P<0.01]. This study provides national estimates of Salmonella prevalence in healthy pigs of different growth stages in Japan.

  3. Pesticides Industry Sales and Usage 2006 and 2007 Market Estimates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These reports provide economic profile information on sectors producing and using pesticides covered by FIFRA mandated regulatory programs. The reports contain contemporary and historical data estimating values and amounts of active ingredients used here.

  4. Pesticides Industry Sales and Usage 2008 - 2012 Market Estimates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These reports provide economic profile information on sectors producing and using pesticides covered by FIFRA mandated regulatory programs. The reports contain contemporary and historical data estimating values and amounts of active ingredients used here.

  5. A Reassessment of the Seismicity Related to the 1998-1999 Eruption of Colima Volcano, Western Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora-Camacho, A.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.; Espindola, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 1998-1999 activity of Colima volcano (19.514°N, 103.62°W, 3850 m a.s.l.) consisted of a climactic episode on 20 November, 1998. On this date, a dome formed on the small summit crater during the previous few days, collapsed generating block-and-ash flows. The event was preceded by almost twelve months of seismic activity, which continued afterwards for several more months. In a previous work (Zamora-Camacho et al., 2007; Pure Appl. Geophys. 164, 39-52) we analyzed the seismic activity occurred from 20 March, 1998 to 31 March, 1999. However the seismicity related to the activity did not dwindled down to pre-eruptive levels until January 2000. In this work we present the results of our analysis of the period March-December 1999, which completes the sequence of events related to the eruption. This analysis is of importance because constitutes the most complete study of the seismicity of an eruptive period of Colima volcano, in the sense that we determined most of the events recorded by the seismic net (RESCO) and located all of those that were amenable to location. The whole period of seismic activity consisted of more than 11,000 events of which 1156 belonging to the period March-December 1999 were located. Of this group 1082 have magnitude (Mc) between 1 and 3.5 and depths mostly in the 0-10 km range.

  6. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... herbicides for destroying weeds and other unwanted vegetation, insecticides for controlling a wide variety of insects, fungicides ... Is It Safe? Movie (English & Spanish Versions) Some Natural Pesticide Alternatives (English) (114KB) Some Natural Pesticide Alternatives ( ...

  7. Organophosphorus pesticide residues in milled rice (Oryza sativa) on the Chinese market and dietary risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Li, Yun; Chen, Mingxue; Chen, Zhijun; Qian, Yongzhong

    2009-03-01

    The present study investigates the occurrence of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting organophosphorus (OP) pesticide residues in milled rice samples obtained form local markets in China during the period 2004-2006 and estimates their cumulative exposure. Concentrations of OP pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD). The results showed that 9.3% of the samples contained detectable residues of at least one of the seven target OP pesticides (chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, omethoate, methamidophos, parathion-methyl, parathion and triazophos) mainly used for agriculture in China, with concentrations ranging 0.011-1.756 mg kg(-1). Rice consumption data was obtained from an individual food consumption survey. Relative potency factors (RPFs) for each pesticide were calculated with methamidophos as the index compound (IC), using 1- or 2-year chronic non-observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) for AChE inhibition, mostly in rat brain, obtained from international evaluations of pesticides. Exposure to AChE-inhibiting pesticides for the population above 7 years old at P99.9 represented 52-94.5% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) expressed as methamidophos. Estimated exposure for children aged 2-4 and 4-7 years at P99.9 were 119 and 104.3% of the ADI level, respectively. This study suggests that a yearly monitoring program for OP pesticide residues and strict implementation of the national safety standard for milled rice is necessary.

  8. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in food from Egyptian local markets.

    PubMed

    Dogheim, S M; Gad Alla, S A; el-Syes, S M; Almaz, M M; Salama, E Y

    1996-01-01

    A market basket survey was conducted to monitor organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in potatoes, citrus fruits, and fish collected from local Egyptian markets. Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues for gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in potatoes were exceeded in 8 samples and for DDT in 2 samples. The aging of HCH and DDT indicated a recent use of both pesticides during the potato storage period between cultivation seasons. However, such use is illegal because HCH mixture isomers (gammaxane) and DDT have been officially prohibited from agricultural use in Egypt since 1980. The highest residue levels of fenitrothion (3.8 ppm) in potatoes may be due to its repeated use before and after harvest. No organochlorine pesticide residues were found in citrus fruits. None of the detected organophosphorus pesticides exceeded their MRLs. HCH and DDT residue limits were exceeded in 5 and 7 fish samples, respectively, collected from 12 markets throughout the country. The heptachlor MRL was violated in only one fish sample (3.9 ppm).

  9. Pesticides in fresh potatoes sold in farmers' markets in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Thomas S; Dimock, Rick; Bradbury, Robert W; Rieve, Richard; Fehr, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Fresh potatoes (228 samples) from 34 farmers' markets in Alberta were analyzed for 29 pesticides. Residues of three different pesticides were found in the samples tested with chlorpropham being most frequently detected (n = 13) at concentrations ranging from 15 to 7,600 μg kg(-1). Azoxystrobin (n = 11) and imidacloprid (n = 8) were found at concentrations ranging from 0.6 to 5.1 and 15-31 μg kg(-1), respectively. All pesticide concentrations were below Canadian maximum residue limits as established for potatoes. No pesticide residues were detected in 23 potato samples obtained from certified organic farmers.

  10. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in raw food samples from open markets in two African cities.

    PubMed

    Nuapia, Yannick; Chimuka, Luke; Cukrowska, Ewa

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the level of organochlorine pesticides in the raw food from open markets in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and Johannesburg, South Africa. It assesses the potential health risks associated with the organochlorine pesticide residues. The Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method has been developed for sample preparation. A total of 120 food samples (beans, cabbage, beef, and fish) were obtained from the open markets. The mean concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in raw foods collected from the Johannesburg market were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those from the Kinshasa market. DDE recorded the highest mean concentration (253.58 ± 4.78 μg kg(-1)) in beef from Johannesburg, and α-BHC recorded the lowest mean concentration (38.54 ± 7.46 μg kg(-1)) in beans from Kinshasa. The investigation of health risk estimates revealed that the number of organochlorine pesticides exceeded the reference dose in the collected food samples.

  11. Worker illness related to newly marketed pesticides--Douglas County, Washington, 2014.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Geoffrey M; Rodriguez, Luis; Prado, Joanne Bonnar

    2015-01-23

    On April 10, 2014 the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) was notified by a local newspaper of a suspected pesticide poisoning incident in Douglas County involving pesticides not previously reported in the published literature to be associated with human illness. On that same day, WSDA notified the Washington State Department of Health, which investigated this incident by conducting a site visit, reviewing medical and applicator records, and interviewing affected farmworkers, pesticide applicators, and the farmworkers' employer. In addition, on April 11, WSDA collected swab, foliage, and clothing samples and tested them for residues of pyridaben, novaluron, and triflumizole. In this incident, all 20 farmworkers working in a cherry orchard became ill from off-target drift of a pesticide mixture that was being applied to a neighboring pear orchard. Sixteen sought medical treatment for neurologic, gastrointestinal, ocular, and respiratory symptoms. This event highlights the need for greater efforts to prevent off-target drift exposures and promote awareness about the toxicity of some recently marketed pesticides. Incidents such as this could be prevented if farm managers planning pesticide applications notify their neighbors of their plans.

  12. Determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables in Islamabad market.

    PubMed

    Tahir, S; Anwar, T; Ahmad, I; Aziz, S; Mohammad, A; Ahad, K

    2001-01-01

    Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetable from Islamabad market, Pakistan were determined by GLC using Perkin Elmer Autosystem equipped with 63NECD and capillary column. Dimethoate was determined in the quantity of 0.032 mg kg-1 in apple, 0.110 mg kg-1 in banana, 0.004 mg kg-1 in brinjal, 1.80 mg kg-1 in cauliflower and 0.13 mg kg-1 in arvi, fenvalerate 0.010 mg kg-1 in apple and chlorpyrifos 0.004 mg kg-1 in brinjal. The importance of these pesticide residues with reference to human health is also briefly discussed.

  13. Emplacement of pyroclastic flows during the 1998 1999 eruption of Volcán de Colima, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucedo, R.; Macías, J. L.; Bursik, M. I.; Mora, J. C.; Gavilanes, J. C.; Cortes, A.

    2002-09-01

    , monolithologic, matrix-supported, and had a clast-supported steep front (ca. 1.5 to 2 m thick) composed of boulders up to 1.7 m in diameter. The juvenile lithic clasts had an average density of 1800 kg/m 3. The dilute pyroclastic flow emplaced overbank deposits, found on valley margins or beyond the tip of block-and-ash flow deposits. They consist from bottom to top of a massive medium to coarse sand-size flow layer (2-4 cm thick), a dune-bedded surge layer (2-10 cm thick), and a massive silt-size layer (0.5 cm thick). The total estimated volume of the pyroclastic-flow deposits produced during the 1998-1999 eruption is 24×10 5 m 3.

  14. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... control. Examples of different kinds of pesticides include insecticides, rodenticides, and herbicides, to name a few. Top ... can lead to severe toxicity requiring hospitalization. Organophosphate insecticides also work by increasing the amount of acetylcholine ...

  15. Monitoring Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables at Two of the Biggest Fresh Produce Markets in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutengwe, Mbulaheni T; Chidamba, Lizyben; Korsten, Lise

    2016-11-01

    In most countries, fresh produce sold at local markets is usually not analyzed for agricultural chemical residues as export products are, which raises concerns about the perceived safety levels of local food supplies in contrast with exported products. The aim of this study was to determine pesticide residue levels in fruits and vegetables sold at two of the biggest fresh produce markets in Africa. A total of 199 fruit and vegetable samples were collected between 2012 and 2014 and analyzed for 74 pesticides commonly used in the horticultural sector. Of the samples analyzed, 91% were compliant with set maximum residue levels (MRLs). The remaining samples either contained unregistered chemicals (8%) or exceeded set MRL values (1%). Products containing more than one pesticide residue constituted 4.02% of all samples tested. Imazalil and iprodione were found to be the most frequently detected pesticides (12 samples each). Boscalid, endosulfan, profenofos, and procymidone were associated with the most noncompliance, including exceeding MRL values or being unregistered for the specific crop. The establishment of a national pesticide monitoring program is essential for the country and would ensure that pesticides are used in accordance with good agricultural practices.

  16. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Phopin, Kamonrat; Boonpangrak, Somchai; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2016-01-01

    Background The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits) and also the maximum residue limits (MRL) regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015). MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice). This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory) purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. Methods These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Results Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets) and 99% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets) and 100% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets) and 97% (supermarkets) for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets) and 35% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets) and 55% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets) and 49% (supermarkets) for the morning glory. Discussion These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL) obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold in

  17. Genetic Characterization of Plasmid-Associated Benzalkonium Chloride Resistance Determinants in a Listeria monocytogenes Strain from the 1998-1999 Outbreak ▿

    PubMed Central

    Elhanafi, Driss; Dutta, Vikrant; Kathariou, Sophia

    2010-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) are widely used as disinfectants in both food processing and medical environments. BC-resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes have been implicated in multistate outbreaks of listeriosis and have been frequently isolated from food processing plants. However, the genetic basis for BC resistance in L. monocytogenes remains poorly understood. In this study, we have characterized a plasmid (pLM80)-associated BC resistance cassette in L. monocytogenes H7550, a strain implicated in the 1998-1999 multistate outbreak involving contaminated hot dogs. The BC resistance cassette (bcrABC) restored resistance to BC (MIC, 40 μg/ml) in a plasmid-cured derivative of H7550. All three genes of the cassette were essential for imparting BC resistance. The transcription of H7550 BC resistance genes was increased under sublethal (10 μg/ml) BC exposure and was higher at reduced temperatures (4, 8, or 25°C) than at 37°C. The level of transcription was higher at 10 μg/ml than at 20 or 40 μg/ml. In silico analysis suggested that the BC resistance cassette was harbored by an IS1216 composite transposon along with other genes whose functions are yet to be determined. The findings from this study will further our understanding of the adaptations of this organism to disinfectants such as BC and may contribute to the elucidation of possible BC resistance dissemination in L. monocytogenes. PMID:20971860

  18. Community Update, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Julie, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of ten issues of the newsletter "Community Update," containing articles on community and family involvement in education. Article topics include: a college education is necessary and possible; math and science study points out problems and positive solutions; the "America Reads Challenge"; meeting the…

  19. Pesticide residues and estrogenic activity in fruit and vegetables sampled from major fresh produce markets in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mutengwe, Mbulaheni Thomas; Aneck-Hahn, Natalie Hildegard; Korsten, Lise; Van Zijl, Magdalena Catherina; De Jager, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Food is likely to be one of the major pathways through which people are exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. With the exception of residual effects, there are concerns that a number of naturally occurring and synthetic chemicals exert adverse effects upon endocrine systems in wildlife and humans. The current study reports selected pesticide concentrations and the total estrogenic activity of fruit and vegetables using the recombinant yeast oestrogen screen (YES) and T47D-KBluc reporter gene assays. A total of 53 food samples (27 fruit and 26 vegetables) from Johannesburg and Tshwane fresh produce markets (in South Africa) were analysed. Of these, 17 contained one to three different pesticide residues with concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 0.68 mg kg(-1), whereas in the rest of the samples no residues were detected. All pesticides detected except in one sample were below the maximum residue level (MRL), but others were unauthorised for use in specified fruit and vegetables. Estrogenic activity was detected in 26.4% (14 samples) of the samples tested, and the estradiol equivalents ranged from 0.007 to 2 pg g(-1). Although the estrogenic activity was low, it may contribute to adverse health effects. Continuous monitoring for pesticides in fruit and vegetables is important in view of the unauthorised pesticides detected in produce from South Africa and the endocrine-disrupting chemical activity found.

  20. Market governance for safe food in developing countries: the case of low-pesticide vegetables in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Hoi, Pham; Mol, Arthur P J; Oosterveer, Peter J M

    2009-01-01

    In many developed countries private arrangements have emerged in food governance. Following limited successes of state regulation, market actors and mechanisms are increasingly included in the environmental and safety governance of domestic and global food chains and networks. But do such private governance arrangements also work in domestic markets in developing countries? Pesticide use in vegetable supply is taken as a case to explore the role of market actors and dynamics in food safety governance in Vietnam. The so-called safe vegetable production system in the Red River Delta, introduced 10 years ago as a domestic alternative to conventional vegetable production, is analyzed through detailed monitoring of farmers, surveys of retailers and consumers, and in-depth interviews with state officials and vegetable traders. The paper finds limited success of this low-pesticide vegetable production, distribution and consumption system. This private arrangement in food governance lacked trust from market actors (especially consumers), and was short of an active state that organized transparency and got market actors involved. As such, market governance in food safety needs to be strong.

  1. Survey of residues of organochlorine pesticides in some marketable Egyptian fish.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, M A; Hassan, I M; Naguib, M M; Abodonia, M A

    1990-01-01

    One hundred random samples representing 34 species of marketable fish were collected from 8 Egyptian governorates during the period March 1986 to March 1988 and were analyzed for the presence of some organochlorine pesticides. The results showed the predominance of beta-BHC and lindane at maximum levels of 435.30 and 59.00 micrograms/kg, respectively, for fish samples obtained from Damietta governorate. The corresponding levels of aldrin, and o,p'-DDT were 34.27 and 734.10 micrograms/kg, respectively, for fish from the Red Sea governorate. gamma-Chlordane, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDT were found in fish from Ismailia governorate at respective maximum levels of 36.17, 234.40, and 57.19 microgram/kg. Heptachlor was identified at 8.50 micrograms/kg in Port Said governorate fish and o,p'-DDE at 10.59 micrograms/kg in Suez governorate fish. Mirex, on the other hand, could not be detected in any of the samples investigated.

  2. Possible link between interannual variation of neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) abundance in the North Pacific and the climate phase shift in 1998/1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Hiromichi; Ichii, Taro; Sakai, Mitsuo; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Toyoda, Takahiro; Masuda, Shuhei; Sugiura, Nozomi; Mahapatra, Kedarnath; Awaji, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between interannual variation in abundance of the autumn cohort of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) and ocean environmental changes in the central North Pacific was examined. We focused on the change in subsurface ocean state during the 1998/1999 climate shift. Changes in catch per unit effort (CPUE) of the neon flying squid derived from long-term driftnet survey was compared to that in ocean environments related to the feeding conditions of the squid. A four-dimensional variational (4D-VAR) ocean data assimilation product was used as an accurate estimate of the dynamic state in the North Pacific. Correlation analysis indicated that the squid CPUE was highly related with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in winter. In January, the correlation field with the entrainment rate (ENT), the proxy for the nutrient-rich water supply entering the mixed layer, showed a good agreement with the main spawning and nursery ground of the autumn cohort (MSNGAC). The nutrient-rich water supply in the MSNGAC in early winter was mainly induced by the deepening of the mixed layer forced by surface latent heat cooling and turbulent mixing, while the basin-scale wind stress curl and the horizontal advection were less affected. These results suggest that the amount of newly supplied nutrient-rich water mass in early winter could affect the primary productivity throughout the winter and the resultant feeding conditions of the juvenile squid. We assumed that this process would determine the stock levels of the neon flying squid in the following summer. We further attempted to reconstruct the changes in neon flying squid CPUE during 1994-2006 by applying regression analysis to several parameters. The result showed that ENT, surface and subsurface temperatures, and the PDO index in February were good predictors for estimating the squid CPUE time series. In addition, the subsurface temperature in the MSNGAC in the preceding autumn was also a good predictor

  3. Evaluation of carcinogenic modes of action for pesticides in fruit on the Swedish market using a text-mining tool

    PubMed Central

    Silins, Ilona; Korhonen, Anna; Stenius, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity caused by chemical mixtures has emerged as a significant challenge for toxicologists and risk assessors. Information on individual chemicals' modes of action is an important part of the hazard identification step. In this study, an automatic text mining-based tool was employed as a method to identify the carcinogenic modes of action of pesticides frequently found in fruit on the Swedish market. The current available scientific literature on the 26 most common pesticides found in apples and oranges was evaluated. The literature was classified according to a taxonomy that specifies the main type of scientific evidence used for determining carcinogenic properties of chemicals. The publication profiles of many pesticides were similar, containing evidence for both genotoxic and non-genotoxic modes of action, including effects such as oxidative stress, chromosomal changes and cell proliferation. We also found that 18 of the 26 pesticides studied here had previously caused tumors in at least one animal species, findings which support the mode of action data. This study shows how a text-mining tool could be used to identify carcinogenic modes of action for a group of chemicals in large quantities of text. This strategy could support the risk assessment process of chemical mixtures. PMID:25002848

  4. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in foodstuffs collected from traditional markets in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Shoiful, Ahmad; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Isao; Honda, Katsuhisa

    2013-02-01

    A total 23 of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues were determined in five groups of foodstuffs, i.e.: vegetables (carrot, potato, cucumber, corn, and onion), rice, pulses (green bean and soybean), nuts (peanut), and fish (milkfish), which collected from traditional markets in three big cities of Indonesia; Jakarta, Bogor, and Yogyakarta. OCPs were only detected in fatty foodstuffs, such as soybean, peanut, and milkfish. The concentration of HCB (expressed as ng g(-1) on a whole basis), ΣDrins, ΣDDTs, ΣHeptachlors, and ΣHCHs were in the range of <0.3-0.74 ng g(-1), <0.03-0.42 ng g(-1), <0.02-0.41 ng g(-1), <0.03-0.14 ng g(-1), and <0.03-0.06 ng g(-1), respectively, which were far below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) as established by FAO/WHO. These very low concentrations of OCPs residues in foodstuffs indicated that OCPs were used only in past time and no recent input into the environment. Furthermore, the estimated daily intake (EDI) of HCB, ΣDDTs, ΣDrins, ΣHeptachlors, and ΣHCHs in five group foodstuffs, which were 60% of total daily diet of Indonesian, were 0.09 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), 0.04 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), 0.01 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), 0.003 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), and 0.002 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1), respectively. These results were far below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) as established by FAO/WHO, which indicated that consumption of foodstuffs from Indonesia were at little risk to human health in term of OCPs at present.

  5. Pregnancy outcomes among farming households of Nueva Ecija with conventional pesticide use versus integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Crisostomo, Lenore; Molina, Victorio V

    2002-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to compare pregnancy outcomes in farming households that used pesticides conventionally with those that practiced integrated pest management (IPM) in Nueva Ecija, Philippines, in the period 1998-1999. Conventional pesticide users (CPUs) were defined as pesticide appliers who used pesticides routinely and regularly, whereas users of IPM were those who used pesticides as necessary, and on economically injured crop areas only. The data sets were subjected to the chi-square test of association, Fisher's exact probability test, and logistic regression analysis. At a significance level at 0.05, spontaneous abortion occurred significantly more often among the 345 CPU households than among the 331 IPM households (adjusted risk ratio 6.17). Likewise, birth defects were significantly more common in the CPU group (adjusted risk ratio 4.56). Thus, people of reproductive age who plan to have children should avoid any use of pesticides.

  6. Human health risk assessment of pesticide residues in market-sold vegetables and fish in a northern metropolis of China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yanyan; Nie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yanmei; Die, Qingqi; Liu, Feng; He, Jie; Huang, Qifei

    2015-04-01

    With growing concerns about food safety and stricter national standards in China, attention has focused on vegetables and fish as they are an important part of the Chinese daily diet, and pesticide residues can accumulate in these foodstuffs. The local consumption habits of vegetables and fish were determined using questionnaires distributed in the major regions of the northern metropolis. Then, the samples of fruit-like vegetables, leafy and root vegetables, and five species of fish (freshwater and marine) were collected from supermarkets and traditional farmers' markets in the city. The concentrations and profiles of pesticide residues (hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), and endosulfan) in the samples were determined and compared. For the vegetables, the concentration ranges of ΣDDT, ΣHCH, and Σendosulfan were not detectable (ND) to 10.4 ng/g fresh weight (f.w.), ND to 58.8 ng/g f.w., and ND to 63.9 ng/g f.w., respectively. For the fish samples, the corresponding values were 0.77-25.0 ng/g f.w., 0.02-1.42 ng/g f.w., and 1.22-22.1 ng/g f.w., respectively. Only one celery sample exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of HCH residues set by Chinese regulations (GB2763-2014). The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using data from the recently published Exposure Factors Handbook for the Chinese Population. The EDIs and HRs showed that the levels of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in vegetables and fish in this area are safe.

  7. 1998-1999 Patterns of Care Study process survey of national practice patterns using breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy in the management of Stage I-II breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Lori J. . E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu; Moughan, Jennifer; White, Julia; Winchester, David P.; Owen, Jean; Wilson, J. Frank

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: The Patterns of Care Study survey process evaluation has been an effective means of assessing the evaluation and treatment practices used by radiation oncologists in the United States for Stage I-II breast cancer. The current 1998-1999 report updates the previous 1989 and 1993-1994 analyses and reflects the recent changes in surgery and systemic therapy observed nationally in the management of early-stage disease. Methods and Materials: A weighted sample size of 71,877 patient records of women treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiotherapy (RT) was obtained from a stratified two-stage sampling of 353 patient records. These cases were centrally reviewed from academic and private radiation oncology practices across the United States. The data collected included patient characteristics, clinical and pathologic factors, and surgical and RT details. The results were compared with those of previous Patterns of Care Study survey reports. Results: Of the patients in the current survey, 97% had undergone mammography before biopsy. A review of the primary tumor pathologic findings indicated improved quantification of an intraductal component from 7.0% in 1993-1994 to 20.4% in 1998-1999 (p = 0.01). The tumor characteristics were better defined, with estrogen and progesterone receptor measurement performed in 91.4% and 91.3% in the 1998-1999 survey vs. 83.7% and 80.3% in the 1989 survey, respectively (p = 0.03 and p = 0.002, respectively). Axillary dissection was performed in 82.2% in the present survey compared with 93.6% in the 1993-1994 survey (p = 0.0004); sentinel node biopsy was performed in 20.1% of the present cases. The use of CT for planning was increased in the current survey, with 22.9% cases CT planned vs. 9% in 1993-1994 (p = 0.10). In the present survey, 100% had received whole breast RT. When a supraclavicular field was added, the dose was prescribed to a specified depth in 67.5% of cases, most commonly 3 cm. When an axillary field was added

  8. Organochlorine pesticides in canned tuna and sardines on the Serbian market.

    PubMed

    Kartalović, Brankica; Novakov, Nikolina J; Mihaljev, Željko; Petrović, Jelena; Prica, Nadežda; Babić, Jelena; Ćirković, Miroslav A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in 57 samples of canned tuna and 31 samples of canned sardines in vegetable oil, collected from supermarkets in Serbia. OC pesticides α-HCH, β-HCH, δ-HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), DDE, DDD, dielderin, endosulfane I, endosulfane II, endosulan sulfate, endrin, endrin ketone, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, aldrin, metoxichlor, cis-chlordane and trans-chlordane were determined using a GS-MS method. The highest concentrations (µg kg(-1), arithmetic means) in canned tuna were for δ-HCH (60.6 ± 97.0) and p, p´-DDT (55.0 ± 25.1), while the corresponding values in canned sardines were for δ-HCH (90.7 ± 102.7) and endosulfane II (78.0 ± 145.9). Mean level for the sum of endosulfans was above the maximum limit in canned sardines (85.0 µg kg(-1)). Also, dieldrin (39.7 µg kg(-1)) was measured above the ML.

  9. Analysis of eight organophosphorus pesticide residues in fresh vegetables retailed in agricultural product markets of Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ligang; Liang, Yongchao; Jiang, Xin

    2008-10-01

    A method to effectively remove pigments in fresh vegetables using activated carbon followed cleanup through solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge to further reduce matrix interference and contamination, was established to determine eight organophosphorous pesticides (OPPs) by gas chromatography (GC) with nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD) in this study, and it has been successfully applied for the determination of eight OPPs in various fresh vegetables with the recoveries ranging from 61.8% to 107%. To evaluate eight OPPs residue level, some fresh vegetables retailed at three agricultural product markets (APM) of Nanjing in China were detected, the results showed that phorate in Shanghai green (0.0257 microg g(-1)) and Chinese cabbage (0.0398 microg g(-1)), dimethoate in Shanghai green (0.0466-0.0810 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.077 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.118-0.124 microg g(-1)), methyl-parathion in Shanghai green (0.0903 microg g(-1)), Chinese cabbage (0.157 microg g(-1)), and spinach (0.0924 microg g(-1)), malathion in Shanghai green (0.0342-0.0526 microg g(-1)), chorpyrifos in spinach (0.106-0.204 microg g(-1)), and Chinese cabbage (0.149 microg g(-1)), chlorfenvinfos in carrot (0.094-0.131 microg g(-1)), were found. However, fonofos and fenthion were not detected in all the collected vegetable samples.

  10. Determination of Levels of Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, and Pyrethroid Pesticide Residues in Vegetables from Markets in Dar es Salaam by GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Khamis, Farhat A.; Lugwisha, Esther H. J.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the levels of pesticides and metabolites in vegetables from major markets in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. Samples of fresh cabbage, spinach, and onions from the markets were analysed for pesticide residues. Extraction was performed using acetone followed by dichloromethane : cyclohexane mixture and the extracts were cleaned up using Florisil. The compounds were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Pesticides and metabolites were detected in 72.2% of the samples. The detected pesticide residues and their highest mean concentrations were p,p′-DDT 4.00 × 10−3 mg/kg, p,p′-DDD 6.40 × 10−1 mg/kg, o,p′-DDD 1.00 × 10−2 mg/kg, α-endosulfan 6.00 × 10−1 mg/kg, β-endosulfan 2.10 × 10−1 mg/kg, chlorpyrifos 3.00 mg/kg, and cypermethrin 4.00 × 10−2 mg/kg. The most frequently detected compounds were p,p′-DDD and chlorpyrifos. The order of contamination was spinach > cabbage > onions. Generally, there were no significant variations in concentrations of pesticide residues among samples and sampling sites, which indicated similarities in contamination patterns. The concentrations of contaminants were above the maximum residue limits (MRLs) in 33.3–50% of the samples. The findings indicated risks and concerns for public health. PMID:28280510

  11. Program of mining research, 1998--1999

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The paper contains: Reflections on 1998; Project summaries; Noise; Injury prevention, ergonomics, and human factors; Surface, sand and gravel, and stone mines; Hazard detection and warning devices; Ground control -- metal/nonmetal mines; Ground control -- coal mines; Explosion and fire detection and suppression; Methane detection; Electrical hazards; Emerging technologies; Surveillance; Construction; Training and education; and Communication activity.

  12. Infants and Toddlers, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroenke, Lillian DeVault, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of the four issues in the second volume of a quarterly journal for parents of children in Montessori infant and toddler programs. The May 1998 issue contains an article on Treasure Baskets which are designed for non-mobile babies who can sit up, an article discussing the personal growth of a Montessori teacher who became…

  13. Alabama Counseling Association Journal, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Sandy, Ed.; Norem, Ken, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document consists of the two issues of the "Alabama Counseling Association Journal" that make up volume 24. Articles in Issue 1 include: (1) "Learning Comes in Many Forms" (Holly Forester-Miller); (2) "Legislative, Legal, and Sociological Aspects of Alabama's Mental Health System" (David Gamble; Jamie S.…

  14. English Leadership Quarterly, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Henry, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This journal, a publication of the National Council of Teachers of English Conference on English Leadership, publishes articles on topics of interest to those in positions of leadership in departments (elementary, secondary, or college) where English is taught. Articles in Volume 21, Number 1, August 1998 are: "Problem-Based Leadership: A…

  15. Financing Education in Minnesota, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota House of Representatives, St. Paul. Research Dept.

    This report provides an overview of educational financing in Minnesota. It describes how support for elementary and secondary education in the state comes through a combination of state-collected taxes and locally controlled property taxes. Revenue to the school districts is received in three major categories: state education-finance…

  16. Environmental Education Activities & Programs 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Denver, CO.

    This document features descriptions of interactive learning models and presentations in environmental education concerning groundwater, geology, the environment, weather, water activities, and interactive games. Activities include: (1) GW-Standard; (2) GW-w/no Leaky Underground Storage Tank (No UST); (3) GW-Karst; (4) GW-Landfill Models--Standard…

  17. Speak Out for Children, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, David L., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the three issues of Volume 13 of the "Speak Out for Children" newsletter, published to strengthen families through education and to assist children of unwed parents, separation, and divorce. The Spring 1998 issue contains articles on joint custody and the reduction of parental conflict, access grant programs,…

  18. PCDD/F, PCB, PBDE, HBCD and chlorinated pesticides in a Swedish market basket from 2005--levels and dietary intake estimations.

    PubMed

    Törnkvist, Anna; Glynn, Anders; Aune, Marie; Darnerud, Per Ola; Ankarberg, Emma Halldin

    2011-03-01

    Based on consumption data statistics, food items from four regions in Sweden were sampled in a so-called market basket study. Food items from five food groups, i.e. fish, meat, dairy products, eggs and fat/oils, were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) followed by per capita intake calculations. The highest levels of PCDD/F, PCB, PBDE, HBCD and chlorinated pesticides were found in the fish/fish products. The estimated market basket per capita intake of PCDD/F and dl-PCB was 0.7pg WHO-TEQ kg bw(-1) d(-1) (TEFs from 1998). The intake of ∑PCB was estimated to 4.9 ng kg bw(-1) d(-1) and fish was found to be the major contributor with 64%. The intake of ∑PBDE was found to be 0.7 ng kg bw(-1) d(-1). Fish (38%) and dairy products (31%) were the largest contributors to the total PBDE intake. The intake of HBCD was estimated to 0.14 ng kg bw(-1) d(-1). HBCD mainly came from fish (65%), but also dairy products (24%) and meat (10%) contributed. Also regarding the chlorinated pesticides, fish was found to be the major contributor, with 51% of the ∑DDT coming from fish. The intake of ∑DDT, ∑HCH and HCB was 4.0, 1.0 and 1.1 ng kg bw(-1) d(-1), respectively. Most of the ∑HCH and HCB originate from dairy products (43% and 55%, respectively). This study shows that the levels, and intake, of different POPs from food of animal origin in the market basket of 2005 seem to have decreased since the market basket study in 1999.

  19. Pesticide Registration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site provides resources for an individual or company wanting to register a pesticide active ingredient or pesticide product in the United States. Features: a manual (blue book), other guidance, and coordinated lists of requirements by pesticide type.

  20. Pesticide Volatilization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We consider the risks posed when pesticides volatilize during or after application. The movement of vapors through the air is not the same as pesticide movement by spray drift, erosion, or windblown soil particles.

  1. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ ... of antimicrobial pesticides (Part 158W) Antimicrobials play an important role in public health and safety. While providing ...

  2. Marketing.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  3. Pesticide Tolerances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA regulates pesticides used to protect crops and sets limits on the amount of pesticide remaining in or on foods in the U.S. The limits on pesticides on foods are called tolerances in the U.S. (maximum residue limits (MRLs) in many other countries).

  4. Method Development for Simultaneous Determination of 41 Pesticides in Rice Using LC-MS/MS Technique and Its Application for the Analysis of 60 Rice Samples Collected from Tehran Market

    PubMed Central

    Shakouri, Attaollah; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Shojaee, Mohammad Hossein; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    A multi-residue method for simultaneous determination of 41 LC-amenable pesticides in rice, belonging to different chemical classes has been developed in Iran by LC-MS/MS. For the first time the pesticides were analyzed simultaneously in a single run using positive electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) after extraction with slightly modified QuEChERS method. The calibration curve for each analyte was linear over the concentration range of 0.02–1.0 μg/g with a correlation coefficient range between 0.993 and 0.999. The LOQ and LOD were .025 μg/g and 0.008 μg/g respectively, for all 41 pesticides and the mean recoveries obtained for three fortification levels (0.025, 0.08 and 0.250 μg/g) were 71-119% with satisfactory precision (RSD<20%). The developed method was used to investigate the occurrence of pesticides in 30 domestic and 30 imported rice samples collected from Tehran market. Five compounds were detected in 11 domestic and 9 imported positive samples in concentration range from 0.032 μg/g to 0.081 μg/g and 0.028 μg/g to 0.074 μg/g, respectively. With the exception of prohibited pesticides, phosphamidon and TCMTB, three permitted pesticides, cinosulfuron, triadimenol and tricyclazole, found in positive rice samples were below MRLs established by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (ISIRI). PMID:25276193

  5. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  6. Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maust, Robert N.

    1985-01-01

    Although college administrators may be committed to the concept and need for institutional marketing, even a well-developed marketing plan may not work if it is not clearly organized to address special needs. This article reviews management fads, how to make jargon operational, organizational dynamics, and monitoring fads. (MSE)

  7. Pesticide Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1976-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency chose the American Society of Testing and Materials to develop standardized guidelines for pesticide registration. Since the numbers and uses of pesticides is so wide, establishing ecological and public health guidelines may be difficult. Strong industry and government representation might also hamper the…

  8. (Pesticide chemistry)

    SciTech Connect

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1990-09-04

    This report summarizes a trip by L. W. Barnthouse of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), where he participated in the 7th International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry. He chaired a workshop on experimental systems for determining effects of pesticides on nontarget organisms and gave an oral presentation at a symposium on pesticide risk assessment. Before returning to the United States, Dr. Barnthouse visited the Netherlands Institute for Sea Research in Texel, the Netherlands.

  9. Pesticide use in agriculture.

    PubMed Central

    Ridgway, R L; Tinney, J C; MacGregor, J T; Starler, N J

    1978-01-01

    During the last three decades, the use of modern organic synthetic pesticides has increased about 40-fold. Total U.S. production, for domestic and expert use, in 1976 was about 1.4 million pounds. Crops receiving the most intensive application of various pesticides were cotton for insecticides, corn for herbicides, and fruits and vegetables for fungicides. Examination of use trends of pesticides indicates that the volume in pounds of herbicides used on crops is increasing, whereas the quantities of insecticides and fungicides remain stable. New chemical classes of compounds such as the synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are being introduced, but are not yet significant in terms of their share of the market. The increased usage of pesticides, together with knowledge of some of their adverse effects, has alerted the public to the need for regulation. To assist in the regulatory decision-making process, emphasis is being placed on benefit-cost analyses. Additional and improved biological inputs and methodologies are needed to provide accurate analyses. PMID:104870

  10. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  11. Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Use Site Index will help a company (or other applicant) identify which data requirements are needed to register a pesticide product. It provides information on pesticide use sites and pesticide major use patterns.

  12. SREB Fact Book on Higher Education 1998/1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Joseph L.

    This volume provides comparative data highlighting significant trends affecting colleges and universities in 16 southern states Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. The following trends are identified: (1)…

  13. Annual Report, 1998-1999: Serving Kentucky's Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. for Libraries and Archives, Frankfort.

    This 1998-99 annual report for the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives begins with messages from the state Cabinet Secretary of Education, Arts and Humanities and the State Librarian and Commissioner. The department's mission statement, vision statement, and core values/guiding principles are then presented. Objectives and focus group…

  14. AGS experiments -- 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999. Fifteenth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Presti, P.

    1999-03-01

    This report is a compilation of two-page summaries for AGS experiments for FY 1996, FY 1997, FY 1998, FY 1999. The bulk of the experiments are for high energy physics and nuclear physics programs. Also included are the run schedules for the AGS for each of those years and a listing of publications of AGS experiments for 1982--1999.

  15. FY 1998/1999 Defense Budget Review Descriptive Summaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    QA (L 0300k’M0w0C 0 042H u $ 3 _14JX co2 o-r4 LoV03>. b -d0-4 cl 4 :1 $4u - 00-4 V.40W03.00 tP ouo1 > - ’-20.-- j ý -0, faw lUa)00 )H =to-M V)-1 M...1 H.tm )f 0 r a)~G 1 4 , li -M A 41 )~ 414. I4 41 N U)4V - q14 a 4I 4J M0M 14 a4. m 90 c I v 04)O 0)aam . 0 A .4)0%0 41C VqM >. 4( 6)0 p 43 00 .4 01la

  16. Digital Library Federation: Annual Report, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC. Digital Library Federation.

    This annual report of the Digital Library Federation describes projects initiated in response to the following program priorities: (1) focus attention on libraries of materials that are born digital, including a social science data workshop and guides to quality in visual resource imaging; (2) integrate digital materials into the fabric of…

  17. Practitioner Research Briefs, 1998-1999 Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Adult Educators Research Network, Dayton.

    The collection of articles addresses current issues in adult and adult basic education in Virginia communities. Titles include: "Goal-Setting in the New River Valley: Teachers' Perceptions and Strategies" (Sue Barton); "What Happens When ESL Students Experience Authentic Work Situations?" (Pat Bowyer); "Orientation to…

  18. Innovator: A Tradition of Excellence through Innovation, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Italia, Nancy, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents four Innovator newsletters from the League for Innovation in the Community College (California). Number one contains the following articles: "Focus on Globalization, Learning, and the Human Touch for 1998 Conference on Information Technology,""Internet-in-Education Project Exceeds Goals,""First…

  19. San Antonio College Factbook, 1998-1999. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio Coll., TX.

    This report provides general statistical information about San Antonio College (Texas). Section 1, Overview, offers a brief history, mission statement, outstanding former students, academic programs, and accreditation/affiliations. Twelve academic departments, offering 60 degree and certificate programs are identified. Section 2, Organizational…

  20. Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stonecypher, R. Wess; Groberg, Jr., Warren J.; Farman, Brett M.

    2001-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program authorized construction of Umatilla Fish Hatchery (UFH) in 1986. Measure 703 of the program amended the original authorization for the hatchery and specified evaluation of the Michigan (MI) raceways using oxygen supplementation to reach production goals of 290,000 lb of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss). The hatchery was completed in fall 1991. Partial justification for the hatchery was to evaluate new production and supplementation techniques. MI raceways at UFH increase smolt production with a limited water supply. Test results for MI raceways will have systematic application in the Columbia River basin. The UFH is the foundation for rehabilitating chinook salmon and enhancing steelhead in the Umatilla River (CTUIR and ODFW 1990) and is expected to contribute significantly to the Northwest Power Planning Council's goal of doubling salmon production in the Columbia Basin. Hatchery production goals and a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation plan were presented in the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 1990). The Comprehensive Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation of Umatilla Hatchery (Carmichael 1990) was approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council as a critical adaptive management guide for fisheries rehabilitation in the Umatilla River. Monitoring and evaluation will be used to increase knowledge about uncertainties inherent in the fisheries rehabilitation and will complement the developing systematic monitoring and evaluation program. The monitoring and evaluation goals are: (1) Provide information and recommendations for the culture and release of hatchery fish, harvest regulations, and natural escapement to accomplish long-term natural and hatchery production goals in the Umatilla River basin that are consistent with provisions of the Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. (2) Assess the success of achieving the management objectives in the Umatilla River basin that are presented in the Master Plan and the Comprehensive Rehabilitation Plan. A substantial proportion of the production at UFH is reared in MI raceways. This system has not been thoroughly evaluated to determine the effects on Smolt-to-adult survival (SAS). In addition, the rearing strategies proposed for spring chinook salmon require an unusually extensive period of incubation in chilled well water. Extensive background and justification for UFH monitoring and evaluation is presented in Carmichael (1990). In this report, we present findings for the UFH Monitoring and Evaluation Project from 1 November 1998 to 31 October 1999. We designed our program to evaluate fish cultural practices, conduct rearing and survival studies, assess sport fisheries, and provide information for planning and coordination. Additional studies have been designed for fall chinook salmon to evaluate straying and the effects of tagging. We monitored the culture and performance of more than 3.2 million chinook salmon and steelhead produced at UFH in 1997-98 (Appendix Tables A1-8). Individual stock profiles, release, performance, and return data of previously released groups are presented in the following sections.

  1. Reserve Component JAG Corps Personnel Policies Handbook, 1998-1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    9 5-8 5-9 6-2 6-2 6-3 6-2 6-4 6-2 6-5 6-3 6-6 6-3 6-7 6-3 Promotion Boards Promotion Passover Appeals Unit Vacancy Promotion SECTION VI...14107. 5-8. Promotion Passover Appeals. An officer has the right to appeal non-selection to the Army Board for Correction of Military Records. AR 15

  2. Glendale Community College Services Annual Report, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glendale Community Coll., CA.

    This document presents the annual statistics on college services at Glendale Community College (GCC) in California. It begins with a summary of admissions and records, including a look at assessment and registration. Descriptions are provided about the College Services Division, the Disabled Students' Program & Services (DSP&S), and the…

  3. Workforce Education Institute. Final Report, Fiscal Year 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disario, Nancy; Pappalardo, Michele F.; Gonzalez, Manuel A.

    This project provided a year-long skill development Workforce Education Institute for 100 work force literacy providers and instructors in Pennsylvania. The institute included an intensive, 3-day summer workshop, 2 follow-up workshops, and a 2-day spring workshop designed to meet the individual needs of the participants. In evaluations submitted…

  4. Section on Cataloguing: Report of the Activities, 1998/1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Maria

    This paper reports on the activities of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Section on Cataloguing for 1998-99. The first part of the report introduces the aims of the Section. Membership, the standing committee, and officers are detailed in the second part. The third part provides information on the…

  5. Foundation for Child Development Annual Report, 1998/1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Child Development, New York, NY.

    This annual report details the activities of the Foundation for Child Development (FCD) for 1998-99. Beginning the report is a discussion of the history and mission of the foundation, its funding priorities, and application procedures. The report lists the members of the Council, Board of Directors, Officers, and staff. The joint statement of the…

  6. Annual Report to the Governor, FY 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Board of Directors for Community Colleges, Phoenix.

    This paper includes a brief statement regarding the progress of Arizona's community colleges during the past fiscal year and provides statistical information on finances, enrollment, employment, and educational programs. The paper contains the following sections: (1) philosophy of Arizona's community college system; (2) mission statement of the…

  7. Obsolete pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  8. Assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment in tropical catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Frederik; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik; Castillo, Luisa; Ruepert, Clemens; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Today, pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe. Worldwide about 2.4×106 tons of pesticides are used annually on 1.6×109 ha of arable land. This yields a global average use of pesticides of 1.53 kg ha-1 year-1. Available data suggest that the use in the agricultural sector will continue to grow. Recently it was estimated that within the last decade, the world pesticide market increased by 93% and the Brazilian market alone by 190%. Though pesticides are intensively used in many low and middle income countries (LAMICs), scientifically sound data of amounts and types of pesticide use and the resulting impact on water quality are lacking in many of these countries. Therefore it is highly relevant to: i) identify risk areas where pesticides affect environmental health, ii) understand the environmental behavior of pesticides in vulnerable tropical ecosystems; and iii) develop possible mitigation options to reduce their exposure to ecosystems and humans. Here we present a project that will focus on assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment and humans in tropical catchments of LAMICs. A catchment in the Zarcero province in Costa Rica will be the test case. Pesticide exposure will be assessed by passive sampling. In order to cover a broad range of compounds of possible use, two sampling devices will be used: SDB membranes for collecting polar compounds and silicon sheets for accumulating apolar pesticides. Extracts will be subsequently analysed by GC-MSMS and LC-HRMS.

  9. Introduction to Pesticide Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will explain and facilitate such incident reporting.

  10. National Pesticide Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Plants Pest Control Identify Your Pest Learn About Your Pest Control Your Pest Integrated Pest Management Pesticide Products NPRO: Pesticide Product Search Pesticide Ingredients ...

  11. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  12. Pesticides and Human Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Active Ingredients Other/Inert Ingredients Low-Risk Pesticides Organic Pesticide Ingredients Pesticide Incidents Human Exposure Pet Exposure ... toxic products , and those that are natural or organic , can cause health problems if someone is exposed ...

  13. Scientists Probe Pesticide Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes discussions of a symposium on pesticide environmental dynamics with emphases upon pesticide transport processes, environmental reactions, and partitioning in air, soil, water and living organisms. Indicates that the goal is to attain knowledge enough to predict pesticide behavior and describe pesticide distribution with models and…

  14. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    MedlinePlus

    ... W X Y Z A-Z Index Health & Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety ... Low-Risk Pesticides Organic Pesticide Ingredients Pesticide Incidents Human Exposure Pet Exposure Environmental Incident Illegal Pesticide Activity Problem With Labels or ...

  15. EPA Cites FMC Corp. For Violating Federal Pesticide Law

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (Sept. 24, 2015) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has issued a complaint against Philadelphia-based FMC Corporation for violations of the federal pesticide law related to the marketing and distribution of its agricultural product, S

  16. Minimum Risk Pesticide: Definition and Product Confirmation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Minimum risk pesticides pose little to no risk to human health or the environment and therefore are not subject to regulation under FIFRA. EPA does not do any pre-market review for such products or labels, but violative products are subject to enforcement.

  17. National Pesticide Standard Repository

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Pesticide Standards Repository collects and maintains an inventory of analytical “standards” of registered pesticides in the United States, as well as some that are not currently registered for food and product testing and monitoring.

  18. Pesticide Registration Information System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and customers. PRISM supports Strategic Goal 4 by automating pesticide registration processes.

  19. The Pesticide Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Van Den Robert

    1979-01-01

    Contains a discussion of insects' ability to survive, of the development of pesticides and the introduction of DDT, of the problems of pesticide use and resistance to insecticides, and of the advantages of integrated pest control. (BB)

  20. Exploring Pesticide Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines environmental problems associated with the use of pesticides, and suggests thirty learning activities designed to give elementary school children a better understanding of the problem of pesticide pollution. (JR)

  1. Revoking Pesticide Tolerances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA revokes pesticide tolerances when all registrations of a pesticide have been canceled in the U.S. and the tolerances are not needed for imported foods or when there are no registered uses for certain crops.

  2. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  3. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  4. Pesticides and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Gaylen

    1973-01-01

    Consideration of the dangers of pesticides to the world ecosystem as well as the economic necessity which an affluent society has created are the two sides of the pesticide problem discussed in this issue. An attempt is made to clarify the issue, to recognize the ways that pesticides exert their effects, and to relate what measures can be taken to…

  5. The Pesticide Scorecard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Jerome B.

    1977-01-01

    A scheme for comparing the relative toxicities and environmental safety of agricultural pesticides is presented. It is based on the sum of four key factors: (1) oral toxicity to rats, (2) oral toxicity to fish, (3) longevity, and (4) bioaccumulation. Thirty-one pesticides are ranked by these factors. The ranking indicates that new pesticides are…

  6. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee: Pesticide Incidents Workgroup

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA formed this workgroup to assist in meeting its long-term goal of creating a publically-available framework that improves the reporting, quality and efficient use of pesticide incident data to ensure high-quality, science-based pesticide decisions.

  7. Micronuclei and pesticide exposure.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Creus, Amadeu; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Marcos, Ricard

    2011-01-01

    Micronucleus (MN) is a biomarker widely used in biomonitoring studies carried out to determine the genetic risk associated to pesticide exposure. Many in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as epidemiological approaches, have demonstrated the ability of certain chemical pesticides to produce genetic effects including cancer and other chronic pathologies in humans; thus, biomonitoring studies have been carried out to characterise the genetic risk associated to pesticide exposure. It must be noted that 'pesticide exposure' is a broad term covering complex mixtures of chemicals and many variables that can reduce or potentiate their risk. In addition, there are large differences in pesticides used in the different parts of the world. Although pesticides constitute a wide group of environmental pollutants, the main focus on their risk has been addressed to people using pesticides in their working places, at the chemical industry or in the crop fields. Here, we present a brief review of biomonitoring studies carried out in people occupationally exposed to pesticides and that use MN in lymphocytes or buccal cells as a target to determine the induction of genotoxic damage. Thus, people working in the chemical industry producing pesticides, people spraying pesticides and people dedicated to floriculture or agricultural works in general are the subject of specific sections. MN is a valuable genotoxic end point when clear exposure conditions exist like in pesticide production workers; nevertheless, better study designs are needed to overcome the uncertainty in exposure, genetic susceptibility and statistical power in the studies of sprayers and floriculture or agricultural workers.

  8. Pesticides and children.

    PubMed

    Garry, Vincent F

    2004-07-15

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored.

  9. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A F; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. Frequent occupational exposure to pesticides or home pesticide use was more strongly associated with both childhood leukemia and brain cancer than either professional exterminations or the use of garden pesticides. Occupational pesticide exposure was also associated with increased risk of Wilms' tumor, Ewing's sarcoma, and germ cell tumors. Residence on a farm, a proxy for pesticide exposure, was associated with increased risk of a number of childhood cancers. Although increased risk of some childhood cancers in association with pesticide exposure is suggested by multiple studies, methodological limitations common to many studies restrict conclusions; these include indirect exposure classification, small sample size, and potential biases in control selection. Opportunities for methodologic improvement in future studies of pesticides and childhood cancers are described. PMID:9349828

  10. 78 FR 9688 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold... for Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related Label Claims. This document extends the comment... guidance for antimicrobial pesticide products with mold-related claims. In response to comments...

  11. 75 FR 28012 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product... Agency is announcing the availability of and seeking public comment on a draft Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' PR Notices are...

  12. 77 FR 74003 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products With Mold.... SUMMARY: The Agency is announcing the availability of and seeking public comment on a draft Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) titled ``Guidance on Antimicrobial Pesticide Products with Mold-Related...

  13. Pesticide Product Label System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). New labels were added to PPLS on November 21, 2014. Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely handle and use registered pesticide products. An approved pesticide product label represents the full content of EPAs registration decision regarding that product. Pesticide labels contain detailed information on the use, storage, and handling of a product. This information will be found on EPA stamped-approved labels and, in some cases, in subsequent related correspondence, which is also included in PPLS. You may need to review several PDF files for a single product to determine the complete current terms of registration.

  14. New Labeling for Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These documents, a graphic of the bee advisory box and letters to pesticide registrants, describe steps by EPA to change pesticide labels to better protect pollinators by being clearer and more precise in their directions for pesticide application.

  15. Pesticide Worker Safety Cooperative Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The worker safety program cooperative agreements fund projects to educate pesticide applicators, handlers, and farmworkers on working safely with, and around, pesticides. Read about pesticide related grant opportunities and reports from previous grants.

  16. Models for Pesticide Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA considers the toxicity of the pesticide as well as the amount of pesticide to which a person or the environments may be exposed in risk assessment. Scientists use mathematical models to predict pesticide concentrations in exposure assessment.

  17. Natural products as sources for new pesticides.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Charles L; Dayan, Franck E; Duke, Stephen O

    2012-06-22

    Natural products as pesticides have been reviewed from several perspectives in the past, but no prior treatment has examined the impact of natural product and natural product-based pesticides on the U.S. market, as a function of new active ingredient registrations with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Thus, EPA registration details of new active ingredients for all conventional pesticide registrations and biopesticide registrations were compiled from the years 1997-2010. Conventional pesticide registrations and biopesticide registrations were examined both collectively and independently for all 277 new active ingredients (NAI) and subsequently categorized and sorted into four types: biological (B), natural product (NP), synthetic (S), and synthetic natural derived (SND). When examining conventional pesticides alone, the S category accounted for the majority of NAI registrations, with 78.0%, followed by SND with 14.7%, NP with 6.4%, and B with 0.9%. Biopesticides alone were dominated by NPs with 54.8%, followed by B with 44.6%, SND with 0.6%, and 0% for S. When examining conventional pesticides and biopesticides combined, NPs accounted for the majority of NAI registrations, with 35.7%, followed by S with 30.7%, B with 27.4%, and SND with 6.1%. Despite the common perception that natural products may not be the best sources for NAI as pesticides, when both conventional and biopesticides are examined collectively, and considering that NP, SND, and B all have origins from natural product research, it can be argued that their combined impact with the EPA from 1997 to 2010 accounted for 69.3% of all NAI registrations.

  18. Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee, a permanent, broadly representative advisory committee, meets with EPA on a regular basis to discuss pesticide regulatory, policy, and program implementation issues.

  19. Children, Pesticides and Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Alison

    1998-01-01

    Young children receive higher doses of pesticides than any other age group. The younger a child is the more difficulty the body will have in coping with toxins in general. Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) do not adequately protect children. Evidence of harm from a pesticide often has to be overwhelmingly strong before anything is done about it.…

  20. The Pesticide Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Lynn R.

    1998-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) works to make communities aware of dangers posed by misused pesticides, which can be hazardous to the health of children and others. The EPA is involved in outreach to inform the public. People need information about safe and effective pest-control options. They should report suspected pesticide misuse to…

  1. Food and Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA sets limits on how much of a pesticide may be used on food during growing and processing, and how much can remain on the food you buy. Learn about regulation of pesticides on food and how you can limit exposure.

  2. Pesticide exposure in children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J

    2012-12-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  3. Protective Clothing for Pesticide Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brief, largely pictorial guide to protective clothing for pesticide users addresses moderately to highly toxic pesticides. The guide discusses the potential hazards of pesticides and the kinds of clothing and equipment that should be worn for personal protection. It also explains how the type of pesticide formulation affects an individual's…

  4. Pesticides and childhood cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, S H; Ward, M H

    1998-01-01

    Children are exposed to potentially carcinogenic pesticides from use in homes, schools, other buildings, lawns and gardens, through food and contaminated drinking water, from agricultural application drift, overspray, or off-gassing, and from carry-home exposure of parents occupationally exposed to pesticides. Parental exposure during the child's gestation or even preconception may also be important. Malignancies linked to pesticides in case reports or case-control studies include leukemia, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, soft-tissue sarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancers of the brain, colorectum, and testes. Although these studies have been limited by nonspecific pesticide exposure information, small numbers of exposed subjects, and the potential for case-response bias, it is noteworthy that many of the reported increased risks are of greater magnitude than those observed in studies of pesticide-exposed adults, suggesting that children may be particularly sensitive to the carcinogenic effects of pesticides. Future research should include improved exposure assessment, evaluation of risk by age at exposure, and investigation of possible genetic-environment interactions. There is potential to prevent at least some childhood cancer by reducing or eliminating pesticide exposure. PMID:9646054

  5. 78 FR 3418 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web- Distributed Labeling for Pesticide... (PR Notice) titled ``Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide Products.'' PR Notices are issued by the... Internet. Web-distributed labeling would allow users to retrieve a streamlined version of the...

  6. Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...

  7. Modelling bioconcentration of pesticides in fish using biopartitioning micellar chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez-Saldaña, José María; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Medina-Hernández, María José; Villanueva-Camañas, Rosa María; Sagrado, Salvador

    2005-01-21

    Ecotoxicity assessment is essential before placing new chemical substances on the market. An investigation of the use of the chromatographic retention (log k) in biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) as an in vitro approach to evaluate the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of pesticides in fish is proposed. A heterogeneous set of 85 pesticides from six chemical families was used. For pesticides exhibiting bioconcentration in fish (experimental log BCF > 2), a quantitative retention-activity relationships (QRAR) model is able to perform precise log BCF estimations of new pesticides. Considering the present data, the results based on log k seem to be more reliable than those from available software (BCFWIN and KOWWIN) and from log P (quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR)). It is also possible to perform risk assessment tasks fixing a threshold value for log k, which substitute two common threshold values, log P and experimental log BCF, avoiding the experimental problems related with these two parameters.

  8. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  9. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  10. Pesticide Emergency Exemptions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A state or federal agency can request an emergency exemptions when a serious pest problem jeopardizes production of agricultural goods or public health but no pesticides are currently registered for that situation. Learn how to request emergency exemption.

  11. What are Antimicrobial Pesticides?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Antimicrobial pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi on inanimate objects and surfaces.

  12. Why We Review Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA periodically reviews existing registered pesticides to ensure they can be used safely, without unreasonable risks to human health and the environment.

  13. Antimicrobial Pesticide Use Site Index

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Use Site Index provides guidance to assist applicants for antimicrobial pesticide registration by helping them identify the data requirements necessary to register a pesticide or support their product registrations.

  14. Pesticide Data Submitters List (PDSL)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Data Submitters List is a compilation of names and addresses of registrants who wish to be notified and offered compensation for use of their data. It was developed to assist pesticide applicants in fulfilling their obligation under FIFRA.

  15. Requirements for Monitoring Pesticide Handlers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To ensure safety, someone must monitor pesticide handlers in certain situations, including when the most toxic pesticides are used and when fumigants are used in greenhouses. Find out about these requirements.

  16. Toward Safer Use of Pesticides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moats, Sheila; Moats, William A.

    1970-01-01

    Gives information on costs and benefits of pesticides, and on specific injurious effects on humans and fish and wild life. Suggests restriction of use of certain pesticides and acceleration of research on biological control. (EB)

  17. Common Causes of Pesticide Incidents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are many types of pesticide incidents. EPA staff analyze pesticide incident reports involving people (including children and farm workers), pets, domestic animals, wildlife including bees and other pollinators, and the environment.

  18. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Pesticides The Basics Pesticides are substances ...

  19. Pesticides: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumstead, Cynthia, Ed.; And Others

    Developed to provide an introduction to the issues surrounding the use of chemical pesticides, this booklet encourages individuals and communities to become active in determining the safe use and regulation of pesticides. The major components of the guide include: (1) an explanation of the issue; (2) pesticides and their effect on human health;…

  20. Pesticide Use and Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred

    This publication describes in nontechnical language the problem of pesticide use and how it affects water quality. It provides information on laws affecting pesticide use and the reasons for them, as well as giving directions for the proper use of pesticides. The booklet is divided into five chapters, each of which concludes with a list of study…

  1. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status.

  2. Pesticide reregistration progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The report is produced by the Special Review and Reregistration Division (SRRD), Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), on progress towards pesticide reregistration as mandated under 1988 amendments to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. The report shows the status of reregistration through the first quarter of the 1993 fiscal year. SRRD is in the process of re-evaluating the format and information in the Progress Report, as a result of the October 1992 Customer Survey sent to the recipients of the report. Results of the survey will be incorporated in the April 1993 issue of the report.

  3. Citizen's Guide to Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This guide provides suggestions on pest control and safety rules for pesticide use at home. Pest prevention may be possible by modification of pest habitat: removal of food and water sources, removal or destruction of pest shelter and breeding sites, and good horticultural practices that reduce plant stress. Nonchemical alternatives to pesticides…

  4. Epigenetics and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Collotta, M; Bertazzi, P A; Bollati, V

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides, a wide class of environmental contaminants, may cause both acute and delayed health effects in exposed subjects. These effects can range from simple irritation of the skin and eyes to more severe effects such as affecting the nervous system, the reproductive system and cancer. The molecular mechanisms underlying such effects are still under investigation. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in the DNA sequence. Several epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression, can be triggered by environmental factors. We review current evidences indicating that epigenetic modifications may mediate pesticide effects on human health. In vitro, animal, and human investigations have identified several classes of pesticides that modify epigenetic marks, including endocrine disruptors, persistent organic pollutants, arsenic, several herbicides and insecticides. Several investigations have examined the effects of environmental exposures and epigenetic markers, and identified toxicants that modify epigenetic states. These modifications are similar to the ones found in pathological tissue samples. In spite of the current limitations, available evidence supports the concept that epigenetics holds substantial potential for furthering our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of pesticides health effects, as well as for predicting health-related risks due to conditions of environmental exposure and individual susceptibility.

  5. A Test House Study of Pesticides and PesticideDegradation Products Following an Indoor Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    Preexisting pesticide degradates are a concern for pesticide biomonitoring studies as exposure to them may result in overestimation of pesticide exposure. The purpose of this research was to determine whether there was significant formation and movement, of pesticide degradates o...

  6. Reducing pesticide use while preserving crop productivity and profitability on arable farms.

    PubMed

    Lechenet, Martin; Dessaint, Fabrice; Py, Guillaume; Makowski, David; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    Achieving sustainable crop production while feeding an increasing world population is one of the most ambitious challenges of this century(1). Meeting this challenge will necessarily imply a drastic reduction of adverse environmental effects arising from agricultural activities(2). The reduction of pesticide use is one of the critical drivers to preserve the environment and human health. Pesticide use could be reduced through the adoption of new production strategies(3-5); however, whether substantial reductions of pesticide use are possible without impacting crop productivity and profitability is debatable(6-17). Here, we demonstrated that low pesticide use rarely decreases productivity and profitability in arable farms. We analysed the potential conflicts between pesticide use and productivity or profitability with data from 946 non-organic arable commercial farms showing contrasting levels of pesticide use and covering a wide range of production situations in France. We failed to detect any conflict between low pesticide use and both high productivity and high profitability in 77% of the farms. We estimated that total pesticide use could be reduced by 42% without any negative effects on both productivity and profitability in 59% of farms from our national network. This corresponded to an average reduction of 37, 47 and 60% of herbicide, fungicide and insecticide use, respectively. The potential for reducing pesticide use appeared higher in farms with currently high pesticide use than in farms with low pesticide use. Our results demonstrate that pesticide reduction is already accessible to farmers in most production situations. This would imply profound changes in market organization and trade balance.

  7. Chromatographic evaluation of the toxicity in fish of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez-Saldaña, José María; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Medina-Hernández, María José; Villanueva-Camañas, Rosa María; Sagrado, Salvador

    2005-01-05

    Ecotoxicity assessment is essential before placing new chemical substances on the market. An investigation of the use of the chromatographic retention (log k) in biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) as an in vitro approach to evaluate the toxicity in fish of pesticides (acute toxicity levels as pLC(50)) is proposed. A heterogeneous data set of 85 pesticides from six chemical families with available experimental fish toxicity data (ECOTOX database from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)) was used. For pesticides exhibiting non-polar narcosis mechanism in fish (non-specific toxicity), more reliable models and precise pLC(50) estimations are obtained from log k (quantitative retention-activity relationships, QRAR) than from log P (quantitative structure-activity relationships, QSAR) or ECOSAR (ECOSAR program from U.S. EPA).

  8. Council on Library and Information Resources: Annual Report, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    This annual report of the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) begins with a list of supporters, a letter from the chairman, and a message from the president. The major CLIR programs are then described: (1) Preservation and Access, including domestic and international activities; (2) Digital Libraries, including developing libraries…

  9. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of these five were spawned out, one was partially spawned, and three died before depositing eggs. However, much of the spawning related behavior observed involved female chinook salmon paired with male bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Two female carcasses from the East Fork Salmon River were recovered and examined for egg retention. One of these had spawned and one had not.

  10. Lake Pend Oreille Fishery Recovery Project, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Ament, William J.; Harryman, Bill

    2001-12-01

    The minimum water level of Lake Pend Oreille was raised from 625.1 m to 626.4 m elevation during the winter of 1998-99 in an attempt to recover the impacted kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka fishery. This report covers the third year of testing higher winter levels. Hydroacoustic surveys and mid-water trawling were conducted in the fall of 1999 to assess the kokanee population. We estimated the abundance of each age class of kokanee as: 6.023 million age-0 (wild and hatchery fry), 883,000 age-1, 409,000 age-2, 579,000 age-3, 861,000 age-4, and 87,000 age-5. Wild fry abundance was estimated at 2.57 million fish. These originated from 43.1 million eggs spawned in the wild during the fall of 1998. The survival from wild spawned eggs to wild fry was, therefore, 6.0%. This was lower than the 9.6% survival rate calculated last year but was much higher than the 1.4% calculated in 1995 prior to changing lake levels. To date, years of higher winter lake elevations have out-performed years of full drawdown. Based on data collected during trawl sampling, the total number of eggs laid in the lake in the fall of 1999 was 74.8 million. Mean fecundity per female was 379 eggs. Hatchery personnel collected 22.4 million eggs, leaving 52.4 million eggs to be laid by wild fish in tributary streams and along the lake shoreline. These eggs will be used to assess wild kokanee survival during 2000. Peak counts of spawning kokanee were 3,500 fish on the shoreline and 16,400 fish in tributary streams. This represents only a fraction of the total kokanee spawning population. Opossum shrimp Mysis relicta increased slightly in the southern two sections of the lake but decreased in the northern end. Immature and mature shrimp (excluding young-of-the-year shrimp) densities averaged 302 shrimp/m{sup 2}, down from 426 shrimp/m{sup 2} the previous year. The relatively stable shrimp population was not thought to affect the outcome of the lake level testing.

  11. Notes Plus: A Quarterly of Practical Teaching Ideas, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Jeannette, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This sixteenth volume of "Notes Plus: A Quarterly of Practical Teaching Ideas" contains numerous teaching ideas from English classrooms. Articles in number 1 are: "'Cricket' Contests as Class Exercises" (Rosemary Laughlin); "Body Biography Revisited" (Julie Medow); "Helping Students Keep in Touch" (Joyce Taaffe); "A Love Affair with Letter…

  12. Arctic Ozone Loss in Threshold Conditions: Match Observations in 1997/1998 and 1998/1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-16

    Kiihlungsborn, Germany. 8Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia , Madrid, Spain. 9Deutscher Wetterdienst, HohenpeiBenberg, Germany. 10Instituto Nacional de... Meteorologia , Tenerife, Spain. 11 Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, On- tario, Canada. 12Royal Meteorological Institute, Brussels, Belgium...Nacional de Meteorologia , Apdo. 285, 28071 Madrid, Spain. (Jmin.Cisneros@inm.es) H. Claude, DWD, Observatory HohenpeiBenberg, Albin- Schwaiger-Weg 10

  13. The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. Annual reports for 1997, 1998, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-31

    The Roundtable was created in 1984 to provide a unique forum for dialog among top government, university, and industry leaders of the national science and technology enterprise. The purpose is to facilitate personal working relationships and exchange of ideas regarding issues, problems, and promising opportunities that are facing those charged with developing and deploying science and technology resources. These annual reports begin by describing the purpose, structure, and mode of operation of the Roundtable. There follow sections devoted to the council activities, major projects, and follow-up planning, and the activities of the Roundtable working groups. Meeting agendas and publications lists are also included.

  14. South American Summer Monsoon of 1997/1998 and 1998/1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K.-M.; Zhou, Jiayu

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that during El Nino years severe drought occurs in the area of Amazon and northeastern Brazil. According to the linear model result the reduced latent heating over the Amazon may lead to a weaker than normal upper tropospheric Bolivian high. As a result, some studies have suggested a weaker South American summer monsoon (SASM) during El Nino years. Using re-analysis. Zhou and Lau data found a statistically significant positive correlation between the tropical eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the strength of low-level jet (LLJ) along the eastern foothills of the tropical-subtropical Andes. Douglas also showed a strong LLJ at Santa Cruz, Bolivia during a special pilot balloon observation period in 1997/98 El Nino austral summer. Since this LLJ is an integral part of the monsoon system in the summertime, these results indicated that SASM could be stronger than normal in El Nino years. To clarify this issue, we conducted an investigation on SASM anomaly in the recent ENSO event of 1997/98 El Nino and 1998/99 La Nina In the following we first give a brief review on SASM and the interannual variability of summer rainfall over South America. Then, the impact of 1997-99 ENSO on the South American regional thermal structure and its dynamical consequences to SASM will be discussed.

  15. Forest surveys and wildfire assessment in the Los Alamos Region; 1998-1999

    SciTech Connect

    Randy G. Balice; Jay D. Miller; Brian P. Oswald; Carl Edminster; Stephen R. Yool

    2000-06-01

    To better understand the structural characteristics of vegetation in the Los Alamos region, the authors conducted two years of field surveys and associated analyses. This report introduces field methods, lists the summarized field data, and discusses the results of preliminary spatial analyses. During 1998 and 1999, seventy-six terrestrial plant communities were sampled for topographic characteristics, soil surface features, and vegetational conditions. A nested, randomized design was used to select the plot locations and to guide the sampling of the plot. The samples included a variety of fuel types, including surface fuels and ground fuels, shrubby and small tree fuels, and overstory fuels. Species composition data were also collected. The fuels data were summarized by vegetation type and evaluated for the topographic and spatial relationships of major field categories. The results of these analyses indicate that many of the fuels categories depend on topographic factors in a linear and curvilinear fashion. In particular, middle elevations within the Los Alamos region tend to support more surface fuels and ground fuels, whereas large-diameter trees are most dense at higher elevations and are specific to community types at these elevations. Small-diameter trees occur in more dense stands at lower and middle elevations and on specific soil and topographic conditions. Areas that burned in 1954 were found to be relatively free of fuels. The implications are that the western portions of the Los Alamos region are at risk from wildfire during dry, summer periods.

  16. A Profile of the Student Support Services Program, 1998-1999 through 2001-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Chan, Tsze; Hale, Margaret; Kirshstein, Rita

    2005-01-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports that present a national profile of the Student Support Services (SSS) Program. It presents grantee data from 2000-01 and 2001-02 for the first time and includes data from earlier years for comparison purposes. The following are appended: (1) Response Rates and Data Issues; (2) Risk Factors of 1995-96…

  17. Human Exploration Ethnography of the Haughton-Mars Project, 1998-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    During the past two field seasons, July 1988 and 1999, we have conducted research about the field practices of scientists and engineers at Haughton Crater on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic, with the objective of determining how people will live and work on Mars. This broad investigation of field life and work practice, part of the Haughton-Mars Project lead by Pascal Lee, spans social and cognitive anthropology, psychology, and computer science. Our approach involves systematic observation and description of activities, places, and concepts, constituting an ethnography of field science at Haughton. Our focus is on human behaviors-what people do, where, when, with whom, and why. By locating behavior in time and place-in contrast with a purely functional or "task oriented" description of work-we find patterns constituting the choreography of interaction between people, their habitat, and their tools. As such, we view the exploration process in terms of a total system comprising a social organization, facilities, terrain/climate, personal identities, artifacts, and computer tools. Because we are computer scientists seeking to develop new kinds of tools for living and working on Mars, we focus on the existing representational tools (such as documents and measuring devices), learning and improvization (such as use of the internet or informal assistance), and prototype computational systems brought to the field. Our research is based on partnership, by which field scientists and engineers actively contribute to our findings, just as we participate in their work and life.

  18. Tech Prep. South Dakota Career Activities for the Classroom, 4th Edition, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucker, Marsha, Comp.

    This document presents a sampling of projects and activities that have been implemented in Tech Prep training in South Dakota, or will be implemented during the upcoming school year. The projects and activities are categorized into 12 areas: career clusters; career units and activities; curriculum materials; employability skills; entrepreneurship;…

  19. New York State Forum for Information Resource Management: 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Forum for Information Resource Management.

    This annual report of the New York State Forum for Information Resource Management begins with a section that summarizes key activities for 1998-99, including partnerships with other organizations, sessions on the use of information in government and information security, programs on the challenges of electronic commerce for government,…

  20. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik

    2000-09-01

    This report summarizes the life history and production data collected in the Hood River subbasin during FY 1998 and 1999. Included is a summary of jack and adult life history data collected at the Powerdale Dam trap on eight complete run years of winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon, and on seven complete run years of summer steelhead. Also included are summaries of (1) the hatchery winter steelhead broodstock collection program; (2) hatchery production releases in the Hood River subbasin; (3) the number of outmigrant wild rainbow-steelhead and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts; and (4) streamflow at selected locations in the Hood River subbasin. Data will be used in part to (1) evaluate the HRPP with respect to its impact on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids, (2) refine spawner escapement objectives to more accurately reflect subbasin carrying capacity, and (3) refine estimates of subbasin smolt production capacity to more accurately reflect current and potential subbasin carrying capacity. Baseline information on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids will continue to be collected for several years prior to full implementation of the Hood River Production Program.

  1. High School Debate Topic, 1998-1999. Subject Bibliography (SB)043.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

    This 12-item annotated bibliography presents U.S. government documents suitable for use in preparation for a high school debate on the resolution that the United States should substantially change its foreign policy toward Russia. Items in the annotated bibliography address American-Ukranian nuclear relations; economic policy and trade practices;…

  2. Design and Experimental Results for the S825 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998-1999

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 17%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S825, for the 75% blade radial station of 20- to 40-meter, variable-speed and variable-pitch (toward feather), horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness and low-profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil exhibits a rapid, trailing-edge stall, which does not meet the design goal of a docile stall. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.

  3. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These three journals include articles on issues related to language learning. The fall 1998 journal presents: "Attention! Are You Seeking a Position with Excellent Long-Term Benefits? Be an Advocate!" (Mary Lynn Redmond); "National Town Meeting Energizes Support for Early Language Learning" (Marcia Harmon Rosenbusch);…

  4. Revised Certification Standards for Pesticide Applicators

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has finalized stronger standards for people who apply restricted use pesticides (RUPs). These revisions to the Certification of Pesticide Applicators rule will reduce the likelihood of harm from the misapplication of toxic pesticides.

  5. PESTICIDE SCREENING RESULTS FROM EIGHT DAYCARE CENTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To improve assessments of children's exposures to pesticides in support of the Food Quality Protection Act, priority research and data needs include: pesticide use patterns, pesticide residue distributions, and dermal exposure assessment approaches. To address these gaps, the ...

  6. 75 FR 32767 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide...: Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) Regulatory Public Docket (7502P), Environmental Protection...

  7. 76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to...

  8. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an active ingredient not included in any previously registered pesticide product. Pursuant to the...

  9. Pesticide Devices: A Guide for Consumers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide for consumers explains key facts about pesticide devices and how they differ from registered pesticide products. Device producers or registrants should see our Pesticide Registration Manual, Chapter 13 for information.

  10. Tips for Reducing Pesticide Impacts on Wildlife

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Web page provides tips for pesticide users in residential and agricultural settings, as well as tips for certified pesticide applicators for ways to protect wildlife from potentially harmful effects of pesticides.

  11. Sample Pesticide Label for Label Review Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  12. The geochemistry of pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, Jack E.

    2007-01-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth’s ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet’s ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities—several hundred million pounds of active ingredient (a.i.) per year in the United States alone (Donaldson et al., 2002)—for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth’s history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate, and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called inert ingredients included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  13. The geochemistry of pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    The mid-1970s marked a major turning point in human history, for it was at that moment that the ability of the Earth's ecosystems to absorb most of the biological impacts of human activities appears to have been exceeded by the magnitude of those impacts. This conclusion is based partly upon estimates of the rate of carbon dioxide emission during the combustion of fossil fuels, relative to the rate of its uptake by terrestrial ecosystems (Loh, 2002). A very different threshold, however, had already been crossed several decades earlier with the birth of the modern chemical industry, which produced novel substances for which no such natural assimilative capacity existed. Among these new chemical compounds, none has posed a greater challenge to the planet's ecosystems than synthetic pesticides, compounds that have been intentionally released into the hydrologic system in vast quantities—several hundred million pounds of active ingredient (a.i.) per year in the United States alone (Donaldson et al., 2002)—for many decades. To gauge the extent to which we are currently able to assess the environmental implications of this new development in the Earth's history, this chapter presents an overview of current understanding regarding the sources, transport, fate, and biological effects of pesticides, their transformation products, and selected adjuvants in the hydrologic system. (Adjuvants are the so-called inert ingredients included in commercial pesticide formulations to enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredients.)

  14. Monitoring pesticides in wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dustman, E.H.; Martin, W.E.; Heath, R.G.; Reichel, W.L.

    1971-01-01

    Early in the development of the wildlife monitoring program, certain criteria were recognized as being important in the selection of species of wild animals suitable for pesticide monitoring purposes. Ideally, the forms selected should be geographically well distributed, and they should be reasonably abundant and readily available for sampling. In addition, animals occurring near the top of food chains have the capacity to reflect residues in organisms occurring at lower levels in the same food chains. Based on these criteria, species chosen for monitoring include the starling (Sturnus vulgaris), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes), and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The black duck is substituted for the mallard in States where suitable numbers of mallards cannot be obtained. The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is held responsible for the execution of the wildlife portion of the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. The primary objective is to ascertain on a nationwide basis and independent of specific treatments the levels and trends of certain pesticidal chemicals and other pollutants in the bodies of selected forms of wildlife. The program was first described by Johnson et al. (4) in 1967. The purpose of this report is to update and redescribe the wildlife monitoring program and briefly review accomplishments.

  15. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.

  16. Detection of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residue in herbal plants which are commonly used in the herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mruthyumjaya Meda; Kumarmeena, Ajay; Galib

    2011-10-01

    Herbal formulations are getting popular throughout the world and commercialized extensively for various medicinal properties. WHO has emphasized the need for quality assurance of herbal products, including testing of heavy metals and pesticides residues. In view of WHO guidelines, single herbal drugs used in herbal formulations were collected from local market, for testing heavy metals and persistent pesticides residue. Therefore, in the present case, we have examined few local samples of certain herbs viz. Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and Withania somnifera. The present studies were selected for estimation of four heavy metals namely Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury. Apart from these, pesticide residue Viz. Organochlorine pesticides, Organophosphorus pesticides, and Pyrethroids were analyzed in the four samples of single crude drugs. Heavy metals and pesticide residue were found below detection limits in all the samples.

  17. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  18. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC-MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake.

  19. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual. Core Manual, Northeastern Regional Pesticide Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, J. E.; And Others

    This manual provides basic information for all pesticide applicators. The first section deals with laws, regulations, toxicity and safety, and covers background information that every pesticide applicator should know. The second section describes the steps and decisions which applicators make in their daily routine on the job. These include…

  20. Scope of the worldwide effort to regulate pesticide contamination in surface soils.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Aaron A; Li, Zijian

    2014-12-15

    Regulating surface soil contamination is a worldwide problem. Many jurisdictions address this problem with regulatory guidance values (RGVs) that specify the maximum allowable soil concentration of contaminants. Pesticides are a particularly important class of soil contaminants because of their intentional toxicity and widespread application to home, garden, and agricultural soils. Pesticides are also difficult to regulate because they are marketed in thousands of products made from hundreds of potentially toxic chemicals. Worldwide, at least 174 jurisdictions from 54 United Nations member states have promulgated more than 19,400 pesticide RGVs. Values may be found for at least 739 pesticides, identified by unique Chemical Abstract Service numbers (CAS No.). Using CAS numbers helps to avoid confusion that may result from alternative product names, chemical nomenclature conventions, or flawed translations. Assembling the set of pesticide RGVs required translating guidance documents authored in 30 different languages. Results indicate that more than 100 RGVs have been promulgated for each of the 22 most frequently regulated pesticides including over 300 values for DDT. Data are presented on the number of pesticides typically addressed by a regulatory jurisdiction and on the size and variability of the RGV datasets for the 200 most frequently regulated pesticides.

  1. Livestock Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  2. Introduction to Pesticides. MP-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Alvin F.

    This document is one in a series distributed by the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Wyoming-Laramie. It provides an introduction to pesticides and is concerned with pesticide development, labeling and safety associated with the use, storage and disposal of these substances and their containers. Safety aspects of handling and…

  3. Pesticide Degradation in Thermal Foggers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal foggers are used in many parts of the world for vector control. Since thermal foggers use heat to create and help propel adulticide clouds, there is reason to examine the stability of pesticides in both diesel and water-based formulations. This study examined the degradation of 5 pesticide...

  4. CHIRAL PESTICIDES: OCCURRENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like amino acids, certain pesticides exist in "left-handed" and "right-handed" (chiral) forms. Commercially available chiral pesticides are produced as racemic mixtures in which the ratio of the two forms (or enantiomers) is 1:1. Enantiomers have the same ...

  5. Understanding pesticides in California's Delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, Kathryn; Orlando, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta) is the hub of California’s water system and also an important habitat for imperiled fish and wildlife. Aquatic organisms are exposed to mixtures of pesticides that flow through the maze of Delta water channels from sources including agricultural, landscape, and urban pest-control applications. While we do not know all of the effects pesticides have on the ecosystem, there is evidence that they cause some damage to organisms in the Delta. Decades of USGS research have provided a good understanding of when, where, and how pesticides enter the Delta. However, pesticide use is continually changing. New field studies and methods are needed so that scientists can analyze which pesticides are present in the Delta, and at what concentrations, enabling them to estimate exposure and ultimate effects on organisms. Continuing research will provide resource managers and stakeholders with crucial information to manage the Delta wisely.

  6. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ...The Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice) entitled ``Pesticide Registration (PR) Notice 2012-1: Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling.'' This PR Notice was issued by the Agency on April 9, 2012. PR Notices are issued by the Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) to inform pesticide registrants and other interested persons about important......

  7. 75 FR 34448 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Brand Names; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice...) entitled ``False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' This document extends the comment period... Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' EPA is hereby extending the comment period, which was set to...

  8. [Pesticides in rural pathology].

    PubMed

    Pettinati, L; Perrelli, G

    1979-03-10

    Reference is made to the extensive use of pesticides in agriculture and the fact that many are highly toxic. The lack of information and legislative provisions makes agricultural workers particularly vulnerable to the several categories of poisons contained under the description "pesticides". The chlorinated and phosphoric organic compounds are of especial interest. The former include the derivatives of the phenoxycarboxylic acids, which can give rise to a product (tetrachlorobenzodioxine, or dioxine) that was responsible for the pollution at Seveso. The latter group contains the very commonly employed alkylthiophosphates (malathion, parathion, etc.). These are well-known inhibitors of acetylcholine esterase and thus responsible for harm to the nervous system. A comparable, but less intense effect on this esterase is possessed by the carbamates, which are increasingly being used in agriculture. It is hoped that, as in the past, suitable, oriented epidemiological surveys will be carried out in industry, designed to focus attention on the probable, but not yet documented chronic damage that many of these products cause to the human body.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides and endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Maureen A; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Hediger, Mary L; Vexler, Albert; Kostyniak, Paul J

    2010-11-01

    Limited study of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and endometriosis has been conducted. One hundred women aged 18-40 years who were undergoing laparoscopy provided 20 cm(3) of blood for toxicologic analysis and surgeons completed operative reports regarding the presence of endometriosis. Gas chromatography with electron capture was used to quantify (ng/g serum) six OCPs. Logistic regression was utilized to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for individual pesticides and groups based on chemical structure adjusting for current cigarette smoking and lipids. The highest tertile of aromatic fungicide was associated with a fivefold risk of endometriosis (aOR=5.3; 95% CI, 1.2-23.6) compared to the lowest tertile. Similar results were found for t-nonachlor and HCB. These are the first such findings in a laproscopic cohort that suggest an association between OCP exposure and endometriosis. More prospective studies are necessary to ensure temporal ordering and confirm these findings.

  10. Health impact and damage cost assessment of pesticides in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fantke, Peter; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier

    2012-11-15

    Health impacts from pesticide use are of continuous concern in the European population, requiring a constant evaluation of European pesticide policy. However, health impacts have never been quantified accounting for specific crops contributing differently to overall human exposure as well as accounting for individual substances showing distinct environmental behavior and toxicity. We quantify health impacts and related damage costs from exposure to 133 pesticides applied in 24 European countries in 2003 adding up to almost 50% of the total pesticide mass applied in that year. Only 13 substances applied to 3 crop classes (grapes/vines, fruit trees, vegetables) contribute to 90% of the overall health impacts of about 2000 disability-adjusted life years in Europe per year corresponding to annual damage costs of 78 million Euro. Considering uncertainties along the full impact pathway mainly attributable to non-cancer dose-response relationships and residues in treated crops, we obtain an average burden of lifetime lost per person of 2.6 hours (95% confidence interval between 22 seconds and 45.3 days) or costs per person over lifetime of 12 Euro (95% confidence interval between 0.03 Euro and 5142 Euro), respectively. 33 of the 133 assessed substances accounting for 20% of health impacts in 2003 are now banned from the European market according to current legislation. The main limitation in assessing human health impacts from pesticides is related to the lack of systematic application data for all used substances. Since health impacts can be substantially influenced by the choice of pesticides, the need for more information about substance application becomes evident.

  11. Soil column leaching of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this review, I address the practical and theoretical aspects of pesticide soil mobility.I also address the methods used to measure mobility, and the factors that influence it, and I summarize the data that have been published on the column leaching of pesticides.Pesticides that enter the unsaturated soil profile are transported downwards by the water flux, and are adsorbed, desorbed, and/or degraded as they pass through the soil. The rate of passage of a pesticide through the soil depends on the properties of the pesticide, the properties of the soil and the prevailing environmental conditions.Because large amounts of many different pesticides are used around the world, they and their degradates may sometimes contaminate groundwater at unacceptable levels.It is for this reason that assessing the transport behavior and soil mobility of pesticides before they are sold into commerce is important and is one indispensable element that regulators use to assess probable pesticide safety. Both elementary soil column leaching and sophisticated outdoor lysimeter studies are performed to measure the leaching potential for pesticides; the latter approach more reliably reflects probable field behavior, but the former is useful to initially profile a pesticide for soil mobility potential.Soil is physically heterogeneous. The structure of soil varies both vertically and laterally, and this variability affects the complex flow of water through the soil profile, making it difficult to predict with accuracy. In addition, macropores exist in soils and further add to the complexity of how water flow occurs. The degree to which soil is tilled, the density of vegetation on the surface, and the type and amounts of organic soil amendments that are added to soil further affect the movement rate of water through soil, the character of soil adsorption sites and the microbial populations that exist in the soil. Parameters that most influence the rate of pesticide mobility in soil are

  12. Pesticide Reduction Campaign: Greener Pesticides for Cleaner Waterways

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Greener Pesticides for Cleaner Waterways project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  13. Pesticide use and application: an Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, P C; Singh, Nandita

    2009-06-15

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  14. Effects of occupational pesticide exposure on children applying pesticides.

    PubMed

    Abdel Rasoul, Gaafar M; Abou Salem, Mahmoud E; Mechael, Atef A; Hendy, Olfat M; Rohlman, Diane S; Ismail, Ahmed A

    2008-09-01

    Nearly 40% of the Egyptian workforce is employed in agriculture. The cotton industry relies on children and adolescents, who work seasonally, to apply pesticides to the cotton crops. Although previous research has examined adult pesticide exposures in this workforce in Egypt, no research has examined the health effects in adolescents. This study attempts to systematically replicate findings examining the impact of organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure in adults on Arabic speaking children working as applicators. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of pesticide exposure on children and adolescents spraying cotton fields. Male children currently applying pesticides between the ages of 9 and 15 (Younger, n=30) and 16 and 19 (Older, n=20) were recruited for the study. They completed a neurobehavioral test battery; personality inventory; work, health, and exposure questionnaires; and medical and neurological screening exams. Blood samples were collected to measure acetylcholinesterase. Children not working in agriculture, matched on age and education, served as controls. Both Younger and Older applicator groups, performed significantly worse than the controls on the majority of neurobehavioral tests controlling for age and years of education. The applicators reported significantly more neurological symptoms than the controls and had lower acetylcholinesterase activity. A dose-effect relationship demonstrated that increased years of exposure to organophosphate pesticides is associated with cognitive deficits. This is one of the several studies demonstrating that functional cognitive effects are positively correlated with increased years of exposure to OP pesticides, though primarily in adult populations, building confidence in the association. Since children around the world are exposed to OP pesticides, these studies suggest that the need to evaluate this potential problem is urgent.

  15. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Wesseling, Catharina . E-mail: cwesseli@una.ac.cr; Corriols, Marianela; Bravo, Viria

    2005-09-01

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings.

  16. Multiresidue determination of pesticides and pesticide metabolites in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mogadati, P.S.; Rosen, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    Methods for the multiresidue extraction, cleanup and GC/MS determination of 142 pesticides and pesticide metabolites in soil have been developed. The use of solid phase extraction cartridges makes it possible to clean up the soil sufficiently so that the equivalent of 40 mg. soil may be injected onto the GC capillary column without overloading or harming the column. Combining this clean-up method with chemical ionization ion trap detection allowed for very low limits of detection.

  17. Biodegradation of mixed pesticides by mixed pesticide enriched cultures.

    PubMed

    Krishna, K Rama; Philip, Ligy

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the degradation kinetics of mixed (lindane, methyl parathion and carbofuran) pesticides by mixed pesticide enriched cultures (MEC) under various environmental conditions. The bacterial strains isolated from the mixed microbial consortium were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 9236), Bacillus sp. (MTCC 9235) and Chryseobacterium joostei (MTCC 9237). Batch studies were conducted to estimate the biokinetic parameters like the maximum specific growth rate (mu(max)), Yield Coefficient (Y(T)), half saturation concentration (K(s)) and inhibition concentration (Ki) for individual and mixed pesticide enriched cultures. The cultures enriched in a particular pollutant always showed high growth rate and low inhibition in that particular pollutant compared to MEC. After seven weeks of incubation, mixed pesticide enriched cultures were able to degrade 72% lindane, 95% carbofuran and 100% of methyl parathion in facultative co-metabolic conditions. In aerobic systems, degradation efficiencies of lindane methyl parathion and carbofuran were increased by the addition of 2g L(- 1) of dextrose. Though many metabolic compounds of mixed pesticides were observed at different time intervals, none of the metabolites were persistent. Based on the observed metabolites, a degradation pathway was postulated for different pesticides under various environmental conditions.

  18. Effect of Household Coffee Processing on Pesticide Residues as a Means of Ensuring Consumers' Safety.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-09-30

    Coffee is a highly consumed and popular beverage all over the world; however, coffee beans used for daily consumption may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. In this monitoring study, the effect of household coffee processing on pesticide residues in coffee beans was investigated. Twelve pesticides, including metabolites and isomers (endosulfan α, endosulfan β, cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT, and p'p-DDT) were spiked in coffee beans collected from a local market in southwestern Ethiopia. The subsequent household coffee processing conditions (washing, roasting, and brewing) were established as closely as possible to the traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Washing of coffee beans showed 14.63-57.69 percent reduction, while the roasting process reduced up to 99.8 percent. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, permethrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan α and β in roasting and all of the 12 pesticides in the coffee brewing processes were not detected. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the reduction of pesticide residues by washing is significantly different from roasting and brewing (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference between coffee roasting and brewing (P > 0.05). The processing factor (PF) was less than one (PF < 1), which indicates reduction of pesticides under study during processing of the coffee beans. The cumulative effect of the three processing methods has a paramount importance in evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly in coffee beans.

  19. A Floral Fragrance, Methyl Benzoate, is An Efficient Green Pesticide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yan; Zhang, Aijun

    2017-02-01

    Over-reliance on synthetic pesticides in insect pest control has caused widespread public and scientific concerns for human health and the environment, especially since many insect pests have already developed resistances to conventional pesticides and Bt products. For this reason, there is a considerable interest in development of alternative control methods for insect pest management. Based on laboratory studies, we report that methyl benzoate (MB), a naturally-occurring compound in many plants, may possess toxicity against various stages of a variety of insect pests, including the brown marmorated stinkbug, Halyomorpha halys, diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, as well as the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Based on our laboratory toxicity data, MB was at least 5 to 20 times more toxic than the conventional pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), sulfur & pyrethrin mixture, and some organic commercial products available on the market against H. halys, P. xylostella, and M. sexta, eggs. Because MB is considered an environment-friendly, it has great potential to be used as an alternative tool to synthetic pesticide for insect pest management in crop production, thereby, reducing threats to natural ecosystems and human health caused by over-application of conventional synthetic pesticides.

  20. Pesticide use and biodiversity conservation in the Amazonian agricultural frontier

    PubMed Central

    Schiesari, Luis; Waichman, Andrea; Brock, Theo; Adams, Cristina; Grillitsch, Britta

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural frontiers are dynamic environments characterized by the conversion of native habitats to agriculture. Because they are currently concentrated in diverse tropical habitats, agricultural frontiers are areas where the largest number of species is exposed to hazardous land management practices, including pesticide use. Focusing on the Amazonian frontier, we show that producers have varying access to resources, knowledge, control and reward mechanisms to improve land management practices. With poor education and no technical support, pesticide use by smallholders sharply deviated from agronomical recommendations, tending to overutilization of hazardous compounds. By contrast, with higher levels of technical expertise and resources, and aiming at more restrictive markets, large-scale producers adhered more closely to technical recommendations and even voluntarily replaced more hazardous compounds. However, the ecological footprint increased significantly over time because of increased dosage or because formulations that are less toxic to humans may be more toxic to other biodiversity. Frontier regions appear to be unique in terms of the conflicts between production and conservation, and the necessary pesticide risk management and risk reduction can only be achieved through responsibility-sharing by diverse stakeholders, including governmental and intergovernmental organizations, NGOs, financial institutions, pesticide and agricultural industries, producers, academia and consumers. PMID:23610177

  1. A Floral Fragrance, Methyl Benzoate, is An Efficient Green Pesticide

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yan; Zhang, Aijun

    2017-01-01

    Over-reliance on synthetic pesticides in insect pest control has caused widespread public and scientific concerns for human health and the environment, especially since many insect pests have already developed resistances to conventional pesticides and Bt products. For this reason, there is a considerable interest in development of alternative control methods for insect pest management. Based on laboratory studies, we report that methyl benzoate (MB), a naturally-occurring compound in many plants, may possess toxicity against various stages of a variety of insect pests, including the brown marmorated stinkbug, Halyomorpha halys, diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, as well as the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Based on our laboratory toxicity data, MB was at least 5 to 20 times more toxic than the conventional pyrethroid (β-cyfluthrin), sulfur & pyrethrin mixture, and some organic commercial products available on the market against H. halys, P. xylostella, and M. sexta, eggs. Because MB is considered an environment-friendly, it has great potential to be used as an alternative tool to synthetic pesticide for insect pest management in crop production, thereby, reducing threats to natural ecosystems and human health caused by over-application of conventional synthetic pesticides. PMID:28181532

  2. [Survey of pesticide residues in imported spices and herbs (1997.4-2011.3)].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maki; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kinoshita, Teruaki; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Sato, Chizuko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    A survey of pesticide residues in 313 samples of imported spices and herbs on the Tokyo market from April 1997 to March 2011 was carried out. Thirty-seven kinds of pesticides, including organophosphorus, organochlorine, pyrethroid, carbamate and others, were detected between levels of trace (below 0.01 ppm) and 3.3 ppm from 64 samples. The rate of detection was highest in peel (100%) followed by stem (66.7%), fruit (34.5%), bark (33.3%), flower (31.3%) and leaf (14.7%). No residues were detected in root, seed or whole grass. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all plant parts. The insecticides were detected in products from all production areas, suggesting that their use is common. Residue levels of these pesticides were calculated as less than 1% of their ADI values, based on the daily intake of spices and herbs. Therefore, these spices and herbs should be safe when consumed in customary amounts.

  3. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PPIS includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status for all products registered in the U.S.

  4. Pesticides to Control Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    More than 300 pesticide products in seven chemical classes are registered with EPA, meaning EPA has evaluated their safety and effectiveness: pyrethins, pyrethroids, desiccants, biochemicals, pyrroles, neonicotinoids, and insect growth regulators.

  5. Evaluating Pesticides for Carcinogenic Potential

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA reviews pesticides for potential carcinogenicity. Learn about EPA's guidelines for evaluating a chemical's potential carcinogenicity and updates to EPA's guidelines to reflect increased understanding of ways chemicals may cause cancer.

  6. Pesticide formulations and application systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko; Spicer

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses pesticide formulations; spraying techniques and/or low and ultra low volume applications employing oil carriers, including subsurface drip irrigation and plant growth regulators; and granule technology.

  7. Data Requirements for Pesticide Registration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In evaluating a pesticide registration application, we assess a wide variety of potential human health and environmental effects associated with use of the product. Learn about these data requirements.

  8. Pesticides on fruits and vegetables

    MedlinePlus

    ... serve organic produce. Organic growers use approved organic pesticides. You may want to consider it for thin-skinned items such as peaches, grapes, strawberries, and nectarines. To remove harmful bacteria, you must wash both organic and ...

  9. Consumer Products Treated with Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many products (e.g., cutting boards, kitchen sponges, cat litter, toothbrushes and juvenile toys) are being treated with antimicrobial pesticides. Learn about requirements that apply to such products.

  10. Basic Information about Pesticide Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide products contain both active and inert ingredients. An “active ingredient” prevents, destroys, repels, or mitigates a pest. All other ingredients are called inert ingredients by federal law. They aid product performance and usability.

  11. Pesticidal residues in animal tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.; Menzie, C.M.; Adomaitis, V.A.; Reichel, W.L.

    1960-01-01

    Tests with penned starlings, rats, pheasants, and ducks indicated that each species differs in sensitivity to the various pesticides. Residues in tissues are proportional to the degree of exposure during area treatment and they are also found in animals shot six or more months after treatment. The presence of more than 20-30 ppm of DDT, 20 ppm of chlordan, and 6-20 ppm of heptachlor epoxide in quail tissues indicated that the birds had ingested lethal dosages of the pesticides.

  12. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues.

  13. REVIEW OF SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATING PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticide contamination results from manufacturing, improper storage, handling, or disposal of pesticides, and from agricultural processes. Since most pesticides are mixtures of different compounds, selecting a remedy for pesticide-contaminated soils can be a complicated process....

  14. Who's afraid of national laws? Pesticide corporations use trade negotiations to avoid bans and undercut public health protections in Central America.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Erika

    2005-01-01

    The agrochemical industry is using trade agreements to block proposed bans on pesticides identified as the worst occupational health hazards by a multi-country illness surveillance program in Central America. Through privileged access to closed-door negotiations, industry inserted deregulatory mechanisms, including a regional pesticide registry that invalidates national laws, investors' rights protection, and increased intellectual property protections, into the draft Central American Customs Union and the Central American Free Trade Agreement. These agreements undermine health-based national pesticide registration requirements; weaken health ministries' role in pesticide control; block marketing of cheaper, less toxic pesticides; and have a chilling effect on future pesticide regulatory activity. So long as corporations have privileged access to the trade negotiations and civil society is excluded, the resulting agreements will benefit special interests at the expense of public health.

  15. A comparative study of allowable pesticide residue levels on produce in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The U.S. imports a substantial and increasing portion of its fruits and vegetables. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration currently inspects less than one percent of import shipments. While countries exporting to the U.S. are expected to comply with U.S. tolerances, including allowable pesticide residue levels, there is a low rate of import inspections and few other incentives for compliance. Methods This analysis estimates the quantity of excess pesticide residue that could enter the U.S. if exporters followed originating country requirements but not U.S. pesticide tolerances, for the top 20 imported produce items based on quantities imported and U.S. consumption levels. Pesticide health effects data are also shown. Results The model estimates that for the identified items, 120 439 kg of pesticides in excess of U.S. tolerances could potentially be imported to the U.S., in cases where U.S. regulations are more protective than those of originating countries. This figure is in addition to residues allowed on domestic produce. In the modeling, the top produce item, market, and pesticide of concern were oranges, Chile, and Zeta-Cypermethrin. Pesticides in this review are associated with health effects on 13 body systems, and some are associated with carcinogenic effects. Conclusions There is a critical information gap regarding pesticide residues on produce imported to the U.S. Without a more thorough sampling program, it is not possible accurately to characterize risks introduced by produce importation. The scenario presented herein relies on assumptions, and should be considered illustrative. The analysis highlights the need for additional investigation and resources for monitoring, enforcement, and other interventions, to improve import food safety and reduce pesticide exposures in originating countries. PMID:22293037

  16. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  17. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  18. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  19. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  20. 40 CFR 158.2000 - Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2000 Biochemical pesticides definition and applicability. This subpart applies to all biochemical pesticides as defined in paragraphs...

  1. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  2. Risk assessment and management of occupational exposure to pesticides in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Maroni, M; Fanetti, Anna Clara; Metruccio, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Nearly 50% of the world labour force is employed in agriculture. Over the last 50 years, agriculture has deeply changed with a massive utilisation of pesticides and fertilisers to enhance crop protection and production, food quality and food preservation. Pesticides are also increasingly employed for public health purposes and for domestic use. Pesticide are unique chemicals as they are intrinsically toxic for several biological targets, are deliberately spread into the environment, and their toxicity has a limited species selectivity. Pesticide toxicity depends on the compound family and is generally greater for the older compounds; in humans, they are responsible for acute poisonings as well as for long term health effects, including cancer and adverse effects on reproduction. Due to their intrinsic toxicity, in most countries a specific and complex legislation prescribes a thorough risk assessment process for pesticides prior to their entrance to the market (pre-marketing risk assessment). The post-marketing risk assessment takes place during the use of pesticides and aims at assessing the risk for exposed operators. The results of the risk assessment are the base for the health surveillance of exposed workers. Occupational exposure to pesticides in agriculture concerns product distributors, mixers and loaders, applicators, bystanders, and rural workers re-entering the fields shortly after treatment. Assessing and managing the occupational health risks posed by the use of pesticides in agriculture is a complex but essential task for occupational health specialists and toxicologists. In spite of the economic and social importance of agriculture, the health protection of agricultural workforce has been overlooked for too many years, causing an heavy tribute paid in terms of avoidable diseases, human sufferance, and economic losses. Particularly in the developing countries, where agricultural work is one of the predominant job, a sustainable model of development

  3. 76 FR 552 - Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure Joint... affected by this notice if you register pesticide products intended for residential uses under the Federal... formed to develop information on the actual use patterns of residential pesticides that can be used...

  4. Determination of carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable samples and the efficiency of gamma-radiation in their removal.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Jahan, Iffat; Karim, Nurul; Alam, Mohammad Khorshed; Abdur Rahman, Mohammad; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua; Fakhruddin, Abu Naieum Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the residual pesticide levels were determined in eggplants (Solanum melongena) (n = 16), purchased from four different markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide residual levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the efficiency of gamma radiation on pesticide removal in three different types of vegetables was also studied. Many (50%) of the samples contained pesticides, and three samples had residual levels above the maximum residue levels determined by the World Health Organisation. Three carbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, and pirimicarb) and six organophosphates (phenthoate, diazinon, parathion, dimethoate, phosphamidon, and pirimiphos-methyl) were detected in eggplant samples; the highest carbofuran level detected was 1.86 mg/kg, while phenthoate was detected at 0.311 mg/kg. Gamma radiation decreased pesticide levels proportionately with increasing radiation doses. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and phosphamidon were reduced by 40-48%, 35-43%, and 30-45%, respectively, when a radiation strength of 0.5 kGy was utilized. However, when the radiation dose was increased to 1.0 kGy, the levels of the pesticides were reduced to 85-90%, 80-91%, and 90-95%, respectively. In summary, our study revealed that pesticide residues are present at high amounts in vegetable samples and that gamma radiation at 1.0 kGy can remove 80-95% of some pesticides.

  5. Slowing and Combating Pest Resistance to Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides can be used to control a variety of pests, such as insects, weeds, rodents, bacteria, fungi, etc. Over time many pesticides have gradually lost effectiveness because pests develop resistance. Learn what EPA is doing to address resistance issues.

  6. Guide for FOIA Requests for Pesticide Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Much scientific and regulatory information concerning pesticides is available to the public without submitting a FOIA request. Review pesticide information resources that may include the information you are seeking. Learn how to submit a FOIA request.

  7. 75 FR 23759 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Hill, Registration Division (7504P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency... deadline identified. II. Registration Applications EPA has received applications to register...

  8. Pesticide Registration: Clarification for Ion Generating Equipment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA issued a Federal Register Notice that clarifies the Agency's position on the distinction between devices and pesticides with regard to ion-generating equipment and explains why such equipment will now be regulated as a pesticide.

  9. Secondary Containers and Service Containers for Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Secondary containers and service containers are used by pesticide applicators in the process of applying a pesticide. EPA does not require secondary containers or service containers to be labeled or to meet particular construction standards. Learn more.

  10. Pesticide Monitoring Study. Evaluation of Silicic Acid Column Pesticide/Polychlorinated Biphenyl Separation Procedure: Recovery and Elution Patterns of 24 Pesticides and Pesticide Metabolites and Two Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    This report presents silicic acid column recovery and elution characteristics for 24 pesticides and pesticide metabolites and two polychlorinated ... biphenyls . The average percent recoveries for all except a few compounds studied were essentially quantitative. The average percent relative standard

  11. Test Guidelines for Pesticides and Toxic Substances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents that specify methods EPA recommends to generate data submitted to EPA to support the registration of a pesticide, setting of a tolerance or tolerance exemption for pesticide residues, or the decision making process for an industrial chemical.

  12. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings: 6th Edition manual gives healthcare providers a quick reference resource for the best toxicology and treatment information for patients with pesticide exposures.

  13. How We Engage Our Pesticide Stakeholders

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The success of EPA's pesticide program is directly connected to our efforts to engage all stakeholders. In addition to meetings on pesticide-specific actions, we sponsor advisory committees that include diverse, independent stakeholders.

  14. Chiral Pesticides: Identification, Description and Environmental Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless...

  15. Pesticide risks around the home (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

  16. 75 FR 14086 - Clopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Clopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Division (7505P), Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave.,...

  17. Assessing Human Health Risk from Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.

  18. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  19. Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 103: cadmium pesticide compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after one of the following actions has occurred. (1) Issuance or reissuance of a registration standard, (2) Issuance of each special review document, (3) Registration of a significantly changed use pattern, (4) Registration of a new chemical, or (5) An immediate need for information to resolve controversial issues relating to a specific chemical or use pattern.

  20. Marketing fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  1. Pesticide use practices in rural Armenia.

    PubMed

    Tadevosyan, Artashes; Tadevosyan, Natalya; Kelly, Kevin; Gibbs, Shawn G; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide use can have adverse effects on both human health and the environment. Inappropriate use of pesticides increases the health risk to those who work with or live around pesticides. Educational programs for agricultural workers on the proper use of pesticides and personal protective equipment coupled with pesticide regulations are important tools to reduce the associated health risks. The authors conducted a survey (N = 2336) on pesticide use practices in the Ararat Valley of Armenia in 2000-2006. This study was a cross-sectional design. A multistage sampling method was implemented in the selection of the study population. The authors developed a questionnaire containing 173 questions to evaluate demographic characteristics, health conditions, and details of pesticides use practices. The intensity of pesticide use was high; 82.8% of respondents used them. More than 150 brand names of pesticides were in use. Unregistered, obsolete, expired, and banned compounds were found in active use. Poor compliance with the basic rules of pesticide safety was found throughout the study population, with 21.3% using gloves and only 11% using respirators. The agricultural workers' knowledge of the toxic properties of these pesticides as well as basic hygienic norms was very low. In some instances, the number of agrichemical applications to crops, particularly cucumbers and melons, reached 40 applications during the growing season. Better protection and training of pesticide users in Armenia is needed.

  2. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide…

  3. 75 FR 24695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide....regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Office of Pesticide...

  4. 75 FR 26673 - Clethodim; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that the... reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue... infants and children to the pesticide chemical residue in establishing a tolerance and to ``ensure...

  5. Pesticide Residues in Food: Your Daily Dose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Lawrie

    1985-01-01

    Extensive use of pesticides during food production has created concerns for certain involuntary risks. Examines these concerns: government role in control and monitoring pesticide use, proposals for reform, and how consumer awareness might be an effective pressure for finding remedies. A table listing produce and pesticide residues is included.…

  6. Using Pesticides: Private Applicator Manual, Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This manual is designed by the Texas Department of Agriculture as a training program for private pesticide applicators to certify them on a voluntary basis, and to apply restricted-use pesticides in compliance with federal law. An introduction with federal and state laws and regulations regarding pesticide use and private applicators is presented.…

  7. Pesticides in Schools: Reducing the Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Attorney General, Albany.

    This report presents findings of state-wide use of pesticides in New York public schools along with a description of the survey, information about the potential dangers of these chemicals, and the steps schools and communities can take to minimize pesticide use. Findings show that 87 percent of New York's schools use pesticides that contain…

  8. Can synthetic pesticides be replaced with biologically-based alternatives?--an industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Froyd, J D

    1997-09-01

    Agricultural chemical companies have invested in the discovery and development of biological pesticides to complement synthetic pesticides for the control of insects, diseases, and weeds on agronomic and horticultural crops. For plant disease control, companies envisage biological fungicides entering markets where they have the best chance of performing and which are most receptive to using biological control methods. Fewer regulatory requirements can mean faster registration for a biological than a synthetic pesticide. However, industry's requirements for competitive performance, effective formulations, and economic production can mean significant investments in time and money for a biological pesticide, although total investment may be less than for a synthetic pesticide. One biocontrol project in which industry has invested is baculoviruses for insect control. Insect baculoviruses, genetically modified to kill insects faster than wild-type viruses, are attractive biocontrol agents because their selectivity to insect pests and safety to beneficial insects and mammals enable them to compete with synthetic insecticides. Industry is looking for similar biocontrol opportunities in disease control. Biocontrol agents for seedling disease, root rot, and postharvest disease control have been registered by the EPA and are trying to compete with synthetic fungicides for market share. To date, effective biocontrol agents have not been identified for the control of serious foliar diseases, such as grape downy mildew, potato late blight, wheat powdery mildew, and apple scab. Farmers must rely on synthetic fungicides and agronomic methods to control these diseases for the foreseeable future.

  9. Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, C; Castillo, L; Elinder, C G

    1993-08-01

    A descriptive epidemiologic study, conducted in Costa Rica, investigated the incidence of pesticide poisonings with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from three national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations, and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986 altogether 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations, and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations, and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times, respectively, more frequent among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers, and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%.

  10. Modern pesticides and bobwhite populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; Schitoskey, Frank=; Schitoskey, Elizabeth C.; Talent, Larry G.

    1982-01-01

    Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) are frequently used as test animals for wildlife tests of pesticides. The organophosphate and carbamate pesticides that have replaced the organochlorines have many desirable properties, but they span a wide range of acute toxicities and some of them affe,ct survival, reproduction, food consumption, behavior, and nervous system enzymes in laboratory tests. Applying these laboratory findings to the field requires assumptions about the severity of exposure in the field. Direct field measurements show that birds may be exposed to significant amounts of these pesticides or even more toxic degradation products under some conditions. Adverse population effects may also result from depression of insect populations during the seasons when bobwhites rely on insects for food.

  11. Organochlorine pesticides in Argentinian butter.

    PubMed

    Lenardón, A; Maitre de Hevia, M I; Enrique de Carbone, S

    1994-04-29

    Organochlorine pesticide residues were analysed in 150 samples of butter collected from several places in the cities of Santa Fe and Rosario (Argentine Republic) over a period of 18 months. Pesticides analysed in butter were: HCH (alpha and gamma isomers), heptachlor and its epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, and DDT (p,p' DDE, o,p' DDT and p,p' DDT). Most samples contained residues of gamma-HCH (Lindane) and heptachlor (92% and 78%, respectively); alpha-HCH and aldrin were detected in 58% and 55% of samples; dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, DDT isomers were found in few cases (30%). Mean values of pesticides residues in butter fat were: sigma HCH 0.029 ppm; sigma heptachlor 0.064 ppm; sigma aldrin 0.11 ppm and sigma DDT 0.024 ppm. Residue levels exceeded the limits prescribed by the Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization in only very few cases.

  12. Pesticide poisoning cases in Ankara and nearby cities in Turkey: an 11-year retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kır, M Ziya; Öztürk, Gülfer; Gürler, Mukaddes; Karaarslan, Bekir; Erden, Gönül; Karapirli, Mustafa; Akyol, Ömer

    2013-05-01

    Since they are available in open markets and pharmacies, pesticides have been widely used all over the country. (Un)intentional poisoning with these compounds is one of the most common causes of chemical poisoning, especially in rural agricultural areas. Pesticide poisonings reported by various countries showed that it is a worldwide health problem with 250,000-370,000 associated deaths each year. In this study, medico-legal deaths between the years 2001 and 2011 in Ankara and nearby cities in Turkey were investigated retrospectively. The autopsies were partly carried out by Ankara Branch of Council of Forensic Medicine. Data were collected from reports of the Morgue Department whose toxicological analyses were performed in the Chemistry Department. The data revealed that 70 cases out of 10,720 autopsied ones had been attributed to fatal pesticide poisoning. The age range was 1-80 years (mean ± SD, 41.33 ± 17.42 years). Most of the cases (60%) were reported from Ankara. Insecticides were the most common (94%) cause of fatal pesticide poisonings, most of them (63%) being organophosphate insecticides. The percentages of pesticide-induced deaths are quite high in our society and should therefore not be underestimated. Accordingly, intensive efforts to reduce occupational and intentional pesticide poisonings are urgently needed in Ankara and nearby cities.

  13. Status of the toxicity reports of pesticides for their registration in Finland.

    PubMed

    Louekari, K; Savolainen, K; Mattila, J; Salminen, S; Koivusaari, U

    1985-12-01

    Recently, attention has centered on the validity of toxicity reports for the registration of pesticides. In Finland, a study was conducted to evaluate the validity of the toxicity reports of pesticides done in U. S. laboratories. Twenty-seven pesticide formulations of the 230 on the market in Finland were selected for the study. The material contained 61 toxicity reports of 16 pesticide formulations done in U. S. laboratories considered questionable, 64 reports from U. S. laboratories considered reliable, and 142 reports originating from European laboratories, totally 267 reports. These reports were divided into valid according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines, and included those with minor discrepancies but in compliance with the good laboratory practice at the time of the study (group I), and and invalid according to the OECD guidelines (group II). After a closer evaluation of the 125 U. S. reports, 85 reports were considered valid and 40 invalid. As a function of time, the proportion of valid studies of all studies on pesticides for the registration purposes in Finland increased during 1961-1981 from 47 to 93%, being 100% at the present time. The lack of information of pesticide formulations registered earlier creates a problem to be solved in the future in Finland, rather than the lack of the validity of toxicity reports.

  14. Marketing 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  15. Pesticide use in Kentucky reservoir watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Butkus, S.R.

    1988-06-01

    This report summarizes information on the types, uses, and amounts of pesticides applied to Kentucky Reservoir and its immediate watershed. Estimates for the quantities and types of the various pesticides used are based primarily on the land uses in the watershed. A listing of commonly used pesticides is included describing their uses, mode of action, and potential toxicological effects. This report will inform the the public and the Kentucky Reservoir Water Resources Task Force of the general extent of pesticide usage and is not an assessment of pesticide impacts. 10 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Pesticide bioconcentration modelling for fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa

    2007-01-01

    The model presented allows simulating the pesticide concentration evolution in fruit trees and estimating the pesticide bioconcentration factor in fruits. Pesticides are non-ionic organic compounds that are degraded in soils cropped with woody species, fruit trees and other perennials. The model allows estimating the pesticide uptake by plants through the water transpiration stream and also the time in which maximum pesticide concentration occur in the fruits. The equation proposed presents the relationships between bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the following variables: plant water transpiration volume (Q), pesticide transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), pesticide stem-water partition coefficient (K(Wood,W)), stem dry biomass (M) and pesticide dissipation rate in the soil-plant system (k(EGS)). The modeling started and was developed from a previous model "Fruit Tree Model" (FTM), reported by Trapp and collaborators in 2003, to which was added the hypothesis that the pesticide degradation in the soil follows a first order kinetic equation. The FTM model for pesticides (FTM-p) was applied to a hypothetic mango plant cropping (Mangifera indica) treated with paclobutrazol (growth regulator) added to the soil. The model fitness was evaluated through the sensitivity analysis of the pesticide BCF values in fruits with respect to the model entry data variability.

  17. Pesticide mass budget in a stormwater wetland.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Elodie; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands are reactive landscape zones that provide ecosystem services, including the improvement of water quality. Field studies distinguishing pesticide degradation from retention to evaluate the sink and source functions of wetlands are scarce. This study evaluated based on a complete mass budget the partitioning, retention, and degradation of 12 pesticides in water, suspended solids, sediments, and organisms in a wetland receiving contaminated runoff. The mass budget showed the following: (i) dissolved pesticides accounted for 95% of the total load entering the wetland and the pesticide partitioning between the dissolved phase and the suspended solids varied according to the molecules, (ii) pesticides accumulated primarily in the <250 μm bed sediments during spring and late summer, and (iii) the hydrological regime or the incoming pesticide loads did not influence the pesticide dissipation, which varied according to the molecules and the wetland biogeochemical conditions. The vegetation enhanced the pesticide degradation during the vegetative phase and the pesticides were released during plant senescence. The dithiocarbamates were degraded under oxic conditions in spring, whereas glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) degradation occurred under reducing conditions during the summer. The complete pesticide mass budget indicates the versatility of the pesticide sink and source functions of wetland systems.

  18. Simulating pesticide transport in urbanized catchments: a new spatially-distributed dynamic pesticide runoff model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ting; Seuntjens, Piet; van Griensven, Ann; Bronders, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination in surface water. However, pesticide behaviours in urban areas, particularly on hard surfaces, are far less studied than those in agricultural areas. Pesticide application on hard surfaces (e.g. roadsides and walkways) is of particular concern due to the high imperviousness and therefore high pesticide runoff potential. Experimental studies have shown that pesticide behaviours on and interactions with hard surfaces are important factors controlling the pesticide runoff potential, and therefore the magnitude and timing of peak concentrations in surface water. We conceptualized pesticide behaviours on hard surfaces and incorporated the conceptualization into a new pesticide runoff model. The pesticide runoff model was implemented in a catchment hydrological model WetSpa-Python (Water and Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere, Python version). The conceptualization for pesticide processes on hard surfaces accounts for the differences in pesticide behaviour on different hard surfaces. Four parameters are used to describe the partitioning and wash-off of each pesticide on hard surfaces. We tested the conceptualization using experimental dataset for five pesticides on two types of hard surfaces, namely concrete and asphalt. The conceptualization gave good performance in accounting for the wash-off pattern for the modelled pesticides and surfaces, according to quantitative evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percent bias. The resulting pesticide runoff model WetSpa-PST (WetSpa for PeSTicides) can simulate pesticides and their metabolites at the catchment scale. Overall, it includes four groups of pesticide processes, namely pesticide application, pesticide interception by plant foliage, pesticide processes on land surfaces (including partitioning, degradation and wash-off on hard surface; partitioning, dissipation, infiltration and runoff in soil) and pesticide processes in

  19. Pesticide loading and rinsate recycling facility guide

    SciTech Connect

    1988-06-20

    This guide has been prepared by staff of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) and the Minnesota Department of Agriculture (MDA) to complement the consultant`s Pesticide Rinsate Facility Report and generic engineering plans. This guide informs pesticide applicators of the regulatory aspects of the Pesticide Rinsate Facility Report. Guidance are recommended procedures contained in this Guide are not law or rules at this time, but may be in the future. To clarify what is recommendation and what is present law or rule, a table in Appendix 4 lists topics addressed in this guide and a distinction between what is recommended and what is required. Both the guide and the consultant`s report and plans are meant to provide pesticide applicators with the basis for developing pesticide loading, rinsate, and washwater management plan for your business locations. Staff of the MDA and the MCPA are concerned with the improper management of pesticides and pesticide related wastes.

  20. Egyptian farmers' attitudes and behaviors regarding agricultural pesticides: implications for pesticide risk communication.

    PubMed

    Ibitayo, Olurominiyi O

    2006-08-01

    The need to boost pre- and postharvest agricultural productivity serves as a powerful driving force for developing countries to promote the use of agricultural pesticides. Pesticides are, however, "poisons by design" and poisonings resulting from unsafe use of these chemicals are the most prevalent and serious occupational hazards faced by agricultural workers in developing countries. This article provides the results of a study designed to investigate the extent of unsafe use of pesticides by farmers in one of the largest agricultural areas in Egypt, the farmers' knowledge about pesticides, and their preferred sources of receiving risk information on pesticides. The results of this study show a high level of unsafe use of pesticides and inappropriate methods of disposal of empty pesticide containers. Also, knowledge about pesticides is scant. Notwithstanding that more than half of the farmers obtain regular drinking water from wells, most of the respondents were "not sure" as to whether or not pesticides may contaminate groundwater. The low level of knowledge about pesticides can be attributed to relatively low levels of education and that almost all the respondents have never participated in a pesticide education program. This article concludes with a recommendation for pesticide and pesticide use education programs, especially through "ministry officials" who most of the respondents seem to trust regarding receiving pesticide information.

  1. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-04-15

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  2. Pesticides, People, and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2005-01-01

    If a teacher were to ask his/her students what they do when they find ants or other insects in their homes, their most common response would probably be, "Get the bug spray!" Because students are not only being exposed to pesticides but are also developing patterns of behavior likely to continue throughout their lives. Discussions about…

  3. Adsorption of pesticides on resins.

    PubMed

    Kyriakopoulos, Grigorios; Hourdakis, Adamadia; Doulia, Danae

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the capability of organic hydrophobic polymeric resins Amberlite XAD-4 and XAD-7 to remove the pesticides alachlor and amitrole from water. The pesticides adsorption on the two different adsorbents was measured by batch equilibrium technique and isotherm types and parameters were estimated. Two theoretical models were applied based on a Freundlich and a Langmuir isotherms. The effect of pesticides chemical composition and structure as well as the nature of solid surface on the efficiency of adsorption was evaluated. The influence of pH also was studied. In low pH solutions adsorption of amitrole was higher upon the nonionic aliphatic acrylic ester copolymer XAD-7 in comparison to the nonionic, crosslinked macroreticular copolymer of styrene divinylbenzene XAD-4. In neutral and intermediate pH solutions the polar acrylic ester copolymer XAD-7 was more effective to the retention of alachlor. The acrylic ester copolymer showed at pH 3 the lower effectiveness in alachlor removal from water. The data of the adsorption isotherms of pesticides upon the examined polymeric resins seemed to conform to both the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherm models.

  4. In Case of Pesticide Emergency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    If someone has swallowed or inhaled a pesticide or gotten it in the eye or on the skin, assess poisoning symptoms and read the product label. If you then call 911 or the Poison Control Center, provide the EPA registration number from the product's label.

  5. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa; Christensen, Tue; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2015-09-01

    We used the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out a cumulative risk assessment after chronic dietary exposure to all monitored pesticides in fruit, vegetables and cereals for various consumer groups in Denmark. Residue data for all the pesticides were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme during the period 2004-2011. Food consumption data were obtained from DANSDA (the DAnish National Survey of Diet and physical Activity) for the period 2005-2008. The calculations were made using three different models to cope with residues below the limit of reporting (LOR). We concluded that a model that included processing factors and set non-detects to ½ LOR, but limited the correction (Model 3), gave the most realistic exposure estimate. With Model 3 the HI was calculated to be 0.44 for children and 0.18 for adults, indicating that there is no risk of adverse health effects following chronic cumulative exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI by a factor of 2.

  6. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human adipose tissues in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K. )

    1994-03-01

    Most of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides, excluding lindane, were banned in Poland in 1975/76. The first restrictions concerning the use and marketing of lindane (gamma-HCH) became effective in 1980 and were gradually extended until it's agricultural use was ultimately banned in 1989. Unfortunately, there are no detailed data on the use and release of PCBs to the environment in Poland. The former studies showed that in the late seventies the concentrations of OC pesticides and their metabolites in men reached considerable high levels. Despite of the restrictions or bans of these pesticides in most of the countries of the temperate climate, they still circulate in various food chains and eventually concentrate in man. Many authors claim an uneven distribution of the OC compounds in the population and report different levels in men and women and also some relations between OC compounds levels in fat tissues and age. Environmental contamination also plays an important role in the magnitude of OC compounds levels in man. The aim of this paper is to present the actual concentrations of HCB, p,p[prime]-DDT, p,p[prime]-DDE, isomers of HCH (alpha, beta, gamma), and PCBs in human adipose tissues particularly regarding age and sex as possible factors influencing the levels of these compounds and to contribute to the general discussion on the distribution patterns of the organochlorine compounds in the population. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Pesticide residues in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Lentza-Rizos, C; Avramides, E J

    1995-01-01

    The attacks of pests and diseases and the presence of weeds make it necessary to apply pesticides to olive trees to ensure crop protection. Residues of these compounds may remain and contaminate the oil produced. For the analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil, the most common methods are multiresidue methods for fatty substrates, based on partitioning between hexane or light petroleum and acetonitrile. Recently, other methods have been applied, such as ready-to-use, disposable minicolumns or direct injection of oil into a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a precolumn with an oil recovery tank. Although several pesticides are registered in oil-producing countries for use on olive trees, available literature on the level and fate of residues is very limited. However, it is clear that fat-soluble pesticides tend to concentrate in the oil, both after full coverage and bait spraying, and their use close to harvest should therefore be avoided. Because it is sometimes necessary to use such pesticides late in autumn because of their effectiveness in cases of severe attack, residue trials should be carried out to determine the residue concentration in oil and to set a reasonable preharvest safety interval. Data produced by such trials would permit the establishment of MRLs (tolerances) in olive oil to cover cases where the residues, although relatively high, are not of toxicological significance for consumers (risk assessment). Such is the case with corn oil and the fat-soluble insecticide methyl pirimiphos, registered in the U.S. for use on corn. The U.S. EPA tolerance for methyl pirimiphos in corn is 8 mg/kg, whereas it is 11 times higher (88 mg/kg) for corn oil because it is known to concentrate in the oil. Similar provisions for olive oil, based on data from residue trials according to Good Agricultural Practice, the long-term toxicity of each pesticide as expressed by its ADI for man, and olive oil consumption patterns, would facilitate international trade

  8. Ames, pesticides, and cancer revisited.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elihu D; Chlamtac, Noga

    2002-01-01

    The case for continuing use of existing levels of pesticides in agriculture, espoused by Bruce Ames, is refuted. Ames' contentions that naturally occurring carcinogens are far more widespread than man-made ones, that pesticides prevent cancer by providing fruits and vegetables at lower costs to the poor, and that animal data on high risks with high doses cannot predict low risks from low doses in humans do not address key issues: 1) fruits and vegetables contain mixtures of carcinogens and anti-carcinogens, and selection effects from human exposures to these mixtures go back more than a million years; 2) exposures from bioconcentrations of biopersistent organochlorines in the food chain create particular risks for meat-eaters, who have higher cancer risks than vegetarians; 3) even low doses from ingestion of produce containing pesticide residues can cause tissue injury, which could itself promote cancer; 4) epidemiologic data show rises in cancer incidences in older people in many countries, major differences in cancer risks between countries, and converging trends in risks for populations migrating to certain countries; 5) studies of pesticide-exposed workers consistently show increased rates of cancers and birth defects and cancers in their offspring; 6) epidemiologic studies based on large databases tend to underestimate risks from environmental causes because of exposure misclassification; 7) exposures to many organochlorines may have pervasive effects on endocrine function; 8) crop yields can be increased with less use of pesticides. Studies demonstrating the latter need replication, and should be supported as part of a coherent government agenda to develop alternative farming methods.

  9. 40 CFR 170.230 - Pesticide safety training for handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for handlers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.230 Pesticide safety... of restricted-use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter. (2) A handler who satisfies the...

  10. 40 CFR 170.230 - Pesticide safety training for handlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for handlers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.230 Pesticide safety... of restricted-use pesticides under part 171 of this chapter. (2) A handler who satisfies the...

  11. 40 CFR 168.70 - Unregistered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unregistered export pesticide products. 168.70 Section 168.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.70 Unregistered export pesticide products. (a) Any export pesticide product that does...

  12. 40 CFR 168.69 - Registered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Registered export pesticide products. 168.69 Section 168.69 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.69 Registered export pesticide products. (a) Each export pesticide product that...

  13. 40 CFR 168.70 - Unregistered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unregistered export pesticide products. 168.70 Section 168.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.70 Unregistered export pesticide products. (a) Any export pesticide product that does...

  14. 40 CFR 168.69 - Registered export pesticide products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Registered export pesticide products. 168.69 Section 168.69 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE... Pesticides § 168.69 Registered export pesticide products. (a) Each export pesticide product that...

  15. COMMUNICATING THE RISKS OF PESTICIDE EXPOSURE TO AGRICULTURAL WORKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of the USEPA pesticide worker safety program are to protect human health and the environment by ensuring the competency of pesticide applicators to minimize pesticide exposure to occupational pesticide users and agricultural field workers, to assure use of pesticides, a...

  16. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  17. Pesticides and their effects on wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

  18. PRN 2001-5: Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Pesticide Resistance Management Labeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This pesticide registration notice describes purely voluntary pesticide resistance management labeling guidelines based on mode/target site of action for agricultural uses of herbicides, fungicides, bactericides, insecticides, and acaricides.

  19. Pesticide Environmental Accounting: a method for assessing the external costs of individual pesticide applications.

    PubMed

    Leach, A W; Mumford, J D

    2008-01-01

    The Pesticide Environmental Accounting (PEA) tool provides a monetary estimate of environmental and health impacts per hectare-application for any pesticide. The model combines the Environmental Impact Quotient method and a methodology for absolute estimates of external pesticide costs in UK, USA and Germany. For many countries resources are not available for intensive assessments of external pesticide costs. The model converts external costs of a pesticide in the UK, USA and Germany to Mediterranean countries. Economic and policy applications include estimating impacts of pesticide reduction policies or benefits from technologies replacing pesticides, such as sterile insect technique. The system integrates disparate data and approaches into a single logical method. The assumptions in the system provide transparency and consistency but at the cost of some specificity and precision, a reasonable trade-off for a method that provides both comparative estimates of pesticide impacts and area-based assessments of absolute impacts.

  20. Pesticides sensing by surface plasmon resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kalabina, N.A.; Ksenevich, T.I.; Beloglazov, A.A.; Nikitin, P.I.

    1995-12-31

    High toxicity of pesticides and their wide use in agriculture, represent a general danger for environmental welfare and could become a real threat to life. Screening of pesticides in the environment has become very important during last years due to low threshold values for pesticides in drinking water. An optical biosensor has been developed for detection of pesticides, based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. Concentration of the pesticides was measured in liquid or gas. The authors specially originated organic film on a disposable element. A setup on the base of the Kretschmann arrangement was improved by using a computer-controlled angular scanning system. The detection concentration limit of dinitrophenole (DNP) was 10{sup {minus}9} M. Some samples exhibited effect down to 10{sup {minus}11} M of DNP. The results obtained provide reason for further development of SPR sensor as applied to pesticides monitoring.

  1. Fate of pesticides during beer brewing.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Suga, Keiko; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-04-27

    The fates of more than 300 pesticide residues were investigated in the course of beer brewing. Ground malt artificially contaminated with pesticides was brewed via steps such as mashing, boiling, and fermentation. Analytical samples were taken from wort, spent grain, and beer produced at certain key points in the brewing process. The samples were extracted and purified with the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe) method and were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a multiresidue method. In the results, a majority of pesticides showed a reduction in the unhopped wort and were adsorbed onto the spent grain after mashing. In addition, some pesticides diminished during the boiling and fermentation. This suggests that the reduction was caused mainly by adsorption, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. After the entire process of brewing, the risks of contaminating beer with pesticides were reduced remarkably, and only a few pesticides remained without being removed or resolved.

  2. Policy Mitigating Acute Risk to Bees from Pesticide Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide risk management must be based on sound science, consistent with the laws under which pesticides are regulated in the United States. EPA has been working aggressively to protect bees and other pollinators from pesticide exposures.

  3. Pesticide Registration Manual: Chapter 3 - Additional Considerations for Biopesticide Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Biopesticides are certain types of pesticides derived from such natural materials as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals that fall into three major classes: microbial pesticides, plant-incorporated protectants, and biochemical pesticides.

  4. Citizen's Guide to Pest Control and Pesticide Safety

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Teaches consumers how to control pests, choose, use, store, and dispose pesticides safely, reduce exposure when others use pesticides, prevent pesticide poisoning, handle an emergency, and how to choose a pest control company.

  5. Estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide body burden through dermal exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Our study measured dermal uptake of pesticides of varying hydrophobicity (logKow) in frogs. Amphibians were indirectly exposed to one of five pesticide active...

  6. AFFINITY OF THE ALLIGATOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR FOR SERUM PESTICIDE CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Top predators, like the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) bioaccumulate and biomagnify persistent pollutants, such as organochlorine pesticides. In a recently published study, several pesticides and pesticide metabolites not previously reported in alligator eggs wer...

  7. How to Report a Pesticide Incident Involving Exposures to People

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will facilitate such incident reporting.

  8. A mobile App for military operational entomology pesticide applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated over 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treat...

  9. Pesticide Spill Prevention and Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    common pesticides that can be decontaminated are listed below: Use Lye or Lime for Propoxur : Carbaryl Temephos Naled Malathion Dichlorvos...Dust) None known. Bifenthrin, 7.9% liquid (Talstar P Professional) Information not available. Carbaryl , 80%, water dispersible powder (Sevin 80S...AllPro Carbaryl 80S) Strong alkalis, acids, nitrates and oxidizing agents. Carbaryl , 43.4%, liquid ( Carbaryl 4L) Strong oxidizing agents: bases

  10. Pesticide exposure seen in primary care.

    PubMed

    Henry, T K

    1997-06-01

    The focus of this article is on recognition of signs and symptoms of pesticide exposure and poisoning in primary care settings. Providers have little problem evaluating clients with an acute exposure to pesticides because the client usually presents with symptoms of poisoning and/or a history of known exposure. The information presented supports the need to consider a history of pesticide exposure in the evaluation of some neurological, dermatologic, reproductive, and other signs and symptoms presented to primary care providers.

  11. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues.

  12. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  13. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  14. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  15. 40 CFR 168.22 - Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advertising of unregistered pesticides, unregistered uses of registered pesticides and FIFRA section 24(c) registrations. 168.22 Section 168.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS STATEMENTS...

  16. The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws, 2000: A Review of State Pesticide Laws Regarding Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kagan; Feldman, Jay

    2000-01-01

    This report reviews state actions concerning pesticide use around schools, including the federal role in school pesticide use, and presents a list of each state's regulations regarding protecting children from pesticide exposure in schools. A case for protecting children is detailed. The report discusses some of the actions states have taken to…

  17. Analytical methods for detecting pesticide switches with evolution of pesticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Nieto, Juan J; Cheke, Robert A

    2013-10-01

    After a pest develops resistance to a pesticide, switching between different unrelated pesticides is a common management option, but this raises the following questions: (1) What is the optimal frequency of pesticide use? (2) How do the frequencies of pesticide applications affect the evolution of pesticide resistance? (3) How can the time when the pest population reaches the economic injury level (EIL) be estimated and (4) how can the most efficient frequency of pesticide applications be determined? To address these questions, we have developed a novel pest population growth model incorporating the evolution of pesticide resistance and pulse spraying of pesticides. Moreover, three pesticide switching methods, threshold condition-guided, density-guided and EIL-guided, are modelled, to determine the best choice under different conditions with the overall aim of eradicating the pest or maintaining its population density below the EIL. Furthermore, the pest control outcomes based on those three pesticide switching methods are discussed. Our results suggest that either the density-guided or EIL-guided method is the optimal pesticide switching strategy, depending on the frequency (or period) of pesticide applications.

  18. 75 FR 62323 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ...-0327; FRL-8848-8] RIN 2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling Compliance Date AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.... This change is being made to provide additional time for pesticide registrants to revise labels...

  19. 75 FR 33705 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 156 RIN 2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling Compliance Date AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... December 16, 2010. This change is being made because there is insufficient time for pesticide...

  20. Assessment of consumer exposure related to improper use of pesticides in the region of southeastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Szpyrka, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Plant protection products are widely used throughout the world in order to prevent a reduction in yield. Although the protection of plants brings many benefits, pesticides are toxic to the environment and to humans. To protect human health, pesticide residue risk assessment should be carried out. The aim of the study was to assess acute risk related to the improper use of pesticides. In 2010-2013, 878 crop samples: 382 fruits, 399 vegetables, 82 cereals and their products, 11 herbs and 4 seeds were tested. Pesticide residues were found in 240 samples (27.3%). Pesticide residues were found most frequently in: fruits (41.6% fruit samples), seed (25.0%), vegetables (19.3%) and herbs (9.1%), and least frequently in cereals and their products (2.4%). Improper pesticide use was determined for 49 samples, mainly for vegetables (24 samples) and fruits (22). Most irregularities associated with the use of plant protection products involved application of a substance not recommended for a given crop (36 samples). In nine samples, applications of plant protection products that were withdrawn from the market were found, and in seven samples, violations of maximum residue levels were determined. Despite there being cases of improper use of plant protection products, no hazard to consumer health was determined. The highest values of short-term exposure were obtained in the case of consumption of blackcurrants with iprodione-a substance not recommended in Poland for protection of blackcurrants (4.3% acceptable daily intake (ADI), adults; 6.8% ADI, children). Since potential consumer risk caused by pesticide residues could not be ruled out, inspections should be carried out continuously.

  1. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  2. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  3. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  4. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  5. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  6. Marketing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  7. Marketing Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Eric

    1998-01-01

    All of our ideas have been field tested and have proven effective in our environment. Our objectives are: We will share our ideas about marketing training and what we've implemented at Michoud Space Systems. You will go away with at least one new idea or insight about how to more effectively market your training.

  8. Agricultural Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  9. Tourism Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  10. Groups of Pesticides in Registration Review

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Review cases are in groups of related pesticides: organophosphates, N-methyl carbamates, pyrethroids pyrethrins and synergists, sulfonylureas, neonicotinoids, fumigants, triazines, imidazolinones, isothiazolinones, and pyridines.

  11. 76 FR 17644 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... telephone number is (703) 305-5805. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gina Casciano, Biopesticides and... Environmental protection, Pesticides and pest. Dated: March 18, 2011. Keith A. Matthews, Director,...

  12. 75 FR 3235 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Menyon Adams, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (7511P), Office of... Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. BILLING CODE...

  13. 77 FR 16544 - Pesticide Product Registration Approvals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), of certain registrations for new..., Inc., on behalf of Natural Industries, Inc., submitted applications to register two pesticide...

  14. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  15. Occupational pesticide exposures and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-11-28

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting.

  16. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  17. Pesticide usage pattern in tea ecosystem, their retrospects and alternative measures.

    PubMed

    Gurusubramanian, G; Rahman, A; Sarmah, M; Ray, Somnath; Bora, S

    2008-11-01

    Tea is a perennial plantation crop grown under monoculture providing favorable conditions for a variety of pests. The concept of pest control has undergone a considerable change over the past few decades. In recent years there has been a greater dependence on the use of pesticides (7.35-16.75 kgha(-1)) with little importance laid on other safe control methods for the management of tea pests. Due to this practice, the tea pests showed a higher tolerance/ resistance status due to formation of greater amount of esterases, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase. Thus, over reliance on pesticides end up with pesticide residue in made tea (DDT - 10.4-47.1%; endosulfan - 41.1-98.0%; dicofol- 0.0-82.4%; ethion - 0.0-36.2%; cypermethrin - 6.0- 45.1%). The growing concern about the pesticide residue in made tea, its toxicity hazards to consumers, the spiraling cost of pesticides and their application have necessitated a suitable planning which will ensure a safe, economic as well as effective pest management in tea. At present it is a global concern to minimize chemical residue in tea and European union and German law imposed stringent measures for the application of chemicals in tea and fixed MRL values at < or = 0. 1 mgkg(-1) for the most commonly used pesticides which will not be met out in the real practice and has been a major constraint to tea exporting countries like India. In order to regulate the situation of the Indian market at global level, central insecticide board and prevention of food adulteration regulation committee have reviewed the MRL position for tea and has recommended 10 insecticides, 5 acaricides, 9 herbicides and 5 fungicides for use in tea and issued the tea distribution and export control order 2005 which will help the country to limit the presence of undesirable substances in tea. This review attempts to provide the readers with a comprehensive account of pesticide use in North East in tea, surveillance report of the European

  18. DISTRIBUTIONS, ASSOCIATIONS, AND PARTIAL AGGREGATE EXPOSURE OF PESTICIDES AND POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE MINNESOTA CHILDREN'S PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY (MNCPES)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES) provides exposure, environmental, and biologic data relating to multi-pathway exposures of children for four primary pesticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion, diazinon, and atrazine), 14 secondary pesticides, and 13 polynucl...

  19. Pesticide risk behaviors and factors influencing pesticide use among farmers in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Jallow, Mustapha F A; Awadh, Dawood G; Albaho, Mohammed S; Devi, Vimala Y; Thomas, Binson M

    2017-01-01

    The widespread overuse of pesticides in agriculture has generated increasing concerns about the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. Understanding farmers' perceptions of risk of pesticides and the determinants of pesticide overuse is important to modifying their behavior towards reducing pesticide use. A survey of 250 randomly selected smallholder vegetable farmers in Kuwait was conducted to quantify the extent of pesticide use, their pesticide risk perceptions and factors influencing their pesticide use behaviors. The majority of the farmers perceived pesticides pose some risk to the environment (65%) and human health (70.5%), while younger farmers were more likely to perceive this risk than older farmers. When asked to rate how risky pesticides were regarding several aspects of human health and the environment on a scale of 1(not risky) to 5 (extremely risky), concern was highest for the health of applicators (x̅=4.28) and lowest for air quality (x̅=2.32). The risk perceptions of the farmers did not have a positive influence on their pesticide use practices. A total of 76 pesticide active ingredients were found in use, and 9% of these belong to the WHO toxicity class II (moderately hazardous). On average, farmers applied 12.8kg of active ingredients per hectare per year, and 58% of the farmers were found to have overused pesticides, with an average overuse rate of 2.5kg. Pesticide application frequency ranged from two times a month up to once a week, depending on the crop. A binary probit model reveals that farmers' inadequate knowledge of pesticides, the influence of pesticide retailers and lack of access to non-synthetic methods of pest control are positively associated with pesticide overuse, while the propensity to overuse decreases with higher levels of education, training in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and the safe use and handling of pesticides, and access to extension support. Comprehensive intervention measures for

  20. 77 FR 43562 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532). This listing is not intended to be... Subjects Environmental protection, Agricultural commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides...

  1. 76 FR 69690 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... Environmental protection, Agricultural commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides and...

  2. 76 FR 2110 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... Environmental protection, Agricultural commodities, Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides and...

  3. Market trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzsimmons, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A very large segment of the over water, long haul passenger market, 31% of the passengers who provide 42% of the passenger revenue, offers a significant market for an advanced supersonic transport. This is for both the first class and full-fare economy passenger markets. The supersonic transport may be more competitive here in spite of lower costs of subsonic transports, as passenger preference is a more powerful variable than DOC. This latter fact was amply demonstrated in the late fifties when the jets completely replaced the reciprocating engine transports on most world routes, in spite of slightly higher fares.

  4. Pesticide regulations and farm worker safety: the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Phung, Dung Tri; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia

    2012-06-01

    Agricultural pesticide use in Viet Nam has more than tripled since 1990. However, pesticide legislation and regulations have not been developed in response to this large increase in usage, as a result of which pesticides pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. This paper identifies the need to improve pesticide regulations in Viet Nam through a comparative analysis of pesticide regulations in Viet Nam and the United States of America, where the rate of acute poisoning among agricultural workers is much lower than in Viet Nam and where information pertaining to pesticide regulations is made accessible to the public. The analysis identified several measures that would help to improve Viet Nam's pesticide regulations. These include enhancing pesticide legislation, clarifying the specific roles and active involvement of both the environmental and health sectors; performing a comprehensive risk-benefit evaluation of pesticide registration and management practices; improving regulations on pesticide suspension and cancellation, transport, storage and disposal; developing import and export policies and enhancing pesticide-related occupational safety programmes.

  5. Marketing Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Gale; Kwielford, Merrilee Andersen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses marketing techniques for teacher librarians based on six levels: basic assumptions; library resource program, including attitudes for success; school, including a collaborative environment; administration, including program support; community, including awareness; and state and national, including professional participation. (LRW)

  6. Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Live Oysters: 2007 United States Market Survey ▿

    PubMed Central

    DePaola, Angelo; Jones, Jessica L.; Woods, Jacquelina; Burkhardt, William; Calci, Kevin R.; Krantz, Jeffrey A.; Bowers, John C.; Kasturi, Kuppuswamy; Byars, Robin H.; Jacobs, Emily; Williams-Hill, Donna; Nabe, Khamphet

    2010-01-01

    Two samples of market oysters, primarily from retail establishments, were collected twice each month in each of nine states during 2007. Samples were shipped refrigerated overnight to five U.S. Food and Drug Administration laboratories on a rotating basis and analyzed by most probable number (MPN) for total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus numbers and for the presence of toxigenic V. cholerae, Salmonella spp., norovirus (NoV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Levels of indicator organisms, including fecal coliforms (MPN), Escherichia coli (MPN), male-specific bacteriophage, and aerobic plate counts, were also determined. V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus levels were distributed seasonally and geographically by harvest region and were similar to levels observed in a previous study conducted in 1998-1999. Levels of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus were typically several logs lower than total V. parahaemolyticus levels regardless of season or region. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels in the Gulf and Mid-Atlantic regions were about two logs greater than the levels observed in the Pacific and North Atlantic regions. Pathogens generally associated with fecal pollution were detected sporadically or not at all (toxigenic V. cholerae, 0%; Salmonella, 1.5%; NoV, 3.9%; HAV, 4.4%). While seasonal prevalences of NoV and HAV were generally greater in oysters harvested from December to March, the low detection frequency obscured any apparent seasonal effects. Overall, there was no relationship between the levels of indicator microorganisms and the presence of enteric viruses. These data provide a baseline that can be used to further validate risk assessment predictions, determine the effectiveness of new control measures, and compare the level of protection provided by the U.S. shellfish sanitation system to those in other countries. PMID:20190085

  7. CUMULATIVE RISK ANALYSIS FOR ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cumulative Risk Analysis for Organophosphorus Pesticides
    R. Woodrow Setzer, Jr. NHEERL MD-74, USEPA, RTP, NC 27711

    The US EPA has recently completed a risk assessment of the effects of exposure to 33 organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) through the diet, water, and resi...

  8. EPA Regulation of Bed Bug Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    All pesticides must be registered by EPA before being sold and used in the U.S., other than those that rely on a limited set of active ingredients (so-called minimum risk pesticides). EPA reviews for safety and effectiveness.

  9. Pesticide fact sheet number 20. 2: Amitrole

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The document contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific pesticide or group of pesticides. The Fact Sheet is issued on Amitrole for issuance of each special review document.

  10. Pesticide Permitting-PGP eNOI

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA’s eNOI system is a free online service. Pesticide decision-makers should use the system to submit an NOI, Annual Report or Notice of Termination (NOT) for pesticide discharges under EPA’s 2016 PGP.

  11. Non-cancer health effects of pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, M.; Kerr, K.J.; Sanin, L.H.; Cole, D.C.; Bassil, K.L.; Vakil, C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether there are associations between exposure to pesticides and 4 chronic non-cancer health effects: dermatologic, neurologic, reproductive, and genotoxic effects. DATA SOURCES We searched PreMedline, MEDLINE, and LILACS using the key word pesticide combined with the term for the specific health effect being searched. Reviewers scanned the references of all articles for additional relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION Studies since 1992 were assessed using structured inclusion and quality-of-methods criteria. Studies scoring <4 on a 7-point global methodologic quality scale were excluded. In total, 124 studies were included. These studies had a mean quality score of 4.88 out of 7. SYNTHESIS Strong evidence of association with pesticide exposure was found for all neurologic outcomes, genotoxicity, and 4 of 6 reproductive effects: birth defects, fetal death, altered growth, and other outcomes. Exposure to pesticides generally doubled the level of genetic damage as measured by chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes. Only a few high-quality studies focused on the dermatologic effects of pesticides. In some of these studies, rates of dermatitis were higher among those who had had high exposure to pesticides on the job. CONCLUSION Evidence from research on humans consistently points to positive associations between pesticide exposure and 3 of the 4 non-cancer health outcomes studied. Physicians have a dual role in educating individual patients about the risks of exposure and in reducing exposure in the community by advocating for restrictions on use of pesticides. PMID:17934035

  12. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Jørs, Erik; Gonzáles, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; Dos Santos, Raquel A; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; Bælum, Jesper; Lander., Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17–76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education and information are possible measures, which could help preventing the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. PMID:19662224

  13. 75 FR 56105 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... comments to docket ID number specified for the pesticide of interest as shown in the registration... of each registration application summary and may be contacted by telephone or e-mail. The...

  14. 75 FR 53692 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...] Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice... comments to the docket ID number specified for the pesticide of interest as shown in the registration... of each registration application summary and may be contacted by telephone or e-mail. The...

  15. 75 FR 5077 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product; Registration Application AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received an application to register a pesticide product containing an active... providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on this application. DATES: Comments must be...

  16. AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY/PESTICIDE EXPOSURE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective epidemiologic study of a large cohort of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The Pesticide Exposure Study is a sub-study to evaluate exposure factors and to provide data to assess exposure cla...

  17. 76 FR 69648 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    .... These simulation models take into account data on the physical, chemical, and fate/ transport... for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that the tolerance is ``safe... harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all...

  18. 78 FR 20461 - Flumioxazin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    .... This simulation model took into account data on the physical, chemical, and fate/transport...(b)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical... from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary...

  19. 75 FR 17579 - Aminopyralid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... the physical, chemical, and fate/transport characteristics of aminopyralid. Further information... (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if EPA determines that the... reasonable certainty that no harm will result from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical...

  20. 77 FR 12727 - Trifloxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... physical, chemical, and fate/ transport characteristics of trifloxystrobin. Further information regarding...)(2)(A)(i) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical... from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary...

  1. 78 FR 78731 - Indoxacarb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... drinking water. These simulation models take into account data on the physical, chemical, and fate...) of FFDCA allows EPA to establish a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or... exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all...

  2. 78 FR 36093 - Fenpyroximate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... into account data on the physical, chemical, and fate/transport characteristics of fenpyroximate... to establish a tolerance (the legal limit for a pesticide chemical residue in or on a food) only if... pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other exposures for...

  3. Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Metayer, Catherine; Buffler, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case–control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ∼600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale genotyping to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene–environment interaction studies. PMID:18940823

  4. Pesticides - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Pesticides URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Spanish (español) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) ... Health Resource Center Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) Pesticides English 農藥 - ...

  5. Setting Tolerances for Pesticide Residues in Foods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides are widely used in producing food and may remain in small amounts in or on fruits, vegetables, grains, and other foods. EPA ensures the safety of the food supply regulating the amount of pesticide that may remain on food. Learn how we do this.

  6. ANIMAL MODELS OF CHRONIC PESTICIDE NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a wealth of literature on neurotoxicological outcomes of acute and short-term exposure to pesticides in laboratory animals, but there are relatively few reports of long-term exposure. Reports in the literature describing "chronic" exposures to pesticides are, in fact, a...

  7. Using Pesticides Safely. Special Circular 296.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, W. K.

    The use of pesticides is necessary to aid in the production of food, feed and fiber, and is equally important in the control of home garden and household pests, but correct use is critical in preventing injury to persons, animals, and plants. This circular contains information on State of Pennsylvania and federal pesticide laws; different types of…

  8. Schedule for Review of Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The dockets for all the neonicotinoid pesticides, which pose exposure risk to honey bees and other pollinators, have been opened. Our goal is to review the pesticides in this class in the same timeframe so we can ensure consistency across the class.

  9. Toxicity of Pesticides. Agrichemical Fact Sheet 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hock, Winand K.

    This fact sheet gives the acute oral and dermal toxicity (LD 50) of over 250 pesticides in lab animals. The chemicals are categorized as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, or miscellaneous compounds. One or more trade names are given for each pesticide. In addition, a brief explanation of toxicity determination is given. (BB)

  10. ANIMAL MODELS OF CHRONIC PESTICIDE NEUROTOXICITY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a wealth of literature on neurotoxicological outcomes of acute and short-term exposure to pesticides in laboratory animals, but there are relatively few studies of- long-term exposure. Many reports in the literature describing ;chronic' exposures to pesticides are, in fa...

  11. Pesticides as endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides are designed to be bioactive against certain targets but can cause toxicity to nontarget species by a variety of other modes of action including disturbance of endocrine function. As such, pesticides have been found to bind and alter the function of hormone receptors, ...

  12. John Day Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Escapement and Productivity Monitoring; Fish Research Project Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian C.; Albaladejo, Victor D.; Carmichael, Richard W.

    1999-12-01

    The John Day River basin supports one of the healthiest naturally-produced populations of spring chinook in the mid-Columbia River basin. The study of life history and natural escapement conducted from 1978 to 1985 (Lindsay et al. 1986) provided valuable information on production and productivity of the John Day River spring chinook. With the exception of two years since completion of the study in 1985 (1989 and 1995), spring chinook spawning surveys were conducted in index areas only and have not provided adequate information to assess age composition, progeny-to-parent production values, and estimate natural spawning escapement. The PATH project (Marmorek and Peters 1996) has identified the John Day basin spring chinook as an index population for assessing the effects of alternative future management actions on salmon stocks in the Columbia Basin. To meet the data needs as an index stock, sufficient annual estimates of spawner escapement, age composition, and smolt-to-adult survival are essential. There is need to determine the annual spawner escapement and age composition for the John Day basin spring chinook to provide us the ability to estimate progeny-to-parent production for each brood year. This need can be met by expanding the annual chinook spawning surveys, estimating the annual escapement, and determining age composition by scale pattern analyses. This project provides information as directed under two measures of the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 4.3C specifies that the key indicator populations should be monitored to provide detailed stock status information. In addition, measure 7.1C identifies the need for collection of population status, life history, and other data on wild and naturally spawning populations. This project was developed in direct response to recommendations and needs of the PATH project, the Fish and Wildlife Program, and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority Multi-Year Implementation Plan.

  13. Only the Best: The Annual Guide to the Highest-Rated Educational Software and Multimedia, ASCD 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, VA.

    This annual guide provides information on recommended software programs and multimedia applications for K-12 use. An introductory section describes the evaluation process and lists the highest-rated programs for 1998-99. The program entries are organized by the following subject areas: the arts, early childhood, health, language arts, mathematics,…

  14. Yellow fever in Pará State, Amazon region of Brazil, 1998-1999: entomologic and epidemiologic findings.

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, P. F.; Rosa, A. P.; Rodrigues, S. G.; Rosa, E. S.; Monteiro, H. A.; Cruz, A. C.; Barros, V. L.; Souza, M. R.; Rosa, J. F.

    2001-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is frequently associated with high severity and death rates in the Amazon region of Brazil. During the rainy seasons of 1998 and 1999, 23 (eight deaths) and 34 (eight deaths) human cases of YF were reported, respectively, in different geographic areas of Pará State; most cases were on Marajó Island. Patients were 1 to 46 years of age. Epidemiologic and ecological studies were conducted in Afuá and Breves on Marajó Island; captured insects yielded isolates of 4 and 11 YF strains, respectively, from Haemagogus janthinomys pooled mosquitoes. The cases on Marajó Island in 1999 resulted from lack of vaccination near the focus of the disease and intense migration, which brought many nonimmune people to areas where infected vectors were present. We hypothesize that YF virus remains in an area after an outbreak by vertical transmission among Haemagogus mosquitoes. PMID:11485676

  15. Measures of Inservice Professional Development: Suggested Items for the 1998-1999 Schools and Staffing Survey. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilford, Dorothy M.

    As the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) considers the redesign of the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), it is appropriate to consider the information about inservice professional development (IPD) that would be suitable for inclusion in the SASS. Part I of this paper considers the various definitions of IPD and its evaluation,…

  16. Data Files and Electronic Code Book: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Revised. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), Kindergarten Class of 1998-99, selected a nationally representative sample of approximately 22,000 kindergartners in the fall of 1998 and is following these children through the end of the fifth grade. Baseline data about these children, their families, and their kindergarten programs were collected…

  17. Physical, chemical, and isotopic data for samples from the Anderson Springs area, Lake County, California, 1998-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janik, C.J.; Goff, F.; Sorey, M.L.; Rytuba, J.J.; Counce, D.; Colvard, E.M.; Huebner, M.; White, L.D.; Foster, A.

    1999-01-01

    Anderson Springs is located about 90 miles (145 kilometers) north of San Francisco, California, in the southwestern part of Lake County. The area was first developed in the late 1800s as a health resort, which was active until the 1930s. In the rugged hills to the south of the resort were four small mercury mines of the eastern Mayacmas quicksilver district. About 1,260 flasks of mercury were produced from these mines between 1909 and 1943. In the 1970s, the high-elevation areas surrounding Anderson Springs became part of The Geysers geothermal field. Today, several electric powerplants are located on the ridges above Anderson Springs, utilizing steam produced from a 240°C vapor-dominated reservoir. The primary purpose of this report is to provide physical, chemical, and isotopic data on samples collected in the Anderson Springs area during 1998 and 1999, in response to a Freedom of Information Act request. In July 1998, drainage from the Schwartz adit of the abandoned Anderson mercury mine increased substantially over a 2-day period, transporting a slurry of water and precipitates down a tributary and into Anderson Creek. In August 1998, J.J. Rytuba and coworkers sampled the Schwartz adit drainage and water from the Anderson Springs Hot Spring for base metal and methylmercury analysis. They measured a maximum temperature (Tm) of 85°C in the Hot Spring. Published records show that the temperature of the Anderson Springs Hot Spring (main spring) was 63°C in 1889, 42–52°C from 1974 through 1991, and 77°C in March 1995. To investigate possible changes in thermal spring activity and to collect additional samples for geochemical analysis, C.J. Janik and coworkers returned to the area in September and December 1998. They determined that a cluster of springs adjacent to the main spring had Tm=98°C, and they observed that a new area of boiling vents and small fumaroles (Tm=99.3°C) had formed in an adjacent gully about 20 meters to the north of the main spring. During August–October 1999, several field trips were conducted in the vicinity of Anderson Springs to continue monitoring and sampling the thermal manifestations. The new fumarolic area had increased in temperature and in discharge intensity since 1998, and a zone of dead trees had developed on the steep bank directly west of the fumaroles. Ground temperatures and diffuse flow of CO2 flow through soils were measured in the area surrounding the main spring and new fumaroles and in the zone of tree-kill.

  18. Epidemiology of scalds in vulnerable groups in New South Wales, Australia, 1998/1999 to 2002/2003.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; Finch, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the recently introduced International Classification of Disease, 10th revision, code for hot tap water scalds was used to examine the epidemiology of these cases and other scalds injuries in children younger than 5 years of age and adults aged 65 years and older. Although the trunk was the most common area in which scalds occurred, young children were more likely to sustain head and neck scalds (15%, 95% confidence interval 10.8-18.3) because of hot tap water than older people (2%, 95% confidence interval 0.2-4.4). Hospital separation rates for hot water scalds decreased significantly during the study period in both boys (chi(2) = 15.6, df = 1, P < .001) and girls (chi(2) = 5.6, df = 1, P < .001) who were younger than 5 years of age, which might be attributable to the introduction of new standards regulating the provision of hot tap water to various buildings. The severity of scalds cases did not seem to be correlated with the length of hospital stay, which remained unchanged in both age groups.

  19. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cleary, Peter J.; Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan Hatchery Evaluation Studies (LSRCP) and the Imnaha Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 1999 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies were designed and closely coordinated to provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) biological characteristics, behavior and emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Data collected from these studies are shared with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). These data are essential to quantify smolt survival rates under the current passage conditions and to evaluate the future recovery strategies that seek to optimize smolt survival through the hydroelectric system. Information shared with the FPC assists with in-season shaping of flow and spill management requests in the Snake River reservoirs. The Bonneville Power Administration and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service contracted the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) to monitor emigration timing and tag 21,200 emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead smolts from the Imnaha River during the spring emigration period (March 1-June 15) with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. The completion of trapping in the spring of 1999 marked the eighth year of emigration studies on the Imnaha River and the sixth year of participating in the FPC smolt monitoring program. Monitoring and evaluation objectives were to: (1) Determine spring emigration timing of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River trap. (2) Evaluate effects of flow, temperature and other environmental factors on emigration timing. (3) Monitor the daily catch and biological characteristics of juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River screw trap. (4) Determine emigration timing, travel time, and in-river survival of PIT tagged hatchery chinook salmon smolts released at the Imnaha River acclimation facility to the Imnaha River Trap. (5) Determine arrival timing, travel time and estimated survival of PIT tagged hatchery and natural chinook salmon and natural and hatchery steelhead smolts from the Imnaha River to Snake and Columbia river dams.

  20. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.

    2000-12-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1998 through March 1999 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report D), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report E), and the University of Idaho (UI; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1998 through March 1999 are given.

  1. A Study to Determine the Biological Feasibility of a New Fish-Tagging System : Annual Report 1998-1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Sandra L.; Prentice, Earl F.; Peterson, Bradley W.; Nunnallee, Edmund P.; Jonasson, Bruce F.

    2000-09-01

    This report covers our work during 1998 and 1999 (FY99) on a project to expand and improve technology for passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) throughout the Columbia River Basin. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted the work. Timely and accurate information derived from PIT-tag technology is increasingly critical to resource stakeholders in assessing the effectiveness of efforts to enhance survival of juvenile and adult salmonids. Continued development of PIT-tag technology will enable researchers and fisheries managers to address issues expressed in the NMFS biological opinions for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) and the proposed Snake River Recovery Plan. The FY99 work was divided into individual projects that are covered separately in this report.

  2. LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF EPA-CERTIFIED PHASE 2 WOODSTOVES, KLAMATH FALLS AND PORTLAND, OREGON: 1998/1999

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the condition and air emissions from old, phase-2-certified wood heaters installed in homes and used regularly for hoe heating since the 1992/1993 heating season or earlier. (NOTE: Wood stoves have been identified as a major source of ...

  3. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 1998-1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehlers, Danette L.; Knapp, Suzanne M.; Jewett, Shannon M.

    2001-05-01

    Large runs of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and steelhead (O. mykiss) once supported productive Tribal and sport fisheries in the Umatilla River. By the 1920s, unscreened irrigation diversions, reduced in-stream flows, poor passage conditions, and habitat degradation had extirpated the salmon run and drastically reduced the summer steelhead run (CTUIR and ODFW 1989). Reintroduction of chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) and enhancement of summer steelhead populations in the Umatilla River was initiated in the early and mid-1980s (CTUIR and ODFW 1989). Measures to rehabilitate the fishery and improve flows in the Umatilla River are addressed in the original Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1987). These include habitat enhancement, hatchery production, holding and acclimation facilities, flow enhancement, passage improvement, and natural production enhancement. Detailed scope and nature of the habitat, flow, passage, and natural production projects are in the Umatilla River basin fisheries restoration plans (CTUIR 1984; Boyce 1986). The Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR and ODFW 1990) provides the framework for hatchery production and evaluation activities. Many agencies cooperate, coordinate, and exchange information in the Umatilla basin to ensure successful implementation of rehabilitation projects, including the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Water Resources Department (OWRD), the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR), and local irrigation districts (West Extension, Hermiston, and Stanfield-Westland). The Umatilla River Operations Group and the Umatilla Management, Monitoring and Evaluation Oversight Committee coordinate river and fisheries management and research in the Umatilla River basin.

  4. Experimental Studies of Brines and Evaporites as Applied to Mars: Initial Results from 1998-1999 Runs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. M.; Bullock, M. A.; Mellon, M. T.; Woosley, C. R.; Zent, A. P.

    1999-01-01

    We are performing laboratory experiments to determine the concentrations and rates of dissolution of ions that could occur in closed, juvenile groundwater systems on Mars. Our approach is to incubate unaltered Mars-analog minerals in initially pure liquid water in contact with a Mars gas mixture for one year. At exponentially increasing time intervals, aliquots of the solutions at three different temperatures are extracted and analyzed using standard terrestrial laboratory geochemical techniques. Ultimately, our experiments will produce Mars analog brines which will be freeze dried to create evaporites. The physical and chemical properties of these evaporites will be compared with spacecraft remote sensing and in situ compositional and physical data. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Surfactant effects on environmental behavior of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Katagi, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    The potential effects of adjuvants, including surfactants used in pesticide formulation, have been extensively studied for many small organic chemicals, but similar investigation on pesticides is limited in most cases. Solubilizing effects leading to the apparently increased water solubility of a pesticide are commonly known through the preparation of formulations, but fundamental profiles, especially for a specific monodisperse surfactant, are not fully studied. Reduced volatilization of a pesticide from the formulation can be explained by analogy of a very simple organic chemical, but the actual mechanism for the pesticide is still obscure. In contrast, from the point of view of avoiding groundwater contamination with a pesticide, adsorption/desorption profiles in the presence of surfactants and adjuvants have been examined extensively as well as pesticide mobility in the soil column. The basic mechanism in micelle-catalyzed hydrolysis is well known, and theoretical approaches including the PPIE model have succeeded in explaining the observed effects of surfactants, but its application to pesticides is also limited. Photolysis, especially in an aqueous phase, is in the same situation. The dilution effect in the real environment would show these effects on hydrolysis and photolysis to be much less than expected from the laboratory basic studies, but more information is necessary to examine the practical extent of the effects in an early stage of applying a pesticide formulation to crops and soil. Many adjuvants, including surfactants, are biodegradable in the soil environment, and thus their effects on the biodegradation of a pesticide in soil and sediment may be limited, as demonstrated by field trials. Not only from the theoretical but also the practical aspect, the foliar uptake of pesticide in the presence of adjuvants has been investigated extensively and some prediction on the ease of foliar uptake can be realized in relation to the formulation technology

  6. Trends and Challenges in Pesticide Resistance Detection.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    Pesticide resistance is a crucial factor to be considered when developing strategies for the minimal use of pesticides while maintaining pesticide efficacy. This goal requires monitoring the emergence and development of resistance to pesticides in crop pests. To this end, various methods for resistance diagnosis have been developed for different groups of pests. This review provides an overview of biological, biochemical, and molecular methods that are currently used to detect and quantify pesticide resistance. The agronomic, technical, and economic advantages and drawbacks of each method are considered. Emerging technologies are also described, with their associated challenges and their potential for the detection of resistance mechanisms likely to be selected by current and future plant protection methods.

  7. Pesticide Use Plan (PUP) for Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenhals, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and its Worker Protection Standard, EPA authority, state regulations, and Texas Department of Agriculture authority make up a complex set of environment compliance requirements. The Pantex Plant northeast of Amarillo, Texas is currently dedicated to the disassembly of nuclear weapons. Ironically large areas of the Pantex Plant Site have been farmed for over 40 years. Pesticides are an integral part of agronomic production practices once economic thresholds for certain pests are exceeded. Horticulture and industrial operations also use pesticides. Pesticides can migrate to several playa lakes onsite, where they may threaten compliance with the Clean Water Act. Plant personnel are aware of the need to provide a chemically safe work environment, protect the public, and ensure an ecologically healthy environment. Thus a PUP has been developed to coordinate all pesticide use, ensure safety of agricultural and industrial workers, and protect the playa habitat. The PUP provides guidelines for pesticide use, notification, training, and safety.

  8. Feasibility of LC/TOFMS and elemental database searching as a spectral library for pesticides in food.

    PubMed

    Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Malato, Octavio; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo Rodriguez

    2006-11-01

    Traditionally, the screening of unknown pesticides in food has been accomplished by GC/MS methods using conventional library-searching routines. However, many of the new polar and thermally labile pesticides are more readily and easily analysed by LC/MS methods and no searchable libraries currently exist (with the exception of some user libraries, which are limited). Therefore, there is a need for LC/MS libraries that can detect pesticides and their degradation products. This paper reports an identification scheme using a combination of LC/MS time-of-flight (accurate mass) and an Access database of 350 pesticides that are amenable to positive ion electrospray. The approach differs from conventional library searching of fragment ions. The concept consists of three parts: (1) initial screening of possible pesticides in actual market-place fruit extracts (apple and orange) using accurate mass and generating an accurate mass via an automatic ion-extraction routine, (2) searching the Access database manually for screening identification of a pesticide, and (3) identification of the suspected compound by accurate mass of at least one fragment ion and comparison of retention time with an actual standard. Imazalil and iprodione were identified in apples and thiabendazole in oranges using this database approach.

  9. Allium cepa chromosome aberration and micronucleus tests applied to study genotoxicity of extracts from pesticide-treated vegetables and grapes.

    PubMed

    Feretti, D; Zerbini, I; Zani, C; Ceretti, E; Moretti, M; Monarca, S

    2007-06-01

    The Allium cepa assay is an efficient test for chemical screening and in situ monitoring for genotoxicity of environmental contaminants. The test has been used widely to study genotoxicity of many pesticides revealing that these compounds can induce chromosomal aberrations in root meristems of A. cepa. Pesticide residues can be present in fruit and vegetables and represent a risk for human health. The mutagenic and carcinogenic action of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides on experimental animals is well known. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to low levels of pesticides can cause birth defects and that prenatal exposure is associated with carcinogenicity. This study evaluated the potential application of plant genotoxicity tests for monitoring mutagens in edible vegetables. The presence of pesticides and genotoxic compounds extracted from 21 treated vegetables and eight types of grapes sampled from several markets in Campania, a region in Southern Italy, was monitored concurrently. The extracts were analysed for pesticides by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and for genotoxicity using two plant tests: the micronucleus test and the chromosomal aberration test in A. cepa roots. Thirty-three pesticides were detected, some of which are not approved. Genotoxicity was found in some of the vegetables and grapes tested. Allium cepa tests proved to be sensitive in monitoring genotoxicity in food extracts. The micronucleus test in interphase cells gave a much higher mutagenicity than the chromosomal aberration test in anaphase-telophase cells.

  10. Environmental impact of pesticides in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2008-01-01

    The first use of petroleum-derived pesticides in Egyptian agriculture was initiated in 1950. Early applications consisted of distributing insecticidal dusts containing DDT/BHC/S onto cotton fields. This practice was followed by use of toxaphene until 1961. Carbamates, organophosphates, and synthetic pyrethroids were subsequently used, mainly for applications to cotton. In addition to the use of about 1 million metric tons (t) of pesticides in the agricultural sector over a 50-yr period, specific health and environmental problems are documented in this review. Major problems represented and discussed in this review are human poisoning, incidental toxicity to farm animals, insect pest resistance, destruction of beneficial parasites and predators, contamination of food by pesticide residues, and pollution of environmental ecosystems. Several reports reveal that chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues are still detectable in several environmental compartments; however, these residues are in decline. Since 1990, there is a growing movement toward reduced consumption of traditional pesticides and a tendency to expand use of biopesticides, including "Bt," and plant incorporated protectants (PIPs). On the other hand, DDT and lindane were used for indoor and hygienic purposes as early as 1952. Presently, indoor use of pesticides for pest control is widespread in Egypt. Accurate information concerning the types and amounts of Egyptian household pesticide use, or numbers of poisoning or contamination incidents, is unavailable. Generally, use of indoor pesticides is inadequately managed. The results of a survey of Egyptian farmers' attitudes toward pesticides and their behavior in using them garnered new insights as to how pesticides should be better controlled and regulated in Egypt.

  11. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  12. 40 CFR 170.130 - Pesticide safety training for workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for workers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.130 Pesticide safety training for... activities permitted by § 170.112 and contacts anything that has been treated with the pesticide to which...

  13. 40 CFR 170.130 - Pesticide safety training for workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for workers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.130 Pesticide safety training for... activities permitted by § 170.112 and contacts anything that has been treated with the pesticide to which...

  14. 40 CFR 158.100 - Pesticide use patterns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pesticide use patterns. 158.100 Section 158.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 158.100 Pesticide use patterns. (a)...

  15. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This document provides practical information needed by commercial pesticide applicators to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of various pesticides. The text and accompanying illustrations cover the seven major topics of pests, pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, using pesticides safely, application equipment,…

  16. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability-pesticides. 273.3... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.3 Applicability—pesticides. (a) Pesticides covered under this part 273. The requirements of this part apply to persons managing pesticides,...

  17. 40 CFR 170.130 - Pesticide safety training for workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for workers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.130 Pesticide safety training for... activities permitted by § 170.112 and contacts anything that has been treated with the pesticide to which...

  18. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability-pesticides. 273.3... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.3 Applicability—pesticides. (a) Pesticides covered under this part 273. The requirements of this part apply to persons managing pesticides,...

  19. 40 CFR 158.100 - Pesticide use patterns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pesticide use patterns. 158.100 Section 158.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 158.100 Pesticide use patterns. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 158.100 - Pesticide use patterns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide use patterns. 158.100 Section 158.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 158.100 Pesticide use patterns. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initiate a pesticide's registration...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS REGISTRATION STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration review. The Agency will initiate a pesticide's registration review...

  2. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability-pesticides. 273.3... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.3 Applicability—pesticides. (a) Pesticides covered under this part 273. The requirements of this part apply to persons managing pesticides,...

  3. 40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Initiate a pesticide's registration...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS REGISTRATION STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration review. The Agency will initiate a pesticide's registration review...

  4. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability-pesticides. 273.3... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.3 Applicability—pesticides. (a) Pesticides covered under this part 273. The requirements of this part apply to persons managing pesticides,...

  5. 40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initiate a pesticide's registration...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS REGISTRATION STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration review. The Agency will initiate a pesticide's registration review...

  6. 40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initiate a pesticide's registration...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS REGISTRATION STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration review. The Agency will initiate a pesticide's registration review...

  7. 40 CFR 273.3 - Applicability-pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability-pesticides. 273.3... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT General § 273.3 Applicability—pesticides. (a) Pesticides covered under this part 273. The requirements of this part apply to persons managing pesticides,...

  8. 40 CFR 155.50 - Initiate a pesticide's registration review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiate a pesticide's registration...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS REGISTRATION STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.50 Initiate a pesticide's registration review. The Agency will initiate a pesticide's registration review...

  9. Spreading the Word about Pesticide Hazards and Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grier, Norma

    1993-01-01

    Presents a pamphlet and four brochures about pesticide hazards, pesticide use and alternatives, special impacts on children, lawn and garden pest management, and pesticides in food. Discusses the whys and ways of using these materials to inform people about pesticide issues. (MDH)

  10. An EPA Modeling Dashboard for Ecological Assessment of Pesticides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA registers pesticides for use in the US and approves imported pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Before a pesticide can be registered, the EPA must assess whether the pesticide can be used without eing harmful to humans or pos...

  11. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman.

    PubMed

    Al Zadjali, Said; Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Deadman, Mike

    2013-10-01

    During the last two decades Oman has experienced rapid economic development but this has been accompanied by environmental problems. Manufacturing and agricultural output have increased substantially but initially this was not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although agriculture in Oman is not usually considered a major component of the economy, government policy has been directed towards diversification of national income and as a result there has been an increasing emphasis on revenue from agriculture and an enhancement of production via the use of irrigation, machinery and inputs such as pesticides. In recent years this has been tempered with a range of interventions to encourage more sustainable production. Certain pesticides have been prohibited; there has been a promotion of organic agriculture and an emphasis on education and awareness programs for farmers. The last point is of especial relevance given the nature of the farm labour market in Oman and a reliance on expatriate and often untrained labour. The research, through a detailed stratified survey, explores the state of knowledge at farm-level regarding the safe disposal of pesticide waste and what factors could enhance or indeed operate against the spread and implementation of that knowledge. Members of the recently constituted Farmers Association expressed greater environmental awareness than their non-member counterparts in that they identified a more diverse range of potential risks associated with pesticide use and disposed of pesticide waste more in accordance with government policy, albeit government policy with gaps. Workers on farms belonging to Association members were also more likely to adhere to government policy in terms of waste disposal. The Farmers Association appears to be an effective conduit for the diffusion of knowledge about pesticide legislation and general awareness, apparently usurping the state agricultural extension service.

  12. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  13. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  14. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  15. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  16. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  17. 76 FR 20667 - Notice of Withdrawal of Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... AGENCY Notice of Withdrawal of Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various... withdrawal of pesticide petitions (0G7716, 8F7489, 9E7635, and 9F7587) proposing the establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities. The...

  18. 76 FR 69692 - Withdrawal of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Withdrawal of a Pesticide Petition for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on... establishment or modification of regulations for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various commodities... regulations in 40 CFR part 174 or part 180 for residues of pesticide chemicals in or on various...

  19. Marketing percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenberg, J.; Libai, B.; Solomon, S.; Jan, N.; Stauffer, D.

    2000-09-01

    A percolation model is presented, with computer simulations for illustrations, to show how the sales of a new product may penetrate the consumer market. We review the traditional approach in the marketing literature, which is based on differential or difference equations similar to the logistic equation (Bass, Manage. Sci. 15 (1969) 215). This mean-field approach is contrasted with the discrete percolation on a lattice, with simulations of "social percolation" (Solomon et al., Physica A 277 (2000) 239) in two to five dimensions giving power laws instead of exponential growth, and strong fluctuations right at the percolation threshold.

  20. Federal and state pesticide regulations and legislation.

    PubMed

    Miller, T A

    1975-01-01

    The combined research, education, and regulatory efforts of federal and state governments have made possible an impressive record of abundant production while imposing minimal harm to human health and the environment. Considering that approximately one billion pounds of pesticides are being applied in the United States annually to control about 2000 pest species, the safety record is remarkable. The increased public concern about environmental values and long-term health effects is constructive and is resulting in some of the regulatory changes discussed in this article. The Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act can result in an improved and expanded joint effort by federal and state governments to limit the misuse of pesticides while permitting their use to facilitate increased production of food, feed, and fiber; provide protection from spoilage; improve health; and control nuisance insects and unwanted plants. Implementation of current regulations, plus those in the process of being enacted under authority of the new federal act, will be complex and costly. Regulations will control the registration, labeling, distribution, storage, use and application, and disposal of pesticides. A small segment of our society would like to have the use of all chemicals banned. A few individuals oppose all government controls. However, the vast majority of agricultural producer groups, representatives of industry, and the public support the need for pesticide regulations. Only through continued legal controls over pesticides may we hope to retain their use. Our society has gained tremendous benefits from the use of pesticides to prevent disease and to increase the production of food and fiber. Our need to use pesticides will continue to increase for the foreseeable future. Government agencies responsible for protecting human health and the environment must make sound judgments on an individual basis in evaluating the evidence concerning both the benefits and risks of using

  1. Modeling of pesticide emissions from agricultural ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong

    2012-04-01

    Pesticides are applied to crops and soils to improve agricultural yields, but the use of pesticides has become highly regulated because of concerns about their adverse effects on human health and environment. Estimating pesticide emission rates from soils and crops is a key component for risk assessment for pesticide registration, identification of pesticide sources to the contamination of sensitive ecosystems, and appreciation of transport and fate of pesticides in the environment. Pesticide emission rates involve processes occurring in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on vegetation surfaces and are highly dependent on soil texture, agricultural practices, and meteorology, which vary significantly with location and/or time. To take all these factors into account for simulating pesticide emissions from large agricultural ecosystems, this study coupled a comprehensive meteorological model with a dynamic pesticide emission model. The combined model calculates hourly emission rates from both emission sources: current applications and soil residues resulting from historical use. The coupled modeling system is used to compute a gridded (36 × 36 km) hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America for the year 2000 using a published U.S. toxaphene residue inventory and a Mexican toxaphene residue inventory developed using its historical application rates and a cropland inventory. To my knowledge, this is the first such hourly toxaphene emission inventory for North America. Results show that modeled emission rates have strong diurnal and seasonal variations at a given location and over the entire domain. The simulated total toxaphene emission from contaminated agricultural soils in North America in 2000 was about 255 t, which compares reasonably well to a published annual estimate. Most emissions occur in spring and summer, with domain-wide emission rates in April, May and, June of 36, 51, and 35 t/month, respectively. The spatial distribution of emissions depends

  2. The effect of crop rotation on pesticide leaching in a regional pesticide risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Balderacchi, Matteo; Di Guardo, Andrea; Vischetti, Costantino; Trevisan, Marco

    2008-11-01

    New modeling approaches that include the use of GIS are under development in order to allow a more realistic assessment of environmental contamination by pesticides. This paper reports a regional GIS-based risk assessment using a software tool able to simulate complex and real crop rotations at the regional scale. A single pesticide leaching assessment has been done. The mean annual pesticide concentration in leachate has been analyzed using both stochastic and deterministic approaches. The outputs of these simulations were mapped over the sampling locations of the regional pesticide monitoring program, demonstrating that GIS-based risk assessment can be used to establish new monitoring programs. A multiple pesticide leaching assessment for analyzing the risk related to pest control strategies in six different maize-based rotations has been carried out. Additive toxic units approach has been used. Crop rotation allows to mediate the risk related to pesticide use because forces the use of different compounds with different fate and toxicology properties.

  3. The research of Organophosphorus pesticide biosensor characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yong; Luo, Xixian; Cheng, Yi

    2010-10-01

    To study the fiber-sensor film applied in detecting Organophosphorus pesticide, methyltriethoxysilane was used as precursor, which was doped by FITC- AchE. Consequently, the excellent Acetylcholinesterase biology sensitivity film was prepared. Physics characteristic of the film and sensitivity of Organophosphorus pesticide were researched. In organophosphorus pesticide residue testing, the experimental results indicated that the linear measurement range could reach 10-7{10-6 mol/L, moreover the detection limit is 10-8 mol/L. The sensor could be applied in biological / chemical research, clinical medicine, environmental protection, food inspection, biochemical preventive war field and so on.

  4. Neurobehavioural and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    PubMed Central

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Bellinger, David C.; Colosio, Claudio; Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Kootbodien, Tahira; Kromhout, Hans; Little, Francesca; Meijster, Tim; Moretto, Angelo; Rohlman, Diane S.; Stallones, Lorann

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and neurodevelopmental outcomes amongst occupational (both adolescent and adult workers) and non-occupational populations (children). The symposium discussion highlighted many challenges for researchers concerned with the prevention of neurotoxic illness due to pesticides and generated a number of directions for further research and policy interventions for the protection of human health, highlighting the importance of examining potential long-term effects across the lifespan arising from early adolescent, childhood or pre-natal exposure. PMID:22269431

  5. Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, Elin M.; Morrison, Candice N.; Goldsmith, Michael R.; Foreman, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless, pesticide exposure can pose risks to humans and the environment, so various mitigation strategies are exercised to make them safer, minimize their use, and reduce their unintended environment effects. One strategy that may help achieve these goals relies on the unique properties of chirality or molecular asymmetry. Some common terms related to chirality are defined in Table 1.

  6. Airborne pesticide residues along the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, M.S.; Foreman, W.T.; Goolsbys, D.A.; Nakagaki, N.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence, concentration, and geographical distribution of agricultural pesticides were determined in air over the Mississippi River from New Orleans, LA, to St. Paul, MN, during the first 10 days of June 1994. Air samples were collected from a research vessel by pulling air through polyurethane foam plugs at about 100 L/min for up to 24 h. Each sample was analyzed for 42 pesticides and 3 pesticide transformation products. Twenty- five compounds-15 herbicides, 7 insecticides, and 3 pesticide transformation products-were detected in one or more samples with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 80 ng/m3. Alachlor, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, fonofos, malathion, methyl parathion, metolachlor, metribuzin, pendimethalin, and trifluralin were detected in 80% or more of the samples. The highest concentrations for chlorpyrifos (1.6 ng/m3), diazinon (0.36 ng/m3), and malathion (4.6 ng/m3) all occurred near major metropolitan areas. These samples represent a 'snapshot in time', a spatial and temporal integration of which pesticides were present in the air during each sampling period. The occurrence and atmospheric concentrations of the observed pesticides were most closely related to their use on cropland within 40 km of the river.The occurrence, concentration, and geographical distribution of agricultural pesticides were determined in air over the Mississippi River from New Orleans, LA, to St. Paul, MN, during the first 10 days of June 1994. Air samples were collected from a research vessel by pulling air through polyurethane foam plugs at about 100 L/min for up to 24 h. Each sample was analyzed for 42 pesticides and 3 pesticide transformation products. Twenty-five compounds-15 herbicides, 7 insecticides, and 3 pesticide transformation products-were detected in one or more samples with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 80 ng/m3. Alachlor, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, fonofos, malathion, methyl parathion, metolachlor, metribuzin, pendimethalin, and trifluralin were detected in

  7. Management of pesticide mixing and loading facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Dwinell, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    Many pesticide applicators have decided that a Chemical Mixing Facility (CMF) is the best way to manage problems of soil and water contamination at pesticide mixing and loading sites. These facilities must be managed properly to avoid the accumulation of potentially hazardous wastes, the creation of a point source of pollution, and possible fines for violation of environmental protection laws. Proper management must include pesticide containers, equipment rinsewater, sludge and sediments that accumulate on the pad, and materials used to contain and collect spills.

  8. Lifetime Pesticide Use and Telomere Shortening among Male Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Andreotti, Gabriella; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Savage, Sharon; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Barker, Joseph; Zhu, Zhong-Zheng; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Zhang, Xiao; Koutros, Stella; Freeman, Laura E. Beane

    2013-01-01

    Background: Telomere length (TL) in surrogate tissues may be influenced by environmental exposures. Objective: We aimed to determine whether lifetime pesticides use is associated with buccal cell TL. Methods: We examined buccal cell TL in relation to lifetime use of 48 pesticides for 1,234 cancer-free white male pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,310 licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided detailed information on lifetime use of 50 pesticides at enrollment (1993–1997). Buccal cells were collected from 1999 to 2006. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We used linear regression modeling to evaluate the associations between specific pesticides and the logarithm of RTL, adjusting for age at buccal cell collection, state of residence, applicator license type, chewing tobacco use, and total lifetime days of all pesticide use. Results: The mean RTL for participants decreased significantly in association with increased lifetime days of pesticide use for alachlor (p = 0.002), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D; p = 0.004), metolachlor (p = 0.01), trifluralin (p = 0.05), permethrin (for animal application) (p = 0.02), and toxaphene (p = 0.04). A similar pattern of RTL shortening was observed with the metric lifetime intensity-weighted days of pesticide use. For dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), we observed significant RTL shortening for lifetime intensity-weighted days (p = 0.04), but not for lifetime days of DDT use (p = 0.08). No significant RTL lengthening was observed for any pesticide. Conclusion: Seven pesticides previously associated with cancer risk in the epidemiologic literature were inversely associated with RTL in buccal cell DNA among cancer-free pesticide applicators. Replication of these findings is needed because we cannot rule out chance or fully rule out bias. PMID:23774483

  9. Suicide and Pesticide Use among Pesticide Applicators and Their Spouses in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beard, John D.; Umbach, David M.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: An association may exist between pesticide exposure and suicide. Objective: We sought to evaluate the existence of an association between pesticide use and suicide using data from the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods: Via linkage to state mortality files and the National Death Index, we identified 110 suicides occurring between enrollment in the AHS (from 1993 to 1997) and 31 May 2009, among 81,998 cohort members contributing 1,092,943 person-years of follow-up. The average length of follow-up was 13.3 years. AHS participants provided data on pesticide use and potential confounders via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We evaluated several measures of pesticide use: use of any pesticide, ever use of 50 specific pesticides, cumulative lifetime days of use and intensity-adjusted cumulative lifetime days of use of 22 specific pesticides, and ever use of 10 functional and chemical classes of pesticides. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: After adjusting for age at enrollment, sex, number of children in family, frequency of alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, and smoking status, we found no association between prior pesticide use and suicide in applicators and their spouses. Results were the same for applicators and spouses together or for applicators alone and were consistent across several measures of pesticide use. Conclusions: Our findings do not support an association between moderate pesticide use and suicide. PMID:21749962

  10. Interaction effects of mercury-pesticide combinations towards a cyanobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, G.W.

    1985-05-01

    The present study supplies interaction data for combinations of mercuric ion (supplied as mercuric chloride), atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine), and permethrin (3-phenoxybenzyl-(1RS)-cis,trans-3-(2,2-dichloro-vinyl)-2,2-dimethyl cyclopropanecarboxylate) when tested towards growth of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Anabaena inaequalis. Mercury is one of the most important heavy metal pollutants and has been widely used in toxicology research. Atrazine is the most heavily used pesticide in the United States and its residues are widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Permethrin is an important insecticide with expanding markets and is presently being evaluated for its environmental impact. A. inaequalis has been used extensively in this laboratory in previous interaction studies.

  11. Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... any fruit trees. DO NOT place piles of wood chips or mulch near your house. Drain any ... collect water. Keep potential nesting places, such as wood and trash piles, off the ground. Close outdoor ...

  12. Sports Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  13. PR notice 86-4. Notice to registrants of pesticides, and applicants for pesticide registration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    The document is one in the series of Pesticide Regulatory Notices, usually called PR Notices, which supplement the laws and regulations governing pesticide regulation in the US. These notices clarify, interpret and explain regulatory requirements and policies. They are directed at pesticide registrants and other parties interested in detailed procedures of regulation. This notice announces a new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) policy regarding incomplete applications for registration of pesticides under section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 7 USC 136a et seq. This notice also specifies new requirements for submitting applications to the Agency in order to implement this policy.

  14. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: a quantitative instrument for the assessment of beliefs about pesticide risks.

    PubMed

    LePrevost, Catherine E; Blanchard, Margaret R; Cope, W Gregory

    2011-06-01

    Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This study describes the development and field testing of the Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory with an important target audience: pesticide educators in a southeastern U.S. state. The 19-item, Likert-type inventory was found to be psychometrically sound with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.780 and to be a valuable tool in capturing pesticide educators' beliefs about pesticide risk, assessing beliefs in four key categories. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory could be useful in exploring beliefs about pesticide risks and in guiding efforts to address misconceptions held by a variety of formal and informal science learners, educators, practitioners, the agricultural labor force, and the general public.

  15. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbom, A. E.; Olsen, P.; Plauborg, F.; Grant, R.; Juhler, R. K.; Brüsch, W.; Kjær, J.

    2014-12-01

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products to the groundwater. There are shortcomings to the procedure, however, as revealed by the results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme from the period 1990/2000 to 2012 (app. twelve years). This monitoring program has for this period assessed leaching into groundwater via the variably-saturated zone of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on sandy and loamy agricultural fields, and 47 of their degradation products. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the authorization procedure: i) long-term leaching of degradation products of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sandy soils, ii) leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loamy soils, and iii) leaching of various pesticides and their degradation products following early summer application on loamy soils. The monitoring data revealed that the authorization procedure was unable to predict leaching scenarios for a number of pesticides in hydrogeological settings dominated by rapid preferential transport via e.g. biopores that bypasses the retardation (sorption and degradation) of the plow layer. Such settings are primarily present in the autumn, but can also occur during the early summer in connection with the formation of a structural seal on the soil surface.

  16. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  17. Altered pesticide use on transgenic crops and the associated general impact from an environmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Kleter, Gijs A; Bhula, Raj; Bodnaruk, Kevin; Carazo, Elizabeth; Felsot, Allan S; Harris, Caroline A; Katayama, Arata; Kuiper, Harry A; Racke, Kenneth D; Rubin, Baruch; Shevah, Yehuda; Stephenson, Gerald R; Tanaka, Keiji; Unsworth, John; Wauchope, R Donald; Wong, Sue-Sun

    2007-11-01

    The large-scale commercial cultivation of transgenic crops has undergone a steady increase since their introduction 10 years ago. Most of these crops bear introduced traits that are of agronomic importance, such as herbicide or insect resistance. These traits are likely to impact upon the use of pesticides on these crops, as well as the pesticide market as a whole. Organizations like USDA-ERS and NCFAP monitor the changes in crop pest management associated with the adoption of transgenic crops. As part of an IUPAC project on this topic, recent data are reviewed regarding the alterations in pesticide use that have been observed in practice. Most results indicate a decrease in the amounts of active ingredients applied to transgenic crops compared with conventional crops. In addition, a generic environmental indicator -- the environmental impact quotient (EIQ) -- has been applied by these authors and others to estimate the environmental consequences of the altered pesticide use on transgenic crops. The results show that the predicted environmental impact decreases in transgenic crops. With the advent of new types of agronomic trait and crops that have been genetically modified, it is useful to take also their potential environmental impacts into account.

  18. Interim Policy for Evaluation of Stereoisomeric Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An interim approach for determining data requirements for non-racemic mixtures of stereoisomeric pesticides. These data are needed in order to assess the risk posed to ecosystems and drinking water sources by these mixtures.

  19. Find a Bed Bug Pesticide Product

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Introduces the Bed Bug Product Search Tool, to help consumers find EPA-registered pesticides for bed bug infestation control. Inclusion in this database is not an endorsement. Always follow label directions carefully.

  20. Overview of EPA Pesticide Laboratories and Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA operates two pesticide laboratories that provide a variety of technical services to the Agency, other federal and state agencies, tribal groups and other organizations.The labs develop methods and procedures.

  1. Pesticide Information Sources in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Patricia Gayle

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of electronic and published sources on pesticides. Includes sources such as databases, CD-ROMs, books, journals, brochures, pamphlets, fact sheets, hotlines, courses, electronic mail, and electronic bulletin boards. (MCO)

  2. Policy on Existing Stocks of Pesticide Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This statement establishes general principles the Agency generally will apply in determining whether and under what conditions to allow the sale and use of existing stocks of pesticides for which the registration has been amended, canceled, or suspended.

  3. Enforcement Related to Minimum Risk Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    If a product does not meet all the requirements of the minimum risk exemption, it must be registered unless eligible for some other exemption. Learn about enforcement actions EPA can take where unregistered products make pesticidal claims.

  4. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Enrivonmentally Significant Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudzinski, Walter E.; Beu, Steve

    1982-01-01

    A chromatographic procedure for analyzing organophosphorus pesticides (such as PCB's, nitrosamines, and phthalate esters) in orange juice is described, including a summary of the method, instrumentation, methodology, results/discussion, and calculations. (JN)

  5. Pesticides reduce regional biodiversity of stream invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Beketov, Mikhail A; Kefford, Ben J; Schäfer, Ralf B; Liess, Matthias

    2013-07-02

    The biodiversity crisis is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, but our understanding of the drivers remains limited. Thus, after decades of studies and regulation efforts, it remains unknown whether to what degree and at what concentrations modern agricultural pesticides cause regional-scale species losses. We analyzed the effects of pesticides on the regional taxa richness of stream invertebrates in Europe (Germany and France) and Australia (southern Victoria). Pesticides caused statistically significant effects on both the species and family richness in both regions, with losses in taxa up to 42% of the recorded taxonomic pools. Furthermore, the effects in Europe were detected at concentrations that current legislation considers environmentally protective. Thus, the current ecological risk assessment of pesticides falls short of protecting biodiversity, and new approaches linking ecology and ecotoxicology are needed.

  6. Focus Meetings for Pesticide Registration Review

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Focus meetings with affected registrants and possibly other stakeholders are based around the information needs identified by the EPA chemical review team and management for consideration during our registration reevaluation of a pesticide.

  7. CONTAMINANTS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS AT PESTICIDE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many types of soils, sediments, and sludges are contaminated with a wide variety of pesticides. ite-specific characteristics such as volume to be treated, extent of contamination, and applicable cleanup goals differ greatly, and contaminant toxicity, migration pathways, persisten...

  8. 75 FR 19388 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Pesticide Product; Registration Application AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... deadline identified. II. Registration Applications EPA has received an application to register a...

  9. A survey of warning colours of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Auwärter, Volker; Vennemann, Benedikt; Bohnert, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Pesticides are used to protect plants all over the world. Their increasing specificity has been due to utilization of differences in biochemical processes, and has been accompanied by lower human toxicity. Nevertheless cases of poisoning are still observed. While certain toxic substances are provided with characteristic dyes or pigments to facilitate easy identification, no overview of pesticide colors exists. The lack of available product information prompted us to explore the colors and dyes of pesticides registered in Germany, most of which are commercially available worldwide. A compilation of the colors and odors of 207 pesticide products is presented. While some of the substances can be identified by their physical characteristics, in other cases, the range of possibilities can be narrowed by their nature and color.

  10. Pesticides in Wyoming Groundwater, 2008-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Taylor, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 296 wells during 1995-2006 as part of a baseline study of pesticides in Wyoming groundwater. In 2009, a previous report summarized the results of the baseline sampling and the statistical evaluation of the occurrence of pesticides in relation to selected natural and anthropogenic (human-related) characteristics. During 2008-10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Agriculture, resampled a subset (52) of the 296 wells sampled during 1995-2006 baseline study in order to compare detected compounds and respective concentrations between the two sampling periods and to evaluate the detections of new compounds. The 52 wells were distributed similarly to sites used in the 1995-2006 baseline study with respect to geographic area and land use within the geographic area of interest. Because of the use of different types of reporting levels and variability in reporting-level values during both the 1995-2006 baseline study and the 2008-10 resampling study, analytical results received from the laboratory were recensored. Two levels of recensoring were used to compare pesticides—a compound-specific assessment level (CSAL) that differed by compound and a common assessment level (CAL) of 0.07 microgram per liter. The recensoring techniques and values used for both studies, with the exception of the pesticide 2,4-D methyl ester, were the same. Twenty-eight different pesticides were detected in samples from the 52 wells during the 2008-10 resampling study. Pesticide concentrations were compared with several U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or health advisories for finished (treated) water established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. All detected pesticides were measured at concentrations smaller than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or health advisories where applicable (many pesticides did not have standards or advisories). One or more pesticides

  11. Pesticides, Neurodevelopmental Disagreement, and Bradford Hill's Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin; ChoGlueck, Christopher

    2016-06-27

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism affect one-eighth of all U.S. newborns. Yet scientists, accessing the same data and using Bradford-Hill guidelines, draw different conclusions about the causes of these disorders. They disagree about the pesticide-harm hypothesis, that typical United States prenatal pesticide exposure can cause neurodevelopmental damage. This article aims to discover whether apparent scientific disagreement about this hypothesis might be partly attributable to questionable interpretations of the Bradford-Hill causal guidelines. Key scientists, who claim to employ Bradford-Hill causal guidelines, yet fail to accept the pesticide-harm hypothesis, fall into errors of trimming the guidelines, requiring statistically-significant data, and ignoring semi-experimental evidence. However, the main scientists who accept the hypothesis appear to commit none of these errors. Although settling disagreement over the pesticide-harm hypothesis requires extensive analysis, this article suggests that at least some conflicts may arise because of questionable interpretations of the guidelines.

  12. Pesticide Registration Fees and Fee Waivers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the Pesticide Registration Improvement Extension Act (PRIA 3) to include links to PRIA 3 requirements, fee determinations; fee waivers, exemptions, reductions and refunds; and questions and answers.

  13. Assessing Pesticides under the Endangered Species Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s pesticide risk assessment and regulatory processes ensure that protections are in place for all populations of non-target species. We have developed risk assessment procedures to determine potential for harm to individuals of a listed species.

  14. Chiral Pesticide Pharmacokinetics: A Range of Values

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately 30% of pesticides are chiral and used as mixtures of two or more stereoisomers. In biological systems, these stereoisomers can exhibit significantly different pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination). In spite of these differences, th...

  15. How Stereochemistry Considerations can Improve Pesticide Safety

    EPA Science Inventory

    About 30% of pesticides are chiral molecules and therefore exist as two or more stereoisomers, which can differ significantly in their toxicity, biodegradation, and persistence. Such differences can impact their relative safety to humans and environmental species. Enantiomers, mi...

  16. Endangered Species Litigation and Associated Pesticide Limitations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has been subject to several citizen suits. As a result we have conducted scientific assessments and made effects determinations for various pesticide products as related to specific species of concern.

  17. Logos and Graphics on Pesticide Product Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There are several logos that pesticide companies can add to their labels with EPA approval. The requirements and process vary, so review the guidance carefully before applying to add a logo to a product label.

  18. Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program Member Handbook

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP) handbook is a resource with information to help prospective members to learn about PESP, to understand how the program works, and to assist in applying for membership.

  19. Pesticide Registration Manual: Biopesticide Application Checklists Documents

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These checklists are used by reviewers in the Biopesticide and Pollution Prevention Division in their review of pesticide registration applications. Applicants can use them to help ensure their packages are complete.

  20. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Nicholas; Elzinga, Sytze; Raber, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks. PMID:23737769

  1. Report on Minor Uses of Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report on minor uses of pesticides was required by Section 31 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. It describes EPA's minor use activities and our partnerships with other federal agencies.

  2. PESTICIDE RESIDUE RECOVERIES FROM SURFACE WIPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure is a consequence of pesticide use indoors with a primary source resulting from residue deposition on household surfaces. Accurate measurements of surface residues is essential for estimating exposure from different routes. Various procedures have been developed ...

  3. Pesticide Use: A Case for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfgang, Mary

    1983-01-01

    Indicates that there are no adequate educational programs about pesticide use, abuse, and safety. Enumerates educational needs and suggests that adult education assume a vital role in meeting those needs. (JOW)

  4. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  5. Towards the field-scale experiments and numerical modeling of pesticides in tropical soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusek, J.; Ray, C.; Sanda, M.; Vogel, T.; Green, R.; Loo, B.

    2004-12-01

    Intensive use of pesticides in agriculture inevitably poses an increased threat to groundwater. Recent findings of pesticide residues in selected drinking water wells in Hawaii brings further attention to this problem since the primary source for potable water in Hawaii is groundwater from basal or dike-confined aquifers. A challenging research project was carried out at the University of Hawaii to elucidate potential impacts of selected pesticides on groundwater and to understand pesticide behavior in tropical soils. The major outcome of the project will be a recommendation to the Hawaii Department of Agriculture whether to restrict or approve these pesticide products entering Hawaii's agricultural market. Three sites on Oahu, one on Maui, and one on Kauai were selected for field evaluation of leaching. The soil types on Oahu are Wahiawa Oxisol (Poamoho), Molokai Oxisol (Kunia), and Waialua Vertisol (Waimanalo). The soil at Kula, Maui is an andisol (loam of Kula series) and that at Mana, Kauai is a Vertisol of Malama series. Three herbicides (S-metolachlor, imazaquin, sulfometuron methyl), one fungicide (trifloxystrobin), and one insecticide (imidacloprid) were used in our study. In addition, a commonly used herbicide (atrazine) and potassium bromide tracer were applied as reference chemicals. After spraying, the plots were covered with straw to decrease evaporation from bare soil surface and irrigated with aerial sprinklers for a period of 16 weeks. Disturbed soil samples from various depths were taken at regular intervals for pesticide analysis. Water flow dynamics was monitored with TDR probes and tensiometers installed at three depths. Weather data were acquired simultaneously. In-situ measurements of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity were done using a tension disc infiltrometer. Laboratory experiments of soil-water retention, as well as degradation, sorption, and column displacement experiments for the selected pesticides were conducted. Hence, comprehensive

  6. Photostability and photodegradation pathways of distinctive pesticides.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Attila; Virág, Diána

    2009-01-01

    Transformation of pesticides in the environment is a highly complex process affected by different factors. Biological and physical-chemical factors may play a role in the degradation to variable extent. Photodecomposition might be regarded as one of the most crucial factors affecting the fate of pesticides. Therefore, our study focused on revealing specific details of the photolytic degradation of pesticides. The toxicity of the examined pesticides is well known; however, little information is available regarding their natural degradation processes. More detailed examinations are required to reveal the exact mechanism of the pesticide decomposition and the biological impacts of the degradates. Significance of this study is enhanced by the fact that decomposition of pesticides may result in the formation of toxic degradation products. The photolytic degradation of frequently applied pesticides (e.g., acetochlor, simazine, chlorpyrifos, and carbendazim) with different chemical structures was investigated. An immersible ultraviolet light source was applied to induce photodegradation. The degradation processes were followed by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques. Electron ionization mass spectrometry was used to identify the degradation species. Detailed mechanisms of photolytic transformation were established by identification of each degradate. The photolytic degradation of pesticides of distinctive chemical character exhibited markedly different photodecomposition mechanisms. At least four degradation species were detected and identified in each case. Loss of alkyl, chloro, and hydroxyl groups as well as cleavage of alkyloxy, amide, amino-alkyl, and ester bonds might be regarded as typical decomposition patterns. Deamination and ring opening might be observed at the last stages of decomposition.

  7. Indoor air: Spatial variations of chlorinated pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David J.; Hites, Ronald A.

    The concentrations of two classes of chlorinated pesticides were measured in various locations within four homes. The prevalent compounds were chlorinated derivatives of cyclopentadiene which had been used as termiticides. These compounds were found in basement areas at higher concentrations than in upstairs areas of the homes. Another class of chlorinated pesticide was represented by chlorpyrifos; its spatial profile was consistent with its application in upstairs areas.

  8. Pesticide modelling for a small catchment using SWAT-2000.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Narayanan; White, Sue M; Worrall, Fred; Whelan, Mick J

    2006-01-01

    Pesticides in stream flow from the 142 ha Colworth catchment in Bedfordshire, UK were monitored from October 1999 to December 2000. About 47% of the catchment is tile-drained and different pesticides and cropping patterns have recently been evaluated in terms of their effect on nutrient and pesticide losses to the stream. The data from Colworth were used to test soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) 2000 predictions of pesticide concentrations at the catchment outlet. A sound model set-up to carry out pesticide modelling was created by means of hydrological modelling with proper simulation of crop growth and evapotranspiration. The pesticides terbuthylazine, terbutryn, cyanazine and bentazone were modelled. There was close agreement between SWAT-predicted pesticide concentration values and observations. Scenario trials were conducted to explore management options for reducing pesticide loads arriving at the catchment outlet. The results obtained indicate that SWAT can be used as a tool to understand pesticide behavior at the catchment scale.

  9. Depression and Pesticide Exposures among Private Pesticide Applicators Enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Beseler, Cheryl L.; Stallones, Lorann; Hoppin, Jane A.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Blair, Aaron; Keefe, Thomas; Kamel, Freya

    2008-01-01

    Background We evaluated the relationship between diagnosed depression and pesticide exposure using information from private pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods There were 534 cases who self-reported a physician-diagnosed depression and 17,051 controls who reported never having been diagnosed with depression and did not feel depressed more than once a week in the past year. Lifetime pesticide exposure was categorized in three mutually exclusive groups: low (< 226 days, the reference group), intermediate (226–752 days), and high (> 752 days). Two additional measures represented acute high-intensity pesticide exposures: an unusually high pesticide exposure event (HPEE) and physician-diagnosed pesticide poisoning. Logistic regression analyses were performed relating pesticide exposure to depression. Results After adjusting for state, age, education, marital status, doctor visits, alcohol use, smoking, solvent exposure, not currently having crops or animals, and ever working a job off the farm, pesticide poisoning was more strongly associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) = 2.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.74–3.79] than intermediate (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.87–1.31) or high (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87–1.42) cumulative exposure or an HPEE (OR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.33–2.05). In analysis of a subgroup without a history of acute poisoning, high cumulative exposure was significantly associated with depression (OR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.16–2.04). Conclusion These findings suggest that both acute high-intensity and cumulative pesticide exposure may contribute to depression in pesticide applicators. Our study is unique in reporting that depression is also associated with chronic pesticide exposure in the absence of a physician-diagnosed poisoning. PMID:19079725

  10. An agriculture and health inter-sectorial research process to reduce hazardous pesticide health impacts among smallholder farmers in the Andes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of highly hazardous pesticides by smallholder farmers constitutes a classic trans-sectoral ‘wicked problem’. We share our program of research in potato and vegetable farming communities in the Andean highlands, working with partners from multiple sectors to confront this problem over several projects. Methods We engaged in iterative cycles of mixed methods research around particular questions, actions relevant to stakeholders, new proposal formulation and implementation followed by evaluation of impacts. Capacity building occurred among farmers, technical personnel, and students from multiple disciplines. Involvement of research users occurred throughout: women and men farmers, non-governmental development organizations, Ministries of Health and Agriculture, and, in Ecuador, the National Council on Social Participation. Results Pesticide poisonings were more widespread than existing passive surveillance systems would suggest. More diversified, moderately developed agricultural systems had lower pesticide use and better child nutrition. Greater understanding among women of crop management options and more equal household gender relations were associated with reduced farm pesticide use and household pesticide exposure. Involvement in more organic agriculture was associated with greater household food security and food sovereignty. Markets for safer produce supported efforts by smallholder farmers to reduce hazardous pesticide use. Participatory interventions included: promoting greater access to alternative methods and inputs in a store co-sponsored by the municipality; producing less harmful inputs such as compost by women farmers; strengthening farmer organizations around healthier and more sustainable agriculture; marketing safer produce among social sectors; empowering farmers to act as social monitors; and using social monitoring results to inform decision makers. Uptake by policy makers has included: the Ecuadorian Ministry of Health

  11. Biochemical indicators of hepatotoxic effects of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Dahamna, S; Sekfali, N; Walker, C H

    2004-01-01

    Pesticides can cause damage to man and beneficial organisms. Some sub-lethal effects of pesticides were studied in birds with a view to identifying characteristic biochemical responses that may be useful for the monitoring of exposure to sub-lethal levels in the field. Pesticides were used: demeton-S-methyl, (DSM), chlorpyriphos, chlorfenviphos, triazophos, pirimicarb, methiocarb and permethrin. Blood was collected before dosing, and 2, 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the treatment from the brachial vein of birds. Enzyme activities were assayed in the plasma or serum samples obtained. The assays used were GOT, MDH, GDH, SDH, GAMMA GT and ChE. The results showed an increase in plasma and serum GOT and gamma-GT levels were found in all animals treated with the previous pesticides. The level of ChE increased in birds after treatment with permethrin. It was concluded that the pesticides cause structural and functional changes in the liver and also, the measurement of the previous parameter activities may be useful for assessing exposure and sub-lethal effects of pesticides on the wildlife.

  12. Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Acero, Juan L; Benítez, F Javier; Real, Francisco J; González, Manuel

    2008-05-01

    Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 degrees C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M(-1) s(-1) for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L(-1) was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety.

  13. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Ali; Raherison, Chantal; Tessier, Jean-François; Baldi, Isabelle; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7-10 years) was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  14. Pesticides: the good and the bad.

    PubMed

    Mrak, E M

    1984-03-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years. In earlier times they were a protection against fungi and insect pests. The great increase in the use of pesticides occurred with the development of new organic chemicals following World Wars I and II. In addition to chemicals for the control of fungi and insects, new developments were nematocides, herbicides, rodenticides, avicides, defoliants, wood preservatives, etc. The use of chemicals helped increase productivity, but caused great concern about their effect on human health and safety. On the other hand, chemicals did help tremendously from the standpoint of protecting against diseases that were carried by insects, especially mosquitoes. Adverse publicity has caused great concern about pesticides and this is especially so since our society has undergone great changes from an agricultural society to an industrial society and finally to a communications society. Unfortunately, publicity relating to the use of pesticides has seldom been balanced from the standpoint of the good and the bad. In fact, the communications media has and does usually stress the potential adverse effects of pesticides without reference to the good. This has caused concern on the part of advocates and the average person to the extent that it has placed heavy constraints on agriculture. There is a need for the dissemination of balanced information on the good as well as the bad of pesticides.

  15. Chiral pesticides: identification, description, and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Elin M; Morrison, Candice N; Goldsmith, Michael R; Foreman, William T

    2012-01-01

    Of the 1,693 pesticides considered in this review, 1,594 are organic chemicals, 47 are inorganic chemicals, 53 are of biological origin (largely non chemical; insect,fungus, bacteria, virus, etc.), and 2 have an undetermined structure. Considering that the EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs found 1,252 pesticide active ingredients(EPA Pesticides Customer Service 2011), we consider this dataset to be comprehensive; however, no direct comparison of the compound lists was undertaken. Of all pesticides reviewed, 482 (28%) are chiral; 30% are chiral when considering only the organic chemical pesticides. A graph of this distribution is shown in Fig. 7a. Each pesticide is classified with up to three pesticidal utilities (e.g., fungicide, plant growth regulator, rodenticide, etc.), taken first from the Pesticide Manual as a primary source, and the Compendium of Common Pesticide Names website as a secondary source. Of the chiral pesticides, 195 (34%) are insecticides (including attractants, pheromones, and repellents), 150 (27%) are herbicides (including plant growth regulators and herbicide safeners), 104 (18%) are fungicides, and 55 (10%)are acaricides. The distribution of chiral pesticides by utility is shown in Fig. 7b,including categories of pesticides that make up 3%t or less of the usage categories.Figure 7c shows a similar distribution of non chiral pesticide usage categories. Of the chiral pesticides, 270 (56%) have one chiral feature, 105 (22%) have two chiral features, 30 (6.2%) have three chiral features, and 29 (6.0%) have ten or more chiral features.Chiral chemicals pose many difficulties in stereospecific synthesis, characterization, and analysis. When these compounds are purposely put into the environment,even more interesting complications arise in tracking, monitoring, and predicting their fate and risks. More than 475 pesticides are chiral, as are other chiral contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants

  16. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Ali; Baldi, Isabelle; Tessier, Jean-François; Raherison, Chantal; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three) and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two) were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  17. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at Refilling Establishments § 455.60 Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed...

  18. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at Refilling Establishments § 455.60 Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by...

  19. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at Refilling Establishments § 455.60 Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed...

  20. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at Refilling Establishments § 455.60 Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed...

  1. 40 CFR 455.60 - Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by refilling establishments subcategory. 455.60 Section 455... STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Repackaging of Agricultural Pesticides Performed at Refilling Establishments § 455.60 Applicability; description of repackaging of agricultural pesticides performed by...

  2. 78 FR 38328 - Registration Review; Pesticide Dockets Opened for Review and Comment; Announcement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... AGENCY Registration Review; Pesticide Dockets Opened for Review and Comment; Announcement of Registration... EPA's periodic review of pesticide registrations to ensure that each pesticide continues to satisfy the statutory standard for registration, that is, the pesticide can perform its intended...

  3. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  4. The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws: Review of State Pesticide Laws Regarding Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Kagan; Feldman, Jay

    1999-01-01

    There are a variety of state statutes that have been enacted to protect children in schools, but only about half of all state legislatures have examined pesticide use in schools, only 16 states directly address indoor use of pesticides, and the federal government is silent. While the federal government gives states and local governments the…

  5. Increasing pesticide-resistant ectoparasitic infections may increase pesticide poisoning risks in children.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2008-01-01

    Head louse and scabies mite infestations are common among pre-school and school-age children, and topical pesticides are frequently prescribed to treat such conditions. Ectoparasite resistance to the safest and most commonly prescribed pyrethrin/pyrethroid pesticides for ectoparasitic infections has, however, been increasing since the 1980s. The increasing resistance of these arthropods to the safest pesticides may lead to greater use of more toxic, alternative pesticides to control infestations and to prevent institutional outbreaks. MEDLINE and Cochrane searches, 1966-2008, were conducted to assess the impact of increasing pesticide resistance on prescribing practices for ectoparasitic infections and to describe the evolving global epidemiology of pediatric poisonings by more toxic pediculicides and miticides, including carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates. Pharmacists, physicians, and poison control personnel should be fully informed about increasing pesticide resistance among the most commonly encountered ectoparasites of children and the institutionalized and be prepared to prevent and to treat accidental home and institutional pesticide poisonings with more toxic pesticides.

  6. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fumigation with Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, R. L.; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist uses of fumigant pesticides prepared for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. An introduction with the explanation of fumigation is presented. The nine sections included describe: (1) Nature and effects of fumigants; (2) Modern fumigants; (3) Precautions to follow when using fumigants;…

  7. 75 FR 33744 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 156 RIN 2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Proposed Change to Labeling Compliance Date AGENCY: Environmental Protection... August 16, 2010 to August 16, 2011. This change is being proposed to address concerns raised...

  8. CONTRIBUTIONS OF CHILDREN'S ACTIVITIES TO PESTICIDE HAND LOADINGS FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of children's activities in leading to pesticide exposure was evaluated by comparing pesticide loadings on the hands of children with the activities of the same children observed over a 4 hour period. Ten children ranging in age from 24-55 months were videotaped on the s...

  9. Pesticide toxicity index for freshwater aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, Mark D.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to assess current water-quality conditions, changes in water quality over time, and the effects of natural and human factors on water quality for the Nation's streams and ground-water resources. For streams, one of the most difficult parts of the assessment is to link chemical conditions to effects on aquatic biota, particularly for pesticides, which tend to occur in streams as complex mixtures with strong seasonal patterns. A Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) was developed that combines pesticide exposure of aquatic biota (measured concentrations of pesticides in stream water) with toxicity estimates (standard endpoints from laboratory bioassays) to produce a single index value for a sample or site. The development of the PTI was limited to pesticide compounds routinely measured in NAWQA studies and to toxicity data readily available from existing databases. Qualifying toxicity data were found for one or more types of test organisms for 75 of the 83 pesticide compounds measured in NAWQA samples, but with a wide range of bioassays per compound (1 to 65). There were a total of 2,824 bioassays for the 75 compounds, including 287 48-hour EC50 values (concentration at which 50 percent of test organisms exhibit a nonlethal response) for freshwater cladocerans, 585 96-hour LC50 values (concentration lethal to 50 percent of test organisms) for freshwater benthic invertebrates, and 1,952 96-hour LC50 values for freshwater fish. The PTI for a particular sample is the sum of toxicity quotients (measured concentration divided by the median toxicity concentration from bioassays) for each detected pesticide. The PTI can be calculated for specific groups of pesticides and for specific taxonomic groups.While the PTI does not determine whether water in a sample is toxic, its values can be used to rank or compare the toxicity of samples or sites on a relative basis for use in further analysis or

  10. Biosensor technology for pesticides--a review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Neelam; Bhardwaj, Atul

    2015-03-01

    Pesticides, due to their lucrative outcomes, are majorly implicated in agricultural fields for crop production enhancement. Due to their pest removal properties, pesticides of various classes have been designed to persist in the environment over a longer duration after their application to achieve maximum effectiveness. Apart from their recalcitrant structure and agricultural benefits, pesticides also impose acute toxicological effects onto the other various life forms. Their accumulation in the living system may prove to be detrimental if established in higher concentrations. Thus, their prompt and accurate analysis is a crucial matter of concern. Conventional techniques like chromatographic techniques (HPLC, GC, etc.) used for pesticides detection are associated with various limitations like stumpy sensitivity and efficiency, time consumption, laboriousity, requirement of expensive equipments and highly trained technicians, and many more. So there is a need to recruit the methods which can detect these neurotoxic compounds sensitively, selectively, rapidly, and easily in the field. Present work is a brief review of the pesticide effects, their current usage scenario, permissible limits in various food stuffs and 21st century advancements of biosensor technology for pesticide detection. Due to their exceptional performance capabilities, easiness in operation and on-site working, numerous biosensors have been developed for bio-monitoring of various environmental samples for pesticide evaluation immensely throughout the globe. Till date, based on sensing element (enzyme based, antibody based, etc.) and type of detection method used (Electrochemical, optical, and piezoelectric, etc.), a number of biosensors have been developed for pesticide detection. In present communication, authors have summarized 21st century's approaches of biosensor technology for pesticide detection such as enzyme-based biosensors, immunosensors, aptamers, molecularly imprinted polymers, and

  11. Challenges and opportunities of the bio-pesticides production by solid-state fermentation: filamentous fungi as a model.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz Quiroz, Reynaldo; Roussos, Sevastianos; Hernández, Daniel; Rodríguez, Raúl; Castillo, Francisco; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, production and use of bio-pesticides have increasing and replacing some synthetic chemical pesticides applied to food commodities. In this review, biological control is focused as an alternative, to some synthetic chemical treatments that cause environmental, human health, and food quality risks. In addition, several phytopathogenic microorganisms have developed resistance to some of these synthetic chemicals and become more difficult to control. Worldwide, the bio-pesticides market is growing annually at a rate of 44% in North America, 20% in Europe and Oceania, 10% in Latin and South American countries and 6% in Asia. Use of agro-industrial wastes and solid-state fermentation (SSF) technology offers an alternative to bio-pesticide production with advantages versus conventional submerged fermentations, as reduced cost and energy consumption, low production of residual water and high stability products. In this review, recent data about state of art regarding bio-pesticides production under SSF on agroindustrial wastes will be discussed. SSF can be defined as a microbial process that generally occurs on solid material in the absence of free water. This material has the ability to absorb water with or without soluble nutrients, since the substrate must have water to support the microorganism's growth and metabolism. Changes in water content are analyzed in order to select the conditions for a future process, where water stress can be combined with the best spore production conditions, obtaining in this way an inexpensive biotechnological option for modern agriculture in developing countries.

  12. UV-MALDI mass spectrometric quantitation of uracil based pesticides in fruit soft drinks along with matrix effects evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on the development of the accurate and precise quantitative method for the determination of pesticides bromacil (1), terbacil (2), lenacil (3), butafenacil (4) and flupropacil (5) in fruit based soft drinks. Three different types of drinks are bought from market; huddled orange fruit drink (100%) (I), red-oranges (II) and multivitamin drink containing strawberry, orange, banana and maracuja (III). Samples were analyzed "with" and "without" pulp utilizing LC-ESI (or APCI) MS/MS, HPLC-ESI-(or APCI)-MS/MS and UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS methods. The effect of high complexity of the food matrix on the analysis was discussed. Study focuses on the advantages of the UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS method compared to the traditionally involved GC alone or hybrid methods such as GC-MS and LC-MS/MS for quantification of pesticides in water and soft drinks. The developed method included the techniques performed for validation, calibration and standardization. The target pesticides are widely used for the treatment of citrus fruits and pineapples, but for soft drink products, there are still no clear regulations on pesticide residues limits. The matrix effects in the analysis of fruit drinks required implementation of the exact standard reference material corresponds to the variety of food matrices. This paper contributed to the broad analytical implementation of the UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS method in the quality control and assessment programs for monitoring of pesticide contamination in fruit based sodas.

  13. Market efficiency in foreign exchange markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in financial market data, using the approximate entropy(ApEn) method for a quantification of randomness in time series. We used the global foreign exchange market indices for 17 countries during two periods from 1984 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2004 in order to study the efficiency of various foreign exchange markets around the market crisis. We found that on average, the ApEn values for European and North American foreign exchange markets are larger than those for African and Asian ones except Japan. We also found that the ApEn for Asian markets increased significantly after the Asian currency crisis. Our results suggest that the markets with a larger liquidity such as European and North American foreign exchange markets have a higher market efficiency than those with a smaller liquidity such as the African and Asian markets except Japan.

  14. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mei; Chiarella, Carl; He, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Duo

    2009-08-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts as both a liquidity provider and an active investor in a market consisting of two types of boundedly rational speculative investors-the fundamentalists and trend followers. We show that the market maker does not necessarily stabilize the market when he/she actively manages the inventory to maximize profits, and that rather the market maker’s impact depends on the behavior of the speculators. Numerical simulations show that the model is able to generate outcomes for asset returns and market inventories that are consistent with empirical findings.

  15. Novel GABA receptor pesticide targets.

    PubMed

    Casida, John E; Durkin, Kathleen A

    2015-06-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has four distinct but overlapping and coupled targets of pesticide action importantly associated with little or no cross-resistance. The target sites are differentiated by binding assays with specific radioligands, resistant strains, site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling. Three of the targets are for non-competitive antagonists (NCAs) or channel blockers of widely varied chemotypes. The target of the first generation (20th century) NCAs differs between the larger or elongated compounds (NCA-IA) including many important insecticides of the past (cyclodienes and polychlorocycloalkanes) or present (fiproles) and the smaller or compact compounds (NCA-IB) highly toxic to mammals and known as cage convulsants, rodenticides or chemical threat agents. The target of greatest current interest is designated NCA-II for the second generation (21st century) of NCAs consisting for now of isoxazolines and meta-diamides. This new and uniquely different NCA-II site apparently differs enough between insects and mammals to confer selective toxicity. The fourth target is the avermectin site (AVE) for allosteric modulators of the chloride channel. NCA pesticides vary in molecular surface area and solvent accessible volume relative to avermectin with NCA-IBs at 20-22%, NCA-IAs at 40-45% and NCA-IIs at 57-60%. The same type of relationship relative to ligand-docked length is 27-43% for NCA-IBs, 63-71% for NCA-IAs and 85-105% for NCA-IIs. The four targets are compared by molecular modeling for the Drosophila melanogaster GABA-R. The principal sites of interaction are proposed to be: pore V1' and A2' for NCA-IB compounds; pore A2', L6' and T9' for NCA-IA compounds; pore T9' to S15' in proximity to M1/M3 subunit interface (or alternatively an interstitial site) for NCA-II compounds; and M1/M3, M2 interfaces for AVE. Understanding the relationships of these four binding sites is important in resistance management and in the discovery and use

  16. 40 CFR 165.82 - Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scope of pesticide dispensing areas...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Pesticide Containment Structures § 165.82 Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included. (a) What pesticide dispensing areas are subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 165.82 - Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scope of pesticide dispensing areas...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Pesticide Containment Structures § 165.82 Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included. (a) What pesticide dispensing areas are subject to...

  18. 40 CFR 165.82 - Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scope of pesticide dispensing areas...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Pesticide Containment Structures § 165.82 Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included. (a) What pesticide dispensing areas are subject to...

  19. 40 CFR 165.82 - Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scope of pesticide dispensing areas...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Pesticide Containment Structures § 165.82 Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included. (a) What pesticide dispensing areas are subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 165.82 - Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scope of pesticide dispensing areas...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL Standards for Pesticide Containment Structures § 165.82 Scope of pesticide dispensing areas included. (a) What pesticide dispensing areas are subject to...

  1. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models for predicting stream concentrations of multiple pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Wesley W.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides for multiple pesticides (WARP-MP) are statistical models developed to predict concentration statistics for a wide range of pesticides in unmonitored streams. The WARP-MP models use the national atrazine WARP models in conjunction with an adjustment factor for each additional pesticide. The WARP-MP models perform best for pesticides with application timing and methods similar to those used with atrazine. For other pesticides, WARP-MP models tend to overpredict concentration statistics for the model development sites. For WARP and WARP-MP, the less-than-ideal sampling frequency for the model development sites leads to underestimation of the shorter-duration concentration; hence, the WARP models tend to underpredict 4- and 21-d maximum moving-average concentrations, with median errors ranging from 9 to 38% As a result of this sampling bias, pesticides that performed well with the model development sites are expected to have predictions that are biased low for these shorter-duration concentration statistics. The overprediction by WARP-MP apparent for some of the pesticides is variably offset by underestimation of the model development concentration statistics. Of the 112 pesticides used in the WARP-MP application to stream segments nationwide, 25 were predicted to have concentration statistics with a 50% or greater probability of exceeding one or more aquatic life benchmarks in one or more stream segments. Geographically, many of the modeled streams in the Corn Belt Region were predicted to have one or more pesticides that exceeded an aquatic life benchmark during 2009, indicating the potential vulnerability of streams in this region.

  2. Selection of Worst-Case Pesticide Leaching Scenarios for Pesticide Registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, H.; Tiktak, A.; Boesten, J.; Vanderborght, J.

    2010-12-01

    The use of pesticides, fertilizers and manure in intensive agriculture may have a negative impact on the quality of ground- and surface water resources. Legislative action has been undertaken in many countries to protect surface and groundwater resources from contamination by surface applied agrochemicals. Of particular concern are pesticides. The registration procedure plays an important role in the regulation of pesticide use in the European Union. In order to register a certain pesticide use, the notifier needs to prove that the use does not entail a risk of groundwater contamination. Therefore, leaching concentrations of the pesticide need to be assessed using model simulations for so called worst-case scenarios. In the current procedure, a worst-case scenario represents a parameterized pesticide fate model for a certain soil and a certain time series of weather conditions that tries to represent all relevant processes such as transient water flow, root water uptake, pesticide transport, sorption, decay and volatilisation as accurate as possible. Since this model has been parameterized for only one soil and weather time series, it is uncertain whether it represents a worst-case condition for a certain pesticide use. We discuss an alternative approach that uses a simpler model that requires less detailed information about the soil and weather conditions but still represents the effect of soil and climate on pesticide leaching using information that is available for the entire European Union. A comparison between the two approaches demonstrates that the higher precision that the detailed model provides for the prediction of pesticide leaching at a certain site is counteracted by its smaller accuracy to represent a worst case condition. The simpler model predicts leaching concentrations less precise at a certain site but has a complete coverage of the area so that it selects a worst-case condition more accurately.

  3. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) Models for Predicting Stream Concentrations of Multiple Pesticides.

    PubMed

    Stone, Wesley W; Crawford, Charles G; Gilliom, Robert J

    2013-11-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides for multiple pesticides (WARP-MP) are statistical models developed to predict concentration statistics for a wide range of pesticides in unmonitored streams. The WARP-MP models use the national atrazine WARP models in conjunction with an adjustment factor for each additional pesticide. The WARP-MP models perform best for pesticides with application timing and methods similar to those used with atrazine. For other pesticides, WARP-MP models tend to overpredict concentration statistics for the model development sites. For WARP and WARP-MP, the less-than-ideal sampling frequency for the model development sites leads to underestimation of the shorter-duration concentration; hence, the WARP models tend to underpredict 4- and 21-d maximum moving-average concentrations, with median errors ranging from 9 to 38% As a result of this sampling bias, pesticides that performed well with the model development sites are expected to have predictions that are biased low for these shorter-duration concentration statistics. The overprediction by WARP-MP apparent for some of the pesticides is variably offset by underestimation of the model development concentration statistics. Of the 112 pesticides used in the WARP-MP application to stream segments nationwide, 25 were predicted to have concentration statistics with a 50% or greater probability of exceeding one or more aquatic life benchmarks in one or more stream segments. Geographically, many of the modeled streams in the Corn Belt Region were predicted to have one or more pesticides that exceeded an aquatic life benchmark during 2009, indicating the potential vulnerability of streams in this region.

  4. Cytogenetic analysis of Pakistani individuals occupationally exposed to pesticides in a pesticide production industry.

    PubMed

    Bhalli, Javed A; Khan, Q M; Haq, M A; Khalid, A M; Nasim, A

    2006-03-01

    Although several cytogenetic biomonitoring studies on workers exposed to pesticides have been reported, there is only limited information on this topic from developing countries where pesticides have been widely used over the years. People in developing countries are at higher risk from exposure, due to poor working conditions and a lack of awareness of the potential hazards during manufacturing and application of the pesticides. The present study has assessed the genotoxic effects of pesticides on workers involved in the pesticide manufacturing industry. Subjects in the exposed group (29) were drawn from workers at a pesticide production plant in district Multan (Pakistan). The control group (unexposed) composed of 35 individuals from the same area but was not involved in pesticide production. Liver enzymes, serum cholinesterase (SChE), micronucleus assay and some haematological parameters were used as biomarkers in this study. A statistically significant (P < 0.001) increase in levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase was detected in exposed workers with respect to the control group. There was a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in the level of SChE in the exposed group. Exposed individuals exhibited cytogenetic damage with increased frequencies (P < 0.001) of binucleated cells with micronuclei and total number of micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes in comparison with subjects of the control group. A decrease (P < 0.001) in cytokinesis block proliferation index similarly demonstrates a genotoxic effect due to pesticide exposure. The results indicate that the pesticide industry workers have experienced significant genotoxic exposure. This study highlights the risk to workers in the pesticide manufacturing industries of developing countries such as Pakistan and the need for implementation of suitable safety measures to prevent/limit exposure to harmful toxins.

  5. Pesticides in Streams in Central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamer, J.K.; Wieczorek, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Contamination of surface and ground water from non-point sources is a national issue. Examples of nonpoint-source contaminants from agricultural activities are pesticides, which include fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides; sediment; nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus); and fecal bacteria. Of these contaminants, pesticides receive the most attention because of the potential toxicity to aquatic life and to humans. Most farmers use pesticides to increase crop yields and values. Herbicides prevent or inhibit the growth of weeds that compete for nutrients and moisture needed by the crops. Herbicides are applied before, during, or following planting. In addition to agricultural use, herbicides are used in urban areas, often in larger rates of application, for weed control such as among rights-of-way. Alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and metolachlor, which are referred to as organonitrogen herbicides, were the four most commonly applied herbicides (1991) in the Central Nebraska Basins (CNB). These herbicides are used for corn, sorghum, and soybean production. Atrazine was the most extensively applied pesticide (1991) in central Nebraska. Insecticides are used to protect the crop seeds in storage prior to planting and also to protect the plants from destruction once the seeds have germinated. Like herbicides, insecticides are also used in urban areas to protect lawns, trees, and ornamentals. Many of the 46 pesticides shown in the table have either a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of Health Advisory Level (HAL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for public water supplies. The purposes of this Fact Sheet are to (1) to provide water-utility managers, water-resources planners and managers, and State regulators an improved understanding of the distributions of concentrations of pesticides in streams and their relation to respective drinking-water regulations or criteria, and (2) to describe concentrations of pesticides in streams draining a

  6. Emission of pesticides into the air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den, Berg; Kubiak, R.; Benjey, W.G.; Majewski, M.S.; Yates, S.R.; Reeves, G.L.; Smelt, J.H.; Van Der Linden, A. M. A.

    1999-01-01

    During and after the application of a pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application, predominantly as spray particle drift, depends primarily on the application method (equipment and technique), the formulation and environmental conditions, whereas the emission after application depends primarily on the properties of the pesticide, soils, crops and environmental conditions. The fraction of the dosage that misses the target area may be high in some cases and more experimental data on this loss term are needed for various application types and weather conditions. Such data are necessary to test spray drift models, and for further model development and verification as well. Following application, the emission of soil fumigants and soil incorporated pesticides into the air can be measured and computed with reasonable accuracy, but further model development is needed to improve the reliability of the model predictions. For soil surface applied pesticides reliable measurement methods are available, but there is not yet a reliable model. Further model development is required which must be verified by field experiments. Few data are available on pesticide volatilization from plants and more field experiments are also needed to study the fate processes on the plants. Once this information is available, a model needs to be developed to predict the volatilization of pesticides from plants, which, again, should be verified with field measurements. For regional emission estimates, a link between data on the temporal and spatial pesticide use and a geographical information system for crops and soils with their characteristics is needed.

  7. [Research on Identification and Determination of Pesticides in Apples Using Raman Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Chen; Peng, Yan-kun; Li, Yong-yu; Dhakal, Sagar; Xu, Tian-feng; Guo, Lang-hua

    2015-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has been thought to an efficient method for identification and determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. In the present research, a rapid and nondestructive method was proposed and testified based on self-developed Raman system for the identification and determination of deltamethrin and acetamiprid remaining in apple. The peaks of Raman spectra at 574 and 843 cm(-1) can be used to identify deltamethrin and acetamiprid, respectively, the characteristic peaks of deltamethrin and acetamiprid were still visible when the concentrations of the two pesticides were 0.78 and 0.15 mg · kg(-1) in apples samples, respectively. Calibration models of pesticide content were developed by partial least square (PLS) algorithm with different spectra pretreatment methods (Savitzky-Golay smoothing, first derivative transformation, second derivative transformation, baseline calibration, standard normal variable transformation). The baseline calibration methods by 8th order polynomial fitting gave the best results. For deltamethrin, the obtained prediction coefficient (Rp) value from PLS model for the results of prediction and gas chromatography measurement was 0.94; and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.55 mg · kg(-1). The values of Rp and RMSEP were respective 0.85 and 0.12 mg · kg(-1) for acetamiprid. According to the detect performance, applying Raman technology in the nondestructive determination of pesticide residuals in apples is feasible. In consideration of that it needs no pretreatment before spectra collection and causes no damage to sample, this technology can be used in detection department, fruit and vegetable processing enterprises, supermarket, and vegetable market. The result of this research is promising for development of industrially feasible technology for rapid, nondestructive and real time detection of different types of pesticide with its concentration in apples. This

  8. Marketing Maps: Illustrating How Marketing Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyure, James F.; Arnold, Susan G.

    2003-01-01

    Today's colleges and universities may tolerate the "idea" of marketing more easily, but marketers must continue to educate campus communities about marketing theories and practice. To promote a useful appreciation of how theories translate into initiatives, we propose incorporating "marketing maps"-user-friendly graphic representations of how…

  9. Agricultural pesticide use in California: pesticide prioritization, use densities, and population distributions for a childhood cancer study.

    PubMed Central

    Gunier, R B; Harnly, M E; Reynolds, P; Hertz, A; Von Behren, J

    2001-01-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between childhood cancer and pesticide exposure. California leads the nation in agricultural pesticide use. A mandatory reporting system for all agricultural pesticide use in the state provides information on the active ingredient, amount used, and location. We calculated pesticide use density to quantify agricultural pesticide use in California block groups for a childhood cancer study. Pesticides with similar toxicologic properties (probable carcinogens, possible carcinogens, genotoxic compounds, and developmental or reproductive toxicants) were grouped together for this analysis. To prioritize pesticides, we weighted pesticide use by the carcinogenic and exposure potential of each compound. The top-ranking individual pesticides were propargite, methyl bromide, and trifluralin. We used a geographic information system to calculate pesticide use density in pounds per square mile of total land area for all United States census-block groups in the state. Most block groups (77%) averaged less than 1 pound per square mile of use for 1991-1994 for pesticides classified as probable human carcinogens. However, at the high end of use density (> 90th percentile), there were 493 block groups with more than 569 pounds per square mile. Approximately 170,000 children under 15 years of age were living in these block groups in 1990. The distribution of agricultural pesticide use and number of potentially exposed children suggests that pesticide use density would be of value for a study of childhood cancer. PMID:11689348

  10. How to Search for Information about Pesticide Ingredients and Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    How to use the databases Pesticide Chemical Search, Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS), and InertFinder to find information such as Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers, active and inert ingredients, and regulatory actions.

  11. PESTICIDE TRANSFER EFFICIENCIES FROM HOUSEHOLD SURFACES TO FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional dietary pesticide exposure assessments have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of infant and children's total exposure can result fr...

  12. TRANSFER EFFICIENCES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD CERAMIC TILE TO FOODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional assessments of pesticide exposure through diet have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of total exposure to infants and children ...

  13. PRN 97-4: Consumer Access Numbers on Pesticide Labels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice describes EPA policy on including telephone numbers and other access numbers or internet addresses, on pesticide product labeling. It also explains how the telephone number of the National Pesticide Information Center hotline may be used.

  14. Labeling of Pesticide Products under the National Organic Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice describes how registrants can obtain EPA approval of label language indicating that all ingredients in a pesticide product and all uses of that pesticide meet the criteria defined in the USDA National Organic Program Rule.

  15. STORAGE STABILITY OF PESTICIDES IN EXTRACT SOLVENTS AND SAMPLING MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Demonstrating that pesticides are stable in field media and their extracts over extended storage periods allows operational flexibility and cost efficiency. Stability of the 31 neutral pesticides and 2 acid herbicides of the Agricultural Health Study exposure pilot was evaluate...

  16. COLLECTING URINE SAMPLES FROM YOUNG CHILDREN FOR PESTICIDE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...

  17. PASSIVE/DIFFUSIVE SAMPLERS FOR PESTICIDES IN RESIDENTIAL INDOOR AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pesticides applied indoors vaporize from treated surfaces (e.g., carpets and baseboards) resulting in elevated air concentrations that may persist for long periods after applications. Estimating long-term respiratory exposures to pesticide vapors in residential indoor environme...

  18. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work was to investigate organophosphorus (OP) pesticide transformation pathways as a class in the presence of aqueous chlorine. Seven priority OP pesticides were examined for their reactivity with aqueous chlorine: chlorpyrifos (CP), parathion (PA), diazino...

  19. A Snapshot of the EPA Pesticide Container and Containment Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This brochure provides an overview of the EPA pesticide container and containment rule for registrants, retailers, distributors, commercial applicators, custom blenders and pesticide users It describes who must comply and provides requirement information.

  20. Illinois Pesticide Applicator Training and Certification Program. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This slide set narrative is designed to provide the necessary information for certification as a private pesticide applicator. The program reviews information necessary to safely work with pesticides and to better understand pests and pest problems. (CS)