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Sample records for 19e congrs mondial

  1. Compound 19e, a Novel Glucokinase Activator, Protects against Cytokine-Induced Beta-Cell Apoptosis in INS-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yoon Sin; Seo, Eunhui; Park, Kaapjoo; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Previously, compound 19e, a novel heteroaryl-containing benzamide derivative, was identified as a potent glucokinase activator (GKA) and showed a glucose-lowering effect in diabetic mice. In this study, the anti-apoptotic actions of 19e were evaluated in INS-1 pancreatic beta-cells co-treated with TNF-α and IL-1β to induce cell death. Compound 19e protected INS-1 cells from cytokine-induced cell death, and the effect was similar to treatment with another GKA or exendin-4. Compound 19e reduced annexin-V stained cells and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase protein, as well as upregulated the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 protein. Compound 19e inhibited apoptotic signaling via induction of the ATP content, and the effect was correlated with the downregulation of nuclear factor-κB p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Further, 19e increased NAD-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) deacetylase activity, and the anti-apoptotic effect of 19e was attenuated by SIRT1 inhibitor or SIRT1 siRNA treatment. Our results demonstrate that the novel GKA, 19e, prevents cytokine-induced beta-cell apoptosis via SIRT1 activation and has potential as a therapeutic drug for the preservation of pancreatic beta-cells. PMID:28405188

  2. Modelization des consequences possibles de la future demande bioenergetique mondiale pour le bois et les forest en France

    Treesearch

    Joseph Buongiorno; Ronald Raunikar; Shushuai Zhu

    2011-01-01

    L’article présente une exploration, menée au moyen d’un modèle mondial de la filière-bois, de l’effet sur la filière-bois française des modifications actuelles et prévisibles de la demande mondiale en énergie issue de la biomasse. Deux scénarios contrastés sont testés. Les résultats sont mis en perspective et soulignent le conflit potentiel entre usages du bois : bois...

  3. World heritage site - Bien du Patrimoine Mondial - Kluane/Wrangell-St. Elias/Glacier Bay/Tatshenshini-Alsek

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labay, Keith A.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2004-01-01

    The four parks depicted on this map make up a single World Heritage Site that covers 24.3 million acres. Together, they comprise the largest internationally protected land-based ecosystem on the planet. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) established the World Heritage Program in 1972 for the identification and protection of the world?s irreplaceable natural and cultural resources. World Heritage Sites are important as storehouses of memory and evolution, as anchors for sustainable tourism and community, and as laboratories for the study and understanding of the earth and culture. This World Heritage Site protects the prominent mountain ranges of Kluane, Wrangell, Saint Elias, and Chugach. It includes many of the tallest peaks on the continent, the world's largest non-polar icefield, extensive glaciers, vital watersheds, and expanses of dramatic wilderness. [Les quatre parcs figurant sur cette carte ne constituent qu?un seul site du patrimoine mondial recouvrant plus de 99 millions de km2, ce qui en fait le plus grand ecosysteme terrestre protege par loi internationale. En 1972, L?UNESCO (l?organisation des Nations Unies pour les sciences, l'education et la culture) a etabli le programme du patrimoine mondial afin d?identifier et de proteger les ressources naturelles et culturelles irremplacables de notre plan?te. Si les sites du patrimoine mondial sont si importants c'est parce qu'ils representent a la fois des livres ouverts sur l?histoire de la Terre, le point de depart du tourisme durable et du developpement des collectivites, des laboratoires pour etudier et comprendre la nature et la culture. Ce site du patrimoine mondial assure la protection des chaines de montagnes de Kluane, Wrangell, Saint Elias, et Chugach. On y trouve plusieurs des plus hauts sommets du continent, le plus grand champ de glace non-polaire du monde, d?immenses glaciers, des bassins hydrologiques essentiels, et de la nature sauvage a perte de vue.

  4. Rôle des forêts plantées dans l’économie forestière mondiale

    Treesearch

    Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Les forets plantees, constituees par pl antati on ou ensemencemen t, jouen t un role de plus en plus important dans l'economie foresti ere mondia le, dans I a conservation des ressources, et dans Ia lu tte contre le changement cli matique. Au nivea u mondial , elles occupent 258 million d'ha, soit 6% de Ia co u verture forestiere...

  5. Searching for a correlation between cosmic-ray sources above 10{sup 19} eV and large scale structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kashti, Tamar; Waxman, Eli E-mail: eli.waxman@weizmann.ac.il

    2008-05-15

    We study the anisotropy signature which is expected if the sources of ultrahigh energy, >10{sup 19} eV, cosmic rays (UHECRs) are extra-galactic and trace the large scale distribution of luminous matter. Using the PSCz galaxy catalog as a tracer of the large scale structure (LSS), we derive the expected all sky angular distribution of the UHECR intensity. We define a statistic that measures the correlation between the predicted and observed UHECR arrival direction distributions, and show that it is more sensitive to the expected anisotropy signature than the power spectrum and the two-point correlation function. The distribution of the correlation statistic is not sensitive to the unknown redshift evolution of UHECR source density and to the unknown strength and structure of inter-galactic magnetic fields. We show, using this statistic, that recently published >5.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV Auger data are inconsistent with isotropy at Asymptotically-Equal-To 98% CL, and consistent with a source distribution that traces LSS, with some preference for a source distribution that is biased with respect to the galaxy distribution. The anisotropy signature should be detectable also at lower energy, >4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV. A few-fold increase of the Auger exposure is likely to increase the significance to >99% CL, but not to>99.9% CL (unless the UHECR source density is comparable to or larger than that of galaxies). In order to distinguish between different bias models, the systematic uncertainty in the absolute energy calibration of the experiments should be reduced to well below the current Asymptotically-Equal-To 25%.

  6. Observation of the suppression of the flux of cosmic rays above 4 x 10 (19) eV.

    PubMed

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Baughman, B; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chudoba, J; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; Junior, W J M de Mello; Neto, J R T de Mello; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Diep, P N; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dong, P N; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Luis, P Facal San; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferrero, A; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; Gámez, D García; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Gonçalves, P; do Amaral, M Gonçalves; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Halenka, V; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J R; Horneffer, A; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kasper, P; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; de Oliveira, M A Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Agüera, A Lopez; Bahilo, J Lozano; Lucero, A; García, R Luna; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Falcon, H R Marquez; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Bravo, O Martínez; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, C; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Ragaigne, D Monnier; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nhung, P T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Selmi-Dei, D Pakk; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Pesce, R; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Martino, J Rodriguez; Rojo, J Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Rodríguez-Frías, M D; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schroeder, F; Schulte, S; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Grande, N Smetniansky De; Smiałkowski, A; Smída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tarutina, T; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thao, N T; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Peixoto, C J Todero; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tuci, V; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Galicia, J F Valdés; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van den Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wahrlich, P; Wainberg, O; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zaw, I; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2008-08-08

    The energy spectrum of cosmic rays above 2.5 x 10;{18} eV, derived from 20,000 events recorded at the Pierre Auger Observatory, is described. The spectral index gamma of the particle flux, J proportional, variantE;{-gamma}, at energies between 4 x 10;{18} eV and 4 x 10;{19} eV is 2.69+/-0.02(stat)+/-0.06(syst), steepening to 4.2+/-0.4(stat)+/-0.06(syst) at higher energies. The hypothesis of a single power law is rejected with a significance greater than 6 standard deviations. The data are consistent with the prediction by Greisen and by Zatsepin and Kuz'min.

  7. Absolute vibrational cross sections for 1-19 eV electron scattering from condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, V.; Bass, A. D.; Cloutier, P.; Sanche, L.

    2016-02-01

    Absolute cross sections (CSs) for vibrational excitation by 1-19 eV electrons impacting on condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF) were measured with a high-resolution electron energy loss spectrometer. Experiments were performed under ultra-high vacuum (3 × 10-11 Torr) at a temperature of about 20 K. The magnitudes of the vibrational CSs lie within the 10-17 cm2 range. Features observed near 4.5, 9.5, and 12.5 eV in the incident energy dependence of the CSs were compared to the results of theoretical calculations and other experiments on gas and solid-phase THF. These three resonances are attributed to the formation of shape or core-excited shape resonances. Another maximum observed around 2.5 eV is not found in the calculations but has been observed in gas-phase studies; it is attributed to the formation of a shape resonance.

  8. Absolute vibrational cross sections for 1–19 eV electron scattering from condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF)

    PubMed Central

    Lemelin, V.; Bass, A. D.; Cloutier, P.; Sanche, L.

    2016-01-01

    Absolute cross sections (CSs) for vibrational excitation by 1–19 eV electrons impacting on condensed tetrahydrofuran (THF) were measured with a high-resolution electron energy loss spectrometer. Experiments were performed under ultra-high vacuum (3 × 10−11 Torr) at a temperature of about 20 K. The magnitudes of the vibrational CSs lie within the 10−17 cm2 range. Features observed near 4.5, 9.5, and 12.5 eV in the incident energy dependence of the CSs were compared to the results of theoretical calculations and other experiments on gas and solid-phase THF. These three resonances are attributed to the formation of shape or core-excited shape resonances. Another maximum observed around 2.5 eV is not found in the calculations but has been observed in gas-phase studies; it is attributed to the formation of a shape resonance. PMID:26896993

  9. Multiple-site investigation of the properties of an HF radio channel and the ionosphere using Digital Radio Mondiale broadcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Koperski, Piotr; Kulak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM), one of the new digital radio broadcasting standards, has been designed to overcome typical short wave radio channel difficulties, such as the multipath propagation and fast temporal changes of the received signal level, both related to the properties of the ionosphere along the path of propagation. In particular, some of the RF carriers used in the applied COFDM transmission technique serve to estimate the current state of the radio channel to enable the proper demodulation of the received signal.We have been detecting such RF carriers on select frequency channels (standard DRM broadcast) using a network of recording stations located in different parts of Poland in order to collect data on the HF radio channel. We have been also evaluating the usefulness of this procedure in providing information on the current state of the ionosphere in the refraction region between the transmitter and receivers. When the DRM system becomes more widespread, this method can supplement data that comes from the ionosondes, since it does not require much financial resources and the receivers can be easily scattered over a large area. This paper presents a set of experimental data and its analysis.

  10. Volatile emission after controlled atmosphere storage of Mondial Gala apples (Malus domestica): relationship to some involved enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Lara, Isabel; Echeverría, Gemma; Graell, Jordi; López, María Luisa

    2007-07-25

    Mondial Gala apples were harvested at commercial maturity and stored at 1 degrees C under either air or controlled atmosphere (CA) conditions (2 kPa O2/2 kPa CO2 and 1 kPa O2/1 kPa CO2), where they remained for 3 or 6 months. Data on emission of selected volatile esters, alcohol precursors, and activity of some aroma-related enzymes in both peel and pulp tissues were obtained during subsequent shelf life of fruit and submitted to multivariate analysis procedures. CA storage caused a decrease in the emission of volatile esters in comparison to storage in air. Results suggest that lessened ester production was the consequence of modifications in activities of alcohol o-acyltransferase (AAT) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities. For short-term storage, inhibition of lipoxygenase activity in CA stored fruit possibly led to a shortage of lipid-derived substrates, resulting in decreased production of volatile esters in spite of substantial ester-forming capacity that allowed for some recovery of fruit capacity for ester emission during the shelf life. For long-term storage, strong inhibition of AAT activity in CA stored fruit in combination with low LOX activities resulted in unrecoverable diminution of biosynthesis of volatile esters.

  11. Modélisation des conséquences possibles de la future demande bioénergétique mondiale pour le bois et les forêts en France

    Treesearch

    Joseph Buongiorno; Ronald Raunikar; Shusuai Zhu

    2011-01-01

    L’accroissement de la demande mondiale et du coût correspondant de l’énergie a conduit à de nombreuses propositions pour augmenter l’utilisation de la biomasse renouvelable. Une étude récente (Raunikar et al., 2010) a examiné les conséquences mondiales pour le bois et pour les forêts de la demande en bioénergie impliquée par les scénarios du Groupe d’experts...

  12. An upper limit to the photon fraction in cosmic rays above 10**19-eV from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J.C.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET /La Plata U. /Pierre Auger Observ. /CNEA, San Martin /Adelaide U. /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz /Bolivia U. /Sao Paulo U. /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana

    2006-06-01

    An upper limit of 16% (at 95% c.l.) is derived for the photon fraction in cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 19} eV, based on observations of the depth of shower maximum performed with the hybrid detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This is the first such limit on photons obtained by observing the fluorescence light profile of air showers. This upper limit confirms and improves on previous results from the Haverah Park and AGASA surface arrays. Additional data recorded with the Auger surface detectors for a subset of the event sample, support the conclusion that a photon origin of the observed events is not favored.

  13. Éthique de la recherche en santé mondiale : la relation Nord-Sud, quel partenariat pour quelle justice sociale ?

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; Hunt, Matthew; Moube, Zéphirin

    2014-06-01

    La recherche en santé mondiale s'inscrit dans une volonté de mobiliser des connaissances au service d'interventions et de politiques publiques pour l'atteinte équitable du bien-être commun, notamment en matière de santé. Elle joue un rôle primordial en ce sens, en favorisant l'implication des communautés et leur autonomisation et de nombreuses lignes directrices supportent un tel partenariat. Néanmoins, certains enjeux éthiques sont liés au financement de la recherche, aux environnements de recherche, à la priorisation des problématiques de recherche, aux mécanismes d'évaluation éthique posent souvent un problème de justice sociale au niveau de la redistribution des ressources et de la reconnaissance des différences culturelles. Comment alors déterminer quelle est la façon « idéale » d'agir en tenant compte de la globalité des individus et du pluralisme culturel des sociétés pour « bien faire », pour satisfaire l'exigence de l'équité? Une réflexion et une démarche éthique demeurent essentielles, ainsi qu'un dialogue entre les chercheurs du Nord et du Sud, et leurs autres partenaires que sont les décideurs, les responsables locaux et les communautés. Un tel dialogue, établi dans un continuum du développement de projets de recherche à leur pérennité, peut grandement contribuer à limiter les problèmes de justice sociale et à viser un développement plus égalitaire des savoirs scientifiques. Plusieurs chercheurs se sont déjà engagés dans cette voie, et leurs initiatives devraient être encouragées pour mettre les nouveaux savoirs au service des populations.

  14. Compte rendu de la table ronde du 36ème Congrès de la SFB à Cassis (1-3 Juin 2016), première partie: brûlures chimiques, brûlures électriques

    PubMed Central

    Le Floch, R.; Laguerre, J.; Perrot, P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary La table ronde du congrès 2016 de la SFB a duré toute la journée du 2 juin et portait sur les brûlures non thermiques. A la différence du résumé concernant les brûlures radiques, qui est en cours de réalisation par les auteurs des communications, celui-ci a été commis par les auteurs de cet article, à partir des notes prises en séance et de la vidéo réalisée pendant la communication. Le lecteur voulant approfondir le sujet pourra se rapprocher de l’auteur de la communication, systématiquement cité. PMID:28289367

  15. Acceptances for space-based and ground-based fluorescence detectors, and inference of the neutrino-nucleon cross-section above 10{sup 19} eV

    SciTech Connect

    Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Irimia, Andrei; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2006-04-15

    Detection of ultrahigh energy neutrinos will be useful for unraveling the dynamics of the most violent sources in the cosmos and for revealing the neutrino cross-section at extreme energy. If there exists a Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min (GZK) suppression of cosmic-ray events above E{sub GZK}{approx}5x10{sup 19} eV, as predicted by theory, then the only messengers of energies beyond E{sub GZK} are neutrinos. Cosmic neutrino fluxes can initiate air-showers through interaction in the atmosphere, or in the Earth. Neutrino trajectories will be downgoing to nearly horizontal in the former case, and 'Earth-skimming' in the latter case. Thus it is important to know the acceptances (event rate/flux) of proposed air-shower experiments for detecting both types of neutrino-initiated events. We calculate these acceptances for fluorescence detectors, both space-based as with the EUSO and OWL proposals, and ground-based, as with Auger, HiRes and Telescope Array. The neutrino cross-section {sigma}{sub {nu}}{sub N}{sup CC} is unknown at energies above 5.2x10{sup 13} eV. Although the popular QCD extrapolation of lower-energy physics offers the cross-section value of 0.54x10{sup -31}(E{sub {nu}}/10{sup 20} eV){sup 0.36} cm{sup 2}, new physics could raise or lower this value. Therefore, we present the acceptances of horizontal (HAS) and upgoing (UAS) air-showers as a function of {sigma}{sub {nu}}{sub N}{sup CC} over the range 10{sup -34} to 10{sup -30} cm{sup 2}. The dependences of acceptances on neutrino energy, shower-threshold energy, shower length, and shower column density are also studied. We introduce a cloud layer, and study its effect on rates as viewed from space and from the ground. For UAS, we present acceptances for events over land (rock), and over the ocean (water). Acceptances over water are larger by about an order of magnitude, thus favoring space-based detectors. We revisit the idea of Kusenko and Weiler [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 161101 (2002)] to infer {sigma}{sub {nu

  16. Searches for large-scale anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above energy of 10{sup 19} eV at the Pierre Auger observatory and the telescope array

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Asorey, H.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Arqueros, F.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; Telescope Array Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-20

    Spherical harmonic moments are well-suited for capturing anisotropy at any scale in the flux of cosmic rays. An unambiguous measurement of the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients requires full-sky coverage. This can be achieved by combining data from observatories located in both the northern and southern hemispheres. To this end, a joint analysis using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory above 10{sup 19} eV is presented in this work. The resulting multipolar expansion of the flux of cosmic rays allows us to perform a series of anisotropy searches, and in particular to report on the angular power spectrum of cosmic rays above 10{sup 19} eV. No significant deviation from isotropic expectations is found throughout the analyses performed. Upper limits on the amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments are derived as a function of the direction in the sky, varying between 7% and 13% for the dipole and between 7% and 10% for a symmetric quadrupole.

  17. On the anisotropy of E{sub 0} Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV cosmic rays according to data of the Pierre Auger Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, A. V.

    2012-02-15

    The Pierre Auger Collaboration discovered, in a solid angle of radius about 18 Degree-Sign , a local group of cosmic rays having energies in the region E{sub 0} {>=} 5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV and coming from the region of the Gen A radio galaxy, whose galactic coordinates are l{sub G} 309.5 Degree-Sign and b{sub G} = 19.4 Degree-Sign . Near it, there is the Centaur supercluster of galaxies, its galactic coordinates being l{sub G} = 302.4 Degree-Sign and b{sub G} = 21.6 Degree-Sign . It is noteworthy that the Great Attractor, which may have a direct bearing on the observed picture, is also there.

  18. Translation into French of: “Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne – what does e-publication mean for you?”. Translated by Christian Feuillet and Valéry Malécot Changements des conditions requises pour la publication faits au XVIII e Congrès International de Botanique à Melbourne – qu’est-ce que la publication électronique représente pour vous?

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; McNeill, John; Turland, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Les changements au Code International de Nomenclature Botanique sont décidés tous les 6 ans aux Sections de Nomenclature associées aux Congrès Internationaux de Botanique (CIB). Le XVIIIe CIB se tenait à Melbourne, Australie; la Section de Nomenclature s’est réunie les 18-22 juillet 2011 et ses décisions ont été acceptées par le Congrès en session plénière le 30 juillet. Suite à cette réunion, plusieurs modifications importantes ont été apportées au Code et vont affecter la publication de nouveaux noms. Deux de ces changements prendront effet le 1er janvier 2012, quelques mois avant que le Code de Melbourne soit publié. Les documents électroniques publiés en ligne en ‘Portable Document Format’ (PDF) avec un ‘International Standard Serial Number’ (ISSN) ou un ‘International Standard Book Number’ (ISBN) constitueront une publication effective, et l’exigence d’une description ou d’une diagnose en latin pour les noms des nouveaux taxa sera changée en l’exigence d’une description ou d’une diagnose en latin ou en anglais. De plus, à partir du 1er janvier 2013, les noms nouveaux des organismes traités comme champignons devront, pour que la publication soit valide, inclure dans le protologue (tous ce qui est associé au nom au moment de la publication valide) la citation d’un identifiant (‘identifier’) fourni par un dépôt reconnu (tel MycoBank). Une ébauche des nouveaux articles concernant la publication électronique est fournie et des conseils de bon usage sont esquissés. Pour encourager la diffusion des changements adoptés au Code International de Nomenclature pour les algues, les champignons et les plantes, cet article sera publié dans BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany et

  19. Translation into French of: "Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne - what does e-publication mean for you?". Translated by Christian Feuillet and Valéry Malécot Changements des conditions requises pour la publication faits au XVIII Congrès International de Botanique à Melbourne - qu'est-ce que la publication électronique représente pour vous?

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; McNeill, John; Turland, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    RésuméLes changements au CodeInternational de Nomenclature Botanique sont décidés tous les 6 ans aux Sections de Nomenclature associées aux Congrès Internationaux de Botanique (CIB). Le XVIII(e) CIB se tenait à Melbourne, Australie; la Section de Nomenclature s'est réunie les 18-22 juillet 2011 et ses décisions ont été acceptées par le Congrès en session plénière le 30 juillet. Suite à cette réunion, plusieurs modifications importantes ont été apportées au Code et vont affecter la publication de nouveaux noms. Deux de ces changements prendront effet le 1(er) janvier 2012, quelques mois avant que le Code de Melbourne soit publié. Les documents électroniques publiés en ligne en 'Portable Document Format' (PDF) avec un 'International Standard Serial Number' (ISSN) ou un 'International Standard Book Number' (ISBN) constitueront une publication effective, et l'exigence d'une description ou d'une diagnose en latin pour les noms des nouveaux taxa sera changée en l'exigence d'une description ou d'une diagnose en latin ou en anglais. De plus, à partir du 1(er) janvier 2013, les noms nouveaux des organismes traités comme champignons devront, pour que la publication soit valide, inclure dans le protologue (tous ce qui est associé au nom au moment de la publication valide) la citation d'un identifiant ('identifier') fourni par un dépôt reconnu (tel MycoBank). Une ébauche des nouveaux articles concernant la publication électronique est fournie et des conseils de bon usage sont esquissés.Pour encourager la diffusion des changements adoptés au Code International de Nomenclature pour les algues, les champignons et les plantes, cet article sera publié dans BMC Evolutionary Biology, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Brittonia, Cladistics, MycoKeys, Mycotaxon, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany et Taxon.

  20. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation improves the outcome of adults with t(1;19)/E2A-PBX1 and t(4;11)/MLL-AF4 positive B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results of the prospective multicenter LALA-94 study.

    PubMed

    Vey, N; Thomas, X; Picard, C; Kovascovicz, T; Charin, C; Cayuela, J M; Dombret, H; Dastugue, N; Huguet, F; Bastard, C; Stamatoulas, A; Giollant, M; Tournilhac, O; Macintyre, E; Buzyn, A; Bories, D; Kuentz, M; Dreyfus, F; Delannoy, A; Raynaud, S; Gratecos, N; Bordessoule, D; de Botton, S; Preudhomme, C; Reman, O; Troussard, X; Pigneux, A; Bilhou, C; Vernant, J P; Boucheix, C; Gabert, J

    2006-12-01

    Adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and t(1;19)/E2A-PBX1 or t(4;11)/MLL-AF4 have a poor outcome. We have evaluated the impact of an intensified post-remission therapy using a high-dose chemotherapy course followed by allogeneic or autologous SCT on the outcome of 58 patients with t(1;19)/E2A-PBX1 (E2A group, n=24) or t(4;11)/MLL-AF4 (MLL group, n=34) treated in the LALA-94 multicenter prospective study. Patients in the MLL group had higher WBC counts and more frequent DIC. CR rates achieved by MLL and E2A groups were similar to other B-cell ALL (87, 82 and 86% respectively). While in CR, patients with a donor were assigned to alloSCT (n=22), the remaining patients with were randomized between autoSCT (n=15) or chemotherapy (n=8). Five-year overall survival was 31 and 45% for E2A and MLL groups, respectively. In both groups, DFS was higher in the alloSCT arm as compared to autoSCT and chemotherapy arms. The results of this study show that chemotherapy intensification did not overcome the poor prognosis of adults with t(1;19)/E2A-PBX1. Allogeneic SCT should thus be offered in first CR to patients with t(1;19)/E2A-PBX1 or t(4;11)/MLL-AF4. New therapeutic approaches are needed for patients without donor.

  1. Word Frequency Analysis. MOS: 19E. Skill Levels 1 & 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    tf 4: C. ;F 3 r iol Ink 4, 1 nLSLG CCI I~ Tn 3 0 I C ?C1 1I’ C-- ’ALI C ’ ~£S I CH-47 10 cll"’ 1.4 r.H4~E -l NG f: r -4 r :ts c~irACTERY [I i 4 CuAC41...34Tnt tlC AL LtP PA L, ,j’ -E Z j C VFINDER 4; 4.. r -JC!O( 4 C .’r!OEPPAIL 0 Rl *tGE! 3 qe~ R ATCHET 4 17 aot py 1 -SPT I r 1, mESS 4 R_ ci NG 2 P.-I

  2. Word Criticality Analysis MOS: 19E. Skill Levels 1 & 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    PCV -TAN 8’) N . e. 3 ~iirTAN -80 I BIrG IRPK so IRtII TAN Vo A, ’WiCLD-UP . . . .TAN of) i CANfT TANt so... tp 4~~w: m- -- -r-, IV * SEQUENTIAL DATA MANAGER PACE hO 5 TYPE RECORD BYTES ~ FDQE TR40 .1 ’M I TAX. 80~ *C*t~uT~’JTAN" 60 2 r.e.L:TAN’ o 1ToN k 80...icTctO T pN -0 n TA N G 4 (2To~ TAN 6 4 - -a-41- ~ ~r’ ~𔃾 I* ’N1 77~# ’’N*V. .V /NrW ’% ---- -- --- -- 1 71 ’i" tC I t TP ~~~.7p ’NSo444 A .,-’

  3. Synthesis, structural characterization, superoxide dismutase and antimicrobial activities studies of copper (II) complexes with 2-(E)-(2-(2-aminoethylamino) methyl)-4-bromophenol and (19E, 27E)-N1, N2-bis (phenyl (pyridine-2-yl)-methylene)-ethane-1, 2-diamine as ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Mukesh; Patel, R. N.; Rawat, S. P.

    2014-07-01

    Three new copper (II) complexes, [Cu(L)(H2O)]ClO4 (1), [Cu(L1)(ClO4)]+ (2) and [Cu(L1)]2+ (3), where HL = 2-(E)-(2-(2-aminoethylamino)methyl)-4-bromophenol, L1 =(19E, 27E)-N1,N2-bis(phenyl(pyridine-2-yl)-methylene)-ethane-1, 2-diamine, have been synthesized and characterized by using various physic-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The solid-state structures of 1 and 2 were determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Infrared spectra, ligand field spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements agree with the observed crystal structures. The molecular structure of copper complexes showed that the ligands occupies the basal plane of square pyramidal geometry with the H2O of 1 or the ClO4 of 2 occupying the remaining apical position. Complexes 1 and 2 crystallize in the monoclinic system of the space group P21/c, a = 10.5948(6)Å, b = 19.6164(11)Å, c = 8.6517(5)Å, α = 90°, β = 108.213(2)°, γ = 90° and Z = 4 for 1, a = 9.5019(3)Å, b = 11.3 801(3)Å, c = 25.3168(14)Å, α = 90°, β = 100.583(4)°, γ = 90°, and Z = 4 for 2. The synthesized Schiff base (HL/L1) was behaves as tetradentate ON3/N4 ligands with donor groups suitable placed for forming 2 or 3 five membered chelate rings. Copper (II) complexes display X-band EPR spectra in 100% DMSO at 77 K giving g|| > g⊥ > 2.0023 indicating dx2-y2 ground state. The half-wave potential values for Cu (II)/Cu (I) redox couple obtained in the reaction of the copper (II) complexes with molecular oxygen and superoxide radical (O2-) electronegated in DMSO are in agreement with the SOD-like activity of the copper (II) complexes. In vitro antimicrobial activities of the complexes against the two bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi) and the two fungi (Penicillium, Aspergillus sp.) have been investigated comparing with the Schiff base ligands.

  4. VISIT TO DR SHARP - BEN PINKEL - ABE SILVERSTEIN - OSCAR SCHEY - JESSE HALL - JOHN COLLINS BY CONGRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    VISIT TO DR SHARP - BEN PINKEL - ABE SILVERSTEIN - OSCAR SCHEY - JESSE HALL - JOHN COLLINS BY CONGRESSMAN CARL HENSHAW FROM CALIFORNIA - NORWICK ROSS DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE - SENOR BUCH DE PERADA REPRESENTATIVE FROM MEXICO -

  5. Properties of 10 (18)-10 (19)eV EAS at far core distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teshima, M.; Nagano, M.; Hara, T.; Hatano, Y.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Honda, M.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.; Matsubara, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of 10 to the 18th power - 10 to the 19th power eV EAS showers such as the electron lateral distribution, the muon lateral distribution ( 1Gev), the ratio of muon density to a electron density, the shower front structure and the transition effects in scintillator of 5cm thickness are investigated with the Akeno 4 sq km/20sq km array at far core distances between 500m and 3000m. The fluctuation of densities and arrival time increase rapidly at core distances greater than 2km.

  6. On galactic origin of cosmic rays with energy up to 10(19) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efimov, N. N.; Mikhailov, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental data on ultrahigh energy cosmic ray anisotropy are considered. In supposed models of galactic magnetic field the main characteristics of expected anisotropy are estimated and are compared with the experimental data. It is shown that particles with energy up to 10 to the 19th power eV are of galactic origin.

  7. 35ème congrès SFB, table ronde «nutrition»: transcription des communications

    PubMed Central

    Ravat, F.; Le Floch, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Each year, the SFB congress features a different topic, which in 2015 was nutrition. Eight speakers reviewed ongoing scientific knowledge, current practices in their centres and the latest recommendations, issued in 2013. The aim of this paper is to divulge these presentations PMID:27777551

  8. Seventh international conference on liquefied natural gas. Volume 2. Septieme congres international sur le gaz naturel liquefie. Tome 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Four sessions of the conference included: (1) LNG and world wide energy supplies; (2) liquefaction of natural gas and vaporization of LNG; (3) LNG transport, handling and storage; and (4) legal, economic and financial aspects of LNG trade. This volume contains sessions three and four. Individual papers were abstracted separately. (DP)

  9. Seventh international conference on liquefied natural gas. Volume 1. Septieme Congres international sur le gaz naturel liquefie. Tome 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Four sessions of the conference included: (1) LNG and woroldwide energy supplies; (2) liquefaction of natural gas and vaporization of LNG; (3) LNG transport, handling and storage; and (4) legal, economic and financial aspects of LNG trade. Two volumes were published. This volume contains the sessions one and two. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual papers. (DP)

  10. The world bank and the environment. Progress report. Banque mondiale et l'environnement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The second annual report describes specific environmental strategies and environmental lending in the Bank's four operational regions: Africa; Asia; Europe, Middle East, and North Africa; and Latin America and the Caribbean. It details the Bank's progress in eight environmental categories: energy and the environment, pollution, urban environment, water resources management, forest and land management, social and cultural, environmental economics, and the global environment. One chapter is devoted exclusively to tropical forests, studying ways in which the Bank is dealing with deforestation as a part of the constant review of its forest policies. Suggestions are made for decreasing the degradation of tropical forests while meeting demands for forest products. This chapter reflects a shift in Bank emphasis from commercial ventures to conservation measures. The publication reports on other initiatives by the Bank during fiscal 1991, including the launching of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)--a pilot program to oversee reduction of global warming, preservation of biological diversity, protection of international waters, and prevention of ozone depletion.

  11. Les sources et les puits d'oxysulfure de carbone (COS) à l'echelle mondiale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servant, J.

    Global sources and sinks of COS and CS 2 are evaluated in order to explain how the COS level is maintained in the atmospheric air. The source intensities of COS in each hemisphere are discussed. Two cases are considered, one with high emissions of COS and CS 2 from soils (case 1), the other with low emissions (case 2). In both cases, the COS emission in the Northern Hemisphere is greater than that in the Southern Hemisphere, by a factor of about two. However, according to the more recent measurements of COS flux is equal or less than 1.1 Tg S yr -1 (Tg = 10 12 g), the main sources of COS are the oceans, anthropogenic activities and CS 2 oxidation: 42%, 29% and 20% of the total, respectively. The oxidation of CS 2 molecules is a non-negligible source. It is shown that vegetation is the main sink with a mean deposition velocity of 0.7·10 -2 cm s -1; stratospheric photolysis is the other sink, which represents 11% of the total. Mean lifetimes of COS molecules in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere are equal to 1.0±1.0 and 6.4±1.8 years, respectively.

  12. World bank and the environment: A progress report, fiscal year 1993. Annual report; Banque mondiale et l`environnement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    This fourth annual report examines how well the World Bank`s environmental policies have worked during fiscal year 1993. It presents an agenda of actions that will help countries manage their environment better and link environmental protection with sustainable development. It describes ways to improve environmental impact studies of Bank-financed projects. The report notes the World Bank`s improved public communications network and increased cofinancing for environmental projects. The Bank`s work in implementing Global Environment Facility (GEF) policies and the Montreal Protocol is also reviewed.

  13. La normalisation linguistique dans une entreprise: le mot d'ordre mondial (Linguistic Standardization in a Business: The Worldwide Password).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Sylvie

    2000-01-01

    Examines how linguistic standard globalization in a call centre affects the value of bilingualism and the linguistic varieties of a francophone minority population. Bilingualism grants access to a job in the information and service sector, but since the emergence of linguistic standardization in this sector only a certain selection of individuals…

  14. Parente genetique et correspondances phonetiques: A propos du proto-mondial (Genetic Kinship and Phonetic Correspondences: About Proto-Global).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucquois, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Irrespective of the traditional reconstructions related to the theory of well known families of languages such as Indo-European or Semitic, some researchers have aimed at rebuilding super-families, going as far as a Proto-global family. Several puzzling agreements between their proposals and the reconstructions made by the genetics populations…

  15. The World Bank and the environment, fiscal 1992, exercise 92. Annual report. Banque mondiale et l'environnement, ejercicio 92

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The report describes the Bank's activities in assisting countries with environmental management, such as programs to reduce poverty without exhausting natural resources. Included are assessments of the environmental impacts of projects supported by World Bank loans, and accounts of efforts to meet global environmental challenges with coordinated international action through the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Among the events in the period covered by the report are the affirmation of the World Bank's participation with United Nations organizations in the GEF and the Bank's administration of pilot programs aimed at finding solutions to such global environmental problems as pollution of international waters, global warming, depletion of the Earth's ozone layer, and dwindling biological diversity; the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; and the publication of the World Development Report 1992, with its theme of development and the environment.

  16. Forest sector: A World Bank policy paper. Secteur forestier: document de politique generale de la banque mondiale

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Forests are the most extensive terrestrial ecosystem, and nearly 500 million people depend on forests for their livelihood. Since the World Bank issued its forestry sector policy paper in 1978, there has been growing concern about the accelerated rate of destruction of the remaining primary forests in various parts of the world. The policy paper identifies two key challenges: to slow the alarmingly rapid rates of deforestation, especially (although not exclusively) in the tropical moist forests, and to ensure adequate planting of new trees to meet the rapidly growing demand for fuelwood in developing countries. The Bank intends to move vigorously to promote the conservation of natural forests and the sustainable development of managed forestry resources.

  17. La normalisation linguistique dans une entreprise: le mot d'ordre mondial (Linguistic Standardization in a Business: The Worldwide Password).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Sylvie

    2000-01-01

    Examines how linguistic standard globalization in a call centre affects the value of bilingualism and the linguistic varieties of a francophone minority population. Bilingualism grants access to a job in the information and service sector, but since the emergence of linguistic standardization in this sector only a certain selection of individuals…

  18. Le Congres de Nice 1974: Encouragement des Activites des Ecrivains at Traducteurs (The Nice Congress 1974: Encouraging the Activities of Writers and Translators)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Azaola, M.

    1974-01-01

    A representative from Unesco offers some suggestions supporting writers and translators, including: strong writers' organizations, literature prizes, encouraging writers from oral traditions to record work on tape, diversification of production by publishers, financial rewards to writers from both government and publishers, and adherence to…

  19. Ninth international congress on Carboniferous stratigraphy and geology. Proceedings, volume 3. Neuvieme congres international de stratigraphie et de geologie du Carbonifere. Compte rendu, volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Geldsetzer, H.H.J.; Nassichuk, W.W.; Belt, E.S.; Macqueen, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Papers were presented on the Carboniferous stratigraphy of the Atlantic Coast basins, on paleogeography and paleotectonics and on sedimentology and geochemistry. A total of 14 papers concerning coal have been abstracted separately. Papers are in English or in French.

  20. Initial Results from a Search for Lunar Radio Emission from Interactions of >= 10(exp 19) eV Neutrinos and Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, P. W.; Liewer, K. M.; Naudet, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Using the NASA Goldstone 70m antenna DSS 14 both singly and in coincidence with the 34 m antenna DSS 13 (21.7 km to the southeast), we have acquired approximately 12 hrs of livetime in a search for predicted pulsed radio emission from extremely-high energy cascades induced by neutrinos or cosmic rays in the lunar regolith. In about 4 hrs of single antenna observations, we reduced our sensitivity to impulsive terrestrial interference to a negligible level by use of a veto afforded by the unique capability of DSS 14. In the 8 hrs of dual-antenna observations, terrestrial interference is eliminated as a background. In both observing modes the thermal noise floor limits the sensitivity. We detected no events above statistical background. We report here initial limits based on these data which begin to constrain several predictions of the flux of EHE neutrinos.

  1. Initial Results from a Search for Lunar Radio Emission from Interactions of >= 10(exp 19) eV Neutrinos and Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, P. W.; Liewer, K. M.; Naudet, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Using the NASA Goldstone 70m antenna DSS 14 both singly and in coincidence with the 34 m antenna DSS 13 (21.7 km to the southeast), we have acquired approximately 12 hrs of livetime in a search for predicted pulsed radio emission from extremely-high energy cascades induced by neutrinos or cosmic rays in the lunar regolith. In about 4 hrs of single antenna observations, we reduced our sensitivity to impulsive terrestrial interference to a negligible level by use of a veto afforded by the unique capability of DSS 14. In the 8 hrs of dual-antenna observations, terrestrial interference is eliminated as a background. In both observing modes the thermal noise floor limits the sensitivity. We detected no events above statistical background. We report here initial limits based on these data which begin to constrain several predictions of the flux of EHE neutrinos.

  2. Global environment facility: Independent evaluation of the pilot phase; Fonds pour l`environnement mondial: evaluation independante de la phase pilote

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This study responds to a request by participants in the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for an independent evaluation of the pilot phase. It profiles the GEF, discusses its policy framework, and reviews project development procedures and the strategies and projects in each of the GEF`s four focal areas. The study concludes that fundamental changes must occur and recommends specific reforms, such as articulating more clearly the GEF`s mandate, objectives, and strategies; addressing deficiencies in meeting its global focus; improving capacities and procedures within implementing agencies for managing the portfolio; and increasing non-government organization (NGO), country and community-level participation.

  3. Repertoire Mondial des Collections et des Fonds d'Archives de l'Art des Enfants = World Directory of Collections and Archives of Children's Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Nancy R.; And Others

    Divided into two parts, this world directory features collections and archives of childrens' art. The first part of the volume provides information about the collections before October 1989. Entries are arranged in alphabetical order according to the French spelling of the various countries and include the following information for each entry:…

  4. Compte rendu de la table ronde du 35ème congrès de la sfetb à metz (10-12 juin 2015) concernant les brûlures péribuccales

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary La table ronde de chirurgie portant sur les brûlures péribuccales était divisée en deux parties: «prise en charge en aigu des brûlures péribuccales» et «séquelles de brûlures péribuccales / session de cas cliniques adulte et enfant». Ceci en est le résumé, construit en revoyant les prises vidéo en direct de la session, à laquelle assistait l’auteur PMID:28149241

  5. European Materials Research Society Spring Meeting, E-MRS 󈨦 Scientific/Technical Symposia and Exhibition, Held in Congress Center - Palais de la Musique et des Congres - Strasbourg, France on June 16-19, 1998.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    de Fisica Aplicada, Univcrsidad de Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende 9, 36207 Vigo, Spain G-II/P5 USE OF A DUPLEX PLASMA PROCESS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF...OXIDATION PROCESS IMPROVEMENT IN PULSED LASER DEPOSITION OF THIN FILMS, I. Apostol, R. Stoian, C. Luculescu, R. Dabu, A. Stratan, S. Udrea, National...Technique and Challenges for 300mm Silicon: Processing , Characterization, Modelling and Equipments Surface Processing : Laser, Lamp, Plasma Materials

  6. Equal Employment Opportunity Law Enforcement. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives. One Hundredth Congres, Second Session (Los Angeles, CA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This document comprises the testimony presented at an oversight hearing on equal employment opportunity law enforcement before the House Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities. Among those who testified were the following: (1) Jerry Blakemore, Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, United States Department of Labor; (2) James Foster,…

  7. Proceedings of the International Congress/Actes du 6eme Congres International (6th) Held in Nice, France on 5-9 July 1993: Noise as a Public Health Problem. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-09

    Environnementales CNRS-INRS 21, rue Becquerel - Strasbourg - France On behalf of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise let me...Laboratoire do phsysiologie et de psychologie environnementales CNRS-INRS 21, rue Becquerel - Strasbourg, France Au nomn de la Commission Internationale sur...temporal relation between noise and signal will increase the precision of prediction. Any attempt to investigate the perception of noise from a temporal

  8. Proceedings of the International Congress/Actes du 6eme Congres International (6th) Held in Nice, France on 5-9 July 1993: Noise as a Public Health Problem. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-09

    Ear Hear.11, 93-105. Leonard G., Smurzynski J., Jung M.D., Kim D.O. (1990) Evaluation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions as a basis for the...de Fisica, Casilla 307, Santiago, Chile ""Hospital Mutual de Seguridad, Medicina del Trabajo ABSTRACT The aim of this investigation is to achieve a...ENVIRONMENT IN CHOOSING A PLACE OF RESIDENCE.’ LOPEZ BARRIO, Isabel; CARLES , Josi Luis Instituto de Acdstica (CSIC) Cl Serrano, 144. 28006 MADRID Abstract

  9. International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity (ICOLSE) (10th) and the Congres International Aeronautiq (17th) Held in Paris (France) on 10-13 June 1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-13

    ASE) • de International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP) ■ de l’Union Radio Scientifique Internationale (URSI) de la Civil...International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (IAMAP) - Union Radio Scientifique Internationale (URSI) - Civil Aviation...jetait les bases de deux siecles d’amitie et d’alliance entre les deux peuples. Ce m6me homme avait ecrit, trente ans plus tot, un ouvrage scientifique

  10. International Congress: Physical Activities--Sport--Development (Nabeul, Tunisia, February 24-26, 1992). Final Report. = Congres International: Activites physiques--Sport--Developpement (Nabeul, Tunisie, 24-26 fevrier 1992). Rapport final.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    The aim of this international congress was to strengthen international cooperation in the field of physical education and sport and to promote practical measures based on partnership among government authorities, volunteer organizations, and private national or multinational corporations, by pointing out the contribution that the rational practice…

  11. Searches for Large-Scale Anisotropy in the Arrival Directions of Cosmic Rays Detected above Energy of $10^{19}$ eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    Aab, Alexander; et al,

    2014-10-07

    Spherical harmonic moments are well-suited for capturing anisotropy at any scale in the flux of cosmic rays. An unambiguous measurement of the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients requires full-sky coverage. This can be achieved by combining data from observatories located in both the northern and southern hemispheres. To this end, a joint analysis using data recorded at the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory above 1019 eV is presented in this work. The resulting multipolar expansion of the flux of cosmic rays allows us to perform a series of anisotropy searches, and in particular to report on the angular power spectrum of cosmic rays above 1019 eV. No significant deviation from isotropic expectations is found throughout the analyses performed. Upper limits on the amplitudes of the dipole and quadrupole moments are derived as a function of the direction in the sky, varying between 7% and 13% for the dipole and between 7% and 10% for a symmetric quadrupole.

  12. Education for All: Is the World on Track? Summary Report. EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2002 = Education pour Tous: Le Monde Est-Il sur la Bonne Voie? Resume du Rapport. Rapport Mondial de Suivi sur l'EPT, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Christopher; Packer, Steve; Ellis, Simon; Van Ravens, Jan; Barry, Ulrika Peppler; Bella, Nicole; Djioze, Valerie; Mputu, Hilaire; Aggio, Carlos; Cifuentes-Montoya, Mariana; Pinceau, Pascale; Nsengimana, Delphine

    In 2000 the World Education Forum, sponsored by UNESCO, met to assess and act on educational opportunities for children, youth, and adults around the world. The forum agreed on six goals for education considered to be essential, attainable, and affordable, given strong international commitment and resolve, and on a program called Education for All…

  13. Propositions du Centre Mondial D'Information sur l'Education Bilingue (CMIEB) au Conseil de l'Europe [Proposals of the World Center of Information on Bilingual Education (CMIEB) to the Council of Europe].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgalian, Gilbert

    The socio-economic, cultural and political situation in Europe necessitates a systematic and pedagogically sound promotion of bilingual education. Two prerequisites to this promotion are seen: (1) a political framework and support, and (2) a substructure for linguistic and pedagogical information and coordination. A proposal is presented to…

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education = Les actes du congres annuel de l'association canadienne pour l'etude de l'education des adultes (8th, Cornwall, Ontario, June 1-30, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Rene, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 23 papers in French and the following 45 papers in English: "Arthur Lismer" (Barer-Stein); "Bootstrapping and Shoestringing to Academic Respectability" (Baskett); "Teaching by Teleconference" (Boak, Kirby); "Doing What Is Possible" (Butterwick); "Connections between Individual…

  15. Exchanges...Assessing Their Value: A Summary of the Annual Conference of the Society for Educational Visits and Exchanges in Canada = La valeur des echanges...Une appreciation concrete: un recueil du Congres annuel 1983 de la Societe educative de visites et d'echanges au Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Society for Educational Visits and Exchanges in Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The proceedings of the 1983 annual meeting on student and teacher exchanges programs include these papers: "Exchanges...How They Contribute to National Unity and National Identity" (Huguette Labelle); "Exchanges...Bridging the Gap" (Gildas Molgat); "Exchanges...And Canada's Bicultural Aspect" (Dennis Dawson);…

  16. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education = Les actes du congres annuel de l'association canadienne pour l'etude de l'education des adultes (8th, Cornwall, Ontario, June 1-30, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, Rene, Ed.

    This proceedings contains 23 papers in French and the following 45 papers in English: "Arthur Lismer" (Barer-Stein); "Bootstrapping and Shoestringing to Academic Respectability" (Baskett); "Teaching by Teleconference" (Boak, Kirby); "Doing What Is Possible" (Butterwick); "Connections between Individual…

  17. Early Childhood Education and Care in the 21st Century: Global Guidelines and Papers from an International Symposium Hosted by the World Organization for Early Childhood Education (Organisation Mondiale pour L'Education Prescolaire) and the Association for Childhood Education International (Ruschlikon, Switzerland, July 5-8, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Childhood Education International, Olney, MD.

    The International Symposium on Early Childhood Education and Care for the 21st Century was held in Ruschlikon, Switzerland in 1999. Attending were 83 early childhood education professionals from 28 nations to develop international guidelines for the education and care of young children. This document contains shortened versions of the guidelines…

  18. Efficacité de la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine par le protocole 2010 de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé au Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    OuédraogoYugbaré, Solange Odile; Zagré, Nikaise; Koueta, Fla; Dao, Lassina; Kam, Ludovic; Ouattara, Diarra Yé; Simporé, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    L’épidémie du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine en milieu pédiatrique est surtout le résultat de la transmission mère-enfant. Notre étude a pour objectif de décrire l'efficacité de la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine par le protocole OMS 2010 (Option A et trithérapie) au centre médical saint Camille de Ouagadougou. Nous avons mené une étude d'une cohorte d'enfants suivis dans le cadre de la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine au centre médical saint Camille de Ouagadougou sur une période de 2 ans allant du 1er Janvier 2012 au 31 Décembre 2013. Nous avons obtenu l'accord de 4900 femmes enceintes pour le dépistage de l'infection du Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine et 238 gestantes ont été diagnostiquées séropositives soit 4,86% de séroprévalence. Les femmes étaient surtout infectées par le Virus de l'Immunodéficience Humaine avec de type I (95,38%)). La majorité était sous trithérapie (74,3%) et (25,7%) sous prophylaxie (option A). Les nouveau-nés (92,5%) ont reçu un traitement antirétroviral à base de névirapine dans les 72 heures après la naissance. L'allaitement sécurisé a été appliquée dans 78% des cas. Le taux global de transmission mère-enfant du VIH était de 3,6% avec 3% de transmission chez les enfants nés de mères sous trithérapie antirétrovirale et 6,3% dans les cas de prophylaxie antirétrovirale. Le facteur de risque de transmission a été le long délai du début d'administration des antirétroviraux chez le nouveau-né. La mortalité infantile à un an était de 3,5%. Cette étude a révélé l'efficacité de l'Option A et conforté celle de la trithérapie, le passage à l'Option B+ serait donc plus bénéfique. PMID:26966499

  19. Stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), dispersal and governing factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), movement has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (<13 km), fly movement occurs between host animals and at resting sites to feed and mate, mainly at on-farm locations where herbivorous livestock regularly congr...

  20. The Militarily Useful Clean Product Tanker: Sealift Component of the DoD Petroleum Distribution System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    reflects an established fleet arrying less a-d less imported oil). overall, the general catlco for future 0i4 ccnsump- tion (and therefore tanker...rj. S. ports. B. THE ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE EXPORT ISSUE A second legislative issue, zu.rennly befor the U. S. Congre ss, involvBs -:he poter :-ia

  1. Noise and Man 󈨡. Noise as a Public Health Problem. Proceedings of the International Congress (6th) Held in Nice on July 5 - 9, 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    l’Ouest et le Japon . Ceci est refl&t6 dans plus de 60 contributions dans ce domaine de recherche A ce congres. Nous avons dO structurer ces nombreuses...en particulier en Europe et au Japon - prdvoient le ddveloppemnent de groupe mocopropulseurs A faible dmission de bruit et de pneus silencicux. Les

  2. Ideas and Weapons.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    dian twice tile strenigth Ii aircraft for observation. AppreciationI of tile doctrine of bombardment was by no mecans * lilitul to military circles...question thle pr)r’)1ietV of using transcripts of Congressional hearings indis- cf-iwiuatclv11 as a soul-cc of facts. UThat witnessesi before Congres- sIonal

  3. Some factors affecting productivity in Abert's Towhee

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    1984-01-01

    Abert's Towhee (Pipilo aberti) is restricted to desert riparian zones of Arizona and bordering states (Phillips et al., The Birds of Arizona, Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, 1964). Its breeding behavior, communication, and physiological responses have been detailed by Marshall (Condor 62:49-64, 1960; pp. 620-622 in Proc. XIII Int. Omithol. Congr., Ithaca,...

  4. The effects of sous-vide cooking parameters on texture and cell wall modifications in two apple cultivars: A response surface methodology approach.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Abel; Le Meurlay, Dominique; Lara, Isabel; Symoneaux, Ronan; Madieta, Emmanuel; Mehinagic, Emira

    2017-03-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the effects of sous-vide cooking parameters, such as time and temperature and their interactions, on textural attributes of 'Mondial Gala' and 'Granny Smith' apple cultivars. For this, different response surface methodology-based models were developed. This methodology proved a suitable means for the assessment of changes in textural parameters and cell wall modifications during the processing of apples. 'Mondial Gala' fruit displayed better aptitude for the preservation of textural properties after high-temperature processing conditions and were therefore apparently more suited to sous-vide cooking than 'Granny Smith' apples. Pectin methylesterase activity levels in 'Mondial Gala' apples were enhanced at mild temperatures and pectins in this cultivar displayed a lower degree of methylation. Therefore, the establishment of calcium-mediated linkages between cell wall polymers might have been favoured in 'Mondial Gala' apples, thus reinforcing tissues and improving the preservation of textural attributes, in comparison to 'Granny Smith' samples.

  5. Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy: Totalitarian Menace or Monolithic Illusion? An Analysis of the Axis Coalition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-17

    Analysis of Italy’s Economic Experiment (Cambridge, MS: Harvard University Press, 1938), 54. 103Lucio Ceva, Guerra Mondiale: Strategic e industria ...Czechoslovakia’s iron and steel output, 80 percent of its textiles , 86 percent of its chemical, 70 percent of its electric power and its entire...deployed to the Eastern front from 22 June to 26 November 1941. 56Nolte, 357. 57Lucio Ceva, Guerra Mondiale – Strategic e industria bellica – 1939-1945

  6. Comparison of selected animal observations and management practices used to assess welfare of calves and adult dairy cows on organic and conventional dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M A; Richert, R M; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

    2014-07-01

    Differences in adoption of selected practices used in welfare assessment and audit programs were contrasted among organic (ORG; n=192) herds and similarly sized conventional grazing herds (CON-GR; n=36), and conventional nongrazing herds (CON-NG; n=64). Criteria from 3 programs were assessed: American Humane Association Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle, Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM), and the Canadian Codes of Practice (CCP). Data were collected by trained study personnel during a herd visit and included information about neonatal care, dehorning, pain relief, calf nutrition, weaning, record keeping, use of veterinarians, and animal observations. Associations of management type (ORG, CON-GR, or CON-NG) with adoption of selected practice were assessed. Almost all farms (97%) met criteria suggested for age at weaning but fewer CON-NG farmers weaned calves at ≥5 wk of age compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Only 23% of farms met program requirements for use of pain relief during dehorning, and fewer CON-NG farmers used pain relief for calves after dehorning compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Calves on ORG farms were fed a greater volume of milk and were weaned at an older age than calves on CON-GR and CON-NG farms. Calves on CON-GR farms were dehorned at a younger age compared with calves on ORG and CON-NG farms. The calving area was shared with lactating cows for a larger proportion of ORG herds compared with conventional herds. About 30% of herds met welfare program criteria for body condition score but only about 20% met criteria for animal hygiene scores. The least proportion of cows with hock lesions was observed on ORG farms. Regular use of veterinarians was infrequent for ORG herds. Results of this study indicate that most of the organic and conventional farms enrolled in this study would have been unlikely to achieve many criteria of audit and assessment programs currently used in the US dairy industry.

  7. Creativity and Democratic Governance. Adult Learning: A Strategic Choice. Proceedings of the ICAE World Assembly (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, August 9-12, 2001) = Creativite et Gouvernance Democratique. L'apprentissage des Adultes: Un Choix Strategique. Actes de la Assemblee Mondiale du CIEA (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaique, 9 au 12 aout 2001) = Creatividad y Gobernabilidad Democratica. Educacion de Adultos: Una Eleccion Estrategica. Actas de la Asamblea Mundial del ICAE (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, Agosto 9-12, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Stephan, Ed.

    This document contains information from and about a world assembly on creativity and democratic governance in adult learning that was held by the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE) and its partner organizations in the Caribbean. The proceedings begin with English, French, and Spanish translations of the address…

  8. Creativity and Democratic Governance. Adult Learning: A Strategic Choice. Proceedings of the ICAE World Assembly (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, August 9-12, 2001) = Creativite et Gouvernance Democratique. L'apprentissage des Adultes: Un Choix Strategique. Actes de la Assemblee Mondiale du CIEA (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaique, 9 au 12 aout 2001) = Creatividad y Gobernabilidad Democratica. Educacion de Adultos: Una Eleccion Estrategica. Actas de la Asamblea Mundial del ICAE (6th, Ocho Rios, Jamaica, Agosto 9-12, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Stephan, Ed.

    This document contains information from and about a world assembly on creativity and democratic governance in adult learning that was held by the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE) and its partner organizations in the Caribbean. The proceedings begin with English, French, and Spanish translations of the address…

  9. A Bibliography: 1964-1967. Supplement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-01-01

    General Hubert R. Harmon, 1954-1956 Major General James E. Briggs , 1956-1959 Major General William S. Stone, 1959-1962 Major General Robert H...professionalism in our Service academies. Remarks of Samuel S. Stratton . Congres- sional Record, vol. Ill, pt. 1, 89th Cong., 1st Sess. , 1965. pp. 1416... Stratton , F. Edward Hebert and others. Congressional Record, vol. HI, pt. 2, 89th Cong,, 1st Sess. , 1965. pp. 1628-34. 33 U. S

  10. Cobalt nanoparticles/nitrogen-doped graphene with high nitrogen doping efficiency as noble metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jingwen; Hassan, Mehboob; Zhu, Dongsheng; Guo, Liping; Bo, Xiangjie

    2017-03-15

    Nitrogen-doped graphene (N/GR) has been considered as active metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, the nitrogen (N) doping efficiency is very low and only few N atoms are doped into the framework of GR. To boost the N doping efficiency, in this work, a confined pyrolysis method with high N doping efficiency is used for the preparation of cobalt nanoparticles/nitrogen-doped GR (Co/N/GR). Under the protection of SiO2, the inorganic ligand NH3 in cobalt amine complex ([Co(NH3)6](3+)) is trapped in the confined space and then can be effectively doped into the framework of GR without the introduction of any carbon residues. Meanwhile, due to the redox reaction between the cobalt ions and carbon atoms of GR, Co nanoparticles are supported into the framework of N/GR. Due to prevention of GR layer aggregation with SiO2, the Co/N/GR with high dispersion provides sufficient surface area and maximum opportunity for the exposure of Co nanoparticles and active sites of N dopant. By combination of enhanced N doping efficiency, Co nanoparticles and high dispersion of GR sheets, the Co/N/GR is remarkably active, cheap and selective noble-metal free catalysts for ORR.

  11. Quest-2003 Polarimetric Signature Trial: Experiment Design, SAR Calibration, Data Acquisition and Initial Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    quatre dtalonneurs radar actifs (ARC) et deux stations de base GPS (systbme de positionnement mondial). La BFC Shearwater offre un terrain relativement...des passages du radar. L’acquisition de I’ensemble de donn~es PolSAR a dtd effectude Ai l’aide du capteur SAR entidrement polarim6trique a6roportd...6tait constitu6 de quatre rdflecteurs 5 coin (CR), quatre 6talonneurs radar actifs (ARC) et deux stations de base GPS (systbme de positionnement mondial

  12. L'education bilingue: Pour quoi faire? (Bilingual Education: For What Purpose?). Cahiers du CMIEB, Number 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borga, Charlotte, Ed.

    This issue contains five articles on aspects of bilingualism and bilingual education, as well as documentation on the "Centre Mondial d'Information sur l'Education Bilingue" (CMIEB). The introductory article presents reasons for being able to communicate in more than one language in the world as it is today, and proposes that bilingual education…

  13. Shaba II: The French and Belgian Intervention in Zaire in 1978

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    farewell, and the troops lined up for a hurried series of vaccinations . Each 727 was packed with 180 paras along with their rucksacks and weapons. Even...Djibouti, Kolwezi, Beyrouth. Paris: Presses de la Cite, 1984 _ Histoire Mondiale des Parachutistes. Paris: Societ6 de Production Litteraire, 1974. . La

  14. The Computer and the Pre-School Child; The Written Language and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naymark, J.; Plaisant, C.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a Centre Mondial Informatique et Resources Humaines (CIMRH) investigation of kindergarten children's written language learning and links between play and learning. Computer software was used by students for language learning, and observations centered on student computer use, learning of written language and play, and computer…

  15. The Computer and the Pre-School Child; The Written Language and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naymark, J.; Plaisant, C.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a Centre Mondial Informatique et Resources Humaines (CIMRH) investigation of kindergarten children's written language learning and links between play and learning. Computer software was used by students for language learning, and observations centered on student computer use, learning of written language and play, and computer…

  16. [The transport nurse].

    PubMed

    Le Gal, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    Caring, reassuring, supporting and repatriating people in medical distress from anywhere in the world: such is the day-to-day work of the repatriation nurses at Mondial Assistance. Ludovic Le Gal has been doing this job for the last eleven years with a passion which has remained undiminished.

  17. A quoi ça CERN? De l'invention du Web à la Grille de calcul, l'informatique pour tous?

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Venez débattre autour de l'ordinateur ayant servi à réaliser la première page Web au monde et découvrir sur le grand écran la Grille de calcul mondiale The video is black for the first 9 mns

  18. Focusing Resources on Effective School Health: A FRESH Start to Enhancing the Quality and Equity of Education. World Education Forum 2000. Final Report = Accorder la priorite a un programme efficace de sante scolaire: Une maniere FRAICHE (FRESH) d'aneliorer la qualite et d'accroitre l'equite dans le domaine de l'education. Forum mondial 2000 sur l'education. Rapport final = Recursos efectivos en salud escolar: Un enfogue NUEVO para mejorar la calidad y la equidad educativa. Foro Mundial par la educacion 2000. Informe final.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This booklet, written in English, Spanish, and French, describes the foundation and reasoning behind the partnership to Focus on Resources on Effective School Health (FRESH), making the case that an effective school health program: responds to the greater number of school-age children and the greater proportion of those children attending school;…

  19. Effect of Antimicrobial Peptide KSL-W on Human Gingival Tissue and C. albicans Growth, Transition and Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase (SAPS) 2, 4, 5 and 6 Expressions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Kai P and Rouabhia Mahmoud. Un nouveau peptide antimicrobien contrôle la virulence de Candida en réduisant sa viabilité via un processus d’apoptose...contrôle la virulence de Candida en réduisant sa viabilité via un processus d’apoptose et de nécrose. Journée de la recherche faculté de médecine – 30... Candida albicans et la formation de biofilm en diminuant l’expression de plusieurs gènes de virulence. 81e Congrès de l’Acfas, du 6 au 10 mai 2013

  20. Chemotherapy of Rodent Malaria. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    education and , having passed the examination for Higher National Certificate in Medical Laboratory Tecnnology (Ms ’e.-st) and Applied Biology (Ms...Soc. trop. Med. Hyg., 1985, 79, 426. B7AY, D.H., O’Neill, M.J., Board man, P., PETERS, W., Phillipson, J.D. and WARHURST, D.C. Plants of the Family ...de CM 6606 chez la souris. 2nd Congres International de Medicine Tropicale de Langue wrancia, Sousse, (Tunisie), 1985. ROBINSON, B.L., PETERS, W. and

  1. Displacive Transformation in Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-28

    Situ TEM Study of Hillebrandite (Ca2SiO4* H2O ) Decomposition," Y. J. Kim and W. M. Kriven, Proc. 13th Int. Congr. on Electron Microscopy to be held in...The use of different oxygen partial pressures CaSO4 . The resistance was recorded every 30-60 s also allowed for the estimation of equilibrium defect...respectively. A scrubbing column containing CaO and CaSO4 was used to remove water vapor and CO2 from the gas. & Results and Discussion 3.1. IN

  2. Assessment of herd management on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    PubMed

    Stiglbauer, K E; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Richert, R; Schukken, Y H; Ruegg, P L; Gamroth, M

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate management characteristics on organic and similarly sized conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from 192 organic farms (ORG), 64 conventional nongrazing farms (CON-NG), and 36 conventional grazing farms (CON-GR) were collected during farm visits and were size-matched and analyzed. The average lactation number of animals on ORG and CON-GR farms was 2.6 lactations, which was greater than that on CON-NG farms (2.3 lactations). A greater percentage of first-lactation heifers were found on conventional farms than on ORG farms. Facilities used by adult animals, including housing and milking facilities, did not differ among the grazing systems. Cattle on conventional farms were fed approximately twice as much grain as cattle on ORG farms and had greater milk production. Little difference was found for the average reported somatic cell count and standard plate count, suggesting that milk quality is not dependent on grazing system. Milking procedures were similar across all 3 grazing systems, indicating that an industry standard now exists for milking and that milk quality problems will need to be addressed with other management problems in mind. Although some disease prevention measures were commonly utilized on ORG farms, such as keeping a closed herd and having a written record of treatments administered to the animals, the use of outside support and vaccinations were found to be less prevalent on organic farms than on conventional farms.

  3. Everest

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Chris Bonington, est né à Hampstead et a fait des études à University Collège School à Londres et au Royal Military Academy à Sundhorst. Il est un alpiniste mondialement connu qui a fait un grand nombre de premiers ascensions, comme celle de la face sud-ouest de l'Everest avec une équipe de 70 hommes en septembre 1975

  4. Everest

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-20

    Chris Bonington, est né à Hampstead et a fait des études à University Collège School à Londres et au Royal Military Academy à Sundhorst. Il est un alpiniste mondialement connu qui a fait un grand nombre de premiers ascensions, comme celle de la face sud-ouest de l'Everest avec une équipe de 70 hommes en septembre 1975

  5. Conference Salam/Musset

    SciTech Connect

    2006-05-12

    Le DG L.Van Hove introduit le Prof. A.Salam né en 1926 dans l'ouest du Pakistan, un des gagnants du prix nobel de physique de cette année. Célébration de ses contributions théoriques mondialement connues. Après chaque discours, un petit historique est présenté par Paul Musset. Mention honorable aussi pour l'expérience Gargamelle et ses collaborateurs.

  6. Geoffrey Burbidge : L'art de la critique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1997-06-01

    Avec pres de cinquante ans de carriere derriere lui, Geoffrey Burbidge n'a rien perdu de son gout du débat et de la controverse. Mondialement reconnu pour ses travaux sur les quasars, il en agace aujourd'hui plus d'un en venant deranger le bel ordonnancement de la cosmologie. Il porte sur le monde scientifique un regard tres critique, condamnant notamment ces chercheurs qui acceptent trop volontiers d'emprunter les chemins tout traces.

  7. Reflective mulch enhances ripening and health compounds in apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Overbeck, Verena; Schmitz-Eiberger, Michaela A; Blanke, Michael M

    2013-08-15

    The objective of the study was to improve fruit quality, including health compounds, by improving light utilization for fruit crops under hail net. Four reflective mulches including plastics such as Extenday® and a bio-degradable paper were spread in the alleyways of a cv. 'Gala Mondial' apple orchard on 10 August 2010 5 weeks before anticipated harvest. Reflective mulch affected neither fruit firmness nor sugar, but accelerated starch breakdown, indicative of riper fruits (smaller Streif index), compared with the uncovered grass alleyway (control). Reflective mulches also improved fruit quality such as red coloration of cv. 'Gala Mondial' apples. This was due to significantly enhanced flavonoids and anthocyanins. Flavonoids increased up to 52.4% in the Extenday® treatment (29.2 nmol cm(-2) in the grass control versus 44.5 nmol cm(-2) fruit peel with reflective mulch). Similarly, reflective mulch improved anthocyanin content in cv. 'Gala Mondial' peel up to 66% compared to grass control (14.5 nmol cm(-2) in control fruit versus 24.1 nmol cm(-2) with reflective mulch). The reflective mulch did not affect chlorophyll and carotenoid content in the 'Gala' fruit peel. Overall, the application of reflective mulches improved fruit quality in terms of better coloration and health compounds and accelerated ripening, leading to higher market value. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. [1894-1906: new ideas and practice against industrial accidents in Italy].

    PubMed

    Porro, A; Franchini, A F; Lorusso, L; Falconi, B

    2010-01-01

    In October 1894 was held in Milan the III Congrés International des Accidents du Travail et des Assurances Sociales. 747 delegates participated, coming from 16 nations. In this Congress the theme of a special medical assistance in the industrial accidents was approached for the first time in Italy. In March, 1895 also the Milanese trade union office dealt him with the matter, organizing a specific congress. The trade union movement realized the necessity to approach the problem of industrial accidents. 170 delegates participated to the Congress. The 1895 Congress also represented the occasion for the dawning feminist movement to come into contact with the working class. In 1896 the Association for the Medical Assistance in the Industrial Accidents in Milan was founded. The Association started up a clinical institute. At the end of the XIXth century, with prevention and therapeutic interventions the problem of industrial accidents was faced.

  9. Conference Salam/Musset

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le DG L.Van Hove introduit le Prof. A.Salam né en 1926 dans l'ouest du Pakistan, un des gagnants du prix nobel de physique de cette année. Célébration de ses contributions théoriques mondialement connues. Après chaque discours, un petit historique est présenté par Paul Musset. Mention honorable aussi pour l'expérience Gargamelle et ses collaborateurs.

  10. Special Course on Acoustic Wave Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    l.Recipient’s Reference 2.Originator’s Reference 3.Further Reference 4.Security Classification of Document AGARD-R-686 ISBN 92-835-0248-5 UNCLASSIFIED 5...3L t’acoustique eat d’Ariatote (384-322 av. .Y.C.) qui a effectud una classification des diffdrentes branches de l’acoustique en cansacrant une part...silence a cotia- tique at balistique. DepuiS la econde guerre mondiale de tres nombreux travaux Sur la propagation acoustique dans les fluides et das

  11. Integration of Externally Carried Weapon Systems with Military Helicopters (L’Integration des Systemes d’Armes Transportes en Charge Externe sur les Helicopteres Militaires)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    structurales. Le rapport traite 6galement de questions op ~ rationnelles et de certains probl~mes spicifiques. Le teXte eat compiti par trois annexes: - Annexe I...origines modestes pendant la deuxiinme guerre mondiale o6 it~ a k6e deploye principalement conime plateforme d’observation et v~hicule de recherche et de...appropries de Ia communaute de I’OTAN. Des efforts considirables ont iti faits lors des recherches dc donneies pour assurer l’exhaustivit. Alors it eat

  12. Effect of low-temperature long-time and high-temperature short-time blanching and frying treatments on the French fry quality of six Irish potato cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ngobese, Nomali Ziphorah; Workneh, Tilahun Seyoum; Siwela, Muthulisi

    2017-02-01

    Processing conditions are an important determinant of French fry quality. However, the effect of low-temperature long-time (LTLT) and high-temperature short-time (HTST) blanching and frying treatments has not been investigated in many cultivars. The current study investigates the effect of the sequential application of these treatments on French fries processed from six Irish potato cultivars (Fianna, Innovator, Mondial, Navigator, Panamera and Savanna). Blanching was effected at 75 °C for 10 min or 85 °C for 5 min and frying was effected at 160 °C for 2 min or 180 °C for 1 min. These treatments resulted in significant differences in the quality of the fries across the cultivars. The blanching treatments had a greater impact on the French fry quality than the frying treatments. LTLT blanching resulted in lower oil (12-13% fresh mass basis [fmb]), and higher protein (3.5-4.3% fmb) and mineral content in the French fries processed from Innovator, compared to HTST blanching. This was accompanied by a crispier crust, which required a greater puncture force (1.2-2.1 N) for penetration. Blanching with the LTLT treatment before HTST frying resulted in French fries that were the most acceptable to consumers and these were from Fianna, Innovator and Mondial. The current study demonstrates that the effect of French fry processing conditions is cultivar-dependent.

  13. Wave Optics Simulation of Optically Augmented Retroreflections for Mononstatic/Bistatic Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Laser Range Equation," , 2008. 98 [24] Walter P Cole, M A Marciniak, S C Cain, J E McCrae, and M B Haeri, "Laser Illumination of Optical...19 e . Modeling Atmospheric Turbulence...39 E . Summary ...........................................................................................................42 IV

  14. The Passover locus in Drosophila melanogaster: complex complementation and different effects on the giant fiber neural pathway.

    PubMed

    Baird, D H; Schalet, A P; Wyman, R J

    1990-12-01

    Drosophila melanogaster bearing the Passover mutation fail to jump in response to a light-off stimulus. Pas also disrupts some of the synapses between the neurons of the giant fiber system which mediate this escape behavior. We have mapped Pas to the 19E subdivision of the polytene X chromosome. Our genetic analyses reveal that deletions of either of two nonoverlapping regions fail to fully complement Pas. Heterozygotes of Pas with chromosomal deletions in the vicinity of polytene band 19E3 exhibit the full set of neuronal defects shown by Pas homozygotes. Alleles of the R-9-29 complementation group, which maps to band 19E3, exhibit a complex pattern of complementation with Pas. Heterozygotes combining the lethal R-9-29 alleles with Pas are all viable, some complement the neuronal defects of Pas, but most exhibit these defects. The viable shaking-B2 mutation also fails to complement Pas, the R-9-29 alleles or the 19E3 deficiencies. The R-9-29 locus may contain two functional domains, one required for viability the other for normal neuronal phenotype, trans-Heterozygotes bearing mutant alleles or a deficiency of the first region (19E3) together with deficiencies of the second region (19E5-6) also exhibit some of the neuronal defects shown by the Passover mutant. Deficiencies which delete the entire 19E3 to 19E6 interval do not produce this phenotype when heterozygous with a normal X chromosome. Thus normal function requires a cis-interaction between the two regions. These findings raise the possibility that the gene mutated by Pas is split or separated from a cis-activator by at least one other gene.

  15. The Passover Locus in Drosophila Melanogaster: Complex Complementation and Different Effects on the Giant Fiber Neural Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Baird, D. H.; Schalet, A. P.; Wyman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster bearing the Passover mutation fail to jump in response to a light-off stimulus. Pas also disrupts some of the synapses between the neurons of the giant fiber system which mediate this escape behavior. We have mapped Pas to the 19E subdivision of the polytene X chromosome. Our genetic analyses reveal that deletions of either of two nonoverlapping regions fail to fully complement Pas. Heterozygotes of Pas with chromosomal deletions in the vicinity of polytene band 19E3 exhibit the full set of neuronal defects shown by Pas homozygotes. Alleles of the R-9-29 complementation group, which maps to band 19E3, exhibit a complex pattern of complementation with Pas. Heterozygotes combining the lethal R-9-29 alleles with Pas are all viable, some complement the neuronal defects of Pas, but most exhibit these defects. The viable shaking-B(2) mutation also fails to complement Pas, the R-9-29 alleles or the 19E3 deficiencies. The R-9-29 locus may contain two functional domains, one required for viability the other for normal neuronal phenotype. trans-Heterozygotes bearing mutant alleles or a deficiency of the first region (19E3) together with deficiencies of the second region (19E5-6) also exhibit some of the neuronal defects shown by the Passover mutant. Deficiencies which delete the entire 19E3 to 19E6 interval do not produce this phenotype when heterozygous with a normal X chromosome. Thus normal function requires a cis-interaction between the two regions. These findings raise the possibility that the gene mutated by Pas is split or separated from a cis-activator by at least one other gene. PMID:2127576

  16. Forecasting landslide activations by means of GA-SAKe. An example of application to three case studies in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovine, Giulio G. R.; De Rango, Alessio; Gariano, Stefano L.; Terranova, Oreste G.

    2016-04-01

    Science and Practice, Margottini, Canuti, Sassa (Eds.), Vol. 3, pp.73-79. [2] Terranova O.G., Gariano S.L., Iaquinta P. & Iovine G.G.R. (2015). Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1955-1978. [3] Iovine G., Iaquinta P. & Terranova O. (2009). In Anderssen, Braddock & Newham (Eds.), Proc. 18th World IMACS Congr. and MODSIM09 Int. Congr. on Modelling and Simulation, pp. 2686-2693. [4] Iovine G., Lollino P., Gariano S.L. & Terranova O.G. (2010). NHESS, 10, 2341-2354. [5] Capparelli G., Iaquinta P., Iovine G., Terranova O.G. & Versace P. (2012). Natural Hazards, 61(1), pp.247-256.

  17. Dissolution of indium by liquid mercury with turbulent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellows, J. F. R.; Sullivan, T. S.; Liu, Y.; Ecke, R. E.

    1996-03-01

    When a solid is dissolved by an overlying fluid that is more dense, the rate of dissolution is likely to be controlled by bouyancy-induced, turbulent convective flow. We have measured the rate at which solid indium is dissolved by liquid solutions of indium in mercury of concentrations ranging from pure Hg to the saturated concentration of In in Hg. We compare our results to measurements we have made on the dissolution rate of salts dissolving in aqueous solutions of the salts (T.S. Sullivan, W.J. Brown, M.D. Kerkel, and R.E. Ecke, Phys. Letters) A 206, 49 (1995). and to a marginally stable, boundary layer model. (L. Howard, in Proc. 11th Int. Congr. of Applied Mechanics), Munich, ed. H. Gortler (Springer, Berlin, 1966). In addition, we will present images of the surface of the In after the dissolution is stopped and compare the length scales evident in the resulting patterns to estimates of the boundary layer thickness.

  18. Human factors in computing systems: focus on patient-centered health communication at the ACM SIGCHI conference.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Lauren; Patel, Rupa; Chen, Yunan; Shachak, Aviv

    2013-12-01

    Health Information Technologies, such as electronic health records (EHR) and secure messaging, have already transformed interactions among patients and clinicians. In addition, technologies supporting asynchronous communication outside of clinical encounters, such as email, SMS, and patient portals, are being increasingly used for follow-up, education, and data reporting. Meanwhile, patients are increasingly adopting personal tools to track various aspects of health status and therapeutic progress, wishing to review these data with clinicians during consultations. These issues have drawn increasing interest from the human-computer interaction (HCI) community, with special focus on critical challenges in patient-centered interactions and design opportunities that can address these challenges. We saw this community presenting and interacting at the ACM SIGCHI 2013, Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, (also known as CHI), held April 27-May 2nd, 2013 at the Palais de Congrès de Paris in France. CHI 2013 featured many formal avenues to pursue patient-centered health communication: a well-attended workshop, tracks of original research, and a lively panel discussion. In this report, we highlight these events and the main themes we identified. We hope that it will help bring the health care communication and the HCI communities closer together.

  19. Second Meeting of the French CEIP (Centres d'Évaluation et d'Information sur la Pharmacodépendance). Part I: How to Evaluate and Prevent the Abuse and Dependence on Hypnotic/Anxiolytic Drugs?

    PubMed

    Micallef-Roll, Joëlle; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse

    2009-01-01

    Les deuxièmes journées de Pharmacodépendances organisées par le réseau français des CEIP Addictovigilance (Centres d'Évaluation et d'Information sur la Pharmacodépendance) se sont tenues lors du congrès annuel de la Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique en 2008. Elles avaient pour thème l'abus et la pharmacodépendance des anxiolytiques et hypnotiques en combinant plusieurs approches pharmacoépidémiologiques, épidémiologiques et thérapeutiques. Les données présentées en première partie ont synthétisé l'apport des outils pharmacoépidémiologiques développés par les CEIP et ont souligné les différences en terme d'abus et de dépendance au sein de cette classe des anxiolytiques et hypnotiques. La deuxième partie a porté sur les caractéristiques de cette consommation a sein de la population âgée et a souligné le peu d'informations disponibles sur les facteurs associés à ce comportement, son dépistage, son évaluation, son diagnostic et son traitement.

  20. A concatenational graph evolution aging model.

    PubMed

    Suo, Jinli; Chen, Xilin; Shan, Shiguang; Gao, Wen; Dai, Qionghai

    2012-11-01

    Modeling the long-term face aging process is of great importance for face recognition and animation, but there is a lack of sufficient long-term face aging sequences for model learning. To address this problem, we propose a CONcatenational GRaph Evolution (CONGRE) aging model, which adopts decomposition strategy in both spatial and temporal aspects to learn long-term aging patterns from partially dense aging databases. In spatial aspect, we build a graphical face representation, in which a human face is decomposed into mutually interrelated subregions under anatomical guidance. In temporal aspect, the long-term evolution of the above graphical representation is then modeled by connecting sequential short-term patterns following the Markov property of aging process under smoothness constraints between neighboring short-term patterns and consistency constraints among subregions. The proposed model also considers the diversity of face aging by proposing probabilistic concatenation strategy between short-term patterns and applying scholastic sampling in aging prediction. In experiments, the aging prediction results generated by the learned aging models are evaluated both subjectively and objectively to validate the proposed model.

  1. [Congresses of the Croatian Medical Association regarding unpublished proceedings of the 10th congress in Zadar on September 25-28, 1996].

    PubMed

    Drazancić, Ante

    2011-01-01

    The first annual meeting of Croatian physicians, with characteristics of a congress, was held in 1899 at the 25th anniversary of the Croatian Medical Association. From 1954 to 1996, during almost 60 years of existence of the Croatian Medical Association, ten congresses of the Association were held. The congresses were during the development of modern medicine devoted to different medical questions, including some problems of national pathology, of the structure and restructuring of health care. The work and the content of congresses were published in the proceedings except for the 8th Congress in 1987 and the 10th in 1996. By reading main lectures, invited lectures and free papers the knowledge of that period can be gained. Many papers are even today actual, even today it could be learned from them. With more details, using published proceedings the 9th congress and the 10th congress are described on the basis preserved program, of a brief report in home journal and ample preserved correspondence. The national medical congres dedicated to technology advancement and to numerous problems of national pathology may be actual even today. They could help to solve many problems of health care, contribute to its improvement and convey consensus on its further development.

  2. Les vies de Galilée

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-26

    Qu'est-ce que l'astronomie? A quoi sert-elle ? Qui était Galilée ? Une soirée avec Fiami, auteur et dessinateur autour des vies de Galilée, titre de son nouvel ouvrage. Galilée y joue le protagoniste ou le complice de grandes découvertes à différentes époques et sous divers profils : Galilée à Babylone (-568) | Galilée à Alexandrie (-197) | Galilée en Inde (499) | Galilée à Venise (1609) | Galilée et Halley (1705) | Galilée revient (2009) Dans le cadre de l'année mondiale de l'astronomie. » Tout public » Entrée libre » Réservation groupes au +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  3. Gliosarcome cérébral primitif: à propos de deux cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Azami, Mohamed Amine; Alami, Iliass El; Bourhafour, Imane; Belhabib, Salwa; Oukabli, Mohamed; Albouzidi, Abderrahmane

    2017-01-01

    Le gliosarcome est une tumeur cérébrale très rare représentant 1,8 à 8% de l’ensemble des tumeurs gliales. Il est considéré par l’organisation mondiale de la santé comme une variante de glioblastome. C’est une tumeur à double composante gliale et sarcomateuse. Le tableau clinique est polymorphe, les données de l’imagerie sont évocatrices, la confirmation est histologique. Le traitement est essentiellement chirurgical. Le pronostic est lié étroitement à la qualité d’exérèse. Dans notre travail Nous rapportons deux observations cliniques dont l’objectif est de faire le point sur les particularités, essentiellement diagnostiques, thérapeutiques ainsi que pronostiques de cette entité rare. PMID:28904651

  4. Sternum-Sparing Hybrid Repair of a Symptomatic Innominate Artery Aneurysm in a Frail Patient with Bovine Aortic Arch.

    PubMed

    Pellenc, Quentin; Avramenko, Alla; Mordant, Pierre; Castier, Yves

    2016-08-01

    We present the case of a 65-year-old man with a bovine aortic arch variation, who presented a symptomatic aneurysm of the innominate artery. Standard open repair was contraindicated and an hybrid approach was performed, regarding general status (Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) Performance Status score 3 and American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification system score 3). Right common carotid artery and right subclavian artery were revascularized surgically from the left common carotid artery. Proximal aneurysm exclusion was performed with a vascular plug. Follow-up computed tomography angiography confirmed the exclusion of the innominate artery aneurysm. Vascular plugs can be used safely through a sternum-sparing hybrid approach to treat symptomatic innominate artery aneurysms in frail patients.

  5. Une association exceptionnelle d’un liposarcome dédifférencié retro péritonéal et d’un liposarcome bien différencié péri colique: à propos d’un cas

    PubMed Central

    Sinaa, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Le liposarcome est une tumeur mésenchymateuse maligne de nature adipeuse très rare. L'organisation mondiale de la santé classe les liposarcomes en cinq sous-types: bien différencié, myxoïde, pléomorphe, dédifférencié et mixte. L'association de localisation multiples et synchrones de plusieurs sous types des liposarcomes est exceptionnelle. Seulement 34 cas sont décrits dans la littérature. Nous rapportons une observation d'une association synchrone d'un liposarcome dédifférencié retro péritonéal et deux petits liposarcomes bien différenciés type lipoma-like péri coliques. Les aspects anatomopathologiques, les options thérapeutiques et les facteurs pronostics des liposarcomes seront revus dans cet article. PMID:28293370

  6. Grossesses extra utérines successives et bilharziose tubaire chez une touriste française

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Justine; Mottet, Nicolas; Malincenco, Marianna; Gay, Catherine; Royer, Pierre Yves; Riethmuller, Didier

    2016-01-01

    La bilharziose est la seconde endémie parasitaire mondiale et ses atteintes génito urinaires sont bien décrites. Les grossesses ectopiques (GEU) sur obstruction tubaire par les œufs de bilharziose sont rapportées dans les populations africaines. La bilharziose affecte aussi les voyageurs mais l'atteinte de l'appareil génital féminin est plus rare. Nous rapportons un cas exceptionnel de deux GEU successives sur bilharziose tubaire chez une patiente d'origine Française, sept ans après un voyage touristique au Mali, la première découverte sur pièce de salpingectomie et la seconde ayant nécessité une salpingotomie controlatérale avec une injection de méthotrexate, deux mois plus tard. PMID:27200124

  7. L'atteinte vésicale au cours de la neurofibromatose de Von Recklinghausen

    PubMed Central

    Benazzouz, Mohamed Hicham; Hajjad, Tilila; Essatara, Younes; El Sayegh, Hachem; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Nouini, Yassine

    2014-01-01

    La neurofibromatose de type 1 ou maladie de Von Recklinghausen est une maladie génétique autosomique dominante en rapport avec des mutations dans le gène suppresseur de tumeur NF1. L'atteinte uro-génitale au cours de cette maladie est rare et moins de 80 cas ont été rapportés à ce jour dans la littérature mondiale. Les auteurs rapportent un nouveau cas d'atteinte vésicale découverte fortuitement au cours du suivi d'une patiente atteinte de la maladie de Von Recklinghausen. A travers cette observation et une revue de la littérature les auteurs discutent également les difficultés diagnostiques, thérapeutiques ainsi que les modalités de suivi dans cette maladie. PMID:25328590

  8. New constraints from haverah park data on the photon and iron fluxes of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays

    PubMed

    Ave; Hinton; Vazquez; Watson; Zas

    2000-09-11

    Using data from inclined events ( 60 degrees 19) eV less than 41% ( 54%) of the primary cosmic rays can be photons (iron nuclei) at the 95% confidence level. Above 4x10(19) eV less than 65% of the cosmic rays can be photonic at the same confidence level. These limits place important constraints on some models of the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. Details of two new events above 10(20) eV are reported.

  9. Monitoring and modelling for landslide risk mitigation and reduction. The case study of San Benedetto Ullano (Northern Calabria - Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, Oreste G.; Greco, Venanzio R.; Gariano, Stefano L.; Pascale, Stefania; Rago, Valeria; Caloiero, Paola; Iovine, Giulio G. R.

    2016-04-01

    movements caused severe damage to roads and infrastructure. The second crisis ended up in late June: the hydrological model FLaIR was then successfully tested against the known dates of activation of the slope movement, by using a local rain series [3]. Meanwhile, technical support was being assured to the Municipality to optimize geological prospections, monitoring, and design of remedial works of a master plan. A third activation occurred during the night of 15 March 2013, when planned remedial works had not been completed yet. By applying the hydrological model SAKe [4, 5], this activation could be predicted, again permitting the prompt adoption of mitigation measures. Such activation was triggered by rains smaller and shorter than those that caused previous activations, perhaps indicating an apparent increasing fragility of the slope. Changes in slope stability conditions before and after the construction of the remedial works are being investigated. Critical rain conditions and groundwater levels for landslide activation are in fact expected to change, depending on combined effects of natural weakening vs. artificial strengthening. Monitoring will allow to quantitatively verify the new relationships between rainfall, groundwater and slope stability. References [1] Iovine G., Iaquinta P. & Terranova O. (2009). In Anderssen, Braddock & Newham (Eds.), Proc. 18th World IMACS Congr. and MODSIM09 Int. Congr. on Modelling and Simulation, pp. 2686-2693. [2] Iovine G., Lollino P., Gariano S.L. & Terranova O.G. (2010). NHESS, 10, 2341-2354. [3] Capparelli G., Iaquinta P., Iovine G., Terranova O.G. & Versace P. (2012). Natural Hazards, 61(1), pp.247-256. [4] Terranova O.G., Iaquinta P., Gariano S.L., Greco R. & Iovine G. (2013) In: Landslide Science and Practice, Margottini, Canuti, Sassa (Eds.), Vol. 3, pp.73-79. [5] Terranova O.G., Gariano S.L., Iaquinta P. & Iovine G.G.R. (2015). Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1955-1978.

  10. [Industrial first aid equipment: a historical analysis (1840-1914) ].

    PubMed

    Porro, Alessandro; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Falconi, Bruno

    2015-01-09

    Even if references to the tools required to intervene after an accident can be found in the works of Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) or Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821), it was only with the development of industrial manufacturing that the need to study means to prevent and intervene in cases of accident became evident. In October 1894 the III Congrés International des Accidents du Travail et des Assurances Sociales was held in Milan. The following year, the Milanese trade union movement acknowledged the necessity to address the problem of industrial accidents. In 1896 the Association for Medical Assistance in  Industrial Accidents was founded in Milan. A specific medical institute was set up, appropriate first aid tools were collected and first aid rooms in the main Milanese factories were inaugurated. Nevertheless, few data seem to be available regarding the manufacture and use of this equipment in industry. We analyzed more than fifty catalogs of European industrial products, between 1843 and 1914, to study the evolution of first aid equipment for industrial use. They reflect and attest to the evolution of medicine and surgery, although some models seem to be related to certain industrial categories (railways, electrical appliances), some were similar to ordinary first aid boxes, others were strictly related to surgery; some could only be used by physicians, and others only by workers. Identification, conservation, and reappraisal of these tools is essential for historians of occupational health because these objects were normally not preserved. The catalogues of industrial production are also precious sources, since they are rarely preserved in public libraries and deserve to be used for historical studies.

  11. The neutron channeling phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Khanouchi, A; Sabir, A; Boulkheir, M; Ichaoui, R; Ghassoun, J; Jehouani, A

    1997-01-01

    Shields, used for protection against radiation, are often pierced with vacuum channels for passing cables and other instruments for measurements. The neutron transmission through these shields is an unavoidable phenomenon. In this work we study and discuss the effect of channels on neutron transmission through shields. We consider an infinite homogeneous slab, with a fixed thickness (20 lambda, with lambda the mean free path of the neutron in the slab), which contains a vacuum channel. This slab is irradiated with an infinite source of neutrons on the left side and on the other side (right side) many detectors with windows equal to 2 lambda are placed in order to evaluate the neutron transmission probabilities (Khanouchi, A., Aboubekr, A., Ghassoun, J. and Jehouani, A. (1994) Rencontre Nationale des Jeunes Chercheurs en Physique. Casa Blanca Maroc; Khanouchi, A., Sabir, A., Ghassoun, J. and Jehouani, A. (1995) Premier Congré International des Intéractions Rayonnements Matière. Eljadida Maroc). The neutron history within the slab is simulated by the Monte Carlo method (Booth, T. E. and Hendricks, J. S. (1994) Nuclear Technology 5) and using the exponential biasing technique in order to improve the Monte Carlo calculation (Levitt, L. B. (1968) Nuclear Science and Engineering 31, 500-504; Jehouani, A., Ghassoun, J. and Aboubker, A. (1994) In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Radiation Physics, Rabat, Morocco). Then different geometries of the vacuum channel have been studied. For each geometry we have determined the detector response and calculated the neutron transmission probability for different detector positions. This neutron transmission probability presents a peak for the detectors placed in front of the vacuum channel. This study allowed us to clearly identify the neutron channeling phenomenon. One application of our study is to detect vacuum defects in materials.

  12. The ESA Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio Rossi, Angelo; Cecconi, Baptiste; Fraenz, Markus; Hagermann, Axel; Heather, David; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Svedhem, Hakan; Widemann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    ESA has established a Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG), with the task of offering independent advice to ESA's Planetary Science Archive (e.g. Heather et al., 2013). The PSA-UG is an official and independent body that continuously evaluates services and tools provided by the PSA to the community of planetary data scientific users. The group has been tasked with the following top level objectives: a) Advise ESA on future development of the PSA. b) Act as a focus for the interests of the scientific community. c) Act as an advocate for the PSA. d) Monitor the PSA activities. Based on this, the PSA-UG will report through the official ESA channels. Disciplines and subjects represented by PSA-UG members include: Remote Sensing of both Atmosphere and Solid Surfaces, Magnetospheres, Plasmas, Radio Science and Auxilliary data. The composition of the group covers ESA missions populating the PSA both now and in the near future. The first members of the PSA-UG were selected in 2013 and will serve for 3 years, until 2016. The PSA-UG will address the community through workshops, conferences and the internet. Written recommendations will be made to the PSA coordinator, and an annual report on PSA and the PSA-UG activities will be sent to the Solar System Exploration Working Group (SSEWG). Any member of the community and planetary data user can get in touch with individual members of the PSA-UG or with the group as a whole via the contacts provided on the official PSA-UG web-page: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa/psa-ug. The PSA is accessible via: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa References: Heather, D., Barthelemy, M., Manaud, N., Martinez, S., Szumlas, M., Vazquez, J. L., Osuna, P. and the PSA Development Team (2013) ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Status, Activities and Plans. EuroPlanet Sci. Congr. #EPSC2013-626

  13. Social individualism: Walter Gropius and his appropriation of Franz Müller-Lyer's idea of a new man.

    PubMed

    Poppelreuter, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    In 1929, Walter Gropius developed the "High-Rise Steel Frame Apartment Building" that was based on theories about the emergence of a New Man put forward by sociologist Franz Müller-Lyer. In his lecture at the Congrès International d’Architecture Moderne conference in 1929, Gropius appropriated Müller-Lyer's sociology in order to promote and prompt the re-development of high-rise tenements and master households. Gropius’ 1931 contribution to the Deutsche Bauausstellung in Berlin incorporated a full-scale community lounge and a recreation area with sporting equipment, as well as a model and plans for a "High-Rise Steel Frame Apartment Building" that were designed in accordance with Müller-Lyer's theories. While it shows Müller-Lyer's influence, the boxing equipment found in the recreation area reflects the importance that sport, and boxing in particular, had gained after 1900. Boxing was perceived as a sport that would not only further fitness but also raise the spirits and help the inhabitant to succeed in the modern urban environment. By providing boxing equipment, Müller-Lyer's vision, which envisaged master households as furthering a community of peaceful individuals living in a condition of mutual trust, is weakened. In 1923, the sociologist Helmuth Plessner had regarded utopian visions of ideal communities as antithesis to actual events in the Weimar Republic. The embracing of theories that promised an evolutionary and linear development towards peaceful communities can be regarded as a counterreaction to a present that was perceived as an imperfect and temporary condition. Furthermore, Gropius’ appropriation of Müller-Lyer's sociology not only helped to distinguish his position from Marxist and socialist theories but also illustrated the contemporary tendency to accept utopian ideas while simultaneously doubting the practicality of some.

  14. Characterization of the neutralizing epitopes of VP7 of the Gottfried strain of porcine rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Kang, S Y; Benfield, D A; Gorziglia, M; Saif, L J

    1993-09-01

    The neutralization epitopes of the outer capsid protein VP7 of a porcine group A rotavirus were studied by using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (N-MAbs). Six N-MAbs which were specific for the VP7 protein of the Gottfried strain of porcine rotavirus (serotype G4) were used for analyzing the antigenic sites of VP7. Three different approaches were used for this analysis: testing the serological reactivity of each N-MAb against different G serotypes of human and animal rotaviruses, analyzing N-MAb-resistant viral antigenic variants, and performing a nucleotide sequence analysis of the VP7 gene of each of the viral antigenic variants generated. From the serological analyses, three different reactivity patterns were recognized by plaque reduction virus neutralization and cell culture immunofluorescence tests. A single MAb (RG36H9) reacted with animal rotavirus serotypes G3 and G4 but not with human serotypes G3 and G4. The MAb 57/8 (D. A. Benfield, E. A. Nelson, and Y. Hoshino, p. 111, in Abstr. VIIth Internat. Congr. Virol., 1987, and E. R. Mackow, R. D. Shaw, S. M. Matsui, P. T. Vo, D. A. Benfield, and H. B. Greenberg, Virology 165:511-517, 1988) reacted with animal and human rotavirus serotypes G3 and G4 and also with human serotype G9 and bovine serotype G6. The other four MAbs reacted only with the porcine rotavirus serotype G4. The epitope defined by MAb 57/8 and the epitope defined by the other five MAbs appeared to be partially overlapping or close to each other, as identified by viral antigenic variant analysis. However, data from nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analyses of the VP7 of each of the viral antigenic variants showed that these two epitopes constituted a large, single neutralization domain.

  15. Using Impact Modulation to Identify Loose Bolts on a Satellite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-21

    development of the state of the art methods throughout the last half century. Ungar [19] detailed work prior to 1970 which focused on how energy is...19] E.E. Ungar . The status of engineering knowledge concerning the damping of built-up struc- tures. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 26(1):141 – 154

  16. 37 CFR 5.31-5.33 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... award filing 1.335 Arbitration in interference 41.126 Assertion of micro entity status 1.29 Assertion of... entitlement to micro entity status 1.29 Impact on entitlement to small entity status 1.27 May serve as... 1.9(e) Micro entity 1.29 National and international applications 1.9 National security classified...

  17. 77 FR 47435 - Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Bureau of Land Management Filing of Plats of Survey: Oregon/Washington AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... officially filed in the Bureau of Land Management Oregon/Washington State Office, Portland, Oregon, 30 days from the date of this publication. Willamette Meridian Oregon T. 9 S., 19 E., accepted July 23, 2012...

  18. 12 CFR 509.300 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scope. 509.300 Section 509.300 Banks and... ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Exemptions under Section 19(e) of the FDIA § 509.300 Scope. The procedures in this... certain criminal offenses or who have agreed to enter into a pre-trial diversion or similar program in...

  19. 12 CFR 509.300 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 509.300 Section 509.300 Banks and... ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Exemptions under Section 19(e) of the FDIA § 509.300 Scope. The procedures in this... certain criminal offenses or who have agreed to enter into a pre-trial diversion or similar program in...

  20. 12 CFR 509.300 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scope. 509.300 Section 509.300 Banks and... ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Exemptions under Section 19(e) of the FDIA § 509.300 Scope. The procedures in this... certain criminal offenses or who have agreed to enter into a pre-trial diversion or similar program in...

  1. Preclinical Testing of Novel Oxytocin Receptor Activators in Models of Autism Phenotypes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    by NADþ metabolites and single nucleo - tide polymorphisms of CD38. Neurochem. Int. 61, 828e838. Hollander, E., Bartz, J., Chaplin, W., Phillips, A...Clin. North. Am. 59, 19e25. Ninan, I., 2011. Oxytocin suppresses basal glutamatergic transmission but facilitates activity-dependent synaptic

  2. Polar DuaLs of Convex Bodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    to Convex Bodies, Geometriae Dedicata 2" (1973) 225-248. 10. H. Guggenheimer, "The Analytic Geometry of the Unsymmetric Minkowski Plane," Lecture...Mathematics, Vol. 58, No. 2, 1975. 19. E. Lutwak, "On Cross-Sectional Measures of Polar Reciprocal Convex Bodies," Geometriae Dedicata 5, (1976) 79-80

  3. Review and Evaluation of a Turbomachinery Throughflow Finite Element Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    MODELLING OF THE COMPRESSOR ......................... 19 E, EFFECT OF THE STRUT WAKES ............................. 19 F. ADAPTATION OF THE INLET FLOW CONDITION ............... 20...the local flow velocity from hub to shroud at the IGV measurement plane. F. ADAPTATION OF THE INLET FLOW CONDITION The displacement thickness of the

  4. 48 CFR 231.205-19 - Insurance and indemnification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... indemnification. 231.205-19 Section 231.205-19 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND... to the cost limitations in FAR 31.205-19(e), self-insurance and purchased insurance costs are subject...

  5. 48 CFR 231.205-19 - Insurance and indemnification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... indemnification. 231.205-19 Section 231.205-19 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND... to the cost limitations in FAR 31.205-19(e), self-insurance and purchased insurance costs are subject...

  6. 48 CFR 231.205-19 - Insurance and indemnification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... indemnification. 231.205-19 Section 231.205-19 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND... to the cost limitations in FAR 31.205-19(e), self-insurance and purchased insurance costs are subject...

  7. A Behavioral Approach to Meeting Contingency Contracting Personnel Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    13 D. DEMOGRAPHICS: FEDERAL ACQUISITION WORKFORCE ..........15 E. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY ..................................19 F...Year 2007, Table 7-02-6, p. 33] 19 E. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY Abraham Maslow’s “A Theory of Human Motivation,” published in

  8. 14 CFR 137.41 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... an agricultural aircraft operation unless he has met the knowledge and skill requirements of § 137.19... conducting the operation that he has met the knowledge and skill requirements of § 137.19(e). If the holder...

  9. 14 CFR 137.41 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... an agricultural aircraft operation unless he has met the knowledge and skill requirements of § 137.19... conducting the operation that he has met the knowledge and skill requirements of § 137.19(e). If the holder...

  10. 14 CFR 137.41 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... an agricultural aircraft operation unless he has met the knowledge and skill requirements of § 137.19... conducting the operation that he has met the knowledge and skill requirements of § 137.19(e). If the holder...

  11. 14 CFR 137.41 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... an agricultural aircraft operation unless he has met the knowledge and skill requirements of § 137.19... conducting the operation that he has met the knowledge and skill requirements of § 137.19(e). If the holder...

  12. 14 CFR 137.41 - Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... an agricultural aircraft operation unless he has met the knowledge and skill requirements of § 137.19... conducting the operation that he has met the knowledge and skill requirements of § 137.19(e). If the holder...

  13. 12 CFR 1026.25 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 1026.25 Section 1026.25 Banks... under § 1026.19(e) and (f)) for two years after the date disclosures are required to be made or action... inspect its relevant records for compliance. (c) Records related to certain requirements for...

  14. 47 CFR 90.721 - Other channels available for non-nationwide systems in the 220-222 MHz band.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...). Table 2—Phase II EA and Regional Channel Assignments Assignment Assignment area Group Nos. (from table 1) Channel Nos. A EA 2 and 13 B EA 3 and 16 C EA 5 and 18 D EA 8 and 19 E EA 171-180 F REAG 1, 6, and 11...

  15. Update of the Navy Contract Writing Guide Phase III

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    18 E . RECOMMENDATIONS...............................................................................19 1. Future Research...Conducted comprehensive interviews in person and via e -mail with several individuals representing a cross-section of the Navy and Department of Defense...efforts reduce problem disbursements, but they will also contribute to a reduced workload for individuals assigned to DFAS. 19 E

  16. On the Possibility of Radar Detection of Ultra-high Energy Cosmic Ray- and Neutrino-induced Air Showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, P.

    1999-01-01

    We show that cosmic rays air showers resulting from primaries with energies above 10(sup 19) eV should be straightforward to detect with radar ranging techniques, where the radar echoes are produced by scattering from the column of ionized air produced by the shower.

  17. 2006 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members: Administration, Datasets, and Codebook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Communications ..................................................................................................................B-1 C. Annotated...by Service ........................................................................................19 E-mail Communication Timeline...opinions of the entire Department of Defense (DoD) community on a wide range of personnel issues. Human Relations Surveys are in-depth studies of topics

  18. 76 FR 29784 - Notice of Realty Action; Direct Sale of Public Lands in Jerome County, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... owners of the adjacent private land, Todd and Bridget Buschhorn, for the appraised fair market value of... than the appraised fair market value: Boise Meridian T. 10 S., R. 19 E., sec. 25, lot 10. The area described contains 7.45 acres in Jerome County. The appraised fair market value is $5,600. The public...

  19. Quantum Model of Dephasing-Enhanced Laser Desorption: Master Equation Approach.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    York, 1973), Chapt. 6. 1B. S. H. Lin and H. Eyring , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 2013 (1978). 19. E. W. Montroll and K. E. Shuler, Adv. Chem. Phys...Department of Chemistry Thomas J. Watson Research Center Janes Franck Institute P.O. Box 218 5640 Ellis Avenue Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 Chicago

  20. The Paradoxical and Unintended Effects of the War on Drugs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    19. E. Morales, White Gold Rush in Peru, 1989, p. 152. 20. Andreas and Sharpe, p. 74. 21. Andreas, et al, p. 119. 22. Ibid., p. 119. 23. Ibid., p...White Gold Rush in Peru, Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press, 1989. Range, Peter and Witkin, Gordon, "The Demand-Side Fix," U.S. News & World

  1. Feasibility of investigating Smith-Purcell free-electron laser configurations by electron energy loss studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speller, L. C.; Thorpe, A. N.

    1986-06-01

    An electron beam of energies 20 - 25 KeV was passed over an optical metallic grating (600 lines/mm) and the energy loss spectrum was obtained. The loss peak values, determined to be between approx. (1.8 - 1.9eV), were in fair agreement with the predicted values. However, these results could not be reproduced.

  2. Feasibility of investigating Smith-Purcell free-electron laser configurations by electron energy-loss studies. Final report, September 1980-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Speller, L.C.; Thorpe, A.N.

    1986-06-09

    An electron beam of energies 20 - 25 keV was passed over an optical metallic grating (600 lines/mm) and the energy-loss spectrum was obtained. The loss peak values, determined to be between approx. (1.8 - 1.9 eV), were in fair agreement with the predicted values. However, these results could not be reproduced.

  3. Armor Procedural Skills: Learning and Retention. Technical Report 621.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knerr, C. Mazie; And Others

    Research investigated learning and retention of eight armor tasks selected to represent tasks varying in length, complexity, and extent of practice in operational units. Performance data were collected from soldiers in operational units and from soldiers attending One Station Unit Training (OSUT) in Armor Military Occupational Specialty (19E).…

  4. 46 CFR 515.42 - Forwarder and carrier; compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section 19(e)(4) of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40904(d)) and 46 CFR part 535. (e) Electronic data interchange. A licensed freight forwarder may own, operate, or otherwise maintain or supervise an electronic data interchange-based computer system in its forwarding business; however, the forwarder must directly...

  5. 46 CFR 515.42 - Forwarder and carrier; compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section 19(e)(4) of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40904(d)) and 46 CFR part 535. (e) Electronic data interchange. A licensed freight forwarder may own, operate, or otherwise maintain or supervise an electronic data interchange-based computer system in its forwarding business; however, the forwarder must directly...

  6. 46 CFR 515.42 - Forwarder and carrier; compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section 19(e)(4) of the Act (46 U.S.C. 40904(d)) and 46 CFR part 535. (e) Electronic data interchange. A licensed freight forwarder may own, operate, or otherwise maintain or supervise an electronic data interchange-based computer system in its forwarding business; however, the forwarder must directly...

  7. Gene regulation: hacking the network on a sugar high.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Tom; Wang, Xiao; Collins, James J

    2008-04-11

    In a recent issue of Molecular Cell, Kaplan et al. (2008) determine the input functions for 19 E. coli sugar-utilization genes by using a two-dimensional high-throughput approach. The resulting input-function map reveals that gene network regulation follows non-Boolean, and often nonmonotonic, logic.

  8. 42 CFR 1007.20 - Circumstances in which data mining is permissible and approval by HHS Office of Inspector General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Circumstances in which data mining is permissible... CONTROL UNITS § 1007.20 Circumstances in which data mining is permissible and approval by HHS Office of Inspector General. (a) Notwithstanding § 1007.19(e)(2), a MFCU may engage in data mining as defined in...

  9. 42 CFR 1007.20 - Circumstances in which data mining is permissible and approval by HHS Office of Inspector General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Circumstances in which data mining is permissible... CONTROL UNITS § 1007.20 Circumstances in which data mining is permissible and approval by HHS Office of Inspector General. (a) Notwithstanding § 1007.19(e)(2), a MFCU may engage in data mining as defined in...

  10. 48 CFR 231.205-19 - Insurance and indemnification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insurance and... PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205-19 Insurance and indemnification. (e) In addition to the cost limitations in FAR 31.205-19(e), self-insurance and purchased insurance costs are...

  11. 75 FR 72873 - Privacy Act Of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... records 121VA19, ``National Patient Databases--VA'', and 136VA19E, ``Library Network (VALNET)--VA'' to... additional databases. DATES: Comments on the amendment of these systems of records must be received no later... 121VA19, ``National Patient Databases--VA,'' as set forth in the Federal Register, 73 FR 16103, and...

  12. [What, how and why people fall in hospital? Study in a Northern Italian Hospital].

    PubMed

    Gonella, Silvia; Basso, Anna Maddalena; Scaffidi, Maria Carmela

    2014-01-01

    Introduzione. Secondo l'Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità (OMS) le cadute e i danni ad esse correlati sono una problematica prioritaria per i sistemi sanitari e sociali in Europa e nel mondo, soprattutto tenendo conto del rapido accrescersi dell'aspettativa di vita. Scopo: Obiettivo del presente studio è descrivere incidenza, cause e modalità di caduta nell’Azienda Sanitaria Locale Cuneo 1 (ASL CN1) in seguito all’accorpamento del 2008. Metodo: L’indagine si articola in due fasi: 1. definizione dell'atteso sulla base di letteratura ed altre realtà comparabili; 2. analisi del contesto realizzata attraverso esame delle schede di segnalazione delle cadute compilate tra 1 Luglio 2010 - 30 Giugno 2011. Risultati: L’incidenza delle cadute nel periodo in esame è dello 0.8% e nel 69% dei casi la causa è rappresentata dai fattori intrinseci, seguiti da quelli estrinseci (7.4%), organizzativi (5.4%) e quelli legati a difficoltà comunicative interprofessionali (3.1%). Conclusioni: Data l'eziologia multifattoriale delle cadute, l'approccio più efficace per ridurne l'incidenza è quello multidimensionale; si comprende quindi l'importanza di un'azione simultanea su tre livelli: organizzativo, staff/comunicazione e paziente.

  13. Testing the DRM digital radio broadcast emissions as a tool for ionospheric investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koperski, Piotr; Młynarczyk, Janusz; Kułak, Andrzej

    2010-05-01

    New standard of digital radio broadcasting, the DRM (Digital Radio Mondiale), has been designed to overcome typical short wave radio channel difficulties. These are the multipath propagation, leading to strong selective fading, and fast temporal changes of the received signal level, both related to the properties of the ionosphere along the path of propagation. In particular, some of the carriers in the COFDM transmission, called reference pilots, are used by the receiver to estimate the current state of the radio channel in order to be able to demodulate properly the received signal. Thus they can provide some information on the ionosphere along the propagation path with a relatively high frequency (tenths of symbols in a second) during the time of the emission. We have started observations of such carriers in selected frequency channels (standard broadcast emissions), using a few DRM receivers. We test the ability of such observations to provide a useful information about the current state of the ionoshpere in its lower part. We compare such information to the standard data obtained from the usual ionosondes.

  14. Traitement intra-artériel des métastases hépatiques de cancer colorectal

    PubMed Central

    Pellerin, O.; Geschwind, J.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer colorectal représente un problème majeur de santé publique. Son incidence annuelle mondiale est d’environ un million de cas et la mortalité annuelle est de plus de 500 000 cas par an. Le foie est l’organe le plus fréquemment touché par les métastases. Leur survenue est observée dans 40 à 60% des cas (contemporaines dans 25% des cas). Bien que la résection chirurgicale soit le seul traitement curatif, nombre de patients ne peuvent en bénéficier en raison de l’importante diffusion des métastases hépatiques. Chimiothérapies et biothérapies systémiques sont les options conventionnelles de la prise en charge des métastases hépatiques multiples. C’est dans ces situations cliniques que les thérapies intra-artérielles peuvent jouer un rôle important. Dans cet article, nous présenterons les différentes thérapies endovasculaires applicables aux métastases hépatiques de cancers colorectaux, avec leurs indications, résultats et complications éventuelles. PMID:21944243

  15. Color degradation of acrylic resin denture teeth as a function of liquid diet: ultraviolet-visible reflection analysis.

    PubMed

    Hipólito, Ana Carolina; Barão, Valentim A; Faverani, Leonardo P; Ferreira, Mayara B; Assunção, Wirley G

    2013-10-01

    The effect of different beverages on acrylic resin denture teeth color degradation is evaluated. Ten acrylic resin denture teeth brands were evaluated: Art Plus (AP), Biolux (BX), Biotone IPN (BI), Magister (MG), Mondial 6 (MD), Premium 6 (PR), SR Vivodent PE (SR), Trilux (TR), Trubyte Biotone (TB), and Vipi Dent Plus (VP). Teeth were immersed in staining solutions (coffee, cola, and orange juice) or artificial saliva (control) (n=6) for 1, 7, 15, or 30 days. Specimen colors were evaluated spectrophotometrically based on the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage L*a*b* system. Color differences (ΔE) were calculated between the baseline and post-staining results. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance and Tukey test (α = 0.05). BI (1.82 ± 0.95) and TR (1.78 ± 0.72) teeth exhibited the greatest ΔE values, while BX (0.88 ± 0.43) and MD (1.09 ± 0.44) teeth were the lowest, regardless of solution and measurement period, and were different from BI and TR teeth (P < 0.05). Cola and coffee promoted higher denture teeth color alterations than orange juice and saliva (P < 0.05). Saliva generated the lowest denture teeth color alterations. Greater immersion times caused higher denture teeth color changes. The lifespan of removable dentures and the aesthetic satisfaction of several edentulous patients may be increased with the use of stain-resistant artificial denture teeth.

  16. High temperature reduces apple fruit colour via modulation of the anthocyanin regulatory complex.

    PubMed

    Lin-Wang, Kui; Micheletti, Diego; Palmer, John; Volz, Richard; Lozano, Lidia; Espley, Richard; Hellens, Roger P; Chagnè, David; Rowan, Daryl D; Troggio, Michela; Iglesias, Ignasi; Allan, Andrew C

    2011-07-01

    The biosynthesis of anthocyanin in many plants is affected by environmental conditions. In apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.), concentrations of fruit anthocyanins are lower under hot climatic conditions. We examined the anthocyanin accumulation in the peel of maturing 'Mondial Gala' and 'Royal Gala' apples, grown in both temperate and hot climates, and using artificial heating of on-tree fruit. Heat caused a dramatic reduction of both peel anthocyanin concentration and transcripts of the genes of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. Heating fruit rapidly reduced expression of the R2R3 MYB transcription factor (MYB10) responsible for coordinative regulation for red skin colour, as well as expression of other genes in the transcriptional activation complex. A single night of low temperatures is sufficient to elicit a large increase in transcription of MYB10 and consequently the biosynthetic pathway. Candidate genes that can repress anthocyanin biosynthesis did not appear to be responsible for reductions in anthocyanin content. We propose that temperature-induced regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis is primarily caused by altered transcript levels of the activating anthocyanin regulatory complex.

  17. Endométrite tuberculeuse: à propos d’un cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Laabadi, Kamilia; Alaoui, Fatima Zohra Fdili; Jayi, Sofia; Chaara, Hakima Bouguern-Hekmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdilah

    2013-01-01

    La tuberculose constitue encore un problème de santé préoccupant, aussi bien dans les pays en voie de développement que dans les pays développés, en partie du fait de l’éclosion de l’épidémie mondiale de l’infection par le virus de l’immunodéficience humaine. Dans sa localisation génitale assez rare (6-10% des localisations tuberculeuses), la tuberculose pose des problèmes diagnostiques. Les symptômes communément rencontrés sont non spécifiques, ce qui contribue au retard thérapeutique et majore le risque d’infertilité qui reste la séquelle quasi inéluctable. A travers une observation d’endométrite tuberculeuse et une revue de la littérature nous étudions les aspects épidémio-cliniques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de cette localisation tuberculeuse. PMID:24772223

  18. Padus, Sandalus, Gens Fadiena. Underwater Surveys in Palaeo-Watercourses (ferrara District - Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, G.

    2015-04-01

    In the ambit of our program of researches on ancient rivers in Ferrara hinterland (Italy), we have been joining a Scientific - Didactic Project between Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici dell'Emilia Romagna, Comune di Portomaggiore Assessorato alla Cultura, CMAS A.CDCI. - Confédération Mondiale des Activités Subaquatiques Federation ITA F07 - Associazione CMAS Diving Center Italia. The Project is focused on underwater archaeological surveys in ex quarry lakes, following the Rivers Padus and Sandalus between Voghiera, Gambulaga and Portomaggiore (Ferrara District). Here we are going to introduce our most recent results, after the last immersions and a 3D bathymetrical survey completed by echo-side scan sonar in Tramonto Lake at Gambulaga, explaining the connection with remote sensing investigations and direct surveys applied to underwater archaeology of the inland water. The main submerged structure individuated is a part of wooden dock on the left side of Padus, in front of the Necropolis of Fadieni (1st-3rd cent. A.D.). Thanks to the study of 183 finds coming from the lake, involving students and young collaborators of the Archaeological National Museum of Ferrara, we are reconstructing the ancient landscape between Proto-Imperial Age and Late Antique.

  19. Mechanical aspects of a multidirectional, angular stable osteosynthesis system and comparison with four conventional systems.

    PubMed

    Gbara, Ali; Heiland, Max; Schmelzle, Rainer; Blake, Felix

    2008-04-01

    Following open reduction, internal fixation of fractures of the mandible is predominantly achieved using plates and screws. Today, a multitude of osteosynthesis systems are available on the market. One therapy modality, primarily developed for orthopaedic surgery, is using angular stable osteosynthesis plate systems. The dominating principle of these is the bond between screw and plate following insertion. This principle of an "internal fixateur" results in a more stable fixation of the fragments associated with less compression of the bone surfaces. A new multidirectional osteosynthesis system (TiFix=Smartlock, Hamburg - Germany) was modified to fit the maxillofacial region and compared with four other well established osteosynthesis systems developed by Mondial, Medicon, Synthes, Leibinger-Stryker, one of these (Unilock by Synthes) being also angular stable. The resistance to deformation in varying directions was investigated following fixation in four different materials. The TiFix system proved more resistant to deformation even when mounted with fewer screws than the non-angular stable systems. This system results in greater stability even when fewer screws are used. For the clinician this means smaller access incisions, less soft tissue trauma, better aesthetic results, decreased duration of operation and a reduction of costs.

  20. Les vies de Galilée

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Qu'est-ce que l'astronomie? A quoi sert-elle ? Qui était Galilée ? Une soirée avec Fiami, auteur et dessinateur autour des vies de Galilée, titre de son nouvel ouvrage. Galilée y joue le protagoniste ou le complice de grandes découvertes à différentes époques et sous divers profils : Galilée à Babylone (-568) | Galilée à Alexandrie (-197) | Galilée en Inde (499) | Galilée à Venise (1609) | Galilée et Halley (1705) | Galilée revient (2009) Dans le cadre de l'année mondiale de l'astronomie. » Tout public » Entrée libre » Réservation groupes au +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  1. Highlights of recent progress in plant lipid research.

    PubMed

    Lessire, R; Cahoon, E; Chapman, K; Dyer, J; Eastmond, P; Heinz, E

    2009-06-01

    Raw fossil material reserves are not inexhaustible and as prices continue to raise it is necessary to find new sources of alternative and renewable energy. Oils from oleaginous field crops (sunflower and rape) with properties close to those of fossil fuel could constitute an alternative source of energy for the production of raw materials. This is the context in which the 18th International Symposium on Plant lipids (ISPL) was held in Bordeaux from 20th to 25th July 2008 at "La Cité Mondiale". The 18th ISPL gathered 270 researchers from 33 countries. Sixty nine oral communications and 136 posters were presented during the 12 sessions of the Symposium. The sessions have covered all the different aspects of the Plant Lipid field including: Surface lipids: suberin, cutin and waxes, Fatty acids, Glycerolipids, Plant lipids as renewable sources of energy, Seed oils and bioengineering of metabolic pathways, Lipid catabolism, Models for lipid studies: lower plants, micro-organisms and others, Modifications of proteins by lipids, Sphingolipids, sterols and isoprenoids, Lipid signaling and plant stress responses, Lipid trafficking and membrane dynamics, New methods and technologies: functional lipidomics, fluxome, modelling. During the ISPL 2008 Bordeaux, important and new information was reported in the different fields. A selection of these results is presented here.

  2. Cancer métaplasique du sein: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Babahabib, Moulay Abdellah; Chennana, Adil; Hachi, Aymen; Kouach, Jaoud; Moussaoui, Driss; Dhayni, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Les carcinomes métaplasiques du sein sont des tumeurs rares. Ils constituent un groupe hétérogène de tumeurs définis selon l'organisation mondiale de la santé comme étant un carcinome canalaire infiltrant mais comportant des zones de remaniements métaplasiques (de type épidermoïde, à cellules fusiformes, chondroïde et osseux ou mixte), qui varient de quelques foyers microscopiques à un remplacement glandulaire complet. Les aspects cliniques et radiologiques ne sont pas spécifiques. Le traitement associe la chirurgie, la radiothérapie et la chimiothérapie. L'hormonothérapie n'a pas de place. Le pronostic est sombre. L'histopathologie combinée à l'immunohistochimie permet de poser un diagnostic sure. Etant donné que la prise en charge thérapeutique est limitée, une nouvelle approche moléculaire pourrait modifier cette contribution faible et mal cernée des traitements systémiques classiques. Les patientes atteintes de carcinome métaplasique mammaire pourraient bénéficier de traitements ciblés, ce qui reste à confirmer par des essais cliniques. PMID:25870723

  3. Suppléments de zinc pour la gastroentérite aiguë

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Question La gastroentérite accompagnée de diarrhée est un problème fréquent chez les enfants et peut entraîner une déshydratation, de la morbidité et, dans certains pays, une mortalité importantes. Y a-t-il lieu de donner des suppléments de zinc dans de tels cas? Réponse Le zinc se retrouve dans divers aliments et, au Canada, certains sont enrichis de zinc. Les suppléments de zinc sont éprouvés comme étant une mesure sûre et efficace pour raccourcir la durée des maladies accompagnées de diarrhée et possiblement réduire d’autres complications, dont la mort. Quoique l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé recommande une dose quotidienne de zinc pendant 10 à 14 jours pour prendre en charge la diarrhée aiguë chez l’enfant, les enfants canadiens qui s’alimentent normalement n’ont pas besoin de tels suppléments.

  4. Improved limit on the muon electric dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G. W.; Brown, H. N.; Bunce, G.; Danby, G. T.; Larsen, R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Meng, W.; Mi, J.; Morse, W. M.; Nikas, D.; Prigl, R.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; Warburton, D.; Bousquet, B.; Cushman, P.; Duong, L.; Giron, S.; Kindem, J.; Kronkvist, I.; Qian, T.

    2009-09-01

    Three independent searches for an electric dipole moment (EDM) of the positive and negative muons have been performed, using spin precession data from the muon g-2 storage ring at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Details on the experimental apparatus and the three analyses are presented. Since the individual results on the positive and negative muons, as well as the combined result, d{sub {mu}}=(0.0{+-}0.9)x10{sup -19}e cm, are all consistent with zero, we set a new muon EDM limit, |d{sub {mu}}|<1.8x10{sup -19}e cm (95% C.L.). This represents a factor of 5 improvement over the previous best limit on the muon EDM.

  5. Identifying nearby accelerators of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays using ultrahigh energy (and very high energy) photons.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A M; Hinton, J A; Blasi, P; Ave, M

    2009-07-31

    Ultrahigh energy photons (UHE, E>10(19) eV) are inevitably produced during the propagation of approximately 10(20) eV protons in extragalactic space. Their short interaction lengths (<20 Mpc) at these energies, combined with the impressive sensitivity of the Pierre Auger Observatory detector to these particles, makes them an ideal probe of nearby ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHECR) sources. We here discuss the particular case of photons from a single nearby (within 30 Mpc) source in light of the possibility that such an object might be responsible for several of the UHECR events published by the Auger collaboration. We demonstrate that the photon signal accompanying a cluster of a few >6 x 10(19) eV UHECRs from such a source should be detectable by Auger in the near future. The detection of these photons would also be a signature of a light composition of the UHECRs from the nearby source.

  6. The photoluminescence in Si+-implanted SiO2 films with rapid thermal anneal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Shu-Tsun; Tsai, Jen-Hwan; Sheu, Bor-Chiou

    1998-05-01

    Two photoluminescence (PL) bands were observed from Si+-implanted SiO2 films after rapid thermal anneal (RTA) at ⩾950 °C. The PL band at 2.2 eV was obtained from the films with RTA in dry nitrogen and the other one at 1.9 eV was obtained from the films with RTA in wet nitrogen. The luminescence at 2.2 eV disappeared after the films were reannealed with an electrical oven at ⩾600 °C, which is similar to the behavior of oxygen- and hydrogen-deficient structures, and therefore, the mechanism of this PL band was attributed to the Eδ' center. The other one at the 1.9 eV band, being related closely to Si-O-H structures and still appearing after being reannealed to 800 °C, could be ascribed to the effect of nonbridging oxygen hole centers.

  7. Network Evaluation for Training and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-01

    875 Average: 1874.78 Maximum: 3378.38 2nd Max: 3367 Minimum: - 142857 Frames: 266184 Average: 0.000222954 Maximum: 0.010198 2nd Max: 0.010198...Maximum: 10752.7 2nd Max: 3378.38 Minimum: - 142857 Frames: 254305 7-67 Average: 0.000211889 Maximum: 0.01089 2nd Max: 0.010593 Minimum: 1.9e

  8. Elastic Wave Propagation through Multilayered Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    1.338 0.867 19 Phenylhydraz ine 20 1,738 1.098 19 Phenyl Mustard Oil 27 1.412 1.131 19 a- Picoline 28 1.453 0.951 19 e- Picoline 28 1.419 0.961 19...Brass (Naval) 20 Bronze (Phosphor 5%) 20 Cadmium 20 Cerium 20 Chromium 20 Cobalt 20 Columbium 20 Columbium (10W,10TA) 20 Constantan 20 Copper

  9. Attenuation lengths of low-energy electrons in solids: The case of CoO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offi, F.; Iacobucci, S.; Vilmercati, P.; Rizzo, A.; Goldoni, A.; Sacchi, M.; Panaccione, G.

    2008-05-01

    The effective attenuation length (EAL) of low-energy electrons in CoO is investigated by photoemission spectroscopy experiments (5≤hν≤19eV) by measuring the Ag Fermi-edge signal through a CoO overlayer of increasing thickness. The EAL is found to increase when lowering the electron energy, but the experimental values are much smaller than expected from the commonly used Seah-Dench formulas [Surf. Interface Anal. 1, 2 (1979)].

  10. Robust Membranes for Sustainable Wastewater Treatment by Forward Osmosis in FOBs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-09

    122 (2000) 8303-8304. 56 [19] E.M. Van Wagner , A.C. Sagle, M.M. Sharma, Y.H. La, B.D. Freeman, Surface modification of commercial polyamide...carbodiimide-induced grafting with poly(ethylene glycol) derivatives, Desalination, 275 (2011) 252-259. [27] E.M. Van Wagner , A.C. Sagle, M.M. Sharma, Y.-H

  11. 12 CFR 509.300 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Scope. 509.300 Section 509.300 Banks and Banking... PROCEEDINGS Exemptions under Section 19(e) of the FDIA § 509.300 Scope. The procedures in this subpart D... offenses or who have agreed to enter into a pre-trial diversion or similar program in connection with a...

  12. 12 CFR 509.300 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Scope. 509.300 Section 509.300 Banks and Banking... PROCEEDINGS Exemptions under Section 19(e) of the FDIA § 509.300 Scope. The procedures in this subpart D... offenses or who have agreed to enter into a pre-trial diversion or similar program in connection with a...

  13. Plans for a high-resolution measurement of the tritium beta-spectrum end point to determine the neutrino mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, R. L.; Lone, M. A.; Andrews, H. R.; Geiger, J. S.; Gallant, J. L.; Knowles, J. W.; Lee, H. C.; Lee-Whiting, G. E.

    1983-06-01

    The Chalk River π ≫2 iron-free beta spectrometer is being recommissioned and upgraded for a precise meaurement of the shape of the tritium spectrum near the end point. With a multiple strip source and 60—element detector array an overall energy resolution of σ 19 eV FWHM is expected. Computer simulation of the expected experimental Kurie plots are presented for various and anti-neutrino mass assumptions.

  14. Plans for a high-resolution measurement of the tritium. beta. -spectrum end point to determine the neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Lone, M.A.; Andrews, H.R.; Geiger, J.S.; Gallant, J.L.; Knowles, J.W.; Lee, H.C.; Lee-Whiting, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Chalk River ..pi.. ..sqrt..2 iron-free ..beta.. spectrometer is being recommissioned and upgraded for a precise measurement of the shape of the tritium spectrum near the end point. With a multiple strip source and 60-element detector array an overall energy resolution of less than or equal to 19 eV FWHM is expected. Computer simulations of the expected experimental Kurie plots are presented for various anti-neutrino mass assumptions.

  15. Engineering of Specific Tissue Inhibitors to Block ADAM Type Metalloprotease-Mediated Mammary Neoplasia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    ADAM9 cleaves the HB- EGF when PKCd is activated, but neither the wildtype, nor the dominant-negative ADAM9, affects the EGFR transactivation (Izumi et...S. V. Subramanian, M. L. Fitzgerald, M. Bernfield, J. Bi- that accounts for these observations re- not other TIMPs, induce apoptosis (19). e!. Chem...12. D. Pan and G. M. Rubin, Cell90, 271 (1997). fy the cytoplasmic domains of the pro- and induces apoptosis by binding to the Fas 13. C. Cho et a

  16. Characterization of murine monoclonal antibodies that recognize defined epitopes of pertussis toxin and neutralize its toxic effect on Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, M J; Wehland, J; Timmis, K N; Raupach, B; Schmidt, M A

    1991-01-01

    Three murine monoclonal antibodies (MAb), E19, E205, and E251, raised against pertussis toxin reacted in Western blots (immunoblots) with the S1, S4, and S2-S3 subunits, respectively, and neutralized the Chinese hamster ovary cell-clustering activity of pertussis toxin. MAb E251 recognized a linear synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids 107 to 120 of the S2 subunit, suggesting a role for this region in receptor binding. Images PMID:1718872

  17. Experimental Studies on Energy Storage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    class of AX 6 E structures where E represents a free valence electron pair. Based on Gillespie’s VSEPR rules (Ref. 19), E should be sterically active...The valence-shell electron-pair repulsion ( VSEPR ) Rules 1,2 predict for these compounds a distorted octahedral structure in which E becomes...on the basis of the VSEPR rules1,2 and the Laplacian of the calculated electronic charge distribution. 20 Finally, we would like to emphasize the

  18. Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Bromide Ionic Liquid (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-14

    N /A Standard Form...species formed upon proton loss from C2.25,27 This n -heterocyclic carbene (NHC) species may play an important role in the addition reactions...11.86 eV HC CH N CH2 N H2C N N CH2 CH2 + HC CH N CH2 N H2C N C + N 42 54 54 42 AE = 12.19 eV Distribution A: Approved for public release,

  19. Risiophlebia guentheri sp. nov. (Odonata, Libellulidae) from southeastern Indochina.

    PubMed

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2015-05-29

    Risiophlebia guentheri sp. nov. (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, Dak Dam village environs, a tall grass forest swamp, 12°25' N 107°19' E, ~780 m a.s.l., 16 June 2014, RMNH), the second species in its genus, is described from Central Plateau of the Annamese Mountains. The new species is most probably separated from R. dohrni by a 1000-km gap of the range of the genus in Thailand and most of Cambodia.

  20. Nuclear motion effects in the photoionisation of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J. R.; Dill, Dan; Dehmer, Joseph L.

    1980-04-14

    A calculation of the photoionization cross section of CO2 reveals that the σu shape resonance at approximately 19 eV, accessed by the 1πg and 4σg valence levels, is reduced and broadened by coupling to the ground-state vibrational motion. Off resonance the effect of nuclear motion is negligible. Results are compared with experimental branching ratios.

  1. Handwashing Practices among Hospital Patients: Knowledge and Perception of Ambulatory Patients and Nursing Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    1958). Bulletin 1. Chicago, I IL: American Hospital Association. I Bartzokas, C. A., Corkill, J. E., & Makin, T. (1987). Evaluation of the skin ...R., & Emmerson, 3 A. M. (1985). Microorganisms isolated from skin under wedding rings worn by hospital staff. British Medical I Journal, 290, 206...Noble, W. (1986). Skin as a source for hospital infection. Infection Control, 7 (supplement), 111-112. Pete, J. M. (19E Handwashing practices among

  2. Availability of Communications for the NATO Air Command and Control System in the Central Region and 5ATAF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    Mbpa 30 Ch ITT Sysism 12 Opril 1992 FAF ISN Germany 64kp 2.048 Mbps 30 Ch CCITT #7 1993 19e. DITSN holy 64 kbps 2.048 Mbps 30 Ch CCITT #7 1991 20C...Channell Aasociated Opertina ASCON Neiwalands 56 kjbpe 1.4 Mba 24C E8M NAFIN Naeharands 64 k.ts 2.048 Mbpa 30 Ch CCITT #7 Uk 1 19 Channel Associated

  3. The Development and Support of the NATO Project OPAQUE U.S.A.F. System Control Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-30

    g19 E MTN 20 NV 21 EL BEG 22 E FIN 23 EI MAX Htorizontal 24 Luxmeter 24 E MAN o 25 N 26 E (North) 27 E E (East) v V 28 ES (South) Vertical 25 v Luxmet...2m 73 PPP Pressure 74 TTT Temperature 75 TdTdTd Dew Point Temp 76 rrr Rain Rate 77 E General Ground State 78 QQQQ Packed MRI Data Quality 79 QQQQ

  4. The Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Hojvat, C.

    1997-03-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is an international collaboration for the detailed study of the highest energy cosmic rays. It will operate at two similar sites, one in the northern hemisphere and one in the southern hemisphere. The Observatory is designed to collect a statistically significant data set of events with energies greater than 10{sup 19} eV and with equal exposures for the northern and southern skies.

  5. A compact planar low-energy-gap molecule with a donor-acceptor-donor nature based on a bimetal dithiolene complex.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Mikihiro; Otsubo, Kazuya; Kato, Tatsuhisa; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2015-11-11

    We present the first report of a compact, planar and low-energy-gap molecule based on a π-conjugated bimetal system comprising a tetrathiooxalate (tto) skeleton. The observed low HOMO-LUMO energy gap (1.19 eV) is attributed to its donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) nature because the skeleton acts as an electron acceptor as well as a tiny and noninnocent bridging moiety.

  6. Integrated stratigraphy and 40Ar/39Ar chronology of the Early to Middle Miocene Upper Freshwater Molasse in eastern Bavaria (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Aziz, H.; Böhme, M.; Rocholl, A.; Zwing, A.; Prieto, J.; Wijbrans, J. R.; Heissig, K.; Bachtadse, V.

    2008-02-01

    A detailed integrated stratigraphic study was carried out on middle Miocene fluvial successions of the Upper Freshwater Molasse (OSM) from the North Alpine Foreland Basin, in eastern Bavaria, Germany. The biostratigraphic investigations yielded six new localities thereby refining the OSM biostratigraphy for units C to E (sensu; Heissig, Actes du Congres BiochroM’97. Mem Trav EPHE, Inst Montpellier 21, 1997) and further improving biostratigraphic correlations between the different sections throughout eastern Bavaria. Radioisotopic ages of 14.55 ± 0.19 and 14.88 ± 0.11 Ma have been obtained for glass shards from the main bentonite horizon and the Ries impactite: two important stratigraphic marker beds used for confirming our magnetostratigraphic calibration to the Astronomical Tuned Neogene Time Scale (ATNTS04; Lourens et al. in Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press, 2004). Paleomagnetic analysis was performed using alternating field (AF) and thermal (TH) demagnetization methods. The AF method revealed both normal and reverse polarities but proofs to yield unreliable ChRM directions for the Puttenhausen section. Using the biostratigraphic information and radioisotopic ages, the magnetostratigraphic records of the different sections are tentatively correlated to the Astronomical Tuned Neogene Time Scale (ATNTS04; Lourens et al. in Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press, 2004). This correlation implies that the main bentonite horizon coincides to chron C5ADn, which is corroborated by its radioisotopic age of 14.55 Ma, whereas the new fossil locality Furth 460, belonging to OSM unit E, probably correlates to chron C5Bn.1r. The latter correlation agrees well with the Swiss Molasse locality Frohberg. Correlations of the older sections are not straightforward. The Brock horizon, which comprises limestone ejecta from the Ries impact, possibly correlates to C5ADr (14.581 14.784 Ma), implying that, although within error, the radioisotopic age

  7. Aragonian stratigraphy reconsidered, and a re-evaluation of the middle Miocene mammal biochronology in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daams, R.; van der Meulen, A. J.; Alvarez Sierra, M. A.; Peláez-Campomanes, P.; Krijgsman, W.

    1999-02-01

    Miocene mammal biozones of the North Alpine foreland basin, in: J.-P. Aguilar, S. Legendre, J. Michaux (Eds.), Actes du Congrès BiochroM '97, Mém. Trav. E.P.H.E. 21 (1997) 547-562].

  8. In situ rutile petrochronology: texture-related T, Paleoproterozoic inheritance and a Pan-African overprint in the oldest subduction-related eclogites, Usagaran Orogen, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, A.; Kraus, K.; Herms, P.; Appel, P.; Raase, P.

    2014-12-01

    example of the potential of in-situ rutile petrochronology in complex, polymetamorphic rocks when meticulous attention is given to textural context. Möller et al., 1995, Geology, v. 23, p. 1067-1070. Collins et al., 2004, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., v. 224, p. 175-192. Wendt et al., 1972, 24th Internat. Geol. Congr., Proc., p. 295-314.

  9. To be or not to be Yutsis: Algorithms for the decision problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dyck, D.; Brinkmann, G.; Fack, V.; McKay, B. D.

    2005-12-01

    Generalized recoupling coefficients or 3nj-coefficients can be expressed as multiple sums over products of Racah or 6 j-coefficients [L.C. Biedenharn, J.D. Louck, Coupling of n angular momenta: recoupling theory, in: The Racah-Wigner Algebra in Quantum Theory, Encyclopedia of Mathematics and its Applications, vol. 9, Addison-Wesley, 1981, pp. 435-481]. The problem of finding an optimal summation formula (i.e. with a minimal number of Racah coefficients) for a given 3nj-coefficient is equivalent to finding an optimal reduction of a so-called Yutsis graph [A.P. Yutsis, I.B. Levinson, V.V. Vanagas, Mathematical Apparatus of the Theory of Angular Momentum, Israel Program for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem, 1962]. In terms of graph theory Yutsis graphs are connected simple cubic graphs which can be partitioned into two vertex induced trees. The two parts are necessarily of the same size. In this area Yutsis graphs are also studied under the name of cubic dual Hamiltonian graphs [F. Jaeger, On vertex-induced forests in cubic graphs, in: Proc. 5th Southeastern Conference, Congr. Numer. (1974) 501-512]. We present algorithms for determining whether a cubic graph is a Yutsis graph. This is interesting for generating large test cases for programs (as in [P.M. Lima, Comput. Phys. Comm. 66 (1991) 89; S. Fritzsche, T. Inghoff, T. Bastug, M. Tomaselli, Comput. Phys. Comm. 139 (2001) 314; D. Van Dyck, V. Fack, GYutsis: heuristic based calculation of general recoupling coefficients, Comput. Phys. Comm. 154 (2003) 219-232]) that determine a summation formula for a 3nj-coefficient. Moreover, we give the numbers of Yutsis and non-Yutsis cubic graphs with up to 30 vertices and cubic polyhedra with up to 40 vertices. All these numbers have been computed by two independent programs in order to reduce the probability of error. Since the decision problem whether a given cubic graph is Yutsis or not is NP-complete, we could not hope for a polynomial time worst case performance of our

  10. PlanetServer/EarthServer: Big Data analytics in Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio Rossi, Angelo; Oosthoek, Jelmer; Baumann, Peter; Beccati, Alan; Cantini, Federico; Misev, Dimitar; Orosei, Roberto; Flahaut, Jessica; Campalani, Piero; Unnithan, Vikram

    2014-05-01

    Planetary data are freely available on PDS/PSA archives and alike (e.g. Heather et al., 2013). Their exploitation by the community is somewhat limited by the variable availability of calibrated/higher level datasets. An additional complexity of these multi-experiment, multi-mission datasets is related to the heterogeneity of data themselves, rather than their volume. Orbital - so far - data are best suited for an inclusion in array databases (Baumann et al., 1994). Most lander- or rover-based remote sensing experiment (and possibly, in-situ as well) are suitable for similar approaches, although the complexity of coordinate reference systems (CRS) is higher in the latter case. PlanetServer, the Planetary Service of the EC FP7 e-infrastructure project EarthServer (http://earthserver.eu) is a state-of-art online data exploration and analysis system based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards for Mars orbital data. It provides access to topographic, panchromatic, multispectral and hyperspectral calibrated data. While its core focus has been on hyperspectral data analysis through the OGC Web Coverage Processing Service (Oosthoek et al., 2013; Rossi et al., 2013), the Service progressively expanded to host also sounding radar data (Cantini et al., this volume). Additionally, both single swath and mosaicked imagery and topographic data are being added to the Service, deriving from the HRSC experiment (e.g. Jaumann et al., 2007; Gwinner et al., 2009) The current Mars-centric focus can be extended to other planetary bodies and most components are general purpose ones, making possible its application to the Moon, Mercury or alike. The Planetary Service of EarthServer is accessible on http://www.planetserver.eu References: Baumann, P. (1994) VLDB J. 4 (3), 401-444, Special Issue on Spatial Database Systems. Cantini, F. et al. (2014) Geophys. Res. Abs., Vol. 16, #EGU2014-3784, this volume Heather, D., et al.(2013) EuroPlanet Sci. Congr. #EPSC2013-626 Gwinner, K

  11. Pertinence de l'implantation de la filiere granule de bois pour le Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Stephan

    Les spécialistes avancent que le marché mondial de l'énergie en forte demande et en offre limitée nécessitera bientôt toutes les formes d'énergie disponibles. Le granulé de bois est une forme de bioénergie principalement utilisée pour le chauffage des bâtiments et pourrait être davantage considéré dans l'offre énergétique du Québec. Comme le Québec est un territoire où il fait froid et donc susceptible de pouvoir se tourner vers cette forme d'énergie, l'objectif de ce mémoire est d'en analyser les avantages. Pour ce faire, nous commencerons par démontrer la croissance des besoins énergétiques sur les plans national et international et dresser un portrait des différentes formes d'énergies consommées au Québec. Puisque la majorité des Québécois chauffent leurs bâtiments à l'hydroélectricité, nous analyserons à travers le plan d'approvisionnement d'Hydro-Québec le portrait de la production et de la consommation de cette forme d'énergie renouvelable. Cela nous permettra de constater le défi face à la gestion de surplus importants, sauf pendant la période hivernale, et ce faisant, l'obligation de la société d'État d'utiliser davantage ses centrales au gaz ou de se tourner vers l'importation de l'électricité. Dans la même lignée, un regard sera porté sur les perspectives d'utilisation de l'hydroélectricité sur les plans de la production d'aluminium, de l'exportation et de l'utilisation dans l'électrification des transports au Québec. Cette analyse se fera dans l'objectif de s'interroger sur la pertinence d'utiliser cette source d'énergie dans le chauffage plutôt que dans des secteurs plus créateurs de richesse. Nous poserons ensuite l'hypothèse que le granulé de bois pourrait être un bon substitut à une autre forme d'énergie utilisée dans le chauffage, soit le mazout. Avant de dresser un portrait de ce combustible fossile, nous ferons celui de la production et de la consommation de granulés sur les plans r

  12. Facteurs de risque de mortalité par tuberculose pulmonaire

    PubMed Central

    Janah, Hicham; Souhi, Hicham; Kouismi, Hatim; Mark, Karima; Zahraoui, Rachida; Benamor, Jouda; Soualhi, Mona; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    La tuberculose est une maladie infectieuse transmissible provoquée par myco-bacterium tuberculosis (bacille de Koch ou BK). Elle représente, selon les estimations del'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS), l'une des pathologies infectieuses causant le plus de décès au niveau mondial avec plus de 1 million de décès par an. Pour déterminer les facteurs de risque de mortalité au cours de la tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive nous avons mené une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de tuberculose pulmonaire à microscopie positive et qui étaient décédés au cours de leur hospitalisation. Cette étude a colligé 1803 cas de tuberculose sur une période de 2 ans et demi dont 46 sont décédés. La prévalence de décès est de 2,55%. La population se répartit en 32 hommes et 14 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 53ans ± 17 ans. Le tabagisme était retrouvé chez la moitié des cas. Une comorbidité était retrouvée dans 43%, avec 17% de diabète. Le délai de diagnostic avait une médiane de 60 jours avec percentile (30j; 105j). La symptomatologie clinique était dominée par la toux, la dyspnée et les expectorations soit respectivement: 97,8%, 69,6% et 67,4% des cas. Sur le plan radiologique les lésions étaient diffuses et bilatérales dans 76,1% des cas. Tous les patients étaient mis sous SRHZ. 11% avaient présenté une toxicité aux antibacillaires (de type hépatiques dans 3 cas et neurologiques dans 2 cas). Le délai médian de décès était de 8,5 jours (5j; 17j). Les causes de décès retrouvées étaient: Une hépatite fulminante (3 cas), une décompensation acido-cétosique (3 cas), un SDRA (2 cas), des hémoptysies foudroyantes (2 cas), et respectivement un cas secondaire à une décompensation de BPCO, une décompensation cardiaque, une hypoglycémie et un tableau d'anasarque. Cette étude suggère que le terrain, le retard diagnostique et les effets secondaires du traitement sont les principaux facteurs de risque de

  13. Association of cholesterol and lifestyle markers with type 1 diabetes incidence rates at a population level.

    PubMed

    Vella, Sandro; Bezzina Sultana, Maureen; Fava, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the hypotheses that mean population body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC) and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are correlated with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) incidence rates. Population-based mean incidence rates for T1DM in children aged ≤14 years participating in the World Health Organization Diabetes Mondial (DiaMond) project were compared with population mean values for BMI, SBP, TC and FPG, as well as prevalence rates for T2DM as reported by The Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group, using Spearman's rank correlation and multiple regression analysis. The mean incidence rate for T1DM in boys was significantly correlated with country mean BMI, SBP and TC in men and mean TC in women, and negatively correlated with the country incidence of T2DM in either gender. We also found significant correlations between mean incidence rates of T1DM in girls and mean BMI, SBP and TC in men and mean TC in women. In multiple regression analyses, mean TC emerged as the sole significant predictor for T1DM in both boys (P < 0.001, adjusted R2 = 0.393) and girls (P < 0.001, adjusted R2 = 0.372). Population mean total cholesterol is a significant predictor for country incidence of type 1 diabetes in both boys and girls. This association may fuel the rising incidence rates of type 1 diabetes reported in many countries.

  14. Bio-Engineering tissue and V.A.C. therapy: A new method for the treatment of extensive necrotizing infection in the diabetic foot.

    PubMed

    Armenio, Andrea; Cutrignelli, Daniela Anna; Nardulli, Maria Luisa; Maggio, Giulio; Memeo, Giuseppe; De Santis, Valerio; Giudice, Giuseppe; Ressa, Cosmo Maurizio

    2016-12-06

    La prevalenza mondiale del diabete nel 2000 è stata stimata essere del 2.8% con una previsione del 4.4% nel 2030. A causa della neuropatia e dei processi ischemici che ne derivano, i pazienti diabetici sono purtroppo predisposti all’insorgenza di infezioni a carico del piede con un rischio di amputazione molto elevato. A tal proposito, un trattamento rapido ed efficace del processo necrotizzante impedirebbe complicanze maggiori e la stessa amputazione. Il nostro studio consiste in un’analisi retrospettiva condotta su 20 pazienti atta a valutare l’efficacia del sostituto dermico autologo bioingegnerizzato (Hyalograft 3D Autograft) in associazione alla V.A.C (vacuum assisted closure) Therapy per il trattamento delle ulcere diabetiche, rispetto ai metodi sinora impiegati. I pazienti selezionati, a seconda del trattamento eseguito, sono stati suddivisi in due gruppi omogenei di dieci pazienti ciascuno. Il gruppo controllo è stato trattato con il metodo standard, ovvero con debridment chirurgico e innesti cutanei autologhi, mentre il gruppo studio è stato trattato con il metodo in analisi. La raccolta dei dati ha suggerito come l’impiego combinato del sostituto dermico bioingegnerizzato e della pressione negativa determini, rispetto al gruppo controllo, un aumento della percentuale di guarigione, una riduzione del tasso di recidiva di lesioni anche estese e una maggiore ripresa della deambulazione autonoma. In conclusione, la nostra analisi ha evidenziato un metodo sicuro, affidabile e competitivo per il trattamento di ampie lesioni necrotizzanti del piede diabetico. Anche se ulteriori valutazioni sono necessarie, crediamo fortemente che l’associazione del derma bioingegnerizzato e della pressione negativa possa condurre ad una rapida ed efficace guarigione delle ulcere, migliorando la qualità della vita del paziente diabetico.

  15. Social determinants and risk factors for tuberculosis in national surveillance systems in Europe.

    PubMed

    de Colombani, P; Hovhannesyan, A

    2015-09-21

    Contexte : Programmes nationaux contre la tuberculose (PNT) des 53 états membres de la région Europe de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS).Objectifs: Identifier les déterminants sociaux et les facteurs de risque sous-jacents de la tuberculose (TB) tels qu'ils sont suivis en routine par les PNT et identifier ceux qui sont faciles à recueillir et appropriés pour les inclure dans le rapport annuel à la plate-forme conjointe du Centre européen de prévention et contrôle des maladies (CEPCM) et l'OMS.Schéma : Un questionnaire semi-structuré a été envoyé à 53 correspondants des programmes nationaux de surveillance de la TB.Résultats : Au total, 47 pays ont soumis leurs questionnaires ; la plupart des pays recueillent un certain nombre de déterminants sociaux et de facteurs de risque qui ne sont pas exigés dans les rapports destinés à la plate-forme conjointe CEPCM-OMS. Profession, absence de domicile fixe, diabète et consommation d'alcool sont recueillis par la majorité des pays, mais sans définitions standardisées.Conclusions : Quatre déterminants sociaux/facteurs de risque sont déjà inclus dans le système national de surveillance de la TB dans la majorité des pays et pourraient être incorporés dans le rapport annuel à la plate-forme conjointe CEPCM/OMS. Mais il faut adopter des définitions de cas épidémiologiques standardisées.

  16. Behavior Change and Health-Related Interventions for Heterosexual Risk Reduction Among Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    SEMAAN, SALAAM; JARLAIS, DON C. DES; MALOW, ROB

    2007-01-01

    Prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV between and from drug users is important for controlling the local and global HIV heterosexual epidemic. Sex risk reduction interventions and health-related interventions are important for reducing the sex risk behaviors of drug users. Sex risk reduction interventions address individual-level, peer-level, and structural-level determinants of risk reduction. Health-related interventions include HIV counseling and testing, prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, and delivery of highly active antiretroviral therapy. It is important to adapt effective interventions implemented in resource-rich countries to the realities of the resource-constrained settings and to address relevant contextual factors. RESUMEN Il est important de prévenir la transmission hétérosexuelle du VIH à partir des usagers de drogue pour contrôler l’épidémie hétérosexuelle locale et mondiale de VIH. Des interventions ciblant à la fois la réduction de risque sexuel et la santé des usagers de drogue sont nécessaires. Les interventions de réduction de risque sexuel prennent en compte le niveau individuel, le niveau des pairs et celui des déterminants structurels de la réduction des risques. Les interventions visant l’amélioration de la santé comprennent le conseil et le dépistage du VIH, la prévention et le traitement des infections sexuellement transmissibles et la prescription d’antirétroviraux. Il est important d’adapter les interventions efficaces mises en place dans les pays riches aux réalités des contextes de pays à ressources limitées et de tenir compte des facteurs contextuels pertinents. PMID:17002987

  17. [Retinoblastoma: inventory in Mali and program to develop early diagnosis, treatments and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Traore, Fousseyni; Togo, Boubacar; Sylla, Fatoumata; Cheick, Traoré B; Diakité, Abdoul-Aziz; Dicko-Traore, Fatoumata; Sylla, Mariam; Sidibé, Toumani; Doz, François; Harif, M'hamed; Bey, Pierre; Desjardins, Laurence

    2013-02-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is a rare embryonic tumour that represents 1/16,000 births in France. In Mali, a study showed the characteristics of a hospital series of cases seen in Bamako in the Pediatric Oncology Unit of Gabriel Touré Teaching Hospital and in the Tropical Ophthalmology Institute of Africa (IOTA) between January 2005 and June 2007. Median age was 4 years versus 2 years in France for unilateral disease. Near two third of children with RB had extra-ocular extension at diagnosis, which is now exceptional in France. Only 11% were bilateral versus 35% in France. Cure rate was around 50%, but it is estimated only on the cases arriving in Bamako and with at least 20% lost of follow-up. Cure rate is over 95% in France within an exhaustive register. RB appears as an exemplary tumor and rapid improvements could be obtained in low-income countries with relatively limited means. This is why, the Alliance mondiale contre le cancer (AMCC), the Institut Curie in Paris, which is the reference center in France for RB, and teams in Bamako were proposing a program to help the development of early diagnosis, treatments, including eye preservation, and rehabilitation of children with RB in sub-Saharan Africa in collaboration with the Groupe franco-africain d'oncologie pédiatrique (GFAOP). The official launching of this program was held in Bamako November 4, 2011 for Mali and the surrounding regions. After this first experience, this program is now implemented in other countries.

  18. Terminology and global standardization of endoscopic information: Minimal Standard Terminology (MST).

    PubMed

    Fujino, Masayuki A; Bito, Shigeru; Takei, Kazuko; Mizuno, Shigeto; Yokoi, Hideto

    2006-01-01

    Since 1994, following the leading efforts by the European Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Organisation Mondiale d'Endoscopie Digestive (OMED) has succeeded in compiling minimal number of terms required for computer generation of digestive endoscopy reports nicknamed MST (Minimal Standard Terminology). Though with some insufficiencies, and though developed only for digestive endoscopy, MST has been the only available terminology that is globally standardized in medicine. By utilizing the merits of a unified, structured terminology that can be used in multiple languages we can utilize the data stored in different languages as a common database. For this purpose, a standing, terminology-managing organization that manages and maintains and, when required, expands the terminology on a global level, is absolutely necessary. Unfortunately, however, the organization that performs version control of MST (OMED terminology, standardization and data processing committee) is currently suspending its activity. Medical practice of the world demands more and more specialization, with resultant needs for information exchange among specialized territories. As the cooperation between endoscopy and pathology has become currently the most important problem in the Endoscopy Working Group of Integrating Healthcare Enterprise-Japan (IHE-J,) the cooperation among different specialties is essential. There are DICOM or HL7 standards as the protocols for storage, and exchange (communication) of the data, but there is yet no organization that manages the terminology itself astride different specialties. We hereby propose to establish, within IEEE, for example, a system that promotes standardization of the terminology that can transversely describe a patient, and that can control different societies and groups, as far as the terminology is concerned.

  19. QTL dynamics for fruit firmness and softening around an ethylene-dependent polygalacturonase gene in apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Fabrizio; Peace, Cameron P.; Stella, Sara; Serra, Sara; Musacchi, Stefano; Bazzani, Micaela; Sansavini, Silviero; Van de Weg, W. Eric

    2010-01-01

    Apple fruit are well known for their storage life, although a wide range of flesh softening occurs among cultivars. Loss of firmness is genetically coordinated by the action of several cell wall enzymes, including polygalacturonase (PG) which depolymerizes cell wall pectin. By the analysis of ‘Fuji’ (Fj) and ‘Mondial Gala’ (MG), two apple cultivars characterized by a distinctive ripening behaviour, the involvement of Md-PG1 in the fruit softening process was confirmed to be ethylene dependent by its transcript being down-regulated by 1-methylcyclopropene treatment in MG and in the low ethylene-producing cultivar Fj. Comparing the PG sequence of MG and Fj, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was discovered. Segregation of the Md-PG1SNP marker within a full-sib population, obtained by crossing Fj and MG, positioned Md-PG1 in the linkage group 10 of MG, co-located with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) identified for fruit firmness in post-harvest ripening. Fruit firmness and softening analysed in different stages, from harvest to post-storage, determined a shift of the QTL from the top of this linkage group to the bottom, where Md-ACO1, a gene involved in ethylene biosynthesis in apple, is mapped. This PG–ethylene-related gene has beeen positioned in the apple genome on chromosome 10, which contains several QTLs controlling fruit firmness and softening, and the interplay among the allelotypes of the linked loci should be considered in the design of a marker-assisted selection breeding scheme for apple texture. PMID:20462945

  20. Multidrug-resistant bacteria among patients treated in foreign hospitals: management considerations during medical repatriation.

    PubMed

    Josseaume, Julien; Verner, Laurent; Brady, William J; Duchateau, François-Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The repatriation of patients from foreign hospitals can foster the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MRB). We aimed to evaluate the incidence of MRB in patients treated in foreign hospitals and repatriated by international inter-hospital air transport in order to better manage these patients and adjust our procedures. The records from all consecutive aeromedical evacuations and overseas repatriations carried out by Mondial Assistance France between December 2010 and November 2011 were reviewed for this study. Only inter-hospital transfers with inpatient destination of an acute care unit were considered. Patients were allocated to one of two groups: those identified as MRB carriers at their arrival in France and those who were not identified as such (either negative for MRB or not tested). Data were compared between the two groups. Analysis was performed on 223 patients: 16 patients (7%) were identified as MRB carriers. Compared with confirmed non-MRB patients, MRB carriers came more frequently from a high-risk unit (88% vs 59%, p = 0.05) and had a longer foreign hospital stay [13 (3-20) vs 8 (6-14) d, p = 0.01]. The occurrence of MRB among patients repatriated from foreign hospitals is noted in a significant minority of such individuals transferred back to their home country. The typical MRB patient was admitted to a high-risk unit in a foreign hospital prior to repatriation with longer foreign hospital admissions. The prospective identification of these patients prior to transport is difficult. While these factors are associated with MRB presence, their absence does not rule out highly resistant bacterial colonization. A systematic review of this important medical issue is warranted with the development of guidelines. © 2012 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  1. Protéger les nourrissons contre la coqueluche

    PubMed Central

    Gilley, Meghan; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question Compte tenu du taux à la hausse de la coqueluche chez les enfants, plusieurs familles m’ont demandé quels moyens prendre pour protéger leurs tout-petits de cette infection. Quelles devraient être mes recommandations à ces familles? Réponse La coqueluche est une maladie évitable qui est endémique dans le monde entier. Chez les adultes, la coqueluche cause une maladie bénigne semblable à un rhume, suivie d’une toux persistante. Chez les nourrissons, elle peut causer de l’apnée, des convulsions, une encéphalopathie, une bronchopneumonie et la mort. Les décès dus à la coqueluche se produisent dans 86 % des cas chez des nourrissons de moins de 4 mois. La stratégie du cocooning, c’est-à-dire la vaccination des adultes en étroit contact avec des nourrissons, est recommandée par de nombreuses agences mondiales et nationales, mais elle ne prévient probablement que 20 % des cas de coqueluche chez les nourrissons. La vaccination durant la grossesse est plus efficace, mais elle n’est pas encore approuvée au Canada. Il n’a pas été démontré que la vaccination à la naissance soit uniformément efficace et elle n’est donc pas recommandée à l’heure actuelle.

  2. QTL dynamics for fruit firmness and softening around an ethylene-dependent polygalacturonase gene in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Costa, Fabrizio; Peace, Cameron P; Stella, Sara; Serra, Sara; Musacchi, Stefano; Bazzani, Micaela; Sansavini, Silviero; Van de Weg, W Eric

    2010-06-01

    Apple fruit are well known for their storage life, although a wide range of flesh softening occurs among cultivars. Loss of firmness is genetically coordinated by the action of several cell wall enzymes, including polygalacturonase (PG) which depolymerizes cell wall pectin. By the analysis of 'Fuji' (Fj) and 'Mondial Gala' (MG), two apple cultivars characterized by a distinctive ripening behaviour, the involvement of Md-PG1 in the fruit softening process was confirmed to be ethylene dependent by its transcript being down-regulated by 1-methylcyclopropene treatment in MG and in the low ethylene-producing cultivar Fj. Comparing the PG sequence of MG and Fj, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was discovered. Segregation of the Md-PG1(SNP) marker within a full-sib population, obtained by crossing Fj and MG, positioned Md-PG1 in the linkage group 10 of MG, co-located with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) identified for fruit firmness in post-harvest ripening. Fruit firmness and softening analysed in different stages, from harvest to post-storage, determined a shift of the QTL from the top of this linkage group to the bottom, where Md-ACO1, a gene involved in ethylene biosynthesis in apple, is mapped. This PG-ethylene-related gene has beeen positioned in the apple genome on chromosome 10, which contains several QTLs controlling fruit firmness and softening, and the interplay among the allelotypes of the linked loci should be considered in the design of a marker-assisted selection breeding scheme for apple texture.

  3. Progress toward a 30 percent-efficient, monolithic, three-junction, two-terminal concentrator solar cell for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partain, L. D.; Chung, B.-C.; Virshup, G. F.; Schultz, J. C.; Macmillan, H. F.; Ristow, M. Ladle; Kuryla, M. S.; Bertness, K. A.

    1991-01-01

    Component efficiencies of 0.2/sq cm cells at approximately 100x AMO light concentration and 80 C temperatures are not at 15.3 percent for a 1.9 eV AlGaAs top cell, 9.9 percent for a 1.4 eV GaAs middle cell under a 1.9 eV AlGaAs filter, and 2.4 percent for a bottom 1.0 eV InGaAs cell under a GaAs substrate. The goal is to continue improvement in these performance levels and to sequentially grow these devices on a single substrate to give 30 percent efficient, monolithic, two-terminal, three-junction space concentrator cells. The broad objective is a 30 percent efficient monolithic two-terminal cell that can operate under 25 to 100x AMO light concentrations and at 75 to 100 C cell temperatures. Detailed modeling predicts that this requires three junctions. Two options are being pursued, and both use a 1.9 eV AlGaAs top junction and a 1.4 eV GaAs middle junction grown by a 1 atm OMVPE on a lattice matched substrate. Option 1 uses a low-doped GaAs substrate with a lattice mismatched 1.0 eV InGaAs cell formed on the back of the substrate. Option 2 uses a Ge substrate to which the AlGaAs and GaAs top junctions are lattice matched, with a bottom 0.7 eV Ge junction formed near the substrate interface with the GaAs growth. The projected efficiency contributions are near 16, 11, and 3 percent, respectively, from the top, middle, and bottom junctions.

  4. Reduced Perinatal Leptin Availability May Contribute to Adverse Metabolic Programming in a Rat Model of Uteroplacental Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Nüsken, Eva; Wohlfarth, Maria; Lippach, Gregor; Rauh, Manfred; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-05-01

    Leptin availability in perinatal life critically affects metabolic programming. We tested the hypothesis that uteroplacental insufficiency and intrauterine stress affect perinatal leptin availability in rat offspring. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine vessel ligation (LIG; n = 14), sham operation (SOP; n = 12), or no operation (controls, n = 14). Fetal livers (n = 180), placentas (n = 180), and maternal blood were obtained 4 hours (gestational day [E] 19), 24 hours (E20), and 72 hours (E22) after surgery. In the offspring, we took blood samples on E22 (n = 44), postnatal day (P) 1 (n = 29), P2 (n = 16), P7 (n = 30), and P12 (n = 30). Circulating leptin (ELISA) was significantly reduced in LIG (E22, P1, P2) and SOP offspring (E22). Postnatal leptin surge was delayed in LIG but was accelerated in SOP offspring. Placental leptin gene expression (quantitative RT-PCR) was reduced in LIG (E19, E20, E22) and SOP (E20, E22). Hepatic leptin receptor (Lepr-a, mediating leptin degradation) gene expression was increased in LIG fetuses (E20, E22) only. Surprisingly, hypoxia-inducible factors (Hif; Western blot) were unaltered in placentas and were reduced in the livers of LIG (Hif1a, E20; Hif2a, E19, E22) and SOP (Hif2a, E19) fetuses. Gene expression of prolyl hydroxylase 3, a factor expressed under hypoxic conditions contributing to Hif degradation, was increased in livers of LIG (E19, E20, E22) and SOP (E19) fetuses and in placentas of LIG and SOP (E19). In summary, reduced placental leptin production, increased fetal leptin degradation, and persistent perinatal hypoleptinemia are present in intrauterine growth restriction offspring, especially after uteroplacental insufficiency, and may contribute to perinatal programming of leptin resistance and adiposity in later life.

  5. Isotropy Constraints on Powerful Sources of Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic Rays at 1019 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, Hajime; Murase, Kohta; Dermer, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) produced by powerful sources is numerically evaluated. We show that nondetection of significant anisotropy at ≈ {10}19 eV at present and in future experiments imposes general upper limits on UHECR proton luminosity of steady sources as a function of source redshifts. The upper limits constrain the existence of typical steady {10}19 eV UHECR sources in the local universe and limit their local density to ≳ {10}-3 Mpc {}-3, assuming average intergalactic magnetic fields less than {10}-9 G. This isotropy, being stronger than that measured at the highest energies, may indicate the transient generation of UHECRs. Our calculations are applied for extreme high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae objects 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1101-232, and 1ES 0347-121, to test the UHECR-induced cascade model, in which beamed UHECR protons generate TeV radiation in transit from sources. While the magnetic-field structure surrounding the sources affects the required absolute cosmic-ray luminosity of the blazars, the magnetic-field structure surrounding the Milky Way directly affects the observed anisotropy. If these magnetic fields are weak enough, significant UHECR anisotropy from these blazars is detectable by the Pierre Auger Observatory unless the maximum energy of UHECR protons is below 1019 eV. Furthermore, if these are the sources of UHECRs above 1019 eV, a local magnetic structure surrounding the Milky Way is needed to explain the observed isotropy at ˜ {10}19 eV, which may be incompatible with large magnetic structures around all galaxies for the UHECR-induced cascade model to work with reasonable jet powers.

  6. Double Beta Decays of 100Mo by ELEGANT V at Oto Cosmo Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudomi, N.; Ejiri, H.; Fushimi, K.; Hayashi, K.; Hazama, R.; Kishimoto, T.; Kume, K.; Kuramoto, H.; Matsuoka, T.; Ohsumi, H.; Takahisa, K.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2002-09-01

    Exclusive measurements of neutrino-less double beta decays (0νββ) of 100Mo were made by means of ELEGANT V. ELEGANT V was moved to Oto Cosmo Observatory from Kamioka underground lab. The present status of the double beta decay experiment with ELEGANT V is presented. The data at Oto lab., being combined with the data at Kamioka, gives stringent limits on half-lives for 0νββ and < 1.9eV for the Majorana neutrino mass.

  7. Global Analysis of the Shallow Geology of Large-Scale Ocean Slopes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Fillion, R. (1976). Hamilton Bank, Labrador Shelf: Postglacial Sediment Dynamics and Paleo-Oceanography. Mar. Geol. v. 20, p. 7-25. Flood, R. and C...99 .L p =a = a_ C= -10E I gI ~ cc~ t=1 19 E c 4- W.Lmm 5 Uc.,ccf 25 = -Eli.g9 -CIC .Aco-c c c U . EM Hil IID ad to ti an OUTCROP TYPE 0OEJ ti 3 E~* E E...parameter class topics. -I No value gi N where only profile stations were used. 2 Characterization of average slope and relief values in relation to

  8. Low Temperature Silicon Surface Cleaning by HF Etching/Ultraviolet Ozone Cleaning (HF/UVOC) Method (II)—in situ UVOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Tetsuya; Suemitsu, Maki; Miyamoto, Nobuo

    1989-12-01

    A new method to obtain clean silicon surfaces using a thermal treatment at as low as 700°C is proposed. The method consists of an ex situ treatment of HF dipping followed by a rinse in distilled, deionized water and in situ treatments of both UVOC under low oxygen pressure and annealing in vacuo. From the Arrhenius plot of the removal rate of the surface oxide, two mechanisms corresponding to a diffusion of the volatile product, SiO, and a reaction between oxygen and silicon are suggested to exist, with activation energies 3.7 eV and 1.9 eV, respectively.

  9. Note: Charge transfer in a hydrated peptide group is determined mainly by its intrinsic hydrogen-bond energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Mirkin, Noemi G.; Krimm, Samuel

    2014-01-28

    Charge transfer in a hydrogen-bonded N-methylacetamide(H{sub 2}O){sub 3} system is obtained from ωB97X-D/6-31++G** and CHelpG atomic charge calculations of individual peptide-water interactions as well as that of the entire complex. In the latter, the electron transfer to water is 0.19 e, influenced primarily by the hydrogen bonds to the C=O group. The values of such charge transfer are paralleled by the corresponding intrinsic hydrogen-bond energies. These results support the desirability of incorporating charge transfer in molecular mechanics energy functions.

  10. An efficient triple-junction polymer solar cell having a power conversion efficiency exceeding 11%.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chao; Chang, Wei-Hsuan; Yoshimura, Ken; Ohya, Kenichiro; You, Jingbi; Gao, Jing; Hong, Zirou; Yang, Yang

    2014-08-27

    Tandem solar cells have the potential to improve photon conversion efficiencies (PCEs) beyond the limits of single-junction devices. In this study, a triple-junction tandem design is demonstrated by employing three distinct organic donor materials having bandgap energies ranging from 1.4 to 1.9 eV. Through optical modeling, balanced photon absorption rates are achieved and, thereby, the photo-currents are matched among the three subcells. Accordingly, an efficient triple-junction tandem organic solar cell can exhibit a record-high PCE of 11.5%.

  11. Processable Electronically Conducting Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    is also evident in the electronic spectra of the polymer as the (CH)x formed in this manner has a band gap (absorption onset) at -1.9 eV (650 nm) and...an absorption maximum at 2.8 eV (440 nm) (compared to a band gap of 1.4 eV (885 nm) for Shirakawa (CH)x). As is the case with Durham (CH)x, orientation...annulated ring system locks the polymer into a stable conformation, and thus the optical band gaps of the mono- and disubstituted species are at

  12. What Can We Learn About the Ionosphere Using the EISCAT Heating Facility?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    energy of 1.97 eV , followed by the green line at 577.7 nm from O(1S) with an effective energy threshold of 4.19 eV but lines have also been observed at...waves. This second mechanism seems necessary to explain the green line atomic oxygen emission and other emissions with higher energy thresholds...investigating the conditions in the summer mesosphere, Geophys Res. Lett. 30, 23, 2229, doi:10.1029/2003GL018429. [19] Gustavsson , B., Sergienko, T., Kosch

  13. Evaluating the HCU (Health Care Unit) for Performance Monitoring and Resource Allocation Decisions Using Navy Ambulatory Care UCA (Uniform Chart of Accounts) Expense and Workload Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    PRNJECT, TASK% Research Department AREA S WORN UNIT NUMUERI Naval School of Health Sciences 65152N Bethesda, MD 20814-5033 N106-PN.001-0007 II ...STATEMENT (al rho a"otac eantered In 1ock 20. if differentU h"om a ) 1 IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. eKey" WOXS fCa nua on .e.,.. eIda iI necooeary d...sensitive than occupied bed day ( OBD ) and outpatient visit to "describe patient care workload in relation to staffing". 5 (p ’ 10 ) implicit in the study

  14. Investigating the Lewis acidity of aluminium fluoride surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, C. L.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Wander, A.; Harrison, N. M.

    2008-03-01

    The current study employs state of the art hybrid-exchange density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the Lewis acidic sites on the β-AlF3 (100) surface. It is shown that the strong Lewis base, NH3, binds to the surface with a binding energy of up to 1.9 eV. This demonstrates that the material is strongly Lewis acidic. We also consider the binding of the weak Lewis base CO to the surface. We calculate the shift in its stretch frequency compared to the gas phase molecule. Shifts are compared to experimental data and are shown to be typical of strong Lewis acidity.

  15. Influence of fluorine on the fiber resistance studied through the nonbridging oxygen hole center related luminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vaccaro, L.; Cannas, M.; Alessi, A.; Boscaino, R.; Girard, S.; Boukenter, A.; Ouerdane, Y.; Morana, A.

    2013-05-21

    The distribution of Non-Bridging Oxygen Hole Centers (NBOHCs) in fluorine doped optical fibers was investigated by confocal microluminescence spectroscopy, monitoring their characteristic 1.9 eV luminescence band. The results show that these defects are generated by the fiber drawing and their concentration further increases after {gamma} irradiation. The NBOHC concentration profile along the fiber provides evidence for an exponential decay with the fluorine content. This finding agrees with the role of fluorine in the fiber resistance and is discussed, from the microscopic point of view, by looking at the conversion mechanisms from strained bonds acting as precursors.

  16. Synthetic Radar Echoes in the Presence of Jamming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-06-22

    8217-- " . " . .... ; MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY U ’v 1 w C_ _3_ _ _ _._1 __ ._ c-., - •.€.u--- -. - -~u "" w, .. NAN.G, .. i hisd•En COP Y l "" I lot...ming noise bandwidthe and nodulattor- index ; typical valvu• are, perhaps, 3-6 db0 The experimental work in this report was completed in 1943. A, K...Strength ... ............. .18 D. Effect of Modulation Index ............... ... 19 E. Variation of Jamming Ncise Bandwidth ....... .............. .. 21

  17. Mechanism and Site of Attack for Direct Damage to DNA by Low-Energy Electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, X.; Sanche, L.

    2005-05-20

    We report results on the desorption of OH{sup -} induced by 0-19 eV electrons incident on self-assembled monolayer films made of single and double DNA strands of different orientations with respect to a gold substrate. Such measurements make it possible to deduce the mechanism and site of OH{sup -} formation within a biomolecule as complex as DNA. This type of damage is attributed to dissociative electron attachment to the phosphate group of DNA, when it contains the counterion H{sup +}.

  18. Soldier-Computer Interface.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-30

    1*19~E 70011 .. &M TOP 1-1-059 30 NOVEMBER 1985 peiou of u~oylo Si’H9M I mod~II I * 41JJIW ŕnd iwsBUm 616 SLI t6111 wrr SWOUJI )SE-8 30 NOVEMBER...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE READ INSTRUCTIONS I REPORT NUMBER .2- GOVT ACCESSION NO ’ECPlENT’L CATA .Z NUMBRFR TOP - 1-1-o59%" 4. TITLE ( d Subtitle...Ciontfine tooverso *(d of ncer d Idaetyf by block numsber) -The material in Lhis TOP is intended to be used for the Human Factors Engineering (HFE

  19. Thermoelectric Power Factor for Electrically Conductive Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-01

    PAN CSA 200 10 2.0e-06 Wang 95 Polyaniline /PMMA PAN CSA 300 8 1.9e-06 Yoon 94 Polyaniline /PMMA PAni 30 10 3.0e-07 Doping Conc. 60% (commercial...Zipperling 95 Polyaniline /PETG PAni 3.6 7 1.8e-08 Doping Conc. 60% (commercial) Zipperling 95 Polyaniline PAni Proton 50 6 1.8e-07 10 Holland 95 Polypyrrole...hopping thermopower has been reported in lightly doped polyacetylene, [3,4] and in lightly doped PANi [6-8], especially in pressed powder pellet samples

  20. Observation of phonons in multiferroic BiFeO3 single crystals by Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumura, H.; Matsui, S.; Harima, H.; Takahashi, T.; Itoh, T.; Kisoda, K.; Tamada, M.; Noguchi, Y.; Miyayama, M.

    2007-09-01

    We have grown BiFeO3 bulk single crystals by a flux method and characterized the phonon spectra in detail by Raman scattering in the temperature range 4-1100 K. All the 13 Raman-active phonon modes predicted by group theory, 4A1+9E, were observed at low temperature and successfully assigned by a polarized Raman measurement. Moreover, drastic spectral changes in the Raman spectra were observed at temperatures 600-700 K and 1000-1100 K. These features are discussed from the viewpoint of phonon coupling with the magnetic ordering and the structural phase transition, respectively.

  1. Observation of phonons in multiferroic BiFeO(3) single crystals by Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Fukumura, H; Matsui, S; Harima, H; Takahashi, T; Itoh, T; Kisoda, K; Tamada, M; Noguchi, Y; Miyayama, M

    2007-09-12

    We have grown BiFeO(3) bulk single crystals by a flux method and characterized the phonon spectra in detail by Raman scattering in the temperature range 4-1100 K. All the 13 Raman-active phonon modes predicted by group theory, 4A(1)+9E, were observed at low temperature and successfully assigned by a polarized Raman measurement. Moreover, drastic spectral changes in the Raman spectra were observed at temperatures 600-700 K and 1000-1100 K. These features are discussed from the viewpoint of phonon coupling with the magnetic ordering and the structural phase transition, respectively.

  2. General Aviation Aircraft Utilization in the Construction Industry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    York), Vol.45, no.11, Nov 1975, pg 82-86 6. Hinze, Jimmie and Pannullo, John 1978 "Safety; Function of Job Control" Journal of the Construction...Long, Daniel S., Taylor, John E. and McCarthy, Jack 1986 "Cessna Aircraft Cabin Door Mount for Photographic and Videographic Cameras" Photogrammetric...U’.. rW-6W VOVVVKV-1- ImWT R WTV -1-T T70 1-L 1 February 19e7 - <Co. Name> <Mail Address> <City>, (State> <ZIP> Dear Sirs , This letter is to request

  3. Systematic High-Resolution Remote-Sensing Investigation of Martian South Polar Landforms: Thermal Contraction Polygons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gasselt, Stephan; Hao, Jingyan

    2015-04-01

    landforms and combine results of two polar surveys. The work presented here provides a detailed assessment of data coverage, a review of polygonal landform types and of their distribution based on CTX observations. [1] Thomas et al. (2000): Nature, 404(6774): 161-164. [2] Kieffer (2003): 6th Int. Conf. Mars, #3158. [3] Piqueux & Christensen (2008): J. Geophys. Res., 113(E2), CiteID E02006. [4] Mangold (2005): Icarus, 174(2): 336-359. [5] van Gasselt et al. (2006): Europ. Planet. Sci. Congr., #629. [6] van Gasselt et al. (2005): J. Geophys. Res., 110(E8), CiteID E08002. [7] Byrne & Ingersoll (2003): Science, 299(5609): 1,057-1,053 [8] Piqueux et al. (2003): J. Geophys. Res., 108(E8), CiteID 5084. [9] Pilorget et al. (2013): J. Geophys. Res. 118(12): 2,520-2,536. [10] James et al. (2010): Icarus, 208(1): 82-85. [11] Portyankina et al. (2010): Icarus, 205(1): 311-320. [12] Thomas et al. (2010): Icarus, 205(1): 296-310. [13] Hansen et al. (2010): Icarus, 205(1): 283-295.

  4. Deep seated gravitational slope deformations and large landslides: implications on landslide hazard of urban areas and coastal erosion phenomena of Mount Poro headland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerricchio, A.; Simeone, V.

    2012-04-01

    square kilometers. Its movement towards NW produced a typical coastline, with a strong progradation towards NW and W from Punta della Tonnara to Parghelia and up to Fiumara della Ruffa (WSW of Tropea). The DSGSD involves the granitic bedrock as well as the transgressive Tortonian deposits, made by sands with the presence of Clypeasters, which are topped by arenaceous banks, for a total depth of 150 m. DSGSDs involving granitic rocks were probably due to more deformable lithotypes, like biotite schists, which work as substratum of granitic rocks at a not very deep depth, like in other areas of Calabria. Finally, the slow sliding towards N and NW of the landslide shapes the coast like a bow, thus causing strong erosion phenomena of the coastline. Ietto A & Calcaterra D. (1988). Deformazioni gravitative profonde e tettonica presso Tropea (M.te Poro, Calabria)", Memorie della Societa Geologica Italiana, 41, pp. 911-915, Rome, Italy. Guerricchio A. (2000). La fragilità del territorio dell'Italia centro-meridionale desumibile da immagini da satellite. X Congr. Naz. dei Geologi. International Conference: Il Territorio fragile; I, 443-482, Rome, Italy.

  5. Emergent Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Fakdi Sencianes, Andres

    2002-01-01

    the propellant. The propellant is a plasma that reaches extreme temperatures. Rockets tend to work much better the hotter the exhaust is. Thrust from the plasma engine could boost a spacecraft for a longer time and with better efficiency than conventional engines. Solar Windsurfing: A technology that uses a magnetic balloon to capture ionized particles shed by the Sun, "sailing" through space by taking use of the pressure of the sun's rays. All that is needed is a thin sheet of reflective material. Solar photons bounce off and transfer momentum to the sail, allowing the spacecraft to accelerate without expending fuel. General problems: -The electrostatic impact of the plasma created by electric thruster on spacecraft charging. -The influence of plasma ejected from the thruster on solar panel performances. -Creation of parasite currents in the structure that may disturb sensitive equipment. -... in 300 words but I think that you will have a general idea about my work and what The Astronautical Congres represents to me.

  6. Surveillance urinaire des professionnels de la santé exposés aux antinéoplasiques dans le cadre de leur travail: revue de la littérature de 2010 à 2015

    PubMed Central

    Poupeau, Céline; Roland, Christel; Bussières, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Contexte Il existe de plus en plus de données sur la présence de traces de médicaments dangereux dans l’urine des professionnels de la santé exposés à ces médicaments. Objectif Présenter une revue de la littérature scientifique concernant la surveillance urinaire de professionnels de la santé exposés aux anti-néoplasiques dans le cadre de leur travail. Sources de données Recherche sur PubMed avec les Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) « occupational exposure » et « antineoplastic agents » ainsi que sur Google Scholar avec les termes « antineoplastic », « urine » et « occupational exposure ». Sélection des études et extraction des données L’examen a porté sur tous les articles en anglais et en français ayant trait aux professionnels de la santé exposés à des médicaments dangereux dans le cadre de leur travail, publiés entre le 1er janvier 2010 et le 31 décembre 2015. Les articles ne comportant pas de résultats urinaires et ceux concernant les vétérinaires ainsi que les revues de littérature, les éditoriaux, les lettres à la rédaction et les résumés de congrès ont été exclus. Synthèse des données Vingt-quatre articles ont été retenus. Les études ont été menées dans 52 établissements de santé provenant de sept pays. Elles regroupaient 826 travailleurs exposés à des médicaments dangereux et 175 témoins, notamment des infirmiers (n = 16 études), des pharmaciens (n = 10), des assistants techniques en pharmacie (n = 8), des médecins (n = 7), des aides-soignants (n = 2) et autres (n = 8). Différentes méthodes analytiques ont été utilisées pour quantifier la présence de 13 médicaments dangereux, principalement le cyclophosphamide (n = 16 études), les platines (n = 7) et l’alpha-fluoro-béta-alanine, un métabolite urinaire du 5-fluorouracile (n = 3). La proportion de travailleurs qui ont étés déclarés positifs s’étendait de 0 % (n = 10 études) à 100 % (n = 4). Si l’on ne retient que

  7. How metallic is the binding state of indium hosted by excess-metal chalcogenides in ore deposits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondina Figueiredo, Maria; Pena Silva, Teresa; Oliveira, Daniel; Rosa, Diogo

    2010-05-01

    Radiation Facility, in Grenoble/France). Polymetallic chalcogenide minerals and various model compounds displaying distinct bonding situations of indium to other ligands (oxygen and halides) were studied. Encouraging results from a first experiment [5] showed the presence of a "white line" in the XANES spectra collected from InF3 and from In-hosting bornite; however, the impossibility of clearly identifying the nanoscale phase hosting indium in sulphide ore samples has hindered a full interpretation of X-ray absorption data. The crystal chemistry of indium in natural chalcogenides is now reanalysed and XANES results obtained so far for polymetallic sulphides are accordingly re-evaluated, disclosing a challenging clue for indium binding state in these host minerals within sulphide ores. [1] M.O. Figueiredo et al. (2007) Procd. 9th Biennial SGA Mtg., Dublin/Ireland, edt. C. Andrew et al., 1355-1357. [2] O.C. Gaspar (2002) Canad. Miner. 40, 611-636. [3] M.O. Figueiredo & T.P. Silva (2009) ICANS 23, 23rd Int. Conf. Amorphous & Nano-crystalline Semiconductors, Netherlands, August 23-28. Poster ID 229 (abstract). [4] T. Seifert & D. Sandmann (2002) Ore Geol. Reviews 28, 1-31. [5] M.O. Figueiredo & T.P. Silva (2009) XVIII Int. Mater. Res. Congr., Mexico, August 16-20. Symp. 20, Poster nr. 1 (abstract). * Work developed within the research project PTDC/CTE-GIN/67027/2006 financed by the Portuguese Foundation for Science & Technology (FCT/MCTES). The financial support from EU to perform the experiments at the ESRF is also acknowledged.

  8. Topographically induced waves in a pycnocline: internal solitary waves and trapped orographic waves in the Toulouse stratified water flume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paci, Alexandre; Dossmann, Yvan; Auclair, Francis; Colin, Jeanne; Johnson, Ted; Lacaze, Laurent; Cid, Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    internal waves and the drag exerted by a mountain on the atmosphere from a small set of parameters. The latter is of particular importance to climate modelers and researchers involved in the development of numerical weather prediction models, because of the need to parameterize the drag exerted by orography. Boundary layer and internal waves interactions are explored from complementary numerical simulations in order to investigate the cause of some discrepancies between predictions of the theory and results of the experiments. References [1] Steeneveld G.-J., D. Dobrovolschi, A. Paci, O. Eiff, L. Lacaze and A.A.M. Holtslag (2010) : Sensing the stable boundary layer in a towing tank, 19th Symposium on Boundary Layers and Turbulence, Keystone CO (USA), August 2-6, 2010 [2] Dossmann Y., A. Paci, F. Auclair and J. W. Floor (2011) : Simultaneous velocity and density measurements for an energy-based approach to internal waves generated over a ridge, Experiments in Fluid, 51 (4): 1013-1028, doi :10.1007/s00348-011-1121-3 [3] Johnson E.R., J.G. Esler, A. Paci, S. Cazin, E. Cid, O. Eiff and L. Lacaze (2010) : Near-critical orographic forcing of stratified flow. In Proceedings of the HYDRALAB III Joint Transnational Access User Meeting (editors Joachim Gruene and Mark Klein Breteler), Hannover, 2nd-4th February 2010, pp. 207-210, ISBN-987-3-00-030141-4 [4] Cid E., L. Lacaze, S. Cazin, A. Paci and O.Eiff (2010) : Mesure d'ondes à l'interface d'un bi-couche par stereo correlation d'images, Congres Francophone de Techniques Laser, CFTL 2010, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, 14-17 septembre 2010

  9. Répartition des dépôts carbonatés du Lias inférieur et moyen le long de la côte atlantique du Maroc: conséquences sur la paléogéographie de l'Atlantique naissant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresnay, Renaud Du

    Along the Atlantic coast of Morocco a series of embayments or basins including the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène and Tarfaya-Laayoune basins, contain marine sediments which may attain considerable thickness and whose Early Jurassic (Liassic) age has been well documented. This paper describes Liassic deposits from six exposures or drill holes between the Saharan coast of Tarfaya and the Essaouira-Jebel Amsittène region. These Atlantic basins do not connect with the marine troughs of the High and Middle Atlas, which follow a Mediterranean Tethys trend, but are separated from them by a SSW-NNE trending threshold made up of the axial portion of the central Hercynian Massif (Moroccan Meseta). Their opening to the ancestral Mediterranean must have been farther north, probably by means of interconnecting, WSW-ENE trending rift-related graben trenches, possibly starting with the Rharb (Kenitra) basin. More likely, however, openingsexisted beneath the present nappes of the Rif and along the undoubtedly wide fracture zone represented by the Azores-Gibraltar line separating the Rif terrain from that of the Betic Cordilleras (both of which contain well dated marine Hettangian). Farther SW, probably hidden by the sedimentary prism of the African continental shelf, connections may exist with the Liassic occurrence of Central America, as already suggested by Avias (1953. Sci. Terre1 (1), 1-276; 1956. 20° Congr. géol. Intern Mexico, Secc. II, 1-5), shown in a figure by Erben (1956b. Neues Jb. geol. paläontol. Abh., Stuttgart 103, 28-79), and subsequently upheld by Hallam (1971a. J. Geol. Chicago79 (2), 129-157; 1983. Palaeogeogr. P. clim. P. ecol.43, 181-193) and Thierry (1982. Bull. Soc. géol. Fr., Sér. 7, 24, 1053-1067). These lines of communication would have centered on a "Panamanian Strait" ("Panama Strasse") and would have permitted faunal migrations, in particular towards South America. Migrations of certain European and Mesogean faunal species have recently been

  10. Management of uncertainties on parameters elicited by experts - Applications to sea-level rise and to CO2 storage operations risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manceau, Jean-Charles; Loschetter, Annick; Rohmer, Jérémy; Le Cozannet, Gonéri; Lary Louis, de; Guénan Thomas, Le; Ken, Hnottavange-Telleen

    2017-04-01

    -Shafer theory has been used to represent and aggregate these pieces of information. The results of different aggregation rules as well as those of a classical probabilistic approach are compared with the purpose of highlighting the elements each of them could provide to the decision-maker (Manceau et al., 2016). The second example focuses on projections of future sea-level rise. Based on IPCC's constraints on the projection quantiles, and on the scientific community consensus level on the physical limits to future sea-level rise, a possibility distribution of the projections by 2100 under the RCP 8.5 scenario has been established. This possibility distribution has been confronted with a set of previously published probabilistic sea-level projections, with a focus on their ability to explore high ranges of sea-level rise (Le Cozannet et al., 2016). These two examples are complementary in the sense that they allow to address various aspects of the problem (e.g. representation of different types of information, conflict among experts, sources dependence). Moreover, we believe that the issues faced during these two experiences can be generalized to many risks/hazards assessment situations. References Manceau, JC., Loschetter, A., Rohmer, J., de Lary, L., Le Guénan, T., Hnottavange-Telleen, K. (2016). Dealing with uncertainty on parameters elicited from a pool of experts for CCS risk assessment. Congrès λμ 20 (St-Malo, France). Le Cozannet G., Manceau JC., Rohmer, J. (2016). Bounding probabilistic sea-level rise projections within the framework of the possibility theory. Accepted in Environmental Research Letters.

  11. An explanation for the chotic structure of the poles based on a new concept concerning the formation of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguignes, M.

    areas the way in which the gravitational sealing of the Moon occurred. the future modalities of an informative exploration of the polar regions. Bibliography Hubbard-GS; Feldman-W; Cox-SA; Smith-MA; Chu-Thielbar -L. 2002 : Lunar Prospector: First results and lessons learned ACTA-ASTRONAUTICA. JAN; 50 (1) : 39-47 Stankevich-DG; Shkuratov-YG; Petrov-DV 2001 Estimation of the area of the perpetually shaded lunar surface SOLAR-SYSTEM-RESEARCH. NOV-DEC; 35 (6) : 452-457 Séguignes M G. 2002 : Towards another theory for the formation of the moon. Poster 27ème congres of European Geophysical Society. Nice, 2002

  12. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Measurements for In Situ Planetary Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansford, G.; Hill, K. S.; Talboys, D.; Vernon, D.; Ambrosi, R.; Bridges, J.; Hutchinson, I.; Marinangeli, L.

    2011-12-01

    ., Baliva, A., Stevoli, A., Ambrosi, R., Critani, F., Delhez, R., Scandelli, L., Holland, A., Nelms, N. & the Mars-XRD Team, Proceedings of the 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 12 - 16 March 2007, League City, Texas, USA. [2] L. Marinangeli, I. B. Hutchinson, A. Stevoli, G. Adami, R. Ambrosi, R. Amils, V. Assis Fernandes, A. Baliva, A. T. Basilevsky, G. Benedix, P. Bland, A. J. Böttger, J. Bridges, G. Caprarelli, G. Cressey, F. Critani, N. d'Alessandro, R. Delhez, C. Domeneghetti, D. Fernandez-Remolar, R. Filippone, A. M. Fioretti, J. M. Garcia Ruiz, M. Gilmore, G. M. Hansford, G. Iezzi, R. Ingley, M. Ivanov, G. Marseguerra, L. Moroz, C. Pelliciari, P. Petrinca, E. Piluso, L. Pompilio, J. Sykes, F. Westall and the MARS-XRD Team, EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011, 3 - 7 October 2011, La Cité Internationale des Congrès Nantes Métropole, Nantes, France.

  13. DYNAMICS OF THE REACTION OF N{sup +} WITH H{sub 2}. V. REACTIVE AND NON-REACTIVE SCATTERING OF N{sup +}({sup 3}p) AT RELATIVE ENERGIES BELOW 3.6 eV.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Steven G.; Farrar, James M.; Mahan, Bruce H.

    1980-05-01

    We have measured product velocity vector distributions for the processes N{sup +}({sup 3}P)(H{sub 2},H)NH{sup +} and N{sup +}({sup 3}P)(H{sub 2},H{sub 2})N+ in the initial relative energy ranges of 0.98~3.60 eV and 0.66~ 2.50 eV respectively using the crossed beam technique. At energies below about 1.9 eV the predominance of a long-lived NH{sub 2}{sup +} complex is inferred from isotropic reactive scattering and a backscattered peak in the non-reactive distributions. Above 1.9 eV there is still a substantial interaction between all three atoms. The dynamics are adequately explained by a mechanism which involves accessing the deep {sup 3}B{sub 1} potential well through an avoided crossing with the {sup 3}A{sub 2} surface when the ·symmetry is relaxed from C{sub 2v} to C{sub s}. The reaction of electronically excited metastable ions, probably N{sup +}({sup 1}D), is seen as a forward peak in the reactive distributions.

  14. PCR detection of cytK gene in Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from food samples.

    PubMed

    Oltuszak-Walczak, Elzbieta; Walczak, Piotr

    2013-11-01

    A method for detection of the cytotoxin K cytK structural gene and its active promoter preceded by the PlcR-binding box, controlling the expression level of this enterotoxin, was developed. The method was applied for the purpose of the analysis of 47 bacterial strains belonging to the Bacillus cereus group isolated from different food products. It was found that the majority of the analyzed strains carried the fully functional cytK gene with its PlcR regulated promoter. The cytK gene was not detected in four emetic strains of Bacillus cereus carrying the cesB gene and potentially producing an emetic toxin - cereulide. The cytotoxin K gene was detected in 4 isolates classified as Bacillus mycoides and one reference strain B. mycoides PCM 2024. The promoter region and the N-terminal part of the cytK gene from two strains of B. mycoides (5D and 19E) showed similarities to the corresponding sequences of Bacillus cereus W23 and Bacillus thuringiensis HD-789, respectively. It was shown for the first time that the cytK gene promoter region from strains 5D and 19E of Bacillus mycoides had a similar arrangement to the corresponding sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. The presence of the cytK gene in Bacillus mycoides shows that this species, widely recognized as nonpathogenic, may pose potential biohazard to human beings. © 2013.

  15. Ion-molecule interactions in crossed-beams. [N/sup +/-H/sub 2/; F/sup +/-H; CO/sub 2//sup +/-D/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.G.

    1980-09-01

    Interactions of the ions N/sup +/, F/sup +/, and CO/sub 2//sup +/ with H/sub 2/ and/or its isotopes were examined using the crossed-beam technique in the low (< 4 eV) initial relative energy. For the reaction N/sup +/(/sup 3/P) + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. NH/sup +/ + H, complex formation dominates up to 1.9 eV and a substantial interaction occurs between all collision partners up to 3.6 eV. The distribution of N/sup +/ scattered nonreactively from H/sub 2/ also showed a long-lived complex channel below 1.9 eV. The reaction F/sup +/(/sup 3/P) + H/sub 2/ ..-->..FH/sup +/ + H proceeded by a direct reaction mechanism at 0.20 to 1.07 eV. The reaction CO/sub 2//sup +/ + D/sub 2/ ..-->.. DCO/sub 2//sup +/ + D gives asymmetric product distributions at 0.27 eV and above, indicating a direct reaction mechanism. Results indicated that there are probably barriers in the exit channels for DCO/sub 2//sup +/, DCO/sup +/, and D/sub 2/O/sup +/ products. The electronic state distributions of the N/sup +/, F/sup +/, and CO/sub 2//sup +/ beams was investigated using beam attenuation and total luminescence techniques.

  16. Molecular Dynamic Simulation to Explore the Molecular Basis of Btk-PH Domain Interaction with Ins(1,3,4,5)P4

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dan; Jiang, Junfeng; Liang, Zhongjie; Sun, Maomin; Luo, Cheng; Shen, Bairong

    2013-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase contains a pleckstrin homology domain, and it specifically binds inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4), which is involved in the maturation of B cells. In this paper, we studied 12 systems including the wild type and 11 mutants, K12R, S14F, K19E, R28C/H, E41K, L11P, F25S, Y40N, and K12R-R28C/H, to investigate any change in the ligand binding site of each mutant. Molecular dynamics simulations combined with the method of molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann solvent-accessible surface area have been applied to the twelve systems, and reasonable mutant structures and their binding free energies have been obtained as criteria in the final classification. As a result, five structures, K12R, K19E, R28C/H, and E41K mutants, were classified as “functional mutations,” whereas L11P, S14F, F25S, and Y40N were grouped into “folding mutations.” This rigorous study of the binding affinity of each of the mutants and their classification provides some new insights into the biological function of the Btk-PH domain and related mutation-causing diseases. PMID:24307874

  17. Investigation of significantly high barrier height in Cu/GaN Schottky diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Manjari; Kumar, Ashutosh; Nagarajan, S.; Sopanen, M.; Singh, R.

    2016-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) measurements combined with analytical calculations have been used to explain mechanisms for forward-bias current flow in Copper (Cu) Schottky diodes fabricated on Gallium Nitride (GaN) epitaxial films. An ideality factor of 1.7 was found at room temperature (RT), which indicated deviation from thermionic emission (TE) mechanism for current flow in the Schottky diode. Instead the current transport was better explained using the thermionic field-emission (TFE) mechanism. A high barrier height of 1.19 eV was obtained at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the plausible reason for observing Schottky barrier height (SBH) that is significantly higher than as predicted by the Schottky-Mott model for Cu/GaN diodes. XPS measurements revealed the presence of an ultrathin cuprous oxide (Cu2O) layer at the interface between Cu and GaN. With Cu2O acting as a degenerate p-type semiconductor with high work function of 5.36 eV, a high barrier height of 1.19 eV is obtained for the Cu/Cu2O/GaN Schottky diode. Moreover, the ideality factor and barrier height were found to be temperature dependent, implying spatial inhomogeneity of barrier height at the metal semiconductor interface.

  18. Investigation of significantly high barrier height in Cu/GaN Schottky diode

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Manjari Kumar, Ashutosh; Singh, R.; Nagarajan, S.; Sopanen, M.

    2016-01-15

    Current-voltage (I-V) measurements combined with analytical calculations have been used to explain mechanisms for forward-bias current flow in Copper (Cu) Schottky diodes fabricated on Gallium Nitride (GaN) epitaxial films. An ideality factor of 1.7 was found at room temperature (RT), which indicated deviation from thermionic emission (TE) mechanism for current flow in the Schottky diode. Instead the current transport was better explained using the thermionic field-emission (TFE) mechanism. A high barrier height of 1.19 eV was obtained at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the plausible reason for observing Schottky barrier height (SBH) that is significantly higher than as predicted by the Schottky-Mott model for Cu/GaN diodes. XPS measurements revealed the presence of an ultrathin cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) layer at the interface between Cu and GaN. With Cu{sub 2}O acting as a degenerate p-type semiconductor with high work function of 5.36 eV, a high barrier height of 1.19 eV is obtained for the Cu/Cu{sub 2}O/GaN Schottky diode. Moreover, the ideality factor and barrier height were found to be temperature dependent, implying spatial inhomogeneity of barrier height at the metal semiconductor interface.

  19. Temperature-Dependent Rate Constants and Substituent Effects for the Reactions of Hydroxyl Radicals With Three Partially Fluorinated Ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, K.-J.; DeMore, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    Rate constants and temperature dependencies for the reactions of OH with CF3OCH3 (HFOC-143a), CF2HOCF2H (HFOC-134), and CF3OCF2H (HFOC-125) were studied using a relative rate technique in the temperature range 298-393 K. The following absolute rate constants were derived: HFOC-143a, 1.9E-12 exp(-1555/T); HFOC-134, 1.9E-12 exp(-2006/T); HFOC-125, 4.7E-13 exp(-2095/T). Units are cm(exp 3)molecule(exp -1) s(exp -1). Substituent effects on OH abstraction rate constants are discussed, and it is shown that the CF3O group has an effect on the OH rate constants similar to that of a fluorine atom. The effects are related to changes in the C-H bond energies of the reactants (and thereby the activation energies) rather than changes in the preexponential factors. On the basis of a correlation of rate constants with bond energies, the respective D(C-H) bond strengths in the three ethers are found to be 102, 104, and 106 kcal/mol, with an uncertainty of about 1 kcal/mol.

  20. Une version québécoise du Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2)—Outil d'évaluation des commotions cérébrales dans le sport 2 : Québec (SCAT2-Qc)

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Jami; Boyer-Rémillard, Marie-Eve; Pilon-Piquette, Michael; McKinley, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Objectif : traduire le Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) dans la langue française parlée au Québec et en vérifier l'acceptabilité pour la population québécoise francophone. Méthodologie : le processus de traduction de la version originale du SCAT2 a fait appel à une variante de la méthode de traduction et d'adaptation d'outils proposée par l'Organisation mondiale de la santé. Une traduction parallèle a d'abord été réalisée. Ensuite, un comité a révisé cette traduction parallèle dans le but de produire une version préliminaire du SCAT2-Qc. Puis, on a procédé à une rétrotraduction parallèle, que l'on a comparée à la version originale. La version préliminaire a été modifiée. Pour parvenir à la version finale, on a intégré les suggestions et les commentaires formulés par deux sujets sains lors de l'essai de l'outil, et lors de la comparaison du SCAT2-Qc à la version française existante par trois réviseurs du domaine de la santé. On a ensuite testé la version finale du SCAT2-Qc auprès de douze sujets sains pour en vérifier l'acceptabilité. Résultats : les douze sujets sains n'ont eu aucun problème de compréhension en utilisant le SCAT2-Qc. Conclusion : les différentes étapes de traduction ont permis de créer le SCAT2-Qc. Son contenu ayant été validé, il peut à présent être utilisé dans le milieu sportif et scientifique québécois. PMID:24396168

  1. Une étude cas-témoins pour déterminer les facteurs de non-observance du suivi médical chez les patients diabétiques à Kinshasa, en 2010

    PubMed Central

    Mense, Kennedy; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Mutombo, Paulin Beya; Muyer, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le diabète est un problème majeur de santé publique et un fardeau économique mondial qui n’épargne pas la RD-Congo. Bien que sa prise en charge soit codifiée, la plupart des diabétiques n'arrivent pas à respecter les rendez-vous de suivi. Cette étude vise principalement à identifier les déterminants de la non-observance du suivi médical chez les diabétiques à Kinshasa. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude cas-témoins où les cas sont les patients diabétiques non observant le suivi médical et les témoins, ceux répondant régulièrement au suivi médical. Couvrant la période du 1erjanvier au 31 décembre 2010, l’étude a porté sur un échantillon aléatoire de 154 sujets répartis entre 77 cas et 77 témoins. Résultats Les données indiquent une association entre la non-observance du suivi médical et le revenu (niveau de vie) des ménages. Les cas provenant des ménages à faible revenu courent six fois plus le risque d’être non-observants. Par contre, entre le niveau de connaissance et la non-observance l'association notée n’était pas statistiquement significative. Le respect des rendez-vous pourrait être amélioré de 77% si le revenu des ménages des diabétiques était augmenté. Le coût total mensuel du suivi médical est estimé à 27,2 USD, alors que le revenu permanant des ménages se situe à 306,6 USD. Conclusion Le bas niveau de vie mais pas celui de l'ignorance est un déterminant de la non-observance des visites de suivi du malade diabétique. PMID:25309658

  2. Cutaneous metastasis from lung cancer. Case report.

    PubMed

    Fratus, Giorgio; Tagliabue, Fabio; Mariani, Pierpaolo; Bottazzi, Enrico Coppola; Spinelli, Luisella; Novellino, Lorenzo

    2014-07-21

    Il cancro del polmone rappresenta la patologia maligna maggiormente diagnosticata a livello mondiale. La diffusione metastatica della malattia è piuttosto frequente. Oltre ai classici siti di metastatizzazione (ossea, surreni, fegato, cervello) un sito particolare è rappresentato dalla cute. Il caso presentato riguarda appunto un paziente di 66 anni con metastasi cutanea da neoplasia del polmone. Un uomo di 66 anni, con anamnesi positiva per anuerisma aortico sottorenale, BPCO, cardiopatico e diabetico, giunge alla nostra osservazione per neoplasia del lobo inferiore del polmone sinistro. Dopo un accurato staging preoperatorio, il paziente viene sottoposto a lobectomia inferiore sinistra. L’esito dell’esame istologico è di carcinoma squamocellulare moderatamente e scarsamente differenziato G2-3 pT2bN0. Il paziente viene pertanto inviato al collega oncologo per il regolare follow up. Dopo circa 6 mesi il paziente ritorna alla nostra attenzione per la comparsa a livello del fianco/fossa iliaca di destra di nodulo cutaneo, duro, discromico, dolente ed ulcerato. Le biopsie eseguite, hanno dato esito di carcinoma squamocellulare moderatamente e scarsamente differenziato. Il paziente veniva sottoposto a un TC torace- addome che evidenziava in sede della parete addominale l’assenza d’infiltrazione dei piani muscolo-aponeurotici da parte della neoformazione. Il paziente è stato quindi sottoposto ad intervento chirurgico di asportazione della lesione cutanea. L’esame istologico del pezzo operatorio ha confermato trattarsi di carcinoma squamocellulare metastatico. Le metastasi cutanee da carcinoma del polmone si presentano nel 2,5 - 7,5% dei casi. La sopravvivenza mediana di questi pazienti è di circa 2,9 mesi. L’istotipo maggiormente coinvolto, secondo autori Giapponesi, è l’adenocarcinoma seguito dal carcinoma squamocellulare. Alcuni studi hanno dimostrato la validità dell’approccio chirurgico seguito dalla chemioterapia nei casi di metastasi singole

  3. Lait humain provenant d’une banque de dons ou acheté en ligne?

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Maude; Chaudhry, Shahnaz; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Une de mes patientes m’a demandé si elle pourrait se procurer du lait humain par Internet pour allaiter son nourrisson s’il le fallait. L’usage de lait humain provenant d’une banque de dons est-il plus sécuritaire que son achat en ligne? Réponse L’Organisation mondiale de la Santé et l’American Academy of Pediatrics recommandent d’utiliser des dons de lait humain comme choix à privilégier lorsque le lait maternel n’est pas disponible. Cependant, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie n’approuve pas le partage de lait humain non traité. Le lait humain entreposé dans les banques de lait diffère de celui qu’on peut se procurer par Internet en raison du processus rigoureux de sélection des donneuses, des fréquentes inspections de la qualité, des procédés de transport règlementés et du processus de pasteurisation conforme aux directives établies par l’Agence canadienne d’inspection des aliments. La plupart des échantillons achetés en ligne contiennent des bactéries à gram négatif ou comptent au total plus de 104 unités formant colonies de bactéries aérobiques par millilitre; ils renferment aussi en moyenne au décompte total plus de bactéries aérobiques, de bactéries à gram négatif, de coliformes et de Staphylococcus spp que les échantillons des banques de lait. La croissance de la plupart des espèces de bactéries est associée au nombre de jours en transit, ce qui porte à croire que les conditions de collecte, d’entreposage et de transport sont médiocres pour le lait acheté en ligne.

  4. La supraconductivité a 100 ans !

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-14

    Il y a 100 ans, le 8 avril 1911, une découverte majeure était réalisée : celle de la supraconductivité. La supraconductivité est la caractéristique qu’ont certains métaux et alliages de perdre toute résistance électrique en dessous d’une température donnée. Cette renversante découverte, réalisée de manière presque fortuite par Kammerlingh Onnes de l’Université de Leyde (Pays-Bas) et son étudiant Gilles Holst, a ouvert un nouveau champ de recherche en physique et de fabuleuses perspectives d’applications technologiques. Du point de vue scientifique, la supraconductivité est en effet l’une des rares manifestations de la physique quantique à l’échelle macroscopique.  Du point de vue des retombées techniques, elle est porteuse d’applications majeures dans le domaine de la santé, des communications et de l’énergie. 100 ans après, les physiciens n’ont toujours pas fini d’explorer ce phénomène et ses applications. Le CERN abrite des applications de la supraconductivité à des échelles inédites. L’accélérateur de particules LHC, avec ses milliers d’aimants supraconducteurs répartis sur 27 kilomètres de circonférence, est en effet la plus grande application mondiale de la supraconductivité. Il ne pourrait exister sans elle.  Le CERN fête donc la découverte de la supraconductivité avec une conférence exceptionnelle donnée par Philippe Lebrun. Au cours de cette conférence, l’expérience historique de Kammerlingh Onnes sera reproduite. Philippe Lebrun racontera l’histoire de cette étonnante découverte, en la replaçant dans le contexte scientifique de l’époque. Il racontera les développements scientifiques et les applications du premier siècle de la supraconductivité. Conférence en français Merci de bien vouloir vous inscrire au : +41 22 767 76 76 ou cern.reception@cern.ch

  5. Clinical practice guideline: management of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Joshua A.; Hsu, Jonathan; Bawazeer, Mohammad; Marshall, John; Friedrich, Jan O.; Nathens, Avery; Coburn, Natalie; May, Gary R.; Pearsall, Emily; McLeod, Robin S.

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in the incidence of acute pancreatitis reported worldwide. Despite improvements in access to care, imaging and interventional techniques, acute pancreatitis continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute pancreatitis, recent studies auditing the clinical management of the condition have shown important areas of noncompliance with evidence-based recommendations. This underscores the importance of creating understandable and implementable recommendations for the diagnosis and management of acute pancreatitis. The purpose of the present guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of both mild and severe acute pancreatitis as well as the management of complications of acute pancreatitis and of gall stone–induced pancreatitis. Une hausse de l’incidence de pancréatite aiguë a été constatée à l’échelle mondiale. Malgré l’amélioration de l’accès aux soins et aux techniques d’imagerie et d’intervention, la pancréatite aiguë est toujours associée à une morbidité et une mortalité importantes. Bien qu’il existe des guides de pratique clinique pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, des études récentes sur la vérification de la prise en charge clinique de cette affection révèlent des lacunes importantes dans la conformité aux recommandations fondées sur des données probantes. Ces résultats mettent en relief l’importance de formuler des recommandations compréhensibles et applicables pour le diagnostic et la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë. La présente ligne directrice vise à fournir des recommandations fondées sur des données probantes pour la prise en charge de la pancréatite aiguë, qu’elle soit bénigne ou grave, ainsi que de ses complications et de celles de la pancréatite causée par un calcul biliaire. PMID:27007094

  6. Profil clinique et bactériologique des infections néonatales bactériennes à l'Hôpital Laquintinie de Douala, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Kemeze, Sandrine; Moudze, Béatrice; Chiabi, Andreas; Eposse, Charlotte; Kaya, Alexis; Mbangue, Madeleine; Guifo, Odette; Kago, Innocent

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé a estimé la survenue globale de décès néonatal à 2,8 millions en 2015, dont 47,6% étaient dues aux infections. Ces infections peuvent survenir chez un nouveau-né de 0 à un mois de vie, pouvant aller jusqu’à 3 mois. Méthodes C'est une étude prospective allant du 1er mars au 30 juin 2015 au Service de néonatologie de l'Hôpital Laquintinie de Douala. Etaient inclus tout nouveau-né symptomatique avec ou sans critère anamnestique et tout nouveau-né asymptomatique, présentant au moins un risque infectieux et ayant au moins une culture positive ou une anomalie de la numération formule sanguine ou une protéine C réactive positive. Résultats Des 310 nouveau-nés admis, 300 ont été retenus pour infection néonatale, soit une incidence de 96,8%. Nous avons réalisé 104 cultures dont 25 positives, soit une incidence de l'infection néonatale confirmée de 24%. Les facteurs associés à l'infection étaient la prématurité inexpliquée <35 semaines d'aménorrhée(45,1%) et la réanimation néonatale (34,8%). La fièvre (56%) et les troubles neurologiques (48,8%) étaient les manifestations cliniques les plus fréquentes. Les Gram négatifs étaient les germes les plus fréquents (56%). L'imipenème (95%) et l'amikacine (66,7%) étaient les antibiotiques les plusefficaces. L’évolution était favorable dans 66,4% des cas et le taux de décès était de 33,6%. Conclusion Cette étude révèle une forte prévalence de l'infection dans cet hôpital. L’écologie bactérienne est dominée par les Gram négatifs, on note une importante résistance aux antibiotiques usuels et une mortalité assez élevée. PMID:27222688

  7. Two methods for setting child-focused tuberculosis care targets.

    PubMed

    Yuen, C M; Jenkins, H E; Chang, R; Mpunga, J; Becerra, M C

    2016-06-21

    Objectif : Pour allouer des ressources aux recherches de contacts domiciliaires, les programmes de lutte contre la tuberculose (TB) ont besoin d'estimations du nombre d'enfants contacts nécessitant une prise en charge.Schéma : Nous avons élaboré deux méthodes afin d'estimer les nombres annuels d'enfants contacts âgés de 0–14 ans requérant une évaluation et un traitement. La Méthode 1 combine des données locales utilisant des formules simples. En utilisant les données disponibles publiquement, la Méthode 2 se sert d'un modèle de régression linéaire basé sur les données de l'Enquête Démographie et Santé et celles de la Banque Mondiale afin d'estimer le nombre d'enfants dans chaque famille, puis de combiner ces résultats avec ceux de la déclaration des cas et des estimations de risque de maladie et d'infection.Résultats : En appliquant la Méthode 1 aux données du Malawi, nous avons abouti à ce que ~21 000 enfants contacts par an requéraient une évaluation et ~1900 devraient avoir un diagnostic de TB. Appliquer la Méthode 2 à tous les pays a suggéré que, dans le monde, 2,41 millions d'enfants âgés de <5 ans (intervalle d'incertitude [II] à 95% 2,36–2,46 millions) et 5,07 millions (II95% 4,81–5,34 millions) d'enfants âgés de 5–14 ans vivent dans des foyers comprenant un patient adulte atteint de TB chaque année. Parmi eux, 239 014 (II95% 118 649–478 581) et 419 816 (II95% 140 600–1 268 805), respectivement, auront la TB et 848 453 autres enfants (II95% 705838–1017 551) et 2660 885 (II95% 2080 517–3413 189) seront infectés.Conclusion : Il est possible d'utiliser les données disponibles pour établir des objectifs d'évaluation programmatique et de traitement afin d'améliorer la prise en charge des enfants contacts de patients tuberculeux.

  8. Résultats fonctionnels de la chirurgie de la cataracte par phacoalternative avec implantation en chambre postérieure: à propos de 300 cas à Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Jean Wenceslas; Meda, Nonfounikoun; Ahnoux-Zabsonre, Ahgbatouhabéba; Yameogo, Claudette; Dolo, Mariam; Sanou, Jérôme; Daboue, Arsène

    2015-01-01

    La cataracte est la première cause de cécité curable dans le monde. Son traitement est chirurgical. Le but de notre travail a été d’évaluer les résultats de la phacoalternative ou la chirurgie de la cataracte à petite incision. Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale descriptive à collecte prospective allant du 1er janvier au 31 septembre 2014, chez des patients âgés d'au moins 40 ans. Les données socio-démographiques, l'acuité visuelle, l'astigmatisme et les complications ont été évalués. Nous avons inclus 300 yeux de 286 patients. L’âge moyen était de 66 ans (écart type 9,93) avec une prédominance masculine de 57,7%. Les co-morbidités étaient dominées par l'hypertension artérielle 30,33% des cas. L'acuité visuelle pré-opératoire était de moins de 1/20è dans 70, 7% des cas. En biométrie, la puissance moyenne était de 21,50 dioptries. L'implant posé a été adéquat dans 60%. Les principales complications per-opératoires étaient le chémosis post-anesthésie 4,67% et l'issue de vitrée moins de 2% des cas. Les complications post opératoires précoces ont été dominées par l’œdème de cornée 26,33%, et les complications tardives par la cataracte secondaire. L'astigmatisme induit était de 1, 12 dioptrie en moyenne (écart type 1,26). Sans correction, les résultats visuels étaient mauvais dans moins de 1%, limites dans 31%, et bons 68% suivants les normes de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé. La phacoalternative donne des résultats satisfaisants, avec peu de complications. L'amélioration du plateau technique et la disponibilité d'implants adéquats pourraient les améliorer. PMID:26140073

  9. Antibiotic use in a district hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan: are we overprescribing?

    PubMed

    Bajis, S; Van den Bergh, R; De Bruycker, M; Mahama, G; Van Overloop, C; Satyanarayana, S; Bernardo, R S; Esmati, S; Reid, A J

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : Un hôpital de district à Kaboul, Afghanistan, soutenu par Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF).Objectifs : Evaluer les pratiques en matière de prescription d'antibiotiques en consultation externe en été (août 2013) et en hiver (janvier 2014).Schema : Etude transversale basée sur les données hospitalières recueillies en routine et la méthode de dose thérapeutique quotidienne (DDD) de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS).Resultats : L'analyse de 4857 prescriptions (été) et de 4821 prescriptions (hiver) a montré que respectivement 62% et 50% de tous les consultants externes se voyaient prescrire au moins un antibiotique. Les prescriptions non accompagnées d'un diagnostic établi représentaient une proportion importante de l'ensemble des antibiotiques prescrits. En ce qui concerne les infections respiratoires hautes (URTI), les problèmes dentaires, les infections urinaires (UTI) et la diarrhée, on notait une bonne adhésion aux doses recommandées dans les directives standard de traitement de MSF quand on les mesurait en fonction des DDD. Cependant, certains médicaments, ne figurant pas dans les directives, étaient néanmoins prescrits comme par exemple l'amoxicilline et la métronidazole dans les UTI et l'azithromycine dans les URTI.Conclusion : Les taux de prescriptions d'antibiotiques en consultation externe dans un hôpital de district d'Afghanistan étaient très élevés, atteignant le double des recommandations de l'OMS de 30%. Même s'il n'a pas été observé de non adhésion aux doses recommandées, il semble y avoir eu des prescriptions inappropriées pour certaines pathologies. Cette étude suggère que la connaissance des déterminants de la prescription d'antibiotiques en fonction du contexte est une première étape dans la rationalisation des pratiques de prescription dans ce type de situation.

  10. Epidémiologie de l'infection à Helicobacter Pylori à Yaoundé: de la particularité à l’énigme Africaine

    PubMed Central

    Andoulo, Firmin Ankouane; Noah, Dominique Noah; Tagni-Sartre, Michèle; Ndam, Elie Claude Ndjitoyap; Blackett, Katleen Ngu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'infection à Hélicobacter pylori concerne la moitié de la population mondiale, principalement dans les pays en voie de développement où l'infection atteint 80% de la population. Le but de notre étude était de déterminer la prévalence de l'infection à Hélicobacter pylori et de mettre en évidence les déterminants de l'infection ainsi que les maladies associées au Cameroun. Méthodes L’étude concernait 171 sujets symptomatiques référés pour une fibroscopie œsogastroduodénale au Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Yaoundé et au Centre Médical la Cathédrale. L'infection à H.pylori était objectivée par un test rapide à l'uréase kit commercial Pronto Dry® (Medical Instruments Corporation, Solothurn, Switzerland). Résultats La prévalence globale de l'infection à Hélicobacter pylori était de 72,5% (124/171) (Intervalle de Confiance (IC) à 95% 65,2-79,1%) et dans chaque groupe d’âge (moins de 40ans, 40-50ans, plus de 50ans) de 83,1%(64/77), 67,4%(29/43) et 60,8%(31/51) respectivement. En analyse univariée, le risque de l'infection était significativement élevé dans le groupe de moins de 40ans comparé au groupe de 40-50ans (Risque Relatif (RR) 0,42 IC 95% 0,16-1,1, p = 0,04 pour le groupe 40-50ans) et comparé au groupe de plus de 50ans (RR 0,73; 0,57-0,93, p = 0,004 pour le groupe de plus de 50ans). La prévalence de l'infection à H.pylori était de 63,0% (17/27) pour l'ulcère duodénal, 50%(4/8) pour l'ulcère gastrique et 100%(2/2) pour le cancer gastrique. Conclusion A prévalence de l'infection à H.pylori au Cameroun est très élevée et significativement liée à l’âge de moins de 40 ans. PMID:24778752

  11. In Praise of Sociology.

    PubMed

    Connell, Raewyn

    2017-08-01

    This reflection on the relevance of sociology starts with the different forms of social knowledge, and some autobiographical reflection on my engagement with the discipline. A research-based social science is made urgent by the prevalence of distortion and pseudoscience in the public realm. However, the research-based knowledge formation is embedded in a global economy of knowledge that centers on a privileged group of institutions and produces major imbalances on a world scale. Sociological data collection has important uses in policy and public discussion. But data need to be embedded in a larger project of understanding the world; this is what gives excitement to the work. Sociology has a potential future of marginality or triviality in the neoliberal economy and its university system. There are better trajectories into the future-but they have to be fought for. Cette réflexion sur l'utilité de la sociologie commence avec les différentes formes de savoir social, ainsi que quelques réflexions biographiques sur mon engagement avec la discipline. Le besoin d'une science sociale orientée vers la recherche est devenue nécessaire suite à la prédominance de la distorsion et de la pseudoscience dans la sphère publique. Par contre, ce savoir centré sur la recherche est lié à une économie globale de la connaissance qui est proche d'un groupe privilégié d'institutions et produit des déséquilibres majeurs au niveau mondial. La collecte de données sociologiques a une grande utilité en politique et dans les discussions publiques. Mais ces données doivent être liées à un projet plus large de compréhension du monde ; c'est ce qui rend ce travail excitant. La sociologie risque la marginalisation ou la trivialité dans une économie néo-libérale et son système universitaire. Il existe de meilleures trajectoires pour l'avenir - mais elles doivent être défendues. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  12. Antireflux versus conventional self-expanding metallic Stents (SEMS) for distal esophageal cancer: results of a multicenter randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Coron, E.; David, G.; Lecleire, S.; Jacques, J.; Le Sidaner, A.; Barrioz, T.; Coumaros, D.; Volteau, C.; Vedrenne, B.; Bichard, P.; Boustière, C.; Touchefeu, Y.; Brégeon, J.; Prat, F.; Le Rhun, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) are commonly used in the palliation of dysphagia in patients with inoperable esophageal carcinoma. However, they predispose to gastroesophageal reflux when deployed across the gastroesophageal junction. The aims of this study were to: 1) assess the influence of the antireflux valve on trans-prosthetic reflux (primary outcome); and 2) compare the results of SEMS with and without antireflux valve in terms of reflux symptoms, quality of life (QOL), improvement of dysphagia and adverse events (secondary outcomes). Patients and methods: Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in nine centers. Carcinomas were locally advanced (47 %) or metastatic. After randomization, patients received either a covered SEMS with antireflux valve (n = 20) or a similar type of SEMS with no antireflux device but assigned to standard proton pump inhibitor therapy and postural advice (n = 18). Trans-prosthetic reflux was assessed at day 2 using a radiological score based on barium esophagography performed after Trendelenburg maneuver and graded from 0 (no reflux) to 12 (maximum). Monthly telephone interviews were conducted for Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) scoring from 0 (excellent) to 5 (poor), QOL assessment (based on the Reflux-Qual Simplifié scoring system) from 0 (poor) to 100 (excellent), dysphagia scoring from 0 (no dysphagia) to 5 (complete dysphagia) and regurgitation scoring from 0 (no regurgitation) to 16 (maximum). Results: No difference was noted in terms of age, sex, size of lesion, prosthesis length or need for dilation prior to SEMS placement. No difficulty in placing SEMS nor complications were noted. Radiological scores of reflux were found to be significantly lower in patients with an antireflux stent compared to the conventional stent and associated measures. The regurgitation scores were significantly decreased in patients with antireflux stents during the first 2 months after stent placement and

  13. Screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in a Tanzanian prison and computer-aided interpretation of chest X-rays.

    PubMed

    Steiner, A; Mangu, C; van den Hombergh, J; van Deutekom, H; van Ginneken, B; Clowes, P; Mhimbira, F; Mfinanga, S; Rachow, A; Reither, K; Hoelscher, M

    2015-12-21

    Contexte : La Tanzanie est lourdement frappée par la tuberculose (TB) et les prisonniers sont un groupe à haut risque qui devrait bénéficier d'un dépistage actif, comme le recommande l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé. Les algorithmes de dépistage qui débutent par une radiographie pulmonaire peuvent détecter des cas asymptomatiques, mais ils requièrent des lecteurs de radiographies expérimentés, qui sont rares dans le contexte pénitentiaire. Des études récentes sur des patients sollicitant des soins pour des symptômes liés à la TB ont mis en évidence une bonne performance diagnostique du logiciel CAD4TB.Objectif : Evaluer le potentiel d'un dépistage assisté par ordinateur en utilisant CAD4TB au sein d'une population carcérale en majorité asymptomatique.Schéma : Étude transversale.Résultats : CAD4TB et sept professionnels de santé lisant des radiographies dans des services de TB locaux ont évalué un ensemble de 511 radiographies pulmonaires provenant de la prison d'Ukonga à Dar es Salaam et les performances ont été comparées grâce à une radiographie de référence. Deux lecteurs ont été significativement plus performants que CAD4TB, trois ont été comparables et deux ont été significativement moins bons (zone sous la courbe de 0,75 dans l'analyse ROC —fonction d'efficacité du receveur). Sur un ensemble de 1321 radiographies pulmonaires, CAD4TB en a interprété avec succès plus de 99% avec un délai de détection prévisible court, tandis que 160 (12,2%) réponses ont été retardées de plus de 24 h avec la méthode de lecture conventionnelle.Conclusion : CAD4TB évalue de manière fiable les radiographies pulmonaires dans une population en majorité asymptomatique de détenus, avec une performance diagnostique inférieure à celle de lecteurs experts mais comparable à celle des lecteurs locaux.

  14. Diabète en milieu urbain de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso: profil épidémiologique et niveau de perception de la population adulte

    PubMed Central

    Millogo, Georges Rosario Christian; Yaméogo, Clément; Samandoulougou, André; Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Kologo, Koudougou Jonas; Toguyeni, Jean Yves; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'accroissement rapide de la prévalence du diabète sucré en Afrique subsaharienne constitue un problème de santé public. L'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS) estime qu’à l'horizon 2025, l'augmentation la plus significative de la prévalence du diabète sera enregistrée dans les pays en développement. Ceux-ci devraient abriter 75% des patients diabétiques du monde. Outre ses complications métaboliques, le diabète est un facteur de risque cardiovasculaire majeur. Le but de notre étude était de decrire le profil épidémiologique du diabète et d’évaluer le niveau de perception de la maladie par une population africaine en milieu urb qwqain de Ouagadougou. Méthodes Le diabète a été défini chez tout sujet ayant une glycémie casuelle supérieure à 2 g/L ou une glycémie à jeun supérieur ou égale à 1,26 g/L (≥ 7 mmol/L) à deux controles d'une semaine d'intervalle. Etaient considérés diabétique, les sujets déjà suivis et ceux nouvellement dépistés par l'etude. Résultats L’étude a inclus 1532 personnes, d’âge compris entre 25 et 64 ans dont 55,6% d'hommes et 44,4% de femmes. L’âge moyen était 36,10 ± 11,19 ans. La tranche d’âge de 25 à 34 ans était la plus représentée avec une proportion de 57,1%. La glycémie moyenne était de 1,04 g/L, la proportion des femmes ayant une hyperglycémie était statistiquement plus importante que celle des hommes (p< 0,05). Près de 81,3% de la population ignoraient que le diabète était un facteur de risque cardiovasculaire. Conclusion Il est urgent de mettre en place un programme national de lutte contre le diabète sucré et les autres maladies non transmissibles au Burkina Faso. PMID:26524982

  15. 5 A, version modifée

    PubMed Central

    Vallis, Michael; Piccinini-Vallis, Helena; Sharma, Arya M.; Freedhoff, Yoni

    2013-01-01

    Objectif Adapter le modèle 5 A pour offrir aux professionnels des soins primaires un cadre de counseling sur l'obésité. Sources des données Une recension systématique des ouvrages spécialisés a été effectuée dans MEDLINE à l'aide des expressions de recherche 5 A's (49 articles recensés, tous pertinents) et 5 A's et primary care (8 articles recensés, tous redondants). On a aussi fait une recherche dans les sites web du National Institute of Health et de l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé. Message principal L'approche 5 A (autorisation, analyse, avis, accord et aide ou ask, assess, advise, agree et assist en anglais), élaborée pour la cessation du tabagisme, peut être adaptée au counseling sur l'obésité. Demander l'autorisation de discuter du poids; ne pas porter de jugement et explorer la volonté du patient de changer. Analyser l'indice de masse corporelle, la circonférence de la taille et le stade de l'obésité; explorer les déclencheurs et les complications de l'excès de poids. Donner son avis sur les risques de l'obésité pour la santé, les bienfaits d'une modeste perte de poids, la nécessité d'une stratégie à long terme et les options de traitements. Se mettre d'accord sur des attentes, des objectifs et des changements comportementaux réalistes pour perdre du poids et sur les détails précis du plan de traitement. Assister dans l'identifcation et l'atténuation des obstacles; offrir des ressources, aider à trouver et à consulter les services appropriés et organiser un suivi périodique. Conclusion Les 5 A représentent une stratégie d'intervention comportementale fondée sur des données probantes qui a le potentiel d'améliorer le taux de réussite de la gestion du poids en soins primaires.

  16. Profil épidémiologique de l'infection à VIH au cours d'une campagne de sensibilisation à Yaoundé au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Viche, Lade; Noubom, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer le profil épidémiologique de l'infection à VIH/SIDA au cours d'une campagne de sensibilisation à Yaoundé au Cameroun. Méthodes Après avoir obtenu le consentement éclairé des participants, le dépistage de l'infection par le VIH a été effectué selon l'algorithme de dépistage en série de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS). En outre, un questionnaire socio-comportemental a été proposé à chaque participant. Résultats Au total, 911 personnes ont été dépistées. La prévalence de l'infection par le VIH était de 2.6%. Elle était 3 fois plus élevée parmi les femmes (RC = 3.22, IC (1.26 - 8.18). Les prévalences les plus élevées ont été observées chez les personnes de plus de 45 ans (p = 0.01), les personnes sans emploi (p < 0.001) et les veufs/veuves (p = 0.02). Plus de 80% des participants trouvaient le test de dépistage nécessaire et 76,2% l'avaient déjà effectué au moins une fois auparavant. Il s'agissait principalement de femmes (p = 0.02), d'étudiants (p < 0.001) et des personnes âgées de 25 à 34 ans (p < 0.001). Les personnes séropositives avaient moins tendance à retirer leur résultat (p = 0.01). Conclusion Il apparait urgent d'intensifier les campagnes de dépistage de l'infection par le VIH en ciblant davantage des groupes particuliers tels que les élèves, les personnes âgées et les veufs/veuves, tout en recherchant les facteurs pouvant favoriser la propagation de l'infection dans ces groupes. PMID:24255725

  17. Preventable but neglected: rickets in an informal settlement, Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J K; Thiongó, A; Van den Bergh, R; Kizito, W; Kosgei, R J; Sobry, A; Vandenbulcke, A; Zuniga, I; Reid, A J

    2014-06-21

    Contexte : Le dispensaire de soins de santé primaire de Médecins sans Frontières au cœur du bidonville de Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya.Objectif : Décrire les caractéristiques démographiques et cliniques d'enfants ayant eu un diagnostic clinique de rachitisme de septembre 2012 à octobre 2013.Schéma : Revue descriptive et rétrospective du diagnostic et du traitement par vitamine D et calcium à travers les données des programmes de routine.Résultats : Sur 82 enfants répondant au diagnostic clinique de rachitisme, 57% étaient des garçons d'un âge médian de 12 mois tandis que l'âge médian des filles était de 14 mois. L'exposition au soleil déclarée par la famille était de ⩽3 heures par semaine pour 71% des enfants et 39% présentaient une malnutrition. Les constatations cliniques à l'arrivée ont mis en évidence un retard de développement moteur marqué chez 44% des enfants. Le taux de perdus de vue pendant le traitement a été de 40%.Conclusion : Cette étude a constaté que le rachitisme était une affection fréquente parmi les enfants vivant dans le bidonville de Kibera et que de nombreux facteurs de l'environnement de Kibera y contribuaient vraisemblablement. Comme le rachitisme est une maladie non transmissible qui peut bénéficier d'une prévention simple et peu coûteuse, nous suggérons qu'une supplémentation en vitamine D soit formellement recommandée par l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé dans les soins de santé aux enfants en Afrique, surtout dans le contexte de bidonvilles.

  18. Incidence des infections du site opératoire en Afrique sub-saharienne: revue systématique et méta-analyse

    PubMed Central

    Ngaroua; Ngah, Joseph Eloundou; Bénet, Thomas; Djibrilla, Yaouba

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Les Infections du Sites Opératoire (ISO) sont à l’origine de morbi-mortalité et des dépenses supplémentaires en santé. Les pays en développement en sont les plus touchés. L’objectif était d’estimer l’incidence poolée des ISO en Afrique Sub-saharienne et décrire ses principaux facteurs de risque. Méthodes Une revue systématique et une méta-analyse ont été effectuées à partir des bases de données de l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé pour la Région Afrique, de PubMed et par recherche standard afin de sélectionner des articles électroniquespubliés entre 2006 et 2015. Seuls les articlestraitants de l’incidence et desfacteurs de risque des ISOdans les pays del’Afrique subsaharienneétaient retenus. Résultats Sur 95 articles trouvés, 11 ont répondu aux critères d’inclusion. Seulement 9 pays sur les 45 y ont contribués avec une grandereprésentation du Nigéria (5 articles sur 11). L’incidence des ISO variaient de 6,8% à 26% avec une prédominance en chirurgie générale. L’incidence poolée des ISO était de 14.8% (IC à 95%: 15,5-16,2%), avec une importante hétérogénéité selon la spécialité et le mode de surveillance. Les facteurs de risque les plus citésétaient la longue durée d’intervention et la classe de contamination d’Altemeir 3 et 4. Les autres facteurs concernaient l’environnement hospitalier, les pratiques de soins inadéquats et les pathologies sous-jacentes. Conclusion L’incidence des ISO est élevée en Afrique subsaharienne, des études dans cette région pourrait améliorer la connaissance, laprévention et la maitrise deces multiples facteurs de risques. PMID:27795768

  19. Simulation studies of the Cl- + CH3I SN2 nucleophilic substitution reaction: Comparison with ion imaging experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiaxu; Lourderaj, Upakarasamy; Sun, Rui; Mikosch, Jochen; Wester, Roland; Hase, William L.

    2013-03-01

    In the previous work of Mikosch et al. [Science 319, 183 (2008)], 10.1126/science.1150238, ion imaging experiments were used to study the Cl- + CH3I → ClCH3 + I- reaction at collision energies Erel of 0.39, 0.76, 1.07, and 1.9 eV. For the work reported here MP2(fc)/ECP/d direct dynamics simulations were performed to obtain an atomistic understanding of the experiments. There is good agreement with the experimental product energy and scattering angle distributions for the highest three Erel, and at these energies 80% or more of the reaction is direct, primarily occurring by a rebound mechanism with backward scattering. At 0.76 eV there is a small indirect component, with isotropic scattering, involving formation of the pre- and post-reaction complexes. All of the reaction is direct at 1.07 eV. Increasing Erel to 1.9 eV opens up a new indirect pathway, the roundabout mechanism. The product energy is primarily partitioned into relative translation for the direct reactions, but to CH3Cl internal energy for the indirect reactions. The roundabout mechanism transfers substantial energy to CH3Cl rotation. At Erel = 0.39 eV both the experimental product energy partitioning and scattering are statistical, suggesting the reaction is primarily indirect with formation of the pre- and post-reaction complexes. However, neither MP2 nor BhandH/ECP/d simulations agree with experiment and, instead, give reaction dominated by direct processes as found for the higher collision energies. Decreasing the simulation Erel to 0.20 eV results in product energy partitioning and scattering which agree with the 0.39 eV experiment. The sharp transition from a dominant direct to indirect reaction as Erel is lowered from 0.39 to 0.20 eV is striking. The lack of agreement between the simulations and experiment for Erel = 0.39 eV may result from a distribution of collision energies in the experiment and/or a shortcoming in both the MP2 and BhandH simulations. Increasing the reactant rotational temperature from 75 to 300 K for the 1.9 eV collisions, results in more rotational energy in the CH3Cl product and a larger fraction of roundabout trajectories. Even though a ClCH3-I- post-reaction complex is not formed and the mechanistic dynamics are not statistical, the roundabout mechanism gives product energy partitioning in approximate agreement with phase space theory.

  20. In ovo feeding of creatine pyruvate alters energy reserves, satellite cell mitotic activity and myogenic gene expression of breast muscle in embryos and neonatal broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, M M; Gao, T; Zhang, L; Li, J L; Lv, P A; Yu, L L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on energy reserves, satellite cell mitotic activity (SCMA) and myogenic gene expression in breast muscle of embryos and neonatal broilers. A total of 960 eggs were randomly allocated into three treatments: 1) non-injected control group, 2) saline group injected with 0.6 mL of physiological saline (0.75%), and 3) CrPyr group injected with 0.6 mL of physiological saline (0.75%) containing 12 mg CrPyr/egg at 17.5 d of incubation. After hatching, a total of 120 male chicks were randomly assigned to each treatment group, with eight replicate sets per group. Selected chicks had body BW close to the average of their pooled group. Our results showed that the total and relative breast muscle weights of broilers subjected to CrPyr treatment were higher than those in the control and saline groups on 19 d of incubation (19 E), the day of hatch, 3 and 7 d post-hatch (P < 0.05). The myofiber diameter and cross-sectional area of individuals in the CrPyr group were higher than those in other treatments on 3 and 7 d post-hatch (P < 0.05). Moreover, IOF of CrPyr increased (P < 0.05) creatine concentrations on 19 E, the day of hatch and 3 d post-hatch, the same treatment increased phosphocreatine concentrations on 19 E. Broilers in the CrPyr group showed higher expression of myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD) (P < 0.05), myogenin and paired box 7 (Pax7), as well as higher index of SCMA on 3 d post-hatch. However, myostatin mRNA expression in CrPyr-treated broilers was down-regulated on 3 d post-hatch (P < 0.05). These results indicated that IOF of CrPyr increased energy reserves of embryos and SCMA of broilers on 3 d post-hatch, which led to enhanced muscle growth in the late embryos and neonatal broilers. Additionally, IOF of CrPyr increased the activity of satellite cells possibly through up-regulating MyoD, myogenin, and Pax7 mRNA expression and down-regulating myostatin mRNA expression.

  1. The structure and evolution of the ribosomal proteins encoded in the spc operon of the archaeon (Crenarchaeota) Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Yang, D; Kusser, I; Köpke, A K; Koop, B F; Matheson, A T

    1999-07-01

    The genes for nine ribosomal proteins, L24, L5, S14, S8, L6, L18, S5, L30, and L15, have been isolated and sequenced from the spc operon in the archaeon (Crenarchaeota) Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, and the putative amino acid sequence of the proteins coded by these genes has been determined. In addition, three other genes in the spc operon, coding for ribosomal proteins S4E, L32E, and L19E (equivalent to rat ribosomal proteins S4, L32, and L19), were sequenced and the structure of the putative proteins was determined. The order of the ribosomal protein genes in the spc operon of the Crenarchaeota kingdom of Archaea is identical to that present in the Euryarchaeota kingdom of Archaea and also identical to that found in bacteria, except for the genes for r-proteins S4E, L32E, and L19E, which are absent in bacteria. Although AUG is the initiation codon in most of the spc genes, GUG (val) and UUG (leu) are also used as initiation codons in S. acidocaldarius. Over 70% of the codons in the Sulfolobus spc operon have A or U in the third position, reflecting the low GC content of Sulfolobus DNA. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the archaeal r-proteins are a sister group of their eucaryotic counterparts but did not resolve the question of whether the Archaea is monophyletic, as suggested by the L6P, L15P, and L18P trees, or the question of whether the Crenarchaeota is separate from the Euryarchaeota and closer to the Eucarya, as suggested by the S8P, S5P, and L24P trees. In the case of the three Sulfolobus r-proteins that do not have a counterpart in the bacterial ribosome (S4E, L32E, and L19E), the archaeal r-proteins showed substantial identity to their eucaryotic equivalents, but in all cases the archaeal proteins formed a separate group from the eucaryotic proteins.

  2. Role for the beta-adrenoceptor-coupled adenylate cyclase in the ontogenetic subsensitivity to isoproterenol in the embryonic chick ventricle

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Isoproterenol (ISO) increases contractility and cyclic AMP content in ventricles of embryonic and hatched chicks. A transient decrease in beta-agonist sensitivity for both effects is seen in 18 day embryos (10E). Beta-adrenoceptor-coupled adenylate cylase (AC) and receptor binding were characterized in 14,000xg particulates and purified membranes from the ventricles of 10-11E, 17-19E and week-old chicks (5-6H). In crude particulates, the K/sub act/ for ISO (+100 ..mu..M Gpp(NH)p)-stimulated AC is greatest in the 17-19E. Maximal (ISO + Gpp(NH)p)-AC of the 11E is two-fold greater and NaF-AC is 30% greater than those of the 17-19E and 5-6 H. All age groups have comparable catalytic AC. All age groups have comparable K/sub d/'s for /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol (5-11 nM), while the 18E has 40% fewer receptors than the 11E and 5-6H. In particulates or membranes, K/sub act/ values for Gpp(NH)p, NaF, MnCl> and forskolin are unchanged with age. In membranes, K/sub act/ values for ISO plus guanine nucleotide (G) and maximal (ISO + G)-AC are similar in all ages. The net effect of ISO ((ISO + G) minus G) is least while that of G (G minus basal) is greatest in the 18E. Whereas /sup 32/P-labeling of a 42 kd protein by cholera toxin is lowest (25% decrease) in particulates of the 18E, labeling of a 39-41 kd doublet by pertussis toxin decreases continuously (by 50%) with age. All age groups have comparable K/sub d/'s (10-13 pM) for (/sup 125/I)-cyanopindolol (CYP). These data indicate that a transient decrease in receptor number and receptor-N/sub s/ (guanine nucleotide-sensitive) coupling in the 18E contribute to the subsensitivity to beta-agonist.

  3. Global Women's Health Education in Canadian Obstetrics and Gynaecology Residency Programs: A Survey of Program Directors and Senior Residents.

    PubMed

    Millar, Heather C; Randle, Elizabeth A; Scott, Heather M; Shaw, Dorothy; Kent, Nancy; Nakajima, Amy K; Spitzer, Rachel F

    2015-10-01

    Objective: Pour devenir des praticiens compétents sur le plan culturel étant en mesure de prodiguer des soins aux populations vulnérables et de défendre leur cause, les résidents doivent recevoir une formation abordant les priorités de la santé à l’échelle mondiale. Dans le domaine de l’obstétrique-gynécologie, nous ne disposons que de peu de renseignements au sujet de la formation en santé des femmes à l’échelle mondiale (SFEM) qu’offrent les programmes de résidence et de l’intérêt envers ce type de formation que l’on y constate. Nous souhaitions déterminer ce qui suit en ce qui concerne les programmes canadiens de résidence en obstétrique-gynécologie : (1) la situation actuelle pour ce qui est de l’enseignement de la SFEM et du soutien disponible à cet égard; (2) l’importance de la SFEM pour les résidents et les directeurs de programme; et (3) le degré d’intérêt envers un curriculum national de cycle supérieur dans le domaine de la SFEM. Méthodes : Nous avons mené, à l’échelle du Canada, un sondage en ligne auprès des directeurs des programmes de résidence en obstétrique-gynécologie et des résidents de dernière année du domaine. Résultats : Parmi les 297 résidents sollicités, 101 (34,0 %) ont répondu au sondage et 76 (26 %) ont rempli le sondage en entier. Onze des 16 directeurs de programme sollicités (68,8 %) ont répondu et 10/16 (62,5 %) nous ont fourni des réponses complètes. Quatre des 11 programmes (36,4 %) comptaient un curriculum de SFEM, 2/11 (18,2 %) comptaient un budget de SFEM et 4/11 (36,4 %) comptaient un président de la SFEM. Neuf directeurs de programme sur 10 (90 %) et 68 résidents sur 79 (86,1 %) étaient d’avis qu’une compréhension des questions de SFEM est importante pour tous les stagiaires canadiens en obstétrique-gynécologie. Seulement un directeur de programme sur 10 (10 %) et 11 résidents sur 79 (13,9 %) étaient d’avis que leur programme

  4. Strain effects on the behavior of isolated and paired sulfur vacancy defects in monolayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensoy, Mehmet Gokhan; Vinichenko, Dmitry; Chen, Wei; Friend, Cynthia M.; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of sulfur vacancy defects, the most abundant type of intrinsic defect in monolayer MoS2, using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. We consider the dependence of the isolated defect formation energy on the charge state and on uniaxial tensile and compressive strain up to 5%. We also consider the possibility of defect clustering by examining the formation energies of pairs of vacancies at various relative positions, and their dependence on charge state and strain. We find that there is no driving force for vacancy clustering, independent of strain in the material. The barrier for diffusion of S vacancies is larger than 1.9 eV in both charged and neutral states regardless of the presence of other nearby vacancies. We conclude that the formation of extended defects from S vacancies in planar monolayer MoS2 is hindered both thermodynamically and kinetically.

  5. Indium induced band gap tailoring in AgGa{sub 1-x}In{sub x}S{sub 2} chalcopyrite structure for visible light photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Jum Suk; Borse, Pramod H.; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Sun Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu

    2008-04-21

    Indium was substituted at gallium site in chalcopyrite AgGaS{sub 2} structure by using a simple solid solution method. The spectroscopic analysis using extended x-ray absorption fine structure and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the indium substitution in AgGaS{sub 2} lattice. The band gap energy of AgGa{sub 1-x}In{sub x}S{sub 2} (x=0-1) estimated from the onset of absorption edge was found to be reduced from 2.67 eV (x=0) to 1.9 eV (x=1) by indium substitution. The theoretical and experimental studies showed that the indium s orbitals in AgGa{sub 1-x}In{sub x}S{sub 2} tailored the band gap energy, thereby modified the photocatalytic activity of the AgGa{sub 1-x}In{sub x}S{sub 2}.

  6. First results from the Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, John N.; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    The Telescope Array Project is a successor to the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) and AGASA (Akeno Giant Air Shower Array) experiments. It is the largest ultra high energy cosmic ray experiment in the northern hemisphere. The Telescope Array observatory has been collecting data since 2008 using a hybrid of fluorescence telescopes and scintillator surface detectors. Some of the first results from the experiment are presented including the monocular spectrum from the Middle Drum fluorescence site and the spectrum from the scintillator array. These are in good agreement with the spectrum from the High Resolution Fly's Eye. In addition, a first pass at a composition measurement is made and indicates a predominantly light composition in the 10 19eV region. Finally, some of the ongoing work of the group is presented including a novel technique for an end to end calibration of the telescopes involving a 40 MeV linear accelerator.

  7. Band-Gap Engineering by III-V Infill in Sodalite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trave, A.; Buda, F.; Fasolino, A.

    1996-12-01

    We study the structure of III-V clusters in sodalite by ab initio molecular dynamics (Car-Parrinello) and find strong bonding of the group III atoms to the oxygens of the cage with loss of tetrahedral order. The clusters introduce optically active states in the zeolite energy gap and turn it into a semiconductor with energy gap determined by its chemical nature rather than by quantum confinement. Within the local density approximation we find values of ~0.4 and ~1.9 eV for InAs and GaN clusters of the same size. We suggest that the growth of selected compounds in zeolite may lead to wide gap semiconductors for blue light emitting devices.

  8. First observation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin suppression.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, R U; Abu-Zayyad, T; Allen, M; Amman, J F; Archbold, G; Belov, K; Belz, J W; Ben Zvi, S Y; Bergman, D R; Blake, S A; Brusova, O A; Burt, G W; Cannon, C; Cao, Z; Connolly, B C; Deng, W; Fedorova, Y; Finley, C B; Gray, R C; Hanlon, W F; Hoffman, C M; Holzscheiter, M H; Hughes, G; Hüntemeyer, P; Jones, B F; Jui, C C H; Kim, K; Kirn, M A; Loh, E C; Maestas, M M; Manago, N; Marek, L J; Martens, K; Matthews, J A J; Matthews, J N; Moore, S A; O'Neill, A; Painter, C A; Perera, L; Reil, K; Riehle, R; Roberts, M; Rodriguez, D; Sasaki, N; Schnetzer, S R; Scott, L M; Sinnis, G; Smith, J D; Sokolsky, P; Song, C; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Thomas, S B; Thomas, J R; Thomson, G B; Tupa, D; Westerhoff, S; Wiencke, L R; Zhang, X; Zech, A

    2008-03-14

    The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment has observed the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin suppression (called the GZK cutoff) with a statistical significance of five standard deviations. HiRes' measurement of the flux of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays shows a sharp suppression at an energy of 6 x 10(19) eV, consistent with the expected cutoff energy. We observe the ankle of the cosmic-ray energy spectrum as well, at an energy of 4 x 10(18) eV. We describe the experiment, data collection, and analysis and estimate the systematic uncertainties. The results are presented and the calculation of the statistical significance of our observation is described.

  9. Influence of He+ long-time irradiation on silica luminescence spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhurenko, V.; Kalantaryan, O.; Kononenko, S.; Mysiura, I.; Barannik, E.

    2017-09-01

    The paper deals with experimental investigation of 420 keV He+ dose dependence of silica (medium OH-group contents) luminescence. It was founded that experimental spectra were good fitted by two Voigt peaks centered in 2.7 and 1.9 eV. The absorption dose growth influenced on silica ionoluminescence spectra due to increase of radiation defects. We compared the obtained results with 420 keV hydrogen ion irradiation data for the same samples. It was shown that relative intensity of red band correlated with specific energy losses and effective charge of ions in silica. The theoretical simulation of helium ion implantation and intrinsic defect dynamics was performed. The dependence of ionoluminescence intensity on observation angle was measured.

  10. Correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; /Balseiro Inst., San Carlos de Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET /CNEA, Buenos Aires /Pierre Auger Observ. /La Plata U. /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael /Adelaide U. /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz /Bolivia U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo U.

    2007-11-01

    Using data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory during the past 3.7 years, we demonstrate that there is a correlation between the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above {approx} 6 x 10{sup 19} eV and the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) lying within {approx} 75 Mpc. We reject the hypothesis of an isotropic distribution of these cosmic rays at over 99% confidence level from a prescribed a priori test. The correlation we observe is compatible with the hypothesis that the highest energy particles originate from nearby extragalactic sources whose flux has not been significantly reduced by interaction with the cosmic background radiation. AGN or objects having a similar spatial distribution are possible sources.

  11. In-situ characterization of growth and interfaces in a-Si:H devices. Final subcontract report, 1 May 1991--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, R.W.; Wronski, C.R.; An, I.; Lu, Y.; Nguyen, H.V.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes work to identify materials parameters that can quantitatively describe the solar cell performance correctly in the initial and stabilized states and are consistent with a microscopic model of the metastable defect site. The objective is to be accomplished by applying results of in-situ analyses of a-Si:H surfaces and the transparent conducting oxide (TCO)/p/i interfaces to complement the present understanding of the electronic properties of materials and devices. A second objective of the program is to demonstrate, characterize, and understand improved doped and undoped ``wide-gap`` materials for use in achieving 15% stabilized photovoltaic modules (``wide-gap`` materials are defined as those materials with a band gap of at least 1.9 eV).

  12. Ar plasma induced deep levels in epitaxial n-GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, A.; Nyamhere, C.; Botha, J. R.; Auret, F. D.; Janse van Rensburg, P. J.; Meyer, W. E.; Coelho, S. M. M.; Kolkovsky, V. l.

    2012-01-01

    Ar plasma etching of n-type (Si doped) GaAs introduces several electron traps (Ec - 0.04 eV, Ec - 0.07 eV, Ec - 0.19 eV, Ec - 0.31 eV, Ec - 0.53 eV, and Ec - 0.61 eV). The trap, Ec - 0.04 eV, labelled E1' and having a trap signature similar to irradiation induced defect E1, appears to be metastable. Ec - 0.31 eV and Ec - 0.61 eV are metastable too and they are similar to the M3/M4 defect configuration present in hydrogen plasma exposed n-GaAs.

  13. Characterization of Emissions Produced by the Open Burning/Open Detonation of Complex Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    Picoline I ,4-Naphthoquinone N-Nitrosomethylethylamnine 1.3 -Dinitrobenzene Methyl methanesulfonate Pentachi orobenzene N-Nitrosodi ethyl amine 1... Chromium Zinc Copper 3.2.6 Particulate Matter Less Than Ten Microns in Diameter (PM10) 3.2.7 Dioxins and Furans The analysis for dioxins and furans...6.24e-04 2.09e-03 Chromium 5.69e-06 4.19e-06 3.2 1e-06 4.36e-06 1.25e-06 -5.06e-06 Copper 1.74e-04 1.03e-04 7.16e-05 1. 16e-04 5.23e-05 1.95e-04 Lead

  14. Studies of High Energy Particle Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Nitz, David F; Fick, Brian E

    2014-07-30

    This report covers the progress of the Michigan Technological University particle astrophysics group during the period April 15th, 2011 through April 30th, 2014. The principal investigator is Professor David Nitz. Professor Brian Fick is the Co-PI. The focus of the group is the study of the highest energy cosmic rays using the Pierre Auger Observatory. The major goals of the Pierre Auger Observatory are to discover and understand the source or sources of cosmic rays with energies exceeding 10**19 eV, to identify the particle type(s), and to investigate the interactions of those cosmic particles both in space and in the Earth's atmosphere. The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina was completed in June 2008 with 1660 surface detector stations and 24 fluorescence telescopes arranged in 4 stations. It has a collecting area of 3,000 square km, yielding an aperture of 7,000 km**2 sr.

  15. Progress towards a 30% efficient GaInP/Si tandem solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Essig, Stephanie; Ward, Scott; Steiner, Myles A.; ...

    2015-08-28

    The performance of dual-junction solar cells with a Si bottom cell has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Simulations show that adding a top junction with an energy bandgap of 1.6 -1.9 eV to a standard silicon solar cell enables efficiencies over 38%. Currently, top junctions of GaInP (1.8 eV) are the most promising as they can achieve 1-sun efficiencies of 20.8% [1]. We fabricated mechanically stacked, four terminal GaInP/Si tandem solar cells using a transparent adhesive between the subcells. These tandem devices achieved an efficiency of 27% under AM1.5 g spectral conditions. Furthermore, higher efficiencies can be achieved bymore » using an improved Si-bottom cell and by optimizing the dual-junction device for long-wavelength light and luminescent coupling between the two junctions.« less

  16. Progress towards a 30% efficient GaInP/Si tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Essig, Stephanie; Ward, Scott; Steiner, Myles A.; Friedman, Daniel J.; Geisz, John F.; Stradins, Paul; Young, David L.

    2015-08-28

    The performance of dual-junction solar cells with a Si bottom cell has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Simulations show that adding a top junction with an energy bandgap of 1.6 -1.9 eV to a standard silicon solar cell enables efficiencies over 38%. Currently, top junctions of GaInP (1.8 eV) are the most promising as they can achieve 1-sun efficiencies of 20.8% [1]. We fabricated mechanically stacked, four terminal GaInP/Si tandem solar cells using a transparent adhesive between the subcells. These tandem devices achieved an efficiency of 27% under AM1.5 g spectral conditions. Furthermore, higher efficiencies can be achieved by using an improved Si-bottom cell and by optimizing the dual-junction device for long-wavelength light and luminescent coupling between the two junctions.

  17. Observation of Ultrahigh-Energy Cosmic Rays with the ANITA Balloon-Borne Radio Interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, S.; Belov, K.; Vieregg, A. G.; Saltzberg, D.; Nam, J.; Gorham, P. W.; Allison, P.; Kowalski, J.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Miki, C.; Miocinovic, P.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Varner, G. S.; Grashorn, E.; Beatty, J. J.; Mercurio, B. C.; Palladino, K.

    2010-10-08

    We report the observation of 16 cosmic ray events with a mean energy of 1.5x10{sup 19} eV via radio pulses originating from the interaction of the cosmic ray air shower with the Antarctic geomagnetic field, a process known as geosynchrotron emission. We present measurements in the 300-900 MHz range, which are the first self-triggered, first ultrawide band, first far-field, and the highest energy sample of cosmic ray events collected with the radio technique. Their properties are inconsistent with current ground-based geosynchrotron models. The emission is 100% polarized in the plane perpendicular to the projected geomagnetic field. Fourteen events are seen to have a phase inversion due to reflection of the radio beam off the ice surface, and two additional events are seen directly from above the horizon. Based on a likelihood analysis, we estimate angular pointing precision of order 2 deg. for the event arrival directions.

  18. High-Energy Density science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S. H.; Fletcher, L. B.; Hastings, J. B.

    2016-04-01

    The Matter in Extreme Conditions end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source holds great promise for novel pump-probe experiments to make new discoveries in high- energy density science. Recently, our experiments have demonstrated the first spectrally- resolved measurements of plasmons using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam. Forward x-ray Thomson scattering spectra from isochorically heated solid aluminum show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV from the incident 8 keV elastic scattering feature. In this spectral range, the simultaneously measured backscatter spectrum shows no spectral features indicating observation of collective plasmon oscillations on a scattering length comparable to the screening length. Moreover, this technique is a prerequisite for Thomson scattering measurements in compressed matter where the plasmon shift is a sensitive function of the free electron density and where the plasmon intensity provides information on temperature.

  19. Events associated with restoration by zinc of meiosis in apomictic Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Bilinski, C A; Miller, J J; Girvitz, S C

    1983-01-01

    The effects of nutritional alterations (carbon source and zinc) on nuclear division and protein synthesis during apomictic and meiotic development in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 19e1 were investigated. Unlike cells cultivated under meiosis-promoting conditions, cells cultured under apomixis-promoting conditions exhibited extensive protein synthesis during the first 3 h of incubation in sporulation medium, and nuclear divisions were evident during this time. Cycloheximide treatment of the latter cells induced meiosis, and maximum yields of meiotic asci resulted when this treatment was given for the first 3 h in sporulation medium. The results indicate that the decision concerning which developmental route cells will follow is made shortly after transfer to sporulation medium. Electrophoretic analysis of labeled proteins synthesized during sporulation revealed bands unique to both developmental routes. Images PMID:6350265

  20. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory.

    PubMed

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; de Mello Neto, J R T; DeMitri, I; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; DuVernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fonte, R; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; García Gámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gómez Berisso, M; Gómez Herrero, R; Gonçalves, P; Gonçalves do Amaral, M; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Lopez Agüera, A; Lozano Bahilo, J; Luna García, R; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Martínez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, Chr; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nguyen Thi, T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pham Ngoc, Diep; Pham Ngoc, Dong; Pham Thi, T N; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Rodríguez Frías, D; Rodriguez Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Smetniansky De Grande, N; Smiałkowski, A; Smída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Torresi, D; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés Galicia, J F; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van den Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zech, A; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2008-05-30

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau neutrinos that interact in Earth's crust. Tau leptons from nu(tau) charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 are used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of nu(tau) at EeV energies. Assuming an E(nu)(-2) differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90% C.L. is E(nu)(2)dN(nu)(tau)/dE(nu)<1.3 x 10(-7) GeV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) in the energy range 2 x 10(17) eV< E(nu)< 2 x 10(19) eV.

  1. 10 CFR Appendix E to Part 835 - Values for Establishing Sealed Radioactive Source Accountability and Radioactive Material Posting...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3.4E+02 Mo-93 7.7E+01 Tc-95m 1.3E+02 Tc-97 8.1E+01 Tc-97m 3.5E+02 Tc-98 2.5E+01 Tc-99 8.4E+05 Ru-103...+05 C-14 4.6E+06 Na-22 1.9E+01 Al-26 1.5E+01 Si-32 4.9E+04 S-35 2.4E+06 Cl-36 5.2E+05 K-40 2.7E+02 Ca...+06 Ni-63 1.3E+06 Zn-65 1.1E+02 Ge-68 5.6E+02 As-73 5.3E+02 Se-75 6.3E+01 Se-79 8.7E+05 Rb-83...

  2. Photoanodic and photocathodic behaviour of La5Ti2CuS5O7 electrodes in the water splitting reaction† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Power spectra of light source, preparation process and SEM images of LTC, schematic of the PT method, UV photoelectron spectroscopy, parameters for calculation, and other experimental procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01344e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Guijun; Suzuki, Yohichi; Singh, Rupashree Balia; Iwanaga, Aki; Moriya, Yosuke; Minegishi, Tsutomu; Liu, Jingyuan; Hisatomi, Takashi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Katayama, Masao; Seki, Kazuhiko; Furube, Akihiro; Yamada, Taro

    2015-01-01

    The particulate semiconductor La5Ti2CuS5O7 (LTC) with a band gap energy of 1.9 eV functioned as either a photocathode or a photoanode when embedded onto Au or Ti metal layers, respectively. By applying an LTC/Au photocathode and LTC/Ti photoanode to, respectively, photoelectrochemical (PEC) water reduction and oxidation concurrently, zero-bias overall water splitting was accomplished under visible light irradiation. The band structures of LTC/Au and LTC/Ti calculated using a semiconductor device simulator (AFORS-HET) confirmed the critical role of the solid/solid junction of the metal back contact in the charge separation and PEC properties of LTC photoelectrodes. The prominently long lifetime of photoexcited charge carriers in LTC, confirmed by transient absorption spectroscopy, allowed the utilization of both photoexcited electrons and holes depending on the band structure at the solid/solid junction. PMID:28717472

  3. The Surface Detector System of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Allekotte, I.; Barbosa, A.F.; Bauleo, P.; Bonifazi, C.; Civit, B.; Escobar, C.O.; Garcia, B.; Guedes, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Harton, J.L.; Healy, M.; /Cuyo U. /Buenos Aires, CONICET /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael /Campinas State U. /UEFS, Feira de Santana /Bahia U. /BUAP, Puebla /Santiago de Compostela U. /Fermilab /UCLA /Colorado State U.

    2007-11-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is designed to study cosmic rays with energies greater than 10{sup 19} eV. Two sites are envisaged for the observatory, one in each hemisphere, for complete sky coverage. The southern site of the Auger Observatory, now approaching completion in Mendoza, Argentina, features an array of 1600 water-Cherenkov surface detector stations covering 3000 km{sup 2}, together with 24 fluorescence telescopes to record the air shower cascades produced by these particles. The two complementary detector techniques together with the large collecting area form a powerful instrument for these studies. Although construction is not yet complete, the Auger Observatory has been taking data stably since January 2004 and the first physics results are being published. In this paper we describe the design features and technical characteristics of the surface detector stations of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  4. Robust red-emission spectra and yields in firefly bioluminescence against temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Wang, Yu; Hiyama, Miyabi; Akiyama, Hidefumi

    2014-05-01

    We measured the quantitative spectra of firefly (Photinus pyralis) bioluminescence at various temperatures to investigate the temperature dependence of the luciferin-luciferase reaction at 15-34 °C. The quantitative spectra were decomposed very well into red (1.9 eV), orange (2.0 eV), and green (2.2 eV) Gaussian components. The intensity of the green component was the only temperature sensitive quantity that linearly decreased as the temperature increased at pH 7 and 8. We found the quantitative bioluminescence spectra to be robust below 2.0 eV against temperature and other experimental conditions. The revealed robustness of the red emissions should be useful for quantitative applications such as adenosine-5'-triphosphate detection.

  5. Hardware vs. Manpower Comparability Methodology. Volume 5. Step 4: Training Resource Requirements Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    AD- A225 748 *ZsQ OTIC FILE COPY Research Product 90-19E Hardware vs. Manpower Comparability Methodology Step 4: Training Resource Requirements...E Zo o 0Lw0 CL Cr C 0a Lu u0 ci 0. C13 0 00 _ zD CO 0 C Oua = 0 0. Lu a) E z *o c h. - U * c am. E z 0 (0 I o D co0 cc zo 0- .0 a ) qe Y0 a. E. - V 0...4.2-29 SUBSTEP 4.2 WORKSHEETS 4.2-31 z 0. ILI V o a Cr CLC E _ _ _ _ _ 0 s1 c* CA = 0) 0 cc2 0 0 v. w 3 ow z 04 4. -W - 0Z oo~ C 00 4.-3 A C0C 2 c

  6. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the MEC end station of the LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; SLAC, aff; Barbrel, B.; Gauthier, M.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Doppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D.; White, T.; Gregori, G.; Wei, M.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P.; Zastrau, U.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2015-02-05

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station (MEC) of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatter x-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) have been measured. The combination of experiments fully demonstrates the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.

  7. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGES

    Doppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; ...

    2014-08-11

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatterx-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using velocity interferometer system for any reflector have been measured. Furthermore, the combination of experiments fully demonstratesmore » the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.« less

  8. Light scalar field constraints from gravitational-wave observations of compact binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Emanuele; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Horbatsch, Michael; Alsing, Justin

    2012-06-01

    Scalar-tensor theories are among the simplest extensions of general relativity. In theories with light scalars, deviations from Einstein’s theory of gravity are determined by the scalar mass ms and by a Brans-Dicke-like coupling parameter ωBD. We show that gravitational-wave observations of nonspinning neutron star-black hole binary inspirals can be used to set lower bounds on ωBD and upper bounds on the combination ms/ωBD. We estimate via a Fisher matrix analysis that individual observations with signal-to-noise ratio ρ would yield (ms/ωBD)(ρ/10)≲10-15, 10-16, and 10-19eV for Advanced LIGO, ET, and eLISA, respectively. A statistical combination of multiple observations may further improve these bounds.

  9. Isotopic composition of Xe in the most acid-resistant fractions of the Efremovka CV3 chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Semenova, L. F.; Lavrukhina, A. K.; Shukoliukov, Iu. A.

    1991-06-01

    Isotopic compositions of three samples (E19, E20, and E22) of the Efremovka carbonaceous chondrite, obtained after 'hard' acid treatment of the original specimens were investigated. Results indicate that the fine-grained E19 contains Xe enriched by nucleogenic Xe-X. Samples E20 and E22 were found to be enriched by Xe-136, Xe-134, Xe-128, Xe-126, and Xe-124, in ratios that have no analogies among acid-resistant residues of other carbonaceous chondrites. It is suggested that the enrichment of Efremovka samples by heavy Xe isotopes was caused by the presence of Xe = H (CCF = Xe) or a mixture of extensively mass-fractionated solar Xe with Xe = X, whereas the enrichment by light Xe isotopes was caused by a intense neutron irradiation of some of the mineral phases of these samples previous to accretion.

  10. Lorentz violation for photons and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Galaverni, Matteo; Sigl, Günter

    2008-01-18

    Lorentz symmetry breaking at very high energies may lead to photon dispersion relations of the form omega2=k2+xink2(k/MPl)n with new terms suppressed by a power n of the Planck mass MPl. We show that first and second order terms of size |xi1|>orsimilar10(-14) and xi219) eV that should already have been detected, if corresponding terms for e+/- are significantly smaller. This suggests that LI breaking suppressed up to second order in the Planck scale is unlikely to be phenomenologically viable for photons.

  11. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Doppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D.; Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Gauthier, M.; Heimann, P.; Hastings, J. B.; Zastrau, U.; Glenzer, S. H.; White, T.; Gregori, G.; Wei, M.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W.

    2014-08-11

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatterx-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using velocity interferometer system for any reflector have been measured. Furthermore, the combination of experiments fully demonstrates the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.

  12. InGaP/GaAs/InGaAsP triple junction solar cells grown using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugaya, T.; Makita, K.; Mizuno, H.; Mochizuki, T.; Oshima, R.; Matsubara, K.; Okano, Y.; Niki, S.

    2015-09-01

    We report mechanically stacked InGaP (1.9 eV)/GaAs (1.42 eV)/InGaAsP (1.0 eV) triple junction solar cells fabricated with an advanced bonding technique using Pd nanoparticle arrays. High quality InGaP/GaAs tandem top and InGaAsP bottom cells are grown on GaAs and InP substrates, respectively using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The InGaAsP bottom cell has an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.49 V, which indicates that high performance InGaAsP solar cells can be fabricated using solid-source MBE. A fabricated triple junction solar cell has a high efficiency of 25.6% with a high Voc of 2.66 V.

  13. Detection of charged particles in thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers

    SciTech Connect

    Fujieda, I.; Cho, G.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Qureshi, S.; Ward, W.; Street, R.A.

    1988-03-01

    We show our results in detecting particles of various linear energy transfer, including minimum ionizing electrons from a Sr-90 source with 5 to 12 micron thick n-i-p and p-i-n diodes. We measured W ( average energy to produce one electron-hole pair) using 17keV filtered xray pulses with a result W = 6.0 /+-/ 0.2eV. This is consistent with the expected value for a semiconductor with band gap of 1.7 to 1.9eV. With heavily ionizing particles such as 6 MeV alphas and 1 to 2 MeV protons, there was some loss of signal due to recombination in the particle track. The minimum ionizing electrons showed no sign of recombination. Applications to pixel and strip detectors for physics experiments and medical imaging will be discussed. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  14. The JEM-EUSO optics system

    SciTech Connect

    Takizawa, Yoshiyuki; Marchi, Alessandor Zuccaro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2011-09-22

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory onboard the Japanese Experiment Module is an international mission devoted to the detection of ultra high-energy cosmic particles with energies E>7x10{sup 19} eV. They are revealed through emission in the atmosphere of Cherenkov and fluorescence light in the near-UV region, by using an optical system with 60 deg. field of view and a 2.3 m entrance pupil. One of the challenges consists in developing an unusual combination of large and lightweight refractive optics: two double-sided curved Fresnel lenses and a central curved Fresnel+diffractive lens, whose maximum dimensions are 2.65 m. This paper describes the development of such a optical system and its performances of the latest configurations.

  15. Hydrogen bonding in liquid water probed by resonant Auger-electron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Winter, Bernd; Hergenhahn, Uwe; Faubel, Manfred; Björneholm, Olle; Hertel, Ingolf V

    2007-09-07

    We have measured resonant and off-resonant Auger-electron spectra of liquid water. Continuumlike transitions near and above the O1s vertical ionization energy are identified by the characteristic normal Auger-electron spectra. On the contrary, well-resolved spectator shifts of the main Auger-electron peak are observed at the liquid-water O1s absorption main edge and near the absorption pre-edge. The shifts of 1.4 and 1.9 eV arise from the localized nature of the excitation. Excited-state localization/delocalization is also discussed for the analogous vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) transitions, and we point out the similarities between x-ray and VUV absorption spectra of liquid water.

  16. Highly conducting and wide band gap phosphorous doped nc-Si-QD/a-SiC films as n-type window layers for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Debjit; Das, Debajyoti

    2016-05-01

    Nano-crystalline silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) embedded in the phosphorous doped amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) matrix has been successfully prepared at a low temperature (300 °C) by inductively coupled plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) system from (SiH4 + CH4)-plasma with PH3 as the doping gas. The effect of PH3 flow rate on structural, optical and electrical properties of the films has been studied. Phosphorous doped nc-Si-QD/a-SiC films with high optical band gap (>1.9 eV) and superior conductivity (~10-2 S cm-1) are obtained, which could be appropriately used as n-type window layers for nc-Si solar cells in n-i-p configuration.

  17. Stabilizing Single Ni Adatoms on a Two-Dimensional Porous Titania Overlayer at the SrTiO3(110) Surface

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nickel vapor-deposited on the SrTiO3(110) surface was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission spectroscopy (PES), and density functional theory calculations. This surface forms a (4 × 1) reconstruction, composed of a 2-D titania structure with periodic six- and ten-membered nanopores. Anchored at these nanopores, Ni single adatoms are stabilized at room temperature. PES measurements show that the Ni adatoms create an in-gap state located at 1.9 eV below the conduction band minimum and induce an upward band bending. Both experimental and theoretical results suggest that Ni adatoms are positively charged. Our study produces well-dispersed single-adatom arrays on a well-characterized oxide support, providing a model system to investigate single-adatom catalytic and magnetic properties. PMID:25177410

  18. Characterization and Evaluation of Property of Columbite-MgNb2O6 Synthesized by Chemical Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Kakali; Mukherjee, Siddhartha

    2016-10-01

    A simple chemical route is used to successfully synthesized magnesium niobate (MgNb2O6: MN) nano ceramic material at various processing temperatures. The initial phase formation characterization has been studied by thermal analysis for pure MN formation using TG-DT analysis. The synthesized powder materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The formation of MN phase of powder samples is determined from the XRD. Average lattice constants of MN ceramic sample are measured from XRD data. The formation of MN phase of synthesized samples is also identified by Raman spectra. The chemistry is measured by EDX analysis. The photoluminescence spectra shows a broad blue emission band centered at 426 nm and the band gap energy is 2.19 eV as measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy using Tauc equation. The photoluminescence and optical property of synthesized MN ceramic material are studied at room temperature.

  19. Highly conducting and wide band gap phosphorous doped nc-Si–QD/a-SiC films as n-type window layers for solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Debjit; Das, Debajyoti

    2016-05-23

    Nano-crystalline silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs) embedded in the phosphorous doped amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) matrix has been successfully prepared at a low temperature (300 °C) by inductively coupled plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) system from (SiH{sub 4} + CH{sub 4})-plasma with PH{sub 3} as the doping gas. The effect of PH{sub 3} flow rate on structural, optical and electrical properties of the films has been studied. Phosphorous doped nc-Si–QD/a-SiC films with high optical band gap (>1.9 eV) and superior conductivity (~10{sup −2} S cm{sup −1}) are obtained, which could be appropriately used as n-type window layers for nc-Si solar cells in n-i-p configuration.

  20. Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena (STIP) workshop travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty six abstracts are provided from the SCOSTEP/STIP Symposium on Retrospective Analyses and Future Coordinated Intervals held in Switzerland on June 10 to 12, 1985. Six American scientists participated in the symposium and their abstracts are also included. The titles of their papers are: (1) An analysis of near surface and coronal activity during STIP interval 12, by T. E. Gergely; (2) Helios images of STIP intervals 6, B. V. Jackson; (3) Results from the analysis of solar and interplanetary observations during STIP interval 7, S. R. Kane; (4) STIP interval 19, E. Cliver; (5) Hydrodynamic buoyancy force in the solar atmosphere, T. Yeh; and (6) A combined MHD modes for the energy and momentum transport from solar surface to interplanetary space, S. T. Wu.

  1. Lower energy consequences of an anomalous high-energy neutrino cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, H.; Weiler, T.J.

    1999-06-01

    A new strong interaction has been postulated for neutrinos above {approximately}10{sup 19}eV to explain the production of highest-energy cosmic-ray events. We derive a dispersion relation relating the hypothesized high-energy cross section to the lower-energy neutrino-nucleon elastic amplitude. Remarkably, we find that the real forward amplitude becomes anomalous seven orders of magnitude lower in energy than does the total cross section. We discuss possible measurable consequences of this early onset of new neutrino physics and conclude that a significantly enhanced elastic {nu}N scattering rate may occur for the neutrino beams available at Fermilab and CERN. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Tunable electronic and optical behaviors of two-dimensional germanium carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhuo; Li, Yangping; Li, Chenxi; Liu, Zhengtang

    2016-03-01

    The electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional graphene-like germanium carbide (2D-GeC) are calculated using first-principle calculation based on density functional theory. Monolayer GeC has a direct band gap of 2.19 eV. The imaginary part of the dielectric function shows a wide energy range of absorption spectrum for monolayer GeC. Tunable band structures are found for monolayer GeC through in-plane strain. In addition, the band structures and optical properties of bilayer GeC under strain along the c axis are analyzed. Multilayer GeC exhibits a direct band gap like monolayer GeC, and new options of interband transitions are found between layers. The results suggest that 2D-GeC could be a good candidate for optoelectronic such as light-emitting diodes, photodiodes, and solar cells.

  3. Effect of annealing on the properties of Sb doped ZnO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N. Sadananda; Bangera, Kasturi V.; Shivakumar, G. K.

    2014-01-28

    Sb doped ZnO thin films have been deposited on glass substrate at 450°C using spray pyrolysis technique. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the as deposited films are polycrystalline in nature with (100) preferred orientation. Whereas the films annealed at 450° C for 6h show a preferential orientation along (101) direction. Crystallites size varies from 15.7 nm to 34.95 nm with annealing duration. The Scanning electron microscopic analysis shows the plane and smooth surface of the films. The optical properties of annealed films have shown a variation in the band gap between 3.37 eV and 3.19 eV. Transparency of as grown and annealed films decreases from 78 % to 65% respectively in the visible region. The electrical conductivity of the as grown film shows an increase in the electrical conductivity by one order of magnitude with increase in the annealing duration.

  4. Synthesis of polypyrrole thin film by SILAR method for supercapacitor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, B. H.; Shinde, S. S.; Lokhande, C. D.

    2013-06-01

    In the present work, polypyrrole (PPY) thin films were synthesized by simple and inexpensive successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method using ammonium peroxidisulphate as an oxidant. The prepared PPY thin films were characterized using UV-VIS, SEM and cyclic voltammetry studies. From the UV-VIS spectrum optical band gap of 1.9 eV was observed. The SEM reveals the nanostructured morphology of PPY thin film. The specific capacitance (SC) of the PPY electrode was calculated using cyclic voltammetry technique. A high specific capacitance of 736 Fg-1 was obtained within the potential range of -0.4 to +0.6 V/SCE in 1M H2SO4 electrolyte. Hence, the PPY thin film is found to be suitable electrode material for redox supercapacitor.

  5. O/S-1/ interactions - The product channels. [collisional electron quenching and chemical reaction pathway frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, T. G.; Black, G.

    1978-01-01

    The first measurements are reported of the reaction pathways for the interaction between oxygen atoms in the 4.19 eV S-1 state, and four molecules, N2O, CO2, H2O, and NO. Distinction is made between three possible paths - quenching to O(D-1), quenching to O(P-3), and chemical reaction. With N2O, the most reasonable interpretation of the data indicates that there no reaction, in sharp contrast with the interaction between O(D-1) and N2O, which proceeds entirely by reaction. Similarly, there is no reaction with CO2. With H2O, the reactive pathway is the dominant one, although electronic quenching is not negligible. With NO, O(D-1) is the preferred product.

  6. Deep levels near the grain boundary in a zinc oxide varistor; Energy change due to electrical degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, J.; Hishita, S. ); Okushi, H. )

    1990-05-01

    Localized deep levels in a ZnO varistor were investigated by isothermal capacitance transient spectroscopy, in relation to a degradation of nonlinear electrical characteristics caused by thermal treatment in a slightly reduced atmosphere. Two discrete deep levels were observed near the grain boundary. Before the degradation, they were located at 0.36 and 0.19 eV below a conduction band. After the degradation, they shifted toward the conduction band by 0.16 and 0.09 eV, respectively: the energy shift was not identical for the two levels. It is suggested that the energy shift of the localized levels reflected lattice disorders originally existing near the grain boundary or proper changes of chemical states induced by the reduction.

  7. GZK photon constraints on Planck-scale Lorentz violation in QED

    SciTech Connect

    Maccione, Luca; Liberati, Stefano E-mail: liberati@sissa.it

    2008-08-15

    We show how the argument exploited by Galaverni and Sigl (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 021102 (see also 0708.1737)) to constrain Lorentz invariance violation (LV) using ultra-high-energy photon non-observation by the AUGER experiment can be extended to QED with Planck-suppressed LV (at O(E/M) and O(E{sup 2}/M{sup 2})). While the original constraints given by Galaverni and Sigl (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 021102) happen to be weakened, we show that, when used together with other EFT reactions and the expected detection of photons at E>10{sup 19} eV by AUGER, this method has the potentiality not only to basically rule out O(E/M) corrections but also to strongly constrain, for the first time, the CPT even O(E{sup 2}/M{sup 2}) LV QED.

  8. Interaction of hydrogen with ZnO: surface adsorption versus bulk diffusion.

    PubMed

    Doh, W H; Roy, P C; Kim, C M

    2010-11-02

    The interaction of hydrogen (H) and a ZnO(0001)-O surface has been investigated using a temperature programmed desorption (TPD) technique. When the surface is exposed to atomic hydrogen below 400 K, hydrogen is adsorbed on the surface. As the hydrogen exposure increases, bulk diffusion of hydrogen takes place. The existence of surface and bulk hydrogen has been confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). When the ZnO surface dosed with hydrogen is heated, surface hydrogen is desorbed at 432 K and bulk hydrogen is evolved at ∼539 K. Diffusion of hydrogen into the ZnO bulk is an activated process, and the activation energy is estimated to be 0.19 eV.

  9. Is Dimerization Required for the Catalytic Activity of Bacterial Biotin Carboxylase?

    SciTech Connect

    Shen,Y.; Chou, C.; Chang, G.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACCs) have crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism. The biotin carboxylase (BC) subunit of Escherichia coli ACC is believed to be active only as a dimer, although the crystal structure shows that the active site of each monomer is 25 Angstroms from the dimer interface. We report here biochemical, biophysical, and structural characterizations of BC carrying single-site mutations in the dimer interface. Our studies demonstrate that two of the mutants, R19E and E23R, are monomeric in solution but have only a 3-fold loss in catalytic activity. The crystal structures of the E23R and F363A mutants show that they can still form the correct dimer at high concentrations. Our data suggest that dimerization is not an absolute requirement for the catalytic activity of the E. coli BC subunit, and we propose a new model for the molecular mechanism of action for BC in multisubunit and multidomain ACCs.

  10. Origin of orange color in nominally undoped HVPE GaN crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, F.; Beyer, F. C.; Gärtner, G.; Röder, C.; Son, N. T.; Janzén, E.; Veselá, D.; Lorinčík, J.; Hofmann, P.; Krupinski, M.; Mikolajick, T.; Habel, F.; Leibiger, G.; Heitmann, J.

    2017-08-01

    In this article we investigated unintentionally doped (UID) GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) with respect to point defects and impurity concentration. The samples were orange tinted to different extent. Optical analysis was performed by micro-photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy. Absorption measurements revealed an absorption peak at 1.5 eV related to an internal transition in Mn3+ impurities and a second band with low energy onset at 1.9 eV, both increasing with the extent of orange color. Electron paramagnetic resonance investigations showed the presence of Mn2+ and Fe3+ in the colored crystals. The overall impurity concentration was verified by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Orange tint is associated with an increase of transition metal contamination, especially Mn. Based on these observations we suggest that the orange coloring in the investigated UID HVPE GaN samples is caused by the presence of Mn impurities.

  11. Dynamics of oxygen in the YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 minus x basal planes by elastic-energy-loss measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Cannelli, G. ); Cantelli, R. ); Cordero, F. ); Ferretti, M. ); Verdini, L. )

    1990-11-01

    We report elastic-energy-dissipation measurements in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{ital x}} from 50 to 300 K at frequencies between 0.48 and 6.3 kHz. It is shown unambiguously that the two peaks around {Tc} are thermally activated with activation energies of 0.16 and 0.19 eV. When oxygen is reduced to about 6.5 atoms per formula unit, the higher-temperature process nearly disappears, while the other one increases. The peaks are interpreted in terms of jumps of the O atoms in the Cu-O basal planes, and two mechanisms are proposed and discussed: short jumps between the off-center positions in the chains and jumps between O(4) and O(5) positions of isolated atoms in hypothetical oxygen-depleted islands of the orthorhombic basal planes.

  12. Oxygen-Induced Degradation in C60-Based Organic Solar Cells: Relation Between Film Properties and Device Performance.

    PubMed

    Bastos, João P; Voroshazi, Eszter; Fron, Eduard; Brammertz, Guy; Vangerven, Tim; Van der Auweraer, Mark; Poortmans, Jef; Cheyns, David

    2016-04-20

    Fullerene-based molecules are the archetypical electron-accepting materials for organic photovoltaic devices. A detailed knowledge of the degradation mechanisms that occur in C60 layers will aid in the development of more stable organic solar cells. Here, the impact of storage in air on the optical and electrical properties of C60 is studied in thin films and in devices. Atmospheric exposure induces oxygen-trap states that are 0.19 eV below the LUMO of the fullerene C60. Moreover, oxygen causes a 4-fold decrease of the exciton lifetime in C60 layers, resulting in a 40% drop of short-circuit current from optimized planar heterojunction solar cells. The presence of oxygen-trap states increases the saturation current of the device, resulting in a 20% loss of open-circuit voltage. Design guidelines are outlined to improve air stability for fullerene-containing devices.

  13. Optical properties of colloidal aqueous synthesized 3 mercaptopropionic acid stabilized CdS quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Sumanth Kumar, D. Jai Kumar, B.; Mahesh, H.M.

    2016-05-06

    We have explored an easiest and simplest aqueous route to synthesize bright green luminescent CdS QDs using 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a stabilizer in air ambient for solar cell applications. The CdS quantum dots showed a strong quantum confinement effect with good stability, size and excellent photoluminescence. MPA Capping on CdS QDs was confirmed through FTIR. The Optical absorption spectrum revealed the CdS quantum dots are highly transparent in the visible region with absorption peak at 380 nm, confirming the quantum confinement. Photoluminescence showed an emission peak at 525 nm wavelength. The optical band gap energy was found to be 3.19 eV and CdS quantum dots radius calculated using Brus equation is 1.5 nm. The results are presented and discussed in detail.

  14. Assessment of radiation dose for surrounding organs and persons approaching implanted patients upon brachytherapy of prostate cancer with Iridium-192.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Kim, C S; Whang, J H

    2010-10-01

    To assess a proper dose for radiation therapy fitting the typical physical characteristics of male Korean bodies, a mathematical phantom was prepared based on standard Korean male measurements. Upon brachytherapy of prostate cancer by implanting 192Ir into the prostate gland (the source organ), the absorbed dose of the prostate gland and surrounding organs and the expected dose of people within the vicinity were assessed. 192Ir, which has been the radionuclide of choice for prostate cancer brachytherapy, was selected for the simulation. It was assumed that 1 Ci of initial radioactivity would be administered. As a result, 1.28E-02 Gy/Ci was exhibited in the prostate gland of the source organ, and the dose to which persons within the vicinity were exposed was exhibited to be 9.19E-06 Sv at a distance of 30 cm from the front.

  15. O/S-1/ interactions - The product channels. [collisional electron quenching and chemical reaction pathway frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, T. G.; Black, G.

    1978-01-01

    The first measurements are reported of the reaction pathways for the interaction between oxygen atoms in the 4.19 eV S-1 state, and four molecules, N2O, CO2, H2O, and NO. Distinction is made between three possible paths - quenching to O(D-1), quenching to O(P-3), and chemical reaction. With N2O, the most reasonable interpretation of the data indicates that there no reaction, in sharp contrast with the interaction between O(D-1) and N2O, which proceeds entirely by reaction. Similarly, there is no reaction with CO2. With H2O, the reactive pathway is the dominant one, although electronic quenching is not negligible. With NO, O(D-1) is the preferred product.

  16. High prevalence and variability of CTX-M-15-producing and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli observed in stray dogs in rural Angola.

    PubMed

    Albrechtova, Katerina; Kubelova, Michaela; Mazancova, Jana; Dolejska, Monika; Literak, Ivan; Cizek, Alois

    2014-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a serious problem globally, but it is especially pronounced in the tropics, where pressure of infectious diseases is high. We examined resistance in Escherichia coli colonizing gastrointestinal tracts of 17 dogs which have never received antimicrobial treatment, living in central rural Angola. Emphasis was placed on extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). Resistance-carrying plasmids were characterized in size, group of incompatibility and ability to conjugate. Isolates were compared by their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. Detailed description of 19 E. coli isolates with either ESBL or PMQR genes carried on multiresistant plasmids of different groups of incompatibility indicates that dogs, despite never being treated by antibiotics, are important reservoirs and transmitters of AMR in the study area.

  17. Reversible Z-E isomerism and pharmaceutical implications for SU5416.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Anand; Shenoy, Narmada

    2005-12-01

    SU5416 (Z-isomer), the first in its class of angiogenesis inhibitors, in solution converts to the E-isomer following light exposure and reverts to the Z-isomer in the dark. Kinetics of this Z-E isomerism in pharmaceutical media is reported. Analytical solutions need light protection at 5 degrees C to maintain integrity. While E-isomer in light-exposed product increased to 0.9% in 24 hours, light-protected product showed no change (25 degrees C, 18 months). Infusate studies indicated that < 1.9% E-isomer will be dosed to patients and would likely convert to the Z-isomer, following administration. This report implies Z-E isomerism in SU5416 is controllable with no limitations towards ensuring pharmaceutical product quality.

  18. Human Health Exposure Assessment for Rocky Mountain Arsenal Study Area Evaluations. Volume 6-C. Southern Study Area Exposure Assessment Version 4.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    CONTAMINANT PPLV PPLV PPLV El El El OPN (mg/kg) ( wv /kg) (mg/kg) ALDRIN 1.5E+00 1.6E.04 1.SE00 2.OE+01" 1.9E-03 Z.OE+01* 0.0E+00 PPODE 7.4E+01 9.5E+05 7.4E...RECREATIONAL VISITORS DIRECT INDIRECT CUMULATIVE DIRECT INDIRECT CUMULATIVE VEI CONTAMINANT PPLV PPLV PPLV El El El CI• (rQ/kg) ( wv /kg) (mg/kg) ALDRIN 2.IE...the critica ; exposure pathway identified. 2-121 REA5/?T’rc(’W, REA VI C 9/-,,) 12’(X) p11 • M pI I Contaminants Regulated Casual Recreational

  19. Noise reduction effect and analysis through serial multiple sampling in a CMOS image sensor with floating diffusion boost-driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Hayato; Yamaguchi, Keiji; Yamagata, Yuuki

    2017-04-01

    We have developed a 1/2.3-in. 10.3 mega pixel back-illuminated CMOS image sensor utilizing serial multiple sampling. This sensor achieves an RMS random noise of 1.3e- and row temporal noise (RTN) of 0.19e-. Serial multiple sampling is realized with a column inline averaging technique without the need for additional processing circuitry. Pixel readout is accomplished utilizing a 4-shared-pixel floating diffusion (FD) boost-driving architecture. RTN caused by column parallel readout was analyzed considering the transfer function at the system level and the developed model was verified by measurement data taken at each sampling time. This model demonstrates the RTN improvement of -1.6 dB in a parallel multiple readout architecture.

  20. Fluorogenic ratiometric dipodal optode containing imine-amide linkages: exploiting subtle thorium (IV) ion sensing.

    PubMed

    Tayade, Kundan; Kaur, Amanpreet; Tetgure, Sandesh; Chaitanya, G Krishana; Singh, Narinder; Kuwar, Anil

    2014-12-10

    The (13E,19E)-N1',N3'-bis[4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzylidene]malonohydrazide (L) has been developed for the detection of Th(4+) ions using dual channel signalling system. The UV-vis absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopic data revealed the formation of L-Th(4+) complex in 1:1 equilibrium. The density functional theory (DFT) also confirms the optimum binding cavity for the recognition of metal ion. The binding constant computed from different mathematical models for an assembly of L-Th(4+). The detection limit of L for Th(4+) recognition is to a concentration down to 0.1 μM (0.023 μg g(-1)). The present sensing system is also successfully applied for the detection of Th(4+) ion present in soil near nuclear atomic plants.

  1. Exploring Mbar shock conditions and isochorically heated aluminum at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; Barbrel, B.; Gauthier, M.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Döppner, T.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D.; White, T.; Gregori, G.; Wei, M.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P.; Zastrau, U.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2014-11-01

    Recent experiments performed at the Matter in Extreme Conditions end station of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have demonstrated the first spectrally resolved measurements of plasmons from isochorically heated aluminum. The experiments have been performed using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam as a pump and probe to both volumetrically heat and scatter x-rays from aluminum. Collective x-ray Thomson scattering spectra show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV. In addition, Mbar shock pressures from laser-compressed aluminum foils using velocity interferometer system for any reflector have been measured. The combination of experiments fully demonstrates the possibility to perform warm dense matter studies at the LCLS with unprecedented accuracy and precision.

  2. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of lead sulfide quantum wells fabricated by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W. J.; Dasgupta, N. P.; Jung, H. J.; Lee, J. R.; Sinclair, R.; Prinz, F. B.

    2010-11-10

    We report the use of scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) to investigate one-dimensional quantum confinement effects in lead sulfide (PbS) thin films. Specifically, quantum confinement effects on the band gap of PbS quantum wells were explored by controlling the PbS film thickness and potential barrier height. PbS quantum well structures with a thickness range of 1–20 nm were fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Two barrier materials were selected based on barrier height: aluminum oxide as a high barrier material and zinc oxide as a low barrier material. Band gap measurements were carried out by STS, and an effective mass theory was developed to compare the experimental results. Our results show that the band gap of PbS thin films increased as the film thickness decreased, and the barrier height increased from 0.45 to 2.19 eV.

  3. Basal keratinocytes contribute to all strata of the adult zebrafish epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Raymond T H; Asharani, P V; Carney, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    The epidermis of terrestrial vertebrates is a stratified epithelium and forms an essential protective barrier. It is continually renewed, with dead corneocytes shed from the surface and replaced from a basal keratinocyte stem cell population. Whilst mouse is the prime model system used for epidermal studies, there is increasing employment of the zebrafish to analyse epidermis development and homeostasis, however the architecture and ontogeny of the epidermis in this system are incompletely described. In particular, it is unclear if adult zebrafish epidermis is derived entirely from the basal epidermal stem cell layer, as in the mouse, or if the most superficial keratinocyte layer is a remnant of the embryonic periderm. Furthermore, a relative paucity of cellular markers and genetic reagents to label and manipulate the basal epidermal stem cell compartment has hampered research. Here we show that the type I keratin, krtt1c19e, is a suitable marker of the basal epidermal layer and identify a krtt1c19e promoter fragment able to drive strong and specific expression in this cell type. Use of this promoter to express an inducible Cre recombinase allowed permanent labelling of basal cells during embryogenesis, and demonstrated that these cells do indeed generate keratinocytes of all strata in the adult epidermis. Further deployment of the Cre-Lox system highlighted the transient nature of the embryonic periderm. We thus show that the epidermis of adult zebrafish, as in the mouse, derives from basal stem cells, further expanding the similarities of epidermal ontogeny across vertebrates. Future use of this promoter will assist genetic analysis of basal keratinocyte biology in zebrafish.

  4. Basal Keratinocytes Contribute to All Strata of the Adult Zebrafish Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The epidermis of terrestrial vertebrates is a stratified epithelium and forms an essential protective barrier. It is continually renewed, with dead corneocytes shed from the surface and replaced from a basal keratinocyte stem cell population. Whilst mouse is the prime model system used for epidermal studies, there is increasing employment of the zebrafish to analyse epidermis development and homeostasis, however the architecture and ontogeny of the epidermis in this system are incompletely described. In particular, it is unclear if adult zebrafish epidermis is derived entirely from the basal epidermal stem cell layer, as in the mouse, or if the most superficial keratinocyte layer is a remnant of the embryonic periderm. Furthermore, a relative paucity of cellular markers and genetic reagents to label and manipulate the basal epidermal stem cell compartment has hampered research. Here we show that the type I keratin, krtt1c19e, is a suitable marker of the basal epidermal layer and identify a krtt1c19e promoter fragment able to drive strong and specific expression in this cell type. Use of this promoter to express an inducible Cre recombinase allowed permanent labelling of basal cells during embryogenesis, and demonstrated that these cells do indeed generate keratinocytes of all strata in the adult epidermis. Further deployment of the Cre-Lox system highlighted the transient nature of the embryonic periderm. We thus show that the epidermis of adult zebrafish, as in the mouse, derives from basal stem cells, further expanding the similarities of epidermal ontogeny across vertebrates. Future use of this promoter will assist genetic analysis of basal keratinocyte biology in zebrafish. PMID:24400120

  5. Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei from extragalactic pulsars and the effect of their Galactic counterparts

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ke; Olinto, Angela V.; Kotera, Kumiko E-mail: kotera@iap.fr

    2013-03-01

    The acceleration of ultrahigh energy nuclei in fast spinning newborn pulsars can explain the observed spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and the trend towards heavier nuclei for energies above 10{sup 19} eV as reported by the Auger Observatory. Pulsar acceleration implies a hard injection spectrum ( ∼ E{sup −1}) due to pulsar spin down and a maximum energy E{sub max} ∼ Z 10{sup 19} eV due to the limit on the spin rate of neutron stars. We have previously shown that the escape through the young supernova remnant softens the spectrum, decreases slightly the maximum energy, and generates secondary nuclei. Here we show that the distribution of pulsar birth periods and the effect of propagation in the interstellar and intergalactic media modifies the combined spectrum of all pulsars. By assuming a normal distribution of pulsar birth periods centered at 300 ms, we show that the contribution of extragalactic pulsar births to the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum naturally gives rise to a contribution to very high energy cosmic rays (VHECRs, between 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 18} eV) by Galactic pulsar births. The required injected composition to fit the observed spectrum depends on the absolute energy scale, which is uncertain, differing between Auger Observatory and Telescope Array. The contribution of Galactic pulsar births can also bridge the gap between predictions for cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants and the observed spectrum just below the ankle, depending on the composition of the cosmic rays that escape the supernova remnant and the diffusion behavior of VHECRs in the Galaxy.

  6. Optimization of the Orbiting Wide-Angle Light Collectors (OWL) Mission for Charged-Particle and Neutrino Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krizmanic, John F.; Mitchell, John W.; Streitmatter, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    OWL [1] uses the Earth's atmosphere as a vast calorimeter to fully enable the emerging field of charged-particle astronomy with high-statistics measurements of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) and a search for sources of UHE neutrinos and photons. Confirmation of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) suppression above approx. 4 x 10(exp 19) eV suggests that most UHECR originate in astrophysical objects. Higher energy particles must come from sources within about 100 Mpc and are deflected by approx. 1 degree by predicted intergalactic/galactic magnetic fields. The Pierre Auger Array, Telescope Array and the future JEM-EUSO ISS mission will open charged-particle astronomy, but much greater exposure will be required to fully identify and measure the spectra of individual sources. OWL uses two large telescopes with 3 m optical apertures and 45 degree FOV in near-equatorial orbits. Simulations of a five-year OWL mission indicate approx. 10(exp 6) sq km/ sr/ yr of exposure with full aperture at approx. 6 x 10(exp 19) eV. Observations at different altitudes and spacecraft separations optimize sensitivity to UHECRs and neutrinos. OWL's stereo event reconstruction is nearly independent of track inclination and very tolerant of atmospheric conditions. An optional monocular mode gives increased reliability and can increase the instantaneous aperture. OWL can fully reconstruct horizontal and upward-moving showers and so has high sensitivity to UHE neutrinos. New capabilities in inflatable structures optics and silicon photomultipliers can greatly increase photon sensitivity, reducing the energy threshold for n detection or increasing viewed area using a higher orbit. Design trades between the original and optimized OWL missions and the enhanced science capabilities are described.

  7. Research on stable, high-efficiency amorphous silicon multijunction modules

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, P.K.; Brown, S.; Hollingsworth, R.; Shen, D.S.; del Cueto, J.; Iwanicko, E.; Marshall, C.; DeHart, C.; Mentor, D.; Benson, A.; Matovich, C.; Sandwisch, J. )

    1991-04-01

    This report describes a contract to produce multijunction modules based entirely on amorphous silicon alloys, the modules having an aperture area of at least 900 cm{sup 2} and a stable, reproducible conversion efficiency of at least 6.5% after 600 hours of light exposure (air mass 1.5) at 50{degrees} C. The work focussed on (1) producing opto-electronic-grade amorphous silicon material for band gaps of about 1.7 and 1.9 eV by changing the hydrogen content in the film bonded to the silicon, (2) studying and obtaining data on the light stability of single-junction p-i-n solar cells with gaps of about 1.7 and 1.9 eV, and (3) analyzing losses in a silicon/silicon multijunction cell. We report new results on an indium tin oxide (ITO)/silver back contact and the deposition of granular tin oxide by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition. Progress toward module fabrication at the end of six months has been good, with the demonstration of 5.4% initial efficiency in a silicon/silicon multijunction submodule with an aperture area of 4620 cm{sup 2} and incorporating devices with 2nd-junction i-layer thicknesses of about 3500 {angstrom}. We also demonstrated a single-junction silicon submodule with an aperture area of 4620 cm{sup 2}, a thickness of about 3500 {angstrom}, and an initial efficiency of 6.5%. 4 refs., 39 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Point defect study of CuTi and CuTi sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, J.R.; Lutton, R.T.; Wesley, D.; Wharton, W.R.; Oehrli, M.L.; Herte, M.S.; Sabochick, M.J. ); Lam, N.Q. )

    1991-03-01

    The energies and configurations of interstitials and vacancies in the ordered compounds CuTi and CuTi{sub 2} were determined using atomistic simulation with realistic embedded-atom potentials. The formation energy of an antisite pair was found to be 0.385 and 0.460 eV in CuTi and CuTi{sub 2}, respectively. In both compounds, the creation of a vacancy by the removal of either a Cu or Ti atom resulted in a vacant Cu site, with an adjacent antisite defect in the case of the Ti vacancy. The vacant Cu site in CuTi was found to be very mobile within two adjacent (001) Cu planes, with a migration energy of 0.19 eV, giving rise to two-dimensional migration. The vacancy migration energy across (001) Ti planes, however, was 1.32 eV, which could be lowered to 0.75 or 0.60 eV if one or two Cu antisite defects were initially present in these planes. In CuTi{sub 2}, the vacancy migration energy of 0.92 eV along the (001) Cu plane was significantly higher than in CuTi. The effective vacancy formation energies were calculated to be 1.09 eV and 0.90 eV in CuTi and CuTi{sub 2}, respectively. Interstitials created by inserting either a Cu or Ti atom had complicated configurations in which a Cu {l angle}111{r angle} split interstitial was surrounded by two or three Ti antisite defects. The interstitial formation energy was estimated to be 1.7 eV in CuTi and 1.9 eV in CuTi{sub 2}.

  9. Structure-activity relationship analysis of the peptide deformylase inhibitor 5-bromo-1H-indole-3-acetohydroxamic acid.

    PubMed

    Petit, Sylvain; Duroc, Yann; Larue, Valéry; Giglione, Carmela; Léon, Carole; Soulama, Coralie; Denis, Alexis; Dardel, Frédéric; Meinnel, Thierry; Artaud, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    The lead compound 5-bromoindolyl-3-acetohydroxamic acid (10) was recently identified as a potent inhibitor of bacterial peptide deformylases (PDFs). The synthesis and associated activities of new variants were investigated at position 5 to optimize the fit at the S1' subsite and at position 1 to improve both potency and antibacterial activity. A morphomimetic series, termed "reverse-indole" was synthesized. The indole derivatives remain selective in vitro inhibitors of PDF2 over PDF1. Bromide is the best group at position 5 and cannot be replaced by bulkier substituents. In this series, an N-benzyl group at position 1 in 19 e improves the potency relative to 10. In the case of PDF1, and unlike PDF2, potency is increased as the alkyl chain becomes longer and more ramified. These data support the results of NMR footprinting experiments that were performed with (15)N-labeled Ni-PDF and the corresponding 3-acetic acid derivatives. Most of the compounds have antibacterial activities toward B. subtilis, but are inefficient toward E. coli owing to active removal by the major efflux pumps. Among the reverse-indole derivatives, 23 c, which is the exact mirror image of 19 e, shows strong potency in vitro against PDF2, but little against PDF1, although this compound displays significant antibacterial activity toward an efflux-minus mutant of E. coli. All the compounds were assessed with major pathogenic bacteria, but most of them are inefficient antibacterial agents. The reverse-indole compounds 23 a and 23 c have potency against S. pneumoniae that is similar to that of actinonin.

  10. Effects of in ovo feeding of creatine pyruvate on the hatchability, growth performance and energy status in embryos and broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, M M; Gao, T; Zhang, L; Li, J L; Lv, P A; Yu, L L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2017-02-21

    The effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on the hatchability, growth performance and energy status of embryos and broilers (Arbor Acres) were investigated. Five treatments were arranged as non-injected treatment (Control), 0.6 ml physiological saline (0.75%) injected treatment (Saline), and IOF treatments injected with 0.6 ml physiological saline (0.75%) containing 3, 6 or 12 mg CrPyr (CrPyr3, CrPyr6 or CrPyr12) into the amnion per fertile egg on day 17.5 of incubation. After hatching, 80 male chicks from each treatment with similar weight close to the average BW of their pooled group were selected and randomly assigned into eight replicates of 10 chicks each. The results showed that the hatchability was not affected among groups, whereas the hatching weight of broilers in CrPyr12 was significantly higher than the control and saline groups (P0.05). Irrespective of dosage, the concentrations of creatine and phosphocreatine, and activities of creatine kinase in embryos were enhanced in CrPyr treatments at 19 E when compared with the control and saline groups (P<0.05). The activities of glucose-6-phosphatase in liver in CrPyr6 and CrPyr12 treatments were higher than the control and saline groups at 19 E (P<0.05). In conclusion, these results indicated that IOF of CrPyr, especially at the level of 12 mg/egg, could improve energy status of embryos and hatchlings, which was useful for enhancing hatching weight, BW and pectoral muscle weight until the end of the experiments at 21 days post-hatch in broilers.

  11. Luminescence sensors on the basis of quartz glasses with localization of gamma-radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanukovich, Tatjana P.; Poliakov, Alexander V.

    2006-04-01

    Optical fibers as detectors of radiation have a lot of advantages: big length, little diameter, no electrical interference, and an opportunity to measure radiation from the spread source. Optical characteristics of pure silica glasses as a material for optical fibers are very important. Luminescence spectra of high-purity silica glasses made by sol-gel technology have been investigated. Silica glasses are very stable and their characteristics are changed in narrow range. Sol-gel technology was chosen because it allows obtaining samples with different properties during changing technology. In other technologies, uncontrolled admixtures presence leads to big number of luminescence bands appearance. Their analysis is difficult. Luminescence band with energy of 1,9 eV appeared during exposition of glasses to gamma-irradiation. Luminescence intensity dependence on irradiation dose is analyzed. Appearance reasons are investigated. Absorption band with energy 2,0 eV appears in glasses during irradiation due to nonbridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC:identical to Si- 0upward arrow). The same centers are responsible for luminescence with 1,9 eV. Energetic diagram is proposed. Principle scheme of gamma-irradiation optical fiber sensor is proposed on the basis of optical fiber made by sol-gel technology. Optical fiber is illuminated from the lightsource with energy of 2,0 eV. Luminescence appears at those portions of optical fiber, which are exposed to gamma irradiation. Such luminescence pulses are registered from both sides of optical fiber. Travel time is proportional to the distance from the end of fiber to irradiated portion. Length of pulse is proportional to the length of portion. Thermal annealing of optical fiber is discussed.

  12. Prelude and first decade, 1951-1961

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, L. R.

    The initiative leading to the establishment of the International Astronautical Federation (IAF) was taken in 1949 by the Stuttgart based Gesellschaft für Weltraumforschung (GfW), who proposed to other astronautical societies that a conference should be arranged to establish mutual co-operation. The British Interplanetary Society (BIS) agreed to organize such a conference in London in 1951, but in the interim the Groupement Astronautique Français (GAF) arranged a preliminary meeting to set up the agenda for the London meeting and to define its objectives. Representatives from astronautical groups in seven European countries and one South American society met in Paris in October 1950. Their meetings were preceded, on 30 September, by a large public gathering organized by the GAF, in the Sorbonne and was designated the Premier Congrès International d'Astronautique, a style which was to be adopted, in its English translation, for the subsequent annual conferences of the IAF. The representatives agreed that the objective of the London conference should be to create a federation of autonomous national astronautical societies, whose main purpose would be to provide an annual forum where these societies would meet. The London conference in September 1951, held in the City of Westminster, following the Paris precedent, was designated the IInd International Astronautical Congress. Astronautical and rocket societies from the ten countries were represented and became signatories to the agreement founding the IAF on 4 September 1951. The London congress set the pattern for subsequent congresses, in particular introducing technical lecture sessions. At the IIIrd Congress, held in Stuttgart, the first under the aegis of the newly founded IAF, a constitution was agreed and a Finance Committee was elected. The Constitution established that the Federation should be registered in Switzerland and be governed by a council of voting members—one only from each country. Subsequent

  13. Late Archean mineralised cyanobacterial mats and their modern analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmierczak, J.; Altermann, W.; Kremer, B.; Kempe, S.; Eriksson, P. G.

    2008-09-01

    cells have the ability to bind various ions and may serve as nucleation centres for a variety of minerals [5, 6]. These, often amorphous precursor mineral phases can be transformed, during later diagenesis, into authigenic carbonates, feldspar and phyllosilicates, as observed in the case of both Nauga Formation and Lake Van cyanobacterial sheaths and capsules. The early massive appearance of benthic coccoid cyanobacteria, as evidenced by the mineralised mats in the Neoarchean Nauga Formation, and their ability to produce fine-grained limestones, confirms the significant role of these micro organisms in the formation of vast deposits of marine micritic limestones, as suggested also for younger geologic ages [7, 8]. References [1] Altermann, W. and Nelson, D. R. (1998) Sed. Geol. 120, 225-256. [2] Kazmierczak, J. and Altermann, W. (2002) Science 298, 2351. [3] Kempe, S. et al. (1991) Nature 394, 605-608. [4] Kazmierczak, J. and Altermann, W. (2002) 16th Intern. Sed. Congr. Abstract Vol., 191. [5] Douglas, S. and Beveridge, T. J. (1998) FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 26, 79-88. [6] Barker, W. W. and Banfield, J. F. (1998) Geomicrobiol. J. 15, 223-244. [7] Kazmierczak, J. et al. (1996) Acta Palaeont. Polonica 41, 319-338. [8] Altermann, W. et al. (2006) Geobiology 4, 147- 166.

  14. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouerdane, Youcef; Laporte, Pierre

    2005-06-01

    L'objectif de la série de colloques UVX est de réunir, au rythme d'une fois tous les deux ans, les scientifiques et industriels travaillant dans le domaine du développement des sources de photon de grande énergie (UV, VUV, et X) et de leurs applications. En particulier cette manifestation est l'occasion de faire se rencontrer une communauté très pluridisciplinaire (physique, chimie, biologie, sciences de l'univers) liée à des domaines en forte évolution technologique (lasers et rayonnement synchrotron notamment). Le colloque UVX 2004 s'est tenu au Palais des Congrès de Saint-Étienne (42000) du 7 au 11 juin 2004. La période écoulée depuis l'édition précédente (Oléron 2002) a été particulièrement active dans tous les domaines concernés : grands projets de sources, méthodes de diagnostic au sens large. Une nouvelle fois on constate que le bref et l'ultra-bref ont une place privilégiée, qu'il s'agisse du travail sur les accélérateurs ou sur les lasers qui, bien sûr, dans la course aux temps courts remportent la palme avec la présence de spécialistes du domaine attoseconde. La communauté représentée a la chance d'être en prise directe avec de très grands projets en phase active de réalisation comme le Laser Megajoule (LMJ), la source SOLEIL, et un projet d'ampleur plus modeste mais remarquable dans son domaine : la source LASERIX d'Orsay/Palaiseau. On pourra citer aussi le projet Arc en Ciel qui, lui, est encore au stade de sa définition. - SOLEIL, source de nouvelle génération de rayonnement synchrotron (plateau de Saclay) est dans une phase active de réalisation : achèvement de l'infrastructure en 2005 et injection du 1o faisceau dans l'anneau de stockage prévu également en 2005. Cette source devrait être la meilleure au monde dans le domaine VUV/X mous, tout en restant très polyvalente (brillance, accordabilité, structure temporelle, polarisation) et complémentaire de l'ESRF. Au final on disposera de 21 lignes de lumi

  15. La Station Laser ultra mobile: de l'Obtention d'une Exactitude centimétrique des Mesures à des Applications en Océanographie et Géodésie Spatiales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Joëlle

    2000-12-01

    La Station Laser Ultra Mobile est la plus petite station de télémétrie laser au monde, ne pesant que 300 kg, dédiée à la poursuite de satellites équipés de rétroréflecteurs laser. Elle utilise un petit télescope de 13 cm de diamètre placé sur une monture issue d'un théodolite de précision et motorisé, un laser très compact et une photodiode à avalanche permettant la détection au niveau du simple photo-électron. Les premières expériences (Corse, fin 1996) ont révélé de nombreuses instabilités dans la qualité des mesures. Ce travail concerne l'étude et la mise en place de nombreuses modifications techniques afin d'atteindre une exactitude centimétrique des mesures et de pouvoir participer à la campagne de validation des orbites et d'étalonnage de l'altimètre du satellite océanographique JASON-1 (2001). La précision instrumentale souhaitée a été vérifiée avec succès en laboratoire. Outre cet aspect instrumental et métrologique, une analyse a été développée afin de pouvoir estimer l'exactitude et la stabilité des observations de la station mobile après intégration des modifications. A partir d'une expérience de co-localisation entre les deux stations laser fixe du plateau de Calern, l'analyse est basée sur l'ajustement, par station, de coordonnées et d'un biais instrumental moyen à partir d'une orbite de référence des satellites LAGEOS. Des variations saisonnières ont été mises en évidence dans les séries temporelles des différentes composantes. La comparaison locale des déformations de la croûte terrestre se traduisant par des variations d'altitude issues des données laser a montré une cohérence remarquable avec les mesures du gravimètre absolu transportable FG5. Des signaux de même amplitude ont aussi été observés par GPS. Ces variations sont également mises en évidence à l'échelle mondiale et leur interprétation géophysique est faite (combinaison des effets de marées terrestres et polaire

  16. Eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Barron, Peter; Pillay, Yogan; Doherty, Tanya; Sherman, Gayle; Jackson, Debra; Bhardwaj, Sanjana; Robinson, Precious; Goga, Ameena

    2013-01-01

    Résumé PROBLÈME: L'Organisation mondiale de la Santé a élaboré des lignes directrices claires pour la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant (PTME) du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH). S'assurer que tous les éléments du programme de PTME soient mis en œuvre de manière qualitative dans tous les établissements présente cependant des défis. APPROCHE: Bien que l'Afrique du Sud ait lancé son programme de PTME en 2002, plus tard que la plupart des autres pays, le soutien politique a augmenté depuis 2008. La recherche opérationnelle a reçu davantage d'attention, et les données objectives ont été utilisées plus efficacement. ENVIRONNEMENT LOCAL: En 2010, environ 30% de toutes les femmes enceintes en Afrique du Sud étaient séropositives, et la moitié de tous les décès d'enfants de moins de 5 ans étaient associée au virus. CHANGEMENTS SIGNIFICATIFS: Entre 2008 et 2011, la proportion estimée de nourrissons de moins de 2 mois exposés au VIH, ayant subi une réaction en chaîne par polymérase (PCR) de routine visant à détecter la transmission précoce du VIH, est passée de 36,6% à 70,4%. Le taux estimé de transmission du VIH a diminué, passant de 9,6% à 2,8%. Les enquêtes basées sur la population en 2010 et 2011 ont signalé des taux de transmission de 3,5% et 2,7%, respectivement. LEÇONS TIRÉES: Voici certaines actions essentielles pour améliorer les résultats du programme: assurer la mise en œuvre rapide des changements de politique de PTME sur le terrain, grâce à la formation et à la diffusion des lignes directrices; assurer une bonne coordination avec les partenaires techniques, comme les agences de santé internationales et locales et les organisations non gouvernementales; et utiliser les données et les indicateurs relatifs à tous les aspects du programme de PTME. Il est aussi utile de permettre au personnel soignant des établissements de soins de santé primaires d'initier un traitement antir

  17. Situation actuelle de la schistosomiase dans l'aire de santé de Santchou, (District de santé de Santchou, Région de l'Ouest-Cameroun)

    PubMed Central

    Tchouanguem, Huguette Nguedie; Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Keugoung, Basile; Fouelifa, Loic Dongmo; Moyou, Roger Somo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction La schistosomiase, deuxième endémie parasitaire mondiale, est une parasitose due aux trématodes du genre Schistosoma. Nos objectifs étaient d’évaluer les prévalences des différentes espèces de schistosomes (Schistosoma mansoni, haematobium, et intercalatum) chez les écoliers, et d'identifier les facteurs de risques, les signes cliniques de la schistosomiase, et les mollusques hôtes intermédiaires des schistosomiases dans les eaux stagnantes. Méthodes L’étude était transversale et s'est déroulée sur 3 mois. Elle consistait en l'enregistrement des données sociodémographiques et cliniques, le prélèvement des échantillons de selles et d'urines, la recherche des mollusques et le traitement des écoliers positifs à d'autres helminthes. Les examens de laboratoire se sont déroulés à l'Institut de recherches Médicales et d’études des Plantes Médicinales à Yaoundé où on examinait les échantillons de selles et d'urine par les méthodes de KATO KATZ et de centrifugation respectivement, et un malacologiste déterminait l'espèce des mollusques. Résultats Au total, 400 élèves âgés entre 8-16 ans, soit 223 (55.7%) filles et 177 (44.3%) garçons répartis dans 4 écoles primaires ont participé à l’étude. L'enquête sociale a révélé que 154 écoliers sur 400 (soit 38.5%) étaient en contact avec les eaux de rivière au moins une fois par semaine, dont 58% aux environs de midi. Tous les élèves avaient au moins un signe de schistosomiase bien que non spécifique prédominé par des douleurs abdominales à 72% (n= 288 sur 400). Sur le plan biologique aucun œuf de schistosomiase n'a été mis en évidence. Le taux d’émission de cercaire était négatif chez les 100 espèces aquatiques retrouvées. Conclusion L'aire de santé de Santchou n'est pas un foyer actif de schistosomiase, mais reste une zone à risque du fait de la riziculture et de la présence des eaux stagnantes. L'intensification des campagnes d

  18. Une étude rétrospective sur l'incidence de l'insuffisance rénale chronique dans le service de Médecine Interne et Néphrologie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d'Antananarivo

    PubMed Central

    Ramilitiana, Benja; Ranivoharisoa, Eliane Mikkelsen; Dodo, Mihary; Razafimandimby, Evanirina; Randriamarotia, Willy Franck

    2016-01-01

    L'insuffisance rénale chronique est un problème de santé publique au niveau mondial. Dans les pays développés, cette affection survient essentiellement chez les sujets âgés, mais en Afrique, elle s'installe plutôt chez les sujets jeunes actifs. C'est une affection de lourde prise en charge dans un pays à faible revenu à cause de ses coûts. Notre but est de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques des nouveaux cas d'insuffisance rénale chronique à Madagascar. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive de 3 ans partant du 1er janvier 2007 au 31 décembre 2009 dans le service de Médecine Interne et Néphrologie du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d'Antananarivo portant sur 239 patients diagnostiqués comme une insuffisance rénale chronique. L'incidence était de 8,51% parmi les patients hospitalisés dans le service. L’âge moyen des patients était de 45,4 ans avec des extrêmes de 16 et 82 ans et un sex-ratio de 1,46. Le principal antécédent était l'hypertension artérielle (59,8%). L'insuffisance rénale chronique était terminale dans 75,31% des cas (n=180). Les causes de l'insuffisance rénale chronique étaient dominées par la glomérulonéphrite chronique (40,1%), la néphroangiosclérose (35,5%). L'hémodialyse était réalisée chez 3 patients (1,26%), aucun patient n’était pas programmé pour une greffe rénale. Le taux de mortalité dans le service était de 28,87%. L'insuffisance rénale chronique est une maladie de pronostic redoutable et handicapante qui affecte les sujets jeunes à Madagascar. Son traitement reste inaccessible dans la majorité des patients. L'accent doit donc être mis principalement sur la prévention notamment une bonne prise en charge précoce des infections, de l'hypertension artérielle et du diabète pour réduire ses impacts négatifs sur la santé communautaire et publique. Le projet de la transplantation rénale - donneur vivant, traitement efficace et moins coûteux par rapport à l

  19. Hydrochemical and isotopic properties of the Mahmutlu and Bağdatoğlu mineralized thermal springs, Krşehir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünsal, N.; Afşin, M.

    1999-12-01

    The present study identifies the hydrochemical and isotopic properties of the Mahmutlu and Bağdatoğlu mineralized thermal springs in Krşehir province, a geothermal field in central Anatolia, Turkey. Based on these properties, a hydrogeological regime is proposed in order to explain the Mahmutlu-Bağdatoğlu geothermal system. The relation between the concentrations of the environmental stable isotopes deuterium and oxygen-18 in the water is similar to the relationship in global meteoric water, indicating that the water is of meteoric origin. Evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the water reveals that these two thermal springs belong to the same hydrogeological system. The hydrogeological system comprises a fractured limestone member of the Çevirme Formation and the Kervansaray Formation as reservoir rocks, and the Delicermak Formation as an overlying aquitard. The waters of the Mahmutlu and Bağdatoğlu springs are mainly of the Na-Cl-SO4 type that originate from the Pohrenk evaporite. The thermal waters are undersaturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, halite, and gypsum. The δ18O and δ2H contents indicate a δ18O shift in the Mahmutlu and Bağdatoğlu waters. The temperature range of the two reservoirs is estimated to be 98-158 °C, on the basis of Na+K+Ca and SiO2 geothermometers. RésuméCette étude présente les caractéristiques chimiques et isotopiques des sources thermales minéralisées de Mahmutlu et de Bağdatoğlu, dans la province de Krşehir, un champ géothermal d'Anatolie centrale (Turquie). Un fonctionnement hydrogéologique est proposéà partir de ces caractéristiques, permettant d'expliquer le système géothermal de Mahmatlu-Bağdatoğlu. La relation entre les teneurs en deutérium et celles en oxygène-18 des eaux est semblable à celle des eaux météoriques mondiales, ce qui indique que l'eau est d'origine météorique. Les caractéristiques géochimiques des eaux de ces deux sources montrent qu'elles appartiennent au

  20. Impact of satellite data assimilation in a coupled physical-biogeochemical model of the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berline, L.; Brankart, J.-M.; Brasseur, P.

    with these variants will be presented and discussed. References Aumont O., 1998. Etude du cycle naturel du carbone dans un modèle 3D de l'océan mondial. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, 1998 Madec, G. Delecluse, P., Imbard M., Levy. C, 1998. OPA8.1 Ocean General Circulation Model Reference manual. Notes du pôle de modélisation, Tech. rep., Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL). 91p. Pham D.T., Verron J. et Roubaud M.C., 1998:, Singular evolutive extended kalman filter with EOF initialization for data assimilation in oceanography, J. Mar. Systems., 16, 323-340. Testut, C-E., Brasseur, P., J-M., Brankart., Verron, J. 2003, Assimilation of sea-surface temperature and altimetric observations during 1992-1993 into an eddy-permiting primitive equation model of the North Atlantic Ocean. J. Mar. Systems., 40-41, 291-316

  1. Epidémiologie du cancer gastrique: expérience d'un centre hospitalier marocain

    PubMed Central

    Mellouki, Ihsane; laazar, Nawal; Benyachou, Bahija; Aqodad, Nouredine; Ibrahimi, Adil

    2014-01-01

    Le cancer de l'estomac est représenté essentiellement par Les adénocarcinomes gastriques, ces derniers demeurent l'une des dix premières causes mondiales de mortalité avec un pronostic qui est péjoratif. Son incidence reste variable à travers le monde, elle est caractérisée par une importante disparité géographique. Le but de notre travail est de décrire les caractéristiques épidémiologiques de l'adénocarcinome gastrique dans notre contexte à travers une étude rétrospective, observationnelle étalée sur une période de 10 ans (Janvier 2001- Janvier 2011), incluant tous les malades admis au service d'hépato-gastroentérologie du CHU Hassan II de Fès pour prise en charge d'un adénocarcinome gastrique. Durant cette période, 343 patients étaient admis pour prise en charge d'une tumeur gastrique, dont 170 patients avaient un adénocarcinome gastrique (49.5%). L’âge moyen de ces patients était de 58±13.4 ans [16 ans-0 ans]. Dans 43.7% des cas, les patients provenaient de la région de Fès, souvent du milieu rurale. On note une nette prédominance masculine, avec une différence significative entre les 2 sexes (p < ;0.05). Les patients âgés de moins de 60ans représentaient la tranche d’âge prédominante (63%) par rapports aux patients âgés de plus de 60ans (p = 0.02). 61% des patients consultaient dans un délai allant de 1 mois à 6 mois, 30.4% des patients étaient tabagiques, ce facteur avait une relation statistiquement significative avec l'adénocarcinome gastrique (p = 0.02). la non consommation de l'alcool est inversement liée et de façon significative à l'apparition de l'adénocarcinome gastrique (p = 0.03) dans notre contexte. L'infection par Hélicobacter pylori n’était mentionnée que chez peu de malades. Les formes métastatiques au moment du diagnostic dépassaient 50% avec un taux de décès au cours de l'hospitalisation de 2.6%. Sur le plan endoscopique, la localisation antropylorique, et la forme ulc

  2. Evaluation de la tenue du partogramme dans une maternité universitaire

    PubMed Central

    Limam, Manel; Zedini, Chekib; El Ghardallou, Meriem; Mellouli, Menel; Bougmiza, Iheb; Sahli, Jihène; Khairi, Hédi; Mtiraoui, Ali; Ajmi, Thouraya Nabli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La mortalité maternelle est un problème majeur de santé mondiale. Une grande proportion de ces décès serait évitable par des soins adéquats, une aide à l'accouchement, la disponibilité des soins d'urgence et l'utilisation des outils d'aide à la décision tels que le partogramme. L'objectif était d’évaluer l’écart entre ce qui est censé être fait et ce qui est fait réellement pour les différents paramètres situés dans le partogramme au sein d'une maternité de 3ème niveau et élaborer des recommandations pour la mise en place d'un plan d'action. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive rétrospective par audit clinique, effectuée sur un échantillon de 400 dossiers obstétricaux des parturientes ayant accouchées dans la maternité du CHU Farhat Hached durant l'année 2011. Le référentiel utilisé est celui réalisé par l'Agence Nationale d'Accréditation et d'Evaluation en Santé en l'an 2000, concernant la qualité de la tenue du partogramme. Résultats La majorité des critères d’évaluation portant sur la présentation du partogramme était conforme. Deux critères concernant la variété de la présentation et le rythme cardiaque fœtal étaient non conformes parmi ceux portant sur la surveillance du fœtus. Plusieurs critères en rapport avec la surveillance de la mère étaient non conformes. Aucun des critères portant sur les traitements administrés et les marqueurs d’évènements n'est conforme. Les critères portant sur la naissance et la surveillance immédiate qui étaient non conformes sont: le début des efforts expulsifs, le mode d'accouchement, l’état du périnée, la délivrance et la révision utérine. Conclusion La véritable démarche de l'audit clinique se doit d'aller au-delà du recueil et de l'analyse des données, le but final étant l'amélioration des pratiques. PMID:26516400

  3. Improving the quality of care of children in community clinics: an intervention and evaluation in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Huque, R; Ahmed, F; King, R; Walley, J; Hicks, J P; Elsey, H; Nasreen, S; Kumar, A; Newell, J N

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : Les prestataires des soins de santé communautaires (CHCP) de 40 communautés rurales du district de Comilla, au Bangladesh, ont été formés grâce à une aide au travail de prise en charge des cas, récemment élaborée, basée sur la « prise en charge intégrée des maladies de l'enfant » de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé et sur un guide de communication.Objectifs : Evaluer l'amélioration des connaissances des CHCP après la formation ; la qualité absolue des soins prodigués par les CHCP (déterminée comme la proportion d'enfants âgés de <5 ans ayant eu un diagnostic, un traitement et une référence corrects) ; et le comportement des CHCP pendant la consultation.Schéma : L'amélioration des connaissances a été évaluée à l'aide de tests pré- et post-formation. La qualité des soins a été déterminée par des réévaluations lors de la sortie du centre par un officier médical, sans comparaison avec le statut de départ. Le comportement lors des consultations a été évalué par observation directe. L'étude a été réalisée en 2014–2015.Résultats : Le score moyen de connaissance des CHCP a augmenté de 19 à 25 (P < 0.001). Sur 1490 enfants âgés de <5 ans examinés, 91% ont eu un diagnostic correct, 86% un traitement correct et 99,5% ont bénéficié d'une décision de référence correcte. Les CHCP se sont bien comportés en ce qui concerne la plupart des mesures de bonne communication ; cependant, un tiers d'entre eux n'a pas expliqué le diagnostic et le traitement aux patients.Conclusion : La formation a été efficace en termes d'amélioration des connaissances. Les CHCP ont mis en application les connaissances acquises et ont fourni des soins de bonne qualité. Au vu de ces résultats, le Ministère de la Santé et du Bien-être Familial du Bangladesh a étendu la formation à tout le pays. Les leçons apprises devraient être utiles à d'autres pays.

  4. La supraconductivité a 100 ans !

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Il y a 100 ans, le 8 avril 1911, une découverte majeure était réalisée : celle de la supraconductivité. La supraconductivité est la caractéristique qu’ont certains métaux et alliages de perdre toute résistance électrique en dessous d’une température donnée. Cette renversante découverte, réalisée de manière presque fortuite par Kammerlingh Onnes de l’Université de Leyde (Pays-Bas) et son étudiant Gilles Holst, a ouvert un nouveau champ de recherche en physique et de fabuleuses perspectives d’applications technologiques. Du point de vue scientifique, la supraconductivité est en effet l’une des rares manifestations de la physique quantique à l’échelle macroscopique.  Du point de vue des retombées techniques, elle est porteuse d’applications majeures dans le domaine de la santé, des communications et de l’énergie. 100 ans après, les physiciens n’ont toujours pas fini d’explorer ce phénomène et ses applications. Le CERN abrite des applications de la supraconductivité à des échelles inédites. L’accélérateur de particules LHC, avec ses milliers d’aimants supraconducteurs répartis sur 27 kilomètres de circonférence, est en effet la plus grande application mondiale de la supraconductivité. Il ne pourrait exister sans elle.  Le CERN fête donc la découverte de la supraconductivité avec une conférence exceptionnelle donnée par Philippe Lebrun. Au cours de cette conférence, l’expérience historique de Kammerlingh Onnes sera reproduite. Philippe Lebrun racontera l’histoire de cette étonnante découverte, en la replaçant dans le contexte scientifique de l’époque. Il racontera les développements scientifiques et les applications du premier siècle de la supraconductivité. Conférence en français Merci de bien vouloir vous inscrire au : +41 22 767 76

  5. Wrinkle reduction in post-menopausal women consuming a novel oral supplement: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, G; Wainwright, L J; Holland, R; Barrett, K E; Casey, J

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Objective The maintenance of youthful skin appearance is strongly desired by a large proportion of the world's population. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the effect on skin wrinkling, of a combination of ingredients reported to influence key factors involved in skin ageing, namely inflammation, collagen synthesis and oxidative/UV stress. A supplemented drink was developed containing soy isoflavones, lycopene, vitamin C and vitamin E and given to post-menopausal women with a capsule containing fish oil. Method We have performed a double-blind randomized controlled human clinical study to assess whether this cocktail of dietary ingredients can significantly improve the appearance of facial wrinkles. Results We have shown that this unique combination of micronutrients can significantly reduce the depth of facial wrinkles and that this improvement is associated with increased deposition of new collagen fibres in the dermis. Conclusion This study demonstrates that consumption of a mixture of soy isoflavones, lycopene, vitamin C, vitamin E and fish oil is able to induce a clinically measureable improvement in the depth of facial wrinkles following long-term use. We have also shown, for the first time with an oral product, that the improvement is associated with increased deposition of new collagen fibres in the dermis. Résumé Objectif Le maintien de l'apparence d'une peau jeune est vivement souhaité par une grande proportion de la population mondiale. L'objectif de la présente étude était donc d'évaluer l'effet sur les rides de la peau, d'une combinaison d'ingrédients rapportés à influer sur les facteurs clés impliqués dans le vieillissement de la peau, à savoir l'inflammation, la synthèse du collagène et le stress oxydatif / UV. Une boisson supplémentée a été élaborée contenant des isoflavones de soja, le lycopène, la vitamine C et la vitamine E et donnée aux femmes ménopausées avec une capsule contenant de l

  6. Syndrome métabolique chez les patients hypertendus dans le service cardiologie du CHU Yalgado Ouedraogo de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Millogo, Georges Rosario Christian; Samandoulougou, André; Yaméogo, Nobila Valentin; Yaméogo, Aristide Relwendé; Kologo, Koudougou Jonas; Toguyeni, Jean Yves; Zabsonré, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le syndrome métabolique constitue de nos jours un véritable problème de santé publique. Le syndrome métabolique est le moteur d'une double épidémie mondiale de diabète type II et de maladies cardiovasculaires. L'objectif de notre étude est de décrire les aspects épidémiologiques, cliniques, para cliniques et évolutifs chez les hypertendus dans le service de Cardiologie du CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective sur une période de deux ans dans le service de cardiologie chez les patients hypertendus ayant un syndrome métabolique. Résultats La fréquence du syndrome métabolique était de 17,5% des patients hypertendus. Le sex ratio était de 1,2. L’âge moyen des patients étaient de 56,1 ±10,7 ans. Les patients connus hypertendus étaient de 92,1% avec une durée moyenne d’évolution de l'HTA qui était de 8,7 ± 5,9 ans. Le suivi était irrégulier dans 60% cas et une rupture du traitement dans 37,1% des cas. La dyslipidémie était notée dans 84,2% des cas et le diabète dans 60,5% des cas. La PAS moyenne était de 184,3 ± 47,3 mmHg et la PAD moyenne était de 110,7 ± 27,7 mmHg. L'HTA était sévère dans 63,2% des cas. La glycémie moyenne était de 8,3 ± 4,3 mmol/L, le LDL cholestérol moyen était de 3,5 ± 1,0 mmol/L et le taux des triglycérides moyen était de 1,6 ± 1,1 mmol/L. L'HVG électrique était notée chez 76,3% des patients et échographique dans 58,8% des cas. Les atteintes viscérales étaient neurologique dans 44,5%, rénale dans 55,3% et cardiaque dans 31,2% des cas. Le nombre moyen d'antihypertenseurs était de 3,0 ± 1,0 et 76,3% ont reçu au moins une trithérapie antihypertensive. Le taux de mortalité était de 5,3%. Conclusion Le syndrome métabolique est une pathologie qui pose la problématique de la définition qui n'est pas consensuelle d'une part et d'autre part du contrôle de ses éléments constitutifs surtout l'HTA. PMID:25883718

  7. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    . Cette nouvelle gamme de modeles-interpolateurs imbriques qualifies d'"intelligents" fait partie de la famille des modeles dits "pilotes". L'hypothese directrice de notre etude est fondee sur la supposition que le climat de fine echelle est souvent gouverne par des forcages provenant de la surface plutot que par des transports atmospheriques de grande echelle spatiale. La technique que nous proposons vise donc a guider FIZR par la Dynamique echantillonnee d'un MCG et de la forcer par la Physique du MCG ainsi que par un forcage orographique de meso-echelle, en chacun des noeuds de la grille fine de calculs. Afin de valider la robustesse et la justesse de notre modele climatique regional, nous avons choisi la region de la Cote Ouest du continent nord americain. Elle est notamment caracterisee par une distribution geographique des precipitations et des temperatures fortement influencee par le relief sous-jacent. Les resultats d'une simulation d'un mois de janvier avec FIZR demontrent que nous pouvons simuler des champs de precipitations et de temperatures au niveau de l'abri beaucoup plus pres des observations climatiques comparativement a ceux simules a partir d'un MCG. Ces performances sont manifestement attribuees au forcage orographique de meso-echelle de meme qu'aux caracteristiques de surface determinees a fine echelle. Un modele similaire a FIZR peut, en principe, etre implante sur l'importe quel MCG, donc, tout organisme de recherche implique en modelisation numerique mondiale de grande echelle pourra se doter d'un el outil de regionalisation.

  8. Les bons conseils de la naissance à la maternelle

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, Leslie; Leduc, Denis; Constantin, Evelyn; Carsley, Sarah; Rourke, James; Li, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Donner un aperçu de la version 2011 du Relevé postnatal Rourke (RPR), qui comporte aussi des nouveautés dans son site web et de nouvelles initiatives connexes et qui intègre les données des ouvrages scientifiques récents sur les soins de santé préventifs à l’intention des enfants de 0 à 5 ans. Qualité des données À l’instar des versions antérieures du RPR, la nouvelle édition présente des recommandations identifiées comme se fondant sur des preuves suffisantes, acceptables ou consensuelles, selon les classifications adoptées par le Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs en 2011. Message principal De nouveaux renseignements et des recommandations sont présentés concernant la surveillance de la croissance, la nutrition et la vaccination contre la varicelle, les pneumocoques, les méningocoques et le rotavirus. Il y a maintenant de bonnes données probantes en faveur de l’adaptation canadienne des courbes de croissance de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé, du dépistage universel des problèmes d’audition chez le nouveau-né et du recours à des stratégies de réduction de la douleur liée à la vaccination. On a mis à jour les conseils anticipatoires concernant la sécurité durant le sommeil, la supervision de la santé des enfants en foyer d’accueil, le trouble du spectre de l’alcoolisation fœtale, les facteurs de risque nécessitant le dépistage du plomb et de l’anémie, les soins dentaires et la santé buccale. Parmi les nouvelles rubriques dans le site web du RPR, on peut mentionner une section présentant des ressources pour les parents, des modifications à l’intention de populations particulières, comme les personnes vivant au Nunavut, une version du RPR qui met en évidence en un coup d’œil les modifications à la version de 2009 et une expansion de la fonction d’exploration du RPR accompagnée des hyperliens connexes menant aux renseignements pertinents. On peut

  9. The World Health Report 2008 - Primary Healthcare: How Wide Is the Gap between Its Agenda and Implementation in 12 High-Income Health Systems?

    PubMed

    Gauld, Robin; Blank, Robert; Burgers, Jako; Cohen, Alan B; Dobrow, Mark; Ikegami, Naoki; Kwon, Soonman; Luxford, Karen; Millett, Christopher; Wendt, Claus

    2012-02-01

    CONTEXTE : Le rapport 2008 de l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé affirme qu'il faut mettre plus d'accent sur les soins de santé primaires (SSP) dans les systèmes de santé, au moyen de quatre séries de réformes. Cette position de l'OMS est bien fondée, cependant le rapport est un document de politiques qui n'aborde pas les questions d'adoption et de mise en œuvre dans les pays membres de l'OMS. Cet article étudie le potentiel du programme de l'OMS sur les SSP dans 12 systèmes de santé à revenu élevé en Asie, en Australasie, en Europe et en Amérique du Nord, en y comparant le rendement en fonction du programme de l'OMS. MÉTHODE : Pour chacun des 12 systèmes de santé, un spécialiste des politiques de santé a brossé le tableau des activités politiques liées aux champs d'intérêt de l'OMS : (a) présence ou non d'une couverture universelle, (b) réformes des prestations de services pour créer un système axé sur les SSP, (c) réformes qui intègrent les mesures de santé publique au sein des établissements de SSP et (d) leadership qui favorise le dialogue au sein des intervenants. RÉSULTATS : Après évaluation en fonction des quatre volets de réforme proposés par l'OMS, chacun des 12 systèmes présente des écarts considérables entre le statut réel des SSP et la vision de l'OMS, bien que plusieurs initiatives d'accroissement des SSP y aient été mises en place. Les arrangements institutionnels constituent des obstacles considérables pour la réforme des SSP telle qu'envisagée par l'OMS. CONCLUSIONS : La réforme des SSP nécessite plus d'attention de la part des responsables de politiques. Par ailleurs, le rapport de l'OMS sur les SSP est peut-être trop idéaliste et ne permet pas d'aborder les aspects fondamentaux qui visent une pleine adoption et la mise en œuvre des politiques dans les pays membres.

  10. Effets perturbateurs endocriniens des pesticides organochlores.

    PubMed

    Charlier, C; Plomteux, G

    2002-01-01

    Xenoestrogens such organochlorine pesticides are known to induce changes in reproductive development, function or behaviour in wildlife. Because these compounds are able to modify the estrogens metabolism, or to compete with estradiol for binding to the estrogen receptor, it may be possible that these products affect the risk of developing impaired fertility, precocious puberty or some kinds of cancer in man. Le plus ancien récit de lutte contre la pollution remonte à une légende indienne racontant que la divinité Sing-bonga était incommodée par les émanations des fours dans lesquels les Asuras fondaient leurs métaux (1). Evidemment depuis, la problématique n-a cessé de s-accroître et la contamination de la Terre par de nombreux polluants est devenue aujourd-hui un problème majeur de notre Société. La protection de notre environnement est une question capitale qui doit être respectée malgré la pression économique actuelle et qui ne cessera de croître au cours des prochaines années même si l-identification objective et indiscutable de ce qui est essentiel - donc devant être prioritairement garanti sur la planète - est difficile à cerner (2). « Un oiseau en mauvais état ne pond pas de bons oeufs » disait un proverbe grec. Mais ce n-est qu-à partir de la seconde moitié du XXème siècle que les toxicologues ont commencé à identifier les effets qu-avaient entraînés à l-échelle mondiale les pollutions émises aux XIXème siècle sur la faune sauvage et sur le cheptel (3). L-histoire contemporaine des pesticides industriels commence vers 1874 (synthèse des organochlorés) et se poursuit tout au long de ces 2 siècles en passant par la synthèse des organophosphorés (1950), des carbamates (1970) et des pyréthroïdes (1975) (4). Le dichlorodiphényltrichloroéthane (DDT) a été synthétisé pour la première fois par un étudiant en cours de préparation de sa thèse de doctorat : Othmer Zeidler. La production, reprise par les

  11. Préface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardonnet, Christian; Millot, Guy

    2006-10-01

    COLOQ, réunion nationale biennale initiée en 1988 par la communauté française des lasers, de l'optique non linéaire et de l'optique quantique atteint sa neuvième édition. Depuis sa création, les objectifs poursuivis sont les suivants : - réunir la communauté française des lasers, de l'optique non linéaire et de l'optique quantique, en dépassant les clivages fondamental/appliqué, recherche publique/industrielle, - faire le point sur les avancées récentes, - permettre aux jeunes chercheurs de se rencontrer, de s'exprimer et de s'aguerrir au plan national. Le but est que tout thésard du domaine de l'optique puisse participer à COLOQ une fois durant sa thèse, présenter son travail et de se confronter à la communauté de l'optique. COLOQ9 s'est tenu, pour sa 9e édition, sur le campus universitaire de Dijon, du 7 au 9 septembre 2005. Il a été une grande réussite : nombre de participants (255) et de présentations scientifiques record (148 affiches), forte représentation des industriels (15) et participation d'environ 200 lycéens aux conférences grand public. Le nombre plus élevé que prévu d'affiches a rendu un peu serrée leur présentation : une attention particulière sera portée à cet aspect lors des prochaines éditions. Ces journées ont été consacrées à des conférences invitées données par des scientifiques de haut niveau et à des présentations sous forme d'affiches. Une plage de temps importante a été réservée pour des discussions autour des affiches. À proximité immédiate de la salle de conférence, l'exposition de matériels spécialisés pour les lasers, l'optique et l'optoélectronique a été une occasion pour les jeunes participants de découvrir et contacter les industriels et les autres grands acteurs de l'optique. L'année 2005 ayant été l'année mondiale de la physique, COLOQ9 a retenu comme thème central ”1905-2005 : à propos d'Einstein". Plusieurs grandes conférences ont été dédiées à ce th

  12. Simulation studies of the Cl- + CH3I SN2 nucleophilic substitution reaction: comparison with ion imaging experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaxu; Lourderaj, Upakarasamy; Sun, Rui; Mikosch, Jochen; Wester, Roland; Hase, William L

    2013-03-21

    In the previous work of Mikosch et al. [Science 319, 183 (2008)], ion imaging experiments were used to study the Cl(-) + CH3I → ClCH3 + I(-) reaction at collision energies E(rel) of 0.39, 0.76, 1.07, and 1.9 eV. For the work reported here MP2(fc)/ECP/d direct dynamics simulations were performed to obtain an atomistic understanding of the experiments. There is good agreement with the experimental product energy and scattering angle distributions for the highest three E(rel), and at these energies 80% or more of the reaction is direct, primarily occurring by a rebound mechanism with backward scattering. At 0.76 eV there is a small indirect component, with isotropic scattering, involving formation of the pre- and post-reaction complexes. All of the reaction is direct at 1.07 eV. Increasing E(rel) to 1.9 eV opens up a new indirect pathway, the roundabout mechanism. The product energy is primarily partitioned into relative translation for the direct reactions, but to CH3Cl internal energy for the indirect reactions. The roundabout mechanism transfers substantial energy to CH3Cl rotation. At E(rel) = 0.39 eV both the experimental product energy partitioning and scattering are statistical, suggesting the reaction is primarily indirect with formation of the pre- and post-reaction complexes. However, neither MP2 nor BhandH/ECP/d simulations agree with experiment and, instead, give reaction dominated by direct processes as found for the higher collision energies. Decreasing the simulation E(rel) to 0.20 eV results in product energy partitioning and scattering which agree with the 0.39 eV experiment. The sharp transition from a dominant direct to indirect reaction as E(rel) is lowered from 0.39 to 0.20 eV is striking. The lack of agreement between the simulations and experiment for E(rel) = 0.39 eV may result from a distribution of collision energies in the experiment and/or a shortcoming in both the MP2 and BhandH simulations. Increasing the reactant rotational temperature from 75 to 300 K for the 1.9 eV collisions, results in more rotational energy in the CH3Cl product and a larger fraction of roundabout trajectories. Even though a ClCH3-I(-) post-reaction complex is not formed and the mechanistic dynamics are not statistical, the roundabout mechanism gives product energy partitioning in approximate agreement with phase space theory.

  13. The Orbiting Wide-Angle Light Collectors (OWL) Mission for Charged-Particle Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, John; Krizmanic, J. F.; Stecker, F. W.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    The space-based OWL mission is designed to perform high-statistics measurements of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) using the Earth's atmosphere as a vast particle calorimeter, furthering the field of charged-particle astronomy. OWL has been developed in formal NASA instrument and mission studies and is comprised of two large telescopes separated by approx.600 km in 1000 km, near-equatorial orbits to stereoscopically image the near-UV air fluorescence emitted by UHECR-induced particle cascades. The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Collaboration, and subsequently the Pierre Auger Observatory, recently reported confirmation of the expected Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) suppression of the UHECR flux above a few times 10(exp 19) eV. This observation is consistent with the majority of UHECR originating in astrophysical objects and reduces the need to invoke exotic physical processes. Particles observed above the GZK threshold energy must have come from sources within about 100 Mpc from the Earth. The small particle deflection angles expected at UHECR energies, with standard assumptions of extragalactic magnetic fields, are on the order of 1 degree. Thus by observing particles above the GZK threshold with sufficient exposure, there is the potential of identifying and characterizing individual UHECR sources. Auger has reported significant anisotropy in the arrival directions of UHECR at energies above about 6 10(exp 19) eV observed in the South, and a correlation to AGN in the 12th VCV catalog, suggesting that the sources of UHECR are traced by the distribution of luminous matter in the Universe. However, with similar statistics and the same event selection criteria, HiRes observations in the North are consistent with isotropy. Extended observations by Auger-South, by Telescope Array in the North, and possibly by the proposed Auger-North, will further these investigations. However, much greater exposures will be required to fully identify individual sources and

  14. The Orbiting Wide-Angle Light Collectors (OWL) Mission for Charged-Particle Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, John; Krizmanic, J. F.; Stecker, F. W.; Streitmatter, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    The space-based OWL mission is designed to perform high-statistics measurements of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR) using the Earth's atmosphere as a vast particle calorimeter, furthering the field of charged-particle astronomy. OWL has been developed in formal NASA instrument and mission studies and is comprised of two large telescopes separated by approx.600 km in 1000 km, near-equatorial orbits to stereoscopically image the near-UV air fluorescence emitted by UHECR-induced particle cascades. The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Collaboration, and subsequently the Pierre Auger Observatory, recently reported confirmation of the expected Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) suppression of the UHECR flux above a few times 10(exp 19) eV. This observation is consistent with the majority of UHECR originating in astrophysical objects and reduces the need to invoke exotic physical processes. Particles observed above the GZK threshold energy must have come from sources within about 100 Mpc from the Earth. The small particle deflection angles expected at UHECR energies, with standard assumptions of extragalactic magnetic fields, are on the order of 1 degree. Thus by observing particles above the GZK threshold with sufficient exposure, there is the potential of identifying and characterizing individual UHECR sources. Auger has reported significant anisotropy in the arrival directions of UHECR at energies above about 6 10(exp 19) eV observed in the South, and a correlation to AGN in the 12th VCV catalog, suggesting that the sources of UHECR are traced by the distribution of luminous matter in the Universe. However, with similar statistics and the same event selection criteria, HiRes observations in the North are consistent with isotropy. Extended observations by Auger-South, by Telescope Array in the North, and possibly by the proposed Auger-North, will further these investigations. However, much greater exposures will be required to fully identify individual sources and

  15. Simulation studies of the Cl{sup -}+ CH{sub 3}I S{sub N}2 nucleophilic substitution reaction: Comparison with ion imaging experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jiaxu; Lourderaj, Upakarasamy; Sun Rui; Hase, William L.; Mikosch, Jochen; Wester, Roland

    2013-03-21

    In the previous work of Mikosch et al.[Science 319, 183 (2008)], ion imaging experiments were used to study the Cl{sup -}+ CH{sub 3}I {yields} ClCH{sub 3}+ I{sup -} reaction at collision energies E{sub rel} of 0.39, 0.76, 1.07, and 1.9 eV. For the work reported here MP2(fc)/ECP/d direct dynamics simulations were performed to obtain an atomistic understanding of the experiments. There is good agreement with the experimental product energy and scattering angle distributions for the highest three E{sub rel}, and at these energies 80% or more of the reaction is direct, primarily occurring by a rebound mechanism with backward scattering. At 0.76 eV there is a small indirect component, with isotropic scattering, involving formation of the pre- and post-reaction complexes. All of the reaction is direct at 1.07 eV. Increasing E{sub rel} to 1.9 eV opens up a new indirect pathway, the roundabout mechanism. The product energy is primarily partitioned into relative translation for the direct reactions, but to CH{sub 3}Cl internal energy for the indirect reactions. The roundabout mechanism transfers substantial energy to CH{sub 3}Cl rotation. At E{sub rel}= 0.39 eV both the experimental product energy partitioning and scattering are statistical, suggesting the reaction is primarily indirect with formation of the pre- and post-reaction complexes. However, neither MP2 nor BhandH/ECP/d simulations agree with experiment and, instead, give reaction dominated by direct processes as found for the higher collision energies. Decreasing the simulation E{sub rel} to 0.20 eV results in product energy partitioning and scattering which agree with the 0.39 eV experiment. The sharp transition from a dominant direct to indirect reaction as E{sub rel} is lowered from 0.39 to 0.20 eV is striking. The lack of agreement between the simulations and experiment for E{sub rel}= 0.39 eV may result from a distribution of collision energies in the experiment and/or a shortcoming in both the MP2 and BhandH simulations. Increasing the reactant rotational temperature from 75 to 300 K for the 1.9 eV collisions, results in more rotational energy in the CH{sub 3}Cl product and a larger fraction of roundabout trajectories. Even though a ClCH{sub 3}-I{sup -} post-reaction complex is not formed and the mechanistic dynamics are not statistical, the roundabout mechanism gives product energy partitioning in approximate agreement with phase space theory.

  16. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) - a randomized cross-over meal test study.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Marlene D; Bendsen, Nathalie T; Christensen, Sheena M; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E%) fat) were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g); high protein based on legumes (beans and peas), HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g); or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS). HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume (p<0.05). Furthermore, satiety was higher after HP-Legume than HP-Meat (p<0.05). When adjusting for palatability, HP-Legume still resulted in lower composite appetite scores, hunger, prospective consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat (p<0.05). Furthermore, HP-Legume induced higher fullness than LP-Legume (p<0.05). A 12% and 13% lower energy intake, respectively, was seen after HP-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (p<0.01). Vegetable-based meals (beans/peas) influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals (pork/veal) with similar energy and protein content

  17. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) – a randomized cross-over meal test study

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Marlene D.; Bendsen, Nathalie T.; Christensen, Sheena M.; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. Objective To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. Design In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E%) fat) were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g); high protein based on legumes (beans and peas), HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g); or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS). Results HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume (p<0.05). Furthermore, satiety was higher after HP-Legume than HP-Meat (p<0.05). When adjusting for palatability, HP-Legume still resulted in lower composite appetite scores, hunger, prospective consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat (p<0.05). Furthermore, HP-Legume induced higher fullness than LP-Legume (p<0.05). A 12% and 13% lower energy intake, respectively, was seen after HP-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (p<0.01). Conclusion Vegetable-based meals (beans/peas) influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals (pork

  18. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic characterization of the E151D and E151A altered leucine aminopeptidases from Aeromonas proteolytica.

    PubMed

    Bzymek, Krzysztof P; Swierczek, Sabina I; Bennett, Brian; Holz, Richard C

    2005-11-14

    Previous kinetic characterization of the glutamate 151 (E151)-substituted forms of the leucine aminopeptidase from Aeromonas proteolytica (Vibrio proteolyticus; AAP) has provided critical evidence that this residue functions as the general acid/base. The close proximity of similar glutamate residues to the bridging water/hydroxide of the dinuclear active sites of metalloenzymes (2.80 and 3.94 angstroms in carboxypeptidase G2 and 3.30 and 3.63 angstroms in AAP), suggests it may also be involved in stabilizing the active-site metal ions. Therefore, the structural perturbations of the dinuclear active site of AAP were examined for two E151-substituted forms, namely E151D-AAP and E151A-AAP, by UV-vis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. UV-vis spectroscopy of Co(II)-substituted E151A-AAP did not reveal any significant changes in the electronic absorption spectra. However UV-vis spectra of mono- and dicobalt(II) E151D-AAP exhibited a lower molecular absorptivity compared to AAP (23 and 43 M(-1) cm(-1) vs. 56 and 109 M(-1) cm(-1) for E151D-AAP and AAP, respectively) suggesting both Co(II) ions reside in distorted octahedral coordination geometry in E151D-AAP. EPR spectra of [Co_(E151D-AAP)], [ZnCo(E151D-AAP)], and [(CoCo(E151D-AAP)] were identical, with g(perpendicular) = 2.35, g(parallel) = 2.19, and E/D = 0.19, similar to [CoCo(AAP)]. On the other hand, the EPR spectrum of [Co_(E151A-AAP)] was best simulated assuming the presence of two species with (i) g(x,y) = 2.509, g(z) = 2.19, E/D = 0.19, A = 0.0069 cm(-1) and (ii) g(x,y) = 2.565, g(z) = 2.19, E/D = 0.20, A = 0.0082 cm(-1) indicative of a five- or six-coordinate species. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments revealed a large decrease in Zn(II) affinities, with K(d) values elevated by factors of approximately 850 and approximately 24,000 for the first metal binding events of E151D- and E151A-AAP, respectively. The combination of these data indicates that E151 serves to stabilize the

  19. Ageing and thermal recovery of paramagnetic centers induced by electron irradiation in yttria-stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, J. M.; Beuneu, F.

    We have used electron spin resonance spectroscopy to study the defects induced in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single crystals by 2.5-MeV electron irradiations. Two paramagnetic centers are produced: the first one with an axial <111> symmetry is similar to the trigonal Zr3+ electron center (T center) found after X-ray irradiation or thermo-chemical reduction, whereas the second one is a new oxygen hole center with an axial <100> symmetry different from the orthorhombic O- center induced by X-ray irradiation. At a fluence around 10(18) e/cm(2) , both centers are bleached out near 600 K, like the corresponding X-ray induced defects. At a fluence around 10(19) e/cm(2) , defects are much more stable, since complete thermal bleaching occurs near 1000 K. Accordingly, ageing of as-irradiated samples shows that high-dose defects at more stable than the low-dose ones.

  20. Cortical neurons gradually attain a post-mitotic state

    PubMed Central

    Anda, Froylan Calderon de; Madabhushi, Ram; Rei, Damien; Meng, Jia; Gräff, Johannes; Durak, Omer; Meletis, Konstantinos; Richter, Melanie; Schwanke, Birgit; Mungenast, Alison; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Once generated, neurons are thought to permanently exit the cell cycle and become irreversibly differentiated. However, neither the precise point at which this post-mitotic state is attained nor the extent of its irreversibility is clearly defined. Here we report that newly born neurons from the upper layers of the mouse cortex, despite initiating axon and dendrite elongation, continue to drive gene expression from the neural progenitor tubulin α1 promoter (Tα1p). These observations suggest an ambiguous post-mitotic neuronal state. Whole transcriptome analysis of sorted upper cortical neurons further revealed that neurons continue to express genes related to cell cycle progression long after mitotic exit until at least post-natal day 3 (P3). These genes are however down-regulated thereafter, associated with a concomitant up-regulation of tumor suppressors at P5. Interestingly, newly born neurons located in the cortical plate (CP) at embryonic day 18-19 (E18-E19) and P3 challenged with calcium influx are found in S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle, and still able to undergo division at E18-E19 but not at P3. At P5 however, calcium influx becomes neurotoxic and leads instead to neuronal loss. Our data delineate an unexpected flexibility of cell cycle control in early born neurons, and describe how neurons transit to a post-mitotic state. PMID:27325298

  1. The Synthesis of α-MoO₃ by Ethylene Glycol.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Tzu Hsuan; Yeh, Hung Che

    2013-10-17

    This study investigated the use of ethylene glycol to form α-MoO₃ (molybdenum trioxide) from ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate at various sintering temperatures for 1 h. During the sintering process, the morphologies of the constituents were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to explain the reaction process. In this work, the results obtained using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XRD) demonstrated that, when the molybdenum trioxide powder was treated thermally at 300 °C, the material exhibited crystallinity. The peaks were indexed to correspond with the (110), (040), (021), (111), and (060) crystallographic planes, and the lattice parameters of a, b, and c were about 3.961, 13.876, and 3.969 Å. Using these observations, we confirmed that orthorhombic α-MoO₃ was formed for sintering temperatures from 300 to 700 °C. Pattern images were obtained by the selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED) technique, and the d distance of the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images were almost 0.39 and 0.36 nm, and the Mo 3d5/2, Mo 3d3/2, and O 1s of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were located at 233.76, 237.03, and 532.19 eV, which also demonstrated that α-MoO₃ powder had been synthesized.

  2. Comprehensive Molecular Structure of the Eukaryotic Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Derek J.; Devkota, Batsal; Huang, Andrew D.; Topf, Maya; Narayanan, Eswar; Sali, Andrej; Harvey, Stephen C.; Frank, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Despite the emergence of a large number of X-ray crystallographic models of the bacterial 70S ribosome over the past decade, an accurate atomic model of the eukaryotic 80S ribosome is still not available. Eukaryotic ribosomes possess more ribosomal proteins and ribosomal RNA than bacterial ribosomes, which are implicated in extra-ribosomal functions in the eukaryotic cells. By combining cryo-EM with RNA and protein homology modeling, we obtained an atomic model of the yeast 80S ribosome complete with all ribosomal RNA expansion segments and all ribosomal proteins for which a structural homolog can be identified. Mutation or deletion of 80S ribosomal proteins can abrogate maturation of the ribosome, leading to several human diseases. We have localized one such protein unique to eukaryotes, rpS19e, whose mutations are associated with Diamond-Blackfan anemia in humans. Additionally, we characterize crucial and novel interactions between the dynamic stalk base of the ribosome with eukaryotic elongation factor 2. PMID:20004163

  3. Precise in-frame integration of exogenous DNA mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 system in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Yu; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Nakade, Shota; Ohga, Rie; Ota, Satoshi; Okamoto, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kawahara, Atsuo

    2015-03-05

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides a powerful tool for genome editing in various model organisms, including zebrafish. The establishment of targeted gene-disrupted zebrafish (knockouts) is readily achieved by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome modification. Recently, exogenous DNA integration into the zebrafish genome via homology-independent DNA repair was reported, but this integration contained various mutations at the junctions of genomic and integrated DNA. Thus, precise genome modification into targeted genomic loci remains to be achieved. Here, we describe efficient, precise CRISPR/Cas9-mediated integration using a donor vector harbouring short homologous sequences (10-40 bp) flanking the genomic target locus. We succeeded in integrating with high efficiency an exogenous mCherry or eGFP gene into targeted genes (tyrosinase and krtt1c19e) in frame. We found the precise in-frame integration of exogenous DNA without backbone vector sequences when Cas9 cleavage sites were introduced at both sides of the left homology arm, the eGFP sequence and the right homology arm. Furthermore, we confirmed that this precise genome modification was heritable. This simple method enables precise targeted gene knock-in in zebrafish.

  4. Deviations from stoichiometry and molecularity in non-stoichiometric Ag-In-Se thin films: Effects on the optical and the electrical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Nam-Hoon; Yoo, Myoung Han; Ko, Pil Ju; Lee, Woo-Sun

    2016-12-01

    Non-stoichiometric Ag-In-Se (AIS) thin films were prepared using co-sputtering with InSe2 and Ag targets followed by rapid thermal annealing. The internal stress of the non-stoichiometric AIS thin films was strongly affected by the deviation from molecularity, Δ m. When Δ m was far from stoichiometry, the non-stoichiometric AIS thin films showed better crystallinity. The improvement in the crystallinity and the release of internal stress led to a reduction in the optical band gap from 1.63 to 1.19 eV and in the resistivity from 6.45 × 10-2 to 3.21 × 10-3 Ω·cm for the non-stoichiometric AIS thin films, with a similar tendency for the deviation from molecularity, Δ m. The non-stoichiometric AIS thin films, with Δ m < 0 and Δ s < 0, exhibited n-type conductivity with carrier concentrations on the order of magnitude of 1018 cm-3. The mean absorbance of the 200-nm-thick non-stoichiometric AIS thin films was 1.50, corresponding to an absorption of approximately 96.84 % of the incident light in the visible region.

  5. Genetic markers of pigmentation are novel risk loci for uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Robert; Vogelsang, Matjaz; Ucisik-Akkaya, Esma; Rai, Karan; Pilarski, Robert; Martinez, Carlos N; Rendleman, Justin; Kazlow, Esther; Nagdimov, Khagay; Osman, Iman; Klein, Robert J; Davidorf, Frederick H; Cebulla, Colleen M; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H; Kirchhoff, Tomas

    2016-08-08

    While the role of genetic risk factors in the etiology of uveal melanoma (UM) has been strongly suggested, the genetic susceptibility to UM is currently vastly unexplored. Due to shared epidemiological risk factors between cutaneous melanoma (CM) and UM, in this study we have selected 28 SNPs identified as risk variants in previous genome-wide association studies on CM or CM-related host phenotypes (such as pigmentation and eye color) and tested them for association with UM risk. By logistic regression analysis of 272 UM cases and 1782 controls using an additive model, we identified five variants significantly associated with UM risk, all passing adjustment for multiple testing. The three most significantly associated variants rs12913832 (OR = 0.529, 95% CI 0.415-0.673; p = 8.47E-08), rs1129038 (OR = 0.533, 95% CI 0.419-0.678; p = 1.19E-07) and rs916977 (OR = 0.465, 95% CI 0.339-0.637; p = 3.04E-07) are correlated (r(2) > 0.5) and map at 15q12 in the region of HERC2/OCA2, which determines eye-color in the human population. Our data provides first evidence that the genetic factors associated with pigmentation traits are risk loci of UM susceptibility.

  6. Hybrid structure of biotemplate-zinc-tin oxide for better optical, morphological and photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpuraranjith, M.; Thambidurai, S.

    2017-03-01

    A new chitosan (as biotemplate)-zinc-tin oxide hybrid structure was successfully synthesized by a chemical precipitation method and annealed at 500 °C. We studied the structural changes, optical, thermal and photo catalytic properties. The chemical bonding of the Zn-O and Sn-O-Sn functional groups were confirmed by FT-IR absorption peaks appearing at 538 and 635 cm‑1. The different ratio of ZnO to SnO2 particles on the biotemplate matrix altered the morphology of the hybrids from an agglomerated state to a microcrystalline form confirmed by HR-SEM and TEM analysis. The formation of a Zn0.15Sn0.85O hybrid structure was observed in the visible light region, with an energy band gap of ∼3.19 eV and higher surface area of 98 m2 g‑1. The thermal property shows that CS-Zn0.15Sn0.85O has a higher thermal stability than a CS-Zn0.25Sn0.75O hybrid structure. The results demonstrate that the biotemplate-zinc-tin oxide hybrid structure has a reinforced effect compared to the other components. Therefore, a biotemplate-based zinc-tin oxide hybrid structure could be a promising material for better dye removal efficiency, which was obtained for ∼100 and 96% with MB and RY-15 dyes.

  7. Measuring the mass of a sterile neutrino with a very short baseline reactor experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, D. C.; Escamilla, J.; Ernst, D. J.

    2007-04-01

    An analysis of the world's neutrino oscillation data, including sterile neutrinos, [M. Sorel, C. M. Conrad, and M. H. Shaevitz, Phys. Rev. D 70, 073004 (2004)] found a peak in the allowed region at a mass-squared difference Δm2≅0.9eV2. We trace its origin to harmonic oscillations in the electron survival probability Pee as a function of L/E, the ratio of baseline to neutrino energy, as measured in the near detector of the Bugey experiment. We find a second occurrence for Δm2≅1.9eV2. We point out that the phenomenon of harmonic oscillations of Pee as a function of L/E, as seen in the Bugey experiment, can be used to measure the mass-squared difference associated with a sterile neutrino in the range from a fraction of an eV2 to several eV2 (compatible with that indicated by the LSND experiment), as well as measure the amount of electron-sterile neutrino mixing. We observe that the experiment is independent, to lowest order, of the size of the reactor and suggest the possibility of a small reactor with a detector sitting at a very short baseline.

  8. Measuring the mass of a sterile neutrino with a very short baseline reactor experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Latimer, D. C.; Escamilla, J.; Ernst, D. J.

    2007-04-15

    An analysis of the world's neutrino oscillation data, including sterile neutrinos, [M. Sorel, C. M. Conrad, and M. H. Shaevitz, Phys. Rev. D 70, 073004 (2004)] found a peak in the allowed region at a mass-squared difference {delta}m{sup 2} congruent with 0.9 eV{sup 2}. We trace its origin to harmonic oscillations in the electron survival probability P{sub ee} as a function of L/E, the ratio of baseline to neutrino energy, as measured in the near detector of the Bugey experiment. We find a second occurrence for {delta}m{sup 2} congruent with 1.9 eV{sup 2}. We point out that the phenomenon of harmonic oscillations of P{sub ee} as a function of L/E, as seen in the Bugey experiment, can be used to measure the mass-squared difference associated with a sterile neutrino in the range from a fraction of an eV{sup 2} to several eV{sup 2} (compatible with that indicated by the LSND experiment), as well as measure the amount of electron-sterile neutrino mixing. We observe that the experiment is independent, to lowest order, of the size of the reactor and suggest the possibility of a small reactor with a detector sitting at a very short baseline.

  9. Electronic and optical properties of novel carbon allotropes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhanyu; Dong, F.; Shen, B.; Zhang, R. J.; Zheng, Y. X.; Chen, L. Y.; Wang, S. Y.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.; Fan, Yuan -Jia; Jin, Bih -Yaw; Su, Wan -Sheng

    2016-01-22

    The vibrational properties, electronic structures and optical properties of novel carbon allotropes, such as monolayer penta-graphene (PG), double-layer PG and T12-carbon, were studied by first-principles calculations. Results of phonon calculations demonstrate that these exotic carbon allotropes are dynamically stable. The bulk T12 phase is an indirect-gap semiconductor having a quasiparticle (QP) bandgap of ~5.19 eV. When the bulk material transforms to a two-dimensional (2D) phase, the monolayer and double-layer PG become quasi-direct gap semiconductors with smaller QP bandgaps of ~4.48 eV and ~3.67 eV, respectively. Furthermore, the partial charge density analysis indicates that the 2D phases retain part of the electronic characteristics of the T12 phase. The linear photon energy-dependent dielectric functions and related optical properties including refractive index, extinction coefficient, absorption spectrum, reflectivity, and energy-loss spectrum were also computed and discussed. Additionally, the chemical stability of monolayer PG and the electronic and optical properties of double-side hydrogenated monolayer PG were also investigated. Furthermore, the results obtained from our calculations are beneficial to practical applications of these exotic carbon allotropes in optoelectronics and electronics.

  10. Update on the correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; /Wisconsin U., Milwaukee /Lisbon, IST

    2010-06-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory through 31 August 2007 showed evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin energy threshold, 6 x 10{sup 19} eV. The anisotropy was measured by the fraction of arrival directions that are less than 3.1{sup o} from the position of an active galactic nucleus within 75 Mpc (using the Veron-Cetty and Veron 12th catalog). An updated measurement of this fraction is reported here using the arrival directions of cosmic rays recorded above the same energy threshold through 31 December 2009. The number of arrival directions has increased from 27 to 69, allowing a more precise measurement. The correlating fraction is (38{sub -6}{sup +7})%, compared with 21% expected for isotropic cosmic rays. This is down from the early estimate of (69{sub -13}{sup +11})%. The enlarged set of arrival directions is examined also in relation to other populations of nearby extragalactic objects: galaxies in the 2 Microns All Sky Survey and active galactic nuclei detected in hard X-rays by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope. A celestial region around the position of the radiogalaxy Cen A has the largest excess of arrival directions relative to isotropic expectations. The 2-point autocorrelation function is shown for the enlarged set of arrival directions and compared to the isotropic expectation.

  11. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration, The Pierre auger

    2007-12-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [1]. The correlation has maximum significance for cosmic rays with energy greater than {approx} 6 x 10{sup 19} eV and AGN at a distance less than {approx} 75 Mpc. We have confirmed the anisotropy at a confidence level of more than 99% through a test with parameters specified a priori, using an independent data set. The observed correlation is compatible with the hypothesis that cosmic rays with the highest energies originate from extra-galactic sources close enough so that their flux is not significantly attenuated by interaction with the cosmic background radiation (the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect). The angular scale of the correlation observed is a few degrees, which suggests a predominantly light composition unless the magnetic fields are very weak outside the thin disk of our galaxy. Our present data do not identify AGN as the sources of cosmic rays unambiguously, and other candidate sources which are distributed as nearby AGN are not ruled out. We discuss the prospect of unequivocal identification of individual sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays within a few years of continued operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  12. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of UHE tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration, The Pierre Auger

    2007-12-01

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau-neutrinos {nu}{sub {tau}} that interact in the Earth's crust. Tau leptons from {tau}{sub {tau}} charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 is used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of {nu}{sub {tau}} at EeV energies. Assuming an E{sub {nu}}{sup -2} differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90 % C.L. is E{sub {nu}}{sup 2} dN{sub {nu}{sub {tau}}}/dE{sub {nu}} < 1.3 x 10{sup -7} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} in the energy range 2 x 10{sup 17} eV < E{sub {nu}} < 2 x 10{sup 19} eV.

  13. Visible photon excited photoluminescence photometric characteristics of a green light emitting Zn2TiO4:Tb3+ nanophosphor for wLEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girish, K. M.; Prashantha, S. C.; Naik, Ramachandra; Nagabhushana, H.; Nagaswarupa, H. P.; Premakumar, H. B.; Sharma, S. C.; Raju, K. S. Anantha

    2016-07-01

    A novel green light emitting Zn2TiO4:Tb3+ nanophosphor was synthesized via solution combustion synthesis and the final product was well characterized. From diffused reflectance spectra the energy band gap of the sample was estimated to be in the range 3.16-3.19 eV and the effect of Tb3+ on the electronic structure was calculated based on absolute electronegativity. The characteristic photoluminescence emission peak observed at 493 nm in the blue region was due to 5D3 → 7F3 and peaks at 515, 541, 579 and 620 nm corresponding to 5D4 → 7Fj (j = 6, 5, 4, 3), respectively, were due to f-f transitions of Tb3+ cations in the given host lattice upon 415 nm high energy visible photon excitation. Photometric characteristics suggest that the phosphors have a long lifetime, excellent color purity, color chromaticity coordinates and correlated color temperature values, so it is clearly evident that the optimized phosphor is quite useful for the green region of wLEDs, a ceramic pigment and for solid state display applications.

  14. Assessment of 5-HT7 Receptor Agonists Selectivity Using Nociceptive and Thermoregulation Tests in Knockout versus Wild-Type Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brenchat, Alex; Rocasalbas, Maria; Zamanillo, Daniel; Hamon, Michel; Vela, José Miguel; Romero, Luz

    2012-01-01

    No study has ever examined the effect of 5-HT7 receptor agonists on nociception by using 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice. Basal sensitivity to noxious heat stimuli and formalin-induced nociception in both phase I and II of the formalin test did not differ in 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice and paired wild-type controls. Similarly, there was no significant difference in basal body temperature between both genotypes. Subcutaneous administration of 5-HT7 receptor agonists AS-19 (10 mg/kg), E-57431 (10 mg/kg), and E-55888 (20 mg/kg) significantly reduced formalin-induced licking/biting behavior during the phase II of the test in wild-type but not in 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice. At these active analgesic doses, none of the three 5-HT7 receptor agonists modified the basal body temperature neither in wild-type nor in 5-HT7 receptor knockout mice. However, a significant decrease in body temperature was observed at a higher dose (20 mg/kg) of AS-19 and E-57431 in both genotypes. Our data strongly suggest that the 5-HT7 receptor agonists AS-19, E-57431, and E-55888 produce antinociception in the formalin test by activating 5-HT7 receptors. These results also strengthen the idea that the 5-HT7 receptor plays a role in thermoregulation, but by acting in concert with other receptors. PMID:22761612

  15. Ab initio study of the positronation of the CaO and SrO molecules including calculation of annihilation rates.

    PubMed

    Buenker, Robert J; Liebermann, Heinz-Peter

    2012-07-15

    Ab initio multireference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction calculations have been performed to compute potential curves for ground and excited states of the CaO and SrO molecules and their positronic complexes, e(+)CaO, and e(+)SrO. The adiabatic dissociation limit for the (2)Σ(+) lowest states of the latter systems consists of the positive metal ion ground state (M(+)) and the OPs complex (e(+)O(-)), although the lowest energy limit is thought to be e(+)M + O. Good agreement is found between the calculated and experimental spectroscopic constants for the neutral diatomics wherever available. The positron affinity of the closed-shell X (1)Σ(+) ground states of both systems is found to lie in the 0.16-0.19 eV range, less than half the corresponding values for the lighter members of the alkaline earth monoxide series, BeO and MgO. Annihilation rates (ARs) have been calculated for all four positronated systems for the first time. The variation with bond distance is generally similar to what has been found earlier for the alkali monoxide series of positronic complexes, falling off gradually from the OPs AR value at their respective dissociation limits. The e(+)SrO system shows some exceptional behavior, however, with its AR value reaching a minimum at a relatively large bond distance and then rising to more than twice the OPs value close to its equilibrium distance.

  16. Unraveling the facet-dependent and oxygen vacancy role for ethylene hydrogenation on Co3O4 (110) surface: A DFT+U study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-Chao; Pan, Lun; Lu, Jinhui; Song, Jiajia; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Xiangwen; Wang, Li; Zou, Ji-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Crystal facet engineering and defect engineering are both critical strategies to improve the catalytic hydrogenation performance of catalyst. Herein, ethylene hydrogenation on the perfect and oxygen defective Co3O4(110) surfaces has been studied by using periodic density functional theory calculations. The results are compared with that on Co3O4(111) surface to clarify the problem of which facet for Co3O4 is more reactive, and to illuminate the role of oxygen vacancy. The low oxygen vacancy formation energy suggests that Co3O4(110) surface with defective site is easily formed. The whole mechanism of H2 dissociation and stepwise hydrogenation of ethylene to ethane is examined, and the most favorable pathway is heterolytic dissociation of H2 follows two stepwise hydrogenation of ethylene process. The results show that ethyl hydrogenation to ethane on perfect Co3O4(110) surface is the rate limiting step with an activation energy of 1.19 eV, and the presence of oxygen vacancy strongly reduces the activation energies of main elementary steps, and the activation energy of rate limiting step is only 0.47 eV. Compared with that on Co3O4(111), ethylene hydrogenation is preferred on Co3O4(110) surface. Therefore, Co3O4 with exposed (110) facet is predicted as an excellent catalyst for ethylene hydrogenation.

  17. Low-temperature VUV photoluminescence and thermoluminescence of UV excited afterglow phosphor Sr3AlxSi1-xO5:Ce(3+),Ln(3+) (Ln = Er, Nd, Sm, Dy and Tm).

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongde; Bos, Adrie J J; Dobrowolska, Anna; Dorenbos, Pieter

    2015-06-21

    Low-temperature (10 K) photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra of undoped Sr3SiO5 as well as Ce(3+) and Eu(3+) single doped Sr3SiO5 have been investigated. They show the host exciton band and the O(2-) to Eu(3+) charge transfer band at 5.98 eV (207 nm) and 3.87 eV (320 nm) respectively. Low-temperature thermoluminescence measurements are reported for Ce(3+) and lanthanide (Er, Nd, Sm, Dy, Er and Tm) co-doped Sr3AlxSi1-xO5. The results show that Ce(3+) is the recombination centre and Nd, Sm, Dy and Tm work as electron traps with trap depths of 0.95 eV, 1.89 eV, 1.02 eV, and 1.19 eV, respectively. Thermoluminescence excitation spectra of Sr2.98Al0.02Si0.98O5:0.01Ce(3+),0.01Dy(3+) show that the traps can be charged by 260 nm UV excitation.

  18. Ab-initio study of structural, elastic, thermal, electronic and magnetic properties of quaternary Heusler alloys CoMnCrZ (Z = Al, As, Si, Ge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamedi, Mohamed Walid; Chahed, Abbes; Amar, Amina; Rozale, Habib; Lakdja, Abdelaziz; Benhelal, Omar; Sayede, Adlane

    2016-12-01

    First-principles approach is used to study the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of CoMnCrZ (Z = Al, Si, Ge and As) quaternary Heusler compounds, using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) scheme within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The computed equilibrium lattice parameters agree well with the available theoretical data. The obtained negative formation energy shows that CoMnCrZ (Z = Al, Si, Ge, As) compounds have strong structural stability. The elastic constants Cij are calculated using the total energy variation with strain technique. The polycrystalline elastic moduli (namely: the shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, sound velocities, Debye temperature and melting temperature were derived from the obtained single-crystal elastic constants. The ductility mechanism for the studied compounds is discussed via the elastic constants Cij. Our calculations with the GGA approximation predict that CoMnCrGe, CoMnCrAl, CoMnCrSi and CoMnCrAs are half-metallic ferrimagnets (HMFs) with a half-metallic gap EHM of 0.03 eV, 0.19 eV, 0.34 eV and 0.50 eV for, respectively. We also find that the half-metallicity is maintained on a wide range of lattice constants.

  19. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for deactivation of the PUREX storage tunnel number 2

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, R.E.

    1999-10-11

    The Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Storage Tunnel Number 2 (hereafter referred to as the PUREX Tunnel) was built in 1964. Since that time, the PUREX Tunnel has been used for storage of radioactive and mixed waste. In 1991, the PUREX Plant ceased operations and was transitioned to deactivation. The PUREX Tunnel continued to receive PUREX Plant waste material for storage during transition activities. Before 1995, a decision was made to store radioactive and mixed waste in the PUREX Tunnel generated from other onsite sources, on a case-by-case basis. This notice of construction (NOC) describes the activities associated with the reactivation of the PUREX Tunnel ventilation system and the transfer of up to 3.5 million curies (MCi) of radioactive waste to the PUREX Tunnel from any location on the Hanford Site. The unabated total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) estimated for the hypothetical offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) is 5.6 E-2 millirem (mrem). The abated TEDE conservatively is estimated to account for 1.9 E-5 mrem to the MEI. The following text provides information requirements of Appendix A of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 (requirements 1 through 18).

  20. Metals and mineral phases of dusts collected in different urban parks of Krakow and their impact on the health of city residents.

    PubMed

    Kicińska, Alicja; Bożęcki, Piotr

    2017-03-14

    The authors present the results of chemical and mineralogical analyses of urban dusts collected in the spring seasons of 2015 and 2016 in three different parks of the Cracow agglomeration. The parks are located in the city centre, in the Nowa Huta industrial district and in a new housing development situated around 9 km west of the city centre. Mineralogical instrumental analyses included the SEM, FTIR and XRD methods and revealed that the dusts of Cracow are highly amorphous and contain significant amounts of hydrocarbons, whereas quartz, feldspars, kaolinite and gypsum are their crystalline phases. Chemical analyses were carried out using the ICP-MS method on aqua regia extracts of the starting samples. The contents of selected toxic elements are: As 5-123; Cd 1-14; Pb 56-258; Zn 486-1891 mg/kg and Fe 0.74-4.02 wt%. The health risk of these elements imposed on the residents of Cracow frequently visiting the three urban parks was assessed on the basis of the health quotient index HQ. At its values exceeding 1, adverse health effects are probable in humans. The HQ values calculated for As and Tl contained in the Cracow Park dusts in the case of adults are 3.42E-01 and 3.00E-01, respectively. They are significantly higher (one order of magnitude) in the case of children 3.19E+00 and 2.27E+00, respectively.

  1. Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4 × 10{sup 18} eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration: Pierre Augur Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    A measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies exceeding 4×10{sup 18} eV is presented, which is based on the analysis of showers with zenith angles greater than 60° detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. The measured spectrum confirms a flux suppression at the highest energies. Above 5.3×10{sup 18} eV, the ''ankle'', the flux can be described by a power law E{sup −γ} with index γ=2.70 ± 0.02 (stat) ± 0.1 (sys) followed by a smooth suppression region. For the energy (E{sub s}) at which the spectral flux has fallen to one-half of its extrapolated value in the absence of suppression, we find E{sub s}=(5.12±0.25 (stat){sup +1.0}{sub −1.2} (sys))×10{sup 19} eV.

  2. Structural transformations of Ge2Sb2Te5 films studied by electrical resistance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, I.; Weidenhof, V.; Njoroge, W.; Franz, P.; Wuttig, M.

    2000-05-01

    Temperature dependent measurements of the electrical resistance have been employed to study structural changes in sputtered Ge2Sb2Te5 films. The pronounced changes of film resistance due to structural changes enable a precise determination of transition temperatures and activation energies. Furthermore the technique is sensitive enough to measure the influence of ultrathin capping layers on the transformation kinetics. With increasing temperature the Ge2Sb2Te5 films undergo a structural change from an amorphous to rock salt structure (Fm3m) around 140 °C and finally a hexagonal structure (p3¯m) around 310 °C. Both structural changes are accompanied by a major drop of resistance. Applying the Kissinger method [Anal. Chem. 29, 1702 (1957)] the activation energy for crystallization to the rock salt structure is determined to be 2.24±0.11 eV, and for the phase transformation to the hexagonal phase to be 3.64±0.19 eV, respectively. A thin capping layer of ZnS-SiO2 leads to an increase of the first transition temperature as well as of the corresponding activation energy (2.7±0.2 eV).

  3. Single crystal growth and enhancing effect of glycine on characteristic properties of bis-thiourea zinc acetate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anis, Mohd; Muley, G. G.

    2016-08-01

    A single crystal of glycine-doped bis-thiourea zinc acetate (G-BTZA) with a dimension of 15 × 6 × 4 mm3 has been grown using the slow solution evaporation technique. The structural parameters of the crystals were determined using the single crystal XRD technique. The increase in optical transparency of the doped BTZA crystal was ascertained in the range of 200 to 900 nm using UV-visible spectral analysis. The improved optical band gap of the G-BTZA crystal is found to be 4.19 eV, and vital optical constants have been calculated using the transmittance data. The influence of glycine on the mechanical parameters of the BTZA crystal has been investigated via microhardness studies. The thermal stability of pure and doped BTZA crystals has been determined by employing the thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis technique. The improvement in the dielectric properties of the BTZA crystal after the addition of glycine has been evaluated in a temperature range of 30 to 120 °C at a frequency of 100 KHz. The SHG efficiency of the glycine-doped BTZA crystal is found to be much higher than KDP and BTZA crystal material in a Kurtz-Perry powder analysis.

  4. Self-assembled two-dimensional nanofluidic proton channels with high thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Jiao-Jing; Raidongia, Kalyan; Koltonow, Andrew R.; Huang, Jiaxing

    2015-07-01

    Exfoliated two-dimensional (2D) sheets can readily stack to form flexible, free-standing films with lamellar microstructure. The interlayer spaces in such lamellar films form a percolated network of molecularly sized, 2D nanochannels that could be used to regulate molecular transport. Here we report self-assembled clay-based 2D nanofluidic channels with surface charge-governed proton conductivity. Proton conductivity of these 2D channels exceeds that of acid solution for concentrations up to 0.1 M, and remains stable as the reservoir concentration is varied by orders of magnitude. Proton transport occurs through a Grotthuss mechanism, with activation energy and mobility of 0.19 eV and 1.2 × 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. Vermiculite nanochannels exhibit extraordinary thermal stability, maintaining their proton conduction functions even after annealing at 500 °C in air. The ease of constructing massive arrays of stable 2D nanochannels without lithography should prove useful to the study of confined ionic transport, and will enable new ionic device designs.

  5. Chemical bonds and vibrational properties of ordered (U, Np, Pu) mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Zhang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    We use density functional theory +U to investigate the chemical bonding characters and vibrational properties of the ordered (U, Np, Pu) mixed oxides (MOXs), UNpO4,NpPuO4, and UPuO4. It is found that the 5f electronic states of different actinide elements keep their localized characters in all three MOXs. The occupied 5f electronic states of different actinide elements do not overlap with each other and tend to distribute over the energy band gap of the other actinide element's 5f states. As a result, the three ordered MOXs all show smaller band gaps than those of the component dioxides, with values of 0.91, 1.47, and 0.19 eV for UNpO4,NpPuO4, and UPuO4, respectively. Through careful charge density analysis, we further show that the U-O and Pu-O bonds in MOXs show more ionic character than in UO2 and PuO2, while the Np-O bonds show more covalent character than in NpO2. The change in covalencies in the chemical bonds leads to vibrational frequencies of oxygen atoms that are different in MOXs.

  6. Bio-inspired ZnO nanoparticles from Ocimum tenuiflorum and their in vitro antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushma, N. John; Mahitha, B.; Mallikarjuna, K.; Raju, B. Deva Prasad

    2016-05-01

    Nanobiotechnology is emerging as a rapid growing field with its applications in nanoscience and technology for the purpose of built-up new materials at the nanoregime. Nanoparticles produced by plant extracts are more stable, and the rate of synthesis is faster than that in the case of other organisms. In this paper we report the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). Structural, morphological, particle size, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic-force microscopy, zeta potential, X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence intensity. The UV-Vis spectrum showed an absorption peak at 380 nm that reflects surface plasmon resonance. The optical measurements were attributed to the band gap 3.19 eV at pH 12. The zeta potential value of -36.4 eV revealed the surface charge of green synthesized ZnO NPs. The antioxidant activity was estimated by both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power assay. Green synthesized ZnO NPs showed maximum inhibition (65.23 %) and absorbance (0.6 a.u). This approach offers environmentally beneficial alternative by eliminating hazardous chemicals and promotes pollution prevention by the production of nanoparticles in their natural environment.

  7. Possible cosmogenic neutrino constraints on Planck-scale Lorentz violation

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, David M.; Maccione, Luca; Galaverni, Matteo; Liberati, Stefano; Sigl, Günter E-mail: luca.maccione@desy.de E-mail: liberati@sissa.it

    2010-02-01

    We study, within an effective field theory framework, O(E{sup 2}M{sub Pl}{sup 2}) Planck-scale suppressed Lorentz invariance violation (LV) effects in the neutrino sector, whose size we parameterize by a dimensionless parameter η{sub ν}. We find deviations from predictions of Lorentz invariant physics in the cosmogenic neutrino spectrum. For positive O(1) coefficients no neutrino will survive above 10{sup 19}eV. The existence of this cutoff generates a bump in the neutrino spectrum at energies of 10{sup 17}eV. Although at present no constraint can be cast, as current experiments do not have enough sensitivity to detect ultra-high-energy neutrinos, we show that experiments in construction or being planned have the potential to cast limits as strong as η{sub ν}∼<10{sup −4} on the neutrino LV parameter, depending on how LV is distributed among neutrino mass states. Constraints on η{sub ν} < 0 can in principle be obtained with this strategy, but they require a more detailed modeling of how LV affects the neutrino sector.

  8. Defect engineering in the MOSLED structure by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prucnal, S.; Wójtowicz, A.; Pyszniak, K.; Drozdziel, A.; Zuk, J.; Turek, M.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.

    2009-05-01

    When amorphous SiO2 films are bombarded with energetic ions, various types of defects are created as a consequence of ion-solid interaction (peroxy radicals POR, oxygen deficient centres (ODC), non-bridging oxygen hole centres (NBOHC), E‧ centres, etc.). The intensity of the electroluminescence (EL) from oxygen deficiency centres at 2.7 eV, non-bridging oxygen hole centres at 1.9 eV and defect centres with emission at 2.07 eV can be easily modified by the ion implantation of the different elements (H, N, O) into the completely processed MOSLED structure. Nitrogen implanted into the SiO2:Gd layer reduces the concentration of the ODC and NBOHC while the doping of the oxygen increases the EL intensity observed from POR defect and NBOHC. Moreover, after oxygen or hydrogen implantation into the SiO2:Ge structure fourfold or fifth fold increase of the germanium related EL intensity was observed.

  9. High-Energy Density science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGES

    Glenzer, S. H.; Fletcher, L. B.; Hastings, J. B.

    2016-04-01

    The Matter in Extreme Conditions end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source holds great promise for novel pump-probe experiments to make new discoveries in high- energy density science. Recently, our experiments have demonstrated the first spectrally- resolved measurements of plasmons using a seeded 8-keV x-ray laser beam. Forward x-ray Thomson scattering spectra from isochorically heated solid aluminum show a well-resolved plasmon feature that is down-shifted in energy by 19 eV from the incident 8 keV elastic scattering feature. In this spectral range, the simultaneously measured backscatter spectrum shows no spectral features indicating observation of collective plasmon oscillations on amore » scattering length comparable to the screening length. Moreover, this technique is a prerequisite for Thomson scattering measurements in compressed matter where the plasmon shift is a sensitive function of the free electron density and where the plasmon intensity provides information on temperature.« less

  10. Molecular Frame Photoemission: Probe of the Photoionization Dynamics for Molecules in the Gas Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowek, D.; Picard, Y. J.; Billaud, P.; Elkharrat, C.; Houver, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    Molecular frame photoemission is a very sensitive probe of the photoionization (PI) dynamics of molecules. This paper reports a comparative study of non-resonant and resonant photoionization of D2 induced by VUV circularly polarized synchrotron radiation at SOLEIL at the level of the molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions (MFPADs). We use the vector correlation method which combines imaging and time-of-flight resolved electron-ion coincidence techniques, and a generalized formalism for the expression of the I(χ, θe, varphie) MFPADs, where χ is the orientation of the molecular axis with respect to the light quantization axis and (θe, varphie) the electron emission direction in the molecular frame. Selected MFPADs for a molecule aligned parallel or perpendicular to linearly polarized light, or perpendicular to the propagation axis of circularly polarized light, are presented for dissociative photoionization (DPI) of D2 at two photon excitation energies, hν = 19 eV, where direct PI is the only channel opened, and hν = 32.5 eV, i.e. in the region involving resonant excitation of Q1 and Q2 doubly excited state series. We discuss in particular the properties of the circular dichroism characterizing photoemission in the molecular frame for direct and resonant PI. In the latter case, a remarkable behavior is observed which may be attributed to the interference occurring between undistinguishable autoionization decay channels.

  11. Science Objectives of the JEM EUSO Mission on International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    JEM-EUSO space observatory is planned with a very large exposure factor which will exceed the critical exposure factor required for observing the most of the sources within the propagational horizon of about one hundred Mpc. The main science objective of JEM-EUSO is the source-identifying astronomy in particle channel with extremey-high-energy particles. Quasi-linear tracking of the source objects through galactic magnetic field should become feasible at energy > 10(exp 20) eV for all-sky. The individual GZK profile in high statistics experiments should differ from source to source due to different distance unless Lorentz invariance is somehow limited. hi addition, JEM-EUSO has three exploratory test observations: (i), extremely high energy neutrinos beginning at E > 10(exp 19) eV: neutrinos as being expected to have a slowly increasing cross section in the Standard Model, and in particular, hundreds of times more in the extra-dimension models. (ii). fundamental physics at extreme Super LHC (Large Hadronic Collider) energies with the hierarchical unified energy much below the GUT scale, and (iii). global atmospheric observation, including large-scale and local plasma discharges, night-glow, meteorites, and others..

  12. The JEM-EUSO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J.H.; Christl, M.J.; Watts, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    JEM-EUSO is a science mission to explore extremes of the Universe. It observes the dark-side of the Earth and detects UV photons emitted from the extensive air shower caused by an extreme energy particle (about 10(exp 20) eV). Such a particle arrives almost straightly through our Milky Way Galaxy and is expected to allow us to trace the source location by its arrival direction. This will open the door to the new astronomy with charged particles. In its five years operation including the tilted mode, JEM-EUSO will detect at least 1,000 events with E>7 X 10(exp 19) eV and determine the energy spectrum of trans-GZK region with a statistical accuracy of several percent. JEM-EUSO is planned to be transported with HTV (H2 Transfer Vehicle) and attached to the Japanese Experiment Module/ Exposure Facility (JEM/EF) of International Space Station. JAXA has selected JEM-EUSO for one of the mission candidates of the second phase utilization of JEM/EF for the launch of early 2010s. One year-long phase-A study will be carried out under JAXA.

  13. Implications of Fermi-LAT observations on the origin of IceCube neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bin; Li, Zhuo; Zhao, Xiaohong E-mail: zhaoxh@ynao.ac.cn

    2014-11-01

    The IceCube (IC) collaboration recently reported the detection of TeV-PeV extraterrestrial neutrinos whose origin is yet unknown. By the photon-neutrino connection in pp and pγ interactions, we use the Fermi-LAT observations to constrain the origin of the IC detected neutrinos. We find that Galactic origins, i.e., the diffuse Galactic neutrinos due to cosmic ray (CR) propagation in the Milky Way, and the neutrinos from the Galactic point sources, may not produce the IC neutrino flux, thus these neutrinos should be of extragalactic origin. Moreover, the extragalactic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) may not account for the IC neutrino flux, the jets of active galactic nuclei may not produce the IC neutrino spectrum, but the starburst galaxies (SBGs) may be promising sources. As suggested by the consistency between the IC detected neutrino flux and the Waxman-Bahcall bound, GRBs in SBGs may be the sources of both the ultrahigh energy, ∼> 10{sup 19}eV, CRs and the 1–100 PeV CRs that produce the IC detected TeV-PeV neutrinos.

  14. SN2' versus SN2 reactivity: control of regioselectivity in conversions of Baylis-Hillman adducts.

    PubMed

    Baidya, Mahiuddin; Remennikov, Grygoriy Y; Mayer, Peter; Mayr, Herbert

    2010-01-25

    TiCl(4)-induced Baylis-Hillman reactions of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with aldehydes yield the (Z)-2-(chloromethyl)vinyl carbonyl compounds 5, which react with 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO), quinuclidine, and pyridines to give the allylammonium ions 6. Their combination with less than one equivalent of the potassium salts of stabilized carbanions (e.g. malonate) yields methylene derivatives 8 under kinetically controlled conditions (S(N)2' reactions). When more than one equivalent of the carbanions is used, a second S(N)2' reaction converts 8 into their thermodynamically more stable allyl isomers 9. The second-order rate constants for the reactions of 6 with carbanions have been determined photometrically in DMSO. With these rate constants and the previously reported nucleophile-specific parameters N and s for the stabilized carbanions, the correlation log k (20 degrees C)=s(N + E) allowed us to calculate the electrophilicity parameters E for the allylammonium ions 6 (-19 < E < -18). The kinetic data indicate the S(N)2' reactions to proceed via an addition-elimination mechanism with a rate-determining addition step.

  15. CENTAURUS A: THE EXTRAGALACTIC SOURCE OF COSMIC RAYS WITH ENERGIES ABOVE THE KNEE

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, Peter L.; De Souza, Vitor E-mail: vitor@ifsc.usp.br

    2012-02-10

    The origin of cosmic rays at all energies is still uncertain. In this paper, we present and explore an astrophysical scenario to produce cosmic rays with energy ranging from below 10{sup 15} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} eV. We show here that just our Galaxy and the radio galaxy Cen A, each with their own galactic cosmic-ray particles but with those from the radio galaxy pushed up in energy by a relativistic shock in the jet emanating from the active black hole, are sufficient to describe the most recent data in the PeV to near ZeV energy range. Data are available over this entire energy range from the KASCADE, KASCADE-Grande, and Pierre Auger Observatory experiments. The energy spectrum calculated here correctly reproduces the measured spectrum beyond the knee and, contrary to widely held expectations, no other extragalactic source population is required to explain the data even at energies far below the general cutoff expected at 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV, the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min turnoff due to interaction with the cosmological microwave background. We present several predictions for the source population, the cosmic-ray composition, and the propagation to Earth which can be tested in the near future.

  16. High-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos from semirelativistic hypernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiangyu; Razzaque, Soebur; Meszaros, Peter; Dai Zigao

    2007-10-15

    The origin of the ultrahigh-energy (UHE) cosmic rays (CRs) from the second knee ({approx}6x10{sup 17} eV) above in the CR spectrum is still unknown. Recently, there has been growing evidence that a peculiar type of supernovae, called hypernovae, are associated with subenergetic gamma-ray bursts, such as SN1998bw/GRB980425 and SN2003lw/GRB031203. Such hypernovae appear to have high (up to mildly relativistic) velocity ejecta, which may be linked to the subenergetic gamma-ray bursts. Assuming a continuous distribution of the kinetic energy of the hypernova ejecta as a function of its velocity E{sub k}{proportional_to}({gamma}{beta}){sup -{alpha}} with {alpha}{approx}2, we find that (1) the external shock wave produced by the high-velocity ejecta of a hypernova can accelerate protons up to energies as high as 10{sup 19} eV; (2) the cosmological hypernova rate is sufficient to account for the energy flux above the second knee; and (3) the steeper spectrum of CRs at these energies can arise in these sources. In addition, hypernovae would also give rise to a faint diffuse UHE neutrino flux, due to p{gamma} interactions of the UHE CRs with hypernova optical-UV photons.

  17. THREE DISCRETE GROUPS WITH HOMOGENEOUS CHEMISTRY ALONG THE RED GIANT BRANCH IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 2808

    SciTech Connect

    Carretta, E.

    2014-11-10

    We present the homogeneous reanalysis of Mg and Al abundances from high resolution UVES/FLAMES spectra for 31 red giants in the globular cluster NGC 2808. We found a well defined Mg-Al anticorrelation reaching a regime of subsolar Mg abundance ratios, with a spread of about 1.4 dex in [Al/Fe]. The main result from the improved statistics of our sample is that the distribution of stars is not continuous along the anticorrelation because they are neatly clustered into three distinct clumps, each with different chemical compositions. One group (P) shows a primordial composition of field stars of similar metallicity, and the other two (I and E) have increasing abundances of Al and decreasing abundances of Mg. The fraction of stars we found in the three components (P: 68%, I: 19%, E: 13%) is in excellent agreement with the ratios computed for the three distinct main sequences in NGC 2808: for the first time there is a clear correspondence between discrete photometric sequences of dwarfs and distinct groups of giants with homogeneous chemistry. The composition of the I group cannot be reproduced by mixing of matter with extreme processing in hot H-burning and gas with pristine, unprocessed composition, as also found in the recent analysis of three discrete groups in NGC 6752. This finding suggests that different classes of polluters were probably at work in NGC 2808 as well.

  18. Modelling potential photovoltaic absorbers Cu3MCh4(M = V, Nb, Ta; Ch = S, Se, Te) using density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, Aoife B; Scanlon, David O; Watson, Graeme W

    2016-05-05

    The geometric and electronic properties of a series of potential photovoltaic materials, the sulvanite structured Cu3MCh4(M = V, Nb, Ta; Ch = S, Se, Te), have been computationally examined using both PBEsol+U and HSE06 methods to assess the materials' suitability for solar cell application and to compare the predictions of the two theoretical approaches. The lattice parameters, electronic density of states, and band gaps of the compounds have been calculated to ascertain the experimental agreement obtained by each method and to determine if any of the systems have an optical band gap appropriate for photovoltaic absorber materials. The PBEsol+U results are shown to achieve better agreement with experiment than HSE06 in terms of both lattice constants and band gaps, demonstrating that higher level theoretical methods do not automatically result in a greater level of accuracy than their computationally less expensive counterparts. The PBEsol+U calculated optical band gaps of five materials suggest potential suitability as photovoltaic absorbers, with values of 1.72 eV, 1.49 eV, 1.19 eV, 1.46 eV, and 1.69 eV for Cu3VS4, Cu3VSe4, Cu3VTe4, Cu3NbTe4, and Cu3TaTe4, respectively, although it should be noted that all fundamental band gaps are indirect in nature, which could lower the open-circuit voltage and hence the efficiency of prospective devices.

  19. Si and Ge nanocluster formation in silica matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Salh, Roushdey; Fitting, L.; Kolesnikova, E. V.; Sitnikova, A. A.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V.; Schmidt, B.; Fitting, H.-J.

    2007-04-15

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and cathodoluminescence have been used to investigate Si and Ge cluster formation in amorphous silicon-dioxide layers. Commonly, cathodoluminescence emission spectra of pure SiO{sub 2} are identified with particular defect centers within the atomic network of silica including the nonbridging oxygen hole center associated with the red luminescence at 650 nm (1.9 eV) and the oxygen deficient centers with the blue (460 nm; 2.7 eV) and ultraviolet band (295 nm; 4.2 eV). In Ge{sup +} ion-implanted SiO{sub 2}, an additional violet emission band appears at 410 nm (3.1 eV). The strong increase of this violet luminescence after thermal annealing is associated with formation of low-dimension Ge aggregates such as dimers, trimers, and higher formations, further growing to Ge nanoclusters. On the other hand, pure silica layers were modified by heavy electron beam irradiation (5 keV; 2.7 A/cm{sup 2}), leading to electronic as well as thermal dissociation of oxygen and the appearance of under-stoichiometric SiO{sub x}. This SiO{sub x} will undergo a phase separation and we observe Si cluster formation with a most probable cluster diameter of 4 nm. Such largely extended Si clusters will diminish the SiO{sub 2}-related luminescence and Si-crystal-related luminescence in the near IR.

  20. A study of optothermal and AC impedance properties of Cr-doped Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} sprayed thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Larbi, T.; Amara, A.; Ben Said, L.; Ouni, B.; Haj Lakhdar, M.; Amlouk, M.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Outlining adequacy an original combination of several characterization means. • Structural, optical, thermal and electrical properties have been studied. • Opto- thermal analysis shows that band gap can be tuned through Cr doping. • Outlining physical properties for an eventual development of sensing components. - Abstract: Chrome-doped Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films were grown on the glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique at 350 °C. XRD diffraction and Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed that all samples have tetragonal spinel structure with a preferred orientation along the direction (1 0 1). Absorption coefficient has been measured using both transmission and mirage effect. The band gap energy decreases from 2.2 to 1.9 eV with Cr content while Urbach energy value increases from 354 to 473 meV. Also, thermal conductivity was evaluated. Finally, physical properties have been evaluated and discussed in terms of alteration of the band gap edges, electrical patterns and mirage effect.

  1. Effect of structure and size on the electrical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 films.

    PubMed

    Vemuri, R S; Bharathi, K Kamala; Gullapalli, S K; Ramana, C V

    2010-09-01

    Nanocrystalline WO3 films were grown by reactive magnetron sputter-deposition by varying the substrate temperature in the range of 303(RT)-673 K. The structure and electrical transport properties of WO3 films were evaluated using X-ray diffraction and dc electrical conductivity measurements. The effect of ultramicrostructure and grain-size was significant on the electrical properties of WO3 films. DC conductivity variation of the WO3 films measured in the temperature range of 120-300 K reveals their semiconducting nature. The temperature dependent electrical conductivity curves exhibit two distinct regions indicative of two different types of electrical transport mechanisms. Analysis of the conductivity indicates that the small polaron and variable-range-hopping mechanisms are operative in 180-300 K and 120-180 K temperature regions, respectively. The density of localized states at the Fermi level, N(EF), has been calculated and it was found to be ∼1×10(19) eV(-1) cm(-3) for all the films.

  2. New features in electronic transport across the ferromagnetic transition in SrRuO3 /Nb:SrTiO3 devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Saurabh

    2015-03-01

    SrRuO3(SRO), a moderately correlated material system, exhibits unique structural and magnetoelectric properties at interfaces with other correlated oxides. Here we report on new features in electronic transport across a functional interface between SRO and Nb:SrTiO3, a n-type semiconductor. We map the potential landscape across such an interface using a nanoscale transport probe and find it to be strongly influenced by differences in local substrate termination. A difference in Schottky barrier height of 0.19 eV for SRO grown on local TiO2 or SrO substrate terminations is found. This difference is attributed to different metal-oxygen displacements of the first unit cell of SRO at the different terminations; further supported by High-Resolution Transmission-Electron-Microscopy studies and Density Functional Theory calculations. This strong correlation of structure with electronic transport at the interface is reflected in a concomitant decrease of hot electron attenuation length from 1.6 u.c. to 0.88 u.c. at -2.1 V with the onset of the ferromagnetic state. This is attributed to the increased buckling of Ru-O-Ru bonds in ferromagnetic SRO, highlighting the role of strong correlations at such interfaces.

  3. Investigation of low leakage current radiation detectors on n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Khai V.; Chaudhuri, Sandeep K.; Mandal, Krishna C.

    2014-09-01

    The surface leakage current of high-resolution 4H-SiC epitaxial layer Schottky barrier detectors has been improved significantly after surface passivations of 4H-SiC epitaxial layers. Thin (nanometer range) layers of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) were deposited on 4H-SiC epitaxial layers using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on 20 μm thick n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers followed by the fabrication of large area (~12 mm2) Schottky barrier radiation detectors. The fabricated detectors have been characterized through current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V), and alpha pulse height spectroscopy measurements; the results were compared with that of detectors fabricated without surface passivations. Improved energy resolution of ~ 0.4% for 5486 keV alpha particles was observed after passivation, and it was found that the performance of these detectors were limited by the presence of macroscopic and microscopic crystal defects affecting the charge transport properties adversely. Capacitance mode deep level transient studies (DLTS) revealed the presence of a titanium impurity related shallow level defects (Ec-0.19 eV), and two deep level defects identified as Z1/2 and Ci1 located at Ec-0.62 and ~ Ec-1.40 eV respectively.

  4. Measurements of ion temperature and flow of pulsed plasmas produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun device using an ion Doppler spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Y.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    It is important to know surface damage characteristics of plasma-facing component materials during transient heat and particle loads such as type I ELMs. A magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) device has been used as transient heat and particle source in ELM simulation experiments. Characteristics of pulsed plasmas produced by the MCPG device play an important role for the plasma material interaction. In this study, ion temperature and flow velocity of pulsed He plasmas were measured by an ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS). The IDS system consists of a light collection system including optical fibers, 1m-spectrometer and a 16 channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector. The IDS system measures the width and Doppler shift of HeII (468.58 nm) emission line with the time resolution of 1 μs. The Doppler broadened and shifted spectra were measured with 45 and 135 degree angles with respect to the plasmoid traveling direction. The observed emission line profile was represented by sum of two Gaussian components to determine the temperature and flow velocity. The minor component at around the wavelength of zero-velocity was produced by the stationary plasma. As the results, the ion velocity and temperature were 68 km/s and 19 eV, respectively. Thus, the He ion flow energy is 97 eV. The observed flow velocity agrees with that measured by a time of flight technique.

  5. Structure determination of a 16.8 kDa copper protein at 2.1 A resolution using anomalous scattering data with direct methods.

    PubMed

    Harvey, I; Hao, Q; Duke, E M; Ingledew, W J; Hasnain, S S

    1998-07-01

    The structure of rusticyanin, an acid-stable copper protein, has been determined at 2.1 A resolution by direct methods combined with the single-wavelength anomalous scattering (SAS) of copper (f" = 3.9 e-) and then conventionally refined (Rcryst = 18.7%, Rfree = 21.9%). This is the largest unknown protein structure (Mr approximately /= 16.8 kDa) to be determined using the SAS and direct-methods approach and demonstrates that by exploiting the anomalous signal at a single wavelength, direct methods can be used to determine phases at typical (approximately 2 A) macromolecular crystallographic resolutions. Extrapolating from the size of the anomalous signal for copper (f" approximately 4 e-), this result suggests that the approach could be used for proteins with molecular weights of up to 33 kDa per Se (f"max++ = 8 e- at the 'white line') and 80 kDa for a Pt derivative (f"max = 19 e- at the 'white line', L3 edge). The method provides a powerful alternative in solving a de novo protein structure without either preparing multiple crystals (i.e. isomorphous heavy-atom derivative plus native crystals) or collecting multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) data.

  6. Dynamic modulation of electronic properties of graphene by localized carbon doping using focused electron beam induced deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Russell, M; Henry, M; Kim, S S; Naik, R R; Voevodin, A A; Jang, S S; Tsukruk, V V; Fedorov, A G

    2015-09-28

    We report on the first demonstration of controllable carbon doping of graphene to engineer local electronic properties of a graphene conduction channel using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). Electrical measurements indicate that an "n-p-n" junction on graphene conduction channel is formed by partial carbon deposition near the source and drain metal contacts by low energy (<50 eV) secondary electrons due to inelastic collisions of long range backscattered primary electrons generated from a low dose of high energy (25 keV) electron beam (1 × 10(18) e(-) per cm(2)). Detailed AFM imaging provides direct evidence of the new mechanism responsible for dynamic evolution of the locally varying graphene doping. The FEBID carbon atoms, which are physisorbed and weakly bound to graphene, diffuse towards the middle of graphene conduction channel due to their surface chemical potential gradient, resulting in negative shift of Dirac voltage. Increasing a primary electron dose to 1 × 10(19) e(-) per cm(2) results in a significant increase of carbon deposition, such that it covers the entire graphene conduction channel at high surface density, leading to n-doping of graphene channel. Collectively, these findings establish a unique capability of FEBID technique to dynamically modulate the doping state of graphene, thus enabling a new route to resist-free, "direct-write" functional patterning of graphene-based electronic devices with potential for on-demand re-configurability.

  7. Nature of Electronic States in Ultrathin MoS2 Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, Subhamoy; Nath Pal, Atindra; Ghosh, Arindam

    2012-02-01

    Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) is a layered transition metal dichalcogenide with a Mo layer sandwiched between two S layers (S-Mo-S), which forms its basic unit. Each basic unit is attached to other units only with weak Van der Waals force. This enables to make an atomically thin single layer of MoS2 with a bandgap 1.9 eV. The presence of bandgap has made it an interesting material in thin film transistors. It has been reported [1] recently that very high on/off ratio (˜10^8) can be obtained in single layer MoS2 transistor due to the presence of this bandgap. Though the on/off ration is very high, mobility in these transistors are considerably low. Here we have investigated the origin of such low mobility. From our temperature dependent study we find that atomically thin MoS2 layer becomes highly disordered in the presence of the substrate and electron got localised in the traps created by the charge impurities at substrate-MoS2 interface. We propose that high mobility can be obtained in these transistors by removing the charge impurity background. [4pt] [1] Radisavljevic, B. et al. Nature Nanotechnology 2011, 6, 147--150. [0pt] [2] Ghatak, S. et al. ACS Nano 2011, 5, 7707.

  8. Comparative analysis of the nonA region in Drosophila identifies a highly diverged 5' gene that may constrain nonA promoter evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Campesan, S; Chalmers, D; Sandrelli, F; Megighian, A; Peixoto, A A; Costa, R; Kyriacou, C P

    2001-01-01

    A genomic fragment from Drosophila virilis that contained all the no-on-transientA (nonA) coding information, plus several kilobases of upstream material, was identified. Comparisons of nonA sequences and the gene nonA-like in D. melanogaster, a processed duplication of nonA, suggest that it arose before the split between D. melanogaster and D. virilis. In both species, another gene that lies <350 bp upstream from the nonA transcription starts, and that probably corresponds to the lethal gene l(1)i19, was identified. This gene encodes a protein that shows similarities to GPI1, which is required for the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), a component for anchoring eukaryotic proteins to membranes, and so we have named it dGpi1. The molecular evolution of nonA and dGpi1 sequences show remarkable differences, with the latter revealing a level of amino acid divergence that is as high as that of transformer and with extremely low levels of codon bias. Nevertheless, in D. melanogaster hosts, the D. virilis fragment rescues the lethality associated with a mutation of l(1)i19e, as well as the viability and visual defects produced by deletion of nonA(-). The presence of dGpi1 sequences so close to nonA appears to have constrained the evolution of the nonA promoter. PMID:11156994

  9. Gamma-ray constraints on maximum cosmogenic neutrino fluxes and UHECR source evolution models

    SciTech Connect

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Kalashev, Oleg; Semikoz, Dmitri V. E-mail: kalashev@ms2.inr.ac.ru

    2012-01-01

    The dip model assumes that the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 10{sup 18} eV consist exclusively of protons and is consistent with the spectrum and composition measure by HiRes. Here we present the range of cosmogenic neutrino fluxes in the dip-model which are compatible with a recent determination of the extragalactic very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray diffuse background derived from 2.5 years of Fermi/LAT data. We show that the largest fluxes predicted in the dip model would be detectable by IceCube in about 10 years of observation and are within the reach of a few years of observation with the ARA project. In the incomplete UHECR model in which protons are assumed to dominate only above 10{sup 19} eV, the cosmogenic neutrino fluxes could be a factor of 2 or 3 larger. Any fraction of heavier nuclei in the UHECR at these energies would reduce the maximum cosmogenic neutrino fluxes. We also consider here special evolution models in which the UHECR sources are assumed to have the same evolution of either the star formation rate (SFR), or the gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate, or the active galactic nuclei (AGN) rate in the Universe and found that the last two are disfavored (and in the dip model rejected) by the new VHE gamma-ray background.

  10. A state-to-state dynamical study of the Br + H2 reaction: comparison of quantum and classical trajectory results.

    PubMed

    Panda, Aditya N; Herráez-Aguilar, Diego; Jambrina, Pablo G; Aldegunde, Jesús; Althorpe, Stuart C; Aoiz, F Javier

    2012-10-05

    We present a detailed theoretical investigation of the dynamics corresponding to the strongly endothermic Br + H(2) (v = 0-1, j = 0) → H + HBr reaction in the 0.85 to 1.9 eV total energy range. State-averaged and state-to-state results obtained through time-independent wave packet (TIWP) and time-independent quantum mechanical (TIQM) calculations and quasiclassical trajectories (QCT) are compared and analyzed. The agreement in the results obtained with both quantum mechanical results is very good overall. However, although QCT calculations reproduce the general features, their agreement with the QM results is sometimes only qualitative. The analysis of the mechanism based on state-averaged results turns out to be deceptive and conveys an oversimplified picture of the reaction consistent with a direct-rebound mechanism. Consideration of state-to-state processes, in contrast, unveils the existence of multiple mechanisms that give rise to a succession of maxima in the differential cross section (DCS). Such mechanisms correlate with different sets of partial waves and display similar collision times when analyzed through the time-dependent DCS.

  11. Study of Annealing Effects on Ag2O Nanoparticles Generated by Electrochemical Spark Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Purushottam Kumar; Bishwakarma, Harish; Shubham; Das, Alok Kumar

    2017-10-01

    We describe a green process for the generation of silver oxide (Ag2O) nanoparticles from silver material through an electrochemical spark (discharge) process. The annealing operation was carried out on the produced nanoparticles to observe changes in the particle morphology and different properties. Ag2O nanoparticles were characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. With the rise in annealing temperature, the average crystal size of Ag2O nanoparticles was increased proportionally and the shape was also changed. Plate-type structures were attained with high annealing temperatures. The EDX result confirmed the presence of silver and oxygen atoms. The band gap of the nanoparticle samples, which were produced by direct current and pulsating direct current, was noted to be 1.6 eV and 1.9 eV, respectively.

  12. The synthesis of hierarchical nanostructured MoS2/Graphene composites with enhanced visible-light photo-degradation property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongjie; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Chengzhi; Zhao, Yuzhen; Zhou, Heping; Li, Jingbo; Jin, HaiBo

    2017-08-01

    Novel two-dimensional materials with a layered structure are of special interest for a variety of promising applications. Herein, MoS2 and MoS2/Graphene nanocomposite with hierarchical nanostructure were successfully synthesized employing a one-step hydrothermal method. Photo-degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine (RHB) were adopted to assess the photo-degradation ability of the products. Comparing with bare MoS2, the hierarchical MoS2/Graphene nanocomposite achieved relatively higher degradation rate of 99% in 28 min for MB as well in 50 min for RHB. These results verified that this proposed hierarchical nanocomposite is a good photo-degradation semiconductor. The excellent performance was mainly ascribed to the synergistic effect of MoS2 and graphene layers. The MoS2 possessing a band gap of 1.9 eV would provide abundant electron-hole pairs. The graphene layers with excellent electro-conductivity could realize the quick transport of electrons via its extended π-conjugation structure, consequently benefiting the separation of photo-generated carriers. These findings indicate that the graphene layer is a promising candidate as a co-catalyst for MoS2 photo-catalyst, and also provide useful information for understanding the observed enhanced photocatalytic mechanism in experiments.

  13. Valley polarization and intervalley scattering in monolayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kioseoglou, G.; Hanbicki, A. T.; Currie, M.; Friedman, A. L.; Gunlycke, D.; Jonker, B. T.

    2013-03-01

    Single layer MoS2 is a prime candidate material for implementing valleytronics because minima in the bandstructure at inequivalent K points of the Brillouin zone can be independently populated, thus making the valley index a potential state variable for information processing. Light of a particular helicity populates only one of the two K-valleys (either K or K') resulting in a strong emission at around 1.9 eV associated with a direct transition. We use energy and helicity dependent optical pumping to analyze the coupling of the valley and spin indices to the depolarization of emitted light. The circular polarization of the photoluminescence is very high for photo-excitation near the bandgap, and has a power-law decrease as the photo-excitation energy increases. We identify phonon-assisted intervalley scattering as the primary spin relaxation mechanism and present a model of depolarization that explains the wide variation in values for the optical polarization reported in the literature. Our results elucidate the basic processes that control the unique properties of this material and should help to realize future valleytronic applications. This work was supported by core programs at NRL and the NRL Nanoscience Institute.

  14. Injury-induced biosynthesis of methyl-branched polyene pigments in a white-rotting basidiomycete.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Daniel; Nett, Markus; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Horn, Uwe; Blanchette, Robert A; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2014-12-26

    A stereaceous basidiomycete was investigated with regard to its capacity to produce yellow pigments after physical injury of the mycelium. Two pigments were isolated from mycelial extracts, and their structures were elucidated by ESIMS and one- and two-dimensional NMR methods. The structures were identified as the previously undescribed polyenes (3Z,5E,7E,9E,11E,13Z,15E,17E)-18-methyl-19-oxoicosa-3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-octaenoic acid (1) and (3E,5Z,7E,9E,11E,13E,15Z,17E,19E)-20-methyl-21-oxodocosa-3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19-nonaenoic acid (2). Stable-isotope feeding with [1-(13)C]acetate and l-[methyl-(13)C]methionine demonstrated a polyketide backbone and that the introduction of the sole methyl branch is most likely S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent. Dose-dependent inhibition of Drosophila melanogaster larval development was observed with both polyenes in concentrations between 12.5 and 100 μM. GI50 values for 1 and 2 against HUVEC (K-562 cells) were 71.6 and 17.4 μM (15.4 and 1.1 μM), respectively, whereas CC50 values for HeLa cells were virtually identical (44.1 and 45.1 μM).

  15. A Comparison of Electron-Transfer Dynamics inIonic Liquids and Neutral Solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Wishart J. F.; Lee, H.Y.; Issa, J.B.; Isied, S.S.; Castner, Jr., E.W.; Pan, Y.; Hussey, C.L.; Lee, K.S.

    2012-03-01

    The effect of ionic liquids on photoinduced electron-transfer reactions in a donor-bridge-acceptor system is examined for two ionic liquid solvents, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide and tributylmethylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide. The results are compared with those for the same system in methanol and acetonitrile solution. Electron-transfer rates were measured using time-resolved fluorescence quenching for the donor-bridge-acceptor system comprising a 1-N,1-N-dimethylbenzene-1,4-diamine donor, a proline bridge, and a coumarin 343 acceptor. The photoinduced electron-transfer processes are in the inverted regime (-{Delta}G > {lambda}) in all four solvents, with driving forces of -1.6 to -1.9 eV and estimated reorganization energies of about 1.0 eV. The observed electron-transfer kinetics have broadly distributed rates that are generally slower in the ionic liquids compared to the neutral solvents, which also have narrower rate distributions. To describe the broad distributions of electron-transfer kinetics, we use two different models: a distribution of exponential lifetimes and a discrete sum of exponential lifetimes. Analysis of the donor-acceptor electronic coupling shows that for ionic liquids this intramolecular electron-transfer reaction should be treated using a solvent-controlled electron-transfer model.

  16. Spectroscopic measurements of temperature and plasma impurity concentration during magnetic reconnection at the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, V. H.; Brown, M. R.; Cohen, D. H.; Gray, T.; Cothran, C. D.

    2009-04-01

    Electron temperature measurements during counterhelicity spheromak merging studies at the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) [M. R. Brown, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1717 (1999)] are presented. VUV monochromator measurements of impurity emission lines are compared with model spectra produced by the non-LTE excitation kinematics code PRISMSPECT [J. J. MacFarlane et al., in Proceedings of the Third Conference on Inertial Fusion Science and Applications (2004)] to yield the electron temperature in the plasma with 1 μs time resolution. Average Te is seen to increase from 12 to 19 eV during spheromak merging. Average C III ion temperature, measured with a new ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS) [C. D. Cothran et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063504 (2006)], likewise rises during spheromak merging, peaking at ˜22 eV, but a similar increase in Ti is seen during single spheromak discharges with no merging. The VUV emission line measurements are also used to constrain the concentrations of various impurities in the SSX plasma, which are dominated by carbon, but include some oxygen and nitrogen. A burst of soft x-ray emission is seen during reconnection with a new four-channel detector (SXR). There is evidence for spectral changes in the soft x-ray emission as reconnection progresses, although our single-temperature equilibrium spectral models are not able to provide adequate fits to all the SXR data.

  17. Flexible H2O2 in water: electronic structure from photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Thürmer, Stephan; Seidel, Robert; Winter, Bernd; Ončák, Milan; Slavíček, Petr

    2011-06-16

    The effect of hydration on the electronic structure of H(2)O(2) is investigated by liquid-jet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and ab initio calculations. Experimental valence electron binding energies of the H(2)O(2) orbitals in water are, on average, 1.9 eV red-shifted with respect to the gas-phase molecule. A smaller width of the first peak was observed in the photoelectron spectrum from the solution. Our experiment is complemented by simulated photoelectron spectra, calculated at the ab initio level of theory (with EOM-IP-CCSD and DFT methods), and using path-integral sampling of the ground-state density. The observed shift in ionization energy upon solvation is attributed to a combination of nonspecific electrostatic effects (long-range polarization) and of the specific interactions between H(2)O(2) and H(2)O molecules in the first solvation shell. Changes in peak widths are found to result from merging of the two lowest ionized states of H(2)O(2) in water due to conformational changes upon solvation. Hydration effects on H(2)O(2) are stronger than on the H(2)O molecule. In addition to valence spectra, we report oxygen 1s core-level photoelectron spectra from H(2)O(2)(aq), and observed energies and spectral intensities are discussed qualitatively.

  18. Effect of Post-Deposition Annealing on RF-Sputtered Catalyst-Free Grown ZnO Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Amit; Kumar, Naresh

    2017-08-01

    Catalyst-free zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-structures were synthesized on silicon (100) substrate by radio frequency sputtering. The as-deposited films were post-annealed at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800°C. The effects of annealing temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of these nanostructures were investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopic ellipsometry. XRD showed c-axis-oriented growth with the increase in crystallinity at the higher annealing temperature of these ZnO nanostructures. The crystallite size calculated using Scherrer's formula in the XRD data was found to increase with the annealing temperature. AFM images confirmed the growth of grains at higher annealing temperatures. Optical band gaps of these ZnO nanostructures were calculated using reflectance spectra in the ultraviolet-visible region and found to decrease from 3.19 eV to 3.09 eV as the annealing temperature increased from 200°C to 800°C. The decrease in band gap may be attributed to the decrease in oxygen vacancies at higher annealing temperatures and may be useful for different applications.

  19. Structure property relationship of a new nonlinear optical organic crystal: 1-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(3-fluorophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one for optical power limiting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavendra, S.; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Shetty, T. Chandra Shekhara; Lakshminarayana, B. N.; Quah, Ching Kheng; Chandraju, S.; Ananthnag, G. S.; Gonsalves, R. A.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    A new organic potential nonlinear optical (NLO) material 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(3-fluorophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (DMP3FP) is crystallized in acetone. The single crystal X-ray diffraction data shows that material crystallizes into centro-symmetric orthorhombic space group Pbca with a = 15.6552(6) Å, b = 8.5571(3) Å, c = 20.7697(7) Å. The functional groups in DMP3FP molecule are identified by Fourier Transfer Infrared (FTIR) spectra. The thermal stability and melting point are determined using thermo gravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). Using UV Visible spectral studies direct band gap energy of the crystal is determined to be 3.19 eV. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and optical power limiting of the crystal was studied using Z-scan technique. The crystal exhibits a self-focusing effect at a wavelength of 532 nm showing optical limiting and reverse saturable absorption by having excited state absorption coefficient greater than ground state absorption coefficient.

  20. A study of the correlation of EHE cosmic rays with Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1998-06-15

    A study of space angles and temporal spacing was made for extremely-high energy (EHE) cosmic ray events to see if there are any correlation with Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB's) recorded by the BATSE experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The results on the most generic correlation using all the recorded GRB's and EHECR's show no significant correlation. Nevertheless, the highest-energy cosmic ray ''pair'' events observed by the AGASA experiments appear to be correlated with the very high fluence GRB's. Some basis to form a GRB and a fireball is discussed. Empirical analysis of the GRB events strongly implied that the photonic field energy density in the source region should have exceeded the electric energy density of Schwinger field. A possible generation of an initial GRB, its fireball and relativistic shocks therein, is considered in terms of Schwinger field generated by radiation pressure of transient, high luminosity photons provided by collective nuclear collisions of neutron matter. Acceleration of electrons, and some protons, may be possible in the radial electrostatic Schwinger field. Ultra-relativistic shocks might also accelerate particles to certain high energies ({gamma}{<=}10{sup 12{center_dot}}{sup 15}). Neutral secondaries, including gamma rays, neutrinos, ''strangelets,'' and Farrar's SUSY S{sub 0} particles, are discussed as plausible EHECR pair candidates from GRB fireballs. The OWL/AIRWATCH may be able to explore them from 4x10{sup 19} eV to well beyond 10{sup 21} eV.

  1. Simulated Performance of the Orbiting Wide-angle Light Collectors (OWL) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krizmanic, J. F.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Orbiting Wide-angle Light collectors (OWL) experiment is in NASA's mid-term strategic plan and will stereoscopically image, from equatorial orbit, the air fluorescence signal generated by airshowers induced by the ultrahigh energy (E greater than few x 10(exp 19) eV) component of the cosmic radiation. The use of a space-based platform enables an extremely large event acceptance aperture and thus will allow a high statistics measurement of these rare events. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations are required to quantify the physics potential of the mission as well as optimize the instrumental parameters. This paper reports on the results of the GSFC Monte Carlo simulation for two different, OWL instrument baseline designs. These results indicate that, assuming a continuation of the cosmic ray spectrum (theta approximately E(exp -2.75), OWL could have an event rate of 4000 events/year with E greater than or equal to 10(exp 20) eV. Preliminary results, based upon these Monte Carlo simulations, indicate that events can be accurately reconstructed in the detector focal plane arrays for the OWL instrument baseline designs under consideration.

  2. Effective photon mass by Super and Lorentz symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Luca; dos Santos Filho, Luís R.; Helayël-Neto, José A.; Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of Standard Model Extensions (SMEs), we analyse four general classes of Super Symmetry (SuSy) and Lorentz Symmetry (LoSy) breaking, leading to observable imprints at our energy scales. The photon dispersion relations show a non-Maxwellian behaviour for the CPT (Charge-Parity-Time reversal symmetry) odd and even sectors. The group velocities exhibit also a directional dependence with respect to the breaking background vector (odd CPT) or tensor (even CPT). In the former sector, the group velocity may decay following an inverse squared frequency behaviour. Thus, we extract a massive Carroll-Field-Jackiw photon term in the Lagrangian and show that the effective mass is proportional to the breaking vector and moderately dependent on the direction of observation. The breaking vector absolute value is estimated by ground measurements and leads to a photon mass upper limit of 10-19 eV or 2 ×10-55 kg, and thereby to a potentially measurable delay at low radio frequencies.

  3. Following solar activity with geomagnetic and cosmic-ray ground-based stations in the Iberian Peninsula region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villasante-Marcos, Victor; José Blanco, Juan; Miquel Torta, Joan; Catalán, Manuel; Ribeiro, Paulo; Morozova, Anna; Tordesillas, José Manuel; Solé, Germán; Gomis-Moreno, Almudena

    2016-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula is located in the South-West of Europe between 36°00' N and 43°47' N and between 9°29' W and 3°19' E. There are four Geomagnetic Observatories currently operative in this area devoted to the observation of the Earth's magnetic field: Observatori de l'Ebre (NE Spain); Observatorio de San Pablo de los Montes (central Spain); Observatorio de San Fernando (southern Spain); Observatório de Coimbra (central Portugal); plus another one, Observatorio de Güímar, in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). There is also one neutron monitor located in Guadalajara (central Spain; 40°38' N, 3°9' W at 708 m asl) continuously measuring the arrival of cosmic rays to the Earth's surface. In this work we show combined observations of these six stations during events caused by solar activity. We analyze them looking for differences that could imply extremely local effects caused by the response of the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere to solar activity.

  4. Influences mass concentration of P3HT and PCBM to application of organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyanto, A.; Maya; Rosa, E. S.; Iriani, Y.; Ramelan, A. H.; Nurosyid, F.

    2016-11-01

    Poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6, 6] -phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) are used for the organic solar cell applications. P3HT and PCBM act as donors and acceptors, respectively. In this study the efficiency of the P3HT: PCBM organic solar cells as function of the mass concentration of the blend P3HT: PCBM with 1, 2, 8, 16 mg/ml. Deposition P3HT:PCBM film using spin coating with a rotary speed of 2500 rpm for 10 seconds. Optical properties of absorption spectra characteristic using a UV-Visible Spectrometer Lambda 25 and electrical properties of I-V characteristic using Keithley 2602 instrument. The results of absoption spectra for P3HT:PCBM within different mass concentration obtained 500-600 nm wavelengths. The Energy-gap obtained about 1.9eV. The organic solar cells device performance were investigated using I-V cahractyeristic. For mass concentration of 1, 2, 8 and 16 mg/ml P3HT:PCBM were obtained 0.5×10-3%, 2.2×10-3%, 5.9×10-3%, and 6.1×10-3% efficiency of organics solar cells respectively.

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies of the reaction of Rh+ with CS2 in the gas phase: thermochemistry of RhS+ and RhCS+.

    PubMed

    Armentrout, P B; Kretzschmar, Ilona

    2009-10-15

    The gas-phase reactivity of the atomic transition-metal cation rhodium, Rh(+), with CS(2) is investigated using guided-ion-beam mass spectrometry (GIBMS). Endothermic reactions forming RhS(+) and RhCS(+) are observed. Analysis of the kinetic energy dependence of the cross sections for formation of these two products yields the 0 K bond energies of D(0)(Rh(+)-S) = 2.61 +/- 0.12 eV and D(0)(Rh(+)-CS) = 2.66 +/- 0.19 eV. These compare favorably with quantum chemical calculations at the CCSD(T)/Def2TZVPP//B3LYP/Def2TZVPP and CCSD(T)/Def2TZVPP levels of theory, where the former is also used to explore the complete potential energy surface of the reaction. It is found that the reaction initially involves insertion of the rhodium cation into one of the CS bonds of CS(2), followed by metal ligand cleavages to form the two product channels. The formation of ground state RhS(+) products is spin-forbidden, whereas RhCS(+) formation is spin-allowed. Crossing points between the triplet and quintet surfaces are located in the region of the SRh(+)(CS) intermediate, which suggests that coupling between the surfaces is reasonably efficient, consistent with experiment.

  6. Update on the correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Antičić, T.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Arganda, E.; Arisaka, K.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Balzer, M.; Barber, K. B.; Barbosa, A. F.; Bardenet, R.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Baughman, B.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellétoile, A.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Bruijn, R.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cook, H.; Cooper, M. J.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Dallier, R.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; de Vries, K. D.; Decerprit, G.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Dembinski, H.; Denkiewicz, A.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Ferrero, A.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fliescher, S.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fraenkel, E. D.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fulgione, W.; Gamarra, R. F.; Gambetta, S.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Gascon, A.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Gesterling, K.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gookin, B.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Gozzini, S. R.; Grashorn, E.; Grebe, S.; Grigat, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hague, J. D.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Herve, A. E.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horneffer, A.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Jiraskova, S.; Kadija, K.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karhan, P.; Karova, T.; Kasper, P.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kotera, K.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuehn, F.; Kuempel, D.; Kulbartz, J. K.; Kunka, N.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lautridou, P.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Lemiere, A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Lyberis, H.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marquez Falcon, H. R.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McEwen, M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menshikov, A.; Meurer, C.; Mičanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miller, W.; Miramonti, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Mueller, S.; Muller, M. A.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Nyklicek, M.; Oehlschläger, J.; Olinto, A.; Oliva, P.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parra, A.; Parrisius, J.; Parsons, R. D.; Pastor, S.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Peķala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Pesce, R.; Petermann, E.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrolini, A.; Petrov, Y.; Petrovic, J.; Pfendner, C.; Phan, N.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Ponce, V. H.; Pontz, M.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rivera, H.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovancova, J.; Schovánek, P.; Schroeder, F.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Schuster, D.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šuša, T.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Tamashiro, A.; Tapia, A.; Tarutina, T.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Tcherniakhovski, D.; Tegolo, D.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tiwari, D. K.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Travnicek, P.; Tridapalli, D. B.; Tristram, G.; Trovato, E.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrlich, P.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Whelan, B. J.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Will, M.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Winders, L.; Winnick, M. G.; Wommer, M.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zaw, I.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory through 31 August 2007 showed evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min energy threshold, 6 × 10 19 eV. The anisotropy was measured by the fraction of arrival directions that are less than 3.1° from the position of an active galactic nucleus within 75 Mpc (using the Véron-Cetty and Véron 12th catalog). An updated measurement of this fraction is reported here using the arrival directions of cosmic rays recorded above the same energy threshold through 31 December 2009. The number of arrival directions has increased from 27 to 69, allowing a more precise measurement. The correlating fraction is 38-6+7%, compared with 21% expected for isotropic cosmic rays. This is down from the early estimate of 69-13+11%. The enlarged set of arrival directions is examined also in relation to other populations of nearby extragalactic objects: galaxies in the 2 Microns All Sky Survey and active galactic nuclei detected in hard X-rays by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope. A celestial region around the position of the radiogalaxy Cen A has the largest excess of arrival directions relative to isotropic expectations. The 2-point autocorrelation function is shown for the enlarged set of arrival directions and compared to the isotropic expectation.

  7. Effects of rare earth substitution on the optical properties of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} for coloring applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kumari, L. Sandhya; Prabhakar Rao, P.; Sameera, S.; James, Vineetha; Koshy, Peter

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • New class of colored compounds BiREMoO{sub 6} (RE = Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb, Yb) was synthesized. • The substitution of RE gently red shifts the absorption edge to low energy side. • The differences in band gap depend on the position of the RE f bands. • The yellow colored compounds demonstrated good coloration to plastics. - Abstract: A new class of colored inorganic compounds, BiREMoO{sub 6} (RE = Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) has been synthesized by a solid state route. The substitution of different rare earths for Bi{sup 3+} in Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} produces visible light responsive compounds by gently red shifting the absorption edge to low energy side. The visible light absorption is based on the charge transfer transitions from O{sub 2p} valence band to conduction band made of primary Mo{sub 4d} and secondary Bi{sub 6p}. The substitution of RE{sup 3+} introduces partially occupied 4f electronic levels in between the band gap and the position of 4f level depend on the number of f electrons which allows tuning the band gap. Thus the rare earth substitution provides an opportunity to tailor the band gap of Bi{sub 2}MoO{sub 6} from 2.99 eV to 2.19 eV. The developed compounds exhibited different shades of yellow hue and demonstrated good coloration to plastics.

  8. Structural and optical properties of Ag-doped copper oxide thin films on polyethylene napthalate substrate prepared by low temperature microwave annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sayantan; Alford, T. L.

    2013-06-28

    Silver doped cupric oxide thin films are prepared on polyethylene naphthalate (flexible polymer) substrates. Thin films Ag-doped CuO are deposited on the substrate by co-sputtering followed by microwave assisted oxidation of the metal films. The low temperature tolerance of the polymer substrates led to the search for innovative low temperature processing techniques. Cupric oxide is a p-type semiconductor with an indirect band gap and is used as selective absorption layer solar cells. X-ray diffraction identifies the CuO phases. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements confirm the stoichiometry of each copper oxide formed. The surface morphology is determined by atomic force microscopy. The microstructural properties such as crystallite size and the microstrain for (-111) and (111) planes are calculated and discussed. Incorporation of Ag led to the lowering of band gap in CuO. Consequently, it is determined that Ag addition has a strong effect on the structural, morphological, surface, and optical properties of CuO grown on flexible substrates by microwave annealing. Tauc's plot is used to determine the optical band gap of CuO and Ag doped CuO films. The values of the indirect and direct band gap for CuO are found to be 2.02 eV and 3.19 eV, respectively.

  9. Photoelectrolysis of water under visible light with doped SrTiO3 electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, M.; Hiramoto, M.; Tsubomura, H.

    1983-02-01

    The photochemical behavior of strontium titanate (SrTiOe) sintered electrodes doped with various metal oxides is reported, with reference to the development of semiconductor electrodes applicable in solar energy conversion. The doped semiconductor electrodes were synthesized from 99.9% pure SrTiO3 powder mixed with reagent grade metal oxide which was then pressed into disks of 1 cm in diameter and sintered at 400 C for 2 hr. From the I-V and other characteristic curves which were plotted for various wavelengths, the energy level of the surface state of SrTiO3 electrode is estimated to lie at 1.9 eV below the conduction band. The SrTiO3 electrodes doped with RuO2, V2O5, Cr2O3, Ce2O3, CoO, and Rh2O3 showed photoresponse in visible light, while undoped SrTiO3 and those electrodes doped with other metal oxides such as ZnO and Al2O3 were photosensitive only in UV light. The electroluminescence spectra of the doped electrodes are classified into three groups: those that have electroluminescence characteristics similar to those of the undoped electrodes, those with very intense and narrow luminescence bands in the visible region, and those that exhibit a broad band at wavelengths shorter than those of the undoped electrodes

  10. Hydrogenated fullerenes dimer, peanut and capsule: An atomic comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EL-Barbary, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogenated fullerenes are detected in the Universe in space but their identification is still unsolved task. Therefore, this paper provides useful information about hydrogenated fullerenes (dimer, peanut and capsule) using DFT method at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The stability, geometric structures, hydrogen adsorption energies and NMR chemical shifts are calculated. The results show that the energy of most stable isomer of C118 dimer is lower than the energies sum of C60 and C58 cages by 1.77 eV and the energy per carbon atom of C144 capsule is more stable than C60 cage by 126.98 meV. Also, endohedral Ti-doped C118 dimer and C128 peanut are found to be most stable structures than exohedral Ti-doped C118 dimer and C128 peanut by 2.19 eV/Ti and 3.52 eV/Ti, respectively. The hydrogenation process is found to be enhanced (especially at the caps) for endohedral Ti-doped C118 dimer and C128 peanut through electronic surface modifications. The most active hydrogenation sites are selected and it is found that the most stable hydrogenation sites are Houts1 and Houts3 for fullerenes and endohedral Ti-doped fullerenes, respectively.

  11. A genetic basis for the inviability of hybrids between sibling species of Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, P. ); Roote, J.; Ashburner, M. )

    1990-04-01

    An X-ray induced mutation of Drosophila melanogaster whose only known effect is the rescue of otherwise lethal interspecific hybrids has been characterized. This mutation, Hmr, maps to 1-31.84 (9D1-9E4). Hmr may be the consequence of a P element insertion. It rescues hybrid males from the cross of D. melanogaster females to males of its three sibling species, D. simulans, D. mauritiana and D. sechellia. This rescue is recessive, since hybrid males that carry both Hmr and a duplication expected to be Hmr{sup +} are not rescued. Hmr also rescues the otherwise inviable female hybrids from the cross of compound-X D. melanogaster females to males of its sibling species. This rescue is also recessive, since a compound-X heterozygous for Hmr does not rescue. Another mutation, discovered on the In(1)AB chromosome of D. melanogaster, is also found to rescue normally inviable species hybrids: unlike Hmr, however, In(1)AB rescues hybrid females from the cross of In(1)AB/Y males to sibling females, as well as hybrid males from the cross of In(1)AB females to sibling males. These data are interpreted on the basis of a model for the genetic basis of hybrid inviability of complementary genes.

  12. Electronic properties of sulfur containing conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brédas, J. L.; Elsenbaumer, R. L.; Chance, R. R.; Silbey, Robert

    1983-05-01

    Valence effective Hamiltonian (VEH) calculations are performed on a number of sulfur containing organic conjugated polymers of interest to the conducting polymers area. Theoretical results for parameters related to conductivity such as ionization potentials, bandwidths, and bandgaps are presented. Systems considered include various derivatives of poly (p-phenylene sulfide), polybenzothiophene, and polythiophene, as well as potentially interesting compounds such as polythieno [3,2-b] thiophene and polyvinylene sulfide. The electronic structure description afforded by the VEH method for sulfur containing polymers is demonstrated to be of the same quality as that presented previously for hydrocarbon polymers. In particular, for ionization potentials, good agreement with available experimental data on poly (p-phenylene sulfide) and polybenzothiophene is obtained, after scaling downward the VEH values by a 1.9 eV polarization correction. The comparison between the theoretical and experimental XPS spectra for polybenzothiophene is excellent with use of the same energy scaling factor previously employed for polyacetylene, poly(p-phenylene), and poly(p-phenylene sulfide). These results, in conjuction with previous results obtained on hydrocarbon polymers, lend confidence in the predictive capabilities of this purely theoretical technique. Calculations show that polyvinylene sulfide, as yet unsynthesized, should display very promising characteristics as a conducting polymer.

  13. Tight-binding coherent potential approximation study of ferromagnetic La2/3Ba1/3MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaconstantopoulos, D. A.; Pickett, W. E.

    1998-05-01

    The local-spin-density band structure of a virtual-crystal model of ferromagnetic La2/3Ba1/3MnO3, reported earlier by Pickett and Singh [Phys. Rev. B 53, 1146 (1996)], has been fit to an accurate orthogonal tight-binding (TB) model. This TB Hamiltonian has spin-independent hopping parameters, and the exchange splitting is confined solely to the Mn on-site parameters ɛt2g↓-ɛt2g↑=3.44 eV and ɛeg↓-ɛeg↑=2.86 eV. The crystal-field splitting, as reflected in the Mn d energies, is 1.77 eV for majority spin and 1.19 eV for minority spin. Oxygen pσ and pπ states are allowed distinct site energies, and the derived crystal-field splitting is ɛpπ-ɛpσ = 1.47 eV. Local Mn d site energy disorder, arising from the random distribution of La3+ and Ba2+ ions, has been treated within the TB coherent potential approximation. The intrinsic resistivity in the fully polarized phase from this charge disorder is estimated to be 15 μΩ cm.

  14. Distribution of CD105 and CD166 positive cells in the proximal epiphysis of developing rat humerus.

    PubMed

    Ozbey, Ozlem; Sahin, Zeliha; Acar, Nuray; Ustunel, Ismail

    2010-11-01

    The expression of cell surface receptors, CD105 and CD166, are characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells in cartilage. However, there is limited data regarding their immunolocalization in the cartilage of developing rat epiphysis. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of CD105 and CD 166 positive cells in the proximal epiphysis of developing rat humerus and specify their zonal distribution with age. The tissues of rat humerus were taken on embryonic day 15 (E15), embryonic day 19 (E19), postnatal day 10 (PN10), postnatal day 20 (PN20) and adult rats and studied for the immunolocalization of CD105 and CD166. Our results showed that CD105 and CD166 positive cells were scattered in early stages of development of humerus epiphysis. For E15, only the hypertrophic zone was positive, whereas for E19 almost all zones of the epiphysis were positively stained for these markers. For PN10 and PN20, the CD105 and CD166 positive cells were mainly localized on the surface of the articular cartilage. In adult articular cartilage the CD105 and CD166 positive cells were localized in the superficial and transitional zones and in the upper regions of the deep zone. Our study provides evidence that in the developing cartilage tissue the localization of CD105 and CD166 positive cells is both dynamic and stage dependent, which may imply the existence of stem cell-like cells in cartilage from an early age to adult.

  15. Tuning the electronic structures of semiconducting SiC nanotubes by N and NHx (x =1,2) groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Tao; Zhao, Mingwen; Xia, Yueyuan; Li, Weifeng; Song, Chen; Lin, Xiaohang; Liu, Xiangdong; Mei, Liangmo

    2006-11-01

    We investigate the stable configurations and electronic structures of silicon carbide nanotubes (SiCNTs) decorated by N and NHx (x =1,2) groups by using first-principles calculations. We find that these groups can be chemically incorporated into the network of SiCNTs in different ways, accompanied with the formation of N-C and N-Si bonds. The adsorbing energy of N and NHx (x =1,2) groups on (5,5) and (8,0) SiCNTs ranges from -1.82to-7.19eV. The electronic structures of SiCNTs can be effectively modified by these groups and display diverse characters ranging from semiconducting to semimetallic, depending on the chirality of SiCNTs as well as the way of the incorporation of these functional groups. The relationship between the electronic structures and the configurations of these functionalized SiCNTs is also addressed by performing projected density of states combined with Milliken population analysis. These results are expected to open a way to tune the electronic structures of SiCNTs which may have promising applications in building nanodevices.

  16. Large array fabrication of high performance monolayer MoS2 photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yore, Alexander E.; Smithe, Kirby K. H.; Jha, Sauraj; Ray, Kyle; Pop, Eric; Newaz, A. K. M.

    2017-07-01

    Large array fabrication of high quality photodetectors derived from synthetically grown monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides is highly desired and important for a wide range of nanophotonic applications. We present here large array fabrication of monolayer MoS2 photodetectors on sapphire substrates through an efficient process, which includes growing large scale monolayer MoS2 via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and multi-step optical lithography for device patterning and high quality metal electrode fabrication. In every measured device, we observed the following universal features: (i) negligible dark current ( Idark≤10 fA), (ii) sharp peaks in photocurrent at ˜1.9 eV and ˜2.1 eV attributable to the optical transitions due to band edge excitons, and (iii) a rapid onset of photocurrent above ˜2.5 eV peaked at ˜2.9 eV due to an excitonic absorption originating from the van Hove singularity of MoS2. We observe a low (≤300%) device-to-device variation of photoresponsivity. Furthermore, we observe a very fast DC time response of ˜0.5 ms, which is two orders of magnitude faster than other reported CVD grown 1L-MoS2 based photodetectors. The combination of large-array device fabrication, high sensitivity, and high speed offers great potential for applications in photonics.

  17. Annealing effect on the property of ultraviolet and green emissions of ZnO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hong Seong; Kang, Jeong Seok; Kim, Jae Won; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2004-02-01

    The mechanism of ultraviolet (UV) and green emission of ZnO thin films deposited on (001) sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition was investigated by using postannealing treatment at various annealing temperatures after deposition. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of ZnO films have been also observed. As the postannealing temperature increased, the intensity of UV (380 nm) peak and the carrier concentration were decreased while the intensity of the visible (about 490-530 nm) peak and the resistivity were increased. The role of oxygen in ZnO thin film during the annealing process was important to the change of optical properties. The mechanism of the luminescence suggested that UV luminescence of ZnO thin film was related to the transition from near band edge to valence band, and green luminescence of ZnO thin film was caused by the transition from deep donor level to valence band due to oxygen vacancies. The activation energy derived by using the variation of green emission intensity was 1.19 eV.

  18. Mg-doping experiment and electrical transport measurement of boron nanobelts

    SciTech Connect

    Kirihara, K. . E-mail: kz-kirihara@aist.go.jp; Hyodo, H.; Fujihisa, H.; Wang, Z.; Kawaguchi, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Koshizaki, N.; Soga, K.; Kimura, K.

    2006-09-15

    We measured electrical conductance of single crystalline boron nanobelts having {alpha}-tetragonal crystalline structure. The doping experiment of Mg was carried out by vapor diffusion method. The pure boron nanobelt is a p-type semiconductor and its electrical conductivity was estimated to be on the order of 10{sup -3} ({omega} cm){sup -1} at room temperature. The carrier mobility of pure boron nanobelt was measured to be on the order of 10{sup -3} (cm{sup 2} Vs{sup -1}) at room temperature and has an activation energy of {approx}0.19 eV. The Mg-doped boron nanobelts have the same {alpha}-tetragonal crystalline structure as the pristine nanobelts. After Mg vapor diffusion, the nanobelts were still semiconductor, while the electrical conductance increased by a factor of 100-500. Transition to metal or superconductor by doping was not observed. - Graphical abstract: SEM micrographs of boron nanobelt after Ni/Au electrode fabrication by electron beam lithography. Display Omitted.

  19. Aboveground activity rhythm in Arctic black-capped marmot ( Marmota camtschatica bungei Katschenko 1901) under polar day conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Youri; Ramousse, Raymond; Le Berre, Michel; Vassiliev, Vladimir; Solomonov, Nikita

    2001-04-01

    Daily aboveground activity of wild black-capped marmots of Yakutia ( Marmota camtschatica bungei) was recorded under 'polar day' conditions at 71°56' N and 127°19' E (north of the Polar Circle). From the beginning of May until the end of August, the sun was permanently above or close to the horizon. However under this condition of continuous lighting, the aboveground activity of these arctic hibernating mammals was periodic. Onset and end of activity showed marked changes throughout the seasons. Activity time increased strongly from hibernation emergence until the end of July and then decreased slowly until onset of hibernation. Below daily mean temperatures of 5 °C, activity started when the sun was 35° above the horizon, and ended when it dropped below 28°. When daily mean temperatures were above 5 °C, activity onset was synchronised with a solar altitude around 17-18° and activity ended at 10°. Activity onset was more precise relative to the solar altitude than the end of activity. This may be explained by late feeding bouts, following a midday thermal stress. In absence of rapid natural light-dark (LD) transitions that occur at civil twilight, our results suggest that the activity pattern of black-capped marmots may be synchronised by the light cycle through the solar altitude and ambient temperature.

  20. Slip Model of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) Earthquake from Inversions of ALOS-2 and GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Fialko, Y. A.

    2015-12-01

    We use surface deformation measurements including Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data acquired by the ALOS-2 mission of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Global Positioning System (GPS) data to invert for the fault geometry and coseismic slip distribution of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal. Assuming that the ruptured fault connects to the surface trace of the of Main Frontal Thrust fault (MFT) between 84.34E and 86.19E, the best-fitting model suggests a dip angle of 7 degrees. The moment calculated from the slip model is 6.17*1020 Nm, corresponding to the moment magnitude of 7.79. The rupture of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake was dominated by thrust motion that was primarily concentrated in a 150-km long zone 50 to 100 km northward from the surface trace of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT), with maximum slip of ~6 m at a depth of ~ 8 km. Data thus indicate that the 2015 Gorkha earthquake ruptured a deep part of the seismogenic zone, in contrast to the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake, which had ruptured a shallow part of the adjacent fault segment to the East.

  1. Gold nanoparticles physicochemically bonded onto tungsten disulfide nanosheet edges exhibit augmented plasmon damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcherio, Gregory T.; Dunklin, Jeremy R.; Backes, Claudia; Vaynzof, Yana; Benamara, Mourad; Roper, D. Keith

    2017-07-01

    Augmented plasmonic damping of dipole-resonant gold (Au) nanoparticles (NP) physicochemically bonded onto edges of tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanosheets, ostensibly due to hot electron injection, is quantified using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). EELS allows single-particle spatial resolution. A measured 0.23 eV bandwidth expansion of the localized surface plasmon resonance upon covalent bonding of 20 nm AuNP to WS2 edges was deemed significant by Welch's t-test. Approximately 0.19 eV of the measured 0.23 eV expansion went beyond conventional radiative and nonradiative damping mechanisms according to discrete dipole models, ostensibly indicating emergence of hot electron transport from AuNP into the WS2. A quantum efficiency of up to 11±5% spanning a 7 fs transfer process across the optimized AuNP-TMD ohmic junction is conservatively calculated. Putative hot electron transport for AuNP physicochemically bonded to TMD edges exceeded that for AuNP physically deposited onto the TMD basal plane. This arose from contributions due to (i) direct physicochemical bond between AuNP and WS2; (ii) AuNP deposition at TMD edge sites; and (iii) lower intrinsic Schottky barrier. This improves understanding of photo-induced doping of TMD by metal NP which could benefit emerging catalytic and optoelectronic applications.

  2. Heteroaromatic and aniline derivatives of piperidines as potent ligands for vesicular acetylcholine transporter

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junfeng; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Zhanbin; Padakanti, Prashanth K.; Jin, Hongjun; Cui, Jinquan; Li, Aixiao; Zeng, Dexing; Rath, Nigam P.; Flores, Hubert; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Parsons, Stanley M.; Tu, Zhude

    2013-01-01

    To identify suitable lipophilic compounds having high potency and selectivity for vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), a heteroaromatic ring or a phenyl group was introduced into the carbonyl-containing scaffold for VAChT ligands. Twenty new compounds with ALog D values between 0.53-3.2 were synthesized, and their in vitro binding affinities were assayed. Six of them (19a, 19e, 19g, 19k and 24a-b) displayed high affinity for VAChT (Ki = 0.93 – 18 nM for racemates) and moderate to high selectivity for VAChT over σ1 and σ2 receptors (Ki = 44 – 4400-fold). These compounds have a methyl or a fluoro substitution that provides the position for incorporating PET radioisotopes C-11 or F-18. Compound (-)-[11C]24b (Ki = 0.78 for VAChT, 900-fold over σ receptors) was successfully synthesized and evaluated in vivo in rats and nonhuman primates. The data revealed that (-)-[11C]24b has highest binding in striatum and has favorable pharmacokinetics in the brain. PMID:23802889

  3. The Use of Statistical Measures to Validate System Dynamics Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    B9-C9 E9: (T) [WI5] +D9^2 F9: (T) [W9] +D9/C9 G9: (T) [WI1 +F9A2 A10: (T) [W17] 240 B10: (T) 1428.3 C10 : (T) [W71 1582 DI0: (T) [W9] +BlO-C1O E10: (T...T) [W12] +B9-$B$19 E9: (T) +C9-$C$19 F9: (T) [W30] +D9*E9 A10: (T) [W15] +[FORMMSE]A9 BIO: (T) [W33] +(FORMMSE]B9 C10 : (T) [W151 +[FORMMISE]C9 D10...FORMMSE]E8 E9: (T) [W151 +B9A2 F9: (T) [W15] +C9A2 AIO: (T) [W41] +[FORMMSE]A9 BI0: (T) [W531 +[FORMMSEIB9 C10 : (T) (W41] +[FORMMSE]C9 D10: (T

  4. Influence of sol concentration on CdO nanostructure with gas sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, Jeevitesh K.; Pathak, Trilok K.; Kumar, Vinod; Purohit, L. P.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of sol concentration has been investigated on the sol-gel derived CdO nanostructures to optimize the optical and electrical properties enhancing gas sensing properties at low temperatures. X-ray diffraction patterns show that 0.5 M CdO film has cubic structure (111) preferred orientation with 34 nm particle size. Scanning electron micrographs indicated concentration dependent surface morphology. The optical band gap energy for highly transparent thin films increases from 1.9 eV to 2.34 eV as molarity was increased from 0.2 M to 1.0 M. The photoluminescence spectra of the samples have a violet to blue emission peak centred at 435 nm. J-V characteristics show that thin film of 0.5 M has conductivity 1.41 × 10-3 S/m. The sensor characteristic such as response curve, sensor response, response time and recovery time were measured for optimized thin film at different operating temperatures. The sensor response was found 20% near room temperature (32 °C) and proportional to temperature. Fastest response time 10 s and recovery time 20 s were observed near room temperature. The resistivity of sensor was found to decrease in presence of gas attribute to more charge carriers with flower like morphology. Our study is encouraging to get faster response by CdO thin films near room temperature.

  5. DFT study on the interaction between hydrogen sulfide ions and cerussite (110) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qicheng; Wen, Shuming; Deng, Jiushuai; Zhao, Wenjuan

    2017-02-01

    The interaction between hydrogen sulfide ions (HS-) and the cerussite surface was simulated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The calculated results show that Pb atoms are the dominating active sites for the subsequent reaction on the cerussite (110) surface. The S atom in HS- ions can readily interact with the Pb atoms at the cerussite surface layers with the interaction energy of -5.19 eV, resulting in the formation of lead sulfide species. An obvious difference occurs when HS- ions interact with the various Pb atoms on the cerussite surface. The density of state analysis reveals that the Pb 6p orbital at the mineral surface layers and S 3p orbital from HS- ions are overlapped between -1.5 and 0.5 eV near the Fermi level, indicating a stable chemical adsorption. The Mulliken population result suggests that the electron transfer exists between the bonding atoms and the oxidation of the HS- ions is involved in the adsorption process. This study provides an insight into the sulfidization mechanism at an atomic level, and further confirms the experimental phenomenon proposed in our previous work.

  6. Electronic Properties and Electroluminescence of Monosubstituted Polyacetylenes and Their Mixtures with Disubstituted Polyacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Rahmat; Hirohata, Masaharu; Fujii, Akihiko; Teraguchi, Masahiro; Masuda, Toshio; Yoshino, Katsumi

    1999-02-01

    Monosubstituted polyacetylenes (PA), that is, poly(phenylacetylene) (PPA) derivatives with various substituents attached at the ortho-position of the phenyl ring, have been studied. The valence band top and the bandgap energy of these polymers were estimated in the range from -5.5 eV to -5.9 eV (vs vacuum level) and from 1.9 eV to 2.3 eV, respectively, depending on the substituents. Although PL of these PPA derivatives is very weak, we have observed electroluminescence (EL), which is considered to be related to the nature of the self-trapped excitonic states of these polymers. The EL characteristics were found to depend on the substituents of polymers. In the mixture of poly(o-trimethylsilylphenylacetylene) (PPA-oSiMe3) with the strong luminescent disubstituted PA, poly(1-phenyl-2-p-n-butylphenylacetylene) (PDPA-nBu), the enhancement of PL of PPA-oSiMe3 was not observed. However, EL of PPA-oSiMe3 was enhanced in the mixture with PDPA-nBu, which is explained in terms of excitation energy transfer.

  7. Study of Annealing Effects on Ag2O Nanoparticles Generated by Electrochemical Spark Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Purushottam Kumar; Bishwakarma, Harish; Shubham; Das, Alok Kumar

    2017-06-01

    We describe a green process for the generation of silver oxide (Ag2O) nanoparticles from silver material through an electrochemical spark (discharge) process. The annealing operation was carried out on the produced nanoparticles to observe changes in the particle morphology and different properties. Ag2O nanoparticles were characterized by x-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. With the rise in annealing temperature, the average crystal size of Ag2O nanoparticles was increased proportionally and the shape was also changed. Plate-type structures were attained with high annealing temperatures. The EDX result confirmed the presence of silver and oxygen atoms. The band gap of the nanoparticle samples, which were produced by direct current and pulsating direct current, was noted to be 1.6 eV and 1.9 eV, respectively.

  8. Tailoring the Electronic Structure by Alloying: AgnCu34-n Nanoparticle Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Handan; Kara, Abdelkader; Rahman, Talat S.

    2010-03-01

    We report results of first principles calculations of the electronic structure of the AgnCu34-n bi-metallic nanoparticle family where n=0, 1, , 34. We find that alloying of the pure Ag cluster with a few Cu atoms displays substantial changes in the electronic structure but the reverse is not the case when few Ag atoms are substituted in pure Cu clusters. We find that local environment control the length and the strength of the Cu-Ag bonds. The Cu atoms, which form the core display shortened bond length and present above 1 eV shift in their d-band center. The HOMO-LUMO gap for the set of nanoalloys falls in three regions: 0.19 eV to 0.31 eV, 0.40 eV to 0.57 eV, and 0.73 eV to 0.88 eV. For several nanoparticles slight change in composition may thus lead to a change of about 600 meV in the gap. The highest gap is found for the most symmetric nanoparticle (Ag17Cu17), while the lowest is for Ag29Cu5. We present a systematic analysis of the changes in Cu-Ag, Ag-Ag and Cu-Cu bond lengths and hybridization with composition to understand their effect on the HOMO-LUMO gap and other characteristics of the nanoparticles.

  9. Optical and XPS studies of BCN thin films by co-sputtering of B4C and BN targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Adithya; Sundaram, Kalpathy B.

    2017-02-01

    Boron carbon nitride (BCN) thin films are investigated for their optical properties. BCN, is the unanimous choice for inter-dielectric layer (IDL) in very large scale integration (VLSI) because of its low-k dielectric constant. Optical properties can be tailored as a function of elemental composition, which makes BCN a prospective material in UV-filters and mirrors. Films are deposited by reactive co-sputtering of boroncarbide (B4C) and boronnitride (BN) with varying N2/Ar gas flow ratio by DC and RF sputtering respectively. XPS studies are performed to deduce the bonding and chemical properties of the BCN thinfilms. Optical band gap (Eg) studies are performed as a result of varying target powers, gas ratios and deposition temperatures. Eg is found to increase with N2/Ar flow ratios and deposition temperatures. BCN deposited at 20 W DC exhibited higher band gap range and the highest achieved is 3.7 eV at N2/Ar = 0.75. Lowest value achieved is 1.9 eV at N2/Ar = 0.25 for as-deposited films.

  10. Low-energy electron-induced dissociation in condensed-phase L-cysteine II: a comparative study on anion desorption from chemisorbed and physisorbed films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Elahe; Massey, Sylvain; Sanche, Léon; Rowntree, Paul A.

    2016-04-01

    Due to its multifunctional structure, cysteine is becoming an ideal model molecule for investigating the complex interactions of proteins with metallic surfaces such as gold nanoparticles. We report herein the results of low-energy electron induced degradation of L-cysteine films, chemisorbed on a gold substrate via the thiol group or physisorbed into a clean gold surface. The data were recorded under ultra-high vacuum conditions at room temperature. Anion yields desorbed from these films by the impact of 0.5 to 19 eV electrons provide clear evidence of the efficient decomposition of this amino acid via dissociative electron attachment (i.e., from dissociation of intermediate transient anions located between 5 and 14 eV). The peaks in the desorbed-anion yield functions, associated with DEA, are superimposed on a continuously rising signal attributed to dipolar dissociation. Similar to the results previously observed from physisorbed films, light anionic species, with masses lower than 35 amu, have been detected. In addition, we measured for first time fragments at 14 amu (CH2-) and 15 amu (CH3-) desorbing from physisorbed films, as well as heavier fragments of mass 45 and 46 amu desorbing from chemisorbed films. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Low-Energy Interactions related to Atmospheric and Extreme Conditions", edited by S. Ptasinska, M. Smialek-Telega, A. Milosavljevic, B. Sivaraman.

  11. Group III-nitride based hetero and quantum structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monemar, B.; Pozina, G.

    2000-11-01

    The present paper attempts an overview of a presently very active research field: the III-nitrides and their interesting possibilities for a range of device applications employing heterostructures and low-dimensional quantum structures. The family of materials containing AlN, GaN, InN and the alloys between them span a range of direct bandgaps between 6.2 and 1.9 eV, with very large band offsets in type I heterojunctions, which is very favourable for a number of interesting device concepts. A very important feature of these materials is the dominant influence of strong polarisation fields (spontaneous as well as piezo-electric) on the physical properties of multilayer structures, as well as on devices. Exciton binding energies are large, and excitonic effects are therefore important at room temperature. Many alloy systems, in particular InGaN, have a high miscibility gap, leading to a strong tendency for phase separation and consequently to many novel physical properties which yet have to be explored in detail. Localization effects for carriers and excitons are very important in quantum structures based on these alloys. Devices based on III-N heterostructures cover a wide range, from optical devices (violet lasers, LEDs covering a range from UV to red, white LEDs, photodetectors, UV cameras) to high-frequency power devices, both unipolar transistors (AlGaN/GaN HEMTs) and bipolar HBTs.

  12. On the evidence for clustering in the arrival directions of AGASA's ultrahigh energy cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, Chad B.; Westerhoff, Stefan

    2004-07-01

    Previous analyses of cosmic rays above 4 × 10 19 eV observed by the AGASA experiment have suggested that their arrival directions may be clustered. However, estimates of the chance probability of this clustering signal vary from 10 -2 to 10 -6 and beyond. It is essential that the strength of this evidence be well understood in order to compare it with anisotropy studies in other cosmic ray experiments. We apply two methods for extracting a meaningful significance from this data set: one can scan for the cuts which optimize the clustering signal, using simulations to determine the appropriate statistical penalty for the scan. This analysis finds a chance probability of about 0.3%. Alternatively, one can optimize the cuts with a first set of data, and then apply them to the remaining data directly without statistical penalty. One can extend the statistical power of this test by considering cross-correlation between the initial data and the remaining data, as long as the initial clustering signal is not included. While the scan is more useful in general, in the present case only splitting the data set offers an unbiased test of the clustering hypothesis. Using this test we find that the AGASA data is consistent at the 8% level with the null hypothesis of isotropically distributed arrival directions.

  13. Positronium physisorption at quartz surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saniz, Rolando; Freeman, Arthur; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Platzman, Phil

    2007-03-01

    The possibility of having positronium (Ps) physisorbed at a material surface is of great fundamental interest, since it can lead to new insight regarding quantum sticking and is a necessary first step to try to obtain a Ps2 molecule on a material host. Experimental evidence for physisorbed Ps at the surface of quartz was reported some years ago, but firm theoretical support for such a conclusion was lacking. With the FLAPW method we calculated the electronic structure and dielectric function of α-quartz and obtained the interaction potential with a Ps atom on its surface. We show that there is indeed a bound state with an energy of ˜0.19 eV, which is reasonably close to the experimental estimates of 0.14 - 0.17 eV. A brief energy analysis in terms of the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism further shows that the formation of a Ps2 molecule at quartz surface would be possible. Sferlazzo, Berko, Canter, Phys. Rev. B 3, 6067 (1985). Wimmer, Krakauer, Weinert, Freeman, Phys. Rev. B 24, 864 (1981).

  14. Free standing CuO-MnO2 nanocomposite for room temperature ammonia sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuvaneshwari, S.; Papachan, Seethal; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2017-05-01

    CuO nanostructures and CuO-MnO2 nanocomposite were successfully synthesized using hydrothermal method without any aid of growth controlling agents. The synthesized CuO nanostructures have monoclinic structure. The XRD pattern of CuO-MnO2 observed with mixed phases of monoclinic CuO and birnessite-type MnO2 which confirms the formation of nanocomposite. SEM images revealed the turmeric-like morphology for CuO and intercalated sheets with flowers on the surface for CuO-MnO2. The length and breadth of turmeric-like structure is about 642.2 nm and 141.8 nm, respectively. The band gap of 1.72 eV for CuO nanostructure and 1.9 eV for CuO-MnO2 nanocomposite were observed from the absorption spectra. The free standing devices of CuO-MnO2 showed nearly a 3 fold increase sensing response to ammonia at room temperature when compared to the constituent CuO. The composite sensor showed response time of 120 s and recovered within 600 s. This enhanced response can be asserted to the peculiar morphology of the composite that provides more adsorption site for gas diffusion to take place.

  15. Intrinsic half metallicity in lithium terminated zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Neha; Jaiswal, Neeraj K.; Sharma, Varun; Jha, Kamal K.; Srivastava, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    Half-metallic materials are the prime requisite for future spintronic devices. In present work, the possibility of half-metallic characteristic has been investigated in Li terminated zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNR) using density functional theory. Two different configurations: (i) both edges Li termination (Li-both edges) and (ii) one edge Li termination (Li-one edge), have been examined in the present study. The calculated binding energy (ranging from -3.19 eV to -4.96 eV) confirms that both the considered configurations are energetically viable to obtain. All the considered structures settled in antiferromagnetic ground state which is more stable than that of spin compensated state. Further, it is revealed that upto 100% spin polarization can be achieved (without application of any external electric field) in ZGNR with Li-one edge. Moreover, the observed half-metallicity is found to be independent of the ribbon width and therefore pledges for applications in novel spin filtering devices.

  16. Ab initio study of semiconductor atoms impurities in zigzag edge (10,0) carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Muttaqien, Fahdzi Suprijadi

    2015-04-16

    The substitutional impurities in zigzag edge (10,0) carbon nanotubes have been studied by using first principles calculations. Silicon (Si), gallium (Ga), and arsenic (As) atom have been chosen as semiconductor based-atom for replacing carbon atoms in CNT’s surface. The silicon atom changes the energy gap of pristine zigzag (10,0) CNT, it is 0.19 eV more narrow than that of pristine CNT. Geometrically, the silicon atom creates sp{sup 3} bond with three adjacent carbon atoms, where the tetrahedral form of its sp{sup 3} bond is consisted of free unoccupied state. The silicon atom does not induce magnetism to zigzag CNT. Due to gallium (Ga) and arsenic (As) atom substitution, the zigzag CNT becomes metallic and has magnetic moment of 1 µ{sub B}. The valance and conduction band are crossed each other, then the energy gap is vanished. The electronic properties of GaAs-doped CNT are dominantly affected by gallium atom and its magnetic properties are dominantly affected by arsenic atom. These results prove that the CNT with desired properties can be obtained with substitutional impurities without any giving structural defect.

  17. The role of relativity in the optical response of gold within the time-dependent current-density-functional theory.

    PubMed

    Romaniello, P; de Boeij, P L

    2005-04-22

    We included relativistic effects in the formulation of the time-dependent current-density-functional theory for the calculation of linear response properties of metals [P. Romaniello and P. L. de Boeij, Phys. Rev. B (to be published)]. We treat the dominant scalar-relativistic effects using the zeroth-order regular approximation in the ground-state density-functional theory calculations, as well as in the time-dependent response calculations. The results for the dielectric function of gold calculated in the spectral range of 0-10 eV are compared with experimental data reported in literature and recent ellipsometric measurements. As well known, relativistic effects strongly influence the color of gold. We find that the onset of interband transitions is shifted from around 3.5 eV, obtained in a nonrelativistic calculation, to around 1.9 eV when relativity is included. With the inclusion of the scalar-relativistic effects there is an overall improvement of both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function over the nonrelativistic ones. Nevertheless some important features in the absorption spectrum are not well reproduced, but can be explained in terms of spin-orbit coupling effects. The remaining deviations are attributed to the underestimation of the interband gap (5d-6sp band gap) in the local-density approximation and to the use of the adiabatic local-density approximation in the response calculation.

  18. Study of trap levels in Alq3 layers by photodipolar absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moliton, A.; Rammal, W.; Lucas, B.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper we develop arguments about the part of traps involved in the electronic conductivity of the 8-tris-hydroxyquinoline aluminium (Alq3) studied in the conventional electronic structure ITO/Alq3/Al. After the presentation of general models and some topical discussions about the expression of the mobility in organic materials, we present results obtained by photodipolar absorption, which is a thermo-photo-dielectric effect, and by impedance spectroscopy measurements. This last method permits to define the equivalent circuit that can be designed as a single capacitor Cp and parallel resistor Rp network with a series resistance Rs ≈ 50 Ω located on the anode side; the log - log plot Rp as a function of the dc bias voltage gives a linear law that can be seen in a first time as a consequence of a Trapped Charge Limited current (TCL); this TCL law could be improved with the introduction of a field dependent mobility. Indeed, the photodipolar absorption leads to more convincing arguments because this method acts as a probe to highlight the traps: in particular, we show that the optical pumping of electrons on trap levels gives a clear increase in the dielectric absorption generated by the reorientation of dipoles associated with trapped charges; the trap depth is located around Et = 0.19 eV, which is a value in good agreement with theoretical calculations or thermoluminescence measurements.

  19. Optical properties of Cr3+ -doped oxides: Different behavior of two centers in alexandrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lastra, J. M.; Aramburu, J. A.; Barriuso, M. T.; Moreno, M.

    2006-09-01

    This work is aimed at explaining the different color exhibited by the two Cr3+ centers in the alexandrite gemstone as well as ruby and emerald. Although the average Cr3+-O2- distance in ruby, emerald, and the Cs center in alexandrite is known to be practically the same, it is shown that the different values of the ligand field parameter 10Dq of the four Cr3+ centers mainly come from the electrostatic potential of the rest of lattice ions, VR(r) , seen by the CrO69- complex where active electrons are localized. This VR(r) potential, which strongly depends on the point symmetry group around the impurity, leads to an additional contribution to 10Dq not considered in the traditional ligand field theory. While for the Cs center (10Dq=2.19eV) and ruby (10Dq=2.24eV) , VR(r) has a similar shape along any Cr3+-O2- direction this is no longer true for the Ci center in alexandrite where the highest 10Dq value (equal to 2.53eV ) is measured.

  20. Experimental linear and calculated nonlinear optical properties of SeTePb glassy films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atyia, H. E.; Bekheet, A. E.

    2017-07-01

    Se90Te8Pb2 and Se90Te4Pb6 compositions have been prepared in bulk and thin film forms. Transmittance and reflectance have been measured for the investigated films over the wavelength range (500-2500 nm). The studied films are transparent where no light absorbed or scattered at the longer wavelength region, while they are absorbing at shorter wavelengths. The optical constants have been determined from the analysis of the transmittance and reflectance data using Murmann,s exact equations. The observed decrease in refractive index (n) values with Pb content is attributed to the increase of polarizability with Pb addition. Analysis of refractive index data yields some important parameters. An increase of Pb content in the studied film samples enlarge the Urbach's energy Ee values from 0.071 to 0.12 eV, which considered due to increase of the disorder defect localized states. These localized states arise due to the high difference in atomic radii of Te and Pb atoms. The optical transitions are found to be indirect with optical energy gap decreasing from 1.7 to 1.19 eV with increasing Pb content. The nonlinear optical susceptibility and the nonlinear refractive index are calculated from the obtained data and their dependence of Pb content is discussed as well.

  1. Early stage of the electron kinetics in swift heavy ion tracks in dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, N. A.; Rethfeld, B.; Volkov, A. E.; Shcheblanov, N. S.

    2010-09-15

    A Monte Carlo approach was applied for simulations of the early stage (first tens of femtosecond) of kinetics of the electronic subsystem of silica (SiO{sub 2}) in tracks of swift heavy ions (SHIs) decelerated in the electronic stopping regime. At the first step multiple ionizations of target atoms by a projectile (Ca{sup +19}, E=11.4 MeV/amu) were described that gave the initial spatial distributions of free electrons having different momenta as well as distributions of holes in different atomic shells. Spatial propagation of fast electrons results in secondary ionizations of target atoms as well as in energy transfer to the lattice at times much shorter than the times of atomic oscillations (phonons). The well detected front of excitation in the electronic and ionic subsystems is formed due to this propagation which cannot be described by models based on diffusion mechanisms (e.g., parabolic equations of heat diffusion). At times {approx}10 fs after the projectile passage, about {approx}0.1% of the energy is already transferred to the lattice. About 63% of the energy deposited by the ion is accumulated in holes at these times. Calculated distributions of these holes through the atomic shells are in excellent agreement with the spectroscopy experiments. Comparison with these experiments demonstrated also that relaxation of the electronic subsystem in SHI tracks in solids cannot be described adequately without taking into account intra-atomic and interatomic Auger (Knotek-Feibelman) processes.

  2. Frequency of species of Eimeria in females of the Holstein-Friesian breed at the post-weaning stage during autumn and winter.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Fábio Raphael Pascoti; Lopes, Marcos Aurélio; Demeu, Fabiana Alves; Perazza, Caio Augusto; Pedrosa, Marcos Ferrazani; Guimarães, Antônio Marcos

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of species of the genus Eimeria in a dairy herd in the municipality of Boa Esperança, Southern region of the State of Minas Gerais was assessed. From 37 females of the Friesian breed aged three to seven months, 259 feces samples were analyzed between May and September 2008. The examinations to quantify oocysts per gram of feces (OPG) and identify Eimeria species were conducted at the Veterinary Parasitology Laboratory of the Federal University of Lavras. Eleven species of Eimeria were identified, namely: E. bovis (23.2%), E. zuernii (22.6%), E. ellipsoidalis (20.3%), E. cylindrica (14.1%), E. subspherica (5.4%), E. canadensis (3.5%), E. alabamensis (2.4%), E. auburnensis (2.4%), E. pellita (2.1%), E. brasiliensis (2%) and E. bukidnonensis (1.9%). E. bovis, E. zuernii and E. ellipsoidalis were the most frequent and the ones with the highest oocyst shedding over time (p < 0.05). Differences in OPG counts were found between most months studied (p < 0.05). The large number of Eimeria species found, in particular E. bovis and E. zuernii, indicates that Eimeria sp. has significant pathogenic potential in dairy cattle in the South of Minas Gerais.

  3. Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from Alstonia rupestris with cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Cheng, Ming-He; Wang, Xiao-Hua

    2013-06-21

    Phytochemical investigation of the 70% EtOH extract of the leaves of Alstonia scholaris afforded seven new monoterpenoid indole alkaloids: scholarisins I-VII (1-7), and three known compounds: (3R,5S,7R,15R,16R,19E)-scholarisine F (8), 3-epi-dihydro- corymine (9), and (E)-16-formyl-5α-methoxystrictamine (10). Structural elucidation of all the compounds was accomplished by spectral methods such as 1D- and 2D-NMR, IR, UV, and HRESIMS. The isolated compounds were tested in vitro for cytotoxicity against seven tumor cell lines, anti-inflammatory activities against Cox-1 and Cox-2, and antifungal potential against five species of fungi. Compounds 1, 6, and 10 exhibited significant cytotoxicities against all the tested tumor cell lines with IC₅₀ values of less than 30 μM and selective inhibition of Cox-2 comparable with the standard drug NS-398 (>90%). Additionally, 1, 2, 3 and 8 showed antifungal activity against two fungal strains (G. pulicaris and C. nicotianae).

  4. X{sub max}{sup μ} vs. N{sup μ} from extensive air showers as estimator for the mass of primary UHECR's. Application for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Arsene, Nicusor; Sima, Octavian

    2015-02-24

    We study the possibility of primary mass estimation for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR's) using the X{sub max}{sup μ} (the height where the number of muons produced on the core of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) is maximum) and the number N{sup μ} of muons detected on ground. We use the 2D distribution - X{sub max}{sup μ} against N{sup μ} in order to find its sensitivity to the mass of the primary particle. For that, we construct a 2D Probability Function Prob(p,Fe | X{sub max}{sup μ}, N{sup μ}) which estimates the probability that a certain point from the plane (X{sub max}{sup μ}, N{sup μ}) corresponds to a shower induced by a proton, respectively an iron nucleus. To test the procedure, we analyze a set of simulated EAS induced by protons and iron nuclei at energies of 10{sup 19}eV and 20° zenith angle with CORSIKA. Using the Bayesian approach and taking into account the geometry of the infill detectors from the Pierre Auger Observatory, we observe an improvement in the accuracy of the primary mass reconstruction in comparison with the results obtained using only the X{sub max}{sup μ} distributions.

  5. Band gap engineering of ZnSnN2/ZnO (001) short-period superlattices via built-in electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, D. Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, S. L.

    2016-12-01

    Using density-functional-theory calculations combined with hybrid functional, we investigate the band gaps and built-in electric fields of ZnSnN2/ZnO (001) short-period superlattices. The band gap of ZnSnN2/ZnO (001) superlattice can be tuned from 1.9 eV to 0 eV by varying the thickness of both the ZnSnN2 and ZnO regions. Compared to the III-nitride superlattices, stronger built-in electric fields, induced by the polarizations, form inside the ZnSnN2/ZnO superlattices. The lowest electron and uppermost hole states are mainly localized at the two opposite interfaces of the superlattice, but the tails of the lowest electron states extend over several atomic layers. Based on the electrostatic argument, we demonstrate that variations of the band gap are approximately described by a geometric factor. The influence of the in-plane strain is also discussed. The results will be valuable in the design of ZnSnN2/ZnO heterostructures for electronics and optoelectronics applications.

  6. Arrays of ZnO/AZO (Al-doped ZnO) nanocables: a higher open circuit voltage and remarkable improvement of efficiency for CdS-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jianping; Wang, Minqiang; Liu, Jing; Song, Xiaohui; Yang, Zhi

    2014-03-15

    Photoelectrode of nanocables (NCs) structure of ZnO nanowires (NWs) coated with Al-doped ZnO (AZO) shells was investigated for CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). ZnO NWs serve as the frame for the preparation of AZO shells, in which electron transport more rapidly due to the more higher electron mobility of AZO (n-ZnO) than that of i-ZnO. AZO shells were assembled onto the surface of ZnO NWs via a spin-coating method. Optical band-gap of the ZnO/AZO films varies from 3.19 eV for pure ZnO to 3.25 eV for AZO (15%) depending on the Al-doping concentration. The PL intensity of AZO/ZnO, V(oc), J(sc) and η of the cells first increased and then decreased with the increase in the Al-doping (from 0% to 20%) and post-annealed temperature. Remarkably, the value of V(oc) can achieve above 0.8 V after Al-doping. The dark current and absorption spectrum provided direct evidence of the increase in J(sc) and V(oc), respectively. Moreover, we discussed the effect of Al-doping on optical band-gap of the samples and the transfer of electron.

  7. Genetic markers of pigmentation are novel risk loci for uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Robert; Vogelsang, Matjaz; Ucisik-Akkaya, Esma; Rai, Karan; Pilarski, Robert; Martinez, Carlos N.; Rendleman, Justin; Kazlow, Esther; Nagdimov, Khagay; Osman, Iman; Klein, Robert J.; Davidorf , Frederick H.; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H.; Kirchhoff , Tomas

    2016-01-01

    While the role of genetic risk factors in the etiology of uveal melanoma (UM) has been strongly suggested, the genetic susceptibility to UM is currently vastly unexplored. Due to shared epidemiological risk factors between cutaneous melanoma (CM) and UM, in this study we have selected 28 SNPs identified as risk variants in previous genome-wide association studies on CM or CM-related host phenotypes (such as pigmentation and eye color) and tested them for association with UM risk. By logistic regression analysis of 272 UM cases and 1782 controls using an additive model, we identified five variants significantly associated with UM risk, all passing adjustment for multiple testing. The three most significantly associated variants rs12913832 (OR = 0.529, 95% CI 0.415–0.673; p = 8.47E-08), rs1129038 (OR = 0.533, 95% CI 0.419–0.678; p = 1.19E-07) and rs916977 (OR = 0.465, 95% CI 0.339–0.637; p = 3.04E-07) are correlated (r2 > 0.5) and map at 15q12 in the region of HERC2/OCA2, which determines eye-color in the human population. Our data provides first evidence that the genetic factors associated with pigmentation traits are risk loci of UM susceptibility. PMID:27499155

  8. Dilute nitride multi-quantum well multi-junction design: a route to ultra-efficient photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaya, Gopi Krishna; Alemu, Andenet; Freundlich, Alex

    2011-02-01

    The current high-efficiency triple junction (Al)InGaP (1.9eV)/GaAs(1.42eV)/ Ge(0.66eV) design for a solar cell can be improved upon by the use dilute nitrides to include a sub-cell in the 1eV range. Addition of a small percentage of nitrogen to III-V semiconductor alloys (such as GaAsN) enables us to achieve the required bandgap, however these bulk dilute nitride structures suffer from a reduced minority carrier lifetime, decreasing the overall current output. The route suggested herein is to include dilute nitride multi-quantum wells (with thicknesses much lesser than the minority carrier diffusion length) within the intrinsic region of a GaAs subcell. Modeling has been done for this structure to obtain the confined energies of the electrons and holes, as well as the absorption coefficient and thereby the spectral response of the 4-junction cell. The results show that it is possible to achieve with the appropriate current matching, a conversion efficiency of ~40% under AM0 (1 sun) with up to ~18 mAcm-2 short circuit current.

  9. Neutrino and axion hot dark matter bounds after WMAP-7

    SciTech Connect

    Hannestad, Steen; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Raffelt, Georg G.; Wong, Yvonne Y.Y. E-mail: alessandro.mirizzi@desy.de E-mail: yvonne.wong@physik.rwth-aachen.de

    2010-08-01

    We update cosmological hot dark matter constraints on neutrinos and hadronic axions. Our most restrictive limits use 7-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies, the halo power spectrum (HPS) from the 7th data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the Hubble constant from Hubble Space Telescope observations. We find 95% CL upper limits of Σm{sub ν} < 0.44 eV (no axions), m{sub a} < 0.91 eV (assuming Σm{sub ν} = 0), and Σm{sub ν} < 0.41 eV and m{sub a} < 0.72 eV for two hot dark matter components after marginalising over the respective other mass. CMB data alone yield Σm{sub ν} < 1.19 eV (no axions), while for axions the HPS is crucial for deriving m{sub a} constraints. This difference can be traced to the fact that for a given hot dark matter fraction axions are much more massive than neutrinos.

  10. Cathodoluminescence Microanalysis of the Distribution of defects induced in fused silica by UV laser pulses and after damage mitigation treatment with a CO2 laser

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens-Kalceff, M; Wong, J

    2004-03-10

    Point defects are induced in high quality optical-grade fused silica by high fluence (>30 J/cm{sup 2}) 355nm laser pulses. The microscopic depth distribution of laser irradiation induced defects has been nondestructively determined using Cathodoluminescence (CL) microanalysis. CL emissions have been observed at 1.9eV, 2.2eV, 2.7eV and 4.4eV. In addition following CO{sup 2} laser treatment for damage mitigation an emission at 3.2eV is also observed. The CL emissions have been identified with the NBOHC (non-bridging oxygen hole center), the STE (self-trapped exciton), an ODC (oxygen-deficient center) and an aluminum impurity centre. The spatially resolved CL data is consistent with damage initiation at the exit surface. The concentration of 355 nm laser induced defects is greatest at the surface and monotonically decays to pre-irradiation levels at {approx}10 {micro}m depth below the surface. With CO{sup 2} processing to mitigate damage, the defect concentration and spatial distribution is reduced to a maximum depth of {approx}6{micro}m. CL microanalysis provides a sensitive and nondestructive method of assessing the magnitude and submicron distribution of irradiation induced damage in technologically important materials.

  11. Linear-Response and Real-Time Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Studies of Core-Level Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption.

    PubMed

    Lopata, K; Van Kuiken, B E; Khalil, M; Govind, N

    2012-09-11

    We discuss our implementation and application of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to core-level near-edge absorption spectroscopy, using both linear-response (LR) and real-time (RT) approaches. We briefly describe our restricted excitation window TDDFT (REW-TDDFT) approach for core excitations, which has also been reported by other groups. This is followed by a detailed discussion of real-time TDDFT techniques tailored to core excitations, including obtaining spectral information through delta-function excitation, postprocessing time-dependent signals, and resonant excitation through quasi-monochromatic excitation. We present results for the oxygen K-edge of water and carbon monoxide; the carbon K-edge of carbon monoxide; the ruthenium L3-edge for the hexaamminerutheium(III) ion, including scalar relativistic corrections via the zeroth order regular approximation (ZORA); and the carbon and fluorine K-edges for a series of fluorobenzenes. In all cases, the calculated spectra are found to be in reasonable agreement with experimental results, requiring only a uniform shift ranging from -4 eV to +19 eV, i.e., on the order of a few percent of the excitation energy. Real-time TDDFT visualization of excited state charge densities is used to visually examine the nature of each excitation, which gives insight into the effects of atoms bound to the absorbing center.

  12. Structural and electronic properties of free standing one-sided and two-sided hydrogenated silicene: A first principle study

    SciTech Connect

    Mohan, Brij Kumar, Ashok Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2014-04-24

    We performed first-principle study of the structural and electronic properties of two-dimensional hydrogenated silicene for two configurations; one is hydrogenation along one side of silicene sheet and second is hydrogenation in both sides of silicene sheet. The one-side hydrogenated silicene is found stable at planar geometry while increased buckling of 0.725 Å is found for both-side hydrogenated silicene. The result shows that the hydrogenation occupy the extended π-bonding network of silicene, and thus it exhibits semi-conducting behaviour with a band gap of 1.77 eV and 2.19 eV for one-side hydrogenated silicene and both-side hydrogenated silicene respectively. However, both-side hydrogenated silicene of binding energy 4.56 eV is more stable than one-side hydrogenated silicene of binding energy 4.30 eV, but experimentally silicene is synthesized on substrates which interacts one side of silicene layer and only other side is available for H-atoms. Therefore, practically one-side hydrogenation is also important.

  13. Unusual Changes in Electronic Band-Edge Energies of the Nanostructured Transparent n-Type Semiconductor Zr-Doped Anatase TiO2 (Ti1-xZrxO2; x < 0.3).

    PubMed

    Mieritz, Daniel G; Renaud, Adèle; Seo, Dong-Kyun

    2016-07-05

    By the establishment of highly controllable synthetic routes, electronic band-edge energies of the n-type transparent semiconductor Zr-doped anatase TiO2 have been studied holistically for the first time up to 30 atom % Zr, employing powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen gas sorption measurements, UV/vis spectroscopies, and Mott-Schottky measurements. The materials were produced through a sol-gel synthetic procedure that ensures good compositional homogeneity of the materials, while introducing nanoporosity in the structure, by achieving a mild calcination condition. Vegard's law was discovered among the homogeneous samples, and correlations were established between the chemical compositions and optical and electronic properties of the materials. Up to 20% Zr doping, the optical energy gap increases to 3.29 eV (vs 3.19 eV for TiO2), and the absolute conduction band-edge energy increases to -3.90 eV (vs -4.14 eV). The energy changes of the conduction band edge are more drastic than what is expected from the average electronegativities of the compounds, which may be due to the unnatural coordination environment around Zr in the anatase phase.

  14. Microstructural control of new intercalation layered titanoniobates with large and reversible d-spacing for easy Na+ ion uptake

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunjung; Kwon, Jiseok; Choi, Heechae; Song, Taeseup; Paik, Ungyu

    2017-01-01

    Key issues for Na-ion batteries are the development of promising electrode materials with favorable sites for Na+ ion intercalation/deintercalation and an understanding of the reaction mechanisms due to its high activation energy and poor electrochemical reversibility. We first report a layered H0.43Ti0.93Nb1.07O5 as a new anode material. This anode material is engineered to have dominant (200) and (020) planes with both a sufficiently large d-spacing of ~8.3 Å and two-dimensional ionic channels for easy Na+ ion uptake, which leads to a small volume expansion of ~0.6 Å along the c direction upon Na insertion (discharging) and the lowest energy barrier of 0.19 eV in the [020] plane among titanium oxide–based materials ever reported. The material intercalates and deintercalates reversibly 1.7 Na ions (~200 mAh g−1) without a capacity fading in a potential window of 0.01 to 3.0 V versus Na/Na+. Na insertion/deinsertion takes place through a solid-solution reaction without a phase separation, which prevents coherent strain or stress in the microstructure during cycling and ensures promising sodium storage properties. These findings demonstrate a great potential of H0.43Ti0.93Nb1.07O5 as the anode, and our strategy can be applied to other layered metal oxides for promising sodium storage properties.

  15. Structural, optical and electrical properties of vacuum evaporated PbSe/ZnSe multilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, S.; Arivazhagan, V.; Parvathi, M. Manonmani

    2012-06-01

    Multilayer thin films structures have received wide-spread attention due to their fast response and high efficiency. In this paper, we report the properties of PbSe/ZnSe multilayer thin films prepared by vacuum evaporation technique by sequential deposition of individual compounds. The prominent peak corresponding to (2 0 0) plane was observed in the Xray diffractogram with cubic crystal structure. The size of the crystallites are found to be 8 nm and 14 nm for the three-layer and five-layer films respectively. The absorption edge starts at 430 nm for the three-layer structures while that for the fivelayer film starts at 480 nm. The calculated optical band gaps of the three-layer and five-layer PbSe/ZnSe multilayer films are found to be 1.7 eV and 1.9 eV respectively. The electrical resitivities are found to be 2.8 × 107 Ω-cm for the three-layer film and 1.02 Ω cm for the five-layer film. The various electrical properties of the films such as mobility, carrier concentration and sheet resistance also are discussed in this paper.

  16. Preparation and characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and thin film solar cells produced by ion plating techniques. Final report, 1 January 1979-31 May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    Ion plating techniques for the preparation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films have been successfully developed. The technique involves essentially the evaporation of elemental silicon through a d.c. produced hydrogen plasma. In this way hydrogen has been successfully incorporated into amorphous silicon films in concentrations as high as 30 atomic percent. Infrared spectroscopy indicates the usual SiH/sub x/ stretching mode at approximately 2000 cm/sup -1/. Further evidence for the bonding of hydrogen was obtained from ESR measurement of hydrogenated and unhydrogenated samples. The measured unpaired spin density was a factor of 25 less in the hydrogenated sample. The optical absorption edges of the hydrogenated films fell in the usual range between 1.7 and 1.9 eV. Electrical conductivity measurements indicated a substantial reduction in the density of defect states in the gap as expected. It was also shown that hydrogenated amorphous silicon prepared by ion-plating could be doped by co-evaporation of the dopant element during film deposition. Both co-evaporated phosphorous and co-evaporated bismuth have been found to substantially increase the dark conductivity of a-Si:H while shifting the Fermi level towards the conduction band edge. An x-ray method for estimating the density and hydrogen content of a-Si:H has been developed. The measurement of strain in a-Si:H thin films is discussed. (WHK)

  17. Association study of 37 genes related to serotonin and dopamine neurotransmission and neurotrophic factors in cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Fernàndez-Castillo, N; Roncero, C; Grau-Lopez, L; Barral, C; Prat, G; Rodriguez-Cintas, L; Sánchez-Mora, C; Gratacòs, M; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Casas, M; Ribasés, M; Cormand, B

    2013-02-01

    Cocaine dependence is a neuropsychiatric disorder in which both environmental and genetic factors are involved. Several processes, that include reward and neuroadaptations, mediate the transition from use to dependence. In this regard, dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission systems are clearly involved in reward and other cocaine-related effects, whereas neurotrophic factors may be responsible for neuroadaptations associated with cocaine dependence. We examined the contribution to cocaine dependence of 37 genes related to the dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, neurotrophic factors and their receptors through a case-control association study with 319 single nucleotide polymorphisms selected according to genetic coverage criteria in 432 cocaine-dependent patients and 482 sex-matched unrelated controls. Single marker analyses provided evidence for association of the serotonin receptor HTR2A with cocaine dependence [rs6561333; nominal P-value adjusted for age = 1.9e-04, odds ratio = 1.72 (1.29-2.30)]. When patients were subdivided according to the presence or absence of psychotic symptoms, we confirmed the association between cocaine dependence and HTR2A in both subgroups of patients. Our data show additional evidence for the involvement of the serotoninergic system in the genetic susceptibility to cocaine dependence.

  18. LEED, STM, and TDS studies of ordered thin films of the rhombus-shaped polycondensed aromatic hydrocarbon C54H22, on MoS2, GeS, and graphite.

    PubMed

    Günther, Christian; Karl, Norbert; Pflaum, Jens; Strohmaier, Rainer; Gompf, Bruno; Eisenmenger, Wolfgang; Müller, Markus; Müllen, Klaus

    2005-01-18

    Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) are used to study vacuum vapor-deposited molecular thin films of the rhombus-shaped polycondensed aromatic hydrocarbon "rhombus-C54", C54H22, on MoS2 and graphite (0001) and on GeS (010) substrates. It is found that this compound forms well-ordered incommensurate superstructures of the closest packed flat-lying molecules in well-defined azimuthal orientations to the substrate. These films are thermally remarkably stable. By TDS, a monolayer binding energy on graphite of 2.3 eV was derived, whereas the molecules in the second layer were found to be less strongly bound (1.9 eV). This difference allows the preparation of monolayers by desorbing multilayers at the appropriate temperature. Apparently, this molecule is a promising candidate for further studies aiming at applications in organic electronics such as organic field effect transistors or light emitting displays.

  19. Effect of annealing time of CdCl2 vapor treatment on CdTe/CdS interface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riech, I.; Peña, J. L.; Ares, O.; Rios-Flores, A.; Rejón-Moo, V.; Rodríguez-Fragoso, P.; Mendoza-Alvarez, J. G.

    2012-04-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was used to study the influence of the CdCl2 annealing time on the CdTe/CdS solar cell structures. The intensity of the PL peaks related to the CdTe and CdS regions drastically changes after chlorine activation. Regardless of the annealing time of the treatment process, the intensity of the CdTe PL-related defect band increases and the CdS-associated PL emission is reduced due to partial consumption of the CdS layer. It was observed that an increase of the annealing time leads to a redshift of the emission around 1.9 eV related to the inclusion of Te into the CdS layer. Additionally, as annealing time increases, a shoulder, which we correlate with intermixing region, appears around 1.55 eV and reaches its maximum intensity for an annealing time of 60 min. The PL measurements were correlated with the electrical characteristic of the solar cells fabricated with this heterostructure. It was observed that after 60 min of annealing time, there was an increase in both the open circuit voltage (VOC) and the short circuit current (JSC), but for higher annealing times these parameters were reduced, decreasing the efficiency of the solar cell.

  20. Excitonic and electron-hole processes in NaCl and NaCl:Ag crystals under conditions of multiplication of electronic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldbach, E.; Kirm, M.; Lushchik, A.; Lushchik, Ch; Martinson, I.

    2000-03-01

    The excitation spectra of icons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/> and icons/Journals/Common/sigma" ALT="sigma" ALIGN="TOP"/> emissions of self-trapped excitons (3.4 eV and 5.4 eV, respectively) as well as the excitation spectra of 5.17 eV luminescence of Ag+ impurity centres were measured in NaCl and NaCl:Ag crystals using synchrotron radiation of 5 - 38 eV. Fast and slow components of these emissions were detected. An analysis of the differences in the excitation spectra measured at 8 and 295 K allowed us to separate the excitonic and electron-hole (e-h) mechanisms of the multiplication of electronic excitations. A photon of 17 - 19 eV forms an e-h pair and a secondary exciton, while the absorption of a 21 - 27 eV photon causes the creation of two e-h pairs. Using luminescent and photoelectric methods, it was shown that a 2p3s Na+ cation exciton, formed at the absorption of a 33.4 eV photon, decays with the creation of an anion exciton with a 3p hole component and two e-h pairs. Three e-h pairs are formed after the absorption of a 31 eV photon by a chlorine ion.

  1. Preparation of Ni doped ZnO thin films by SILAR and their characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, S.; Mitra, P.

    2013-02-01

    Pure and nickel (Ni) doped zinc oxide (NZO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates from ammonium zincate bath using successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). Characterization techniques such as XRD, TEM, SEM and EDX were utilized to investigate the effect of Ni doping on the microstructure of Ni:ZnO thin films. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction reveals the polycrystalline nature of the films. Particle size shows slightly decreasing trend with increasing nickel impurification. The average particle size for pure ZnO is 22.75 nm and it reduces to 20.51 nm for 10 % Ni doped ZnO. Incorporation of Ni was confirmed from elemental analysis using EDX. The value of fundamental absorption edge is 3.23 eV for pure ZnO and it decreases to 3.19 eV for 10 % Ni:ZnO. The activation energy barrier value to electrical conduction process increases from 0.261 eV for pure ZnO to 0.293 eV for 10 % Ni doped ZnO.

  2. Adsorption of functionalized benzoic acids on MgSO4.H2O (100).

    PubMed

    Maslyuk, Volodymyr; Tegenkamp, Christoph; Pfnür, Herbert; Bredow, Thomas

    2006-05-12

    Using a combination of ab initio and semiempirical methods, adsorption problems on surfaces with large unit cells and low symmetry can still be studied. Here, a hybrid approach of density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) was used. As an example, we determined the geometry and the electronic properties of benzoic acid (BA), salicylic acid (SA) and para-salicylic acid (p-SA) adsorbed on MgSO(4).H(2)O (100), which are used as conditioner molecules for the electrostatic separation of minerals. Contrary to general expectations, these molecules are chemisorbed, with binding energies around 1.9 eV, forming bonds through the carboxylic O atom of the COOH groups in a nonplanar geometry, although the surface is a stoichiometric wide-band-gap insulator and the molecules stay intact. In contrast, a planar adsorption geometry turned out to be nonbonding. Bonding takes place by means of surface-molecule resonances due to the overlap of the valence band with molecular orbitals, assisted by a small charge-transfer molecule to the surface of around 0.15e. These combined interactions cause an intramolecular twist between the COOH group and the benzene ring.

  3. An MIF Promoter Polymorphism Is Associated with Susceptibility to Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Diffuse Cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Campillo-Davó, Diana; López-Isac, Elena; Carmona, Francisco David; Simeon, Carmen P; Carreira, Patricia; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Castellví, Iván; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Rubio-Rivas, Manel; García-Hernández, Francisco J; Madroñero, Ana Belén; Beretta, Lorenzo; Santaniello, Alessandro; Lunardi, Claudio; Airó, Paolo; Hoffmann-Vold, Anna-Maria; Kreuter, Alexander; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Witte, Torsten; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Vonk, Madelon C; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; de Vries-Bouwstra, J; Shiels, Paul; Herrick, Ariane; Worthington, Jane; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Martin, Javier

    2017-10-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a fibrotic immune-mediated disease of unknown etiology. Among its clinical manifestations, pulmonary involvement is the leading cause of mortality in patients with SSc. However, the genetic factors involved in lung complication are not well defined. We aimed to review the association of the MIF gene, which encodes a cytokine implicated in idiopathic pulmonary hypertension among other diseases, with the susceptibility and clinical expression of SSc, in addition to testing the association of this polymorphism with SSc-related pulmonary involvement. A total of 4392 patients with SSc and 16,591 unaffected controls from 6 cohorts of European origin were genotyped for the MIF promoter variant rs755622. An inverse variance method was used to metaanalyze the data. A statistically significant increase of the MIF rs755622*C allele frequency compared with controls was observed in the subgroups of patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) and with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) independently (dcSSc: p = 3.20E-2, OR 1.13; PAH: p = 2.19E-02, OR 1.32). However, our data revealed a stronger effect size with the subset of patients with SSc showing both clinical manifestations (dcSSc with PAH: p = 6.91E-3, OR 2.05). We reviewed the association of the MIF rs755622*C allele with SSc and described a phenotype-specific association of this variant with the susceptibility to develop PAH in patients with dcSSc.

  4. Line-by-line radiative transfer model for infrared spectrum of AERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwang-Mog; Park, Joong-Hyun; Ahn, Myoung-Hwan; Ou, Mi-Lim; Kim, Yoonjae

    2012-05-01

    Infrared radiance spectra measured in space or on the ground have been used for many applications, such as the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles. The Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA) recently installed an Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) system at the Korea Global Atmosphere Watch Center (36°32'N, 125°19'E) in Anmyondo to measure the downward radiance spectra on the ground. For further utilization of such interferometeric radiance measurements, an accurate line-by-line radiative transfer model is required. This study introduces a line-by-line radiative transfer model developed at Kyungpook National University (KNU_LBL) and presents comparisons of spectra simulated using the KNU_LBL model and measured by the AERI system, that is installed inside a secure container. When compared with the Atmospheric and Environmental Research (AER) radiative transfer codes, the KNU_LBL model provides nearly identical spectra for various model atmospheres. The simulated spectra are also in good agreement with the AERI spectra for clear sky conditions, and a further improvement is made when taking into account of the emissions and absorption by CO2 and H2O for the light path inside the container, even though the path is short.

  5. Progress in ultra high energy neutrino experiments using radio techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jiali; Tiedt, Douglas

    2013-05-23

    Studying the source of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) can provide important clues on the understanding of UHE particle physics, astrophysics, and other extremely energetic phenomena in the universe. However, charged CR particles are deflected by magnetic fields and can not point back to the source. Furthermore, UHECR charged particles above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff (about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV) suffer severe energy loss due to the interaction with the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR). Consequently almost all the information carried by CR particles about their origin is lost. Neutrinos, which are neutral particles and have extremely weak interactions with other materials can arrive at the earth without deflection and absorption. Therefore UHE neutrinos can be traced back to the place where they are produced. Due to their weak interaction and ultra high energies (thus extremely low flux) the detection of UHE neutrinos requires a large collecting area and massive amounts of material. Cherenkov detection at radio frequency, which has long attenuation lengths and can travel freely in natural dense medium (ice, rock and salt et al), can fulfill the detection requirement. Many UHE neutrino experiments are being performed by radio techniques using natural ice, lunar, and salt as detection mediums. These experiments have obtained much data about radio production, propagation and detection, and the upper limit of UHE neutrino flux.

  6. Bone characteristics of late-term embryonic and hatchling broilers: bone development under extreme growth rate.

    PubMed

    Yair, R; Uni, Z; Shahar, R

    2012-10-01

    The development of broilers is an extreme example of rapid growth, increasing in weight from 40 g at hatch to 2,000 g 5 to 6 wk later. Such rapid growth requires a correspondingly fast development of the skeleton. Bone development is a genetically programmed process that is modified by epigenetic factors, mainly muscle-induced stresses and strains. In this study, we describe the temporal changes in bone morphology and material properties during the prehatch period [embryonic day (E) 14, E17, E19, E21] and posthatch d 3 and 7. The bones were examined for their weight, length, ash content, mechanical properties, and cortical structure. We show that the cross-sectional shape of the tibia and femur changes during the examination period from circular to elliptical. Additionally, the changes in bone properties are time-dependent and nonuniform: from E14 to E17 and from d 3 to 7, fast bone growth was noted, with major increases in both mechanical properties (stiffness, ultimate load, and energy to fracture) and geometric properties (cross-sectional area and thickness, medullary area, and moment of inertia). On the other hand, during the last days of incubation, most mechanical and geometric properties remain unchanged or even decrease. The reasons for this finding may relate to the hatching process but also to mineral shortage during the last days of incubation. This study leads to better understanding of bone development in ovo and posthatch in fast-growing broilers.

  7. Feasibility study of an Airwatch mission

    SciTech Connect

    De Marzo, C. N.

    1998-06-15

    The design strategy of an Airwatch mission intended to study cosmic rays at energies above 10{sup 19} eV is presented. Cosmic Rays having so Extreme Energies (EECR) can be studied through the fluorescence light their showers excite in the Earth's atmosphere, as seen by a detector mounted on a space platform. According to the Airwatch concept a single detector can be used for measuring both intensity and time development of the streak of fluorescence light produced by the atmospheric shower of an EECR. Both an explorative mission on a small free flyer and a high statistics mission are considered. In order to optimize the design of this space mission, preliminary measurements are forseen with the UVSTAR apparatus flying on the Shuttle and looking at the fluorescence light excited in the atmosphere by a laser. These measurements will provide data for signal to background evaluation. A laboratory measurement of the fraction of ionization energy going in fluorescence light in the air, as a function of pressure, temperature and chemical composition, is also planned. A high intensity X-ray beam will be used for the purpose. This measurement is important in order to evaluate the possibility of detecting GRB impacting on the entire atmosphere.

  8. Cortical neurons gradually attain a post-mitotic state.

    PubMed

    Anda, Froylan Calderon de; Madabhushi, Ram; Rei, Damien; Meng, Jia; Gräff, Johannes; Durak, Omer; Meletis, Konstantinos; Richter, Melanie; Schwanke, Birgit; Mungenast, Alison; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2016-09-01

    Once generated, neurons are thought to permanently exit the cell cycle and become irreversibly differentiated. However, neither the precise point at which this post-mitotic state is attained nor the extent of its irreversibility is clearly defined. Here we report that newly born neurons from the upper layers of the mouse cortex, despite initiating axon and dendrite elongation, continue to drive gene expression from the neural progenitor tubulin α1 promoter (Tα1p). These observations suggest an ambiguous post-mitotic neuronal state. Whole transcriptome analysis of sorted upper cortical neurons further revealed that neurons continue to express genes related to cell cycle progression long after mitotic exit until at least post-natal day 3 (P3). These genes are however down-regulated thereafter, associated with a concomitant up-regulation of tumor suppressors at P5. Interestingly, newly born neurons located in the cortical plate (CP) at embryonic day 18-19 (E18-E19) and P3 challenged with calcium influx are found in S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle, and still able to undergo division at E18-E19 but not at P3. At P5 however, calcium influx becomes neurotoxic and leads instead to neuronal loss. Our data delineate an unexpected flexibility of cell cycle control in early born neurons, and describe how neurons transit to a post-mitotic state.

  9. Systematic Survey of the Correlation between Northern HECR Events and SDSS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takami, H.; Nishimichi, T.; Sato, K.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the spatial correlation between the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays (HECRs) detected by the Akeno Giant Air Shower Array (AGASA) with energies above 4 × 10^{19} eV and the positions of galaxies observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) within z = 0.024. We systematically tested the dependence of the correlation on the redshift ranges and properties of the galaxies, i.e., absolute luminosity, color, and morphology, to understand where HECR sources are and what objects are HECR sources. In the systematic survey, we found potential signals of the positive correlation at small angular scale (< 10°) with the (non-penalized) chance probability less than 5% in intermediate redshift ranges. Then, we estimated penalized probabilities to compensate the trial effects of angular scan, and found that the strongest correlation is produced by early-type galaxies in 0.012 ≤ z < 0.018 at 90% C.L. The possible origin of HECRs which correlating galaxies imply is also discussed.

  10. Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites with Improved Stability for Tandem Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Beal, Rachel E; Slotcavage, Daniel J; Leijtens, Tomas; Bowring, Andrea R; Belisle, Rebecca A; Nguyen, William H; Burkhard, George F; Hoke, Eric T; McGehee, Michael D

    2016-03-03

    A semiconductor that can be processed on a large scale with a bandgap around 1.8 eV could enable the manufacture of highly efficient low cost double-junction solar cells on crystalline Si. Solution-processable organic-inorganic halide perovskites have recently generated considerable excitement as absorbers in single-junction solar cells, and though it is possible to tune the bandgap of (CH3NH3)Pb(BrxI1-x)3 between 2.3 and 1.6 eV by controlling the halide concentration, optical instability due to photoinduced phase segregation limits the voltage that can be extracted from compositions with appropriate bandgaps for tandem applications. Moreover, these materials have been shown to suffer from thermal degradation at temperatures within the processing and operational window. By replacing the volatile methylammonium cation with cesium, it is possible to synthesize a mixed halide absorber material with improved optical and thermal stability, a stabilized photoconversion efficiency of 6.5%, and a bandgap of 1.9 eV.

  11. Structural and optical properties of KNN nanocubes synthesized by a green route using gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorrami, Gh. H.; Kompany, A.; Zak, A. Khorsand

    2015-01-01

    Sodium potassium niobate nanoparticles [(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3, KNN], KNN-NPs, were synthesized using a modified sol-gel method. Structural and optical properties of the prepared samples were investigated by thermogravometric analyzer (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The XRD patterns showed that the formation of the orthorhombic KNN-NPs starts at 500°C calcination temperature. Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the crystalline symmetry and the structural deformation of the prepared KNN-NPs. TEM images showed that the morphology of the prepared particles is cubic, with the average size of about 50 nm. From diffused reflectance spectroscopy along with using Kubelka-Munk method, the energy bandgaps were determined to be indirect with the values of 3.13 eV and 3.19 eV for the samples calcined at 500°C and 600°C, respectively.

  12. THE COSMIC-RAY ENERGY SPECTRUM OBSERVED WITH THE SURFACE DETECTOR OF THE TELESCOPE ARRAY EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Hanlon, W.; Aida, R.; Azuma, R.; Fukuda, T.; Cheon, B. G.; Cho, E. J.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; and others

    2013-05-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) collaboration has measured the energy spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with primary energies above 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} eV. This measurement is based upon four years of observation by the surface detector component of TA. The spectrum shows a dip at an energy of 4.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} eV and a steepening at 5.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} eV which is consistent with the expectation from the GZK cutoff. We present the results of a technique, new to the analysis of UHECR surface detector data, that involves generating a complete simulation of UHECRs striking the TA surface detector. The procedure starts with shower simulations using the CORSIKA Monte Carlo program where we have solved the problems caused by use of the ''thinning'' approximation. This simulation method allows us to make an accurate calculation of the acceptance of the detector for the energies concerned.

  13. MgB2 -based negative refraction index metamaterial at visible frequencies: Theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kussow, Adil-Gerai; Akyurtlu, Alkim; Semichaevsky, Andrey; Angkawisittpan, Niwat

    2007-11-01

    The presented metamaterial consists of the matrix (magnesium diboride MgB2 in a normal state, at room temperature) with randomly (or regularly) embedded spherical nanoparticles of a polaritonic crystal, SiC. The calculations demonstrate explicitly that the metamaterial exhibits negative refraction index behavior with low losses for a scattered wave. The result stands for both random and regular distributions of SiC nanoparticles inside the MgB2 matrix. This favorable situation stems from the Drude-like behavior of both the low-energy, p2(ωp2≈1.9eV) , and the high-energy, p1(ωp1≈6.3eV) , plasmon modes of MgB2 with plasmon losses, γ⩽0.25eV . The effective medium parameters were calculated in the framework of the extended theories of Maxwell-Garnett [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 203, 385 (1904)] and Lewin [Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng. 94, 65 (1947)], and the obtained results are validated via ab initio finite difference time domain simulations.

  14. Status of EXO-200

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, Nicole; /SLAC

    2011-12-06

    EXO-200 is the first phase of the Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) experiment, which searches for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 136}Xe to measure the mass and probe the Majorana nature of the neutrino. EXO-200 consists of 200 kg of liquid Xe enriched to 80% in {sup 136}Xe in an ultra-low background TPC. Energy resolution is enhanced through the simultaneous collection of scintillation light using Large Area Avalanche Photodiodes (LAAPD's) and ionization charge. It is being installed at the WIPP site in New Mexico, which provides a 2000 meter water-equivalent overburden. EXO-200 will begin taking data in 2009, with the expected two-year sensitivity to the half-life for neutrinoless double beta decay of 6.4 x 10{sup 25} years. According to the most recent nuclear matrix element calculations, this corresponds to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of 0.13 to 0.19 eV. It will also measure the two neutrino mode for the first time in {sup 136}Xe.

  15. Experimental study of NIR absorption due to Nb4+ polarons in pure and Cr- or Ce-doped SBN crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Kapphan, S.; Porcher, S.; Pankrath, R.

    1999-06-01

    A broad absorption band around 0.72 eV, assigned to the absorption of Nb4+ polarons, is observed in strontium barium niobate (SBN) crystals (nominally pure or Cr- or Ce-doped) either under illumination at low temperature or after a previous reduction treatment. The absorption spectra of Nb4+ polarons at low temperature show considerable dichroism, which in reduced SBN crystals exists even far above room temperature. The peak position of the Nb4+ polaron absorption in reduced SBN crystals shifts to higher energies with decreasing temperature. The dependence on light intensity and temperature of the Nb4+ polaron absorption during the build-up process under illumination and the decay process after the illumination is switched off are investigated in detail. Compared with pure SBN, doping with Ce or Cr creates additional absorption bands in the visible (2.6 eV) and red (1.9 eV for Cr doping) spectral regions. Illumination in these absorption bands at low temperature gives rise to strong Nb4+ polaron absorption in the NIR (0.72 eV), giving evidence of the enhanced sensitivity even in the red spectral region for SBN:Cr. The light-induced charge transfer process and formation of Nb4+ polarons in SBN are briefly discussed.

  16. Magnesium diffusion profile in GaN grown by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzarti, Z.; Halidou, I.; Bougrioua, Z.; Boufaden, T.; El Jani, B.

    2008-07-01

    The diffusion of magnesium has been studied in GaN layers grown on sapphire substrate by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor-phase-epitaxy (MOVPE) in a "home-made" reactor. Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) was used to visualise the Mg profiles in two kinds of multi-sublayer GaN structures. One structure was grown with a variable flow of Ga precursor (TMG) and the second one with a variable growth temperature. In both cases, the Mg dopant precursor (Cp 2Mg) flow was kept constant. Using the second Fick's law to fit the experimental SIMS data, we have deduced an increasing then a saturating Mg diffusion coefficient versus the Mg concentration. Mg incorporation was found to get higher for lower growth rate, i.e. when TMG flow is reduced. Furthermore, based on the temperature-related behaviour we have found that the activation energy for Mg diffusion coefficient in GaN was 1.9 eV. It is suggested that Mg diffuses via substitutional sites.

  17. Thermionic emission and work function of U and UO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, W.; Chen, H.L.

    1985-02-01

    Thermionic emission measurements have been used to determine the work function (phi) of pure and oxidized uranium samples between 1100 and 1300/sup 0/K; Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) was used to verify the cleanliness and compositions of the samples. It was found that impurities present in ppM amounts in the bulk U segregated to the surface upon heating and had an appreciable effect on the zero-field emission currents as well as the slopes of the Schottkey curves obtained at various temperatures. A combination of ion-sputtering and ultra-high vacuum (UHV) annealing at high temperatures was successful in reducing the total impurity level on the hot surfaces to approx.5%. At this low concentration of impurities, well-behaved Richardson line plots were obtained with A = 135 A cm/sup -2/ K/sup -2/ and phi = 3.54 eV for pure U, and A = 128 A cm/sup -2/ K/sup -2/ and phi = 3.19 eV for UO/sub 2/. The Schottkey coefficients for clean U approached their ideal values at fields > 400 V/cm.

  18. Structural and electronic properties of free standing one-sided and two-sided hydrogenated silicene: A first principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Brij; Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2014-04-01

    We performed first-principle study of the structural and electronic properties of two-dimensional hydrogenated silicene for two configurations; one is hydrogenation along one side of silicene sheet and second is hydrogenation in both sides of silicene sheet. The one-side hydrogenated silicene is found stable at planar geometry while increased buckling of 0.725 Å is found for both-side hydrogenated silicene. The result shows that the hydrogenation occupy the extended π-bonding network of silicene, and thus it exhibits semi-conducting behaviour with a band gap of 1.77 eV and 2.19 eV for one-side hydrogenated silicene and both-side hydrogenated silicene respectively. However, both-side hydrogenated silicene of binding energy 4.56 eV is more stable than one-side hydrogenated silicene of binding energy 4.30 eV, but experimentally silicene is synthesized on substrates which interacts one side of silicene layer and only other side is available for H-atoms. Therefore, practically one-side hydrogenation is also important.

  19. Photoresponse properties of BaSi2 film grown on Si (100) by vacuum evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thi Trinh, Cham; Nakagawa, Yoshihiko; Hara, Kosuke O.; Takabe, Ryota; Suemasu, Takashi; Usami, Noritaka

    2016-07-01

    We have succeeded in the observation of high photoresponsivity of orthorhombic BaSi2 film grown on crystalline Si by a vacuum evaporation method, raising the prospect of its promising application in high-efficiency thin-film solar cells. Photocurrent was observed at photon energies larger than 1.28 eV, which corresponds to the band gap of evaporated BaSi2 film, indicating that the photoresponsivity originates from the BaSi2 film. The effect of the substrate temperature on the film’s properties was also investigated. The films grown at a substrate temperature larger than 500 °C are single-phase polycrystalline BaSi2 films, while those grown at a substrate temperature of 400 °C is a mixture of phases. We confirmed that undoped evaporated BaSi2 films are an n-type material with high carrier concentration. High carrier lifetime of 4.8 and 2.7 μs can be found for the films grown at 500 °C and 400 °C, respectively. BaSi2 film grown at a substrate temperature of 500 °C, which is crack-free and single-phase, shows the best photoresponsivity. The maximum value of photocurrent was obtained at photon energy of 1.9 eV, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 22% under reverse applied voltage of 2 V.

  20. Urogastrone-epidermal growth factor and aspects of sexual maturation in female rats as a function of age at treatment.

    PubMed

    da Silva, V A; Smart, J L; McLean, A E

    1991-05-01

    The effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on sexual maturation of female rats was studied. A within-litter experimental design was employed, so that in each litter each female received four daily injections of EGF (E, 500 ng/g body weight s.c.) or vehicle (V), at one of three ages: days 0-3 (E1, V1), days 8-11 (E2, V2), days 16-19 (E3, V3). Body weight, pinna detachment, incisor eruption, eye opening, auditory startle, visual placing, vaginal opening and first cytological oestrus were assessed. Neonatal treatment with EGF (E1) delayed pinna detachment and the appearance of the auditory startle, but accelerated eye opening. Also, E1, but not E2 and E3, resulted in lower body weight at weaning. Treatment E3 advanced sexual maturation, as indicated by vaginal opening and first cytological oestrus, by 5-6 days. E1 and E2 had no such effect. Hence the sensitive period for the effect of EGF on female rat sexual maturation is later than that for effects on other developmental characteristics and body weight. In a second experiment, ovary and uterus weights were found not to differ between E3 and V3 females killed on the day of vaginal opening of the E3 rats, suggesting that the effect of EGF may be specifically on the perineal epithelium and not on sexual maturation generally.