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Sample records for 19th century british

  1. Scurvy in the British Mercantile Marine in the 19th century, and the contribution of the Seamen's Hospital Society.

    PubMed

    Cook, G C

    2004-04-01

    When long voyages in sailing vessels were commonplace, scurvy was a major health hazard in mariners of all nations. The observations of James Lind (1716-94) and others indicated that citrus fruits had both a preventive and curative role in this disease. In the light of this work, by 1800 the disease had been virtually eliminated from Britain's Royal Navy. However, it continued in the merchant navies of all nations until the latter half of the 19th century. In 1867, the Merchant Shipping Amendment Act was passed by the British Parliament largely as a result of a concerted effort by the Seamen's Hospital Society (SHS), one of whose physicians, Harry Leach (1836-79) was the major proselytiser for improved conditions in the merchant service. Examination of the SHS records before and after this event demonstrate a marked reduction in the prevalence of scurvy in the Port of London. Although other factors-such as the introduction of steam ships, which resulted in faster voyages-were clearly important, the compulsory administration of genuine lime juice under supervision in the merchant service seems to have exerted a significant effect. PMID:15082845

  2. The genetic legacy of the 19th-century decline of the British polecat: evidence for extensive introgression from feral ferrets.

    PubMed

    Costa, M; Fernandes, C; Birks, J D S; Kitchener, A C; Santos-Reis, M; Bruford, M W

    2013-10-01

    In the 19th century, the British polecat suffered a demographic contraction, as a consequence of direct persecution, reaching its lowest population in the years that preceded the First World War. The polecat is now recovering and expanding throughout Britain, but introgressive hybridization with feral ferrets has been reported, which could be masking the true range of the polecat and introducing domestic genes into the species. We used a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region and 11 microsatellite loci to characterize the frequency and extent of hybridization and introgression between the two species and assess whether the 19th-century decline corresponded to a genetic bottleneck in the polecat. The proportion of admixture detected in the wild was high (31%) and hybrids were more frequently found outside Wales, suggesting that hybridization is more likely to occur along the eastern edge of the polecat's range expansion. The patterns observed in the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data show that introgression was mediated by crosses between male polecats and female ferrets, whose offspring backcrossed with polecats. No first-generation (F1 ) hybrids were identified, and the broad range of observed admixture proportions agrees with a scenario of past extensive hybridization between the two species. Using several different methods to investigate demographic history, we did not find consistent evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the British polecat, a result that could be interpreted as a consequence of hybridization with ferrets. Our results highlight the importance of the Welsh polecat population for the conservation and restoration of the genetic identity of the British polecat.

  3. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  4. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  5. Teratology in Mexico. 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Gorbach, Frida

    2014-01-01

    It was not until the last third of the 19th century, the period in which, according to historiography, the country definitely inserted itself into modernity, that anomalies and monstrosities had a presence in Mexico. Therefore, what I present here are four moments of teratology in Mexico, four dates in which I try to recount how teratology, which still occupied a marginal place within the main themes of national science, not only reached to cover the realm of medical discussions at the time, but also laid the foundations for new disciplines like biology and anthropology.

  6. [Assisted birth in 19th century Bahia].

    PubMed

    Barreto, Maria Renilda Nery

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the traditions of assisted childbirth in the Brazilian state of Bahia in the 19th Century and develops the hypothesis that two obstetrical traditions coexisted in the capital, Salvador, namely the doctor-midwives--who used technical resources and knowledge acquired from obstetrics as a medical specialty--and the traditional midwives, whose know-how was purely of an empirical-sensorial nature. Despite all efforts employed by the doctors to win over the confidence of Bahian families, the midwives continued to be predominant in the art of 'delivering' children and treating female illnesses. The analysis focuses on the social and professional segments that were active in assisted birth; the role of the Bahian College of Medicine (Faculdade de Medicina da Bahia) in the training and certification of midwives and the use of newspapers as a way to legitimize the doctor-midwives; it also discusses the scant coverage of the midwives in these media.

  7. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  8. Puerperal insanity in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Rehman, A U; St Clair, D; Platz, C

    1990-06-01

    All patients with puerperal psychosis admitted to the Royal Edinburgh Hospital within 90 days of childbirth during the periods 1880-90 and 1971-80 were compared. The majority of cases in both groups had an affective illness with an acute presentation and a fixed interval of onset. The 19th-century cases had a more florid presentation and a greater length of admission (mean, 151 days) to the hospital than the 20th-century ones (mean, 39 days). The incidence of the disorder rose from 0.34 per 1000 childbirths per year in the 19th-century group to 1.04 in the 20th-century one, but this could be explained by nosocomial factors. Most 19th-century cases occurred in multigravid women, which questions the association of puerperal psychosis with primiparae.

  9. Technical improvements in 19th century Belgian window glass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauriks, Leen; Collette, Quentin; Wouters, Ine; Belis, Jan

    Glass was used since the Roman age in the building envelope, but it became widely applied together with iron since the 19th century. Belgium was a major producer of window glass during the nineteenth century and the majority of the produced window glass was exported all over the world. Investigating the literature on the development of 19th century Belgian window glass production is therefore internationally relevant. In the 17th century, wood was replaced as a fuel by coal. In the 19th century, the regenerative tank furnace applied gas as a fuel in a continuous glass production process. The advantages were a clean production, a more constant and higher temperature in the furnace and a fuel saving. The French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1787-1793) and later the Belgian chemist Ernest Solvay (1863) invented processes to produce alkali out of common salt. The artificial soda ash improved the quality and aesthetics of the glass plates. During the 19th century, the glass production was industrialized, influencing the operation of furnaces, the improvement of raw materials as well as the applied energy sources. Although the production process was industrialized, glassblowing was still the work of an individual. By improving his work tools, he was able to create larger glass plates. The developments in the annealing process followed this evolution. The industry had to wait until the invention of the drawn glass in the beginning of the 20th century to fully industrialise the window glass manufacture process.

  10. Art and Education for Women in 19th Century Boston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efland, Arthur D.

    1985-01-01

    Art was introduced into women's education in 19th century Boston as a kind of finishing school treatment to equip them for marriage and later for careers as school teachers. Common school art emphasized practical application. Feminine art education, by contrast, promoted the teaching of art as high culture. (Author/RM)

  11. Vocational Education in the 19th Century American Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Gordon F.

    The phrase "all things useful and all things ornamental," coined by Benjamin Franklin, describes the stated mission of most of the approximately 6,000 educational academies flourishing in America in the mid-19th century. Built upon the roots of Latin grammar schools, the academies evolved to include courses in many areas, from classical studies to…

  12. [Popular knowledge about medicaments in 19th century periodicals].

    PubMed

    Arabas, Iwona

    2004-01-01

    Polish periodicals published since the beginning of 19th century contained household knowledge which was of great importance to peasants. In the second half of 19th century the number of articles related to prevention, treatment as well as life hygiene (including nutrition guidance) enlarged significantly. The term "household medicine box# was very often used in periodicals as titles of both: sections dedicated to hygiene or medicine as well as for articles describing medicaments intended to be kept in the boxes. Articles referenced law regulations stated in "law for pharmacists and pharmacies# from 1844. The availability of medical handbooks widened with the end of the century and this fact may have caused the changes in profiles of numerous medical sections in popular periodicals. However the changes did not affect publications related to contents of medical boxes.

  13. Disputed discovery: vivisection and experiment in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Carin

    2006-09-01

    In the early 19th century, physiologists Sir Charles Bell and François Magendie both claimed to have been the first to identify separate motor and sensory nerve roots, a discovery acknowledged by their contemporaries as one of the most important of the age. This priority dispute came to embody distinct visions of physiology, and of the role of experimentation and vivisection within that discipline. The dispute remained unresolved, in part, because of competing definitions of what was being discovered.

  14. Bilingualism and memory: early 19th century ideas about the significance of polyglot aphasia.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie

    2007-07-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, there was very little attention given to bilingual speakers within the growing clinical literature on aphasia. The first major publication on this topic (Pitres, 1895), appeared three decades after Broca's seminal work. Previously, Ribot (1881) had discussed the phenomenon of bilingual aphasia in the context of diseases of memory. Although interest in the neurological basis of the language faculty was in fact present throughout the century, the theoretical implications of the knowledge of more than one language did not appear to be linked to this issue. A number of British authors writing in the first half of the 19th century have been identified who did consider the significance of these cases. Importantly, these writers speculated on the implication of bilingual aphasia specifically with regard to ideas about memory rather than language. Consideration of these writings helps to illuminate the history of ideas about the organization of language in the brain. PMID:17715800

  15. Bilingualism and memory: early 19th century ideas about the significance of polyglot aphasia.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie

    2007-07-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, there was very little attention given to bilingual speakers within the growing clinical literature on aphasia. The first major publication on this topic (Pitres, 1895), appeared three decades after Broca's seminal work. Previously, Ribot (1881) had discussed the phenomenon of bilingual aphasia in the context of diseases of memory. Although interest in the neurological basis of the language faculty was in fact present throughout the century, the theoretical implications of the knowledge of more than one language did not appear to be linked to this issue. A number of British authors writing in the first half of the 19th century have been identified who did consider the significance of these cases. Importantly, these writers speculated on the implication of bilingual aphasia specifically with regard to ideas about memory rather than language. Consideration of these writings helps to illuminate the history of ideas about the organization of language in the brain.

  16. Science in the 19th-century zoo.

    PubMed

    Hochadel, Oliver

    2005-03-01

    The 19th century saw the advent of the modern zoological garden. The newly founded zoos not only claimed to educate and entertain their audiences, but also to serve science by providing direct access to exotic animals. However, reality did not live up to the promise of such rhetoric. The vast majority of biologists preferred to use dead bodies as the material for their morphological research. Nevertheless, there was still a strong interaction between the zoo and science. In the debate on Darwinism, the apes in the cage played a vital role.

  17. [Strength training at the beginning of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Seignan, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 19th century, the therapies of strength had part task to revive vital energy and thus to restore the body forces. Under the method assigned with this objective, there were the baths, body exercises and a continuation of preservation recommended by hygiene. On a general level, the doctor had in hearth to harder the body and to make it robust and healthy. He is to the sick of the head could benefit from this care. Electrification made demonstration of its curative action and its interest to treat the languid state. Considered under this angle, strength could not be then the prerogative of the only muscles.

  18. The development of the dementia concept in 19th century.

    PubMed

    Caixeta, Leonardo; Costa, Jean Newton Lima; Vilela, Ana Caroline Marques; Nóbrega, Magno da

    2014-07-01

    The dementia concept has been reformulated through its history and the 19th century was remarkable in the construction of this concept as we understand it today. Like other syndromes, much of the history of the dementia concept comes from the attempt to separate it from other nosological conditions, giving it a unique identity. The fundamental elements for the arising of the dementia modern concept were: a) correlation of the observed syndrome with organic-cerebral lesions; b) understanding of the irreversibility of the dementia evolution; c) its relation with human ageing; and d) the choice of the cognitive dysfunction as a clinical marker of the dementia concept.

  19. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    PubMed

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder.

  20. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    PubMed

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:27035922

  1. Music therapy in the 19th century America.

    PubMed

    Davis, W B

    1987-01-01

    The history of music therapy in the United States has not been thoroughly investigated and documented. The few sources containing information on the historical uses of music in medicine concentrate primarily on 20th century practices, while virtually omitting 19th century contributions to the field. The purpose of this study was to analyze elected music therapy literature that appeared in 19th century medical journals and dissertations. The articles found in these publications indicated interest during this time in advocating the use of music to provide the patient an alternate, more holistic approach to treatment. The dissemination of music therapy ideas occurred almost exclusively through these publications, which unfortunately resulted in very limited proliferation of the topic because of the nature of the audience (i.e.,primarily physicians). Nine articles were analyzed; the study was based on primary evidence located in medical journals and dissertations written between 1804 and 1899. The sources were located in a variety of bibliographies found in books, journals, dissertations, and theses.

  2. [The technicalization of medicine in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Olsén, J E

    2001-01-01

    The paper focuses on the role that instruments played in the medical discourse of the 19th century. Towards the end of the century, instruments had imbued the medical sciences to such an extent that the situation soon was compared to the vernacular confusion of the biblical tower of Babel. Whereas the autonomical recordings of laboratory apparatus, vouched for guarantee against biased test results, clinicians and general practitioners were finding it difficult to incorporate the new techniques into their daily routines. A tension between the instrument as invention, moulded to fit a particular series of experiments, and the instrument as a reproducible item, was inevitable. Hence, the unification of the science and practice of medicine, became an important topic at the international medical meetings of the late 19th century. Seen in the light of the industrialization and urbanization of occidental culture and society, the instrumentation of medicine entailed a number of significant issues which hinged on the relationship between the biological destiny of man and the artificial wonders of technology. Grand metaphors like the organic machine and the human motor, did not only signal a scientific preoccupation with the shortcomings of the living organism as opposed to the perfection of the machine, but also indicated closer ties between the human body and technology at large. In a certain sense, medical instruments, along with apparatuses such as the camera, the steam-engine, the telegraph, the phonograph and the cinematograph, offered a new set-up of codes with which the body and its functions could be reinterpreted. In this respect, the late nineteenth-century strive for the standardisation and unification of medical instruments, was not irreconcilable with the notion of the l'homme moyen, as conceived, for example, in the work of the Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet. The paper outlines the span of medical measuring devices, dating from the sphygmometer of

  3. [The technicalization of medicine in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Olsén, J E

    2001-01-01

    The paper focuses on the role that instruments played in the medical discourse of the 19th century. Towards the end of the century, instruments had imbued the medical sciences to such an extent that the situation soon was compared to the vernacular confusion of the biblical tower of Babel. Whereas the autonomical recordings of laboratory apparatus, vouched for guarantee against biased test results, clinicians and general practitioners were finding it difficult to incorporate the new techniques into their daily routines. A tension between the instrument as invention, moulded to fit a particular series of experiments, and the instrument as a reproducible item, was inevitable. Hence, the unification of the science and practice of medicine, became an important topic at the international medical meetings of the late 19th century. Seen in the light of the industrialization and urbanization of occidental culture and society, the instrumentation of medicine entailed a number of significant issues which hinged on the relationship between the biological destiny of man and the artificial wonders of technology. Grand metaphors like the organic machine and the human motor, did not only signal a scientific preoccupation with the shortcomings of the living organism as opposed to the perfection of the machine, but also indicated closer ties between the human body and technology at large. In a certain sense, medical instruments, along with apparatuses such as the camera, the steam-engine, the telegraph, the phonograph and the cinematograph, offered a new set-up of codes with which the body and its functions could be reinterpreted. In this respect, the late nineteenth-century strive for the standardisation and unification of medical instruments, was not irreconcilable with the notion of the l'homme moyen, as conceived, for example, in the work of the Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet. The paper outlines the span of medical measuring devices, dating from the sphygmometer of

  4. Cholera in Haiti and Other Caribbean Regions, 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Medical journals and other sources do not show evidence that cholera occurred in Haiti before 2010, despite the devastating effect of this disease in the Caribbean region in the 19th century. Cholera occurred in Cuba in 1833–1834; in Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Nevis, Trinidad, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, Granada, Anguilla, St. John, Tortola, the Turks and Caicos, the Grenadines (Carriacou and Petite Martinique), and possibly Antigua in 1850–1856; and in Guadeloupe, Cuba, St. Thomas, the Dominican Republic, Dominica, Martinique, and Marie Galante in 1865–1872. Conditions associated with slavery and colonial military control were absent in independent Haiti. Clustered populations, regular influx of new persons, and close quarters of barracks living contributed to spread of cholera in other Caribbean locations. We provide historical accounts of the presence and spread of cholera epidemics in Caribbean islands. PMID:22099117

  5. [Origin of animal experimentation legislation in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Pocard, M

    1999-01-01

    The first legislation in the world, designed to protect animals used in research, was passed in England in 1876, and is still in force today. It is one of the strictest in Europe. At the same period, France had no such law, and was the country conducting the greatest amount of animal experimentation. Comparing, these two countries, in the middle of the 19th century, can account for this difference. The most important difference seems to be related to the theological question: are animals endowed with a soul? Saint Augustine, claimed, in the 4th century, perhaps because of an experiment with the centipede, that animals do not have a soul. In the 17th century, René Descartes, using a different philosophical system, reached a similar conclusion, in France. On the other hand, under the influence of Charles Darwin, England rejected the Roman Catholic conclusion, about the soul of animals. The industrial revolution, occurring earlier in England than in France, also changed the society, developing urban areas, where people were cut off from rural life and changing human relationships with animals. The industrial revolution enabled the development of the press, giving impetus to public opinion. These facts, combined with a caution of science, which was more developed in England than in France, brought about the first important "anti-doctor" campaign.

  6. Faces and Photography in 19th-Century Visual Science.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-09-01

    Reading faces for identity, character, and expression is as old as humanity but representing these states is relatively recent. From the 16th century, physiognomists classified character in terms of both facial form and represented the types graphically. Darwin distinguished between physiognomy (which concerned static features reflecting character) and expression (which was dynamic and reflected emotions). Artists represented personality, pleasure, and pain in their paintings and drawings, but the scientific study of faces was revolutionized by photography in the 19th century. Rather than relying on artistic abstractions of fleeting facial expressions, scientists photographed what the eye could not discriminate. Photography was applied first to stereoscopic portraiture (by Wheatstone) then to the study of facial expressions (by Duchenne) and to identity (by Galton and Bertillon). Photography opened new methods for investigating face perception, most markedly with Galton's composites derived from combining aligned photographs of many sitters. In the same decade (1870s), Kühne took the process of photography as a model for the chemical action of light in the retina. These developments and their developers are described and fixed in time, but the ideas they initiated have proved impossible to stop. PMID:27146124

  7. Faces and Photography in 19th-Century Visual Science.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-09-01

    Reading faces for identity, character, and expression is as old as humanity but representing these states is relatively recent. From the 16th century, physiognomists classified character in terms of both facial form and represented the types graphically. Darwin distinguished between physiognomy (which concerned static features reflecting character) and expression (which was dynamic and reflected emotions). Artists represented personality, pleasure, and pain in their paintings and drawings, but the scientific study of faces was revolutionized by photography in the 19th century. Rather than relying on artistic abstractions of fleeting facial expressions, scientists photographed what the eye could not discriminate. Photography was applied first to stereoscopic portraiture (by Wheatstone) then to the study of facial expressions (by Duchenne) and to identity (by Galton and Bertillon). Photography opened new methods for investigating face perception, most markedly with Galton's composites derived from combining aligned photographs of many sitters. In the same decade (1870s), Kühne took the process of photography as a model for the chemical action of light in the retina. These developments and their developers are described and fixed in time, but the ideas they initiated have proved impossible to stop.

  8. Austrian pharmacy in the 18 and 19th century.

    PubMed

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecaryâs profession and education. In the 18(th) century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecaryâs profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19(th) century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecariesâ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900. PMID:21179353

  9. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

    PubMed Central

    Padosch, Stephan A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kröner, Lars U

    2006-01-01

    Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet. PMID:16722551

  10. [Developments in neurophysiology in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Hess, C W

    1994-04-19

    The rise of neurophysiology in the 19th century was kindled by Luigi Aloysius Galvani's revolutionary claim for animal electricity at the end of the preceding century. He was first challenged by Allessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta who showed that the muscle twitch in Galvani's experiment was the result of electric stimulation rather than of an enabled biological current. The controversy between Galvani and Volta became a predominant and stimulating issue among the scientists of the early century and found its ultimate elucidation only 40 years later by the pioneering work of Carlo Matteucci of Pisa and Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond of Berlin, who both deserve the reknown as founders of modern neurophysiology. As the first influential promoter and mastermind of the experimental physiology, François Magendie of Paris primarily investigated the nervous system and inaugurated the lesion experiments to clarify specific functions of neural structures. Johannes Müller founded the German school of physiology with its eminent neurophysiological offspring: Du Bois-Reymond, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, and Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger. It was Helmholtz's merit to have for the first time precisely assessed the motor conduction velocity by measuring the time interval between two different stimulation sites of the sciatic nerve of the frog. In their brilliant work published in 1870 Gustav Theodor Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig demonstrated that appropriately located focal electrical stimulation of the exposed cortex of dogs induces movement of the contralateral limbs and unequivocally disproved the then prevailing dogma of holistic capacity of the hemispheres, which denied localised functions within the cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. [Developments in neurophysiology in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Hess, C W

    1994-04-19

    The rise of neurophysiology in the 19th century was kindled by Luigi Aloysius Galvani's revolutionary claim for animal electricity at the end of the preceding century. He was first challenged by Allessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta who showed that the muscle twitch in Galvani's experiment was the result of electric stimulation rather than of an enabled biological current. The controversy between Galvani and Volta became a predominant and stimulating issue among the scientists of the early century and found its ultimate elucidation only 40 years later by the pioneering work of Carlo Matteucci of Pisa and Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond of Berlin, who both deserve the reknown as founders of modern neurophysiology. As the first influential promoter and mastermind of the experimental physiology, François Magendie of Paris primarily investigated the nervous system and inaugurated the lesion experiments to clarify specific functions of neural structures. Johannes Müller founded the German school of physiology with its eminent neurophysiological offspring: Du Bois-Reymond, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, and Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger. It was Helmholtz's merit to have for the first time precisely assessed the motor conduction velocity by measuring the time interval between two different stimulation sites of the sciatic nerve of the frog. In their brilliant work published in 1870 Gustav Theodor Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig demonstrated that appropriately located focal electrical stimulation of the exposed cortex of dogs induces movement of the contralateral limbs and unequivocally disproved the then prevailing dogma of holistic capacity of the hemispheres, which denied localised functions within the cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8191189

  12. Naming and Necessity: Sherborn's Context in the 19(th) Century.

    PubMed

    McOuat, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    By the late 19(th) Century, storms plaguing early Victorian systematics and nomenclature seemed to have abated. Vociferous disputes over radical renaming, the world-shaking clash of all-encompassing procrustean systems, struggles over centres of authority, and the issues of language and meaning had now been settled by the institution of a stable imperial museum and its catalogues, a set of rules for the naming of zoological objects, and a new professional class of zoologists. Yet, for all that tranquillity, the disputes simmered below the surface, re-emerging as bitter struggles over synonyms, trinomials, the subspecies category, the looming issues of the philosophy of scientific language, and the aggressive new American style of field biology - all pressed in upon the received practice of naming and classifying organisms and the threat of anarchy. In the midst rose an index. This paper will explore the context of CD Sherborn's Index Animalium and those looming problems and issues which a laborious and comprehensive "index of nature" was meant to solve.

  13. Laser cleaning of 19th century Congo rattan mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, N.; Oujja, M.; Roemich, H.; Castillejo, M.

    2011-09-01

    There is a growing interest by art conservators for laser cleaning of organic materials, such as wooden artworks, paper and textiles, since traditional cleaning with solvents can be a source of further decay and mechanical cleaning may be too abrasive for sensitive fibers. In this work we present a successful laser cleaning approach for 19th century rattan mats from the Brooklyn Museum collection of African Art, now part of the study collection at the Conservation Center in New York. Tests were carried out using the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelength of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to measure threshold values both for surface damage and color changes for different types of rattan samples. The irradiated substrates were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and by UV-vis spectroscopy in order to determine the efficiency of laser cleaning and to assess possible deterioration effects that may have occurred as a result of laser irradiation. The study showed that by using the laser emission at 532 nm, a wavelength for which photon energy is below the bond dissociation level of the main cellulosic compounds and the water absorption is negligible, it is possible to select a range of laser fluences to remove the black dust layer without damaging the rattan material.

  14. Colombian approaches to psychology in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Gilberto Leonardo

    2012-11-01

    Colombian intellectuals of the 19th century widely consulted scientific psychology in regard to their political, religious, and educational interests. Colombian independence from Spain (1810) introduced the necessity of transforming the former subjects into illustrious citizens and members of a modern state. After independence, political liberals embraced Bentham's thesis of utilitarianism and the theories of sensibility, with a teaching style based in induction. Conservatives defended the Catholic tradition about the divine origin of the soul and used scholasticism as a model of teaching. A bipartisan coalition, the Regeneration, incorporated the ideas of modern psychology based on the principles of Thomistic thought (Neo-Thomism). The Neo-Thomists considered psychology as a science of the soul and debated physiological explanations of the mind. The conceptual advances of the period have been trivialized in historical accounts of psychology in Colombia, due to the emphasis on the institutionalization processes of the discipline in 1947. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23397920

  15. Florence Nightingale: a 19th-century mystic.

    PubMed

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) received a clear and profoundly moving Call to serve God at the age of 16. Through a lifetime of hard work and discipline, she became a practicing mystic in the Western tradition, thereby becoming an instrument of God's love, which was the primarily source of her great energy and the fabled "Nightingale power." To understand the life and work of this legendary healer, who forever changed human consciousness, the role of women, and nursing and public health systems in the middle of the 19th century, it is necessary to understand her motivation and inspiration. This article will discuss her life and work in the context of her mystical practice and to show the parallels between her life and the lives of three recognized women mystics. In her epic Crimean war mission (1854-1856) of leading and directing women nurses in the army hospital at Scutari, Turkey, Florence Nightingale burst into world consciousness as a spiritual beacon of hope and compassion for all who suffered. Her historic breakthrough achievement--pioneering the modern administrative role of nurse superintendent with measurable outcomes supported by irrefutable data--in the face of incredible adversity was merely the cornerstone of her life work.

  16. [Cholera in Europe and Denmark in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bonderup, G

    1996-01-01

    There are several reasons for dealing with cholera in the 19th century: it acted as a spotlight throwing into sharp relief the darkest corners of society that are seldom mentioned in the sources. We learn about everyday life in large parts of the population, especially the poor. The fight against the disease also reveals how a society worked socially and politically. When cholera arrived in Europe -- the first time was in the 1830's and several times after that--the population reacted very violently, often by lynching doctors, while the authorities more or less let matters take their course. That is why international researchers have come to see cholera as a catalyst for the constantly latent social unrest following in the train of wars and revolutions. During my research on cholera in Denmark it became clear to me that matters were different here. There were no riots, nor any signs of social unrest--neither before nor after the outbreak of cholera. On the contrary, the authorities and the population joined forces against the epidemic. There was an atmosphere of mutual trust, and almost everybody turned out to be worthy of such trust. That points to a balanced society based on consensus, so cholera also functions as a detector of the fundamental structure of a society. PMID:11625139

  17. William Prout: early 19th century physician-chemist.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2003-04-01

    In the early 19th century, the discoveries of new substances in the healthy and diseased body spawned a search for chemical explanations for physiologic phenomena to guide medical diagnosis and control therapy. William Prout's work on the nature and treatment of diseases of the urinary organs established his reputation as one of Britain's most distinguished physiological chemists. Prout was very skeptical of chemical remedies because of possible side effects, but he suggested iodine treatment for goiter. He emphasized that a satisfactory diet should include carbohydrates, fats, protein, and water. In 1824, he showed that the acid of the gastric juice was hydrochloric acid. Prout applied chemical methods and reasoning to physiology and was criticized for his view that the body's vital functions could be explained by chemistry. His remedy for lack of progress in animal chemistry was for physiologists to become chemists. Prout stimulated much discussion on atomic theory by his hypothesis that the atomic weights of all chemical elements are whole-number multiples of the atomic weight of hydrogen and that the chemical elements were condensed from hydrogen atoms.

  18. [Earth magnetism research in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Schröder, W; Wiederkehr, K H

    2000-01-01

    Even before the discovery of the electromagnetism by Oersted, and before Ampère, who attributed all magnetism to the flux of electrical currents, A. v. Humboldt and Hansteen had turned to geomagnetism. With the help of the "Göttinger Magnetische Verein", a worldwide cooperation under the leadership of Gauss game into existence. Even today, Gauss' theory of the geomagnetism is one of the pillars for geomagnetical research work. Thereafter, J. v. Lamont, Prof. in Munich, took over the leadership in Germany. In England, the Magnetic Crusade was started by the initiative of John Herschel and E. Sabine. At the beginning of the forties, James Clarke Ross advanced to the Antarctic Continent, which was then quite unknown. Ten years later, Sabine was able to gather solar-terrestrial relations from the data of the colonical observatories. In the eighties, Arthur Schuster, following Balfour Stewart's ideas, succeeded in interpreting the daily variations of the electrical process in the high atmosphere. The geomagnetic research work in Germany was given a fresh impetus by the First Polar Year 1882-1883. Georg Neumayer, director of the "Deutsche Seewarte" in Hamburg, had been one of the initiators of the Polar Year. He had a close cooperation with the newly founded "Kaiserliches Marineobservatorium" in Wilhelmshaven, and he also managed to gain the collaboration of the "Gauss-Observatorium für Erdmagnetismus" in Göttingen under E. Schering. In the Polar Year, the first automatic recording magnetometers (Kew-Model) were used in a German observatory in Wilhelmshaven. Here M. Eschenhagen, who later became director of the geomagnetic section in the new Meterological-Magnetic Observatory in Potsdam, gained special merit. The treatise considers preceding hypotheses of geomagnetism as well as the palaeomagnetic studies. The essential seismological investigations at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century are briefly treated. They represent one of the keystones for the modern

  19. Reading for Moral Progress: 19th Century Institutions Promoting Social Change. Occasional Papers No. 207.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Donald G., Jr.; And Others

    The three papers in this document examine the motives behind the collecting and loaning of publications in the 19th century. They describe the effects of three discrete movements designed to assist religious, military, and academic endeavors. The first paper, "Bread Upon the Waters: The Printed Word in Sunday Schools in 19th Century England and…

  20. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  1. 4. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARDS LOCKS. 19TH CENTURY GRAVITY LOCKS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARDS LOCKS. 19TH CENTURY GRAVITY LOCKS ON RIGHT. 20TH CENTURY ELECTRIC LIFT LOCKS ON LEFT. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

  2. Heat and Kinetic Theory in 19th-Century Physics Textbooks: The Case of Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaquero, Jose M.; Santos, Andres

    2001-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the contents of 19th century Spanish textbooks. These textbooks are centered on imponderable fluids, the concept of energy, the mechanical theory of heat, and the kinetic theory of gases. (SAH)

  3. 10. Photograph of engraving. W.E. Tucker, Printer, undated (19th century). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of engraving. W.E. Tucker, Printer, undated (19th century). EAST FACADE AND ORIGINAL LANDSCAPING - Pennsylvania Hospital for Mental & Nervous Diseases, Forty-fourth & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. [Rape and transgression. Forensic medicine and sexual morality in Spain in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Carpena, Amalio Lorente

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the importance of the contribution of the Spanish forensic medical discourse in the 19th century, and its application in cases of sexual harassment, to legitimize the sexual moral value of the time. For that reason we will analyse the main forensic medicine treaties edited in Spain during this century.

  5. Early 19th Century Music Pedagogy--German and English Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane E.

    2007-01-01

    Calls to improve congregational psalmody in 18th century England strongly influenced early music pedagogy. In the first decades of the 19th century English music educators, concerned with psalmody and music in charitable schools, looked to Germany for models of successful practice. The Musikalisches Schulgesangbuch (1826) by Carl Gotthelf Gläser…

  6. Moral medicine: symbolic content in 19th century Shaker therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Idler, E L

    1989-03-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the symbolic meanings implicit in an ostensibly empirical therapeutic system. The Shakers, a celibate communal religious order founded in New York State in the mid 1770s, were practitioners of botanic medicine, as were many other Americans in the nineteenth century. This study analyzes the therapeutic properties of the herbs they produced (such as diuretic, stimulant, narcotic, emetic, astringent), using a classification scheme based on the location of the botanical substance's effect vis-à-vis body boundaries and surfaces. The Shakers' beliefs about the therapeutic properties of their herbs are compared with similar analyses of the properties given by two contemporary nineteenth century New England proponents of herbal medicine, botanist Constantine Rafinesque and sectarian practitioner Samuel Thomson. The comparison shows systematic variation in emphasis given to herbs which regulate internal body processes, or act through the openings of the body or on its surface. In this context Shaker medicine can be characterized as quickening, internal, and purifying in its effects on body processes, effects which are highly consistent with Shaker religious beliefs in active, physical worship, selflessness and spiritual purification by confession.

  7. The purple coloration of four late 19th century silk dresses: A spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, Andrea L.; Cosgrove, Bronwyn; Church, Jeffrey S.

    2016-02-01

    Prior to the 19th century the use of purple dyes for textile coloration was expensive and usually limited to royalty. The discovery of several synthetic purple dyes during the 19th century made the production of purple textiles more affordable and thus more readily available. The identification of the source of the purple coloration is of historical interest. Small yarn samples from four late 19th century silk dresses were analyzed using a combination of thin layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. This combination of techniques enabled the analysis of the complex extraction products. While three of the dresses were found to be dyed using methyl violet, the fourth dress was found to be constructed from a warp yarn dyed with methyl violet in the presence of a tannic acid mordant, and a weft yarn dyed with mauve and a tin mordant.

  8. The purple coloration of four late 19th century silk dresses: A spectroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, Andrea L; Cosgrove, Bronwyn; Church, Jeffrey S

    2016-02-01

    Prior to the 19th century the use of purple dyes for textile coloration was expensive and usually limited to royalty. The discovery of several synthetic purple dyes during the 19th century made the production of purple textiles more affordable and thus more readily available. The identification of the source of the purple coloration is of historical interest. Small yarn samples from four late 19th century silk dresses were analyzed using a combination of thin layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. This combination of techniques enabled the analysis of the complex extraction products. While three of the dresses were found to be dyed using methyl violet, the fourth dress was found to be constructed from a warp yarn dyed with methyl violet in the presence of a tannic acid mordant, and a weft yarn dyed with mauve and a tin mordant. PMID:26523685

  9. Circumcision of the Female Intellect: 19th Century Women Who Opposed Scholarly Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Marbeth

    2009-01-01

    In 19th century America, some women decried the opportunity for scholarly education as rebellion against religion and predicted a grim decline in the quality of life, home, and hearth for American families and for American culture and politics. In particular, women who opposed scholarly education argued that God had not created men and women…

  10. Seriously Popular: Rethinking 19th-Century American Literature through the Teaching of Popular Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Curious about the connections between the author's students' reading tastes and those of 19th-century readers, the author read Nina Baym's excellent text "Novels, Readers, and Reviewers: Responses to Fiction in Antebellum America" to gain a sense of how readers in the 1800s might have thought about the texts that they read. Nineteenth-century…

  11. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume I: 15th-19th Centuries. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This VHS videotape recording is the first in a two-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It focuses on the 15th-19th centuries, including Renaissance nobility, Baroque extravagance, Regency refinement, and Victorian romanticism. Each era reflects the changing relationships between men and women through the…

  12. Missionaries and Tonic Sol-fa Music Pedagogy in 19th-Century China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane E.; Lee, Angela Hao-Chun

    2008-01-01

    In the 19th century, Christian missionaries in China, as elsewhere, used the Tonic Sol-fa method of music instruction to aid their evangelizing. This system was designed to improve congregational singing in churches, Sunday schools and missions. The London Missionary Society and other evangelical groups employed the method. These missionaries took…

  13. 1. COPY OF A LATE 19TH CENTURY BUSINESS CARD FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. COPY OF A LATE 19TH CENTURY BUSINESS CARD FOR A. ALEXANDER & SON FLOURING MILLS. CARD OWNED BY THOMAS R. WILSON. Photographer: Berni Rich, Score Photographers, September 1986. - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. 29. View of Brooklyn Tower emerging behind 19th century commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. View of Brooklyn Tower emerging behind 19th century commercial buildings on the corner of Front Street and Camden Plaza. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  15. An Analysis of Environmental Issues in 19th Century England Using the Writings of Charles Dickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Ann Haley

    2008-01-01

    Charles Dickens lived during the best and worst of times in 19th century England. His writings were greatly influenced by the ongoing industrial revolution. He described abhorrent environmental conditions, inadequate sanitary practices, child abuse, and other social maladies of the times. By bringing Charles Dickens into the biology classroom,…

  16. 4. Photocopy of old 19th century photo showing a steam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of old 19th century photo showing a steam engine in active use. Original photo in files of Insurance Company of North America, Philadelphia, Pa. Exact date not known. - Philadelphia Hose Company No. 1, Seventh & Filbert Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 12. VIEW OF MERCHANTS' HOTEL IN MID 19th CENTURY, 'FOURTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF MERCHANTS' HOTEL IN MID- 19th CENTURY, 'FOURTH STREET, PHILA., WEST SIDE, FROM MARKET TO ARCH', as it appeared in The Baxter Panoramic Business Directory, Est. 1857 which is available for viewing at the Free Library of Philadelphia, in the Castner Collection, Philadelphia Vol. No. 12, 'Streets 1'. - Merchants' Hotel, 40-50 North Fourth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  19. Nathaniel Topliff Allen, Early Professional and 19th Century Risk Taker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadwallader, Lynn

    Nathaniel T. Allen's life (1823-1903) offers insights into 19th century professionalization of education in the United States. His independent political views set him apart as a strong-willed and dauntless supporter of equal education opportunity. Appointed by Horace Mann as principal of a model school connected with the first public normal school…

  20. The Romantic Rhetoric of 19th Century Obituaries: "She Gave a Few Faint Gasps and Died."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, Eleanor

    Scholars of writing, language, and culture will find a rich fund of research material in 19th-century obituaries which convey extensive details of the deceased's life through an elegant language reminiscent of an oral culture. In contrast to today's newspaper obituaries, which are business-like, tight-lipped, and entirely devoid of any details or…

  1. The Development of the Progressive in 19th Century English: A Quantitative Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnaud, Rene

    1998-01-01

    Expansion of the progressive (be+ing periphrastic form, where "be" is at the same time the copula and a statement of existence) was a major feature of modernization of the English verb system in the 19th century. A survey (1787-1880) of a collection of private letters, most from famous writers, reveals that linguistic factors played a small role…

  2. 12. Photocopy, BOYS' MILITARY BAND, mid or late 19th century. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy, BOYS' MILITARY BAND, mid or late 19th century. Original photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. TF854 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  3. The Rise of Age Homogamy in 19th Century Western Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Putte, Bart; Van Poppel, Frans; Vanassche, Sofie; Sanchez, Maria; Jidkova, Svetlana; Eeckhaut, Mieke; Oris, Michel; Matthijs, Koen

    2009-01-01

    In many parts of Western Europe the age at first marriage and the level of celibacy declined in the second half of the 19th century. This weakening of the European marriage pattern (EMP) can be interpreted as a "classic" response to the increase of the standard of living, but a more far-reaching interpretation is that the erosion of the EMP was…

  4. The Garbers: Using Digital History To Recreate a 19th-Century Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Cheryl L.; Carter, Alice

    1999-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which students read a letter from the Web site "Valley of the Shadow: Two Communities during the American Civil War," an interactive archive of digitized primary sources. Students search the site's 1860 population census to learn about Thomas Garber and his family. Students also learn about life in the 19th century. (CMK)

  5. The tympanostomy tube: an ingenious invention of the mid 19th century.

    PubMed

    Mudry, Albert

    2013-02-01

    The introduction of the tympanostomy tube in the treatment of otitis media with effusion in the mid 20th century completely revolutionized its therapy. Nevertheless, it was not a new idea. The aim of this research is to elucidate the origin of prosthetic middle ear ventilation in the mid 19th century. A review of primary sources revealed at least seven different models of tympanostomy tube which were manufactured between 1845 and 1875. These included: Frank's gold tube, Lincke's rubber tube, Bonnafont's silver cannula, Politzer's hard rubber drain, Miot's metallic eyelet, Voltolini's gold ring, and Bonnafont's eyelet. Study of these early innovations shows that all of the technical and surgical principles of the tympanostomy tube were known in the mid 19th century. Widespread introduction into otological practice did not occur until the mid 20th century invention of the operating microscope. PMID:23183195

  6. [Criminology and superstition at the turn of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Criminology, which institutionalised at university level at the turn of the 19th century, was intensively engaged in the exploration of superstition. Criminologists investigated the various phenomena of superstition and the criminal behaviour resulting from it. They discovered bizarre (real or imagined) worlds of thought and mentalities, which they subjected to a rationalistic regime of interpretation in order to arrive at a better understanding of offences and crimes related to superstition. However, they sometimes also considered the use of occultist practices such as telepathy and clairvoyance to solve criminal cases. As a motive for committing homicide superstition gradually became less relevant in the course of the 19th century. Around 1900, superstition was accepted as a plausible explanation in this context only if a psychopathic form of superstition was involved. In the 20th century, superstition was no longer regarded as an explanans but an explanandum.

  7. "Le Droit de L'Enfant:" Ideologies of the Child in 19th Century French Literature and Child Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Suzanne

    This paper examines ideological themes present in movements for child labor reform and in literature in 19th century France. Separate sections cover early industrialization and child labor reform, the image of the romantic child in French literature, and ideology and reforms. By the mid-19th century, England, America, and France all had their…

  8. A brief history of tuberculosis in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Bahadori, Moslem

    2011-05-01

    The history of tuberculosis as a worldwide fatal illness traces back to antiquity, a well-known disease in ancient civilizations. However, its causative agent remained unidentified until the last decades of the 19th century, when discovered by Robert Koch. In due course, preparation of the BCG vaccine, application of the Mantoux intradermal diagnostic tuberculosis test and administration of proper antituberculosis medications eventually controlled tuberculosis. However, despite these significant advancements tuberculosis remained uneradicated, particularly in developing countries after the emergence of both multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV co-infection. Presented here, is a brief review of the history of tuberculosis in the world as well as its historical background in Iran, mainly during the 19th and 20th centuries.

  9. Enamel hypoplasia and age at weaning in 19th-century Florence, Italy.

    PubMed

    Moggi-Cecchi, J; Pacciani, E; Pinto-Cisternas, J

    1994-03-01

    A sample representing a population of the Florence district of middle 19th century was studied to determine the age of occurrence of enamel hypoplasias. The age interval most affected was that between 1.5 and 3.5 years. Historical sources on weaning habits of 19th-century Italian populations indicate a weaning period between 12 and 18 months. This is in agreement with the data on enamel defects, showing that children of post-weaning age are more subject to stress. Wide "grooves", with prolonged duration, are concentrated between 2 and 2.5 years, whereas "lines" occur primarily between 2.5 and 3 years. We suggest that this distribution could reflect the gradual introduction of dietary supplements until weaning is complete. PMID:8042693

  10. Physics education in the Greek community schools of Istanbul (19th century). The books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazos, Panayotis; Vlahakis, George N.

    2016-03-01

    During the 19th century a number of elementary and high schools were established for the need of the Greek community of Istanbul. Among the courses included in the curricula were those concerning the scientific study of Nature like Botany, Chemistry and Physics. In the present study we attempt to give a thorough description of the educational material used in these schools for the study of natural sciences with an emphasis in Physics. Especially we shall discuss the books used as course books as well as their probable sources. Furthermore we shall try to make a comparison with the relevant situation in the Greek state and the Ottoman Empire, where modern physics had been already introduced through textbooks based on Ganot's treatise on Physics. The results of our research will give for the first time a picture of the way Greek students in the 19th century Istanbul received their basic knowledge about Physics.

  11. [The teaching of history of medicine in Paris in the 19th century (1794-1914)].

    PubMed

    Galanopoulos, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    The defeat of the erudition which characterised the teaching of history of medicine at the end of the 19th Century, was a sign of the passing of one culture to another. This article examines two aspects of Parisian teaching, the institutional and the educational. In addition the question of the usefulness of this teaching is examined, both in relation to Paris and also to the whole field of French medicine.

  12. [Developments and trends in 19th- and 20th-century German nursing historiography].

    PubMed

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses important trends in 19th- and 20th-century German nursing historiography. Frequently, the diverse contributions, which were predominantly written by physicians and nurses, were strongly shaped by the occupational background of the author and purposes of professional politics. In recent years, valuable scholarly contributions on nursing organisations have appeared. Anglo-American nursing history research should serve as a model for Germany. The paper calls for the extension of a recently founded nursing history research network.

  13. 19th-century American contributions to the recording of tremors.

    PubMed

    Lanska, D J

    2000-07-01

    Studies of tremor in the 19th century were based initially on simple observation and later on the use of crude graphic recording devices that had been modified from instruments developed for other purposes. Like several European contemporaries, American investigators studying tremor used and adapted various existing instruments, including tambours and sphygmographs. A tambour used a drum-shaped pneumatic mechanism to transmit movements to a recording instrument, whereas the sphygmograph was a nonpneumatic mechanical device initially used to record the pulse. 19th-century American neurologists who used such devices included Frederick Peterson, Hobart Amory Hare, Charles Loomis Dana, and Augustus A. Eshner. Their measurements of tremor frequency were generally consistent with modern estimates for various types of tremor. Eshner, in particular, was frustrated by the overlap of frequency domains for tremors in different diseases, because this precluded use of tremor frequency alone as a differentiating feature for diagnosis. Peterson and Dana recognized the variation in tremor frequency in different body parts resulting from different natural resonance frequencies of these parts as a function of weight and elastic properties. Peterson, Dana, and Eshner also recognized that tremor amplitude and frequency are inversely related. Finally, these 19th-century investigators recognized that the tremor of Parkinson's disease is a relatively low-frequency rest tremor, suppressed by action, and generally synchronous in symmetric body parts, but varying in amplitude and frequency in different body parts or over time.

  14. Brutal and negligent? 19th century factory mothers and child care.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Melanie

    2011-10-01

    This paper aims to highlight some working class women's childcare practices in northern industrial areas of Britain during the latter half of the 19th century. It aims to challenge the commonly held belief that 19th century northern working-class factory mothers were irresponsive and neglectful toward their infants, thereby fuelling the high northern infant mortality rate. It will do this by showing that factory mothers were responsible and responsive toward their infants despite being thwarted by the working patterns of industrialisation. It begins by outlining the arguments made by historians that northern working class women were neglectful toward their children. Then key areas such as the working patterns of waged factory mothers will be illustrated to show the agency and determination of 19th century working class women to provide their infants with good care. Reassessment of these historical childcare practices can provide a springboard by which today's health professionals can endeavour to maintain accurate and fair perspectives about the childcare practices of today's women of low socio-economic status.

  15. Parents and children: ideas of heredity in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Waller, John C

    2003-06-01

    The concept of heredity played a powerful role in structuring 19th-century debates over sickness, morality, class, race, education, social change and evolution. But there was very little agreement as to which qualities were heritable and how new hereditary variants were acquired. In consequence, notions of heredity existed in a wide variety of forms, expressing anything from extreme determinism and a belief in the incorrigibility of individuals, social and racial groups, to unleavened optimism, and a faith in ultimate human perfectibility. This article explores these rich hereditarian discourses to convey an impression of a century that was at least as preoccupied with the concept of biological inheritance as we are today.

  16. Glacier changes on South Georgia since the late-19th century documented in historical photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, John; Haynes, Valerie

    2014-05-01

    South Georgia is one of the few landmasses in the Southern Ocean. It provides a crucial geographical datapoint for glacier responses to climate change over different timescales. As part of an ongoing glacier inventory of the island, we are compiling a database of historical glacier photographs. Since the late 19th century, the island has been visited by numerous scientific and survey expeditions, as well as being the land-base for a major whaling industry. Historical photographs of the island are available from the late-19th century, beginning with the 1882-83 German International Polar Year Expedition. Many more exist from the 20th century, notably from the South Georgia Surveys in the 1950s. An assessment of the value of the photographs indicates that spatial coverage is variable, many lack reference features to pinpoint glacier positions and, in the case of smaller glaciers, the presence of snowcover makes it difficult to define the ice edge. Nevertheless, the photographs provide useful corroboration of more advanced glacier positions during the late-19th century and recession of smaller mountain and valley glaciers during the mid-20th century, while larger tidewater and sea-calving glaciers generally remained in relatively advanced positions until the 1980s. Since then, nearly all the glaciers have retreated; some of these retreats have been dramatic and a number of small mountain glaciers have fragmented or disappeared. The response of the glaciers can be related to synoptic-scale warming, particularly since the 1950s, moderated by individual glacier geometry and topography.

  17. Tuberculosis Epidemiology and Selection in an Autochthonous Siberian Population from the 16th-19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Dabernat, Henri; Thèves, Catherine; Bouakaze, Caroline; Nikolaeva, Dariya; Keyser, Christine; Mokrousov, Igor; Géraut, Annie; Duchesne, Sylvie; Gérard, Patrice; Alexeev, Anatoly N.; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of most ancient diseases affecting human populations. Although numerous studies have tried to detect pathogenic DNA in ancient skeletons, the successful identification of ancient tuberculosis strains remains rare. Here, we describe a study of 140 ancient subjects inhumed in Yakutia (Eastern Siberia) during a tuberculosis outbreak, dating from the 16th–19th century. For a long time, Yakut populations had remained isolated from European populations, and it was not until the beginning of the 17th century that first contacts were made with European settlers. Subsequently, tuberculosis spread throughout Yakutia, and the evolution of tuberculosis frequencies can be tracked until the 19th century. This study took a multidisciplinary approach, examining historical and paleo-epidemiological data to understand the impact of tuberculosis on ancient Yakut population. In addition, molecular identification of the ancient tuberculosis strain was realized to elucidate the natural history and host-pathogen co-evolution of human tuberculosis that was present in this population. This was achieved by the molecular detection of the IS6110 sequence and SNP genotyping by the SNaPshot technique. Results demonstrated that the strain belongs to cluster PGG2-SCG-5, evocating a European origin. Our study suggests that the Yakut population may have been shaped by selection pressures, exerted by several illnesses, including tuberculosis, over several centuries. This confirms the validity and necessity of using a multidisciplinary approach to understand the natural history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease. PMID:24587092

  18. Tuberculosis epidemiology and selection in an autochthonous Siberian population from the 16th-19th century.

    PubMed

    Dabernat, Henri; Thèves, Catherine; Bouakaze, Caroline; Nikolaeva, Dariya; Keyser, Christine; Mokrousov, Igor; Géraut, Annie; Duchesne, Sylvie; Gérard, Patrice; Alexeev, Anatoly N; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of most ancient diseases affecting human populations. Although numerous studies have tried to detect pathogenic DNA in ancient skeletons, the successful identification of ancient tuberculosis strains remains rare. Here, we describe a study of 140 ancient subjects inhumed in Yakutia (Eastern Siberia) during a tuberculosis outbreak, dating from the 16(th)-19(th) century. For a long time, Yakut populations had remained isolated from European populations, and it was not until the beginning of the 17(th) century that first contacts were made with European settlers. Subsequently, tuberculosis spread throughout Yakutia, and the evolution of tuberculosis frequencies can be tracked until the 19(th) century. This study took a multidisciplinary approach, examining historical and paleo-epidemiological data to understand the impact of tuberculosis on ancient Yakut population. In addition, molecular identification of the ancient tuberculosis strain was realized to elucidate the natural history and host-pathogen co-evolution of human tuberculosis that was present in this population. This was achieved by the molecular detection of the IS6110 sequence and SNP genotyping by the SNaPshot technique. Results demonstrated that the strain belongs to cluster PGG2-SCG-5, evocating a European origin. Our study suggests that the Yakut population may have been shaped by selection pressures, exerted by several illnesses, including tuberculosis, over several centuries. This confirms the validity and necessity of using a multidisciplinary approach to understand the natural history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease.

  19. [Epidemic Cholera and American Reform Movements in the 19th Century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Seohyung

    2015-12-01

    The 19th century was the age of great reform in American history. After constructing of the canal and railroads, the industrialization began and American society changed so rapidly. In this period, there were so many social crisis and American people tried to solve these problems within the several reform movements. These reform movements were the driving forces to control cholera during the 19th century. Cholera was the endemic disease in Bengal, India, but after the 19th century it had spread globally by the development of trade networks. The 1832 cholera in the United States was the first epidemic cholera in American history. The mortality of cholera was so high, but it was very hard to find out the cause of this fatal infectious disease. So, different social discourses happened to control epidemic cholera in the 19th century, these can be understood within the similar context of American reform movements during this period. Board of Health in New York States made a new public health act to control cholera in 1832, it was ineffective. Some people insisted that the cause of this infectious disease was the corruption of the United States. They emphasized unjust and immoral system in American society. Moral reform expanded to Nativism, because lots of Irish immigrants were the victims of cholera. So, epidemic cholera was the opportunity to spread the desire for moral reform. To control cholera in 1849, the sanitary reform in Britain had affected. The fact that it was so important to improve and maintain the water quality for the control and prevention of disease spread, the sanitary reform happened. There were two different sphere of the sanitary reform. The former was the private reform to improve sewer or privy, the latter was the public reform to build sewage facilities. The 1849 cholera had an important meaning, because the social discourse, which had emphasized the sanitation of people or home expanded to the public sphere. When cholera broke out in 1866 again

  20. [Epidemic Cholera and American Reform Movements in the 19th Century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Seohyung

    2015-12-01

    The 19th century was the age of great reform in American history. After constructing of the canal and railroads, the industrialization began and American society changed so rapidly. In this period, there were so many social crisis and American people tried to solve these problems within the several reform movements. These reform movements were the driving forces to control cholera during the 19th century. Cholera was the endemic disease in Bengal, India, but after the 19th century it had spread globally by the development of trade networks. The 1832 cholera in the United States was the first epidemic cholera in American history. The mortality of cholera was so high, but it was very hard to find out the cause of this fatal infectious disease. So, different social discourses happened to control epidemic cholera in the 19th century, these can be understood within the similar context of American reform movements during this period. Board of Health in New York States made a new public health act to control cholera in 1832, it was ineffective. Some people insisted that the cause of this infectious disease was the corruption of the United States. They emphasized unjust and immoral system in American society. Moral reform expanded to Nativism, because lots of Irish immigrants were the victims of cholera. So, epidemic cholera was the opportunity to spread the desire for moral reform. To control cholera in 1849, the sanitary reform in Britain had affected. The fact that it was so important to improve and maintain the water quality for the control and prevention of disease spread, the sanitary reform happened. There were two different sphere of the sanitary reform. The former was the private reform to improve sewer or privy, the latter was the public reform to build sewage facilities. The 1849 cholera had an important meaning, because the social discourse, which had emphasized the sanitation of people or home expanded to the public sphere. When cholera broke out in 1866 again

  1. The relationship between 19th century BMIs and family size: Economies of scale and positive externalities.

    PubMed

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2015-04-01

    The use of body mass index values (BMI) to measure living standards is now a well-accepted method in economics. Nevertheless, a neglected area in historical studies is the relationship between 19th century BMI and family size, and this relationship is documented here to be positive. Material inequality and BMI are the subject of considerable debate, and there was a positive relationship between BMI and wealth and an inverse relationship with inequality. After controlling for family size and wealth, BMI values were related with occupations, and farmers and laborers had greater BMI values than workers in other occupations.

  2. The relationship between 19th century BMIs and family size: Economies of scale and positive externalities.

    PubMed

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2015-04-01

    The use of body mass index values (BMI) to measure living standards is now a well-accepted method in economics. Nevertheless, a neglected area in historical studies is the relationship between 19th century BMI and family size, and this relationship is documented here to be positive. Material inequality and BMI are the subject of considerable debate, and there was a positive relationship between BMI and wealth and an inverse relationship with inequality. After controlling for family size and wealth, BMI values were related with occupations, and farmers and laborers had greater BMI values than workers in other occupations. PMID:25555643

  3. 19th-century academic examinations for physicians in the United States Army Medical Department.

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, A P

    1994-01-01

    During the latter half of the 19th century, the United States Army commissioned medical officers or hired civilian physicians to serve its troops. The civilian physician signed a contract for services, and the candidate for a commission was subjected to rigorous examinations before becoming an officer. The rigorous testing of prospective medical officers was necessary because of the lack of standardization in the education of physicians. Examples of the test, statistics, and individual records show how the Army dealt with unqualified candidates. Images PMID:8048241

  4. Extending the African instrumental record to the early 19th century

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, S.E.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes progress toward the production of a data set that extends the African climate record back to the beginning of the 19th century. Qualitative documentary evidence, lake-level fluctuations and other proxy indicators are combined with historical rainfall records to produce regional time series. The data set has relatively high temporal and spatial resolution. The conceptualization is based on a climatic regionalization produced using modern data and an anomaly method in previous historical reconstructions. The data set provides information for some 100 regions with a 1 to 5 year resolution for most of the nineteenth century. Three to five quantitative classes of rainfall are utilized in the data set. Here, the available information to produce this record is summarized. The methodology utilized to combine proxy data and observations to produce a quantitative rainfall data set is described. This historical data set is compared with actual rainfall records for select regions where both are available. This comparison indicates the reliability of the proxy African data set. An analysis of the historical record indicates that the main characteristics of rainfall variability evident in the modern African record are also apparent in the 19th century record. 5 figs.

  5. PERIASTRON PASSAGE TRIGGERING OF THE 19TH CENTURY ERUPTIONS OF ETA CARINAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kashi, Amit; Soker, Noam E-mail: soker@physics.technion.ac.i

    2010-11-01

    We reconstruct the evolution of {eta} Car in the last two centuries under the assumption that the two 19th century eruptions were triggered by periastron passages and through this reconstruction constrain the binary parameters. The beginning of the lesser eruption (LE) at the end of the 19th century occurred when the system was very close to periastron passage, suggesting that the secondary triggered the LE. We assume that the 1838-1858 great eruption (GE) was triggered by a periastron passage as well. We also assume that mass transferred from the primary to the secondary star accounts for the extra energy of the GE. With these assumptions we constrain the total mass of the binary system to be M = M{sub 1} + M{sub 2} {approx}> 250 M{sub sun}. These higher than commonly used masses better match the observed luminosity with stellar evolutionary tracks. Including mass loss by the two stars and mass transfer from the primary to the secondary we obtain a good match of periastron passages to the two peaks in the light curve of the GE. Based on these findings and a similar behavior of P Cygni, we speculate that major luminous blue variable eruptions are triggered by stellar companions and that in extreme cases a short duration event with a huge mass transfer rate can lead to a bright transient event on timescales of weeks to months (a 'supernova impostor').

  6. Epilepsy and insanity during the early 19th century. A conceptual history.

    PubMed

    Berrios, G E

    1984-09-01

    During the first half of the 19th century, epilepsy and the insanities were considered as closely related "neurotic" disorders. Under the influence of factors such as the decline of the 18th-century Cullean concept of neurosis, the development of the new descriptive psychopathology, the introduction of statistics, and the availability of longitudinal observations of hospitalized cohorts, epilepsy was redefined as a "neurological" disease by the 1850s. The reaction of psychiatry to the exclusion of the mental disorder as a defining feature of epilepsy manifested itself in the creation of the "masked epilepsy" concept. This notion is behind the later development of categories such as "borderland" and "equivalent," which are still of some relevance to 20th-century views of epilepsy.

  7. The 'Ajuda Paralyses': history of a neuropsychiatric debate in mid-19th-century Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, Paulo

    2010-10-01

    The second half of the 19th century witnessed an increasing interest in neurology and psychiatry by Portuguese physicians, in parallel with the overall development of these disciplines in other countries. This process is reflected in the numerous case report publications as well as in debates taking place at the Lisbon Society of Medical Sciences, the major scientific forum of that time. The 'Ajuda Paralyses' were a mysterious succession of epidemics that occurred during 1860-64 in the Ajuda asylum for cholera and yellow fever orphans, which were extensively discussed during 1865-66 by Bernardino Antonio Gomes, Antonio Maria Barbosa, Abel Jordão and Eduardo Motta. Studying this debate helps understand the initial stages of development and the great interest that 'nervous diseases' had for Portuguese clinicians in the mid-19th century and possibly provides one of the first modern descriptions of nutrition-related polyradiculoneuropathy and the ocular findings associated with avitaminosis A. This debate took place at a decisive time for the scientific development of neurology and psychiatry, concurrent with the widespread application of the clinical-anatomical method and neuropathology to the study of diseases of the nervous system, which would set the foundations for our own modern pathophysiological framework. Therefore, the 'Ajuda paralyses' debate also provides a good basis for a discussion on the evolution of the concepts of hysteria and psychosomatic disease and the description of peripheral neuropathy from among a wealth of other entities that did not withstand the test of science.

  8. [Medecine, Law, and Knowledge Production about the "Civilized" War in the Long 19th Century].

    PubMed

    Goltermann, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    The aim to 'civilize' warfare accompanied Medicine and International Law ever since the mid-19th century. However, the entanglement of Medicine and Law, crucial for such an endeavour, has not been taken into consideration so far; likewise, the huge importance of medical knowledge for the perception of wars and their ramifications did not garner much attention in historical research. Hence, by focusing on the 'long' 19th century, this paper shows, firstly, that the production of surgical knowledge during warfare aimed at measuring the effects of combat on human bodies in order to develop prognostic medical knowledge for future wars, as well as maintaining the combat strength of soldiers. Moreover, this knowledge production during warfare strived for the enhancement of medical competence in the diagnosis and treatment of wounds in general. Secondly, I show that this medical knowledge was not only relevant for warfare, but also crucial for the design of International Law: it served to nourish the debates among the so called 'civilized' nations about legitimate and illegitimate weaponry and warfare. PMID:26902055

  9. [From spermatic animalcules to sperm cells: the reconceptualization of generation in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Vienne, Florence

    2009-09-01

    At the end of the 18th and still at the beginning of the 19th century most naturalists considered spermatic animalcules to be parasites of the seminal fluid that played no role in procreation. This view was progressively questioned by 19th century physiologists. They gradually redefined the spermatic animals as (cellular) products of the male organism, as agents of fertilization and bearers of the male heredity material. This article discusses this change from two different perspectives: on a microhistorical level, it analyzes the experimental research of the naturalist Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) and of the physiologist Albert Kölliker (1817-1905) in order to show how spermatozoa were turned into a new epistemic object of biology--the sperm cell. Further, it asks how the role of the reconceptualization of spermatic animalcules affected the long-term transformations that gave rise of our modern understanding of heredity, generation and the sexed body. By combining these two perspectives, the article aims to connect historiographies that are often kept separate: the macrohistorical narratives about gender and the body in the modern age and the microhistorical studies of biomedical practices and objects.

  10. [Medecine, Law, and Knowledge Production about the "Civilized" War in the Long 19th Century].

    PubMed

    Goltermann, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    The aim to 'civilize' warfare accompanied Medicine and International Law ever since the mid-19th century. However, the entanglement of Medicine and Law, crucial for such an endeavour, has not been taken into consideration so far; likewise, the huge importance of medical knowledge for the perception of wars and their ramifications did not garner much attention in historical research. Hence, by focusing on the 'long' 19th century, this paper shows, firstly, that the production of surgical knowledge during warfare aimed at measuring the effects of combat on human bodies in order to develop prognostic medical knowledge for future wars, as well as maintaining the combat strength of soldiers. Moreover, this knowledge production during warfare strived for the enhancement of medical competence in the diagnosis and treatment of wounds in general. Secondly, I show that this medical knowledge was not only relevant for warfare, but also crucial for the design of International Law: it served to nourish the debates among the so called 'civilized' nations about legitimate and illegitimate weaponry and warfare.

  11. Classic articles of 19th-century American neurologists: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to critically review citation classics of 19th-century members of the American Neurological Association (ANA), and to elaborate what these works contributed and why they continue to be important. Most classic articles of 19th-century American neurologists were initial or early descriptions of clinical conditions, diseases, or procedures. These include descriptions by Beard of the Jumping Frenchmen of Maine; by Sachs of "amaurotic family idiocy" (Tay-Sachs disease); by Hun of the lateral medullary syndrome; by Mitchell of phantom limbs; and by Dana of familial tremor. Few of these were the initial description, although most were clear and fairly complete by modern standards. Several citation classics were cited mainly as a point of comparison with later events or developments, including those by Corning on spinal anesthesia, Bartholow on electrical stimulation of the brain, Mitchell on the status of American psychiatry, and Starr on childhood brain tumors. The reports of Corning, Bartholow, and Mitchell have been the subjects of continued controversy. The only examples of basic neuroscience among the citation classics are the classic studies by Onuf and Collins involving ablation of portions of the sympathetic chain in cats, and Onuf's description of the nucleus of Onuf in the human spinal cord. Onuf's basic science work was made possible by a unique and short-lived multidisciplinary research environment created at the New York State Pathological Institute for the scientific investigation of insanity and neurologic diseases.

  12. [The reception of homoeopathy among Polish physicians in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Plonka-Syroka, B

    1997-01-01

    The 19th century Polish academic community showed a consistently negative attitude towards the Hahnemannian doctrine. On the other hand, homoeopathy spread more and more widely in Polish society. Popular homoeopathic journals and advisory literature expressed scepticism towards science and materialism or adopted viewpoints close to spiritualism. Furthermore these publications aimed at linking homoeopathy with traditional religious folklore. Homoeopathic domestic medical literature gave the opportunity for medical self-help at a time when relatively few people had access to professional medical services - due to financial reasons in the cities and due to a lack of physicians in rural areas. Additionally homoepathy offered hope to those whose ailments could not be cured by the professional academic medicine. The reception of homoeopathy in Poland was nevertheless limited. The doctrine was commonly known nowhere near as popular as the medical self-help that derived from what is called traditional "folk medicine". Also homoeopathy never was a serious competitor to the therapeutic arsenal of late 19th century academic medicine.

  13. Paths to and from poverty in late 19th century novels

    PubMed Central

    Howden‐Chapman, Philippa; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Late 19th century novels provide graphic descriptions of working and living conditions and their impact on population health, in particular the detrimental effects of hunger, poor housing, environmental conditions, hazardous work and poor pay, smoking and alcohol and crime, but also the transformative possibilities of social and political action. The popularity of these novels helped raise the collective conscience of citizens and illuminated the direction for 20th century welfare reforms. Yet many of these problems remain and the pathways to and from poverty are still recognisable today. Although novels are now less central in conveying social information, re‐reading these novels enables us to understand how social and economic circumstances were understood at the time and what led to social and political change. PMID:16415257

  14. Reconstructions of global near-surface temperature change since the mid 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice, Colin; Rayner, Nick; Kennedy, John

    2016-04-01

    Incomplete and non-uniform global observational coverage is a prominent source of uncertainty in instrumental records of global near-surface temperature change. In this study statistical methods are applied to the HadCRUT4 near-surface temperature data set to obtain improved estimates of global near-surface temperature change since the mid 19th century. Methods applied include those that interpolate according to local correlation structure (kriging) and reduced space methods that learn large-scale temperature patterns. The performance of each statistical reconstruction method has been benchmarked in application to a subset of CMIP5 simulations. Model fields are sub-sampled and simulated observational errors added to emulate observational data, permitting assessment of temperature field reconstruction algorithms in controlled tests in which globally complete temperature fields are known. In application to HadCRUT4 data the statistical reconstructions show relatively increased warming in the global average over the 21st century owing to reconstruction of temperatures in high northern latitudes, supporting the findings of Cowtan & Way (2014) and Karl et al. (2015). There is broad agreement between estimates of global and hemispheric changes throughout much of the 20th and 21st century. Agreement is reduced in data sparse periods and regions, notably in the 19th century and in the southern hemisphere. This finding is supported by the results of the climate model based benchmarks and highlights the importance of continued data rescue activities, such as those of the International Surface Temperature Initiative and ACRE. The results of this study will form an addition to the HadCRUT4 global near-surface temperature data set.

  15. Hay fever, a post industrial revolution epidemic: a history of its growth during the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, M B

    1988-05-01

    Although other forms of allergic disease were described in antiquity, hay fever is surprisingly modern. Very rare descriptions can be traced back to Islamic texts of the 9th century and European texts of the 16th century. It was only in the early 19th century that the disease was carefully described and at that time was regarded as most unusual. By the end of the 19th century it had become commonplace in both Europe and North America. This paper attempts to chart the growth of hay fever through the medical literature of the 19th century. It is hoped that an understanding of the increase in prevalence between 1820 and 1900 may provide an insight for modern researchers and give some clues into possible reasons for the epidemic nature of the disease today.

  16. Paleoradiology of the Savoca Mummies, Sicily, Italy (18th-19th Centuries AD).

    PubMed

    Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Zink, Albert R; Sergio Todesco, M; Aufderheide, Arthur C; Panzer, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    Mummified remains have been successfully studied radiologically since the end of the 19th century, giving rise to a specific field of research-paleoradiology. In this paper, we present the results of the first radiological investigation of a collection of Sicilian mummies found in a subterranean chamber beneath the Capuchin Church of Savoca. The chamber contains a number of preserved bodies, either held in special niches in the walls or interred within coffins. A recent detailed radiological examination of these mummies allowed the authors to determine information relating to the funerary treatment and some of the pathological alterations witnessed in the remains. Specifically, evidence of gout and DISH was identified, along with frequent degenerative joint disease, suggestive of rich dietary habits and a longer life expectancy. These findings were interpreted in the light of historical information and the social status of the subjects concerned.

  17. [Healthcare in times of epidemics in Rio de Janeiro in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Tânia Salgado

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to examine the provision of healthcare for the population of Rio de Janeiro in the mid-19th century and describe its reorganization during the crisis caused by outbreaks of yellow fever and cholera. In this context, it is essential to consider the significant changes taking place in healthcare during this period, also affecting the spaces in which hospital care was offered. Therefore, we focussed our investigation on Santa Casa da Misericórdia Hospital, the most important hospital in the capital of the Brazilian Empire. The sources used are the correspondence between the government and the hospital, the hospital annual reports, archives of the Central Board of Public Hygiene, and wide-circulation medical journals.

  18. [The art of improvising. The practice of medico-legal autopsies in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Menenteau, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Murder is perpetrated, suicide is committed and lethal accidents happen everywhere, even in the heart of the French country. In the 19th century, law often appealed to the lights of experts. During criminal investigation, improvisation and men's adaptation were important, although forensic autopsy was official and necessary. Sometimes the magistrates appealed to young people, not used to that kind of reports, who could only remind some bits of the forensic courses they had followed when they were students. As for the specialists, the circumstances often led them to examine--as Baudelaire would say--the "decaying carcass," in a dark and suffocating ruined house, on the kitchen table, and with a simple scapel.

  19. Mortality differentials in France during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Blum, A; Houdaille, J; Lamouche, M

    1990-01-01

    "The very high quality of a set of marriage records for Paris during the 1860s made it possible to apply indirect methods to estimate adult mortality differentials by certain geographical and social criteria of the 19th century. The largest differences between groups were observed to be social, geographical origin apparently having little impact.... It is interesting that social differences in adult mortality are similar in magnitude to those observed today. Perhaps the principal factor of differentiation is then the level of child mortality.... It is by no means necessary to have a set of data as complete as ours. The indirect methods we have used proved largely adequate for estimating mortality differentials."

  20. Following rules in the intermontane west: 19th-century mormon settlement

    PubMed Central

    Norton, William

    2001-01-01

    The academic discipline of human geography is concerned with human activities, especially as these relate to physical landscapes and contribute to the modification of those landscapes. Although little attention has been paid to objectivist philosophies to inform human geography, behavior analysis might offer a useful explanatory model. As an example, a behavior analysis of selected aspects of 19th-century Mormon movement and settlement in the intermontane West is conducted. Mormons are a society of believers who practice cooperative effort and support for other members, and the Mormon church is governed by priesthood authority with members being called to perform tasks. This analysis employs the concepts of metacontingency, rule-governed behavior, and delayed reinforcement to analyze how Mormons settled the intermontane West. PMID:22478355

  1. Height of female Americans in the 19th century and the antebellum puzzle.

    PubMed

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2011-03-01

    Using 19th century state prison records, this study contrasts the biological standard of living of comparable US African-American and white females during a period of relatively rapid economic development. White females were consistently taller than black females by about 1.5 cm (0.6 in.). Whites from Great Lakes and Plains states and black Southwestern females were the tallest. US females were tall compared to their European counterparts. The height of females began to decline in the antebellum period, possibly before that of males. The recovery of physical stature was also earlier among females than among males. This implies that the biological standard of lower-class men and women did not move in parallel during the onset of modern economic growth. It also implies that the antebellum puzzle was most likely rooted in the endogenous forces of socio-economic change rather than the exogenous changes in the disease environment.

  2. Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858). A forgotten contributor to early 19th century neurology.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, O

    2015-10-01

    Specialists of the history of hysteria know the name of Jean-Louis Brachet (1789-1858), but few realise the influence of this physician and surgeon from Lyon, a city in the southeastern part of France. Not only a clinician, he was also a neurophysiology researcher in the early 19th century. Along with his descriptions of meningoencephalitis, including hydrocephalus and meningoencephalitis, he elucidated the functioning of the vegetative nervous system and described its activity during emotional states. He also helped describe the different forms of epilepsy and sought to understand their aetiologies, working at the same time as the better-known Louis-Florentin Calmeil (1798-1895). We present a biography of this forgotten physician, a prolific writer, keen clinical observer and staunch devotee of a rigorous scientific approach.

  3. [Crespi d'Adda: psychosocial risk factors in a late 19th century company town].

    PubMed

    Punzi, S

    2012-01-01

    Crespi d'Adda is a late 19th century company town established around a textile factory by Cristoforo Benigno Crespi and his son Silvio. It was an ideal model of company residency being a self-sufficient microcosm equipped with all the services needed by a community where the life of workers and their families was revolving around the factory and the working requirements. It was the expression of philanthropic and patronizing enlightened entrepreneurs at that time, committed in protecting workers' life inside and outside the factory, resulting into a more affectionate and productive manpower. Silvio Benigno Crespi developed an extensive activity to improve working conditions, with special reference to accident prevention and work-related diseases, as well as night work in factories, weekly day off, reduction of working hours: we can say that in some ways he was concerned also with psychosocial risks. PMID:23405777

  4. [Outer form and internal disease: clinical photography in the late 19th century].

    PubMed

    Kröner, Hans-Peter

    2005-06-01

    Clinical photography in the late 19th century aimed at unveiling the hidden processes invisible to the clinical eye. Changes in the outer form hinted at deeper lying causes, and decoding these forms was supposed to extend the range of the clinical eye in to the realm of invisibility. Two suppositions supported this hope: the belief that each disease as an ontological entity showed typical exterior signs which allowed a diagnosis at sight, and the technological trust in photography as a precise and objective means of representation superior to the human eye. For a short time, clinical photography seemed to be the 'via regia" of diagnosis. Heinrich Curschmann's Klinische Abbildungen and Ludwig Jankau's periodical Internationale medizinisch-photographische Monatsschrift marked the climax of this development in Germany. Röntgen's discovery and its immediate application in clinical medicine put an end to the optimistic expectations: clinical photography was from now on only one among many different means of documenting clinical signs and findings.

  5. Apothecary activity in Dubrovnik Dominican Monastery from 17th to the beginning 19th century.

    PubMed

    Krasic, Stjepan

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the Dominican monastery pharmacy is not clear, but sources suggest that it had operated from the eve of the great earthquake in Dubrovnik in 1667 to the beginning of the 19th century. Its last pharmacist, praised for his competence, passed away in 1803, leaving no one behind The prior travelled all the way to Naples to find a competent pharmacist in his stead, but never returned. Story has it that on the way back, the abbot and the pharmacist lost their lives in a shipwreck. The French army occupied the town in 1806, and the monastery was turned into a military camp. Following the retreat of the French army in 1814, the monastery was returned to the Dominicans, but the pharmacy was never restored. PMID:22047479

  6. Height of female Americans in the 19th century and the antebellum puzzle.

    PubMed

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2011-03-01

    Using 19th century state prison records, this study contrasts the biological standard of living of comparable US African-American and white females during a period of relatively rapid economic development. White females were consistently taller than black females by about 1.5 cm (0.6 in.). Whites from Great Lakes and Plains states and black Southwestern females were the tallest. US females were tall compared to their European counterparts. The height of females began to decline in the antebellum period, possibly before that of males. The recovery of physical stature was also earlier among females than among males. This implies that the biological standard of lower-class men and women did not move in parallel during the onset of modern economic growth. It also implies that the antebellum puzzle was most likely rooted in the endogenous forces of socio-economic change rather than the exogenous changes in the disease environment. PMID:21276759

  7. [Significance of cognitive processes in drug research in the 19th century--exemplified by nitroglycerin].

    PubMed

    Schüppel, R

    1997-01-01

    The history of the discovery and development of drugs is replete with examples where chance and "serendipity" have resulted in important advances of knowledge. In the case of nitroglycerin it can be shown that what appears to have been a chance discovery was actually the result of a sequence of selective perceptions by, and cognitive processes in individual researchers. The sources allow insight into various stages of the development of nitroglycerin, starting with the chemical synthesis as an explosive in 1846 and the first use in humans in 1847 to the discovery of a useful coronary drug. Homeopathic medicine contributed significantly to this process. Thus, the history of nitroglycerin is an example of an exchange of knowledge between otherwise separate realms of sectarian and orthodox medicine in the second half of the 19th century.

  8. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population.

    PubMed

    Bower, Nathan W; McCants, Sarah A; Custodio, Joseph M; Ketterer, Michael E; Getty, Stephen R; Hoffman, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories.

  9. [Knud Faber and the Paris medicine in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Jensen, Niels Kristoffer

    2007-01-01

    The socalled "Paris medicine" in the beginning of the 19th century initiated by the French revolution has always been regarded as something special and of great importance for the development in the medical field and this period has attracted many authors and historians for interpretation. Foucault and Ackerknecht are the latest authors that have given an estimation. A need, however, was felt for a new reinterpretation. The papers of a conference at the College of Physicians in 1992 was published in The Wellcome Institute Series in the History of Medicine in 1998 under the name of "Constructing Paris Medicine" that should elucidate the problem. In Denmark we have a rather early estimation due to professor Knud Fabers book from 1919, which was translated into English in 1923 and 1930.

  10. Science Fiction In Naples In The Middle Of The 19th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaccioli, Massimo; Cirella, Emilia Olostro; Stendardo, Enrica; Virgilio, Nicla

    Astronomer, intellectual, passionate patriot, and refined humanist, Ernesto Capocci Belmonte (Picinisco, May 31, 1798 - Naples, January 6, 1864) was a prominent figure of the scientific, cultural, and political life in Naples around the middle of the 19th century. He acquired international recognition for his studies on the orbits of comets and, since 1833, he was named director of the newly built Osservatorio Astronomico in Capodimonte: A prestigious position that he lost for political retaliation as a result of his participation in the movement against the Bourbon rulers in 1848, but which he regained in 1860 upon the arrival in Naples of Giuseppe Garibaldi. An intuitive and open-minded scholar, he looked always at the contemporary experiences in Europe and, as a scientist and cultivated human being, he sought to serve the community by enthusiastically devoting himself also to education and public outreach. He developed clear interests in literature and, as a forerunner, he dared to tackle the genre of science fiction. His short novel Relazione del viaggio alla Luna fatto da una donna nell'anno di grazia 2057 (Report of the Trip to the Moon done by a Woman in the Year of our Lord 2057), written in the period of his exile from the Observatory and practically given up as lost until a private copy was found in the library of one of Capocci's descendants, offers an interesting overview of astronomical knowledge and taste for the elegance in writing, and gives an unusual, and often ironic, viewpoint on the situation of sciences in Naples in the middle of the 19th century.

  11. One of the origins of modernity and naturalism of French literature in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Na-Mi

    2013-04-01

    Authors studied how Claude Bernard, the first founder of experimental medicine, contributed significantly to establishment of modernism and influenced European modern culture. Authors first studied his views on modernity, comparing with Descartes and Magendie, and on the similarity between "Experimental medicine" and the European literature in the 19th century. Bernard was not exclusively against vitalism, but the dogmatic misuse of vitalism. His objective thinking could be a useful model for the authors, who considered science to be an origin of modernity in literature of naturalism. Especially, Emile Zola was strongly influenced by Bernard's "An introduction to the study of Experimental medicine" and published "Experimental novel," a manifesto of naturalism. Although Bernard's experimental methodology and determinism deeply influenced modern European culture, the relationship between his Experimental medicine and modernism have not been fully investigated yet. His experimental medicine also needs to be discussed from the ecological viewpoints. His anthropo-centrism was unique since he emphasized any human theory could not surpass the principle of nature. Conventional anthropo-centrism claims that human beings are superior enough to own and govern the nature. And Bernard's the necessary determinism contains the ecological principle that all life forms and inanimate objects are organically related and intertwined to each other, irrespectively of their usefulness for the human beings. Although there were some ethical debates related to his medical experiments on living bodies of animal, his strict principle to perform experiments only after animal or human body died was worth considering as an effort to sustain ecological viewpoints. He was also unique in terms of being realistic and candid about his situation which was limited by the 19th century's scientific and medical development. In conclusion, the significance of convergence of literature and medical science

  12. Ochres and earths: Matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

    2013-02-01

    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Raman microscopy, μ-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. μ-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. μ-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

  13. Ochres and earths: matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials.

    PubMed

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

    2013-02-15

    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Raman microscopy, μ-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. μ-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. μ-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

  14. Ochres and earths: matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials.

    PubMed

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

    2013-02-15

    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Raman microscopy, μ-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. μ-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. μ-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints. PMID:23274225

  15. Founding of Compulsory Civil Education According to the Education Acts from Second Half of the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    Records of education in Croatia occur very soon after the settlement of Croats in this area. It is tied to 9th century and Duke Trpimir. Initial steps of education were not legally bounded nor the school was obligatory. In the second half of the 19th century, more precisely in 1871, with the First Education Act education becomes obligatory. Using…

  16. The Case for Consolidation: Our 19th-Century Model of Governance Is a Formula for Mediocrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amdursky, Saul

    2004-01-01

    We need fewer public libraries with greater dependence. Here at the beginning of the 21st century, public libraries are still saddled with a 19th-century model of government. They are far too beholden to governing authorities, usually municipal or county governments, for their financial sustenance. This is a formula for mediocrity. "Local control"…

  17. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  18. Factors influencing the recession rate of Niagara Falls since the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2009-09-01

    The rate of recession of Niagara Falls (Horseshoe and American Falls) in northeastern North America has been documented since the 19th century; it shows a decreasing trend from ca. 1 m y - 1 a century ago to ca. 0.1 m y - 1 at present. Reduction of the flow volume in the Niagara River due to diversion into bypassing hydroelectric schemes has often been taken to be the factor responsible, but other factors such as changes in the waterfall shape could play a role and call for a quantitative study. Here, we examine the effect of physical factors on the historically varying recession rates of Niagara Falls, using an empirical equation which has previously been proposed based on a non-dimensional multiparametric model which incorporates flow volume, waterfall shape and bedrock strength. The changes in recession rates of Niagara Falls in the last century are successfully modeled by this empirical equation; these changes are caused by variations in flow volume and lip length. This result supports the validity of the empirical equation for waterfalls in rivers carrying little transported sediment. Our analysis also suggests that the decrease in the recession rate of Horseshoe Falls is related to both artificial reduction in river discharge and natural increase in waterfall lip length, whereas that of American Falls is solely due to the reduction in flow volume.

  19. [Hypotheses and causes of body height progressions since mid 19th century--a scientific historical review. I: Discussion of causes since the end of the 19th century to mid 20th century, including references on body height development in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Wurm, H

    1985-01-01

    This examination is trying to give a scientific historical survey of the hypothesis and the reasons for progression of height since the middle of the 19th century. These progressions of height are not based on a single reason, but were kept going by the addition of consecutive reasons. Physical relief is mainly responsible for the most recent phase of progression of height.

  20. Contemporaneous anatomic collections and scientific papers from the 19th century school of anatomy of Bologna: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Scarani, P; de Caro, R; Ottani, V; Raspanti, M; Ruggeri, F; Ruggeri, A

    2001-01-01

    Recently, a strict relationship was demonstrated between scientific pathology reports of the 19th century and a large number of specimens from the museum of pathology 'Cesare Taruffi' of Bologna. Such an experience suggested verifying whether a similar relationship exists between the 19th-century collections of the museum of anatomy and the contemporaneous anatomic scientific literature. The purpose of this preliminary report is to illustrate the first documented samples recovered in Bologna in order to promote such an inventory of old anatomic and pathologic specimens in other museums.

  1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a historical perspective leading up to the end of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Ekmektzoglou, Konstantinos A; Johnson, Elizabeth O; Syros, Periklis; Chalkias, Athanasios; Kalambalikis, Lazaros; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Social laws and religious beliefs throughout history underscore the leaps and bounds that the science of resuscitation has achieved from ancient times until today. The effort to resuscitate victims goes back to ancient history, where death was considered a special form of sleep or an act of God. Biblical accounts of resuscitation attempts are numerous. Resuscitation in the Middle Ages was forbidden, but later during Renaissance, any prohibition against performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was challenged, which finally led to the Enlightenment, where scholars attempted to scientifically solve the problem of sudden death. It was then that the various components of CPR (ventilation, circulation, electricity, and organization of emergency medical services) began to take shape. The 19th century gave way to hallmarks both in the ventilatory support (intubation innovations and the artificial respirator) and the open-and closed chest circulatory support. Meanwhile, novel defibrillation techniques had been employed and ventricular fibrillation described. The groundbreaking discoveries of the 20th century finally led to the scientific framework of CPR. In 1960, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation was eventually combined with chest compression and defibrillation to become CPR as we now know it. This review presents the scientific milestones behind one of medicine's most widely used fields.

  2. [The emergence of the Québec asylum in the 19th century.].

    PubMed

    Paradis, A

    1977-01-01

    This team of five philosophers analyses the 18th and 19th century Quebec discourse on the subject of insanity. The 18th century saw the insane excluded from social contact with the state recognizing only their indigence. They were relegated either to the "Loges", designed to expiate their sins since insanity was linked to an abuse of mind and body, or to prison for appropriate punishment, since madness was considered to lead to crime. But economic pressures produced by the growing number in indigents, including the mentally ill, led to the creation of the Beauport asylum in 1845. The authors then describe how the urban insane, marginal to both the French Canadian and English Canadian communities* were placed in private institutions and subjected to a system of profit maximization controlled by bourgeois physicians. This situation increased the distance between proprietors and occupants, and accounts for the lack of original discourse on the subject of insanity. In addition, the reasoning of the alienist physicians was without scientific foundation, taking root rather in the dominant industrial capitalist ideology. As for the content of the discourse, the Beauport physicians borrowed from moral treatment and restraint system notions, giving them a certain Quebec character.

  3. On the development of German beating-reed organ pipes during the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braasch, Jonas

    2001-05-01

    In the 19th century organ literature, it is often claimed that German organ builders generally adapted the way of building their beating-reed pipes after being influenced by new developments from England and France. To investigate whether this hypothesis is true or false, the reed-pipe sounds of several German historic organs and an English organ by Henry Willis were measured and analyzed. The outcome of the analysis, however, cannot confirm the given hypothesis. Organ builders of the 18th century, such as Gottfried Silbermann for example, were already able to build beating-reed pipes similar in sound to the pipes that are used nowadays in Germany. It is noteworthy that Silbermann used closed shallots in some of his stops, although they are thought to be one of the main inventions in the English and French organ reforms. The use of higher wind pressures, which is also a main part of this reform, on the other hand, never became a common standard in Germany, as was the case for France and Great Britain.

  4. Placebos in 19th century medicine: a quantitative analysis of the BMJ

    PubMed Central

    Raicek, Jacqueline E; Stone, Bradley H

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide the first quantitative data on the use of the term “placebo” in the 19th century. Design Computer search of BMJ’s archival database from January 1840 (the first issue) through December 1899 for uses of the words “placebo(s).” Grounded theory was used to categorise the implications of uses of the term. Results 71 citations contained the term “placebo(s).” Of these, 22 (31%) used the term to mean “no effect” or as a general pejorative term, 18 (25%) portrayed placebo treatment as permitting the unfolding of the natural history (the normal waxing and waning of illness), 14 (20%) described placebo as important to satisfy patients, 7 (10%) described it as fulfilling a physician’s performance role, 3 (4%) described its use to buy time, 3 (4%) described its use for financial gain, 2 (3%) used it in a manner similar to a placebo control, and only one implied that placebo could have a clinical effect. Only one citation mentioned telling the patient about his placebo treatment. Conclusion Nineteenth century physicians had diverse a priori assumptions about placebos. These findings remind us that contemporary medicine needs to use rigorous science to separate fact from its own beliefs concerning the “provision of care.” As in previous generations, ethical issues concerning placebos continue to challenge medicine. PMID:23249668

  5. How to compare the faces of the Earth? Walachia in mid-19th century and nowadays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartos-Elekes, Zsombor; Magyari-Sáska, Zsolt; Timár, Gábor; Imecs, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    In 1864 a detailed map was made about Walachia, its title is Charta României Meridionale (Map of Southern Romania), it has 112 map sheets, it is often called after his draughtsman: Szathmári's map. The map has an outstanding position in the history of Romanian cartography, because it indicates a turning-point. Before the map, foreigners (Austrians and Russians) had made topographic maps about this vassal principality of the Ottoman Empire. The Austrian topographic survey (1855-1859) - which served as a basis for this map - was the last one and the most detailed of these surveys. The map was made between the personal-union (1859) and independence (1878) of the Danubian Principalities. This map was the first (to a certain extent) own map of the forming country. In consequence of this survey and map, the Romanian mapping institute was founded, which one - based on this survey and map - began the topographic mapping of the country. In the Romanian scientific literature imperfect and contradictory information has been published about this map. Only a dozen copies of the map were kept in few map collections; the researchers could have reached them with difficulties. During our research we processed the circumstances of the survey and mapmaking discovering its documentation in the archives of Vienna, as well as using the Romanian, Hungarian and German scientific literature. We found the copies in map collections from Vienna to Bucharest. We digitized all the map sheets from different collections. We calculated the parameters of the used geodetic datum and map projection. We published on the web, such we made the map reachable for everybody. The map can be viewed in different zoom levels; can be downloaded; settlements can be found using the place name index; areas can be exported in modern projection, so the conditions of that time could be compared with today's reality. Our poster presents on the one hand the survey and the map realized in mid-19th century and our

  6. Modelling the dynamics of scarlet fever epidemics in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Duncan, S R; Scott, S; Duncan, C J

    2000-01-01

    Annual deaths from scarlet fever in Liverpool, UK during 1848-1900 have been used as a model system for studying the historical dynamics of the epidemics. Mathematical models are developed which include the growth of the population and the death rate from scarlet fever. Time-series analysis of the results shows that there were two distinct phases to the disease (i) 1848-1880: regular epidemics (wavelength = 3.7 years) consistent with the system being driven by an oscillation in the transmission coefficient (deltabeta) at its resonant frequency, probably associated with dry conditions in winter (ii) 1880-1900: an undriven SEIR system with a falling endemic level and decaying epidemics. This period was associated with improved nutritive levels. There is also evidence from time-series analysis that raised wheat prices in pregnancy caused increased susceptibility in the subsequent children. The pattern of epidemics and the demographic characteristics of the population can be replicated in the modelling which provides insights into the detailed epidemiology of scarlet fever in this community in the 19th century.

  7. [Development of the modern biological analogy concept in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bäumer, A

    1989-01-01

    At the beginning of the 19th century the term analogy was still synonymous with similarity, as for example in the case of Georges Cuvier. Exact criteria for determining analogy are first found in the work of Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Thereupon the English scientists Sharp MacLeay, William Swainson, John Obadiah Westwood and Edwin Strickland distinguished between analogy as correspondence between certain parts of the organism, i. e. only superficial resemblance, and affinity as an essential similarity in some remarkable aspects of form. Relying on these theories Richard Owen developed his theory of analogy ("a part which has the same function as another") and homology ("the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function"). The criteria to distinguish between these two terms had to be modified and specified when the theory of evolution was developed by Charles Darwin. In the work of Thomas Henry Huxley, Ernst Haeckel and Carl Gegenbaur the modern biological term of analogy was developed, but at the same time it lost much of its importance and homology as a criterion for natural affinity became the central objective of further biological research. PMID:2534606

  8. The mid 19th and early 20th Century Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifácio, Vitor

    2012-09-01

    The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and early 20th century astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.

  9. Legacy Contaminantion in UK catchments since the mid-19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Noacco, V.; Wagener, T.

    2014-12-01

    We present data from UK catchments to characterise impacts of industrial and agricultural development of UK river catchments since the mid-19th century. We draw heavily on the world's longest continuous water quality monitoring programme in the Thames River Basin (1868-date) and discuss the implications of both agricultural development, social and industrial change, and the impact of legislation on coupled land and water resource systems. Our review draws on both data and model analysis over a 145-year period and explores how a multitude of inter-linked drivers affects process-function and practical water resource management decision-support. Our work uncovers key drivers, catchment responses and emergent challenges for process science and regulation, with particular emphasis on the technical challenge for catchment scientists to provide both insight and workable solutions to maintain food and water security in intensively management river basins. We discuss issues of appropriate methods for both data capture and subsequent analyses to support short- and long-term decision making, and particularly considers the importance of advanced techniques to clarify uncertainties in extrapolation of short-term observations to inform long-term goals. We speculate as to future trajectories of catchment responses to current pressures, and potential pitfalls to immediate concerns that may often be at odds with overall requirements for continued use of natural resources in the future.

  10. ["Fabulous things". Drug narratives about coca and cocaine in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Wahrig, Bettina

    2009-12-01

    This contribution focuses on the history of Coca leaves and Cocaine in the second half of 19th century Europe. Even though, to date, no direct link has been established between the activities of the Milano physician Paolo Mantegazza, and the Göttingen chemist Friedrich Wöhler, it is not a mere coincidence that both published their findings in the same year, namely, 1859. Mantegazza authored the first treatise claiming that Coca had psychoactive qualities and touted its broad therapeutic faculties; he claimed that it should be introduced into European pharmacotherapy. In Wöhler's laboratory, cocaine was isolated from leaves by his pupil Alfred Niemann; later, Wilhelm Lossen refined and corrected Niemann's results. Narratives about medicinal drugs often streamline history into a story that starts with multiple meanings and impure matters and ends with well-defined substances, directed at clear-cut diseases and symptoms. In the case of Coca, however, the pure substance triggered no such process well into the 1880s, whereas the leaves continued to circulate as an exotic, pluripotent drug whose effects where miraculous and yet difficult to establish. PMID:20481059

  11. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    PubMed

    Drew, Joshua; Philipp, Christopher; Westneat, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific), like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah) and the Dusky (C. obscurus), were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th) century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity.

  12. Dental health of the late 19th and early 20th century Khoesan.

    PubMed

    Botha, D; Steyn, M

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the dental analysis performed on a Khoesan skeletal sample representing the late 19th and early 20th century Cape Colony in southern Africa. Skeletal material from two European collections (Vienna and Paris) was selected to compile a total sample of 116 specimens. Dental pathology frequencies were calculated for caries (28.4%), antemortem tooth loss (37.9%), periapical abscesses (29.3%), periodontal disease (26.7%), calculus (44.0%) and impacted canines (4.3%). Attrition scores indicated that the group under study had an average rate of attrition compared to other southern African populations. Frequency and intensity data were compared to several other samples from both the pre-contact and contact phases by means of chi-squared analysis. The outcome of the study suggested that the group under study was most likely in a state of transition between a diet and lifestyle of hunting-and-gathering and agriculture. Results were also consistent with those of groups from a low socio-economic status.

  13. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: Evidence from late 19th century America

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900–1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20–50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  14. Naming and Necessity: Sherborn’s Context in the 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    McOuat, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract By the late 19th Century, storms plaguing early Victorian systematics and nomenclature seemed to have abated. Vociferous disputes over radical renaming, the world-shaking clash of all-encompassing procrustean systems, struggles over centres of authority, and the issues of language and meaning had now been settled by the institution of a stable imperial museum and its catalogues, a set of rules for the naming of zoological objects, and a new professional class of zoologists. Yet, for all that tranquillity, the disputes simmered below the surface, re-emerging as bitter struggles over synonyms, trinomials, the subspecies category, the looming issues of the philosophy of scientific language, and the aggressive new American style of field biology – all pressed in upon the received practice of naming and classifying organisms and the threat of anarchy. In the midst rose an index. This paper will explore the context of CD Sherborn’s Index Animalium and those looming problems and issues which a laborious and comprehensive “index of nature” was meant to solve. PMID:26877652

  15. Polish dermatology in the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The beginnings of Polish dermatology date back to the first half of the 19th century in Kraków. The first textbook of dermatology was written by Ludwik Bierkowski. Later the progress in the development of this field of medicine was due to Franciszek Krzyształowicz, Marian Grzybowski, Franciszek Walter, and Jan Alkiewicz. Krzyształowicz's most remarkable achievements were related to his studies of the Treponema pallidum of syphilis. Grzybowski's main contribution to international dermatology was the first description in the medical literature of a specific variant of keratoacanthoma, which has since then been called Grzybowski's eruptive keratoacanthoma or generalized eruptive keratoacanthoma - Grzybowski's variant. Alkiewicz described trachyonychia, or twenty-nail dystrophy, a disease that became well established in the dermatological literature; he also described the so-called transverse net in onychomycosis. Walter identified the syphilitic skin and bone lesions in some figures carved in the Veit Stoss's altar in Kraków, thus presenting the famous thesis of the non-American origin of syphilis in Europe. Considering all these achievements, it is the goal of this paper to review Polish contributions to international dermatology. PMID:18173613

  16. Rings of madness: service areas of 19th century asylums in North America.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J M; Shannon, G W; Sambrook, S L

    1986-01-01

    The mid-19th century saw the emergence of a major medical innovation, namely, the rise of the state lunatic asylum. Beginning in the northeast, the phenomenon spread rapidly westwards. By 1875 no fewer than 71 mental hospitals were opened in 32 existing states. Although premised upon belief in the efficacy of 'moral and humane' treatment, the asylums soon became custodial rather than therapeutic institutions. Average size continually increased; some accommodated well over 2000 patients. The provision of more asylums, and broadened definitions of insanity, generated increasing patient numbers which, in turn, caused public consternation and fear of increasing 'madness' in the population. Geographic analysis of admissions in 18 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces reveals the universality of distance decay around the asylums, and demonstrates that hospital service-area cones were predominantly local in effect. Thus the 'state' asylum was in reality a local institution. The deinstitutionalization movement of recent decades is apparently bringing to a closure a 100-year cycle of incarceration-decarceration of the mentally ill. Nevertheless, whether patients are geographically concentrated or dispersed, the influence of distance decay remains a relevant consideration.

  17. Ovariotomy for menstrual madness and premenstrual syndrome--19th century history and lessons for current practice.

    PubMed

    Studd, John

    2006-08-01

    Ovariotomy--the removal of normal ovaries, known as Battey's Operation--began in 1872 and became the fashionable treatment of menstrual madness, neurasthenia, nymphomania, masturbation and "all cases of insanity". This practice was supported by distinguished gynecologists and psychiatrists, becoming one of the great medical scandals of the 19th century. In modern times, if menstrual madness is considered to be premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), and ovariotomy, the surgical equivalent of ovulation suppression of GnRH analogues, it can be argued that the surgery would have been effective for this limited indication, although the side effects of long-term estrogen deficiency would have made the treatment unacceptable. Currently, the successful hormonal treatment of PMDD is one of suppression of ovulation and removal of the cyclical hormonal changes in the luteal phase, probably progesterone, which is the essential cause of PMDD. Such therapy would be by GnRH analogues, transdermal estradiol and, in a few cases, the surgical option of hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adequate hormone replacement. A study of medical history can help us prevent the mistakes of over-enthusiasm but positive lessons can be learned.

  18. [Contribution of 19th-century religious congregations in the development of the nursing profession].

    PubMed

    Bezze, Sabrina; Manzoni, Edoardo; Di Mauro, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this historical research project is to examine the contribution of 19th-century religious congregations in the development of the nursing profession, based on the historical example of the Sisters of Charity of Sts. Bartolomea Capitanio and Vincenza Gerosa (or the Sisters of the Holy Child Mary). To this end, sixty three volumes were analysed, all taken from the historical archive of the Generalate of the Sisters of the Holy Child Mary in Milan, in via S. Sofia n.13, with the exception of just one, taken from the Braidense National Library, also in Milan. This research project has highlighted the sociological contribution provided by the Sisters of the Holy Child Mary to the professional nature of nursing, and to the development of the distinctive features of the nursing profession (Greenwood, 1980). All documentary sources were analysed in line with the Chabod historical research method (2006), and for their critical interpretation, a scheme of analysis was created. Two lines of investigation emerged from the data collected: the role of Sister Emilia Vinante as an expert with regard to the nursing profession, and the professional strategies promoted by FIRO (Federation of Italian Religious Nurses). Based on the conclusions of the research project, it may be stated that religious congregations contributed greatly to the nursing profession, leaving a decisive mark on the cultural and professional development of nurses.

  19. [Development of the modern biological analogy concept in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bäumer, A

    1989-01-01

    At the beginning of the 19th century the term analogy was still synonymous with similarity, as for example in the case of Georges Cuvier. Exact criteria for determining analogy are first found in the work of Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Thereupon the English scientists Sharp MacLeay, William Swainson, John Obadiah Westwood and Edwin Strickland distinguished between analogy as correspondence between certain parts of the organism, i. e. only superficial resemblance, and affinity as an essential similarity in some remarkable aspects of form. Relying on these theories Richard Owen developed his theory of analogy ("a part which has the same function as another") and homology ("the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function"). The criteria to distinguish between these two terms had to be modified and specified when the theory of evolution was developed by Charles Darwin. In the work of Thomas Henry Huxley, Ernst Haeckel and Carl Gegenbaur the modern biological term of analogy was developed, but at the same time it lost much of its importance and homology as a criterion for natural affinity became the central objective of further biological research.

  20. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    PubMed

    Drew, Joshua; Philipp, Christopher; Westneat, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific), like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah) and the Dusky (C. obscurus), were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th) century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity. PMID:23573214

  1. ["Fabulous things". Drug narratives about coca and cocaine in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Wahrig, Bettina

    2009-12-01

    This contribution focuses on the history of Coca leaves and Cocaine in the second half of 19th century Europe. Even though, to date, no direct link has been established between the activities of the Milano physician Paolo Mantegazza, and the Göttingen chemist Friedrich Wöhler, it is not a mere coincidence that both published their findings in the same year, namely, 1859. Mantegazza authored the first treatise claiming that Coca had psychoactive qualities and touted its broad therapeutic faculties; he claimed that it should be introduced into European pharmacotherapy. In Wöhler's laboratory, cocaine was isolated from leaves by his pupil Alfred Niemann; later, Wilhelm Lossen refined and corrected Niemann's results. Narratives about medicinal drugs often streamline history into a story that starts with multiple meanings and impure matters and ends with well-defined substances, directed at clear-cut diseases and symptoms. In the case of Coca, however, the pure substance triggered no such process well into the 1880s, whereas the leaves continued to circulate as an exotic, pluripotent drug whose effects where miraculous and yet difficult to establish.

  2. Dental health of the late 19th and early 20th century Khoesan.

    PubMed

    Botha, D; Steyn, M

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the dental analysis performed on a Khoesan skeletal sample representing the late 19th and early 20th century Cape Colony in southern Africa. Skeletal material from two European collections (Vienna and Paris) was selected to compile a total sample of 116 specimens. Dental pathology frequencies were calculated for caries (28.4%), antemortem tooth loss (37.9%), periapical abscesses (29.3%), periodontal disease (26.7%), calculus (44.0%) and impacted canines (4.3%). Attrition scores indicated that the group under study had an average rate of attrition compared to other southern African populations. Frequency and intensity data were compared to several other samples from both the pre-contact and contact phases by means of chi-squared analysis. The outcome of the study suggested that the group under study was most likely in a state of transition between a diet and lifestyle of hunting-and-gathering and agriculture. Results were also consistent with those of groups from a low socio-economic status. PMID:25882044

  3. [A new political contribution to medicine: homeopathy in 19th century Spain].

    PubMed

    Albarracin Teulon, A

    1993-01-01

    The author has sumarized the role of well known 19th century doctors, Thackray, Villermé, Chadwick and especially Virchow (whose socio-medical works are related in detail), in the influence of political ideas on Medicine. As a new contribution to this subject the author informs us of the participation or a Spanish homeopathic doctor in this task. Anastasio García López (1821-1897), was influenced by the works of Charles Fourier, whose doctrine was spreading throughout Spain at that time. García López aplied the sociological concepts of the French utopian philosopher to his idea of homeopaty. A review is made of how Fourierism penetrated and became implanted in Spain and the mark it left on Hahnemann is analized using the "passionate attraction" concept and the ideas of social constriction and violence. García López believed that Hahnemann was attempting to free therapeutics from the yoke of attacking symptoms, emphasizing the affinities of the illness with the cure. Finally, this influence is demostrated in all the activitires of this Spanish doctor, politican, spiritualist, mason and hydrologist of renown.

  4. Shark Tooth Weapons from the 19th Century Reflect Shifting Baselines in Central Pacific Predator Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Joshua; Philipp, Christopher; Westneat, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific), like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah) and the Dusky (C. obscurus), were present in the islands during the last half of the 19th century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity. PMID:23573214

  5. The concept of personality in 19th-century French and 20th-century American psychology.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Foschi, Renato

    2003-05-01

    Since the 1920s, the road to the acknowledgement of personality psychology as a field of scientific psychology that has individuality as its object began with the founding of the discipline by Gordon W. Allport. Historians of psychology have made serious attempts to reconstruct the cultural, political, institutional, and chronological beginnings of this field in America in the 20th century. In this literature, however, an important European tradition of psychological studies of personality that developed in France in the 2nd half of the 19th century has been overlooked. The aim of this article is to cast some light on this unexplored tradition of psychological personality studies and to discuss its influence on the development of the scientific study of personality in the United States.

  6. The concept of personality in 19th-century French and 20th-century American psychology.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Foschi, Renato

    2003-05-01

    Since the 1920s, the road to the acknowledgement of personality psychology as a field of scientific psychology that has individuality as its object began with the founding of the discipline by Gordon W. Allport. Historians of psychology have made serious attempts to reconstruct the cultural, political, institutional, and chronological beginnings of this field in America in the 20th century. In this literature, however, an important European tradition of psychological studies of personality that developed in France in the 2nd half of the 19th century has been overlooked. The aim of this article is to cast some light on this unexplored tradition of psychological personality studies and to discuss its influence on the development of the scientific study of personality in the United States. PMID:12817602

  7. An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

  8. How To Dance through Time. Volume VI: A 19th Century Ball--The Charm of Group Dances. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This 48-minute VHS videotape is the sixth in a series of "How To Dance Through Time" videos. It shows the festivity of the 19th century group dances, enabling the viewer to plan and participate in the elegant opening to the ball, a refined square dance, and flirtatious Cotillion dancing games. Professional dancers demonstrate the patterns with…

  9. How To Dance through Time. Volume I: The Romance of Mid-19th Century Couple Dances. Beginning Level. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This 35-minute VHS videotape is the first in a series of "How To Dance Through Time" videos. It provides how-to instructions to help beginning dancers learn the mid-19th century ballroom couple dances. It introduces dancers to the basic steps, which accompany the romantic dance music of the past. Each dance segment is introduced by a brief…

  10. Body mass, wealth, and inequality in the 19th century: joining the debate surrounding equality and health.

    PubMed

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2013-01-01

    We explore relationships among BMI variation, wealth, and inequality in the 19th century US. There was an inverse relationship between BMI and average state-level wealth and a small, inverse relationship with wealth inequality. After controlling for wealth and inequality, farmers had greater BMI values than workers in other occupations, and blacks had greater BMI values because of nutritional deprivation in utero.

  11. Self-Help Medical Literature in 19th-Century Canada and the Rhetorical Convention of Plain Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines self-help medical literature in 19th-century Canada. Shows that while authors repeatedly called for "plain" language in contrast to mysterious terminology employed by medical practitioners, comparison of their style with that of medical textbook authors reveals few real differences. Concludes that the posture adopted by Canadian self-help…

  12. The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

  13. Physics education in the Greek community schools of Istanbul (19th century). Scientific instruments and experiments in electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazos, Panagiotis; Vlahakis, George N.

    2016-03-01

    The Greek schools operating in Istanbul date back to the 19th century. These schools have noteworthy collections of old scientific instruments that were used in teaching experimental physics. Amongst them, more outstanding are the scientific instruments used in demonstrating electrostatics. This paper briefly presents the equipment, focuses on exceptional scientific instruments and attempts to illuminate certain aspects in teaching the natural sciences.

  14. The Educational Utilization of Elements of the History of Natural Sciences (19th Century): Highlighting the Cognitive Continuity with Antiquity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniati, Helen A.

    2005-01-01

    In the current paper, the reasons why the late 19th century Greek university community of natural scientists used elements from the History of Natural sciences which refer exclusively to ancient Greek science, and the consequences of such a choice are evaluated. Emphasis will be given to the speech delivered by the Dean, Professor of Chemistry, A.…

  15. The use of Congreve-type war Rockets by the Spanish in the 19th century: A chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancho, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    A yearly account of military uses, by the Spanish, of Congreve war rockets is given, from the year 1810 until 1895. Events prior to the 19th century are also recorded which include the use of rockets against the Moors of Valencia and documentation, from literature of that period, relating to rocket applications.

  16. Threads of Change in 19th Century American Literature: A Language Arts Unit for Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossett, Becky F.; And Others

    This unit of study for junior-high level high-ability language arts students explores five themes in 19th century American history through literature of the times: romanticism, transcendentalism, abolitionism, industrialism, and feminism. Each of the five "isms" has its own "literature box" that contains appropriate documents to serve as a…

  17. The lost origin of chemical ecology in the late 19th century.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Thomas

    2008-03-25

    The origin of plant chemical ecology generally dates to the late 1950s, when evolutionary entomologists recognized the essential role of plant secondary metabolites in plant-insect interactions and suggested that plant chemical diversity evolved under the selection pressure of herbivory. However, similar ideas had already flourished for a short period during the second half of the 19th century but were largely forgotten by the turn of the century. This article presents the observations and studies of three protagonists of chemical ecology: Anton Kerner von Marilaun (1831-1898, Innsbruck, Austria, and Vienna, Austria), who mainly studied the impact of geological, climatic, and biotic factors on plant distribution and survival; Léo Errera (1858-1906, Brussels, Belgium), a plant physiologist who analyzed the localization of alkaloids in plant cells and tissues histochemically; and Ernst Stahl (1848-1919, Jena, Germany), likely the first experimental ecologist and who performed feeding studies with snails and slugs that demonstrated the essential role of secondary metabolites in plant protection against herbivores. All three, particularly Stahl, suggested that these "chemical defensive means" evolved in response to the relentless selection pressure of the heterotrophic community that surrounds plants. Although convincingly supported by observations and experiments, these ideas were forgotten until recently. Now, more than 100 years later, molecular analysis of the genes that control secondary metabolite production underscores just how correct Kerner von Marilaun, Errera, and, particularly, Stahl were in their view. Why their ideas were lost is likely a result of the adamant rejection of all things "teleological" by the physiologists who dominated biological research at the time. PMID:18218780

  18. The lost origin of chemical ecology in the late 19th century

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The origin of plant chemical ecology generally dates to the late 1950s, when evolutionary entomologists recognized the essential role of plant secondary metabolites in plant–insect interactions and suggested that plant chemical diversity evolved under the selection pressure of herbivory. However, similar ideas had already flourished for a short period during the second half of the 19th century but were largely forgotten by the turn of the century. This article presents the observations and studies of three protagonists of chemical ecology: Anton Kerner von Marilaun (1831–1898, Innsbruck, Austria, and Vienna, Austria), who mainly studied the impact of geological, climatic, and biotic factors on plant distribution and survival; Léo Errera (1858–1906, Brussels, Belgium), a plant physiologist who analyzed the localization of alkaloids in plant cells and tissues histochemically; and Ernst Stahl (1848–1919, Jena, Germany), likely the first experimental ecologist and who performed feeding studies with snails and slugs that demonstrated the essential role of secondary metabolites in plant protection against herbivores. All three, particularly Stahl, suggested that these “chemical defensive means” evolved in response to the relentless selection pressure of the heterotrophic community that surrounds plants. Although convincingly supported by observations and experiments, these ideas were forgotten until recently. Now, more than 100 years later, molecular analysis of the genes that control secondary metabolite production underscores just how correct Kerner von Marilaun, Errera, and, particularly, Stahl were in their view. Why their ideas were lost is likely a result of the adamant rejection of all things “teleological” by the physiologists who dominated biological research at the time. PMID:18218780

  19. Forgotten research from 19th century: science should not follow fashion.

    PubMed

    Galler, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    The fine structure of cross-striated muscle and its changes during contraction were known already in considerable detail in the 19th century. This knowledge was the result of studying birefringence properties of muscle fibres under the polarization microscope, a method mainly established by Brücke (Denk Kais Akad Wiss Math Naturwiss Cl 15:69-84, 1858) in Vienna, Austria. The knowledge was seemingly forgotten in the first half of the 20th century before it was rediscovered in 1954. This rediscovery was essential for the formulation of the sliding filament theory which represents the commonly accepted concept of muscle contraction (A.F. Huxley and Niedergerke, Nature 173:971-973, 1954; H.E. Huxley and Hanson, Nature 173:973-976, 1954). The loss of knowledge was the result of prevailing views within the scientific community which could be attributed to "fashion": it was thought that the changes of cross-striations, which were observed under the microscope, were inconsequential for contraction since other types of movements like cell crawling and smooth muscle contraction were not associated with similar changes of the fine structure. The basis for this assumption was the view that all types of movements associated with life must be caused by the same mechanisms. Furthermore, it was assumed that the light microscopy was of little use, because the individual molecules that carry out life functions cannot be seen under the light microscope. This unfortunate episode of science history teaches us that the progress of science can severely be retarded by fashion. PMID:25432331

  20. Instrumental evidence of an unusually strong West African Monsoon in the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, David; Ordoñez, Paulina; Ribera, Pedro; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina; Garcia-Herrera, Ricardo; Vega, Inmaculada; Gomez, Francisco de Paula

    2016-04-01

    The precipitation in the Sahel -which is mainly controlled by the dynamics of the West African Monsoon-, has been in the spot of the climate community for the last three decades due to the persistence of the drought period that started in the 1970s. Unfortunately, reliable meteorological series in this area are only available since the beginning of the 20th Century, thus limiting our understanding of the significance of this period from a long term perspective. Currently, our knowledge of what happened in times previous to the 20th Century essentially relies in documentary or proxy sources. In this work, we present the first instrumental evidence of a 50 year-long period characterised by an unusually strong West African monsoon in the19th Century. Following the recent advances in the generation of climatic indices based on data from ship's logbooks, we used historical wind observations to compute a new index (the so-called ASWI) for characterising the strength of the West African Monsoon. The ASWI is based in the persistence of the southwesterly winds in the [29°W-17°W;7°N-13°N] area and it has been possible to compute it since 1790 for July and since 1839 for August and September. We show that the ASWI is a reliable measure of the monsoon's strength and the Sahelian rainfall. Our new series clearly shows the well-known drought period starting in the 1970s. During this dry period, the West African Monsoon was particularly weak and interestingly, we found that since then, the correlations with different climatic patterns such as the Pacific and Atlantic "El Niño" changed significantly in relation to those of the previous century. Remarkably, our results also show that the period 1839-1890 was characterised by an unusually strong and persistent monsoon. Notwithstanding, two of the few dry years within this period were concurrent with large volcanic eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere. This latter result supports the recently suggested relationship between major

  1. [Eventful life stories. Members of student fraternities persecuted in Silesia in the early 19th century].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Walter

    2003-01-01

    This study supplemented by three charts and a list of biographies, is, for the first time, encompassing their life-data, their resumés and even their professional careers as well as political commitments shown by more than 200 Silesian students. They, at the University of Breslau, but also at other German universities, had joined the student fraternities in the 20-ies and early 30-ies of the 19th century and, in consequence, were persecuted by state authorities, notably in Prussia and, in the majority of cases, had been sentenced to prison terms of varying degrees. The first demagogic persecution, which happened in the first half of the twenties, culminating in 1822 in the Breslau Arminen Trail and ending up with the staging of the Youth-Association-Trail in 1826, had implicated about 100 Silesians, with a smaller portion of them - apart from teh three Youth-Association Silesians who were sentenced to five years imprisonment in a fortress - getting away with a relatively short "political fortress imprisonment". Later a considerable part of them made a career in the prussian judicial authority, in the institutions of higher learning, as parish priests, physicians and scientists, whereas any political engagement remained a rare exception. Out of the 137 Silesian members of the student fraternities affected by the second wave of persecution, the overwhelming majority of them being Protestants and originating partly from the middle classes, mostly artisans, and from intellectual background, with about a hundred of them being given essentially higher sentences ranging from six years up to capital punishment and, in the event of reprieves, they had to serve their sentences between six months and four-to-six years in a fortress. The majority of them made a medium-level professional career, never exceeding the medium ranks, as judicial officers, lawyers in state or communal services, parish priests, teachers or physicians. However, from this group of persecuted persons, a

  2. 19th century London dust-yards: A case study in closed-loop resource efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Velis, Costas A.; Wilson, David C.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-04-15

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries.

  3. Geomagnetic research in the 19th century: a case study of the German contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, W.; Wiederkehr, K.-H.

    2001-10-01

    Even before the discovery of electromagnetism by Oersted, and before the work of Ampère, who attributed all magnetism to the flux of electrical currents, A.v. Humboldt and Hansteen had turned to geomagnetism. Through the ``Göttinger Magnetischer Verein'', a worldwide cooperation under the leadership of Gauss came into existence. Even today, Gauss's theory of geomagnetism is one of the pillars of geomagnetic research. Thereafter, J.v. Lamont, in Munich, took over the leadership in Germany. In England, the Magnetic Crusade was started by the initiative of John Herschel and E. Sabine. At the beginning of the 1840s, James Clarke Ross advanced to the vicinity of the southern magnetic pole on the Antarctic Continent, which was then quite unknown. Ten years later, Sabine was able to demonstrate solar-terrestrial relations from the data of the colonial observatories. In the 1980s, Arthur Schuster, following Balfour Stewart's ideas, succeeded in interpreting the daily variations of the electrical process in the high atmosphere. Geomagnetic research work in Germany was given a fresh impetus by the programme of the First Polar Year 1882-1883. Georg Neumayer, director of the ``Deutsche Seewarte'' in Hamburg, was one of the initiators of the Polar Year. He forged a close cooperation with the newly founded ``Kaiserliches Marineobservatorium'' in Wilhelmshaven, and also managed to gain the collaboration of the ``Gauss-Observatorium für Erdmagnetismus'' in Göttingen under E. Schering. In the Polar Year, the first automatic recording magnetometers (Kew-Model) were used in the German observatory at Wilhelmshaven. Here, M. Eschenhagen, who later became director of the geomagnetic section in the new Meteorological Magnetic Observatory in Potsdam, deserves special credit. Early hypotheses of geomagnetism and pioneering palaeomagnetic experiments are briefly reviewed. The essential seismological investigations at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century are also briefly described as

  4. Gentian Violet: A 19th Century Drug Re-Emerges in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Maley, Alexander M.; Arbiser, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    Gentian violet (GV) has a long and varied history as a medicinal agent. Historically used as an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal, recent reports have shown its utility as an anti-typranosomal, anti-viral and anti-angiogenic agent. The objective of this paper is to summarize evidence regarding the efficacy, and safety of GV use in dermatology. Recent discoveries have found novel targets of GV, namely NADPH oxidase in mammalian cells and thioredoxin reductase 2 in bacterial, fungal, and parasitic cells. These discoveries have expanded the use of GV in the 21st century. Given that GV is well tolerated, effective and inexpensive, its use in dermatology is predicted to increase. PMID:24118276

  5. [The construction of a medical discipline and its challenges: Orthopedics in Switzerland during the 19th and 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Kaba, Mariama

    2015-07-01

    During the 19th century, numerous figures, with different qualifications, claimed to practice orthopedics: doctors, surgeons, inventors of equipment and instruments, and other empiricists. They performed certain types of techniques, massages, surgical operationsand/or fitted prostheses. The polysemous notion of orthopedics had created conflicts of interest that would reach their height at the end of the 19th century. The integration of orthopedics into the training at the university level enhanced its proximity to surgery, a discipline that has dominated the so-called modern medicine. During the 20th century, various medical branches defend the legitimacy of certain orthopedic practices, thereby threating to a degree the title itself of this specialization. By examining the challenges that have shaped the history of orthopedics in Switzerland, this article also seeks to shed light on the strategies that were implemented in adopting a medical and technical discipline within a transforming society.

  6. [The comparison of the two Ottoman books of anatomy (17-19th centuries) with regard to the circulatory system].

    PubMed

    Uluçam, E; Gökçe, N

    2000-01-01

    17th and 19th centuries were particularly important for the development of the Ottoman medicine. Westernization which had already started in the 17th century continued along the 19th and the early 20th centuries. Turkish physicians began to contact with their European colleagues and in this period Latin medical terminology began to appear in the Ottoman medical literature. Sirvanli Semseddin Itaki's work of the 17th century, the Teşrihü'l Ebdan ve Tercüman-i Kibale-i Feylesufan, is the first illustrated Turkish manuscript of anatomy. The illustrations are qualified as developed examples, compared with the medical literature and knowledge of the period. In the 19th century, Sanizade Mehmet Ataullah Efendi (1771-1826) wrote a modern book of anatomy for the Ottoman medical doctors. Miyarü'l Etibba was one of the earliest printed medical books in Turkish. The second volume of Sanizade's Hamse, Miratü'l Ebdan fi Teşrih-i Azai'l Insan is the first printed Ottoman book on anatomy. In Usulü't-Tabia, the third volume of Hamse, the circulatory system is discussed. In this article, we studied the circulatory system described in Semseddin Itaki's Teşrih-ül Ebdan ve Tercüman-i Kibale-i Feylesufan and in Sanizade's Usulü't-Tabia and compared them.

  7. Theoretical astrophysics in the 19th century (Homage to Radó von Kövesligethy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs, Lajos G.

    The nature of astronomical information is determined mostly by the incoming light. Theoretical astrophysics means basically the theory of light emission and its relation to the physical constitution of the emitting celestial bodies. The necessary physical disciplines include theory of gravitation, theory of radiation, thermodynamics, matter--radiation interaction. The most significant theoretical achievement in the 17th - 18th century was the axiomatic foundation of mechanics and the law of gravitation. In the context of the nature of light, there were two conceptions: Newton contra Huygens, i.e. particle versus wave phenomenon. Using the theory of gravitation, first speculations appeared on black holes (Michell, Laplace), cosmogony (Kant-Laplace theory), the structure of the Milky Way (Kant), and the explanation of motion of the celestial bodies. The Olbers Paradox, formulated in the 19th century, is still one of the most significant constraints on observational cosmology. The development of thermodynamics, matter-radiation interaction, development of the theory of electromagnetism became important milestones. Maxwell's theory was the classical framework of the interaction between matter and radiation. Kirchhoff and Bunsen's revolutionary discovery of spectral analysis (1859) showed that observation of spectra makes it possible to study the chemical composition of emitting bodies. Thermodynamics predicted the existence of the black body radiation. It did not succeed, however, to determine the functional form of the wavelength dependence. A combination of the thermodynamic equation of state with the equation of hydrostatics resulted in the first stellar models (Lane, Ritter, Schuster). The first successful spectral equation of black body radiation was the theory of continuous spectra of celestial bodies by Radó von Kövesligethy (published 1885 in Hungarian, 1890 in German). Kövesligethy made several assumptions on the matter-radiation interaction: radiating

  8. The Lowland Rivers of The Netherlands - Geodiversity and Cultural Heritage on 19th and early 20th century Landscape Paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Moes, Constance

    2015-04-01

    One of the major Dutch landscapes is formed by lowland rivers. They divide the country in a southern and a northern part, both physically and culturally. We screened the freely available database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis & Buunk, www.simonis-buunk.com, looking for lowland river landscapes depicting geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships (See References for other landscapes). Emperor Napoleon declared The Netherlands as naturally belonging to his empire as its lands originated from muds originating in France and transported there by the big rivers. A description that may have given rise to the idea of the Netherlands as a delta, but from a geomorphological perspective The Netherlands consists of series of river plains of terrestrial origin, of which the north-western part are subsiding and invaded by the sea. Now, the rivers Meuse and Rhine (including its branches Waal and IJssel) meander through ever larger river plains before reaching the North Sea. They end in estuaries, something one would not expect of rivers with catchments discharging a large part of Western Europe. Apart from the geological subsidence, the estuaries might be due to human interference, the exploitation of peat and building of dikes since the 11th century, heavy storms and the strong tidal currents. Archaeological finds show Vikings and Romans already used the river Rhine system for trading and transporting goods. During the Roman Empire the Rhine was part of The Limes, the northern defence line of the empire. Romans already influenced the distribution of water over the different river branches. Since the middle of the 19th century groins and canalization drastically changed the character of the rivers. The 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings illustrate this change as well as changes in land use. Examples of geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships shown: - meanders and irregular banks disappear as river management increases, i.a. bends

  9. Astrometry and early astrophysics at Kuffner Observatory in the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habison, Peter

    The astronomer and mathematician Norbert Herz encouraged Moriz von Kuffner, owner of the beer brewery in Ottakring, to finance a private scientific observatory in the western parts of Vienna. In the years 1884-87 the Kuffner Observatory was built at the Gallitzinberg in Wien-Ottakring. It was an example of enlighted patronage and noted at the time for its rapid acquisition of new instruments and by increasing international recognition. It contained the largest heliometer in the world and the largest meridian circle in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Of the many scientists who worked here we mention Leo de Ball, Gustav Eberhard, Johannes Hartmann and we should not forget Karl Schwarzschild. Here in Vienna he published papers on celestial mechanics, measuring techniques, optics and his fundamental papers concerning photographic photometry, in particular the quantitative determination of the departure of the reciprocity law. The telescope and the associated camera with which he carried out his measurements are still in existence at the observatory. The observatory houses important astronomical instruments from the 19th century. All telescopes were made by Repsold und Söhne in Hamburg, and Steinheil in Munich. These two German companies were best renowned for quality and precision in high standard astronomical instruments. The Great Refractor (270/3500 mm) is still the third largest refractor in Austria. It was installed at the observatory in 1886 and was used together with the Schwarzschild Refractor for early astrophysical work including photography. It is this double refractor, where Schwarzschild carried out his measurements on photographic photometry. The Meridian Circle (132/1500 mm) was the largest meridian passage instrument of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today it is the largest meridian circle in Austria and still one of the largest in Europe. The telescope is equipped with one of the first impersonal micrometers of that time. First observations were carried

  10. [Looking at several fleeting hygiene journals from the 19th Century kept at the National Library of France].

    PubMed

    Anne, Boyer; Cantau, Alina

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigate some ephemeral reviews of private and public hygiene of the 19th century in the Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF). They examine the general context of their publication, describe them according to the usual bibliographic criteria, analyse their aims and content, and try to understand why they were so ephemeral. These reviews are in a very poor state and computerisation, they hope, might give them a new life.

  11. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-12-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For the first time in Denmark this study makes a comparison between skeletal stature and contemporary Danish conscript heights and investigates stature of males and females temporally and between socially distinct individuals and populations in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A total of 357 individuals (181 males, 176 females) excavated at the Assistens cemetery in Copenhagen is analyzed. Two stature regression formulae (Trotter, 1970; Boldsen, 1990) are applied using femur measurements and evaluated compared to conscript heights. The results indicate that mean male stature using Boldsen follows a similar trend as the Danish conscript heights and that Trotter overestimate stature by ca. 6cm over Boldsen. At an inter population level statistically significant differences in male stature are observed between first and second half of the 19th century towards a slight stature decrease and larger variation while there are no significant changes observed in female stature. There are insignificant differences in stature between middle and high class individuals, but male stature differs statistically between cemeteries (p=0.000) representing middle/high class, paupers and navy employees, respectively. Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females.

  12. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-12-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For the first time in Denmark this study makes a comparison between skeletal stature and contemporary Danish conscript heights and investigates stature of males and females temporally and between socially distinct individuals and populations in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A total of 357 individuals (181 males, 176 females) excavated at the Assistens cemetery in Copenhagen is analyzed. Two stature regression formulae (Trotter, 1970; Boldsen, 1990) are applied using femur measurements and evaluated compared to conscript heights. The results indicate that mean male stature using Boldsen follows a similar trend as the Danish conscript heights and that Trotter overestimate stature by ca. 6cm over Boldsen. At an inter population level statistically significant differences in male stature are observed between first and second half of the 19th century towards a slight stature decrease and larger variation while there are no significant changes observed in female stature. There are insignificant differences in stature between middle and high class individuals, but male stature differs statistically between cemeteries (p=0.000) representing middle/high class, paupers and navy employees, respectively. Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females. PMID:26256129

  13. Pictures, preparations, and living processes: the production of immediate visual perception (anschauung) in the late-19th-century physiology.

    PubMed

    Schmidgen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the visual culture of the late-19th-century experimental physiology. Taking this case of Johann Nopomuk Czermak (1828-1873) as a key example, it argues that images played a crucial role in acquiring experimental physiological skills. Czermak, Emil Du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896) and other late-19th-century physiologists sought to present the achievements and perspective of their discipline by way of "immediate visual perception (unmittelbare Anschauung)." However, the images they produced and presented for this purpose were strongly mediated. By means of specifically designed instruments, such as the "cardioscope," the "contraction telegraph," and the "frog pistol," and specifically constructed rooms, so-called "spectatoriums," physiologists trained and controlled experiments on their own. Studying the material culture of physiological image production reveals that technological resources such as telegraphy, photography, and even railways contributed to making physiological facts anschaulich. At the same time, it shows that the more traditional image techniques of anatomy played an important role in physiological lecture halls, especially when it came to displaying the details of vivisection experiments to the public. Thus, the images of late 19th century physiology stood half-way between machines and organisms, between books and instruments.

  14. Pictures, preparations, and living processes: the production of immediate visual perception (anschauung) in the late-19th-century physiology.

    PubMed

    Schmidgen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the visual culture of the late-19th-century experimental physiology. Taking this case of Johann Nopomuk Czermak (1828-1873) as a key example, it argues that images played a crucial role in acquiring experimental physiological skills. Czermak, Emil Du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896) and other late-19th-century physiologists sought to present the achievements and perspective of their discipline by way of "immediate visual perception (unmittelbare Anschauung)." However, the images they produced and presented for this purpose were strongly mediated. By means of specifically designed instruments, such as the "cardioscope," the "contraction telegraph," and the "frog pistol," and specifically constructed rooms, so-called "spectatoriums," physiologists trained and controlled experiments on their own. Studying the material culture of physiological image production reveals that technological resources such as telegraphy, photography, and even railways contributed to making physiological facts anschaulich. At the same time, it shows that the more traditional image techniques of anatomy played an important role in physiological lecture halls, especially when it came to displaying the details of vivisection experiments to the public. Thus, the images of late 19th century physiology stood half-way between machines and organisms, between books and instruments. PMID:15685744

  15. The reversal of the relation between economic growth and health progress: Sweden in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Tapia Granados, José A; Ionides, Edward L

    2008-05-01

    Health progress, as measured by the decline in mortality rates and the increase in life expectancy, is usually conceived as related to economic growth, especially in the long run. In this investigation it is shown that economic growth is positively associated with health progress in Sweden throughout the 19th century. However, the relation becomes weaker as time passes and is completely reversed in the second half of the 20th century, when economic growth negatively affects health progress. The effect of the economy on health occurs mostly at lag 0 in the 19th century and is lagged up to 2 years in the 20th century. No evidence is found for economic effects on mortality at greater lags. These findings are shown to be robustly consistent across a variety of statistical procedures, including linear regression, spectral analysis, cross-correlation, and lag regression models. Models using inflation and unemployment as economic indicators reveal similar results. Evidence for reverse effects of health progress on economic growth is weak, and unobservable in the second half of the 20th century.

  16. Nitrogen, land and water inputs in changing cattle farming systems. A historical comparison for France, 19th-21st centuries.

    PubMed

    Chatzimpiros, Petros; Barles, Sabine

    2010-09-15

    This paper provides an original account of the long-term regional metabolism in relation to the cattle rearing in western France starting by the precise formulation of animal diets at three key dates of the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. We established links between the demand in fodder of the meat and dairy sectors and the necessary inputs of nitrogen, water and land as well as the land cover changes occurring on the affected local and remote cattle acreage. The average agricultural productivity for fodder supply is estimated at about 50 kg N/ha in the mid-19th, 54 kg N/ha in the early 20th and 150 kg N/ha at the turning of the 21st century. Jointly for the dairy and meat productions, the potential efficiency in the conversion of the vegetal into animal protein more than doubled over the studied period, passing from less than 9% in the 19th to 20% in the 21st century. The current cattle sector is sustained for about 25% by land situated beyond the regional frontiers and uses water at intensities that approach or exceed the availability of renewable water. The nitrogen pollution is expressed in terms of the Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI) and, by comparison to the N recovered in products, is used to define the N-Environmental Efficiency of the farming. We discuss the historical succession of the factors that contributed to the growth of the meat and milk production and make a comparison of the impacts and policy between the local and distant resources.

  17. An archival exploration of homicide--suicide and mass murder in the context of 19th-century American parricides.

    PubMed

    Shon, Phillip Chong Ho; Roberts, Michael A

    2010-02-01

    There has been little attempt to integrate contemporary studies of suicide and mass murder to homicide-suicides. The current research attempts to do so in the context of 19th-century parricides in America. This project uses archival records from The New York Times and the Chicago Tribune, 1851-1899, resulting in a total of 231 incidents. Our results indicate that parricides, mass murders, and suicides tended to originate as spontaneous acts, usually during the course of an argument, gathering momentum as the interaction unfolded. We contend that suicide is one way of alleviating threats to offender's loss of self-identity.

  18. [The gynacological treatment of mental illnesses: a response to the psychiatric nihilism of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Balbo, E A

    1993-01-01

    This study analizes differents gynacological treatments of mental illnesses throughout the 19th century. The autor reaches the conclusion, via the professional activity of the English surgeon Isaac Baker Brown, that these gynological treaments were really the result of the confluence of a series of factors: the development of the insanity reflex theory, the consideration of Woman as the pathological prisioner of her genitality, the pessimistic vision of mental illness based on the theory of degeneration, the lack of therapeutic resources in mental medicine and, finally, the marked competition of Victorian doctors amongst themselves and also their profit motive, disguised and hidden under the welcoming cloak of a hypocritical medical morale.

  19. Causes of mortality due to rheumatic diseases in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) during the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Peral Pacheco, Diego; Suárez-Guzmán, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    A total of 26,203 of the deaths in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) during the 19th century were collected and grouped according to the Bertillon's Classification, in order to study the causes of death from rheumatic diseases. An analysis was made using the Death Registers, those located in the Parish Archives, and files of the Municipal Archives. There were a total of 31 deaths due to rheumatic diseases, with the 65-74 years age group being most frequent. The lack of records may be due to the inaccuracy of the diagnoses. September was the month of increased mortality.

  20. An early 19th-century Canadian surgical practice: the casebook of John Mackieson of Charlottetown, 1795–1885

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, David A.E.; Grogono, Basil J.S.

    2002-01-01

    A casebook written by Dr. John Mackieson (1795–1885), of Charlottetown, contains the records of 49 surgical cases he managed between 1826 and 1857. In view of the rarity of first-hand accounts of surgical practice in Canada in the mid-19th century, Mackieson’s case records are a significant source of information. These cases are discussed in order to delineate Mackieson’s approach to the surgical problems he faced in his general practice. His case records also illustrate some of the general problems that beset surgeons in that era. PMID:11939660

  1. The influence of inequality on the standard of living: worldwide anthropometric evidence from the 19th and 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Blum, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    We provide empirical evidence on the existence of the Pigou-Dalton principle. The latter indicates that aggregate welfare is - ceteris paribus - maximized when incomes of all individuals are equalized (and therefore marginal utility from income is as well). Using anthropometric panel data on 101 countries during the 19th and 20th centuries, we determine that there is a systematic negative and concave relationship between height inequality and average height. The robustness of this relationship is tested by means of several robustness checks, including two instrument variable regressions. These findings help to elucidate the impact of economic inequality on welfare. PMID:23352274

  2. When realism made a difference: The constitution of matter and its conceptual enigmas in late 19th century physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilholt, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    The late 19th century debate among German-speaking physicists about theoretical entities is often regarded as foreshadowing the scientific realism debate. This paper brings out differences between them by concentrating on the part of the earlier debate that was concerned with the conceptual consistency of the competing conceptions of matter-mainly, but not exclusively, of atomism. Philosophical antinomies of atomism were taken up by Emil Du Bois-Reymond in an influential lecture in 1872. Such challenges to the consistency of atomism had repercussions within the physics community, as can be shown for the examples of Heinrich Hertz and Ludwig Boltzmann. The latter developed a series of counter-arguments, culminating in an ingenious attempt to turn the tables on the critics of atomism and prove the inconsistency of non-atomistic conceptions of nature. Underlying this controversy is a disagreement over specific goals of physical research which was considered crucially relevant to the further course of physical inquiry. It thereby exemplifies an attitude towards the realism issue that can be contrasted with a different, more neutral attitude of construing the realism issue as merely philosophical and indifferent with respect to concrete research programs in physics, which one also occasionally finds expressed in the 19th century controversy and which may be seen as the prevailing attitude of the 20th century debate.

  3. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar.

    PubMed

    Tsiamis, Costas; Vrioni, Georgia; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Gennimata, Vasiliki; Murdjeva, Mariana А; Tsakris, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia), urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen's ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs. PMID:27383872

  4. [JAN JĘDRZEJEWICZ AND EUROPEAN ASTRONOMY OF THE 2ND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY].

    PubMed

    Siuda-Bochenek, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Jan Jędrzejewicz was an amateur astronomer who in the 2nd half of the 19th century created an observation centre, which considering the level of research was comparable to the European ones. Jędrzejewicz settled down in Plonsk in 1862 and worked as a doctor ever since but his greatest passion was astronomy, to which he dedicated all his free time. In 1875 Jędrzejewicz finished the construction of his observatory. He equipped it with basic astronomical and meteorological instruments, then began his observations and with time he became quite skilled in it. Jędrzejewicz focused mainly on binary stars but he also pointed his telescopes at the planets of the solar system, the comets, the Sun, as well as all the phenomena appearing in the sky at that time. Thanks to the variety of the objects observed and the number of observations he stood out from other observers in Poland and took a very good position in the mainstream of the 19th-century astronomy in Europe. Micrometer observations of binary stars made in Płońsk gained recognition in the West and were included in the catalogues of binary stars. Interest in Jędrzejewicz and his observatory was confirmed by numerous references in the English "Nature" magazine.

  5. [JAN JĘDRZEJEWICZ AND EUROPEAN ASTRONOMY OF THE 2ND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY].

    PubMed

    Siuda-Bochenek, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Jan Jędrzejewicz was an amateur astronomer who in the 2nd half of the 19th century created an observation centre, which considering the level of research was comparable to the European ones. Jędrzejewicz settled down in Plonsk in 1862 and worked as a doctor ever since but his greatest passion was astronomy, to which he dedicated all his free time. In 1875 Jędrzejewicz finished the construction of his observatory. He equipped it with basic astronomical and meteorological instruments, then began his observations and with time he became quite skilled in it. Jędrzejewicz focused mainly on binary stars but he also pointed his telescopes at the planets of the solar system, the comets, the Sun, as well as all the phenomena appearing in the sky at that time. Thanks to the variety of the objects observed and the number of observations he stood out from other observers in Poland and took a very good position in the mainstream of the 19th-century astronomy in Europe. Micrometer observations of binary stars made in Płońsk gained recognition in the West and were included in the catalogues of binary stars. Interest in Jędrzejewicz and his observatory was confirmed by numerous references in the English "Nature" magazine. PMID:26455002

  6. Evidence of Active Dune Sand on the Great Plains in the 19th Century from Accounts of Early Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Holliday, Vance T.

    1995-03-01

    Eolian sand is extensive over the Great Plains of North America, but is at present mostly stabilized by vegetation. Accounts published by early explorers, however, indicate that at least parts of dune fields in Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas were active in the 19th century. Based on an index of dune mobility and a regional tree-ring record, the probable causes for these periods of greater eolian activity are droughts, accompanied by higher temperatures, which greatly lowered the precipitation-to-evapotranspiration ratio and diminished the cover of stabilizing vegetation. In addition, observations by several explorers, and previous historical studies, indicate that rivers upwind of Great Plains dune fields had shallow, braided, sandy channels, as well as intermittent flow in the 19th century. Wide, braided, sandy rivers that were frequently dry would have increased sand supplies to active dune fields. We conclude that dune fields in the Great Plains are extremely sensitive to climate change and that the potential for reactivation of stabilized dunes in the future is high, with or without greenhouse warming.

  7. Sleepwalking in Italian operas: a window on popular and scientific knowledge on sleep disorders in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Sironi, Vittorio Alessandro; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Lombardi, Carolina; De Vito, Giovanni; Ferrarese, Carlo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    There is little knowledge on sleepwalking in ancient times even though it is a very common condition. The aim of this report is to describe the backgrounds of medical knowledge on somnambulism in the 19th century, a key period in the development of neurosciences, by analysing its representation in two famous Italian operas: La Sonnambula by Vincenzo Bellini and Macbeth by Giuseppe Verdi. The 19th-century operas may be considered as a crossing point between the popular and intellectual world because they mirror popular answers to phenomena that were still awaiting scientific explanations. Shakespeare's play Macbeth was also considered. In Shakespeare's play and in Verdi's Macbeth, sleepwalking is looked upon as a neuropsychiatric disorder, a manifestation of internal anxiety. In La Sonnambula by Bellini, this condition is considered as common disorder that anticipates scientific theories. The analysed Italian operas provide two different views on sleepwalking, probably because they are based on texts belonging to different periods. Their examination allows one to understand the gradual evolution of theories on sleepwalking, from demoniac possession to mental disorder and sleep disease. At the same time, this analysis throws some light on the history of psychological illnesses. PMID:20110713

  8. Medical diagnosis of legal culpability: the impact of early psychiatric testimony in the 19th century English criminal trial.

    PubMed

    Toole, Ciara J

    2012-01-01

    Fast-paced developments in psychiatry, neuroscience and emerging neuroimaging technologies place continual pressure on the legal recognition of mental illness and disease across jurisdictional boundaries. Nevertheless, the Canadian legal definition of exculpatory mental disease in the context of criminal liability has remained largely static, sheltered from the immediate influence of medical theory and advancements. In order to effectively reflect on the intersection of mental health and criminal justice systems in this area, it is important to understand its historical development and the English common law origins of the current approach. Specifically turning to the early 19th century, documented history and accounts of early medical witness testimony on the mental state of the accused provide a unique opportunity to understand the initial collision between fundamental concepts of moral and legal culpability and new scientific understandings of mental function and disease. In this article, I suggest that early psychiatric testimony to the accused's mental state challenged the evolving criminal law of 19th century England to reconcile its restrictive definition of "insanity" with expanding scientific reasoning and accounts of mental disease. The trial of Edward Oxford, an attempted royal assassination case of 1840, is examined as a symbolic height in this conflict prior to the first common law pronouncement of the current approach in 1843. As debate continues on the role of medical advancement in the identification of exculpatory medical disorders in law, this historical perspective may serve as a touchstone in balancing the enforcement of legal culpability with our society's greater appreciation for mental illness.

  9. Sleepwalking in Italian operas: a window on popular and scientific knowledge on sleep disorders in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Sironi, Vittorio Alessandro; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Lombardi, Carolina; De Vito, Giovanni; Ferrarese, Carlo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    There is little knowledge on sleepwalking in ancient times even though it is a very common condition. The aim of this report is to describe the backgrounds of medical knowledge on somnambulism in the 19th century, a key period in the development of neurosciences, by analysing its representation in two famous Italian operas: La Sonnambula by Vincenzo Bellini and Macbeth by Giuseppe Verdi. The 19th-century operas may be considered as a crossing point between the popular and intellectual world because they mirror popular answers to phenomena that were still awaiting scientific explanations. Shakespeare's play Macbeth was also considered. In Shakespeare's play and in Verdi's Macbeth, sleepwalking is looked upon as a neuropsychiatric disorder, a manifestation of internal anxiety. In La Sonnambula by Bellini, this condition is considered as common disorder that anticipates scientific theories. The analysed Italian operas provide two different views on sleepwalking, probably because they are based on texts belonging to different periods. Their examination allows one to understand the gradual evolution of theories on sleepwalking, from demoniac possession to mental disorder and sleep disease. At the same time, this analysis throws some light on the history of psychological illnesses.

  10. Occult Genres and the Certification of Madness in a 19th-Century Lunatic Asylum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkenkotter, Carol; Hanganu-Bresch, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Using archival admissions records and case histories of patients at a British asylum from the 1860s to the 1870s, the authors examine the medical certification process leading to the asylum confinement of individuals judged to be "of unsound mind." These institutional texts are, the authors suggest, "occult genres" that function as complex acts of…

  11. [The delayed emergence of the printing chronograph in French observatories (late 19th - early 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Lamy, Jérôme; Soulu, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Western observatories became scientific factories from the mid-19th century. Astrometry symbolized the transition to an industrious economy of scientific practices. The printing chronograph, which reduced the personal equations of the observers, was, first in the United States, then in England, the symbolic instrument of this transformation. In France, the initiatives of the astronomer Liais were prototypical. In the practices of the Hendaye Observatory, and thanks to the abbé Verschaffel, the printing chronograph made its definitive entry in French observatories at the beginning of the 20th century. Excessive centralization of French astronomy, the authoritarianism of Urbain Le Verrier, the director of the Paris Observatory, and the poor market for scientific instruments explain why the printing chronograph took root, belatedly, in France.

  12. The dentist's armamentarium: a collection of 19th century instruments in the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry Library.

    PubMed

    Cheramie, Toby J; Strother, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    A small collection of antique dental instruments located in the LSU School of Dentistry Library (LSUSD) provides a glimpse into the world of the 19th century dentist. The instruments in this collection, with handles carved from common and rare early materials such as bone, wood, ivory, ebony, cameo, shell and pearl, provide a striking contrast to all-steel instruments of the 20th century. An understanding of their development and function substantially increases appreciation of these instruments, which can be categorized as instruments for oral surgery, prophylaxis, restoration, and general use. In this article, the authors summarize the historical development of each type of instrument and describe the specific items in the LSUSD Library collection.

  13. Evidence of active dune sand on the Great Plains in the 19th century from accounts of early explorers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Holliday, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    Dune fields are found in several areas of the Great Plains, and though mostly stabilised today, the accounts of early explorers show that they were more mobile in the last century. Using an index of dune mobility and tree ring data, it is found that these periods of mobility were related to temperature-induced drought, the high temperatures increasing evapotranspiration. Explorers also record that rivers upwind of these dune fields had shallow braided channels in the 19th century, and these would have supplied further aeolian sand. It is concluded that these dunes are extremely susceptible to climate change and that it may not need global warming to increase their mobility again. -K.Clayton

  14. [The concept of delirium in Spanish psychiatry (19th-20th century)].

    PubMed

    Lázaro, J

    1996-01-01

    The history of psychiatric knowledge in Spain can be divided into four differentiated periods (up to the eighteenth century; nineteenth century; first third of the twentieth century and the two final thirds). These four periods provide a framework within which theories about delusion can be explored. Spanish psychiatrists have not been very original. Nonetheless, some of them (Sanchís Banús, López Ibor, Martín Santos, Llopis, Valenciano, Sarró or Castilla del Pino) have tried to make personal contributions to the subject of delusion that deserve attention. Their theories (and some others) are reviewed in this paper. PMID:8984851

  15. Paleontology and Darwin's Theory of Evolution: The Subversive Role of Statistics at the End of the 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines the subversive role of statistics paleontology at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. In particular, I will focus on German paleontology and its relationship with statistics. I argue that in paleontology, the quantitative method was questioned and strongly limited by the first decade of the 20th century because, as its opponents noted, when the fossil record is treated statistically, it was found to generate results openly in conflict with the Darwinian theory of evolution. Essentially, statistics questions the gradual mode of evolution and the role of natural selection. The main objections to statistics were addressed during the meetings at the Kaiserlich-Königliche Geologische Reichsanstalt in Vienna in the 1880s. After having introduced the statistical treatment of the fossil record, I will use the works of Charles Léo Lesquereux (1806-1889), Joachim Barrande (1799-1833), and Henry Shaler Williams (1847-1918) to compare the objections raised in Vienna with how the statistical treatment of the data worked in practice. Furthermore, I will discuss the criticisms of Melchior Neumayr (1845-1890), one of the leading German opponents of statistical paleontology, to show why, and to what extent, statistics were questioned in Vienna. The final part of this paper considers what paleontologists can derive from a statistical notion of data: the necessity of opening a discussion about the completeness and nature of the paleontological data. The Vienna discussion about which method paleontologists should follow offers an interesting case study in order to understand the epistemic tensions within paleontology surrounding Darwin's theory as well as the variety of non-Darwinian alternatives that emerged from the statistical treatment of the fossil record at the end of the 19th century.

  16. Paleontology and Darwin's Theory of Evolution: The Subversive Role of Statistics at the End of the 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines the subversive role of statistics paleontology at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. In particular, I will focus on German paleontology and its relationship with statistics. I argue that in paleontology, the quantitative method was questioned and strongly limited by the first decade of the 20th century because, as its opponents noted, when the fossil record is treated statistically, it was found to generate results openly in conflict with the Darwinian theory of evolution. Essentially, statistics questions the gradual mode of evolution and the role of natural selection. The main objections to statistics were addressed during the meetings at the Kaiserlich-Königliche Geologische Reichsanstalt in Vienna in the 1880s. After having introduced the statistical treatment of the fossil record, I will use the works of Charles Léo Lesquereux (1806-1889), Joachim Barrande (1799-1833), and Henry Shaler Williams (1847-1918) to compare the objections raised in Vienna with how the statistical treatment of the data worked in practice. Furthermore, I will discuss the criticisms of Melchior Neumayr (1845-1890), one of the leading German opponents of statistical paleontology, to show why, and to what extent, statistics were questioned in Vienna. The final part of this paper considers what paleontologists can derive from a statistical notion of data: the necessity of opening a discussion about the completeness and nature of the paleontological data. The Vienna discussion about which method paleontologists should follow offers an interesting case study in order to understand the epistemic tensions within paleontology surrounding Darwin's theory as well as the variety of non-Darwinian alternatives that emerged from the statistical treatment of the fossil record at the end of the 19th century. PMID:25758234

  17. Highlighting the History of 19th Century Australian Astronomy: The Tebbutt Collection in the Mitchell Library, Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, W.

    2004-12-01

    After providing a biographical sketch of John Tebbutt, Australia's foremost nineteenth century astronomer, this paper summarises the collection of Tebbutt archives in the Mitchell Library, Sydney, and discusses some individual record lost in detail. The `Tebbutt Collection' is an indispensable resource for those studying nineteenth and early twentieth century Australian astronomy, but it also throws light on the state of British, South African and New Zealand astronomy at this time.

  18. [Degenerate Children: mental medicine and "regenerationism" in Spain at the end of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Huertas, R

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse some aspects of the psychiatric and medical-social discourse on the relationship between childhood and insanity in Spain at the end of nineteenth century and during the first third of the twentieth century. We study the principal theories about degenerate children (delinquent childhood and anormal childhood) based on two of the most paradigmatic works of the Spanish medical literature: Estudio medico-social del nino golfo by Jose Sanchis Banus and Los ninos mentalmente anormales by Gonzalo Rodriguez Lafora.

  19. [Torrent of madmen: the language of degeneration in Portuguese psychiatry at the close of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Quintais, Luís

    2008-01-01

    The scope of this article is to show the importance of a highly naturalized model of human actions that, taking as its pivotal point a hereditary explanation, was widely used by Portuguese psychiatry at the close of the 19th century, in continuity with what was happening in the European context. 'Degeneration'was instituted as a species of based on which experiences were classified and described with occasionally threatening contours for a certain conception of the social and political order. Various phenomena, nosologically described in differentiated forms, came to be integrated into the language of degeneration. Its expansive and supposed metatheoretical character became involved in its death throes, coming to be progressively replaced by another model, psychoanalysis.

  20. [Military Knowledge: War Sciences and Army Libraries in France in the 19th Century (c. 1800-c. 1900)].

    PubMed

    Thoral, Marie-Cecile

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the development of military knowledge in France in the 19th century, both in terms of production of knowledge (especially through the Dépôt de la Guerre) and of transmission through a network of army libraries. The strategic dimension of this form of knowledge required a direct intervention of the state, to control or restrict the publication of sensitive data. State intervention was also necessary to coordinate and generate a unified, applied military knowledge using data submitted by members of different army branches, or by civilians. The work of military librarians and bibliologists was all the more difficult because of the very wide range of sciences which could be used by the army. Growing state intervention and public funding were thus essential for the production and transmission of military knowledge.

  1. [Traces of blood. The significance of blood in criminology at the turn of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2010-03-01

    In late 19th and early 20th century, criminology became institutionalized as an independent branch of science. Methodologically it focused on the 'exact' methods of the natural sciences, but also it tried to integrate the methods of the humanities. This mix of methods becomes visible in the treatment of blood, which on the one hand was an object of then brand new methods of scientific analysis (identification of human blood by the biological or precipitin method), and on the other hand was analyzed as a product of the magic and superstitious mentalities of criminals. The methodical tension resulting from this epistemological crossbreeding did not disturb the criminologists, for whom the reconciliation of opposite ways of thinking and researching seemed to be possible. In this encyclopaedic analysis of blood early criminology tried to combine the anthropological exploration of vampirism with the chemical and microscopic detection of antibodies and haemoglobin, thus mirroring the positivistic optimism that was then prevalent.

  2. Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  3. 19th Century Roots of Modern Interpretation Theory: Dickens as a Platform Performer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, John Samuel

    Charles Dickens was not only a master novelist but was also a master in the art of performance. His distinctive reading style was in marked contrast to the standard practices of mid-nineteenth century elocution, but his unique readings and performance philosophy closely resemble the text-centered approach of modern oral interpretation. Considered…

  4. American Populism and Its Ontario Offshoots in the Late 19th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the nineteenth century agrarian movements in Canada and the U.S., examining the similarities between Populism and the Canadian agricultural movement. Presents the American Populist Party Platform of 1892 and the Patrons of Industry Platform of 1891 to illustrate the agrarian ideas and political policies of each country. (GEA)

  5. Flipping Their Fins for a Place to Stand: 19th- and 20th-Century Mermaids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Wilson, Gloria Lodato

    1993-01-01

    Juxtaposition of Hans Christian Andersen's "The Little Sea Maid" (1837) and Disney's home video "The Little Mermaid" (1989) illustrates how the adolescent princesses have evolved with changing views of women's roles. The mermaid of the twentieth century, part of the world of men, is still in a subservient role. (SLD)

  6. Diffusion of Ideas by 19th Century Feminists: The Growth of Women's Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolliffe, Lee

    The communications of suffragist Lucy Stone illustrate the changes that the growth of women's magazines brought to nineteenth century feminists. As indicated in letters to friends and family, Lucy Stone became an active proponent of women's rights at a time when public speaking tours were the best means of reaching a wide audience. As the printing…

  7. Afro-American Literature of the 19th Century: A Focus for the 80's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simson, Rennie

    The study of Afro-American writers in American literature courses has experienced a noticeable decline since 1972. The most ignored of black literature is that written during the nineteenth century. Perhaps the most outstanding examples of black literature from that period were the "slave narratives," autobiographies by exslaves from which emerged…

  8. The politics of midwifery education and training in New South Wales during the last decades of the 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Purcal, Nita K

    2008-03-01

    This paper focuses on the introduction and development of midwifery education and training in Sydney during the last decades of the 19th century. The aim of the training, it is argued, was to displace the lay midwives by trained midwifery nurses who would work under medical control. The lay midwives were one of the largest occupational groups among women and two-thirds of births in NSW were being delivered by them in the late 19th century. It was a period of professionalisation of medicine and medical men laid claim to midwifery as a legitimate sphere of their practice and saw it as the gateway for establishing a family practice. The lay midwife stood in the way of their claim. The training programs were established purportedly to control maternal mortality. From the beginning in 1887 medical men were in control of midwifery nurse training. In addition to training at the Benevolent Society Asylum, three more women's hospitals were established in the 1890s in Sydney making it possible to train a stream of midwifery nurses. The midwifery nurses were charged exorbitant fees for their training; the fees contributed substantially towards running the new hospitals that delivered birth services to the poor and destitute women mostly in their homes. The midwifery nurses worked hard in miserable conditions under the guise of clinical experience required for training. When a critical mass of poorly trained midwifery nurses were in the offing, a Bill was introduced into the Parliament in 1895, restricting registration to midwifery nurses and this would have eliminated the lay midwife if passed. It took more than two decades to get a Registration Bill passed in the NSW Parliament.

  9. [History of public health in Mexico: 19th and 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Romo, A C; Rodríguez Pérez, M E

    1998-01-01

    During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, its growth accompanied the country's political and social changes. In the early half of the nineteenth century, care for the sick depended in part on religious charity. So-called public beneficial care was later introduced and consolidated under president Benito Juárez (1856) and then continued under Porfirio Díaz (1880-1910). The Mexican Revolution (1910-1917) brought the notion that public-health assistance is the State's social responsibility. Health care and social security are now both part of so-called "institutional medicine," which also encompasses research and teaching on public health. This analysis of public-health care in Mexico examines the question of diseases and their control, the emergence of institutions, and the development of the concept of public health.

  10. Goethe's Ottilie: an early 19th century description of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed Central

    Bhanji, S; Jolles, F E; Jolles, R A

    1990-01-01

    The view that the prevalence of anorexia nervosa is influenced by social attitudes and customs is a popular one. Unfortunately the scarcity of medical accounts prior to the later decades of the last century make it difficult if not impossible to estimate the prevalence of anorexia nervosa at various periods in history. The authors present the history of one of Goethe's literary heroines and suggest that similar studies could throw some light on the epidemiology of anorexia nervosa in the past. PMID:2213809

  11. Undermining the Unfair Constraints Imposed by Language Standards: Subversive Discourse Tactics Used in Both 19th- and 21st-Century America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchan, Judith Felson

    2007-01-01

    This article examines various ways people of the past and present have dealt with the unfair practices associated with the use of norms and standards. Nineteenth-century responses of writers to the unfair aspects of standards are revealed by first examining the standards and then analyzing the discourse of two 19th-century women writers and social…

  12. [The origins of the Pavilion Lazaretto: quarantine architecture between the 18th and 19th centuries].

    PubMed

    Bonastra, Quim

    2008-01-01

    The model of pavilion lazaretto was built above the scientific basis established during the hospital reform process held in France on the lasts decades of the eighteenth century. The morphological solutions adopted for the new quarantine taxonomy has not been given by the example borrowed by the new typology of hospital as resulted in this discussion, but by existing quarantine and detention facilities in general. In this paper we will analyse all factors that have influenced in the configuration of this model of lazarettos.

  13. [Bright's disease is mentioned in an official Hungarian medical document in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Kiss, István

    2011-10-01

    The World Kidney Day was announced for the fifth time in 2011, that calls attention to chronic renal failure as it attains the title of endemic. Richard Bright (1789-1858), a British doctor was the first to recognize and describe the uremic state and the kidney diseases leading to it. There are many aspects that the readers should remember him about especially in connection with the World Kidney Day. During his European study tour's stage in Hungary, he was not so much interested in the country's medical and health conditions, rather in its economic and cultural life, natural history and geography. He travelled to Hungary on two occasions and recorded his experiences in a personal travel documentation illustrated with his own drawings. He finally established himself in London in 1820 and together with Thomas Addison and Thomas Hodgkin they formed the Guy's Hospital's world-famous "scientist trio". Bright described the nephritis's classical image, nowadays known as Bright's disease for the first time at the age of 38 years in 1827. A presently turned up Hungarian medical certificate from 1870 contains the Bright's disease described by Richard Bright as a written diagnosis. This 140-year-old document also confirms that we can be proud of our predecessors concerning our knowledge of kidney diseases and their application in daily use in Hungary, because in the past they were the ones who used the most advanced knowledge in their practices. One of today's greatest challenges for us is to be able to inform healthy and ill people alike properly about kidney diseases and their prevention or management. Place this in order to stem the epidemic of chronic renal failure and still pay homage to this disease's greatest scientist, Richard Bright.

  14. [Naturalism, novel and society in 19th-20th century transition in Spain.].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The second half of the nineteenth century in Spain was a period characterized by a strong presence of social science, which even came to permeate the masses. Evolutionary theories and some figures such as Charles Darwin himself were present in areas far from the scientific activity proper. The use of concepts and laws of biological origin for the diagnosis and political practice against certain problematic social realities, such as crime or poverty, gave rise to theories and intellectual schools that asserted the value of evolutionary principles for the analysis of complex realities of socio-cultural inequality. The attraction for difference and the scientific method, with the possibility of observation of poverty and social inequality that industrial development and modernity put forward to the writers, added to the naturalist and biological interest a literary curiosity for the degeneration, both physical and cultural, of that unfortunate part of humanity.

  15. The Amateur's Small Transit Instrument of the 19TH-CENTURY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stott, C.; Hughes, D. W.

    1987-03-01

    The owners of today's digital watches and the listeners to Dyson's signature tune little realize how difficult it was in the nineteenth century to check that watches were telling the right time. If one lived in the country one had to rely either on the Sun and note carefully the time of apparent noon by recording when the Sun crossed the meridian, or on the stars and use the sidereal day and specific meridian transits to set and regulate your watches. To help these country dwellers, entrepreneurs such as Latimer Clark, Edward Dent and C. A. Steinheil produced inexpensive transit instruments that could be used by the non-scientific amateurs. These instruments, their setting up, use and accuracy are reviewed in this paper.

  16. George William Hill, the Great but Unknown 19th Century Celestial Mechanician

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Brenda G.

    2012-01-01

    George William Hill (1838-1914) has long been considered one of the most famous and talented celestial mechanicians of the past century and a half. However, many people have never heard of him and his work. Simon Newcomb said he "will easily rank as the greatest master of mathematical astronomy during the last quarter of the nineteenth century.” After receiving a B.A. at Rutgers in 1859, Hill began work in 1861 at the office of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac in Cambridge, MA. He moved to Washington with the group in 1882 which then became part of the U. S. Naval Observatory. Newcomb, beginning his work on planetary motion, assigned the theory of Jupiter and Saturn to him, calling it about the most difficult topic. Hill's work was published by the USNO in 1890 as A New Theory of Jupiter and Saturn. From 1898 to 1901, Hill lectured on the subject of celestial mechanics at Columbia University in a position created just for him. After 1892 and until his death, he lived at the family homestead in West Nyack, NY. He never married, was something of a recluse, and spent most of his time with his books and research. Hill was an amateur botanist and enjoyed exploring on long walks in the countryside. Many honors and awards came to him during his lifetime, both from the U.S. and abroad, including serving as president of the American Mathematical Society. All of Hill's mathematical and astronomical research was incorporated in The Collected Mathematical Works of George William Hill. This work, containing a preface in French by Poincare, was published in 4 large volumes by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1905.

  17. The dynamics of scarlet fever epidemics in England and Wales in the 19th century.

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, C. J.; Duncan, S. R.; Scott, S.

    1996-01-01

    There was a marked rise in scarlet fever mortality in England and Wales in the mid-nineteenth century and spectral analysis of the registration details, 1847-80, shows that the interepidemic interval was 5-6 years, but after 1880 the endemic level fell and the fatal epidemics disappeared. The dynamics of the scarlet fever epidemics can be represented by a linearized mathematical model and because the system is lightly damped, it could be driven by an oscillation in susceptibility. Epidemics were significantly correlated with dry conditions in spring/summer (P < 0.001), suggesting that these produced a low amplitude oscillation in susceptibility which drove the system. Epidemics also correlated (P < 0.001) with an oscillation in wheat prices but at a lag of 3 years, suggesting that malnutrition during pregnancy caused increased susceptibility in the subsequent children which interacted synergistically with seasonal dry conditions. Scarlet fever mortality was sharply reduced after 1880 in parallel with falling wheat prices suggesting that the remarkable period of high scarlet fever mortality (1840-80) was dependent on poor nutritive levels during that time. PMID:8972674

  18. Spatial relationships between tropical cyclone frequencies and population densities in Haiti since the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, C. D.

    2011-12-01

    The second edition of the United Nations Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction in 2011 outlined that the worldwide physical exposure to tropical cyclones increased by 192 per cent between 1970 and 2010. For the past 160 years, the Republic of Haiti has experienced numerous tropical storms and hurricanes which may have directly effected the country's development path. However, statistical data regarding storm frequencies and population densities in space and time show that the population's exposure in Haiti may have more negatively influenced its development than the actual number of storms and hurricanes. Haitians, in particular, those living in urban areas have been exposed to much higher tropical cyclone hazards than rural areas since the second half of the 20th century. Specifically, more storms made landfall in regions of accelerated migration/urbanization, such as, in departments Ouest, Artibonite, Nord, and Nord-Ouest with Haiti's four largest cities Port-au-Prince, Gonaives, Cap-Haitien and Port-de-Paix.

  19. [Malaria in Pula in the seventies of the 19th century and the epidemic in 1879].

    PubMed

    Cigui, Rino

    2012-01-01

    Malaria played a leading role in the complex Istrian sanitary history. From the beginning of the 18th century, wars, famine, and epidemics depopulated large areas and favoured the spread of the diseases. Socioeconomic structures were also affected, generating a drop in cultivation of the fields, end of drainage works, and later, abandonment of farmed land because of the formation of palustrine stagnant water and decay of traditional sanitary regulations. The dissolution of Benedictine monasteries also played an important role in the spread of malaria. Working on tillage, drainage and cultivation, the Benedictines not only radically changed the Istrian landscape, reducing the impact and spread of infectious diseases but, through a wise land administration, they also succeeded in creating food supplies for famine periods, which were so frequent in the region. Southern Istria and the town of Pula in particular, were the most affected by the disease. Owing to severe famine that hit Istria in 1879, malaria assumed epidemic proportions, causing widespread malnutrition and physiological weakness on the population, which favoured the propagation of infectious agents. PMID:23094841

  20. Cooking up a culinary identity for Belgium. Gastrolinguistics in two Belgian cookbooks (19th century).

    PubMed

    Parys, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    The notion of cookbooks as socio-historic markers in a society is generally accepted within food studies. As both representations and prescriptions of food practices, perceived habits and attitudes towards food, they represent a certain identity for their readers. This paper investigates the nature of the identity that Belgian cookbooks constructed through their rhetoric. An important part of this study is to explore how and to what extent explicit reference to Belgium was made. To this end recipe titles/labels and recipe comments used in two leading bourgeois cookbooks from nineteenth-century Belgium were subjected to a quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The analysis showed that clear attention was paid to national culinary preferences. In terms of a domestic culinary corpus, it became apparent that both the Dutch and French editions of these cookbooks promoted dishes that were ascribed a Belgian origin. Internationality, however, was also an important building block of Belgian culinary identity. It was part of the desire of Belgian bourgeoisie to connect with an international elite. It fit into the 'search for sophistication', which was also expressed through the high representation of the more costly meats and sweet dishes. In addition, other references associated with bourgeois norms and values, such as family, convenience and frugality, were additional building blocks of Belgian culinary identity. Other issues such as tradition, innovation and health, were also matters of concerns to these Belgian cookbooks.

  1. The Diary of Frances Jacobs: Astronomical Observations by a 19th-century Oregon Woman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGown, R. D.

    2002-12-01

    This abstract summarizes my research, transcription and editing of Francis Jacob's 170-page handwritten astronomical diary. This diary is a unique example of a time in early Portland history, illustrating the mind of a young woman who was interested in science and astronomy. Reflected in her diary are the discoveries and mention of leading astronomers of the day like Emerson Bernard and Edward Pickering. Francis Jacobs lived in an era of the great refractors For example, ``The Leviathan," built by Lord Rosse in Ireland was completed in 1847. In this 72-inch telescope, stars of 18th magnitude could be seen. The first spiral nebulae to be revealed was M51 - known today as the Whirlpool Galaxy. The Earl was the first to suggest that these spirals could actually be rotating masses of stars. At the turn of the century, study of observational astronomy was rooted in naked eye observing, study of binary stars and nebula. This was a time when women were becoming interested in the sciences and had begun to play an important role in science and astronomy. It was an incredible inspiration for other women across the country to hear what was happening on the astronomical frontiers at Harvard. Some constellation asterisms used in Francis Jacob's diary were different than they are today. One asterism in particular, the Egyptian Cross, is relatively unknown now. The summer triangle and winter circle asterisms were used in her notes and obviously popular in her era, as today. Her written comments included some Messier catalogue numbers and in some case written on her sketches and diagrams nicknames, such as the 'Dumbbell' nebula. She also referred to M99 as `St. Katherine's Wheel', a nickname that is not in common use today.

  2. Health care in Belarus in the 19th and 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Tishchenko, Evgenii Mikhailovich

    2014-01-01

    Belarus became a Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR in 1921. Belarus is now an independent country between Poland and Lithuania and Russia. The pharmacy sector of Belarus improved in fits and starts from 1921 to the present but serious quantitative and qualitative problems were evident until the 21st century. A number of factors caused this situation. The Soviet Republic of Belarus started with handicaps. The area, comprised of several provinces of western Russia, had no pharmaceutical factories during the imperial period and, while pharmacies were of high quality in the cities all over the Russian Empire--including Minsk, which became the capital of Belarus--pharmacies were sparse and primitive in rural areas and Belarus was basically rural. Belarus was devastated by wars--World War I, the Russian-Polish war of 1920-21, and of course, by World War II. The Bolshevik policy of nationalizing private pharmacies adversely affected dispensing between 1918 and 1921. Dispensing improved during the New Economic Policy of 1921 to 1927 with re-introduction of private enterprise and the establishment of BelMedTorg and the Mogilev Experimental Station of Medicinal Plants. The number of pharmacies and medical facilities increased during the 1930s and again after World War II. However, utopian plans to provide free or low-cost medicines to all citizens never came to fruition. Inadequate amounts of state-of the-art and even basic medicines persisted through the 1990s. The number of pharmacists also was inadequate and their education and training was on a low level. Because of shortages, citizens of Belarus often self-medicated with medicinal plants. The transition to a market economy in the 1990s made medicines expensive for citizens but opened the door to greater interaction with Western pharmaceutical practices and physical improvements in pharmacies and pharmaceutical production.

  3. The Black Cholera Comes to the Central Valley of America in the 19th Century - 1832, 1849, and Later

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Walter J.

    2008-01-01

    In mid-19th Century, cholera was epidemic throughout the world. Small towns of the American Midwest were not spared. The disease was blamed on miasmas arising from local causes, so flight from affected localities were logical and common. Flight, added to mortality, caused virtual depopulation of many small towns. Drinking water was drawn from rivers or shallow wells, often near seeping cesspools. Local merchants tried unsuccessfully to calm panic by suppressing information. Cholera was not good for business. Business was depressed. Organized religion thrived. National and state days of prayer were appointed to appease an angry God. During these frightening times, the people learned nothing about the infectiousness of cholera or about its prevention through sanitation. Their experiences tended to reinforce their belief in miasmas or divine retribution. The great epidemics of mankind describe human behavior in times of unavoidable and incurable crisis. Nineteenth Century cholera experiences illustrate a people's reaction to catastrophic disease, which they believed was incurable and unpreventable. PMID:18596846

  4. Science Policy at the Wrong Scale and Without Adequate Political Institutions: Parallels between the U.S. 19th Century and the 21st Century Global Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Constitution of the United States is a document for economic development written by people wary of government failure at the extremes, whether too heavy handed a central government or too loose a confederation. The strong central government favored by Hamilton, Industrialists and later by forward thinking men of the 19th century created a discontinuity wherein government institutions designed to facilitate agriculture were incapable of regulating corporations operating on a national scale, which made mineral and other natural resource exploitation needed to support industrialization enormously profitable. At the same time, Agriculturalists and other conservative citizens sought to control the economy by protecting their rural interests and power. The political institutional power remained with states as agriculturalists and industrialists struggled for economic superiority in the 19th century. As Agriculture moved west, Science warned of the dangers of extending Homesteading regulations into arid regions to no avail. The west was settled in townships without concern for watersheds, carrying capacity, or climatic variability. Gold seekers ignored the consequences of massive hydraulic mining techniques. The tension resident in the Constitution between strong local control of government (states' rights) and a strong central government (nationalism) provided no institutional context to resolve mining problems or other 19th century policy problems linked to rapid population expansion and industrialization. Environmental protection in the late 20th century has been the last wave of nationalized policy solutions following the institution-building blueprint provided by electoral successes in the Progressive, New Deal, and Great Society eras. Suddenly in the 21st century, scientific warnings of dangers again go unheeded, this time as evidence of global warming mounts. Again, tension in policy making exists in all political arenas (executive, legislative and judicial at

  5. Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and East Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Emma L; Jackson, Jennifer A; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time. PMID:24690918

  6. Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and East Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Emma L; Jackson, Jennifer A; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time.

  7. Two Intense Decades of 19th Century Whaling Precipitated Rapid Decline of Right Whales around New Zealand and East Australia

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Emma L.; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D.

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time. PMID:24690918

  8. From Coin to Medal: A Metallurgical Study of the Brazing Drop on a 19th Century Scudo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breda, M.; Canovaro, C.; Pérez, A. F. Miranda; Calliari, I.

    2012-11-01

    In the past, it was customary to use out-of-circulation coins as pendants by brazing a peg or ring on the edge of the coin in order to transform it into a devotional or decorative object; this practice was very common for specimens of the Papal States, especially for silver coins. This metallurgical investigation of a 19th century Scudo aimed to relate the internal structure of the coin to the minting technology with a special focus on the brazing drop, in order to provide information on the solidification microstructure arising from a strongly nonequilibrium process such as brazing. The results show that the Ag content in the coin ranges from 92% in the bulk up to 97% on the surface, due to enrichment, while analysis of the brazing revealed that it consists of an Ag-Cu-Zn-Pb alloy, for which the melting temperature has been estimated. Considering the distribution of minor elements, Zn segregates in the secondary (Cu-rich) β-dendrites and inside the whole eutectic structure, while Pb is only present in the Ag-based phases and seems to reduce the solubility of Zn inside the primary (Ag-rich) α-dendrites.

  9. The "Abyssal Society". François-Alphonse Forel and the Case of Deep Fauna in Late 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Ichthyological investigations and technological advancements, such as the laying of submarine telegraph cables, promoted new dredging methods in the second half of the 19th century. In contrast to the idea of a lifeless deep ocean (Edward Forbes' azoic hypothesis), the discovery of deep water fauna and the challenge of defining its systematics opened up new theoretical perspectives. In this frame, which was already marked by the impact of Darwin's theory, naturalistic surveys in freshwater environments in western Switzerland intertwined with those of oceanographic expeditions. The study of the fauna in the depths of subalpine lakes by the Swiss savant François-Alphonse Forel was one of the most striking examples of this turning point, because the relatively recently evolution of its freshwater fauna allowed him to investigate: (a) the role of isolation, (b) the progressive differentiation of species from a common ancestor, and (c) the constitution of a species-specific category in form transition, from a genealogical viewpoint to an ecological one. PMID:27356339

  10. [The midwives of Guadalajara (México) in the 19th century, the plundering of their art].

    PubMed

    Díaz Robles, Laura Catalina; Oropeza Sandoval, Luciano

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the social devaluation of the knowledge and practice used by midwives in their work. The research is limited to historical events that took place during the 19th century in the city of Guadalajara, capital of the state of Jalisco in Mexico. The study shows how the displacement and subordination of these women were associated with the higher social status of physicians. Supported by advances in medicine and by the authority derived from the knowledge acquired through formal educational institutions, doctors started to undermine the value of empirical knowledge and subordinate it to the knowledge that came from these advances. It is shown how doctors detract from and subordinated the midwife to the scientific-employment field of medicine by using a discourse that degraded empirical knowledge and by institutionalizing training courses that tended to ignore the practical know-how of these women and replace it with knowledge derived from scientific medicine. The study is based on information from archives and scientific journals of the time: Archiva Fondos Especiales de la Biblioteca Pública de Jalisco, Archivo Histórico de Jalisco, Archivo Histórico de la Universidad de Guadalajara, Archivo Municipal de Guadalajara and Revista Médica.

  11. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  12. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct ancient forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-04-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  13. Theodor Waitz's theory of feelings and the rise of affective sciences in the mid-19th century.

    PubMed

    Romand, David

    2015-11-01

    The German psychologist Theodor Waitz (1821-1864) was an important theorist of affectivity in the mid-19th century. This article aims to revisit Waitz's contribution to affective psychology at a crucial moment of its history. First, I elaborate the context in which Waitz's ideas were carried out by showing how affective sciences emerged as an autonomous field of investigation between about 1770 and 1910. Second, I discuss the principles of Waitz's model of affectivity and their contextual significance. Third, I deal with the first major category of affective states identified by Waitz, namely, "formal feelings," which are supposed to be involved in the appraisal of the relational properties between representations. Fourth, I investigate "qualitative feelings," the second major category of affective states identified by Waitz, which refer to affective processes that relate to specific representational contents, namely, intellectual, aesthetic, and moral feelings. In conclusion, I emphasize the genealogical link between Waitz's pioneering research on musical feelings and current research on emotion and expectation in music. PMID:26551862

  14. The "Abyssal Society". François-Alphonse Forel and the Case of Deep Fauna in Late 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Ichthyological investigations and technological advancements, such as the laying of submarine telegraph cables, promoted new dredging methods in the second half of the 19th century. In contrast to the idea of a lifeless deep ocean (Edward Forbes' azoic hypothesis), the discovery of deep water fauna and the challenge of defining its systematics opened up new theoretical perspectives. In this frame, which was already marked by the impact of Darwin's theory, naturalistic surveys in freshwater environments in western Switzerland intertwined with those of oceanographic expeditions. The study of the fauna in the depths of subalpine lakes by the Swiss savant François-Alphonse Forel was one of the most striking examples of this turning point, because the relatively recently evolution of its freshwater fauna allowed him to investigate: (a) the role of isolation, (b) the progressive differentiation of species from a common ancestor, and (c) the constitution of a species-specific category in form transition, from a genealogical viewpoint to an ecological one.

  15. [An unrivalled physician? Family strategies for child care in the late 19th century South Tyrolean countryside].

    PubMed

    Unterkircher, Alois

    2012-01-01

    Who was responsible for the treatment of sick children in the countryside during the second half of the 19th century? This paper investigates the medical complaint accusing the rural population of only reluctantly bringing their sick offspring to academic physicians. The following analyses the role Franz v. Ottenthal (1818-1899), a 'representative' of a private rural medical practice, played in the specialised medical market attending to childhood diseases. An exemplary survey of Ottenthal's medical records for patients from the age of one to 14 years throughout the 1890s has shown that children contributed a relevant percentage of the whole of the physician's patient distribution. It may therefore be assumed that Ottenthal knew how to successfully merchandise his specific therapies. On the demand side, however, parents of sick children were not solely reliant upon this physician. Evidence from the medical records provides information as to when parents regarded medical self-help as no longer supporting the recovery of their children, the cures of lay healers failed, or cases when parents were not satisfied with the therapeutic treatments other physicians had to offer and therefore consulted Ottenthal. PMID:23320379

  16. Evidence for tuberculosis in 18th/19th century slaves in Anse Sainte-Marguerite (Guadeloupe - French Western Indies).

    PubMed

    Lösch, Sandra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Dutour, Olivier; Courtaud, Patrice; Maixner, Frank; Romon, Thomas; Sola, Christophe; Zink, Albert

    2015-06-01

    During the American colonization in the 18th and 19th century, Africans were captured and shipped to America. Harsh living and working conditions often led to chronic diseases and high mortality rates. Slaves in the Caribbean were forced to work mainly on sugar plantations. They were buried in cemeteries like Anse Sainte-Marguerite on the isle of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) which was examined by archaeologists and physical anthropologists. Morphological studies on osseous remains of 148 individuals revealed 15 cases with signs for bone tuberculosis and a high frequency of periosteal reactions which indicates early stages of the disease. 11 bone samples from these cemeteries were analysed for ancient DNA. The samples were extracted with established procedures and examined for the cytoplasmic multicopy β-actin gene and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (IS 6110) by PCR. An amplification product for M. tuberculosis with the size of 123 bp was obtained. Sequencing confirmed the result. This study shows evidence of M. tuberculosis complex DNA in a Caribbean slave population.

  17. History at the Mercy of Politicians and Ideologies: Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilschut, Arie H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares developments in history teaching in Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th centuries. The development of history teaching in the three countries shows striking similarities. National politics have always used history education for purposes which did not necessarily tally with distanced critical…

  18. The Rise and Fall of Science Education: A Content Analysis of Science in Elementary Reading Textbooks of the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century the textbook dominated the curriculum and methods of instruction. The most important textbook was the textbook of reading known as the reader. In the early 1800s science was not established as a separate primary grade subject. The science students encountered in these reading textbooks may have been their only formal science…

  19. Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn

    This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

  20. Teachers and the Education of the People: Elementary School Teachers and Images of Citizenship in Scandinavia during the 19th and 20th Centuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivinen, Osmo; Rinne, Risto

    This paper explores the historical formation of the teaching profession in Scandinavia in the 19th and 20th centuries, with special reference to developments in Finland. It focuses on the process by which mass education has assigned teachers a crucial role in the initiation ceremonies characteristic of modern society in relation to changing models…

  1. American Journalism Historians Association Annual Convention (London, Ontario, Canada, October 3-5, 1996). Part I: Selected Papers Covering the Colonial Period through the 19th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journalism Historians' Association.

    The 16 papers presented in this collection all deal with journalism and journalists from colonial America through the 19th century. The papers and their authors are: "Fighting for a Continent: Newspaper Coverage of the English and French War for Control of North America, 1754-1760" (David A. Copeland); "A Romance with 'Local' Happenings (Never…

  2. The Humanistic Approach to Upbringing and Education in the Creative Legacy of the Ukrainian Pedagogues of the Second Half of the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anosov, Ivan Pavlovych; Elkin, Mark Veniaminovych; Golovkova, Marina Mykhaylivna; Korobchenko, Angelina Anatoliivna; Oksa, Mykola Mykolayovych

    2015-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the study of the humanistic approach to upbringing and education in the creative legacy of the Ukrainian pedagogues of the second half of the 19th century. Through the analysis of S. Myropolskiy's and Kh. Alchevska's pedagogical legacy, a world outlook position of scholars concerning humanisation of the educational…

  3. Disability Care & Education in 19th Century India: Dates, Places & Documentation, with Some Additional Material on Mental Retardation and Physical Disabilities up to 1947. Revised Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    This monograph uses brief excerpts from many sources to document the history of the education and care of individuals with disabilities in India, primarily in the 19th century. An introduction describes the author's methodology in compiling and annotating the excerpts, which are listed alphabetically by locality in India. Under each locality,…

  4. Cultural and Educational Dimensions Reflected in Books Popularizing Scientific Knowledge--A Case Study: "The Sky", a 19th Century Book Popularizing Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halkia, Krystallia; Botouropoulou, Iphigenia

    2005-01-01

    The present work is concerned with one of the most successful books popularizing astronomy of the last half of the 19th century, published in France under the title "L' Astronomie Populaire". The book was translated into Greek and was the first book, out of 100, which was published in order to be a part of a popular library meant to educate the…

  5. (Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and…

  6. History of mouth-to-mouth ventilation. Part 3: the 19th to mid-20th centuries and "rediscovery".

    PubMed

    Trubuhovich, Ronald V

    2007-06-01

    The start of the 19th century saw the enthusiasm of the previous one for mouth-to-mouth ventilation (MMV) dissipated. To inflate the lungs of the asphyxiated, the Royal Humane Society in the United Kingdom had recommended bellows since 1782. Principal determinants for change were aesthetic distaste for mouth-to-mouth contact and the perceived danger of using expired air, although MMV survived in the practice of some midwives. Following the 1826-9 investigations of Jean-Jacques Leroy d'Etiolles then François Magendie, all positive pressure ventilation methods were generally abandoned, after 1829 in France, and 1832 in the UK; but not chest compressions. During the next quarter century, rescuers lost understanding of the primary need for "artificial respiration", apart from researchers such as John Snow and John Erichsen, until Marshall Hall's "Ready Method" heralded the second half-century's various methods of negative pressure ventilation. Some of those methods continued in use until the 1940s. Sporadic anecdotal cases of MMV rescues were documented throughout. In the 20th century, inadequate mechanical inhalators were also tried from 1908, while obstetricians devised indirect methods of expired air ventilation (EAV). Anaesthetists in the 1940s, such as Ralph Waters, Robert Dripps, and the pair, Robert Macintosh and William Mushin, described the usefulness of MMV, and James Elam was "re-discovering" it. Following World War II, "Cold War" concerns stimulated research at the Edgewood Medical Laboratories in Maryland in the United States into the possibilities of MMV, and Elam et al confirmed and expanded on brief experiments at Oxford (United Kingdom) on the efficacy of mouth-to-tube EAV. Studies, 1957-9, by Archer Gordon, Elam and especially Peter Safar resulted in the resolution of previous airway problems, established the primacy of MMV, and incorporated it into an integrated system for basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ready adoption of MMV in the US was

  7. [The new hospital model established at the end of 19th Century and the professional nursing schools].

    PubMed

    Bargoni, A

    2008-04-01

    The historical research in hospitals organisation began in Europe only after the II World War. In particular, studies regarding the nursing in Italy are very scarce and heavily influenced by the fragmented political and organisational management due to the historical divisions within Italy. All the same, the social and working conditions, at least in the north of Italy, were similar in this respect. The workforce up to the beginning of the 20th Century was equally divided between males and females. The female recruitment took place exclusively from the foundlings left in front of the hospital and raised within the hospital walls. The work was very hard with long working hours, under a total subordination to the religious administrators with miserable wage. These conditions remained unchanged until the second half of the 19th Century when, in central Europe, a change in the reorganisation of hospital management occurred, together with a cultural improvement in the nursing profession. This process of reforms had started in England some decades earlier from the reorganisation of nursing made by Florence Nightingale. After Italian post-unification the healthcare field was involved in the tentative to homologate the vast differences in the hospital organisation within the Italian states which also generated tension, bitterness and many political debates. The particular conditions created in the main hospital of Turin in the second half of the 19th Century, together with the political and social climate at the time and the reopening of debates between Socialist, Liberals and Catholics favoured the reorganizational improvement of the San Giovanni Battista hospital. Under this prospective, the foundation of the nursing school came into being, preceded by the intense control of a behavioral and ethical cleaning of the nurses, in particular the males. The availability of the hospital administrations in carrying out the recommendations of the medical staff in the

  8. [The new hospital model established at the end of 19th Century and the professional nursing schools].

    PubMed

    Bargoni, A

    2008-04-01

    The historical research in hospitals organisation began in Europe only after the II World War. In particular, studies regarding the nursing in Italy are very scarce and heavily influenced by the fragmented political and organisational management due to the historical divisions within Italy. All the same, the social and working conditions, at least in the north of Italy, were similar in this respect. The workforce up to the beginning of the 20th Century was equally divided between males and females. The female recruitment took place exclusively from the foundlings left in front of the hospital and raised within the hospital walls. The work was very hard with long working hours, under a total subordination to the religious administrators with miserable wage. These conditions remained unchanged until the second half of the 19th Century when, in central Europe, a change in the reorganisation of hospital management occurred, together with a cultural improvement in the nursing profession. This process of reforms had started in England some decades earlier from the reorganisation of nursing made by Florence Nightingale. After Italian post-unification the healthcare field was involved in the tentative to homologate the vast differences in the hospital organisation within the Italian states which also generated tension, bitterness and many political debates. The particular conditions created in the main hospital of Turin in the second half of the 19th Century, together with the political and social climate at the time and the reopening of debates between Socialist, Liberals and Catholics favoured the reorganizational improvement of the San Giovanni Battista hospital. Under this prospective, the foundation of the nursing school came into being, preceded by the intense control of a behavioral and ethical cleaning of the nurses, in particular the males. The availability of the hospital administrations in carrying out the recommendations of the medical staff in the

  9. Policy Commercializing Nonprofits in Health: The History of a Paradox From the 19th Century to the ACA

    PubMed Central

    FOX, DANIEL M

    2015-01-01

    growth and commercialization of nonprofits in the health sector since the late 19th century remains influential in health policy, especially for the allocation of resources. However, aspects of the implementation of the ACA may constrain some of the effects of the paradox. PMID:25752354

  10. New early instrumental series since the beginning of the 19th century in eastern Iberia (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Barriendos, Mariano; Guinaldo, Elena; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.

    2010-05-01

    Early instrumental series are the main source for climate information in the 18th and the first part of the 19th century, which is when systematic meteorological observations started in most national meteorological services. The first continuous series in Spain starts in 1780 in Barcelona due to meteorological observations made by the medical doctor Francisco Salvá Campillo. Moreover, only two other series have been recovered at the present in Spain: Madrid and Cádiz/San Fernando. Until present, in Spain the major part of the meteorological observations detected in early instrumental periods were made by medical doctors, who started to pay attention to the environmental factors influencing population health under the Hippocrates oath, although also there are military institutions and academic university staff (e.g. physicists, mathematicians, etc.). Due to the high spatial and temporal climate variability in the Iberian Peninsula, it is important to recover and digitize more climatic series, and this is one of the main goals of the Salvá-Sinobas project (http://salva-sinobas.uvigo.es/) funded by the Spanish Ministry of Environment, and Rural and Marine Affairs for the 2009-2011 period. The first new series with systematic observations was detected in the city of Valencia, in the eastern façade of the Iberian Peninsula. The meteorological observations were daily published in the newspapers Diario de Valencia (1804-1834) and Diario Mercantil de Valencia (1837-1863) until official meteorological observations started in 1858 at the University of Valencia. Each day 3-daily observations (morning, midday, afternoon) were published with five climatic variables: temperature, air pressure, humidity, wind direction and the sky state. Only during the 1804-1808 period daily rainfall data is available. We checked the observer comments published in the newspapers to obtain metadata about the instruments and meteorological station information. Unfortunately, temperature data

  11. A chaotic model for the plague epidemic that has occurred in Bombay at the end of the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain

    2015-04-01

    The plague epidemic that has occurred in Bombay at the end of the 19th century was detected in 1896. One year before, an Advisory Committee had been appointed by the Secretary of State for India, the Royal Society, and the Lister Institute. This Committee made numerous investigations and gathered a large panel of data including the number of people attacked and died from the plague, records of rat and flea populations, as well as meteorological records of temperature and humidity [1]. The global modeling technique [2] aims to obtain low dimensional models able to simulate the observed cycles from time series. As far as we know, this technique has been tried only to one case of epidemiological analysis (the whooping cough infection) based on a discrete formulation [3]. In the present work, the continuous time formulation of this technique is used to analyze the time evolution of the plague epidemic from this data set. One low dimensional model (three variables) is obtained exhibiting a limit cycle of period-5. A chaotic behavior could be derived from this model by tuning the model parameters. It provides a strong argument for a dynamical behavior that can be approximated by low dimensional deterministic equations. This model also provides an empirical argument for chaos in epidemics. [1] Verjbitski D. T., Bannerman W. B. & Kápadiâ R. T., 1908. Reports on Plague Investigations in India (May,1908), The Journal of Hygiene, 8(2), 161 -308. [2] Mangiarotti S., Coudret R., Drapeau L. & Jarlan L., 2012. Polynomial search and Global modelling: two algorithms for modeling chaos. Physical Review E, 86(4), 046205. [3] Boudjema G. & Cazelles B., 2003. Extraction of nonlinear dynamics from short and noisy time series. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 12, 2051-2069.

  12. Achievements of Polish doctors in gastrodiaphanoscopy at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries

    PubMed Central

    Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Pozowski, Andrzej; Kuciel-Lewandowska, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Diaphanoscopy/transillumination, the method of shining a bright light through tissues, was devised in the mid-19th century and developed after the invention of the light bulb by T.A. Edison. Benjamin Milliot was the first to examine the stomach by means of an incandescent platinum wire. The experiments conducted by Max Einhorn using a device consisting of a Nelaton catheter with an inserted light bulb, were valuable. In Poland the method of gastrodiaphanoscopy was popularized by Teodor Heryng, Mikołaj Rejchman and by Warsaw doctors. They used a diaphanoscope consisting of a gutta-percha probe distally equipped with a metal attachment with a light bulb hidden in it and with a so-called cooling device. The examination would usually be conducted in the standing position after the stomach had been filled with water. Light patches corresponding to the stomach’s lower and side boundaries would be obtained. Rejchman’s observation, that such a contractile and flexible organ as the stomach, changing its volume and position, is bound to change its light image, was correct. Heryng’s and Rejchman’s research inspired the foreign researchers Renvier, Leopold Kuttner and John Jacobson. Extensive research was subsequently conducted by C.A. Meltzing and Wilhelm Schwartz. Diaphanoscopy would also be performed by Walery Jaworski, the pioneer of gastrology. He was particularly interested in transillumination of the stomach, peritoneum and omentum tumours. Eugeniusz Kozierowski, a practicing physician from Gorlice, diagnosed neoplastic pylorostenosisusing this method. Gastrodiaphanoscopy is a historical method, now of no value against gastroendoscopy and the state-of-the-art methods of image diagnostics. PMID:24868282

  13. Hydrometeorological extremes reconstructed from documentary evidence for the Jihlava region in the 17th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolak, Lukas; Brazdil, Rudolf; Chroma, Katerina; Valasek, Hubert; Belinova, Monika; Reznickova, Ladislava

    2016-04-01

    Different documentary evidence (taxation records, chronicles, insurance reports etc.) is used for reconstruction of hydrometeorological extremes (HMEs) in the Jihlava region (central part of the recent Czech Republic) in the 17th-19th centuries. The aim of the study is description of the system of tax alleviation in Moravia, presentation of utilization of early fire and hail damage insurance claims and application of the new methodological approaches for the analysis of HMEs impacts. During the period studied more than 400 HMEs were analysed for the 16 estates (past basic economic units). Late frost on 16 May 1662 on the Nove Mesto na Morave estate, which destroyed whole cereals and caused damage in the forests, is the first recorded extreme event. Downpours causing flash floods and hailstorms are the most frequently recorded natural disasters. Moreover, floods, droughts, windstorms, blizzards, late frosts and lightning strikes starting fires caused enormous damage as well. The impacts of HMEs are classified into three categories: impacts on agricultural production, material property and the socio-economic impacts. Natural disasters became the reasons of losses of human lives, property, supplies and farming equipment. HMEs caused damage to fields and meadows, depletion of livestock and triggered the secondary consequences as lack of seeds and finance, high prices, indebtedness, poverty and deterioration in field fertility. The results are discussed with respect to uncertainties associated with documentary evidences and their spatiotemporal distribution. Archival records, preserved in the Moravian Land Archives in Brno and other district archives, create a unique source of data contributing to the better understanding of extreme events and their impacts.

  14. Changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands inferred from 19th and 20th century landscape paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Wevers, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity is the natural and cultural range of geological, geomorphological and soil features. We analysed the large database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis and Buunk (www.Simonis-Buunk.com) to track changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands since pre-photographic times. Peat dominated in two of the eight main landscapes of the Netherlands: the Lowland peats in the Holocene west and the Highland peats in the sandy Pleistocene eastern parts. Painters were mainly attracted by the lowland peats. Since more than thousand years, peat plays a major role in Dutch military security, economy, ecology and cultural life. Natural variety and cultural use resulted in a geodiversity that is unique in Europe. There are more than 100 place names with 'veen' (= peat), and surnames with 'veen' are common. Proof of the exploitation of peat for salt and fuel exists from the Roman times onwards. In the 9th century, peatlands were drained and reclaimed for growing wheat. Already in the 11th century, it was necessary to build dikes to prevent flooding, to control waterlevels to avoid further oxidation, and to convert landuse to grassland. But subsidence continued, and in the 14th century windmills were needed to drain the lands and pump the water out. In the 16th century industrial peat exploitation fuelled the rise of industries and cities. All this draining and digging caused the peat surface to shrink. The few remaining living peats are conserved by nature organisations. Geodiversity and landscape paintings In the peat landscapes, popular painting motives were high water levels, the grasslands of the 'Green Heart', the winding streams and remaining lakes. The paintings of landscapes where peat had been removed, show watermanagement adaptations: wind mills, different water levels, canals made for the transport of fuel, bridges, tow paths and the 'plassen', i.e. the lakes left after peat exploitation. The droogmakerijen (reclaimed lakes), now 2 to 5 m below

  15. Improvements in the wallpaper industry during the second half of the 19th century: micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of pigmented wallpapers.

    PubMed

    Castro, K; Vandenabeele, P; Rodríguez-Laso, M D; Moens, L; Madariaga, J M

    2005-08-01

    Scientific studies of the pigments used in the manufacturing process of some pigmented wallpapers are presented in this work. Non-destructive micro-Raman spectroscopy was selected for this purpose, and provides important information about how the 19th century wallpaper industry incorporated new materials in their works and designs. At the same time, analysis can help to date the samples of uncatalogued wallpapers. Chrome yellow, burnt Sienna, Prussian blue, ultramarine blue, red lead, carbon black, calcium carbonate, red iron oxide and a red organic pigment were identified. According to the palette used, as well as to the manufacturing process, the wallpapers in this study can be dated to the second half of the 19th century.

  16. Sex estimation using the femur of Austrians born in the 19th to the middle of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Kanz, Fabian; Fitzl, Christine; Vlcek, Alexander; Frommlet, Florian

    2015-01-01

    remains born in the 19(th) to the middle of the 20(th) century. PMID:25776530

  17. [Bright disease in Turin and Italy from the middle of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Stratta, P; Bermond, F; Canavese, C; Colla, L; Burdese, M; Quaglia, M; Besso, L; Sandri, L; Dogliani, M

    2001-03-01

    For many years the term nephritis was used to indicate renal diseases (in the sense of Bright s disease) in a larger sense. This review summarizes the history of the concept of glolomerulonephritis from Egyptian Medicine up to the Post-Biopsy Era, in particularly in Turin and in Italy. This study reports an epidemiology survey of Bright s disease in Italy from 1880 up to 1960. Towards the end of the 19th century Bright s disease accounted for 26 deaths/year/105 population (in comparison with more than 200 from tubercolosis) in Italy. At the beginning of the 20th century, Bright s disease was the seventh cause of death in Italy. Moreover, in Italy autopsy studies showed a higher percentage of deaths attributed to Bright s disease (5-7%) in comparison with those obtained from vital studies. In 1960, just before the beginning of renal replacement therapy, Bright s disease accounted for 15.7 deaths/year/105 population. Probably it was difficult to recognize in the real incidence of chronic renal diseases leading to death in the 1960s, and vital studies were able to furnish only approximate estimates. However, noteworthy is the fact that these values were very close to those estimated as being the annual need for renal replacement therapy (10-20/year/105 population).

  18. [History of the Halle Ars medica Judaica. IV. Development from the middle of the 19th century to the end of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W; Völker, A

    1989-04-15

    The possibilities of an academic career of Jewish physicians were alleviated by the legalities of the second half of the 19th century, however, up to 1918 in many places restrictive statutes in higher education considerably confined a career as professor in ordinary of specialists of Jewish belief. The conditions at Halle university reflect this situation. A complete equalization beginning after 1918 only at some points of scientific concentration led to a recognizable increase of the Jewish-German members in the teaching staff. But already in this phase on the basis of a quickly spreading racial ideology an increasingly appreciable vulgar antisemitism developed. PMID:2662658

  19. [The problem of reforms in the European medicine between 16th and 19th century in the light of selected concepts of methodology of the history of science].

    PubMed

    Plonka-Syroka, B

    1997-01-01

    The article depicts major concepts present in the contemporary historiography of medicine (positivistic and social-cultural trends) and some of the concepts of modern methodology of the history of science, reviewing the possibilities of its use in the analysis of the process of modernizing the European medicine that was implemented between the 16th and the 19th century. The author advocates the social-cultural trend that dominates the contemporary historiography of medicine. She discusses and analyzes the concepts developed by Ludwik Fleck, Samuel Kuhn, Imre Lakatos, Kurt Godl, Stefan Amsterdamski in respect of their sue to a historian of modern medicine.

  20. Jean Martin Charcot (1825-93) and John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911): neurology in France and England in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Silvester, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    In 1862 Jean Martin Charcot was appointed Physician at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, and simultaneously John Hughlings Jackson was appointed as assistant physician at the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic, Queen Square, London. Both men made significant contributions to the development of neurology, many of which remain important to contemporary neurologists. The achievements and the work of Charcot and Hughlings Jackson are considered in the light of their respective localities and medical education, and the structure of hospital institutions and political allegiances are compared in the late 19th century in France and Britain.

  1. [History of the Halle Ars medica Judaica. IV. Development from the middle of the 19th century to the end of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W; Völker, A

    1989-04-15

    The possibilities of an academic career of Jewish physicians were alleviated by the legalities of the second half of the 19th century, however, up to 1918 in many places restrictive statutes in higher education considerably confined a career as professor in ordinary of specialists of Jewish belief. The conditions at Halle university reflect this situation. A complete equalization beginning after 1918 only at some points of scientific concentration led to a recognizable increase of the Jewish-German members in the teaching staff. But already in this phase on the basis of a quickly spreading racial ideology an increasingly appreciable vulgar antisemitism developed.

  2. [Cathedrals to sciences or temples of knowledge? The museums of natural sciences of Cordoba, Argentina, by the end of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Tognetti, L

    2001-01-01

    The museums of Botany, Mineralogy and Zoology of the Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas were created along with a world wide phenomenon, defined by some authors as the "museum movement," in a time the basics of this movement were being restructured. Thus, this work intends to go over the building stage of the natural history museums in a peripheral domain --- Cordoba by the end of the 19th century --- in order to partially understand this transition process. The strategy is to analyze the collections and find out how and why they were gathered. Two other aspects are also relevant: the human resources and the funds these institutions were granted.

  3. The "Jerusalem syndrome"--fantasy and reality a survey of accounts from the 19th century to the end of the second millennium.

    PubMed

    Witztum, E; Kalian, M

    1999-01-01

    The so-called "Jerusalem Syndrome" is behavioral phenomena observed in eccentric and psychotic tourists with religious delusions. A significant number of pilgrims and tourists have been visiting the Holy City, at least since the beginning of the 19th century, including some delusionary and eccentric characters. The authors present a selection of vivid descriptive accounts of such 19th century visitors, by six local residents and writers about Jerusalem (including one psychiatrist). It should be noted that those writers already noticed and documented the so-called syndrome more than a century ago. In comparison to modern research of the phenomena in contemporary Jerusalem, a striking similarity in the narrative and the clinical picture emerges. However, based on accumulated data, the authors suggest that in most cases the religious atmosphere of the city is not the primary cause for the disorder. The psychotic visitors had set out for their journey to the Holy City already guided by a delusionary system derived from their religious belief and cultural background. PMID:10687302

  4. [The mind on the stage of justice: the formation of criminal psychology in the 19th century and its interdisciplinary research].

    PubMed

    Vec, Milos

    2007-09-01

    Criminal psychology emerges at the end of the 18th century as a new academic discipline in lectures and publications. It has recently been investigated by a considerable number of contributions from researchers of different academic backgrounds. In many respects criminal psychology can be seen as a predecessor of criminology. Its subject is the analysis of the origins of crime and its causes and determinants in the human mind. Criminal psychology embraced at that time philosophical, medical, legal and biological aspects. The latter increase in importance in the second half of the 19th century. The conditions of individual responsibility were generally codified in penal law, but had to be individually investigated in crucial cases through expertise in court. There a conflict emerged between medical experts and judges about their ability and competence to decide. At the end of the 19th century criminal psychology is used to fulfil the needs and interests of a criminal law which understands itself as increasingly utilitarian. Force and new instruments of treatment of offenders were legitimized by scientists who were very optimistic about their own epistemological abilities.

  5. Dilemmas of 19th-century Liberalism among German Academic Chemists: Shaping a National Science Policy from Hofmann to Fischer, 1865-1919.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey Allan

    2015-04-01

    This paper's primary goal is to compare the personalities, values, and influence of August Wilhelm Hofmann and Emil Fischer as exemplars and acknowledged leaders of successive generations of the German chemical profession and as scientists sharing a 19th-century liberal, internationalist outlook from the German wars of unification in the 1860s to Fischer's death in 1919 in the aftermath of German defeat in World War I. The paper will consider the influence of Hofmann and Fischer on the shaping of national scientific institutions in Germany, from founding of the German Chemical Society in 1867 to the first institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society founded in 1911, their academic leadership in other areas including the shaping of a successful academic-industrial symbiosis in organic chemistry, and finally their response to war as a force disruptive of scientific internationalism. All of these developments posed serious dilemmas, exacerbated by emerging strains of nationalism and anti-Semitism in German society. Whereas Hofmann's lifework came to a relatively successful end in 1892, Fischer was not so fortunate, as the war brought him heavy responsibilities and terrible personal losses, but with no German victory and no peace of reconciliation--a bleak end for Fischer and the 19th-century liberal ideals that had inspired him. PMID:26104166

  6. ["On hidden madness"--"De amentia occulta" by Ernst Platner in early 19th-century tension of medicine and jurisprudence].

    PubMed

    Haack, Kathleen; Steinberg, Holger; Herpertz, Sabine C; Kumbier, Ekkehardt

    2008-03-01

    During the first half of the 19th century psychiatry became more and more influential in the evaluation of mentally ill offenders. "Doubtful" states of mind gained a particular importance for forensic practice. One of the mental disorders that was heavily disputed was amentia occulta (hidden madness) first described by the well-known Leipzig doctor and philosopher Ernst Platner. This publication (1797) preluded several other diagnoses to refer to non-obvious, "hidden mental derangements". Regardless of the differences in arguments as developed by the experts in question (E. T. A. Hoffmann, Merzdorff, E. Horn, J. C. A. Clarus), two case studies from the early 19 (th) century (D. Schmolling, J. C. Woyzeck) will exemplify the process of medicine, and psychiatry in particular, becoming more and more influential in everyday jurisdictional practice. The above-mentioned Ernst Platner, the author of manifold forensic studies and of "De amentia occulta", was one of the pioneers and promoters of this process. By emphasising the importance of mental states being evaluated by medical professionals he contributed a great deal to the establishment of forensic psychiatry.

  7. Dilemmas of 19th-century Liberalism among German Academic Chemists: Shaping a National Science Policy from Hofmann to Fischer, 1865-1919.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey Allan

    2015-04-01

    This paper's primary goal is to compare the personalities, values, and influence of August Wilhelm Hofmann and Emil Fischer as exemplars and acknowledged leaders of successive generations of the German chemical profession and as scientists sharing a 19th-century liberal, internationalist outlook from the German wars of unification in the 1860s to Fischer's death in 1919 in the aftermath of German defeat in World War I. The paper will consider the influence of Hofmann and Fischer on the shaping of national scientific institutions in Germany, from founding of the German Chemical Society in 1867 to the first institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society founded in 1911, their academic leadership in other areas including the shaping of a successful academic-industrial symbiosis in organic chemistry, and finally their response to war as a force disruptive of scientific internationalism. All of these developments posed serious dilemmas, exacerbated by emerging strains of nationalism and anti-Semitism in German society. Whereas Hofmann's lifework came to a relatively successful end in 1892, Fischer was not so fortunate, as the war brought him heavy responsibilities and terrible personal losses, but with no German victory and no peace of reconciliation--a bleak end for Fischer and the 19th-century liberal ideals that had inspired him.

  8. Development of brewing science in (and since) the late 19th century: molecular profiles of 110-130year old beers.

    PubMed

    Walther, Andrea; Ravasio, Davide; Qin, Fen; Wendland, Jürgen; Meier, Sebastian

    2015-09-15

    The 19th century witnessed many advances in scientific enzymology and microbiology that laid the foundations for modern biotechnological industries. In the current study, we analyze the content of original lager beer samples from the 1880s, 1890s and 1900s with emphasis on the carbohydrate content and composition. The historic samples include the oldest samples brewed with pure Saccharomyces carlsbergensis yeast strains. While no detailed record of beer pasteurization at the time is available, historic samples indicate a gradual improvement of bottled beer handling from the 1880s to the 1900s, with decreasing contamination by enzymatic and microbial activities over this time span. Samples are sufficiently well preserved to allow comparisons to present-day references, thus yielding molecular signatures of the effects of 20th century science on beer production. Opposite to rather stable carbohydrate profiles, some aldehydes reach up to 40-fold higher levels in the historic samples as compared to present-day references.

  9. Roots of Physical Medicine, Physical Therapy, and Mechanotherapy in the Netherlands in the 19th Century: A Disputed Area within the Healthcare Domain

    PubMed Central

    Terlouw, Thomas J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Physical medicine, which in the context of this article includes mechanotherapy, hydrotherapy, balneotherapy, electrotherapy, light therapy, air therapy, and thermotherapy, became a new field of labor in the healthcare domain in the Netherlands around 1900. This article gives an account of the introduction and development of mechanotherapy as a professional activity in the Netherlands in the 19th century. Mechanotherapy, which historically included exercises, manipulations, and massage, was introduced in this country around 1840 and became one of the core elements of physical medicine towards the end of that century. In contrast to what one might expect, mostly physical education teachers, referred to as “heilgymnasts,” dedicated themselves to this kind of treatment, whereas only a few physicians were active in this field until the 1880s. When, in the last quarter of the 19th century, differentiation and specialization within the medical profession took place, physicians specializing in physical medicine and orthopaedics began to claim the field of mechanotherapy exclusively for themselves. This led to tensions between them and the group of heilgymnasts that had already been active in this field for decades. The focus of attention in this article is on interprofessional relationships, on the roles played by the different professional organizations in the fields of physical education and medicine, the local and national governments, and the judicial system, and on the social, political, and cultural circumstances under which developments in the field of mechanotherapy took place. The article concludes with the hypothesis that the intra- and inter-occupational rivalries discussed have had a negative impact on the academic development of physical medicine, orthopaedics, and heilgymnastics/physical therapy in the Netherlands in the first half of the 20th century. PMID:19066646

  10. Human Values and the Market: The Case of Life Insurance and Death in 19th-Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Viviana A.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the development of life insurance programs in the United States during the nineteenth century and traces social attitudes about life insurance from rejection to acceptance. Historical data indicate that life insurance emerged in the late nineteenth century as a form of ritual with which to face death. (Author/DB)

  11. [The urologic work of Doctor Alejandro Settier (1858-1915). (I). Spanish urology during the second half of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Maganto Pavón, E

    1996-06-01

    Until, at the beginning of our Century, the Spanish Urology finally achieved the acknowledgement that it was due to it as a specialty different from General Surgery, surgical practice of urinary tract disorders remained, all through the 19th Century, in the hands of general surgeons. As from the last quarter of the century, however, a clear trend can be glimpsed in some professionals in Spain towards specialization in this branch of surgery. Albeit the influence of the French School and French publications on the first specialists is manifest, since most of them were training in Paris, it is obvious that the genesis and progress of specialization on genitourinary organs disorders, as well as other areas, in Spain would have not been possible without the concourse and political support received from relevant personalities such as Dr. Federico Rubio y Gali and Dr. Angel Pulido Fernández, both with partial dedication to the urinary tract and to whom the Spanish Association of Urology still owns further recognition for the role they played in the promotion of these earlier specialists and the establishment of centres and hospital services where their work could be carried out. Since, during the final third of last century, the number of Spanish publications, journals and monographs devoted to urological topics, a extensive revision of which is covered in this paper, is increasingly profuse, the boom of the specialty in genitourinary tract disorders will determine its ultimate consolidation at the beginning of the 20th Century.

  12. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  13. In naming the dead: Autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR typing on human skeletal remains from an 18th/19th century aristocratic crypt in Gallspach, Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Reinhard; Renhart, Silvia; Gruber, Heinz; Kli Mesch, Wolfgang; Neuhuber, Franz; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA analyses have shown to be a powerful tool in the joint transdisciplinary assessment of archaeological records involving human remains. In this study we set out to identify single inhumations by synoptically evaluating the historical, archaeological, anthropological and molecular records on human remains from the crypt of the aristocratic family of Hoheneck (or: Hohenegg) dating to the 18(th) and 19(th) century AD. A total of 11 individuals were under investigation, yielding complete autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR profiles for 5 persons clearly showing a family group. DNA results, anthropological data and archaeological records taken together resulted in (almost) unambiguous correlation to historical records on the persons entombed in the crypt.

  14. Characterisation of gold gilt silver wires from five embroidered silk Qaaba curtains dated between the 16th and 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakir, A. F.; Simsek, G.; Tezcan, H.

    2006-06-01

    The wires from five Qaaba curtains, dated between the 16th and 19th centuries, presently exhibited at the Topkapı Palace Museum in Istanbul, and embroidered with gold gilded silver and silver wires, were characterized physically and chemically. The curtains are part of the Kiswa, the cover of the Qaaba, the holy place of pilgrimage in Mecca for Muslims. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) (including field emission sem) studies were carried out using energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) as well as atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) for chemical analysis. The chemical and physical composition of the wires and their coatings, and the analysis of corrosion products were made, and the present state of the wires were evaluated and compared.

  15. Criminal insanity in 19th-century Ireland, Europe and the United States: cases, contexts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brendan D

    2009-01-01

    The insanity defence has a lengthy, complex history. This article provides a concise, comparative background to the evolution of criminal insanity legislation and institutions for the mentally ill in the nineteenth century, with particular reference to Ireland and the United States. Three key themes are identified and explored: (a) the emergence of the insanity defence in the nineteenth century (e.g. the McNaughtan Rules); (b) conditions in nineteenth-century asylums and institutions for the 'criminally insane' (with particular reference to overcrowding, physical illness and asylum deaths); and (c) nineteenth-century considerations of criminal responsibility in women with mental illness (with particular reference to medical and judicial views of the relevance of menstruation, pregnancy and child-birth). These themes are explored through review of historical literature (with particular reference to the work of Dr. Isaac Ray, founding father of forensic psychiatry in the United States) and examination of previously unpublished archival material from the Central Criminal Lunatic Asylum, Dublin.

  16. [Records of the invisible: Visa reperta in 18th- and 19th-century forensic medicine and their role as promoters of pathological-anatomical knowledge].

    PubMed

    Müller, Irmgard; Fangerau, Heiner

    2010-01-01

    Case reports in medicine serve as a tool to collect and to transfer knowledge. A special kind of case report in forensic medicine during the 18th and 19th centuries was the so-called Visum repertum. This format of note-taking and of rendering an expert opinion without presuppositions has rarely investigated in the history of medicine. Analyzing Visa reperta the authors argue that due to their special structure and mode of representation Visa reperta not only shaped the practice of forensic medicine but also the standardized examination and documentation in pathological anatomy. Based on previous studies on medical case reports, medical expert witnesses in court and traditions in pathological anatomy the authors examine two examples from the 18th and 19th centuries in order to show how semiological, classifying methods of presenting forensic examinations were replaced by the material aspect of the observation of examination results itself. The examples are a forensic case report by Michael Alberti (1682-1757) from 1728 and a Visum repertum by Joseph Bernt (1770-1842) from 1827. The authors argue that Visa reperta transcended their original forensic purpose and served as a guideline for pathology leading to an understanding of the origin of diseases in organs. They served as a promoter of scientific medicine, and their persuasiveness was backed by factors such as (a) the extreme conditions of forensic practice, (b) the claim to act as a tool for the sound and precise recording of facts and c) the awareness that they documented objects that were destroyed during the process of documentation.

  17. Genetic structure of Flores island (Azores, Portugal) in the 19th century and in the present day: evidence from surname analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cristina; Abade, Augusto; Cantons, Jordi; Mayer, Francine M; Aluja, M Pilar; Lima, Manuela

    2005-06-01

    The island of Flores is the most westerly of the Azores archipelago (Portugal). Despite its marked geographic isolation and reduced population size, biodemographic and genetic studies conducted so far do not support the idea that its population constitutes a genetic isolate. In this study we conducted a surname analysis of the Flores population for two time periods: the second half of the 19th century and the present day. Our main purposes were (1) to biodemographically and genetically characterize the island, taking into account the strong reduction in population observed from the middle of the 19th century to the present day; and (2) to analyze the influence that the effective population size and geographic distance have on the genetic structure of populations. For both periods analyzed, all indicators of diversity revealed a high level of surname diversity. Our results are in accordance with the diversity estimates obtained from both monoparental genetic markers located in the Y chromosome and frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups. Contrary to what could be expected, considering the strong reduction of population in the last 150 years, we observed that diversity was maintained and that microdifferentiation decreased. Both observations support a higher openness of parishes as a consequence of the increase in communication routes. From the first to the second period analyzed, a change in surname composition is evident, although the more frequent surnames in Flores are almost the same for both periods and some of them are reported to be surnames present in the first settlers of Flores. This result testifies to the impact of founders on the present-day gene pool of Flores island and allows us to infer that the genetic characterization of the present-day population of Flores could provide reliable information about the history of the peopling of the Azores.

  18. Genetic structure of Flores island (Azores, Portugal) in the 19th century and in the present day: evidence from surname analysis.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cristina; Abade, Augusto; Cantons, Jordi; Mayer, Francine M; Aluja, M Pilar; Lima, Manuela

    2005-06-01

    The island of Flores is the most westerly of the Azores archipelago (Portugal). Despite its marked geographic isolation and reduced population size, biodemographic and genetic studies conducted so far do not support the idea that its population constitutes a genetic isolate. In this study we conducted a surname analysis of the Flores population for two time periods: the second half of the 19th century and the present day. Our main purposes were (1) to biodemographically and genetically characterize the island, taking into account the strong reduction in population observed from the middle of the 19th century to the present day; and (2) to analyze the influence that the effective population size and geographic distance have on the genetic structure of populations. For both periods analyzed, all indicators of diversity revealed a high level of surname diversity. Our results are in accordance with the diversity estimates obtained from both monoparental genetic markers located in the Y chromosome and frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups. Contrary to what could be expected, considering the strong reduction of population in the last 150 years, we observed that diversity was maintained and that microdifferentiation decreased. Both observations support a higher openness of parishes as a consequence of the increase in communication routes. From the first to the second period analyzed, a change in surname composition is evident, although the more frequent surnames in Flores are almost the same for both periods and some of them are reported to be surnames present in the first settlers of Flores. This result testifies to the impact of founders on the present-day gene pool of Flores island and allows us to infer that the genetic characterization of the present-day population of Flores could provide reliable information about the history of the peopling of the Azores. PMID:16392635

  19. [The physician between the ideal and reality: medical profession and popular attitude towards health and medicine in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Zeleznik, Urska

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the attitude of the society towards the medical profession, which was torn between high social expectations and ideals and medical practice confronted with real-life obstacles. In the 19th century, the physician's position was still precarious and called for a renegotiation in the community. Physician's work was faced with people's distrust and resistance, superstitions and prejudices, folk medicine and religion. Even such ideal qualities as dignity, conscientiousness, and courage, would quickly be called into question by events such as epidemics. Particularly in 19th century rural areas, the physician's position was far from acknowledged and official medicine had yet to win people's trust. This paper explores the polyvalent attitude of people towards medicine and health. It investigates the discourse used to describe health and medicine in daily press, professional and popular literature, as well as in official medical documents of the time. It shows a long struggle of public health care to gain people's approval. During cholera epidemics, which apart from presenting serious threat to human life were an opportunity for medicine to win people's trust and obedience, the attitude towards health gradually began to change. To some extent this was a result of medical advances, new scientific discoveries, and increasing success in abating the epidemics. At the same time, as the society became more secular, medicine slowly gained people's trust and gradually replaced the healing methods of folk medicine. Health was less and less understood as a result of God's will and mercy, and the attitude towards disease began to evolve from passive resignation to an active battle for health. PMID:21192118

  20. Cooling trend and enhancement of productivity in the upwelling off Peru since the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouloubassi, I.; Gutierrez, D.; Sifeddine, A.; Purca, S.; Salvatteci, R.; Field, D.; Mejanelle, L.; Velazco, F.; Ortlieb, L.

    2009-12-01

    Reconstructions of past climate and ocean variability and of the response of the marine ecosystems from high-resolution marine archives are critical to our understanding of climate/ocean dynamics and its links with ecosystem change. Laminated sediments preserved in the Peruvian margin within the oxygen minimum zone allow reconstructing past climate/ocean variability and environmental changes from interannual to centennial or longer time-scales (Gutierrez et al., 2009). We investigated proxy records in laminated sediments downstream the main upwelling area of the Peruvian coast (off Pisco, 14° S, 300m water depth) aiming at reconstructing variations of sea-surface temperature and biological productivity during the past century in order to explore potential (global warming related) changes in the intensity of coastal upwelling and ecosystem response. Dating of the sediment core revealed extremely high sedimentation rates of 1.9-2.3 mm/year for the period since the late nineteenth century to the present (Gutierrez et al., 2009). SST values, reconstructed from the alkenone unsaturation index (Uk'37), are within the range observed in the Pisco coastal area during spring/summer, when productivity (inferred from Chl-a) is highest. They show conspicuous positive/negative excursions which are generally in-line with known past El Nino/El Nina events. The record reveals significant multidecadal variability: SSTs smoothly decrease from 1880 to ca.1920, show little variation between 1920 and 1945 followed by a steady rapid cooling of ca. 1.5° C in the latter part of the 20th century (after 1950). This trend is consistent with instrumental inshore SST time-series from central and southern Peru which also exhibit significant cooling since 1950 and with satellite SST data. Yet, for the same period, these data are not in line with ICOADS-SSTs, most likely depicting a strong onshore-offshore gradient. The negative SST changes coincide with increased, upwelling favorable alongshore

  1. From sermons in stone to studies in science: The transformation of 19th-century juvenile natural history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, Jon-Paul Charles

    This dissertation seeks to explain the social, cultural, and economic factors that transformed the ways nineteenth-century American children learned about, encountered, and understood the natural world. It highlights the interests, tastes, and fears of the middle-class as key factors in the transformation of children's relationship to nature. Developments such as the quest for gentility and refinement, the evolution of religious practices and beliefs, the print revolution, the popularity of Romanticism, the marginalization of women, the rise of professionalization, the impact of industrialization, and the growth of cities all helped shape nineteenth-century children's relationship to nature. For much of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries adults had taught children to see nature as a world of wonders in which God acted out his Providential design. During the early republic, however, Americans, especially women, increasingly valued more refined and genteel interpretations of nature that invoked discrete segments of nature for their ability to cultivate morals, evidence the existence of God, and mold children's behavior. The print revolution that swept America during this period abetted this process. During the second quarter of the nineteenth century, increasing numbers of adults began to use religious publications, schoolbooks, literature, and domestic amusements to involve children with the natural world in ways that were variously religious or Romantic. As a result nature became an accepted and valued segment of middle-class life. Ironically, however, these efforts also helped separate religious from secular interpretations of nature, and changes in fashions, literary techniques, and parenting techniques allowed children more autonomy to interpret nature as they wished. In the last half of the nineteenth century, adults continued to rely on nature as a means of training up children in the ways they should go. Writers, teachers, and reformers increasingly

  2. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  3. The travails of 19th-century urban youth as a precondition to the invention of modern adolescence.

    PubMed

    Teeter, R

    1988-01-01

    One of the factors leading up to the "invention" of modern adolescence was what reformers saw as the corruption of youth by the city. It was the plight of these youth--all too visible to reformers, intellectuals, opinion makers, and trend setters--which set the stage for a child-saving movement during the last century aimed at taking youth off the streets, putting them in schools, stretching out the home-leaving age from 14 to 18, and in general, prolonging a developmental period.

  4. Mapping the Elephants of the 19th Century East African Ivory Trade with a Multi-Isotope Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Thorp, Julia; Collins, Matthew J.; Lane, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    East African elephants have been hunted for their ivory for millennia but the nineteenth century witnessed strongly escalating demand from Europe and North America. It has been suggested that one consequence was that by the 1880s elephant herds along the coast had become scarce, and to meet demand, trade caravans trekked farther into interior regions of East Africa, extending the extraction frontier. The steady decimation of elephant populations coupled with the extension of trade networks have also been claimed to have triggered significant ecological and socio-economic changes that left lasting legacies across the region. To explore the feasibility of using an isotopic approach to uncover a ‘moving frontier’ of elephant extraction, we constructed a baseline isotope data set (δ13C, δ15N, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr) for historic East African elephants known to have come from three distinct regions (coastal, Rift Valley, and inland Lakes). Using the isotope results with other climate data and geographical mapping tools, it was possible to characterise elephants from different habitats across the region. This baseline data set was then used to provenance elephant ivory of unknown geographical provenance that was exported from East Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to determine its likely origin. This produced a better understanding of historic elephant geography in the region, and the data have the potential to be used to provenance older archaeological ivories, and to inform contemporary elephant conservation strategies. PMID:27760152

  5. Digital recovery of 19th century surveys in Tampa Bay, Florida: Topographic charts and Public Land Surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Roy, Laura C.; McIvor, Carole C.; Gleim, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Recovery of historic data to a digital setting adresses the need for data integration through time, bridging technical gaps and differences. The goal of this study was to evaluate a marsh-to-mangrove conversion spanning 125 years and the implications for present coastal-resource management (Yates and others, 2011; Raabe and others, 2012). The U.S. Geological Survey in St. Petersburg, Fla., georectified and digitized 1870s T-sheets at four Tampa Bay locations that still supported coastal wetlands in 2000 (table 1). Nineteenth century Public Land Surveys of Township and Range lines were also digitized for each site, as a secondary data source to verify historic landscape features (table 2).

  6. Modernity in medicine and hygiene at the end of the 19th century: the example of cremation

    PubMed Central

    Porro, Alessandro; Falconi, Bruno; Cristini, Carlo; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia F.

    2012-01-01

    Medicine in the second half of the nineteenth century takes on some characteristics of modernity. These characteristics are worthy of our attention because they help us to understand better some of the current problems of hygiene and public health. One of the topics that was most discussed in the scientific-academic milieu of the second half of the nineteenth century was cremation. There was a poetic precedent: the cremation of Percy Bysse Shelley (1792-1822). The earliest apparatus to completely destroy the corpse was made in Italy and Germany in the 1870s. As far as hygiene was concerned, the reasons for cremation were not to pollute the water-bearing strata and an attempt to streamline the cemetery structure. As in an apparent schizophrenia, scientists of the day worked to both destroy and preserve corpses. There is also the unusual paradox that when the first cremations took place, the corpses were first preserved then to be destroyed later. The catholic world (mainly in Italy) and forensic scientists opposed cremation. It was left to the hygienists to spread the practice of cremation. An analysis of scientific literature shows us that if we leave out the related forensic and ethical problems, recent years have seen attention paid to any harmful emissions from crematoria equipment which have poured into the environment. Another issue is the assessment of inadvertent damage which may be caused by the condition of the corpse. Some topics, however, such as the need for preventive autopsies (first proposed in 1884 in Milan) are still a subject of debate, and seem to pass virtually unchanged from one generation to the next. PMID:25170446

  7. Modernity in medicine and hygiene at the end of the 19th century: the example of cremation.

    PubMed

    Porro, Alessandro; Falconi, Bruno; Cristini, Carlo; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia F

    2012-02-17

    Medicine in the second half of the nineteenth century takes on some characteristics of modernity. These characteristics are worthy of our attention because they help us to understand better some of the current problems of hygiene and public health. One of the topics that was most discussed in the scientific-academic milieu of the second half of the nineteenth century was cremation. There was a poetic precedent: the cremation of Percy Bysse Shelley (1792-1822). The earliest apparatus to completely destroy the corpse was made in Italy and Germany in the 1870s. As far as hygiene was concerned, the reasons for cremation were not to pollute the water-bearing strata and an attempt to streamline the cemetery structure. As in an apparent schizophrenia, scientists of the day worked to both destroy and preserve corpses. There is also the unusual paradox that when the first cremations took place, the corpses were first preserved then to be destroyed later. The catholic world (mainly in Italy) and forensic scientists opposed cremation. It was left to the hygienists to spread the practice of cremation. An analysis of scientific literature shows us that if we leave out the related forensic and ethical problems, recent years have seen attention paid to any harmful emissions from crematoria equipment which have poured into the environment. Another issue is the assessment of inadvertent damage which may be caused by the condition of the corpse. Some topics, however, such as the need for preventive autopsies (first proposed in 1884 in Milan) are still a subject of debate, and seem to pass virtually unchanged from one generation to the next.

  8. Modernity in medicine and hygiene at the end of the 19th century: the example of cremation.

    PubMed

    Porro, Alessandro; Falconi, Bruno; Cristini, Carlo; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia F

    2012-02-17

    Medicine in the second half of the nineteenth century takes on some characteristics of modernity. These characteristics are worthy of our attention because they help us to understand better some of the current problems of hygiene and public health. One of the topics that was most discussed in the scientific-academic milieu of the second half of the nineteenth century was cremation. There was a poetic precedent: the cremation of Percy Bysse Shelley (1792-1822). The earliest apparatus to completely destroy the corpse was made in Italy and Germany in the 1870s. As far as hygiene was concerned, the reasons for cremation were not to pollute the water-bearing strata and an attempt to streamline the cemetery structure. As in an apparent schizophrenia, scientists of the day worked to both destroy and preserve corpses. There is also the unusual paradox that when the first cremations took place, the corpses were first preserved then to be destroyed later. The catholic world (mainly in Italy) and forensic scientists opposed cremation. It was left to the hygienists to spread the practice of cremation. An analysis of scientific literature shows us that if we leave out the related forensic and ethical problems, recent years have seen attention paid to any harmful emissions from crematoria equipment which have poured into the environment. Another issue is the assessment of inadvertent damage which may be caused by the condition of the corpse. Some topics, however, such as the need for preventive autopsies (first proposed in 1884 in Milan) are still a subject of debate, and seem to pass virtually unchanged from one generation to the next. PMID:25170446

  9. From the Island of the Blue Dolphins: A unique 19th century cache feature from San Nicolas Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Thomas-Barnett, Lisa; Vellanoweth, René L.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Muhs, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    A cache feature salvaged from an eroding sea cliff on San Nicolas Island produced two redwood boxes containing more than 200 artifacts of Nicoleño, Native Alaskan, and Euro-American origin. Outside the boxes were four asphaltum-coated baskets, abalone shells, a sandstone dish, and a hafted stone knife. The boxes, made from split redwood planks, contained a variety of artifacts and numerous unmodified bones and teeth from marine mammals, fish, birds, and large land mammals. Nicoleño-style artifacts include 11 knives with redwood handles and stone blades, stone projectile points, steatite ornaments and effigies, a carved stone pipe, abraders and burnishing stones, bird bone whistles, bone and shell pendants, abalone shell dishes, and two unusual barbed shell fishhooks. Artifacts of Native Alaskan style include four bone toggling harpoons, two unilaterally barbed bone harpoon heads, bone harpoon fore-shafts, a ground slate blade, and an adze blade. Objects of Euro-American origin or materials include a brass button, metal harpoon blades, and ten flaked glass bifaces. The contents of the cache feature, dating to the early-to-mid nineteenth century, provide an extraordinary window on a time of European expansion and global economic development that created unique cultural interactions and social transformations.

  10. Agricultural illustrations of 19th century Korea: 'Imwon gyeongjeji' (Treatises on Management of Forest and Garden) by Seo Yugu.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyung-Min

    2011-01-01

    The generative relationship between text and image has long been established. Its structure evolved historically as a result of varying understandings of the functions of art and technology. Agriculture illustration, which emerged in China during the Song dynasty, is a prime example of this creative dialogue in which aspects of both disciplines were combined. Political, technological, and aesthetic concerns informed the reformulations of this new genre. This paper will address agricultural illustrations on nineteenth-century Korea, when notable changes occurred in the visualization of agricultural texts. It will explore changes in the understanding of the roles of agriculture, technology, and labor through an analysis of shifts in modes of illustration and the texts selected. The relationship between technology and visual representations during late Joseon Korea will be contextualized through an exploration of the evolution of technical drawing in East Asia. This paper will suggest that the recognition of imagery's ability to convey textual and technical information provided an important alternative paradigm for the presentation and use of knowledge. PMID:22171414

  11. The role of vertical land movements on late 19th century sea level rise at Cuxhaven, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Jensen, Jürgen; Wahl, Thomas; Dangendorf, Sönke; Hofstede, Jacobus

    2015-04-01

    Tide gauges, located along the world's coastlines, represent one of the most important data sources with information about sea level change back into the 17th century, bridging the gap between paleo proxies and modern remote sensing data sources. While the worldwide coverage of tide gauges has increased considerably since the mid-20th century, there are only a few gauges available providing information about regional sea level changes before 1900. Furthermore, these tide gauge measurements are often contaminated by local vertical land movements (VLM) resulting from tectonic processes or local anthropogenic interventions. Such non-climatic effects need to be removed from the raw data to uncover climate signals, which are important, for instance, for answering the question whether and when sea level started to accelerate from the nearly constant rates over the past 2000 years. Here we focus on one of these long tide gauge records: Cuxhaven, which is located in the German Bight and provides uninterrupted digital time series of tidal high and low water levels since 1843. The record has been extensively studied during the past decades with respect to regional and global sea level rise. However, a question that still remains is the role of local subsidence before 1900 at the lighthouse of Cuxhaven, located close to the tide gauge. In 1855 Lentz installed a granite height mark at the lighthouse, which was later used as a proxy for VLMs of the tide gauge itself. The height of the control mark was derived by a levelling between Hamburg and Cuxhaven. These levellings were repeated five times between 1855 and 1900 and later evaluated by Siefert and Lassen (1985) with respect to the role of local subsidence. Based on a linear regression of individual levellings Siefert and Lassen (1985) concluded that the lighthouse subsided by an average rate of 2.8 mm/yr (1855-1875: 4.2 mm/yr; 1876-1890: 2 mm/yr; 1890-1900: 1.2 mm/yr). However, due to the massive uncertainties of these early

  12. A new database of cloudiness for Italy from instrumental time series since the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, Veronica; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    Italy has a very important role in the development of meteorological observations. Consequently, a heritage of data of enormous value has been accumulated in Italy over the last three centuries. However, only a small fraction of Italian data is available in computer readable form and the available records mainly concern temperature, precipitation and pressure. Within this context, we set up a project to recover as much as possible cloudiness Italian records. The goal is to consider total cloud cover (TCC), low and middle cloud cover, and cloud types. The data source we are using include the former national central office for meteorology (now CRA-CMA), the national air force meteorological and climatological service and some of the oldest Italian observatories as Milan, Rome, Turin and Venice. The database contains sub-daily (from 3 to 8 observations per day for each station) information about TCC but also about the amount and the type of low, middle and high cloud in the sky. The oldest records start at about 1858 and about 30 records start in the 1880s. Currently quality check and test for temporal homogeneity is in progress. Then the monthly records will be completed by means of the neighboring records and averaged in order to get national and regional records for Italy and its main climatic areas. This new dataset will be presented and the results of the first analyses will be discussed. The study of cloudiness records for Italy is important also to better understand the behavior of sunshine duration, which shows a rather peculiar behaviour, especially in northern Italy. In this area, in fact, we observe a statistically significant increasing tendency during the period 1936-2103, that most publications do not report, as a consequence of a strong increase starting from the 1980 and a less evident decrease in the previous period.

  13. Christian Theodor Vaupell, a Danish 19th century naturalist and a pioneering developer of the Quaternary geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J. K.; Helama, S.

    2012-09-01

    Christian Theodor Vaupell (1821-1862) was a Danish scholar with pioneering investigations particularly on the late Quaternary development of bog forests, but also microscopy of plant anatomy and vegetative reproduction. His studies contributed to the early scientific thinking of the Quaternary environmental changes. Before his academic efforts, he had already survived the war between Prussia and Denmark albeit he became severely wounded and his left arm was amputated. The drama of his academic efforts, on the other hand, lies in the more or less suspicious dispute of his first doctoral thesis and his dismissal from the academic world during the following years. At the same time, he earned praise for his first thesis (never accepted as thesis but published as a regular book) from abroad; he was also able to attract private foundations for financial support of his scientific work. Following the enthusiasm of his time, Vaupell became attracted to the pine megafossils known to have been preserved in the bogs in north-west Europe. The megafossils led him to study not only the life systems of the ancient and modern bog forests but also their associations with Earth processes. As an interesting detail of his research, Vaupell made compound interpretations on the occurrence of megafossil stumps and their tree-ring growth patterns. In the course of the 20th century, Vaupell's studies have been cited as a general reference of post-glacial vegetation change and plant succession rather than clearly pioneering investigations of palaeoecology, an angle that we would like put into a contrasting perspective. To do so, we provide a brief portrait of Christian Vaupell and his research career. In conclusion, we wish to emphasize the comprehensiveness of Vaupell's views on the late Quaternary vegetation changes and the role of plant succession in that development.

  14. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired

  15. Correction: Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and east Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Emma L; Jackson, Jennifer A; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time.

  16. Correction: Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and east Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Emma L; Jackson, Jennifer A; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time. PMID:24770341

  17. By their words ye shall know them: Evidence of genetic selection against general intelligence and concurrent environmental enrichment in vocabulary usage since the mid 19th century.

    PubMed

    Menie, Michael A Woodley Of; Fernandes, Heitor B F; José Figueredo, Aurelio; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    It has been theorized that declines in general intelligence (g) due to genetic selection stemming from the inverse association between completed fertility and IQ and the Flynn effect co-occur, with the effects of the latter being concentrated on less heritable non-g sources of intelligence variance. Evidence for this comes from the observation that 19th century populations were more intellectually productive, and also exhibited faster simple reaction times than modern ones, suggesting greater information-processing ability and therefore higher g. This co-occurrence model is tested via examination of historical changes in the utilization frequencies of words from the highly g-loaded WORDSUM test across 5.9 million texts spanning the period 1850-2005. Consistent with predictions, words with higher difficulties (δ parameters from Item Response Theory) and stronger negative correlations between pass rates and completed fertility declined in use over time whereas less difficult and less strongly selected words, increased in use over time, consistent with a Flynn effect stemming in part from the vocabulary enriching effects of increases in population literacy. These findings persisted when explicitly controlled for word age, changing literacy rates and temporal autocorrelation. These trends constitute compelling evidence for the co-occurrence model.

  18. Examining the ground layer of St. Anthony from Padua 19th century oil painting by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vančo, Ľubomír; Kadlečíková, Magdaléna; Breza, Juraj; Čaplovič, Ľubomír; Gregor, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we studied the material composition of the ground layer of a neoclassical painting. We used Raman spectroscopy (RS) as a prime method. Thereafter scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were employed as complementary techniques. The painting inspected was of the side altar in King St. Stephen's Church in Galanta (Slovakia), signed and dated by Jos. Chr. Mayer 1870. Analysis was carried out on both covered and uncovered ground layers. Four principal compounds (barite, lead white, calcite, dolomite) and two minor compounds (sphalerite, quartz) were identified. This ground composition is consistent with the 19th century painting technique used in Central Europe consisting of white pigments and white fillers. Transformation of lead white occurred under laser irradiation. Subdominant Raman peaks of the components were measured. The observed results elucidate useful partnership of RS and SEM-EDS measurements supported by X-ray powder diffraction as well as possibilities and limitations of non-destructive analysis of covered lower layers by RS.

  19. English Translations Of The First Clinical Reports On Narcolepsy And Cataplexy By Westphal And Gélineau In The Late 19th Century, With Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Bassetti, Claudio L.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To publish the first English translations, with commentary, of the original reports describing narcolepsy and cataplexy by Westphal in German (1877) and by Gélineau in French (1880). Methods: A professional translation service translated the 2 reports from either German or French to English, with each translation then being slightly edited by one of the authors. All authors then provided commentary. Results: Both Westphal and Gélineau correctly identified and described the new clinical entities of cataplexy and narcolepsy, with recurrent, self-limited sleep attacks and/or cataplectic attacks affecting 2 otherwise healthy people. Narcolepsy was named by Gélineau (and cataplexy was named by Henneberg in 1916). The evidence in both cases is sufficiently convincing to conclude that they were likely each HLA-DQB1*0602 positive and hypocretin deficient. Conclusions: The original descriptions of narcolepsy and cataplexy are now available in English, allowing for extensive clinical and historical commentary. Citations: Schenck CH; Bassetti CL; Arnulf I et al. English translations of the first clinical reports on narcolepsy and cataplexy by Westphal and Gélineau in the late 19th century, with commentary. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(3):301–311 PMID:17561602

  20. [Medicine and chemistry around the middle of the 19th century in Erlangen. Eugen Franz Freiherr von Gorup-Besanez (1817--1878) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simmer, H H

    1981-07-01

    Eugen Franz Freiherr von Gorup-Besanez, born 1817 in Graz, was appointed on 28. 11. 1846 to the post of lecturer in the faculty of medicine of the University of Erlangen. He had previously studied medicine in Vienna, Padua and Munich, followed by physiological and clinical-chemical studies under Louis Andreas Buchner in Munich, and further studies in organic and analytical chemistry under Friedrich Wöhler in Göttingen. In 1849 in Erlangen he became reader in organic and analytical chemistry, then, in 1855, moved to the faculty of philosophy as professor of chemistry. Von Gorup-Besanez was one of the early representatives of clinical chemistry in Germany. He tried to help clinicians by the analysis of urine, blood and tissues. In his lectures and through his books he was an outstanding teacher. His greatest contribution was the discovery of the amino acid valine. The lack of a laboratory in the medical faculty and his dissatisfaction with what could be achieved in clinical chemistry at that time may chiefly explain his move from the medical to the philosophical faculty. The life of von Gorup-Besanez illustrates the difficulties faced by clinical chemistry and its exponents in the middle of the 19th century. PMID:7035607

  1. [Insanity, life crises and longing for a "real life". On the discussion of deviant behavior and mental disorders in psychiatry of the 19th and 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kanis-Seyfried, Uta

    On insanity, life crises and the longing for a "right life". A contribution to the discussion on the deviant behavior and mental disorders in the psychiatry of the 19th and 20th centuries using the example of patient stories. History of psychiatry, understood as social and cultural history, provides the framework for this micro-historical article. Using the example of three patients treated in Wuerttemberg or Baden psychiatric asylums between 1875 and 1912, the article focuses on the critical analysis of types of asylums, their practices of admissions, therapies and power relations between patients and staff. Ways of thinking and acting, subjective experiences and emotions are exemplified by patient records, personal testimonials and contemporary publications again by patients and staff. The article examines options of patients to influence the institutional daily asylum routine against the background of its complexity and dynamics. Borders, manipulations, malingering and querulous paranoia are at stake here. Furthermore, the article reflects various forms of social interaction with the power regulating therapeutic and disciplinary aspects against the backdrop of the "canons of rules" of the asylum as well as the contemporary political and legal framework.

  2. Structural and behavioural changes in the short term preventive check in the northwest Balkans in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Hammel, E A; Galloway, P R

    2000-03-01

    Fertility responded negatively to grain insufficiency (proxied by grain price increases), and mortality responded positively in Croatia-Slavonia-Srem in the 18th and 19th centuries, as in most of Europe. Shifts in the intensity and timing of these responses occurred over time as social and economic structures changed. Shifts in the elasticity of fertility with respect to grain supply inversely mimic and lag changes in the elasticity of mortality. Both appear to be induced by increasing land shortage, the collapse of feudalism, and differences in the patterns of adjustment to post-feudal conditions among former civil and military serfs. Generally, responses are stronger for civil and former civil serfs, who may have been in less favorable economic circumstances than the military. Fertility responses in the year of a price shock come to dominate those in the year following, suggesting a shift from contraception to abortion as economic and social conditions apparently worsened and strategies of control intensified. Analysis of monthly responses supports the conjecture based on the annual responses. The shift to the preventive check and strength of the preventive check in the same year as the price shock is unusual in Europe and beyond. Analysis is based on 25 parishes and employs lagged annual and monthly time series analysis with corrections for autocorrelation, in combination with ethnographic and historical data.

  3. Understanding Edward Muybridge: historical review of behavioral alterations after a 19th-century head injury and their multifactorial influence on human life and culture.

    PubMed

    Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Alkhachroum, Ayham M; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro

    2015-07-01

    Edward Muybridge was an Anglo-American photographer, well known for his pioneering contributions in photography and his invention of the "zoopraxiscope," a forerunner of motion pictures. However, this 19th-century genius, with two original patents in photographic technology, made outstanding contributions in art and neurology alike, the latter being seldom acknowledged. A head injury that he sustained changed his behavior and artistic expression. The shift of his interests from animal motion photography to human locomotion and gait remains a pivotal milestone in our understanding of patterns in biomechanics and clinical neurology, while his own behavioral patterns, owing to an injury to the orbitofrontal cortex, remain a mystery even for cognitive neurologists. The behavioral changes he exhibited and the legal conundrum that followed, including a murder of which he was acquitted, all depict the complexities of his personality and impact of frontal lobe injuries. This article highlights the life journey of Muybridge, drawing parallels with Phineas Gage, whose penetrating head injury has been studied widely. The wide sojourn of Muybridge also illustrates the strong connections that he maintained with Stanford and Pennsylvania universities, which were later considered pinnacles of higher education on the two coasts of the United States. PMID:26126403

  4. Understanding Edward Muybridge: historical review of behavioral alterations after a 19th-century head injury and their multifactorial influence on human life and culture.

    PubMed

    Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Alkhachroum, Ayham M; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro

    2015-07-01

    Edward Muybridge was an Anglo-American photographer, well known for his pioneering contributions in photography and his invention of the "zoopraxiscope," a forerunner of motion pictures. However, this 19th-century genius, with two original patents in photographic technology, made outstanding contributions in art and neurology alike, the latter being seldom acknowledged. A head injury that he sustained changed his behavior and artistic expression. The shift of his interests from animal motion photography to human locomotion and gait remains a pivotal milestone in our understanding of patterns in biomechanics and clinical neurology, while his own behavioral patterns, owing to an injury to the orbitofrontal cortex, remain a mystery even for cognitive neurologists. The behavioral changes he exhibited and the legal conundrum that followed, including a murder of which he was acquitted, all depict the complexities of his personality and impact of frontal lobe injuries. This article highlights the life journey of Muybridge, drawing parallels with Phineas Gage, whose penetrating head injury has been studied widely. The wide sojourn of Muybridge also illustrates the strong connections that he maintained with Stanford and Pennsylvania universities, which were later considered pinnacles of higher education on the two coasts of the United States.

  5. Non-invasive and non-destructive micro-XRF and micro-Raman analysis of a decorative wallpaper from the beginning of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Pérez-Alonso, Maite; Rodríguez-Laso, María Dolores; Etxebarria, Nestor; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2007-02-01

    Non-destructive and non-invasive micro-Raman fibre optic and micro-XRF analyses were performed to study a wallpaper from the beginning of the 19th century. The complementarity of these two non-destructive techniques is shown in this work. The analysed artwork is considered one of the most beautiful wallpapers ever manufactured according to the catalogues and books; it is known as Chasse de Compiègne, manufactured by Jacquemart, Paris, in 1812. During the analysis, an unexpected pigment was detected by both analytical techniques: lead-tin yellow type II. This pigment was used until ca. 1750, when other yellow pigments replaced it, thus it is very difficult to find it in paintings afterwards. Together with this pigment, red lead, Prussian blue, brochantite, yellow iron oxide, calcium carbonate, vermilion, carbon black of animal origin (bone black), lead white, and raw and burnt sienna were also determined by combining the analytical information provided by both techniques. A possible degradation of brochantite to antlerite is also discussed.

  6. Broken ribs: paleopathological analysis of costal fractures in the human identified skeletal collection from the Museu Bocage, Lisbon, Portugal (late 19th to middle 20th centuries).

    PubMed

    Matos, Vítor

    2009-09-01

    Although rarely reported in the anthropological literature, rib fractures are commonly found during the analysis of human skeletal remains of past and modern populations. This lack of published data precludes comparison between studies and restricts an accurate understanding either of the mechanisms involved in thoracic injuries or their impact on past societies. The present study aimed: 1) to report rib fracture prevalence in 197 individuals, 109 males, and 88 females, with ages at death ranging from 13 to 88 years old, from the Human Identified Skeletal Collection, Museu Bocage, Portugal (late 19th-middle 20th centuries); 2) to test the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of rib stress fractures existed in the 133 individuals who died from respiratory diseases, in a period before antibiotics. The macroscopic analysis revealed 23.9% (n = 47) of individuals with broken ribs. 2.6% (n = 124) out of 4,726 ribs observed were affected. Males presented more rib fractures, and a significantly higher prevalence was noted for older individuals. Fractures were more frequently unilateral (n = 34), left sided (n = 19) and mainly located on the shaft of ribs from the middle thoracic wall. Nineteen individuals presented adjacent fractured ribs. Individuals who died from pulmonary diseases were not preferentially affected. However, a higher mean rate of fractures was found in those who died from pneumonia, a scenario still common nowadays. Since rib involvement in chest wall injury and its related outcomes are important issues both for paleopathology and forensic anthropology, further investigations are warranted.

  7. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation.

  8. By their words ye shall know them: Evidence of genetic selection against general intelligence and concurrent environmental enrichment in vocabulary usage since the mid 19th century

    PubMed Central

    Menie, Michael A. Woodley of; Fernandes, Heitor B. F.; José Figueredo, Aurelio; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    It has been theorized that declines in general intelligence (g) due to genetic selection stemming from the inverse association between completed fertility and IQ and the Flynn effect co-occur, with the effects of the latter being concentrated on less heritable non-g sources of intelligence variance. Evidence for this comes from the observation that 19th century populations were more intellectually productive, and also exhibited faster simple reaction times than modern ones, suggesting greater information-processing ability and therefore higher g. This co-occurrence model is tested via examination of historical changes in the utilization frequencies of words from the highly g-loaded WORDSUM test across 5.9 million texts spanning the period 1850–2005. Consistent with predictions, words with higher difficulties (δ parameters from Item Response Theory) and stronger negative correlations between pass rates and completed fertility declined in use over time whereas less difficult and less strongly selected words, increased in use over time, consistent with a Flynn effect stemming in part from the vocabulary enriching effects of increases in population literacy. These findings persisted when explicitly controlled for word age, changing literacy rates and temporal autocorrelation. These trends constitute compelling evidence for the co-occurrence model. PMID:25954211

  9. [Medicine and chemistry around the middle of the 19th century in Erlangen. Eugen Franz Freiherr von Gorup-Besanez (1817--1878) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simmer, H H

    1981-07-01

    Eugen Franz Freiherr von Gorup-Besanez, born 1817 in Graz, was appointed on 28. 11. 1846 to the post of lecturer in the faculty of medicine of the University of Erlangen. He had previously studied medicine in Vienna, Padua and Munich, followed by physiological and clinical-chemical studies under Louis Andreas Buchner in Munich, and further studies in organic and analytical chemistry under Friedrich Wöhler in Göttingen. In 1849 in Erlangen he became reader in organic and analytical chemistry, then, in 1855, moved to the faculty of philosophy as professor of chemistry. Von Gorup-Besanez was one of the early representatives of clinical chemistry in Germany. He tried to help clinicians by the analysis of urine, blood and tissues. In his lectures and through his books he was an outstanding teacher. His greatest contribution was the discovery of the amino acid valine. The lack of a laboratory in the medical faculty and his dissatisfaction with what could be achieved in clinical chemistry at that time may chiefly explain his move from the medical to the philosophical faculty. The life of von Gorup-Besanez illustrates the difficulties faced by clinical chemistry and its exponents in the middle of the 19th century.

  10. Height as an indicator of economic status in the Polish territories under Russian rule at the turn of the 19th to 20th century.

    PubMed

    Czapla, Zbigniew; Liczbińska, Grażyna

    2014-09-01

    Height is regarded as one of the indicators of environmental stress at population level, being an excellent barometer of standard of living. The aim of this study was to describe diversity in height among populations living in different regions of the Kingdom of Poland in terms of the economic factors in the second half of the 19th and early 20th century. This study examines the height of adult inhabitants from five guberniyas (provinces) of the Kingdom of Poland (Łomża, Warsaw, Radom, Kalisz and Płock) collected in the years 1897-1914 (N = 732 men, N = 569 women). Differences in average height of male and female inhabitants across the five guberniyas were examined using ANOVA and the Fisher's LSD (Least Significant Difference) test of multiple comparisons. Statistically significant differences in the height between the guberniyas were observed. Diversity in the economic development in the studied guberniyas of the Kingdom of Poland translated into differences in the height of their inhabitants. Moreover, an increase in mean height over time was noted. PMID:24041152

  11. [Insanity, life crises and longing for a "real life". On the discussion of deviant behavior and mental disorders in psychiatry of the 19th and 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kanis-Seyfried, Uta

    On insanity, life crises and the longing for a "right life". A contribution to the discussion on the deviant behavior and mental disorders in the psychiatry of the 19th and 20th centuries using the example of patient stories. History of psychiatry, understood as social and cultural history, provides the framework for this micro-historical article. Using the example of three patients treated in Wuerttemberg or Baden psychiatric asylums between 1875 and 1912, the article focuses on the critical analysis of types of asylums, their practices of admissions, therapies and power relations between patients and staff. Ways of thinking and acting, subjective experiences and emotions are exemplified by patient records, personal testimonials and contemporary publications again by patients and staff. The article examines options of patients to influence the institutional daily asylum routine against the background of its complexity and dynamics. Borders, manipulations, malingering and querulous paranoia are at stake here. Furthermore, the article reflects various forms of social interaction with the power regulating therapeutic and disciplinary aspects against the backdrop of the "canons of rules" of the asylum as well as the contemporary political and legal framework. PMID:27501548

  12. "Do Not Turn a Deaf Ear or a Blind Eye on Me, as I Am Your Son": New Conceptions of Childhood and Parenthood in 18th- and 19th-Century Jewish Letter-Writing Manuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogman, Tal

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the cultural functions of Hebrew letter-writing manuals published in German-speaking countries in the 18th and 19th centuries, aimed at young people. I argue that these books, which were used frequently as textbooks for studying Hebrew writing, conveyed modern ideological values and at the same time corresponded to the…

  13. Nineteenth-Century American and British Poets on Columbus: A Twentieth-Century View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Anita G.

    In the 19th century alone, Christopher Columbus was the subject of hundreds of poems that rarely questioned his voyage, his methods, or his place in human history. However, the scholarly work and political realities of the 20th century have undermined the noble, heroic visions conveyed by the poets. Modern readers/students have a dual duty to…

  14. [Historical sketch of modern pharmaceutical science and technology (Part 3). From the second half of the 19th century to World War II].

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, K

    1995-01-01

    The history of modern pharmaceutical science and technology, from the second half of the 19th century to the end of World War II, is divided into nine sections for the purpose of discussion. 1. The European medical and pharmaceutical science and technology at the end of the 19th century is reviewed. Pharmacology, bacteriology and biochemistry were built in this period. 2. The Meiji Government accepted Western medicine and medical law and regulations in 1883. Consequently, the Japanese physician changed from Eastern (Kanpooi) to Western (Seiyooi). 3. Modern scientific and engineering education had been accepted in America, England, Germany, and France etc. Foreign scientists and engineers (Oyatoi-gai-kokujin) were educated by practice and theory. The Faculty of Engineering was established in the universities in Japan. This fact is one of the differences in the history of universities in Europe and America. 4. Pharmaceutical education in the Meiji period (1873-1911). Twenty-nine schools of pharmacy were built in this period. However, 20 schools of pharmacy had been closed. Pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry was not established in the Meiji era. 5. The profession of pharmacist in 1873-1944. The policy of medicine was changed by the Meiji Government in 1889, when Western physicians were allowed to prepare medicines for patients, and this practice continues today. Political and technological power of Japanese pharmacists was weak, so their role was not estimated. 6. Consequences of world War I, and the establishment of the pharmaceutical industry. The Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) and Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) were won fortunately. The first pharmaceutical company was established in 1885. At this times, many pharmaceutical manufacturing companies, which were converted from whole sale merchants, were built. Then started the manufacturing of commercial drugs. 7. Hygienic chemistry and some problems of public hygiene. The causes of diseses unique to Japan, such as

  15. [Historical sketch of modern pharmaceutical science and technology (Part 3). From the second half of the 19th century to World War II].

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, K

    1995-01-01

    The history of modern pharmaceutical science and technology, from the second half of the 19th century to the end of World War II, is divided into nine sections for the purpose of discussion. 1. The European medical and pharmaceutical science and technology at the end of the 19th century is reviewed. Pharmacology, bacteriology and biochemistry were built in this period. 2. The Meiji Government accepted Western medicine and medical law and regulations in 1883. Consequently, the Japanese physician changed from Eastern (Kanpooi) to Western (Seiyooi). 3. Modern scientific and engineering education had been accepted in America, England, Germany, and France etc. Foreign scientists and engineers (Oyatoi-gai-kokujin) were educated by practice and theory. The Faculty of Engineering was established in the universities in Japan. This fact is one of the differences in the history of universities in Europe and America. 4. Pharmaceutical education in the Meiji period (1873-1911). Twenty-nine schools of pharmacy were built in this period. However, 20 schools of pharmacy had been closed. Pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry was not established in the Meiji era. 5. The profession of pharmacist in 1873-1944. The policy of medicine was changed by the Meiji Government in 1889, when Western physicians were allowed to prepare medicines for patients, and this practice continues today. Political and technological power of Japanese pharmacists was weak, so their role was not estimated. 6. Consequences of world War I, and the establishment of the pharmaceutical industry. The Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) and Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) were won fortunately. The first pharmaceutical company was established in 1885. At this times, many pharmaceutical manufacturing companies, which were converted from whole sale merchants, were built. Then started the manufacturing of commercial drugs. 7. Hygienic chemistry and some problems of public hygiene. The causes of diseses unique to Japan, such as

  16. The Visual Difficulties of Selected Artists and Limitations of Ophthalmological Care During The 19th and Early 20th Centuries (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Ravin, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of eye diseases on several important artists who have been given little attention from a medical-historical viewpoint. The examples chosen demonstrate problems artists have had to face from different types of eye disease, including cataract, glaucoma, and retinal diseases. The ophthalmological care provided is described in terms of scientific knowledge at the time. Methods Investigation of primary and secondary source material. Discussion with art historians and ophthalmic historians. Examination of work by the artists. Results Artists can be markedly affected by ocular diseases that change their ability to see the world. The individuals described here worked during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Homer Martin suffered from cataracts, and his works reveal changes in details and color as he aged. Henri Harpignies, who had an extremely long career, undoubtedly had cataracts and may also have had macular degeneration. Angle-closure glaucoma blinded Jules Chéret. Auguste Ravier suffered from neovascular glaucoma in one eye and was able to work with his remaining eye, which developed a cataract. Louis Valtat suffered from what was in all likelihood open-angle glaucoma, but specific changes due to this disease are not apparent in his work. Roger Bissière developed glaucoma and did well following filtration surgery. George Du Maurier lost one eye from what was probably a retinal detachment and later suffered from a central retinal problem in the other eye. Conclusions Diseases of the eye may profoundly influence artists by altering their perception of the world. The specific effects may vary, depending on the disease, its severity, and the psychology of the artist. Cataracts typically affect an artist’s ability to depict color and detail. The effect of glaucoma generally depends on whether central vision is preserved. Disease that affects the center of the retina has a substantial effect on an artist’s ability

  17. [L'image de la posture--l'image du mouvement: on the relationship between orthopaedic and neurological forms of representation in 19th century clinical photography].

    PubMed

    Stahnisch, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The question of how medicine represents and documents malfunctions and deviances of human posture and movement is intrinsically linked to the problem of how those occurrences, which can be seen as the end result of medical treatment and manipulations, could be identified and classified. In fact, the relation of posture and movement is reciprocally interconnected: The "normality" of either state cannot be established or clinically reproduced without knowledge of the other. Both conditions of posture and movement serve as reference points for each other and help to distinguish between the dynamics of physiology and illness over the course of time. It is therefore understandable that orthopaedic surgeons and neurologists in particular, with a deeper interest in orthopaedic applications, were crucially involved in the collection of special cases of posture and movement disorders from their clinical experience. Not simply for didactic purposes, but likewise for the benefit of documenting their own treatment success, they strove to accurately depict severe cases of posture and movement disorders with the new visualization technique of photography. Clinical photography's allegedly "realistic capacity of representation" predestined the new method for capturing long-term processes of illness and therapy in collections of serial images. However, the very early clinical photographs of the 19th century had their origins rather in areas of psychiatric and neurological uses, and it was not until much later that clinical photography made its way into the surgical and orthopaedic fields of medicine. This article scrutinizes some of the intricate relations, which can be found in the neurological and orthopaedic representations of posture and movement as depicted in early clinical photography.

  18. A model for the 19th century eruption of Eta Carinae: CSM interaction like a scaled-down Type IIn Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a simple model for the 19th century eruption of Eta Carinae that consists of two components: (1) a strong wind (dot{M}=0.33 M_{{odot }} yr-1; v∞ = 200 km s-1), blowing for 30 yr, followed by (2) a 1050 erg explosion (10 M⊙; 750-1000 km s-1) occurring in 1844. The ensuing collision between the fast ejecta and the dense circumstellar material (CSM) causes an increase in brightness observed at the end of 1844, followed by a sustained high-luminosity phase lasting for 10-15 yr that provides a close match to the observed historical light curve. The emergent luminosity is powered by converting kinetic energy to radiation through CSM interaction, analogous to the process occurring in more luminous Type IIn supernovae, except with ˜10 times lower explosion energy and at slower speeds (causing a longer duration and lower emergent luminosity). We demonstrate that such an explosive event not only provides a natural explanation for the light-curve evolution, but also accounts for a number of puzzling attributes of the highly scrutinized Homunculus, including: (1) rough equipartition of total radiated and kinetic energy in the event, (2) the double-shell structure of the Homunculus, with a thin massive outer shell (corresponding to the coasting cold dense shell) and a thicker inner layer (between the cold dense shell and the reverse shock), (3) the apparent single age and Hubble-like flow of the Homunculus resulting from the thin swept-up shell, (4) the complex mottled appearance of the polar lobes in Hubble Space Telescope images, arising naturally from Raleigh-Taylor or Vishniac instabilities at the contact discontinuity of the shock, (5) efficient and rapid dust formation, which has been observed in the post-shock zones of Type IIn supernovae, and (6) the fast (3000-5000 km s-1) material outside the Homunculus, arising from the acceleration of the forward shock upon exiting the dense CSM. In principle, the bipolar shape could be explained borrowing

  19. Fram Strait ice export during the 19th and 20th centuries reconstructed from a multi-year sea-ice index from Southwestern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmith, T.; Hansen, C.

    2003-04-01

    Historical observations of multi-year ice, called 'Storis', in the Southwest Greenland waters exist from the period 1820-2000, obtained from ships logbooks and ice charts. It is argued that this ice originates in the Arctic Ocean and has travelled via the Fram Strait, southward along the Greenland coast in the East Greenland Current and around the southern tip of Greenland. Therefore, it is hypothesised that these observations can be used as 'proxies' for reconstructing the Fram Strait ice export on an annual basis. An index describing the Storis extent is extracted from the observations and a linear statistical model formulated relating this index to the Fram Strait ice export. The model is calibrated using ice export values from a hindcast study with a coupled ocean-ice model over the period 1949-1998. Subsequently, the model is used to reconstruct the Fram Strait annual ice export in the period 1820-2000. The model has significant skill, calculated on independent data. Based on this reconstruction, it is discussed how time periods with large and small ice export on multidecadal time scale coincide with time periods of cold and warm North Atlantic sea surface temperatures reported by others. This implies that trend studies based on satellite observations should be regarded with some care, since the time period of satellite observations, the last decades, where a particularly strong negative trend is observed in the ice export is preceded by a time period with a positive trend. The occurrence of 'Great salinity anomalies' (GSA's) are also connected to the multidecadal variability. The GSA's observed in Greenland waters around 1968-1970 and 1980-1982 both occurred when the general level of ice export was high. Prior to these there was a long period with generally low ice export and no GSA's but during an epoch around the turn of the 19th century several GSA's occurred. Finally, it is found that the correlation between the Fram Strait ice export and the NAO index

  20. [The Library of Medicine of Córdoba, witness and protagonist of knowledge from the end of the 19th Century to the beginning of 21st Century].

    PubMed

    Graciela Cañete, M

    2004-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, was founded the Medicine's Library of the National University Faculty of Medicine, center of knowledge, new ideas and teaching. The history library sector hold the valuable inheritance that represent the collection of Teachers Doctors, Pablo Mirizzi, Temístocles Castellano, Pedro Ara, José F. Verna, Juan Martín Allende located with the books and thesis of the XIX century and beginning of XX century. In 1986 it integrates the National Health Science Information Network and also, the Latino American and the Caribbean Health Science Information Network. The health libraries are in front of a new paradigm. The technologies of information and communication require new methods for administration of the information's resources and services, to answer the society information needs in the knowledge age. The traditional and virtual library is one unit that complement sources in different supports, electronic publications and interactive networks. It is the nexus between the scientific inheritance and the society, and it's mission is: Give local and virtual information's services and management the information's resources, basis of the knowledge society, support of teaching, investigation and extension of the Medical Sciences Faculty of the Córdoba National University. PMID:16211994

  1. Aspects of public health within accreditation of public healthcare management specialists in ukraine and russia in the late 18th - early 19th century (dedicated to the 250th anniversary of a prominent professor Mukhin E.O.).

    PubMed

    Grinzovsky, A M

    2016-01-01

    Public healthcare management and supply of qualified medical personnel attained state significance in the early 19th century, the issue to be regulated by special and general law regulations. Public health promotion was the duty of medical authorities, which required professional training in this branch. The article contains the requirements for the employers' knowledge and skills in the mentioned area of medicine. The author reveals the main questions which medical authorities were concerned with and the main requirements for academic examinations. PMID:27487554

  2. Geodiversity and biodiversity interactions in the sand landscapes of the Netherlands on 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter; van den Ancker, Hanneke

    2014-05-01

    Sand landscapes occupy about half of the territory of the Netherlands. Apart from an insignificant amount of Tertiary deposits, these sands are of Pleistocene and Holocene age. They include Saalian push moraines, Weichselian cover sands and Holocene drift sands. To these geological landscapes, cultural variants should be added such as the essen, i.e. a landscape with plaggen soils, and reclaimed lands (e.g. former moors). Not included are the coastal sands, which we dealt with in an earlier EGU contribution (van den Ancker & Jungerius 2012). Nature and man created a wide variety of sceneries that inspired painters in the 19th and early 20th century (Jungerius et al. 2012). Painter communities on the sandy soils flourished in Oosterbeek/Wolfheze, Laren/Blaricum, Nijkerk, Nunspeet/Elspeet, Hattem and Heeze. Many of the landscape paintings are found in the database of Simonis en Buunk that can be freely consulted on line (http//www.simonis&buunk.com). For this presentation we selected specimens that show geodiversity-biodiversity relationships, some of which have changed since. Painters of push moraines were attracted by the rolling terrain, the dry valleys and occasionally the colourful podzol soil profiles. Popular themes in the cover sands were the undulating relief and heathlands with herds of sheep, sandy footpaths and country roads with erosion phenomena. The dynamics of erosion captivated the painters of Holocene drift sand scenery, as did the bare fields of cultivated lands. Their paintings show the rural areas that since the beginning of the 20th century lost their traditional charm in large-scale re-allotment schemes and artificial nature-building project, that changed geodiversity-biodiversity relationships. Changes in the sandy terrains that can be inferred from the paintings are on a landscape scale, the scale of the landform and vegetation type, and are illustrated by changes in colour, pattern, structure and texture. Examples are: · active drift sands

  3. A comparison between the 19th century early proposals and the 20th-21st centuries realized projects intended to contact other planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence; Bilodeau, Bénédicte

    2012-09-01

    Methods dealing with how to contact other planets that are supposed to be inhabited by “intelligent” civilizations have begun more than one century and a half ago. The historical question has been already treated in several studies and the aim of this paper is not to provide details on that aspect. On the other hand, it could be interesting to make a comparison between the different approaches to contact planets, formulated at different epochs (even if obviously techniques were not in the same state of advancement). The most important characteristics of the earliest messages, remained only on a theoretical form, will be presented. The main features of modern messages, which have been concretely realized, will also be emphasized. Drawing a parallel between these two series of projects could demonstrate what has been considered as unavoidable by both pioneer and modern messages creators, while it has not been proved that the first ones have had any influence on the second ones. The common points emerging from this comparison could then (perhaps) help to select adequate models for an intelligible message intended to ETs, particularly concerning the language forms. Besides this, the differences could illustrate the human cultural advances in the field of METI and underline the tendencies that have been chosen in that field since the last decades.

  4. [The patent of Dr. Thibert: models of organs and his secret modeling at the beginning of the 19th century. Analysis of the stomach model (a8n°8) at the Conservatory of Montpellier].

    PubMed

    Noirot, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    In the early 19th century, Dr. Thibert discovered a process to overcome the difficulties of casting soft and moist organs. However, the analysis of a stomach made by Thibert reveals a modeling, changing the strict mechanical objectivity of the cast. This modeling inside the cast named "reparation" structures the illusionism of this cast. The scientific and artistic aspect of this study is to establish the typology of a secret modeling. This last one is the inheritance of the tricks of the mediocritas: between material and matter, so valuable for the goldsmiths of the 16th century.

  5. [Modern medicine environment and adaptation of Korean trader for medicinal herbs from the late 19th century to the early 20th century].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeongpil

    2006-12-01

    Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One

  6. [Problems arising from the professionalization of nursing in the German Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century compared to the USA. A contribution to the current discussion].

    PubMed

    Hähner-Rombach, Sylvelyn

    2012-01-01

    The process of professionalization in Germany was hindered by several factors: the tradition of denominational nursing, the increasing segregation in the field of nursing, the resistance against nurses' professionalization, the late and sporadic institutionalization of nursing schools, and the classification of nursing as "ärztlicher Heilhilfsberuf". On the basis of these five influencing factors this paper will discuss the development in Germany in comparison to the USA at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The aim is to explain the differences in the process of professionalization in the German Reich and the USA which are rooted in that period.

  7. Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

    2013-04-01

    landscapes, characterized by deflation plains (gleyic arenosols) and complexes of inland dunes (haplic arenosols). Clear cutting was responsible for the mediaeval first large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. In such driftsand landscapes, the majority of the podzolic soils in coversand has been truncated by aeolian erosion. Only on scattered sheltered sites in the landscape, palaeopodzols were buried under mono or polycyclic driftsand deposits. They are now the valuable soil archives for palaeoecological research. During the 18th century, the population growth and regional economic activity stimulated the agricultural productivity. Farmers introduced the innovative 'deep stable' technique to increase the production of fertilizers. Farmers started sod digging, including the top of the Ah horizon of the humus forms. This consequently promoted heath degradation and sand drifting, resulting in the extension of driftsand landscapes. Deep stable economy and sod digging was responsible for the 18th century second large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. During the 19th century, farmers tried to find alternative fertilizers and authorities initiated reforestation projects. The invention of chemical fertilizers at the end of the 19th century marked the end of the period of heath management and plaggic agriculture. The heath was no longer used for the harvesting of plaggic matter and new land management practices were introduced. Heath was reclaimed to new arable land or reforested with Scotch pine. Geomorphological features as inland dunes and plaggic covers survived in the landscape and are now included in the geological inheritance.

  8. [Changes of medico-pharmaceutical profession and private practice from the late 19th century to the early 20th century: ebb and flow of western pharmacies and clinics attached to pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Lee, Heung-Ki

    2010-12-31

    This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers.Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical

  9. The Impacts of Advancing Glaciers and Jökulhlaups on the 19th Century Farming Community in the Suðursveit District South of Vatnajökull Glacier, Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurmundsson, F. S.; Gísladóttir, G.; Erlendsson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Few areas in Iceland were as vulnerable to climate changes during the 19th century as the region south of Vatnajökull glacier. The region was repeatedly affected by glacier advance and jökulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) during the Little Ice Age AD 1300-1900 (LIA). The land area between the glacier and the coast was occupied by farming community. The aim of this research is to quantify and map the size of lost vegetated area in the 19th century during the glacial advance in the climax of the LIA and the impact these events had on the community, land-use, ownership, value of estates and livelihood. This research employs historical written sources to investigate changes in the cultural and natural landscape. Historical data and field observations will be collected and stored in a GIS database designed for the research, allowing data to be analyzed and presented on maps. The first recorded impact on the settlement is from 1794 when the Breiðármerkurjökull outlet glacier advanced and devastated pastures and crofts belonging in west of the district. Seventy five years later, in 1868, the largest estate was completely destroyed by a jökulhlaup. In 1829 a farm site in the middle of the district was moved due to repeated jökulhlaup. The outlet glacier Brókarjökull initiated annual jökulhlaups during 1820 -1870, devastating pastures and hayfields and woodlands of a total of 3 prominent estates in the area (by 1200 ha), causing devaluation of 33-66% on these estates. In the eastern part extensive jökulhlaups changed the glacial river channel causing the river to flow over vast area devastating 80 % of the eastern most estate causing its abandonment in 1892. The climate change and accompanied hazards during the 19th century changed the landscape of the Suðursveit district significantly. By the turn of the 20thcentury the vegetated land in the district had been reduced by 35% and areas of sediments increased by 25% and glaciated area increased by 10%. These

  10. The identification of the pigments used to paint statues of Feixiange Cliff in China in late 19th century by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Pu-jun; Huang, Wei; Jianhua-Wang; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiao-ling

    2010-11-01

    The application of micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to the research of pigments collected from Statues of Feixiange Cliff No. 67 and No. 69 niche of Tang Dynasty in China is reported. Five kinds of pigments were found in the experimental data, including black (carbon), white (gypsum + quartz), blue (lapis lazuli) and green (Paris green + Barium sulphate). After synthesized in 1814, Paris green was reported for a large import as a light and bright green pigment to paint architectures in China from the late 19th century. The analyzed blue pigment demonstrated the similar Raman spectra to the Lâjvardina blue glazed ceramics, which indicated lapis lazuli was an artificial product. This confirmed the painting of Feixiange Cliff in the early Republic of China as the historical record, and also reveals that some pigments were imported from abroad.

  11. On the Shoulders of Giants: From Boole to Shannon to Taube: The Origins and Development of Computerized Information from the Mid-19th Century to the Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the evolution of computerized information storage and retrieval from its mid-nineteenth century beginnings in theoretical works on logic by George Boole, to the applications of Boole's logic to switching circuits by Claude Shannon in the 1930s, to the development of coordinate indexing by Mortimer Taube in the 1940s and 1950s. (Contains…

  12. [Antônio Moniz de Souza, the 'Man of Brazilian Nature': science and medicinal plants in the early 19th century].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Laura Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Early nineteenth century Brazil saw a vibrant movement to study nature, including a number of expeditions aimed at gathering a corpus of knowledge on Brazilian flora. One of the main goals of these expeditions was to map and identify plant species of economic and therapeutic value. The government undertook and sponsored various initiatives, and it was within this context that the Bahian voyager Antônio Moniz de Souza engaged in his activities. He traveled through areas of the Brazilian territory in the first decades of the nineteenth century, observing, cataloging, and collecting products from the three kingdoms, especially plants with medicinal powers. This study of Moniz de Souza pinpoints and analyzes important features in the exploration of nature and knowledge and the use of medicinal plants during this timeframe.

  13. [Migrants' masculinity and health. Taking care for one's health and coping with sickness of German migrants in the US in 19th and early 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Gründler, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In 19. and early 20. centuries several million emigrants from German speaking countries entered the United States of America. How migrants coped with sickness, how they preserved their health and to which ressources and institutions of help they had access is yet an academic void. Using Ego-documents--letters, autobiographic texts and diaries--of near-illiterate men this paper will analyse 'healthy lifestyles' and practices of coping with sickness and contrast them with recent research findings in the field of 'mens' health'. Thereby the recent concept of ,male health-idiots' will be challenged in historical perspective. PMID:26219190

  14. [Portable pharmacies during the 19th century, starting from the example of Reichard' pharmacy in his guided for travelers in Europe (1805)].

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    The portable pharmacy of Reichard, in his 1805 Guide for travelers in Europe is an example among others of a growing determination to answer the needs of the people to have access to drugs even in absence of health care professionals. One can observe the ultimate result by looking at portable pharmacies offered for sale by companies such as Menier and Pharmacie Centrale de France, but also by individual pharmacists. In spite of favorable changes of health care in all countries during the XXe century, portable pharmacy and kits are still widely proposed for sale, on Internet for example, for frequent diseases, including for pets!

  15. [Migrants' masculinity and health. Taking care for one's health and coping with sickness of German migrants in the US in 19th and early 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Gründler, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In 19. and early 20. centuries several million emigrants from German speaking countries entered the United States of America. How migrants coped with sickness, how they preserved their health and to which ressources and institutions of help they had access is yet an academic void. Using Ego-documents--letters, autobiographic texts and diaries--of near-illiterate men this paper will analyse 'healthy lifestyles' and practices of coping with sickness and contrast them with recent research findings in the field of 'mens' health'. Thereby the recent concept of ,male health-idiots' will be challenged in historical perspective.

  16. [Geriatrics from the 19th to the 21st century. 150 years of geriatric medicine: from increasing life expectancy to improving quality of life for the very old].

    PubMed

    Federspiel C; Keipes M

    2014-01-01

    With the world further aging, geriatric medicine clearly became a necessity: in the 21th century many more people reach older ages by means of continued medical success in expanding lifespan. 150 years ago life expectancy was between 30 to 40 years, but today close to 800 million people are 60 yeas old or more. During the last century aging has been associated with decline and decay, but gradually more people lived ably and healthily in older ages. The expansion in life expectancy has become a synchronism of quality of life: the average 65 year old today is much healthier, physically and mentally fitter, than the average 50 year old 150 years ago, when Alois Alzheimer war born, a period when most nowadays existing geriatric institutions were envisioned and progressively realized over time. Today we strongly believe that a healthy life and, equally, the quality of life of the very old people can be extended with presently existing medical knowledge, based on research, environmental and behavioural changes, by postponing the onset and progression of fatal and disabling diseases and disorders. But very soon ethical considerations concerning all kinds of medical and technological solutions available to maintain or even improve the mental and physical functioning of dependant elderly people will engage our society when deciding how and at what moment in time to make the best decisions and allocate resources. Geriatric medicine will be further challenged by competing and demanding medical and economic needs, when marshalling resources to meet the growing demands of our society for improving care for the very old and often demented adult.

  17. Comparison of 19th century ship log wind data and adjoining land-based Royal Observatory data (1843 to 1855): Spot the difference?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Alexa; Lennard, Chris; Grab, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Historical weather and climate data are essential for the establishment of long-term climate patterns and future projections. For South Africa, where there is a paucity of such long-term climate data, it undermines the ability to establish climate changes and variability over longer periods of the past few centuries. Consequently, analyses of climate change in the region have relied on relatively poor resolution proxy records. Yet, the recently discovered instrumental meteorological records of the Royal Astronomical Observatory in Cape Town provides South Africa's (and possibly the southern hemisphere's) longest continuous time series of daily recorded weather measurements, including temperature, rainfall, barometric pressure and wind (1835 to present). Wind specifically is a reliable indicator of dynamic atmospheric circulation and lends supporting data for understanding the Mediterranean climate of the region. This project has manually digitized, pre-processed and validated wind data from the earliest records by comparing these data with the only other known wind data for that time in the region - namely ship log data. Ship log data, recovered and digitized by the CLIWOC project, are used for statistical correlation (using wavelet query analysis) and trend analysis for the period 1843 to 1855. Both data sources indicate the same general wind climatological trends. The similarly decreasing trend in average wind velocity over the time period investigated, suggests that the data have been adequately captured and that ship log data are representative of adjoining land-based synoptic conditions. It is hoped that short term cyclic/extreme events can be extracted using a wavelet query analysis by correlating the data at various time steps. Differences in the timing of recordings and spatial scales between data sets present challenges for such a comparison. This work is part of a larger digitization project which is analysing Cape instrumental and documentary weather

  18. [From the creation of the Veterinary Schools to the evolution of the notion of contagion in the 19th and 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Pilet, Charles

    2012-05-01

    The creation of the Veterinary Schools in the 18th century would reveal a plethora of scientists, some of whom would be the precursors of Pasteur, some rivals, others followers collaborators or friends of the Master. Among the precursors let us name Chabbert, Huzard, Girard, Delafond, Renault, Toussaint, Galtier ; among the rivals: Chauveau, Arloing, Cornevin and Thomas; among the followers, collaborators or friends of Pasteur: Bouley, at first a resolute spontaneist, then the most fervent in defense of Pasteur (President of the Academy of Medicine and of the Academy of Sciences) and Nocard, Director of the School in Alfort, an important collaborator of Pasteur. Later, there was Leclainche, who created the International Office of Epizootics, and who was President of the Academy of Sciences; Guérin, who with Calmette developed the BCG vaccination; Ramon, the father of anatoxins (vaccines against diphtheria, and tetanus, combined vaccines, adjuvants to immunity). Thus, the creation of the Veterinary Schools contributed not only to the evolution of the notion of contagion, to the amelioration of animal health and the economics of agricultural production, but also to serious advances in human care, and to the protection of public health.

  19. A consistent course of events or a series of coincidences: nursing in Poland from the 19(th) to the 21(st) century.

    PubMed

    Majda, Anna; Ziarko, Ewa; Zalewska-Puchała, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    The development of nursing began in Poland much later than it did elsewhere, for instance in the United Kingdom, the United States, or Germany, and it came up against difficult conditions. After a brief twenty-year period of development between 1918 and 1939, it almost stalled during the war (1939-45), only to be followed by nearly twenty years of chaos. Nursing started to come out of this difficult period at the beginning of the 1960s. The turn of the 21st century saw the emergence of extensive professional development and training opportunities for nurses. This change was brought about as much by political, social and economic issues, health care requirements, and the advancement of science, medicine, the birth of humanitarism, the growth of the feminist movement, the European Agreement on the Instruction and Education of Nurses, the WHO European Strategy for Nursing and Midwifery Education, the Bologna declaration, as well as the activities undertaken by the European Union, the International Council of Nurses, the American and Polish Red Cross, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Polish Association of Nurses, and the professional self-governing body. The transformation of nursing into an independent profession was further boosted by physicians deeply involved in the issue and female pioneers of nursing. PMID:26109382

  20. A consistent course of events or a series of coincidences: nursing in Poland from the 19(th) to the 21(st) century.

    PubMed

    Majda, Anna; Ziarko, Ewa; Zalewska-Puchała, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    The development of nursing began in Poland much later than it did elsewhere, for instance in the United Kingdom, the United States, or Germany, and it came up against difficult conditions. After a brief twenty-year period of development between 1918 and 1939, it almost stalled during the war (1939-45), only to be followed by nearly twenty years of chaos. Nursing started to come out of this difficult period at the beginning of the 1960s. The turn of the 21st century saw the emergence of extensive professional development and training opportunities for nurses. This change was brought about as much by political, social and economic issues, health care requirements, and the advancement of science, medicine, the birth of humanitarism, the growth of the feminist movement, the European Agreement on the Instruction and Education of Nurses, the WHO European Strategy for Nursing and Midwifery Education, the Bologna declaration, as well as the activities undertaken by the European Union, the International Council of Nurses, the American and Polish Red Cross, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Polish Association of Nurses, and the professional self-governing body. The transformation of nursing into an independent profession was further boosted by physicians deeply involved in the issue and female pioneers of nursing.

  1. In the cradle of heredity; French physicians and l'hérédité naturelle in the early 19th century.

    PubMed

    López-Beltrán, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that our modern concept of biological heredity was first clearly introduced in a theoretical and practical setting by the generation of French physicians that were active between 1810 and 1830. It describes how from a traditional focus on hereditary transmission of disease, influential French medical men like Esquirol, Fodéré, Piorry, Lévy, moved towards considering heredity a central concept for the conception of the human bodily frame, and its set of physical and moral dispositions. The notion of heredity as a natural force, with a wide ranging capabilities of transmitting differentially both fundamental and accidental characters was generalized by that generation of physicians with the help of contemporary naturalists and physiologists. By 1830 the term hérédité was widespread, and it shared the explanatory and semantic qualities of traditional medical concepts like constitution and temperament. An analysis is given of the main developments that led to the conception of biological (including human) bodies as consisting of a layered, hierarchical organization of characters, differentially affected by the law of conservation (Heredity) and change (Inneity, Variation). The mid-century work of the French physician Prosper Lucas, Traité Philosophique et Physiologique de L' Hérédité Naturelle, is shown to be the culmination of the efforts of several generations of French physicians towards having a feasible, complexly structured notion of how heredity works.

  2. Area, volume and mass changes of southeast Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, from the Little Ice Age maximum in the late 19th century to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannesdóttir, H.; Björnsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, G.; Guðmundsson, S.

    2014-09-01

    Area and volume changes and the average geodetic mass balance of the non-surging outlet glaciers of southeast Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, during different time periods between ~1890 and 2010, are derived from a multi-temporal glacier inventory. A series of digital elevation models (DEMs) (∼1890, 1904, 1936, 1945, 1989, 2002, 2010) have been compiled from glacial geomorphological features, historical photographs, maps, aerial images, DGPS measurements and a LiDAR survey. Given the mapped bedrock topography we estimate relative volume changes since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) ~1890. The variable dynamic response of the outlets, assumed to have experienced similar climate forcing, is related to their different hypsometry, bedrock topography, and the presence of proglacial lakes. In the post-LIA period the glacierized area decreased by 164 km2 and the glaciers had lost 10-30% of their ~1890 area by 2010. The glacier surface lowered by 150-270 m near the terminus and the outlet glaciers collectively lost 60 ± 8 km3 of ice, which is equivalent to 0.154 ± 0.02 mm of sea level rise. The relative volume loss of individual glaciers was in the range of 15-50%, corresponding to a geodetic mass balance between -0.70 and -0.32 m w.e. a-1. The rate of mass loss was most negative in the period 2002-2010, on average -1.34 ± 0.12 m w.e. a-1, which lists among the most negative mass balance values recorded worldwide in the early 21st century. From the data set of volume and area of the outlets, spanning the 120 years post-LIA period, we evaluate the parameters of a volume-area power law scaling relationship.

  3. Area, Volume and Mass Changes of Southeast Vatnajökull Ice Cap, Iceland, from the Little Ice Age Maximum in the Late 19th Century to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannesdóttir, H.; Bjornsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Adalgeirsdottir, G.; Gudmundsson, S.

    2014-12-01

    Areal and volume changes and the average geodetic mass balance of the non-surging outlet glaciers of southeast Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, during different time periods between 1890 and 2010, are derived from a multi-temporal glacier inventory. A series of digital elevation models (DEMs) (1890, 1904, 1936, 1945, 1989, 2002, 2010) have been compiled from geomorphological features, historical photographs, maps, aerial images, DGPS measurements and a LiDAR survey. Given the mapped bedrock topography, relative volume changes since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) 1890 have been estimated. The variable dynamic response of the outlet glaciers to assumed similar climate forcing, is related to their different hypsometry, bedrock topography, and the presence of proglacial lakes. In the post-LIA period the glacierized area decreased by 164 km2 and the glaciers had lost 10-30% of their 1890 area by 2010. The glacier surface lowered by 150-270 m near the terminus and the outlet glaciers collectively lost 60±8 km3 of ice, which is equivalent to 0.154 mm of sea level rise. The relative volume loss of individual glaciers was in the range of 15-50%, corresponding to a geodetic mass balance between -0.70 and -0.32 m w.e. a-1. The rate of mass loss was most negative in 2002-2010, on average -1.34 m w.e. a-1, which lists among the most negative mass balance values recorded worldwide in the early 21st century. From the data set of volume and area of the outlet glaciers, spanning the whole 120 year post-LIA period, we estimate the parameters of a volume area power-law scaling relationship.

  4. The restart of meteorological observations in the 19th century in Lisbon: the contribution of Marino Miguel FRANZINI (1779-1861)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcoforado, Maria-Joao; Nunes, Fatima

    2013-04-01

    After the early meteorological observations of the 1770s to the 1790s in continental Portugal (including a 5 year daily series by J. Velho), there were hardly any until 1815. In December 1815, a meteorological station was set up in Lisbon by Marino Miguel Franzini (1779-1861), an engineer who was also actively involved in Politics (liberal party). Following the tradition of the 18th century enlightenment movement, he took a keen interest in Nature and Sciences, particularly in the "influence" of weather and climate on health and agriculture. Franzini started his observations by request of a physician who sought to understand the reasons why the maximum mortality occurred on the summer months, unlike in northern countries of Europe where maximum mortality occurred in winter (as it happens nowadays in Portugal). The deterministic background of the two scientists is clear. Franzini was a member of the Lisbon Academy of Sciences (founded in 1799) and had contact with foreign Academies and foreign scientists. His instruments were carefully constructed and described, including graduation scales, and stations' location was indicated. Data from two years observations (several meteorological variables) was published in the Academy of Sciences Memoirs. From 1818 until 1826 and from 1835 until 1856 data was divulged in journals and newspapers, such as the "Journal of Medical Sciences", together with data on necrology in some of Lisbon parishes (illustrating the interest of physicians on weather); meteorological data and information about agriculture was also published in the "Lisbon Gazette". Unfortunately, there are hardly any daily data, as Franzini grouped his records according to weather types, as will be explained. Franzini's series will be presented in our talk. The gap between 1826 and 1835 was due to the political activities in which Franzini was involved: the civil war (liberals against absolutist) disruptedscientific research in Portugal. Official meteorological

  5. Sector structure of the interplanetary magnetic field in the second half of the 19th century inferred from ground-based magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokhmyanin, M.; Ponyavin, D. I.

    2012-12-01

    Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) polarities can be inferred in the pre-satellite era using Svalgaard-Mansurov effect, according to which different IMF directions lead to different geomagnetic variations at polar stations. Basing on this effect we propose a method to derive a sector structure of the IMF when only ground based data are available. Details of the method and results have been presented in our recent paper: Vokhmyanin, M. V., and D. I. Ponyavin (2012), Inferring interplanetary magnetic field polarities from geomagnetic variations, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A06102, doi:10.1029/2011JA017060. Using data from eight stations: Sitka, Sodankyla, Godhavn, Lerwick, Thule, Baker Lake, Vostok and Mirny, we reconstructed sector structure back to 1905. The quality of inferring from 1965 to 2005 ranges between 78% and 90% depending on the used set of stations. Our results show both high success rate and good agreement with the well-known Russell-McPherron and Rosenberg-Coleman effects. In the current study we applied the technique to historical data of Helsinki observatory where digital versions of hourly geomagnetic components are available from 1844 to 1897. Helsinki station stopped operates at the beginning of 20th century. Thus, to create a model describing the local Svalgaard-Mansurov effect we analyzed data from Nurmijarvi station located near the same region. The success rate of reconstruction from 1965 to 2005 is around 82%. So we assume that the IMF polarities obtained for the period 1869-1889 have sufficient quality. Inferred sector structure at this time consists of two sectors typically for all declining phases of solar activity cycle. Catalogue of IMF proxies seem to be important in analyzing structure and dynamics of solar magnetic fields in the past.; Left: Bartels diagram of IMF sector structure inferred from Helsinki data. Right: sunspot number indicating solar cycles.

  6. The Legacy of 19th Century Iron Production in Central Pennsylvania: Soil Acidification and Trace-metal Mobilization Evidenced with Tree Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Soil acidification and metal loading from industrial emissions can limit forest growth and carbon sequestration of Eastern U.S. forests. Tree growth may be limited if the mobility of trace metals found within forest soils is increased to nearly toxic levels due to soil acidification. The iron production boom in central Pennsylvania, which lasted roughly from 1850-1910, would have altered soil compositions of surrounding forests due to large amounts of coal and biomass fuel pollution depositions. The regional collapse of the iron industry by 1910 allows a unique opportunity to observe recovery rates of the surrounding forests and their associated soils over the last century. The pollution history of iron production and rate of soil recovery at this site was determined using tree-ring width measurements and dendrochemical analysis. Six prominent tree species were analyzed for cation and trace metal concentrations retained in the woody structure. Current soil cation and trace-metal concentrations were compared to recent tree-ring chemical compositions. The persistence of soil acidification was determined by observing the changes in major cation concentrations retained in the woody structure over time. This altered soil pH would have mobilized certain trace metals either deposited by the iron production pollution or found naturally in the soil. The effects of soil acidification in the local region are evident in the changes in trace metal concentrations due to increased bioavailability and decreased soil pH. The combined analysis of trace metals and major soil cations yields a specific pollution history and evidence of forest recovery rates from the iron production emissions in central Pennsylvania.

  7. A joint analysis of sea-level and meteorological data over the past 19th and 20th century on the Charente-Maritime French Atlantic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouriou, Thomas; Wöppelmann, Guy

    2010-05-01

    relationship is indicative of wind-driven dynamical processes. As will be shown, the Charente-Maritime French Atlantic coast is a particular environment subject to westward winds with a complex coastline and bathymetry (islands, shallow waters). Last but not least, our data archeology exercise will provide additional evidence to the intriguing relation that was first noted by Miller and Douglas (2007) between sea level on the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic and the strength of the gyre-scale circulation, as represented by air pressure in the centre of the gyre, on multi-decadal and century-timescales.

  8. Do conditions in early life affect old-age mortality directly and indirectly? Evidence from 19th-century rural Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Tommy; Broström, Göran

    2009-05-01

    Previous research has shown that the disease load experienced during the birth year, measured as the infant mortality rate, had a significant influence on old-age mortality in nineteenth-century rural Sweden. We know that children born in years with very high rates of infant mortality, due to outbreaks of smallpox or whooping cough, and who still survived to adulthood and married, faced a life length several years shorter than others. We do not know, however, whether this is a direct effect, caused by permanent physical damage leading to fatal outcomes later in life, or an indirect effect, via its influence on accumulation of wealth and obtained socio-economic status. The Scanian Demographic Database, with information on five rural parishes in southern Sweden between 1813 and 1894, contains the data needed to distinguish between the two mechanisms. First, the effects of conditions in childhood on obtained socio-economic status as an adult are analyzed, then the effects of both early-life conditions and socio-economic status at various stages of life on old-age mortality. By including random effects, we take into account possible dependencies in the data due to kinship and marriage. We find that a high disease load during the first year of life had a strong negative impact on a person's ability to acquire wealth, never before shown for a historical setting. This means that it is indeed possible that the effects of disease load in the first year of life indirectly affect mortality in old age through obtained socio-economic status. We find, however, no effects of obtained socio-economic status on old-age mortality. While the result is interesting per se, constituting a debatable issue, it means that the argument that early-life conditions indirectly affect old-age mortality is not supported. Instead, we find support for the conclusion that the effect of the disease load in early-life is direct or, in other words, that physiological damage from severe infections at the

  9. [Artur Wołyński--A forgotten Polish historian in Italy in the second half of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Piskurewicz, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Artur Wołyński (1844-1893) was, undoubtedly, one of the most interesting personages of Polish émigrés after January Uprising. He belonged to these circles of Polish émigrés, who were able to reconcile their patriotic aspirations with realities and interest of the countries that entertained them. As far as Wołyński is concerned, it found its expression in the efforts that were made in order to assimilate two nations--Polish and Italian people--appealing to the common history and familiar cultural traditions. An important element of integrating all the above-discussed actions was his scientific activity. The mentioned activity included, first of all, his studies on Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei. In the article were analyzed more comprehensive scientific descriptions dedicated to Copernicus and Galileo prepared by Wołyński, and their significance and opinions on them of the learned, whose works treated on Copernicus and Galileo as well. Secondly, in the field of scientific activity of Wołyńiski, one can also observe his researches and the process of elaborating sources for Polish and Italian his tory, particularly concerning the 17th century. However, most of his attention Wołyński paid to collecting and working out the materials concerning January Uprising. Speaking a modern language, one can say that Wołyński in a way polled the insurgents of January Uprising sending to them an appropriate list of questions, additionally allowing for their biographies. In the paper was also included a detailed description of this broad initiative together with its results. Up till now, not much attention has been paid to this significant scientific activity and its contexts. So, the present article is to remind of meritorious personage of Wołyński, and particularly of his output within the realm of history of science, history of Polish and Italian relationships, and of the role he played in bequeathing memory of January Uprising. PMID:21675046

  10. [Artur Wołyński--A forgotten Polish historian in Italy in the second half of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Piskurewicz, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Artur Wołyński (1844-1893) was, undoubtedly, one of the most interesting personages of Polish émigrés after January Uprising. He belonged to these circles of Polish émigrés, who were able to reconcile their patriotic aspirations with realities and interest of the countries that entertained them. As far as Wołyński is concerned, it found its expression in the efforts that were made in order to assimilate two nations--Polish and Italian people--appealing to the common history and familiar cultural traditions. An important element of integrating all the above-discussed actions was his scientific activity. The mentioned activity included, first of all, his studies on Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei. In the article were analyzed more comprehensive scientific descriptions dedicated to Copernicus and Galileo prepared by Wołyński, and their significance and opinions on them of the learned, whose works treated on Copernicus and Galileo as well. Secondly, in the field of scientific activity of Wołyńiski, one can also observe his researches and the process of elaborating sources for Polish and Italian his tory, particularly concerning the 17th century. However, most of his attention Wołyński paid to collecting and working out the materials concerning January Uprising. Speaking a modern language, one can say that Wołyński in a way polled the insurgents of January Uprising sending to them an appropriate list of questions, additionally allowing for their biographies. In the paper was also included a detailed description of this broad initiative together with its results. Up till now, not much attention has been paid to this significant scientific activity and its contexts. So, the present article is to remind of meritorious personage of Wołyński, and particularly of his output within the realm of history of science, history of Polish and Italian relationships, and of the role he played in bequeathing memory of January Uprising.

  11. Fine particles and carbon monoxide from wood burning in 17th-19th century Danish kitchens: Measurements at two reconstructed farm houses at the Lejre Historical-Archaeological Experimental Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Clausen, Geo; Chowdhury, Zohir; Smith, Kirk R.

    2010-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM 2.5) were measured in two reconstructed Danish farmhouses (17-19th century) during two weeks of summer. During the first week intensive measurements were performed while test cooking fires were burned, during the second week the houses were monitored while occupied by guest families. A masonry hearth was located in the middle of each house for open cooking fires and with heating stoves. One house had a chimney leading to the outside over the hearth; in the other, a brickwork hood led the smoke into an attic and through holes in the roof. During the first week the concentration of PM 2.5 averaged daily between 138 and 1650 μg m -3 inside the hearths and 21-160 μg m -3 in adjacent living rooms. CO averaged daily between 0.21 and 1.9 ppm in living areas, and up to 12 ppm in the hearths. Highest concentrations were measured when two fires were lit at the same time, which would cause high personal exposure for someone working in the kitchens. 15 min averages of up to 25 400 μg m -3 (PM 2.5) and 260 ppm CO were recorded. WHO air quality guidelines were occasionally exceeded for CO and constantly for PM 2.5. However, air exchange and air distribution measurements revealed a large draw in the chimney, which ensured a fast removal of wood smoke from the hearth area. The guest families were in average exposed to no more than 0.21 ppm CO during 48 h. Based on a hypothetical time-activity pattern, however, a woman living in this type of house during the 17-19th century would be exposed to daily averages of 1.1 ppm CO and 196 μg m -3 PM 2.5, which exceeds WHO guideline for PM 2.5, and is comparable to what is today observed for women in rural areas of developing countries.

  12. Hungarian rocketry in the 19th century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, I. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hungarian rocketry developed in connection with the Hungarian Revolution and the War of Independence is outlined. Progress in weapons technology through the 1840's and 1850's is explored and work by Vincenz Augustin, William Hale, and Sandor Mozer in war rockets is cited.

  13. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Brittain, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates.

  14. Woman Suffrage and the 19th Amendment. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Beginning in the mid-19th century, several generations of woman suffrage supporters lectured, wrote, marched, lobbied, and practiced civil disobedience to achieve what many people considered a radical change in the U.S. Constitution. Militant suffragists used tactics such as parades, silent vigils, and hunger strikes. In 1870 the 15th amendment to…

  15. Nineteenth Century British and American Chemistry Textbook Writers: Some Differences of Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers some themes that I have discussed before at this seminar in previous years, namely the different perceptions of the best ways to teach chemistry in the nineteenth and early twentieth century between British and American chemists. In this paper I will examine the biographies of a number of nineteenth century British and…

  16. Five Hundred Pages and a Topic of Her Own: Successfully Designing an Advanced Writing Course on 19th Century British Women Novelists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Amy Criniti

    2009-01-01

    During the fourth year of Amy Phillips' teaching assistantship in the spring semester of 2008, she was asked to teach a 300-level advanced writing course in which she was given the creative freedom to design the syllabus, choose the textbooks, craft all assignments, and organize the course content. However, there was one stipulation: the course,…

  17. A three-variable chaotic system for the epidemic of bubonic plague in Bombay by the end of the 19th century and its coupling to the epizootics of the two main species of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    A plague epidemic broke out in Bombay by the end of the 19th century. A committee was first appointed by the Bombay City [1] in order to stop the epidemic before the rain season started. Unfortunately, the disease could not be stopped and the epidemic became endemic. After several years, another Advisory Committee [2] was appointed that tried to investigate the causes of plague in all possible directions. An impressing quantity of information was gathered during the period 1907-1911 and published. In particular, it was noticed that the epidemic was systematically preceded by epizootics of rats. For this reason, the populations of the main species of rodents were systematically monitored. This data set is revisited here by using a multivariate version of the global modeling technique [3]. The aim of this technique is to obtain a set of Ordinary Differential Equations directly from time series. Three observational time series are considered: the number of person died of bubonic plague per half month (1), and the number of captured infected black rats Mus rattus (2) and brown rats Mus decumanus (3). Several models are obtained, all based on the same algebraic basic structure. These models are, either directly chaotic, or close to chaos (chaos could easily be obtained by tuning one model parameter). The algebraic structure of the simplest model obtained is analyzed in more details. Surprisingly, it is found that the interpretation of the coupling between the three variables can be done term by term. This interpretation is in quite good coherence with the conclusions of the Advisory Committee published one hundred years ago. This structure also shows that the human action to slow down the disease during this period was obviously effective, although insufficient to stop the epidemic drastically. This result suggests that the global modeling technique can be a powerful tool to detect causal couplings in epidemiology, and, more generally, among observational variables from

  18. A comparison of high-resolution pollen-inferred climate data from central Minnesota, USA, to 19th century US military fort climate data and tree-ring inferred climate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Jacques, J.; Cumming, B. F.; Sauchyn, D.; Vanstone, J. R.; Dickenson, J.; Smol, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    -settlement calibration set give much more credible reconstructions. We then compare the temperature reconstructions based upon the two calibration sets for AD 1116-2002. Significant signal flattening and bias exist when using the conventional modern pollen-climate calibration set rather than the pre-settlement pollen-climate calibration set, resulting in an overestimation of Little Ice Age monthly mean temperatures of 0.5-1.5 oC. Therefore, regional warming from anthropogenic global warming is significantly underestimated when using the conventional method of building pollen-climate calibration sets. We also compare the Lake Mina pollen-inferred effective moisture record to early 19th century climate data and to a four-century tree-ring inferred moisture reconstruction based upon sites in Minnesota and the Dakotas. This comparison shows that regional tree-ring reconstructions are biased towards dry conditions and record wet periods poorly relative to high-resolution pollen reconstructions, giving a false impression of regional aridity. It also suggests that varve chronologies should be based upon cross-dating to ensure a more accurate chronology.

  19. [Richard Freiherr v. Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freud--discourse on the "normality" and "perversion" of human sexuality at the close of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality has been defined a central feature of personal identity since the epoch of enlightenment and has gradually become a decisive issue also in societal and political terms. A major transfer from religion and religious institutions to medicine and medical experts and later on to neuropsychiatrists has to be underlined in the primary position to assess "normal" and "deviant" manifestations of sexuality. Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freund play an eminent role in this "discourse on sexuality" (M. Foucault) during the nineteenth and beginning twentieth century on the way to modern sexology. Within this overarching context Krafft-Ebing's and Freud's theoretical conceptualizations of sexuality and perversion will be sketched and basic clinical and societal implications there out will be discussed. PMID:26099905

  20. [Richard Freiherr v. Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freud--discourse on the "normality" and "perversion" of human sexuality at the close of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality has been defined a central feature of personal identity since the epoch of enlightenment and has gradually become a decisive issue also in societal and political terms. A major transfer from religion and religious institutions to medicine and medical experts and later on to neuropsychiatrists has to be underlined in the primary position to assess "normal" and "deviant" manifestations of sexuality. Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing and Sigmund Freund play an eminent role in this "discourse on sexuality" (M. Foucault) during the nineteenth and beginning twentieth century on the way to modern sexology. Within this overarching context Krafft-Ebing's and Freud's theoretical conceptualizations of sexuality and perversion will be sketched and basic clinical and societal implications there out will be discussed.

  1. Knowledge, Character and Professionalisation in Nineteenth-Century British Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Historians have frequently referred to the British Association for the Advancement of Science as an institution that had the professionalisation of British science as its chief aim. This article seeks to complicate this picture by asking what, if any, concept of "professionalisation" would have been understood by nineteenth-century…

  2. Astronomy Teaching in Argentina in the 19th Century. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Argentina del Siglo XIX.) O Ensino de Astronomia na Argentina no Século XIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberto Cornejo, Jorge; Santilli, Haydée

    2010-12-01

    Sarmiento believed that Copernican astronomy was one of the critical scientific disciplines to the formation of a "modern" citizen. In this work, we shall study astronomical science from two points of view: from the scientific knowledge and the educational presentation of such knowledge. Our study will address in Argentina in 19th century, starting from the initiative of Bernardino Rivadavia in 1821, who founded an astronomic observatory at Buenos Aires, until the first activities of the observatories at Córdoba and La Plata. On both lines, scientific and educative, we shall analyze the influence of positivist ideas. We shall highlight epistemological differences between both observatories, Córdoba's based on French positivism and La Plata's based on German positivism. We shall also show the different attitude of both observatories towards education. We shall see the way in which positivist ideas had great relevance in the training of elementary school teachers. We shall also establish the relevant influence of the socio-historical context over the astronomical development, and show that astronomy was a fundamental social factor at Argentina history. Domingo F. Sarmiento consideraba que la astronomía copernicana era una de las disciplinas científicas fundamentales para la conformación de un ciudadano "moderno". En este trabajo estudiaremos la ciencia astronómica desde dos vertientes: la referida específicamente al conocimiento científico y aquella vinculada con la presentación educativa de dicho conocimiento. Nuestro estudio se desarrollará en Argentina durante el siglo XIX, desde la iniciativa de Bernardino Rivadavia en 1821, de establecer en Buenos Aires un observatorio astronómico, hasta las primeras actividades de los observatorios de Córdoba y de La Plata. En ambas vertientes, científica y educativa, analizaremos la influencia de las ideas positivistas. Resaltaremos las diferencias epistemológicas entre los dos observatorios, orientado el primero

  3. 19th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2008-01-01

    The construction of residence hall facilities at colleges and universities continues to be strong, as institutions scramble to meet the housing needs and varied demands of a growing student population. This article presents data collected from 39 new residence hall projects completed in 2007. According to American School & University's 19th annual…

  4. The 19th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project is described. Project analysis and integration is discussed. Technology research in silicon material, large-area silicon sheet and environmental isolation; cell and module formation; engineering sciences, and module performance and failure analysis. It includes a report on, and copies of visual presentations made at, the 19th Project Integration Meeting held at Pasadena, California, on November 11, 1981.

  5. British Women, Chemistry, and Poetry: Some Contextual Examples from the 1870s to the 1940s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Marelene F.; Rayner-Canham, Geoff W.

    2011-01-01

    In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, British women chemists used poetry as a way of describing their work and as a means of social commentary. As far as we are aware, the chemistry-poetry interface has not previously been explored in the context of women's experience.

  6. The Heuristic Method, Precursor of Guided Inquiry: Henry Armstrong and British Girls' Schools, 1890-1920

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner-Canham, Geoff; Rayner-Canham, Marelene

    2015-01-01

    Though guided-inquiry learning, discovery learning, student-centered learning, and problem-based learning are commonly believed to be recent new approaches to the teaching of chemistry, in fact, the concept dates back to the late 19th century. Here, we will show that it was the British chemist, Henry Armstrong, who pioneered this technique,…

  7. 20th Century British Colonialism in Cyprus through Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özmatyatli, Içim Özenli; Özkul, Ali Efdal

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: The island of Cyprus, due to its strategic location, was under the influence of many conquerors throughout the centuries. Cultural traces of these captors have survived to the present day. This long, turbulent history has had a profound effect on the Cypriot educational system, with the most recent influence being the impact of…

  8. The Loss of Balance between the Art and Science of Management: Observations on the British Experience of Education for Management in the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerriero Wilson, Robbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the developments in education for management in 20th-century Britain. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that is, the highpoint of the United Kingdom's economic success, management was considered more of an art than a science, and formal education specifically for management was limited. After the Second World…

  9. History of individuals of the 18th/19th centuries stored in bones, teeth, and hair analyzed by LA-ICP-MS--a step in attempts to confirm the authenticity of Mozart's skull.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Christina; Reiter, Christian; Patzak, Beatrix; Stingeder, Gerhard; Prohaska, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    A cranium stored in the Stiftung Mozarteum in Salzburg/Austria which is believed to be that of Mozart, and skeletal remains of suspected relatives which have been excavated from the Mozart family grave in the cemetery in Salzburg, have been subjected to scientific investigations to determine whether or not the skull is authentic. A film project by the Austrian television ORF in collaboration with Interspot Film on this issue was broadcast at the beginning of the "Mozart year 2006". DNA analysis could not clarify relationships among the remains and, therefore, assignment of the samples was not really possible. In our work this skull and excavated skeletal remains have been quantified for Pb, Cr, Hg, As, and Sb content by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain information about the living conditions of these individuals. A small splinter of enamel (less than 1 mm(3)) from a tooth of the "Mozart cranium" was also available for investigation. Quantification was performed by using spiked hydroxyapatite standards. Single hair samples which are recorded to originate from Mozart have also been investigated by LA-ICP-MS and compared with hair samples of contemporary citizens stored in the Federal Pathologic-Anatomical Museum, Vienna. In general, Pb concentrations up to approximately 16 mug g(-1) were found in the bone samples of 18th century individuals (a factor of 7 to 8 higher than in recent samples) reflecting elevated Pb levels in food or beverages. Elevated Pb levels were also found in hair samples. The amount of Sb in the enamel sample of the "Mozart cranium" (approx. 3 mug g(-1)) was significantly higher than in all the other tooth samples investigated, indicating possible Sb ingestion in early childhood. Elevated concentrations of elements in single hair samples gave additional information about possible exposure of the individuals to heavy metals at a particular point in their life.

  10. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantomme, André; Temst, Kristiaan

    2015-12-01

    It is our pleasure to present the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, which took place from September 14th until September 19th, 2014. The conference was held in the historic center of Leuven, a medieval city in the heart of Europe, a city where centuries-old culture meets frontier science and technology. Among other places, the conference brought us to the University Hall, which has been in use by the university since its foundation in 1425, to the Infirmerie of the Grand Beguinage and to the medieval city of Bruges, the latter two being Unesco World Heritage sites.

  11. Fire in the Sky: Comets and Meteors, the Decisive Centuries, in British Art and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.

    Comets and meteors are spectacular and awe-inspiring natural phenomena, which are among nature's most compelling icons. Since the beginning of recorded time, they have mesmerized people, not least among them artists and astronomers. Britain during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries produced a larger number and greater variety of representations of comets and meteors than any other country. The development of new technologies, and the burgeoning interest of the general public in science and art, dovetailed with the inherent British interest in nature and a strong literary tradition of comet and meteor symbolism. This beautifully illustrated book examines the link between these works and the achievements of British science in the wake of Newton and Halley. This book will be stimulating to anyone interested in the art or astronomy of comets.

  12. 19th Century Textbook Illustrations: Caustics by Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses how the caustic by reflection is formed. Indicates that the phenomenon can be demonstrated by showing the reflection of the light from a distant point source from the inner curve of a polished hoop of metal (such as a wedding ring). (JN)

  13. Why Read the Great 19th-Century Historians?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clive, John

    1978-01-01

    Clive comments on the literary power of Karl Marx (The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon), Alexis de Tocqueville (The Old Regime and the Revolution), Thomas Carlyle (French Revolution), and Jakob Burkhardt (The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy); and notes Macaulay's sensitivity to the "public mind" (History of England). (SJL)

  14. Etienne Leopold Trouvelot, 19th Century Artist and Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, B. G.

    2002-12-01

    Etienne Leopold Trouvelot, born in France in 1827, came to the United State with his family in 1855, settling in Massachusetts. He supported his family as an artist, but became interested in astronomy after observing and sketching auroras in the 1870s. When astronomers at Harvard saw the quality and detail in these drawings, they invited him to join the staff and use their telescopes for observation and making drawings of celestial objects. In 1875 the U. S. Naval Observatory invited him to Washington to use the 26 inch refractor, at that time the world's largest refractor. Through the years he made more than 7000 drawings which were highly regarded by astronomers who saw them, especially for the fine detail of the drawings. Trouvelet wanted to publish a portfolio of some of the best drawings and approached Charles Scribner's Sons, publishers in New York. The 15 drawings he chose were produced as chromolithographs, and the set was published in 1881 selling at \\$125. Very few complete sets remain in institutions today, and one set sold at auction within the last few years for many times the original price. However, Trouvelot will always be remembered not for his astronomical artistry but as the person who introduced the gypsy moth into the United States. In his attempt to bring better silk producing caterpillars into the country, some egg masses escaped and the rest is history.

  15. Theodor Meynert's contribution to classical 19th century aphasia studies.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, H A; Etlinger, S C

    1993-11-01

    Carl Wernicke (1848-1905) is traditionally considered the first to have described the features of, and the brain pathology underlying, impaired auditory comprehension and related symptoms. Although Wernicke (1874) clearly and repeatedly indicates his indebtedness to Theodor von Meynert (1833-1892), this is usually understood as an acknowledgment that Meynert taught Wernicke neuroanatomy (Eggert, 1977); Wernicke's own words in part support this interpretation. A more sophisticated historical analysis notes that, prior to Wernicke, both Johann Schmidt in 1871 and Charlton Bastian in 1869 had described the concept of receptive aphasia, but neither had supported their analyses with autopsy evidence as did Wernicke, thus not dislodging Wernicke's claim of priority. However, a virtually unknown work by Theodor von Meynert, published in 1866, has recently been rediscovered by us ["Ein Fall von Sprachstörung, anatomisch begründet." Medizinische Jahrbücher. XII Band der Zeitschrift der K. K. Gesellleschaft der Arzte in Wien, 22. Jahr. Pp. 152-189]. In this paper Meynert analyzes the anatomical basis for localizing the comprehension of language in the superior temporal gyrus, he argues that lesions in this area should (by analogy to Broca's earlier observations on language expression) cause impairments in language comprehension, and he presents a case of receptive aphasia with autopsy evidence of destruction of the superior temporal gyrus in the left hemisphere. The patient's aphasia was classic; impaired auditory comprehension, and fluent speech with paraphasias. It is clear that Meynert should be given historical credit for his work. PMID:8118673

  16. The development of child psychiatry in 19th century Britain.

    PubMed

    von Gontard, A

    1988-09-01

    Child psychiatry was established as a separate discipline in the 1930s. The paper analyses and describes the early development of child psychiatry in Britain, with particular reference to the contributions of the medical profession. Major influences came from general psychiatry. Children were at first treated in adult asylums; the first concepts of childhood insanity were formed around 1800, with moral insanity becoming the most common diagnosis. From 1850 onwards other major contributions came from paediatrics and the care of the mentally retarded. These developments were part of wider socio-economic changes in childhood.

  17. Theodor Meynert's contribution to classical 19th century aphasia studies.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, H A; Etlinger, S C

    1993-11-01

    Carl Wernicke (1848-1905) is traditionally considered the first to have described the features of, and the brain pathology underlying, impaired auditory comprehension and related symptoms. Although Wernicke (1874) clearly and repeatedly indicates his indebtedness to Theodor von Meynert (1833-1892), this is usually understood as an acknowledgment that Meynert taught Wernicke neuroanatomy (Eggert, 1977); Wernicke's own words in part support this interpretation. A more sophisticated historical analysis notes that, prior to Wernicke, both Johann Schmidt in 1871 and Charlton Bastian in 1869 had described the concept of receptive aphasia, but neither had supported their analyses with autopsy evidence as did Wernicke, thus not dislodging Wernicke's claim of priority. However, a virtually unknown work by Theodor von Meynert, published in 1866, has recently been rediscovered by us ["Ein Fall von Sprachstörung, anatomisch begründet." Medizinische Jahrbücher. XII Band der Zeitschrift der K. K. Gesellleschaft der Arzte in Wien, 22. Jahr. Pp. 152-189]. In this paper Meynert analyzes the anatomical basis for localizing the comprehension of language in the superior temporal gyrus, he argues that lesions in this area should (by analogy to Broca's earlier observations on language expression) cause impairments in language comprehension, and he presents a case of receptive aphasia with autopsy evidence of destruction of the superior temporal gyrus in the left hemisphere. The patient's aphasia was classic; impaired auditory comprehension, and fluent speech with paraphasias. It is clear that Meynert should be given historical credit for his work.

  18. 19th Century American Journals of Natural History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Ralph W.

    1976-01-01

    This article presents a brief list of journals containing information for historians and naturalists. The journals are presented in two lists from 1810-1875 and from 1876-1900. Each list is further classified into general natural history, microscopy, botany, entomology, conchology, ornithology, and geology and paleontology. (MR)

  19. [Cholera epidemics on Reunion Island during the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Gaüzère, B-A; Aubry, P

    2012-01-01

    The first cholera outbreak on Bourbon Island (now Reunion Island) was recorded in January 1820. The disease was imported from Mauritius Island aboard the steamer Pivert. The epidemic began on Mauritius in November 1819 after the English frigate, La Topaze, called from Calcutta, India. Dr. François Vinson demonstrated the transmissibility of cholera during this epidemic. Drastic sanitary measures spared Reunion from the two epidemics on Mauritius Island, in 1854 and 1856. The second outbreak of cholera on Reunion Island was recorded on March 6, 1859. The disease was introduced from East Africa by the steamer Mascareignes, which carried indentured servants. The captain (d'Agnel) et the supercargo (Menon) of the steamer claimed to the doctor who boarded the ship before landing that no passengers or crew had had cholera, in flagrant contradiction to the autopsy report issued by Navy surgeon Alfred Vaillant, who had concluded that cholera was present when the vessel left the African coast. This report was withheld from the boarding physician. Cholera spread quickly on the island and affected the poorest people, especially freed slaves, most severely. Dr. Petit, the chief Navy Physician and Director of the Health Department, obtained a confession by Menon about the fraudulent statements. On January 24, 1860, a trial for public health endangerment began on Reunion Island; it ended on February 1 with a not-guilty verdict, based largely on the testimony of several island doctors that cholera was not contagious. PMID:22992340

  20. 19th Century Plains Indian Robe Painting: Wearable Art Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Gerald R.

    1983-01-01

    The Indians of the Great Plains of North America once wore some of the most magnificent works of art in the form of bison robes that were painted in a variety of modes. These forms of expression have become obsolete and their function has been replaced by new materials. (Availability: CHEA National Office, 151 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P…

  1. [Limb prosthesis of the 19th and 20th century].

    PubMed

    Knoche, W

    2009-02-01

    Wouldn't the thought of a separate stump-cushioning, as mentioned by Heine, Eichler and others, make sense even today, regarding difficult and badly blood-supplied amputation-stumps? Shouldn't the thought of Hermann and Habermann, to do a knee-saving interference, be updated, especially for the weak and helpless patients? It is safe to say that one has to challenge the question, which objective methods of inspection are under consideration, to check and control the correct fit and construction for every individual patient. It is a credit to the executive of the orthopaedic-supply-center Hamburg-Altona, zur Verth, who challenged that question almost one hundred years ago. Not only zur Verth rated the value of amputation-levels in his amputation-scheme, but Arnsberger invented 1927 a device to objectify the composition of a prosthesis. PMID:19259935

  2. Blind & Sighted Pioneer Teachers in 19th Century China & India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    This paper discusses the education of people with blindness in China and India prior to the establishment of formal schools for the blind. Key people who advanced the education of people with blindness are highlighted, such as missionary teacher Mary Gutzlaff, who integrated Chinese orphan girls with blindness into her school at Macau. One of the…

  3. The ichneumon fly and the equilibration of British natural economies in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Wille, Sheila

    2015-12-01

    The parasitic ichneumon fly, discovered by European natural philosophers in the seventeenth century, remained largely unstudied until it captured the attention of Enlightenment-era natural historians. Although this sudden surge of interest has been explained as an effort to understand the natural 'evil' of parasitism, the heyday of ichneumon studies was actually inspired by the political and agricultural context of late eighteenth-century Britain. British naturalists were captivated by this insect for reasons both philosophical and practical. In the providentially self-equilibrating qualities of 'natural' ichneumon economies, they saw solutions to political problems of famine, dearth, national wealth, governance and excess population, in addition to finding reassurance that Enlightened confidence in nature's inherent stability and fruitfulness was not unfounded.

  4. The ichneumon fly and the equilibration of British natural economies in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Wille, Sheila

    2015-12-01

    The parasitic ichneumon fly, discovered by European natural philosophers in the seventeenth century, remained largely unstudied until it captured the attention of Enlightenment-era natural historians. Although this sudden surge of interest has been explained as an effort to understand the natural 'evil' of parasitism, the heyday of ichneumon studies was actually inspired by the political and agricultural context of late eighteenth-century Britain. British naturalists were captivated by this insect for reasons both philosophical and practical. In the providentially self-equilibrating qualities of 'natural' ichneumon economies, they saw solutions to political problems of famine, dearth, national wealth, governance and excess population, in addition to finding reassurance that Enlightened confidence in nature's inherent stability and fruitfulness was not unfounded. PMID:26502951

  5. Human history and deep time in nineteenth-century British sciences: An introduction.

    PubMed

    Sera-Shriar, Efram

    2015-06-01

    The historicisation of humans was a major endeavour in nineteenth-century Britain, and one that led to wide-ranging debates involving a variety of disciplinary approaches, new and old. Within the context of science and medicine these discussions centred on the issues of human origins and evolution. Did the various races living throughout the world develop from a single location, or were their physical and social differences evidence for their separate genesis? Which disciplinary tradition offered the best method for tracing human development? Was it even possible to trace that development, or had too much time passed since the dawn of humans? Furthermore, who had the authority to speak about these matters? This special issue will examine these core questions and introduce some of the ways that researchers attempted to historicise humans within the context of nineteenth-century British sciences.

  6. Immigrant Incorporation in American Cities: Contextual Determinants of Irish, German and British Intermarriage in 1880

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Shin, Hyoung-jin

    2013-01-01

    This study adds to a growing body of research on the contextual determinants of marriage choice and provides new information on ethnic intermarriage in the late 19th Century. Census microdata for 66 major cities in 1880 are used to estimate a multilevel model of assortative mating of Irish, German, and British immigrants. Results demonstrate that marital choices made by individuals are significantly affected by the local urban context where they live. In addition the very large disparity in endogamy between the British and other groups can mainly be attributed to the smaller size of the British population in these cities. PMID:24259757

  7. Between Secularism/s: Islam and the Institutionalisation of Modern Higher Education in Mid-Nineteenth Century British India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qadir, Ali

    2013-01-01

    This paper problematises clean distinctions between secular and religious by tracing the history of modern higher education of Muslims in British colonial India. Grounded in the interpretive research tradition and with an empirical focus on the formative mid-nineteenth century, the article argues that relational notions between singular secularism…

  8. OVERALL VIEW OF CEMETERY ENTRANCE GATE AND 19TH STREET APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF CEMETERY ENTRANCE GATE AND 19TH STREET APPROACH, LOOKING INTO CEMETERY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Baton Rouge National Cemetery, 220 North 19th Street, Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Parish, LA

  9. REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF MAINTENANCE BUILDING FROM ACROSS 19TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF MAINTENANCE BUILDING FROM ACROSS 19TH STREET, WITH ENCLOSURE WALL IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Baton Rouge National Cemetery, 220 North 19th Street, Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Parish, LA

  10. Log Books and the Law of Storms: Maritime Meteorology and the British Admiralty in the Nineteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Simon

    2015-12-01

    This essay contributes to debates about the relationship between science and the military by examining the British Admiralty's participation in meteorological projects in the first half of the nineteenth century. It focuses on attempts to transform Royal Navy log books into standardized meteorological registers that would be of use to both science and the state. The essay begins with a discussion of Admiralty Hydrographer Francis Beaufort, who promoted the use of standardized systems for the observation of the weather at sea. It then examines the application of ships' logs to the science of storms. The essay focuses on the Army engineer William Reid, who studied hurricanes while stationed in Barbados and Bermuda. Reid was instrumental in persuading the Admiralty to implement a naval meteorological policy, something the Admiralty Hydrographer had struggled to achieve. The essay uses the reception and adoption of work on storms at sea to reflect on the means and ends of maritime meteorology in the mid-nineteenth century.

  11. Transformations of Wordsworth's Nature in Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century British Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Charles B.

    One way of making connections among various authors in a survey course is to emphasize recurring themes, images, and tropes; the instructor can point out how they are transformed by a constantly changing ethos and set of historical circumstances. A case in point is the second part of a British survey, typically going from William Blake or William…

  12. JANNAF 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Kuckels, Melanie C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 25 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 37th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS), and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee (MSS) meetings. The meeting was held 13-17 November 2000 at the Naval Postgraduate School and Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: impact and thermal vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction and detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact loading; and hazard classification, and insensitive munitions testing of propellants and propulsion systems.

  13. Nimble Fingers. From 19th Century New England Mills to 20th Century Global Assembly Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Lyn

    1988-01-01

    Covers women's labor history in the United States and in industrialized nations from the early 1800s to the present. Provides primary source documents from New England workers in the 1830s and 1840s and from women workers on global assembly lines in the 1980s. Includes discussion questions. (LS)

  14. British female academics and comparative psychology: attempts to establish a research niche in the early 20th century.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David A H

    2003-02-01

    Why was there a preponderance of women engaged in laboratory-based studies of animal behavior in Britain in the early years of the 20th century? As a new experimental subject with recently neglected potential, animal psychology then represented an opportunity for women to make further inroads into academic science. Because the study of psychology before World War I offered negligible professional opportunities for the application of the subject, the intake of students was restricted. Perhaps this encouraged academic access to it by aspiring female scientists who felt that career prospects, uncertain and socially unexpected of them in any case, were worth chancing for greater long-term rewards. The academic circumstances and contributions of 3 British female pioneers in experimental comparative psychology are discussed.

  15. Science in the service of colonial agro-industrialism: the case of cinchona cultivation in the Dutch and British East Indies, 1852-1900.

    PubMed

    Roersch van der Hoogte, Arjo; Pieters, Toine

    2014-09-01

    The isolation of quinine from cinchona bark in 1820 opened new possibilities for the mass-production and consumption of a popular medicine that was suitable for the treatment of intermittent (malarial) fevers and other diseases. As the 19th century European empires expanded in Africa and Asia, control of tropical diseases such as malaria was seen as crucial. Consequently, quinine and cinchona became a pivotal tool of British, French, German and Dutch empire-builders. This comparative study shows how the interplay between science, industry and government resulted in different historical trajectories for cinchona and quinine in the Dutch and British Empires during the second half of the 19th century. We argue that in the Dutch case the vectors of assemblage that provided the institutional and physical framework for communication, exchange and control represent an early example of commodification of colonial science. Furthermore, both historical trajectories show how the employment of the laboratory as a new device materialised within the colonial context of agricultural and industrial production of raw materials (cinchona bark), semi-finished product (quinine sulphate) and plant-based medicines like quinine. Hence, illustrating the 19th century transition from 'colonial botany' and 'green imperialism' to what we conceptualise as 'colonial agro-industrialism'.

  16. Century-scale variability in late-summer rainfall events recorded over seven centuries in subannually laminated lacustrine sediments, White Pass, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockburn, Jaclyn M. H.; Lamoureux, Scott F.

    2007-03-01

    Formation of annually laminated sediments in Summit Lake, White Pass, British Columbia is controlled by runoff generated by snowpack and glacier melt and major rainfall events. The 700-yr varve record is divided into two subannual series (early and late) based on sedimentological criteria and sedimentary structures within each varve. A comparison of recent subannual laminae with nearby meteorological records supports the interpretation they are formed by river discharge events generated by major snow and glacier melt events and large late-summer rainfall events. A significant correlation exists between the late subannual thickness series and the size of the largest rainfall events in late summer. The long record indicates there was an abrupt increase in the thickness and frequency of major rainfall-induced sedimentary events at the end of the seventeenth century. In addition, the frequency of laminae generated by early runoff events also increased. However, early subannual varve thickness component remains statistically the same as the thickness prior to the end of the seventeenth century. This suggests the change in varve thickness at this time is due to increases in major late-summer rainfall frequency rather than increased sediment availability caused by regional Little Ice Age glacier advances.

  17. Keeping the culture alive: the laboratory technician in mid-twentieth-century British medical research

    PubMed Central

    Tansey, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results from a detailed study of the careers of laboratory technicians in British medical research. Technicians and their contributions are very frequently missing from accounts of modern medicine, and this project is an attempt to correct that absence. The present paper focuses almost entirely on the Medical Research Council's National Institute for Medical Research in North London, from the first proposal of such a body in 1913 until the mid 1960s. The principal sources of information have been technical staff themselves, largely as recorded in an extensive series of oral history interviews. These have covered a wide range of issues and provide valuable perspectives about technicians' backgrounds and working lives. PMID:18548906

  18. Log Books and the Law of Storms: Maritime Meteorology and the British Admiralty in the Nineteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Simon

    2015-12-01

    This essay contributes to debates about the relationship between science and the military by examining the British Admiralty's participation in meteorological projects in the first half of the nineteenth century. It focuses on attempts to transform Royal Navy log books into standardized meteorological registers that would be of use to both science and the state. The essay begins with a discussion of Admiralty Hydrographer Francis Beaufort, who promoted the use of standardized systems for the observation of the weather at sea. It then examines the application of ships' logs to the science of storms. The essay focuses on the Army engineer William Reid, who studied hurricanes while stationed in Barbados and Bermuda. Reid was instrumental in persuading the Admiralty to implement a naval meteorological policy, something the Admiralty Hydrographer had struggled to achieve. The essay uses the reception and adoption of work on storms at sea to reflect on the means and ends of maritime meteorology in the mid-nineteenth century. PMID:27024936

  19. Natural history museum collections provide information on phenological change in British butterflies since the late-nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Stephen J; Self, Angela; Toloni, Flavia; Sparks, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Museum collections have the potential to provide valuable information on the phenological response of organisms to climate change. This is particularly useful for those species for which few data otherwise exist, but also to extend time series to the period before other observational data are available. To test this potential, we analysed data from 2,630 specimens of four species of British butterflies (Anthocharis cardamines, Hamearis lucina, Polyommatus bellargus and Pyrgus malvae), collected from 1876 to 1999 and stored in the Natural History Museum, London, UK (NHM). In A. cardamines, first-generation P. bellargus and P. malvae, we found that there was a strong significant negative relationship between spring temperature and 10th percentile collection dates, which approximates mean first appearance date, and median collection date, which approximates mean flight date. In all four species, there was a significant negative relationship between the 10th percentile collection date and the length of the collection period, which approximates flight period. In second-generation P. bellargus, these phenological measurements were correlated with summer temperature. We found that the rates of phenological response to temperature, based on NHM data, were similar to, or somewhat greater than, those reported for other organisms based on observational data covering the last 40 years. The lower rate of phenological response, and the significant influence of February rather than March or April temperatures, in recent decades compared with data from earlier in the twentieth century may indicate that early emerging British butterfly species are currently approaching the limits of phenological advancement in response to recent climate warming.

  20. Eighteenth and nineteenth century dental restoration, treatment and consequences in a British nobleman.

    PubMed

    Cox, M; Chandler, J; Boyle, A; Kneller, P; Haslam, R

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines unusual eighteenth and nineteenth century dental treatment and its consequences, in a nobleman excavated from beneath St. Nicholas' Church, Sevenoaks, Kent, UK in the early 1990s. This rare archaeological case exhibits erosion of dental enamel on the labial surface of all the anterior dentition. A programme of historical research suggests that this might be attributed to the application of an acid-based dental tincture or the use of an abrasive substance to whiten the teeth. Palliative treatment for the consequence of this application was prescribed by Dr Robert Blake of Dublin. Further, it bears witness to three dental restorations, two of gold and one tin. The two gold (foil) fillings are an occlusal in the upper-right second molar and a cervical on the labial surface of the upper left canine. The tin filling is an occlusal in the upper left second molar. Excavation of the carious tissue appears to have been undertaken using a spoon shaped implement.

  1. Eighteenth and nineteenth century dental restoration, treatment and consequences in a British nobleman.

    PubMed

    Cox, M; Chandler, J; Boyle, A; Kneller, P; Haslam, R

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines unusual eighteenth and nineteenth century dental treatment and its consequences, in a nobleman excavated from beneath St. Nicholas' Church, Sevenoaks, Kent, UK in the early 1990s. This rare archaeological case exhibits erosion of dental enamel on the labial surface of all the anterior dentition. A programme of historical research suggests that this might be attributed to the application of an acid-based dental tincture or the use of an abrasive substance to whiten the teeth. Palliative treatment for the consequence of this application was prescribed by Dr Robert Blake of Dublin. Further, it bears witness to three dental restorations, two of gold and one tin. The two gold (foil) fillings are an occlusal in the upper-right second molar and a cervical on the labial surface of the upper left canine. The tin filling is an occlusal in the upper left second molar. Excavation of the carious tissue appears to have been undertaken using a spoon shaped implement. PMID:11132689

  2. Judicial Review of Citizenship Education in Nineteenth Century American Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, George J.

    This paper traces the Supreme Court's powers of judicial review in the 19th century and considers its relation to citizenship education. The 19th century was selected as the major focus because it was during this century that the Court attempted to establish its powers of review and generally to reaffirm judicial powers. Also, the controversy over…

  3. Slavery in the 19th Century: A Unit of Study for Grades 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Jim; Robertson, John

    This unit is one of a series that presents specific moments in history from which students focus on the meanings of landmark events. The lessons included in this unit attempt to make slavery comprehensible to students, showing its oppressiveness and yet explaining how white Southern culture rationalized and sustained it. The unit also explains how…

  4. Authority and Audience-Centered Writing Strategies: Sexism in 19th-Century Sewing Machine Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durack, Katherine T.

    1998-01-01

    Examines audience-centered writing strategies in two early sewing machine manuals. Considers the difference between non-sexist and gender-neutral writing. Concludes that avoiding sexism in technical writing may sometimes be impossible. (PA)

  5. Survival in 19th Century Cities: The Larger the City, the Smaller Your Chances.

    PubMed

    Cain, Louis; Hong, Sok Chul

    2009-10-01

    Using Union Army veterans' lifetime socioeconomic and health records, this essay finds a consistent and persistent hierarchy in survival rates and hazard ratios by urban size at and across three stages of life: birth, late adolescence, and death. This urban mortality penalty remains after controlling for variables associated with each individual veteran. The results of our geographical mobility analyses suggest that, with respect to these veterans, the search for an explanation should focus on late adolescence and adulthood as much as on early life. A complete explanation of the penalty requires a project of greater scope.

  6. Gestural Enthymemes: Delivering Movement in 18th- and 19th-Century Medical Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    This article contributes to recent efforts to add life and movement to rhetorical studies by focusing on the representation of movement in medical texts. More specifically, this study examines medical texts, illustrations, and photographs involving movement by Johann Casper Lavater, G. B. Duchenne de Bologne, Charles Darwin, and Etienne-Jules…

  7. Long 19th Century? Long 20th? Retooling that Last Chunk of World History Periodization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Peter N.

    2009-01-01

    As in any historical endeavor, periodization is an attempt to manage change, and present it coherently, by noting points where key breaks in framework occur. In world history, periodization has come to convey, particularly, shifts in the pattern of interactions and contacts among many, though not always all, major societies. In this article, the…

  8. [A novel treatment of cholera by a Mexican physician in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-de-Romo, A C

    1995-01-01

    Doctor Felipe Castillo, head of the Hospital de San Pablo during the cholera epidemic of 1850, used "Salty water" as treatment for the patients who attended the hospital. The etiology and pathogenesis of this sickness were unknown in those days, so Castillo's conduct was surprising. This study is based on an unpublished report, classified as anonymous, that Castillo gave to the Governor of Mexico City during the cholera epidemic.

  9. The Education of Laura Bridgman and the Epistemological Debates of the 19th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeberg, Ernest

    2001-01-01

    Describes the education of Laura Bridgman, the first deaf and blind person to communicate through language, examining the work of Samuel Gridley Howe, Perkins Institute for the Blind director, as he tested his ideas on: human nature and cognition; the philosophical debates of antebellum U.S. culture; early attempts at empirical psychological…

  10. The 19th Century Origins of Facial Cosmetic Surgery and John H. Woodbury.

    PubMed

    Denkler, Keith A; Hudson, Rosalind F

    2015-09-01

    John H. Woodbury was an incredibly entrepreneurial, self-trained dermatologist who, between 1870 and 1909, built an empire of cosmetic surgery institutes in 6 states, with 25 physician/surgeon employees and an advertising budget of $150,000/year (1892 data). Under his management, his surgeons, and perhaps Woodbury himself, performed multiple facial cosmetic surgeries, including early versions of browlifts, frown excisions, lower facelifts, mid-face lifts, rhinoplasties, double-chin reductions, and dimple creation. In addition, Woodbury developed a proprietary soap and cosmetic line, which he sold to Jergens for $212,500 in 1901 (retaining a 10% royalty). Woodbury's story has been unknown until now because this nonacademic concentrated his publishing in articles and advertisements in lay magazines. Woodbury's life ended in bankruptcy, litigation, and suicide when the corporate practice of medicine and advertising were made illegal. In his legal proceedings, Woodbury conceded that he was not a doctor, although he went by the title. Regardless, his surgical innovations are of major historical significance, as these cosmetic procedures are the first of their kind to be noted in the lay or academic press and predate, by years and even decades, the previously earliest known cosmetic surgeries in the United States.

  11. Silas Weir Mitchell on epilepsy therapy in the late 19th to early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, David B; Boes, Christopher J

    2014-11-01

    Silas Weir Mitchell (1829-1914), one of the fathers of American neurology, is well known for many contributions to neurology. However, his efforts in epilepsy are overshadowed by his other accomplishments. Mitchell introduced a new bromide preparation, lithium bromide, as a viable therapy. His most widely accepted contribution to the field was the introduction of inhaled amyl nitrite for early termination of seizures accompanied by an appropriate aura. Despite the prevalent views on lifestyle modification as a treatment for epilepsy during this time period, as well as Mitchell's own development of the "rest cure" for certain disease states, he was not a proponent of these types of interventions for epilepsy, nor did he support interventions focused on other organ systems, such as abdominal or gynecologic surgery. Mitchell had distinct opinions on the treatment of epilepsy, and helped to advance its therapeutics during his career.

  12. Linking buildings, archives and museums of the 19th century Turin's Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamborrino, R.; Rinaudo, F.

    2015-08-01

    The documentation of Cultural Heritage asset is the basis for all the interventions and policies on Cultural heritage conservation and management. The documentation is mainly based on historic knowledge and metric survey. As far as historic knowledge is concerned many information are still recorded and preserved inside written documents that are usually not easy to reach and correctly understandable by all the experts that have specific responsibilities on Cultural Heritage. The digitalization of documents (hardly faced in the last years) is not sufficient to guarantee the effective access to the historical information useful inside a documentation process. The documentation always needs an historical interpretation based on a critical reading produced by linking heterogeneous materials. Iconography also is an important source when it is correctly interpreted and linked to other sources. IT development and digital technology diffusion allowed offering new way to record, organize and share historical information: GIS and 3D modeling can be used as standard approaches to transfer the historical knowledge in a proper way to specialists involved in Cultural Heritage conservation and management. They have been generally used as tool to represent information for different targets, the ones mostly for specialized users, the others for edutainment. GIS are largely diffused yet in the Cultural Heritage management, and 3D modeling is wide spread used in museums communication. Nevertheless, both of them have more potential. They could be integrated in order to manage different data set related with the same matter. They could be used to make new research by surveying and improving interpretation in a way ready to transmit the outcomes. To produce a new generation of affordable digital historical products is necessary that the GIS and 3D modeling design and realization would be developed in a multidisciplinary approach that must be explained and demonstrated to the people that in the future will offer to the community this expertise. The paper describes a teaching and research training experience started two years ago at the Politecnico di Torino in the master course on Architecture (Conservation).

  13. Edison and the pure science ideal in 19th-century america.

    PubMed

    Hounshell, D A

    1980-02-01

    Between 1878 and 1882, key members of the American scientific community played an important role in Thomas A. Edison's work on electric lighting. Impressed by his abilities, these scientists came to regard Edison as a peer and led him to see himself as a scientific man. But Edison's high standing among scientists and the American public and his professed self-image as a scientist provoked America's noted experimental physicist, Henry A. Rowland, to make a "Plea for pure science" before the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1883.

  14. Milk, social acceptance of a new food in Europe: Catalonia, 19th-20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Nicolau-Nos, Roser; Pujol-Andreu, Josep; Hernández, Ismael

    2010-01-01

    In this article we analyse the time course of the consumption of fresh milk in different regions of Europe between the 1870s and 1930s. Working from the case of Catalonia, we affirm that the increasing consumption of milk in that period must be especially linked to the spreading of new scientific knowledge in microbiology and nutrition that followed Pasteur's discoveries. We particularly highlight the information dissemination activities in this direction carried out by health sector professionals (medical doctors and pharmacists), governing local institutions and the milk industry. The initiatives developed by these groups changed people's preferences--fresh milk became accepted as a necessary food-stuff, and demand for it increased. However, the evolution of consumption was not the same in all regions of Europe due to their different environmental and agronomic conditions.

  15. The 19th Century Origins of Facial Cosmetic Surgery and John H. Woodbury.

    PubMed

    Denkler, Keith A; Hudson, Rosalind F

    2015-09-01

    John H. Woodbury was an incredibly entrepreneurial, self-trained dermatologist who, between 1870 and 1909, built an empire of cosmetic surgery institutes in 6 states, with 25 physician/surgeon employees and an advertising budget of $150,000/year (1892 data). Under his management, his surgeons, and perhaps Woodbury himself, performed multiple facial cosmetic surgeries, including early versions of browlifts, frown excisions, lower facelifts, mid-face lifts, rhinoplasties, double-chin reductions, and dimple creation. In addition, Woodbury developed a proprietary soap and cosmetic line, which he sold to Jergens for $212,500 in 1901 (retaining a 10% royalty). Woodbury's story has been unknown until now because this nonacademic concentrated his publishing in articles and advertisements in lay magazines. Woodbury's life ended in bankruptcy, litigation, and suicide when the corporate practice of medicine and advertising were made illegal. In his legal proceedings, Woodbury conceded that he was not a doctor, although he went by the title. Regardless, his surgical innovations are of major historical significance, as these cosmetic procedures are the first of their kind to be noted in the lay or academic press and predate, by years and even decades, the previously earliest known cosmetic surgeries in the United States. PMID:26069152

  16. [The prison of Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Suárez-Guzmán, F J; Peral-Pacheco, D

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the situation of prisoners in Spanish jails, taking the circumstances of the inmates at the prison of Jerez de los Caballeros as a particular example. Documents from the Jerez Municipal Historical Archives were studied along with other contemporary and more current publications. The results show that the conditions of the buildings bordered on the ruinous, the facilities were in poor condition or unavailable and health and hygiene were practically inhumane. Pathologies of the prisoners posed a threat to the general population, as there was the risk of outbreaks of epidemics, but almost nothing is known about them. Efforts by the authorities to remedy structural problems and health problems were few and mostly ineffective due to due to economic difficulties. Medical assistance was provided by local doctors in exchange for a fee. PMID:25418827

  17. [The opiate pharmacopeia in France from its origins to the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2010-04-01

    For thousands of years, opium was the main remedy against pain. Its analgesic properties have been known since antiquity, as well as its stupefacient, narcotic and addictive effects. A countless number of opiate galenical preparations had already been formulated by the beginning of our era. The best-known were electuaries, complex drugs combining multiple active substances, essentially plant-based, used to obtain beneficial effects for different aliments. These universal remedies were panaceas. Sonne opium--or opiate--based electuaries were recommended as antidotes to poison or snake venom. The best-known, Mithridate and Theriac Andromache (Venice Treacle), the latter also containing viper flesh, combined up to a hundred or so ingredients. However, this polypharmacy was criticized and it was an English doctor, Thomas Sydenham, to whom we owe the preparation of a liquid laudanum which was easier to administer than an electuary. Sydenham's laudanum (1683) was adopted by ail the pharmacopeias. Later, based on a traditional research approach, pharmacists attempted to isolate the active principles of opium. Seguin, but above ail the German pharmacist Sertürner (in 1805 and 1817) isolated morphine. Organic chemists took over from the analysts, and morphine derivatives were obtained by hemi-synthesis (heroin), and then central analgesics, or opioids, by total synthesis. Opium is no longer seen as the only supreme remedy for painful disorders, and its galenic forms have gradually disappeared from pharmacopeias.

  18. [Professional education of Polish physicians in otologic centers of Vienna in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Kierzek, A

    2000-01-01

    The foundations of the modern otology in Vienna created Adam Politzer, Joseph Gruber, Victor Urbantschitsch. The professional and scientific achievements of Joseph Gruber and Victor Urbantschitsch are described briefly. Gruber was one of two heads of otiatric clinic in Vienna. Urbantschitsch was an authority of psychophysiology of hearing. Such well-known otologists in Vienna as Gustav Alexander, Robert Bárány, Beniamin Gomperz, Erich Ruttin and others were a good teachers of many foreign physicians also from Polish territories. Robert Bárány was a Nobel prize winner.

  19. Numerical models for the 19th century outbursts of η Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, R. F.; Villa, A. M.; Gómez, G. C.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Raga, A. C.; Cantó, J.; Velázquez, P. F.; de La Fuente, E.

    2011-10-01

    We present here 2D hydrodynamical simulations of the eruptive events of the 1840s and the 1890s eruptions suffered by the massive star η Car. We assume a colliding wind scenario to explain the shape and kinematics of the bipolar nebulae formed from these events. We also find the formation of some tenuous, equatorial, high-speed features that seem to be related to the observed equatorial skirt of η Car.

  20. Revisiting 2D numerical models for the 19th century outbursts of η Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, R. F.; Villa, A. M.; Gómez, G. C.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Raga, A. C.; Cantó, J.; Velázquez, P. F.; de La Fuente, E.

    2010-02-01

    We present here new results of two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the eruptive events of the 1840s (the great) and the 1890s (the minor) eruptions suffered by the massive star η Carinae (Car). The two bipolar nebulae commonly known as the Homunculus and the little Homunculus (LH) were formed from the interaction of these eruptive events with the underlying stellar wind. We assume here an interacting, non-spherical multiple-phase wind scenario to explain the shape and the kinematics of both Homunculi, but adopt a more realistic parametrization of the phases of the wind. During the 1890s eruptive event, the outflow speed decreased for a short period of time. This fact suggests that the LH is formed when the eruption ends, from the impact of the post-outburst η Car wind (that follows the 1890s event) with the eruptive flow (rather than by the collision of the eruptive flow with the pre-outburst wind, as claimed in previous models; González et al.). Our simulations reproduce quite well the shape and the observed expansion speed of the large Homunculus. The LH (which is embedded within the large Homunculus) becomes Rayleigh-Taylor unstable and develop filamentary structures that resemble the spatial features observed in the polar caps. In addition, we find that the interior cavity between the two Homunculi is partially filled by material that is expelled during the decades following the great eruption. This result may be connected with the observed double-shell structure in the polar lobes of the η Car nebula. Finally, as in previous work, we find the formation of tenuous, equatorial, high-speed features that seem to be related to the observed equatorial skirt of η Car.

  1. Survival in 19th Century Cities: The Larger the City, the Smaller Your Chances

    PubMed Central

    Cain, Louis; Hong, Sok Chul

    2009-01-01

    Using Union Army veterans’ lifetime socioeconomic and health records, this essay finds a consistent and persistent hierarchy in survival rates and hazard ratios by urban size at and across three stages of life: birth, late adolescence, and death. This urban mortality penalty remains after controlling for variables associated with each individual veteran. The results of our geographical mobility analyses suggest that, with respect to these veterans, the search for an explanation should focus on late adolescence and adulthood as much as on early life. A complete explanation of the penalty requires a project of greater scope. PMID:20161075

  2. [Criminal superstition, pregnancy and infants at the turn of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bachhiesl, Sonja Maria

    2012-01-01

    Around 1900, various crimes were still caused by criminal superstition. Criminologists like Hans Gross, Albert Hellwig and August Löwenstimm were engaged in the exploration of this topic aiming at the complete explanation of criminal behaviour linked to superstition. Crimes against pregnant women and infants are particularly good examples to illustrate the problems arising from crimes motivated by superstition. When assessing superstition under scientific and legal aspects, the criminologists applied different approaches, although positivistic rationalization was the most common tendency. In the forensic and legal evaluation of crimes related to superstition the problematical questions were whether the perpetrator was criminally responsible and how the offence was to be legally qualified. In many cases, criminals motivated by superstition were treated with more lenience.

  3. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: its conceptual history in France during the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Berrios, G E

    1989-01-01

    Until the 1850s, obsessive-compulsive phenomena were considered to be a variant of the old notion of insanity. Around this time they became a separate disease: first, as a member of the old class of the neuroses; then, briefly, as a variant of the newly formed notion of psychosis; and finally, as a neurosis proper (in the post-1880s sense). These changes reflected theoretical shifts in the definition of the grand psychiatric categories. After 1860, organic causal hypotheses for OCD included dysfunctions of the autonomic nervous system and cortical blood supply. Psychological hypotheses suggested the OCD might result from volitional, intellectual, or emotional impairment, the last of which predominated after 1890. Issues relating OCD to personality types and hereditability were dealt with in terms of the degeneration theory. By the late 1880s, OCD achieved full clinical and nosological definition.

  4. Edison and the pure science ideal in 19th-century america.

    PubMed

    Hounshell, D A

    1980-02-01

    Between 1878 and 1882, key members of the American scientific community played an important role in Thomas A. Edison's work on electric lighting. Impressed by his abilities, these scientists came to regard Edison as a peer and led him to see himself as a scientific man. But Edison's high standing among scientists and the American public and his professed self-image as a scientist provoked America's noted experimental physicist, Henry A. Rowland, to make a "Plea for pure science" before the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1883. PMID:17749314

  5. [The participation of the Warsaw otolaryngologists in medical conferences and congresses in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Kierzek, A

    1998-01-01

    The participation of a famous Polish laryngologist Teodor Heryng (1847-1925) in many scientific congresses was presented in separate publications. Many Varsovian otolaryngologists also took part in a great number of international congresses. Jan Sedziak's (1861-1932) participation in international congress in Vienna in 1908 on account of the 50th anniversary of the invention of laryngoscopy by Manuel Garcia is stressed. Sedziak was specially esteemed in Great Britain and in the United States of North America. Very significant contribution of Alfred M. Sokołowski (1849-1924) to the medical congress in Rome in 1894 is described. The widespread contacts of Varsovian otolaryngologists: Zdzisław Dmochowski, Feliks Erbrich, Leopold Lubliner, Edmund Modrzejewski, Zygmunt Srebrny. Jan Szmurło, Witold Szumlański with the European scientific world are mentioned, as well as their active participation in many medical meetings and congresses.

  6. Struck by lightning: Lichtenberg figures on a 19th-century wax model.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Lang, Johanna; Klemm, Eckart; Wollina, Karin; Nowak, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Wax models in dermatology were used to a large extent until the 1930s as three-dimensional models to illustrate various pathologic conditions and in particular cutaneous signs of disease. As an example, a young woman who was struck by lightning and developed Lichtenberg figures is presented. Lichtenberg figures are a fernlike pattern on skin, characteristic of lightning. Such a wax model housed in the German Hygiene Museum Dresden, Germany, illustrates the significance of wax models and how, even today, they can play an important role in medical education. PMID:25432817

  7. GPR Detection and Geophysical Characteristics of Burials in an 19th Century Cemetery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobyarchick, A. R.; Brooks, C.; Flowers, M.; Johnson, B.

    2009-12-01

    We conducted a GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) survey as part of a forensic investigation of the Second Site Cemetery (Rice Cemetery, Hartt Cemetery) in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. The oldest marked grave at Second Site is 1797, although it is likely that unmarked graves date back to 1780. The most recent marked grave is dated 1848, but forensic evidence suggest that Second Site was in active use until at least the 1880s. The Second Site cemetery contains a "members" section and a "servants" section. The servants section contains graves of slaves, former slaves, and possibly other individuals. Our objectives were to determine the locations of unmarked graves in the servants cemetery, and to define the GPR characteristics that might help distinguish between burials in simple (or no) enclosures and those involving ornamented caskets with hardware. We selected a 15 m by 15 m section of the servants cemetery (Section A) and a second 5 m by 5 m section (Section Z) to conduct GPR surveys, and excavated one grave in each section. Our GPR surveys were done with a GSSI SIR 3000 and a 400 MHz antenna in distance mode. The Section A GPR survey comprised parallel north-south profiles at 0.2 m intervals, and a set of cross lines at 0.5 m spacing. The Section Z profiles were north-south but at a spacing of 0.4 m. Soils in the cemetery are CeB2: Cecil sandy clay loam, clay, clay loam, and sandy loam derived from saprolitized metagranite. We established that a relative permittivity of 3 was suitable for this site at average depths of about 1.5 m, the nominal depth of burial. GPR profiles in both sections revealed some common geophysical characteristics. Most graves are longitudinally oriented east-west. Our north-south profiles therefore define grave lengths. Graves in non-migrated GPR sections are parabolic reflections with lower frequency responses than background. The size, shape, and spectral qualities of these reflections distinguish them from other sources (debris, stones, roots). We found a horizontal reflective horizon about 0.5 m thick at depths of 1.0-1.5 m that coincides with a hard clay soil layer exposed in excavations. Most grave shafts terminate within this horizon. This clay layer may be a normal part of the soil profile and not an accumulation zone at the bottom of grave shafts, but this is still to be verified by soil profiles. The grave in Section A contained iron nails, metal thumb screws, in situ swing bail handles, some still attached to carbonized casket wood, ceramic buttons, and very poorly preserved human remains. An worn eye coin from this grave was dated 1876, the maximum date of interment. The excavated, undated grave in Section Z, which unexpectedly contained a double burial, produced sparse small, iron wood nails and minimal human remains. The Section A grave showed a well-defined GPR reflection with which we can correlate other graves in the servants cemetery. In contrast, the Section Z grave produced a much weaker reflection probably because of the general absence of hardware. We believe it is possible to begin to map burial practices on the basis of the GPR characteristics of each grave.

  8. A Treatise on Signed and Spoken Language in Early 19th Century Deaf Education in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Harry G.; Stokoe, William

    2000-01-01

    This article introduces a reprint of an 1835 article by Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard entitled, "Existing State of the Art of Instructing the Deaf and Dumb". It reviews Barnard's background and achievements (including 25 years as the president of Columbia College), his familial progressive deafness, and his advanced views on communication…

  9. Properties of sunspot cycles and hemispheric wings since the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leussu, Raisa; Usoskin, Ilya G.; Arlt, Rainer; Mursula, Kalevi

    2016-08-01

    Aims: The latitudinal evolution of sunspot emergence over the course of the solar cycle, the so-called butterfly diagram, is a fundamental property of the solar dynamo. Here we present a study of the butterfly diagram of sunspot group occurrence for cycles 7-10 and 11-23 using data from a recently digitized sunspot drawings by Samuel Heinrich Schwabe in 1825-1867, and from RGO/USAF/NOAA(SOON) compilation of sunspot groups in 1874-2015. Methods: We developed a new, robust method of hemispheric wing separation based on an analysis of long gaps in sunspot group occurrence in different latitude bands. The method makes it possible to ascribe each sunspot group to a certain wing (solar cycle and hemisphere), and separate the old and new cycle during their overlap. This allows for an improved study of solar cycles compared to the common way of separating the cycles. Results: We separated each hemispheric wing of the butterfly diagram and analysed them with respect to the number of groups appearing in each wing, their lengths, hemispheric differences, and overlaps. Conclusions: The overlaps of successive wings were found to be systematically longer in the northern hemisphere for cycles 7-10, but in the southern hemisphere for cycles 16-22. The occurrence of sunspot groups depicts a systematic long-term variation between the two hemispheres. During Schwabe time, the hemispheric asymmetry was north-dominated during cycle 9 and south-dominated during cycle 10.

  10. Building a 19th Century climate chronology for the Karoo: 1840-1870

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupini, Athanasia

    2016-04-01

    The need to increase knowledge of global climate change has led to a drive to create long term climatic data sets for countries and smaller regions. With these data sets it is possible to identify patterns in past recent climate and use these to model future climate. The science of historical climatology allows this without having to rely on instrumental data, which may not be available or reliable. Documentary sources usually provide exact dates in which climatic events occur, which can then be utilized to compare to climatic events in neighbouring regions. This study provides the first reconstruction and extended chronology for climate and precipitation for the Albany region in the Eastern Karoo, for 1840-1870, using historical documentary sources. Methodologies were adopted from similar investigations, where any references to the climate were extracted, digitized and categorized according to an index for both rainfall and temperature (Grab and Nash 2010; Nash and Grab, 2010). The data was categorized into an October to September year due to the study site receiving year long rainfall, and final indexes were created for the warm and dry seasons. Droughts that were recorded in this investigation occurred during 1848-1849, 1861-1862, 1862-1863. Floods were identified in 1847-1848, and in 1867-1868. The study site was found to experience significantly drier than wet periods, and the damage described in the accounts from drought was far more severe than that described during periods of flooding. The findings of this study were also compared to several similar studies conducted in neighbouring regions, and a general consistency was found (Grab and Nash 2010; Nash and Grab, 2010; Nash and Endfield, 2002; Vogel, 1989). Further work examining the socio-economic impacts, patterns of locust visitations and comparing modern day to past recent rainfall is also identified.

  11. 19th Century Canals and the Growth of New York and New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This publication opens with a statement by the 2001-2002 National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) President Adrian Davis on the horrific events of September 11, 2001. Davis said that social studies educators need to reinforce the ideals of tolerance, equity, and social justice against a backlash of antidemocratic sentiments and hostile…

  12. Joseph Henry and John Henry Lefroy A common 19th century vision of auroral research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, S. M.

    Research on solar-terrestrial relationships today relies primarily on in situ space data. These data, however, cover only a short period of about 30 years. Many solar and related phenomena vary on much longer time scales. For the study of these, parameters such as sunspots, magnetic activity, auroral occurrence, or other proxy data are required. Historical records of aurora are particularly useful in this connection.

  13. Jean-Martin Charcot's Role in the 19th Century Study of Music Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Julene K.; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his "Friday…

  14. Astronomy in "Serbskij Narodnij List" / "Serbian National Weekly" / (first half of the 19th century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, B. D.

    2003-10-01

    The Editor in Chief of the cited weekly was our famous writer and journalist Teodor Pavlovic (1804-1854), founder of the Gallery of Matica Srpska, and the Editor in chief of the oldest monthly in Europe - "Letopis Matice Srpske" / "Annals of Matica Srpska"/. Reviewed, in this paper, are 21+2 articles dealing with Astronomy. The majority of them had no author undersigned, so that one may suspect them having been written by Pavlovic himself. Starting by explaining the appearance of comets and their characteristics, on the occasion of Halley's comet return, the eclipses of the Sun and the Moon, they included also the discussion of the origins of the Universe and the formation of stars and nebulae. It is interesting that the Serbs, of those times, had the opportunity to read such articles. Certainly the editor was asked to answer questions addressed by the subcribers. It is a great pity and a loss that his correspondence has not been saved.

  15. [To the study of conventual health in the beginning of 19th century: the pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Pessa de Oliveira, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    The institution "Junta do Exame do Estado Actual e Melhoramento Temporal das Ordens Regulares" (Examination Council for the Actual State and Temporal Improvement of the Religious Orders) was created in November of 1789. Among other things, each Religious House should inform that institution about its heritage either the movables and the landed estates. The inventorying included all the goods belonging to wards and drugstores. In this paper, we aim to study those places using records obtained from a variety of Religious Houses with no regional or Religious Order preferences. We will try to give answers to questions related to that spaces such as 'Which objects could be found inside the Houses?'; 'Were they properly equipped?'; and 'Were there big differences between them in what concerns Religious Orders and Houses locations?'. PMID:21972472

  16. [The neuron theory: one of the main scientific achievements of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Probst, A; Langui, D

    1994-04-19

    The cell theory, enunciated by Theodor Schwann in 1839, stated that all tissues in the body are composed of individual cells. The theory gained immediate acceptance for all organs except for the nervous system where some basic problems were encountered, among them the difficulties in establishing the relation between nerve cells, nerve fibers and terminal branches. Deiters observations (1865) had provided evidence that the basic structure of a nerve cell was made up of a cell body, protoplasmic prolongations (dendrites), and a single long axon. This helped to define the nerve cell as the basic unit of the nervous tissue but it remained then to understand how the nerve cells are connected since they do not make direct contact through their cell bodies and are separated by the 'neuroglia'. Two fundamentally different views of the organization of neurons arose, one holding that neurons are individual and contiguous units, connected in chains to form specific pathways (His, Forel, Nansen, Ramón y Cajal), the other that thin nerve cell branches from continuous diffuse networks through which the neuronal activity propagates (Gerlach, Golgi). The key technological advance that led to the resolution of most of these uncertainties came in 1873 with the introduction by Camillo Golgi of a new method of staining individual nerve cells. In 1887, Santiago Ramón y Cajal stumbled on the Golgi stain and began an intense study of neuronal morphology throughout the nervous system. As far back as 1887 it was shown that the nervous system is not a mass of fused cells showing a common cytoplasm, but a highly intricate network of discrete cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8191186

  17. Jean-Martin Charcot's role in the 19th century study of music aphasia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

    2013-05-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his 'Friday Lessons' on aphasia, which took place at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris in 1883-84. In his most comprehensive discussion about music, Charcot described a professional trombone player who developed difficulty copying music notation and playing his instrument, thereby identifying a new isolated syndrome of music agraphia without aphasia. Because the description of this case was published only in Italian by one of his students, Domenico Miliotti, there has been considerable confusion and under-acknowledgement of Charcot's ideas about music and the brain. In this paper, we describe Charcot's ideas regarding music and place them within the historical context of the growing interest in the neurological underpinnings of music abilities that took place in the 1880s. PMID:23576129

  18. Medical history of the representation of rosacea in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Cribier, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    Throughout the 1800s, clinical illustrations helped to formalize what was then the recently developed field of dermatology. Knowledge of skin diseases was given new dimension as artists and clinicians alike strove to accurately document the physical characteristics of numerous dermatoses. Introduction of novel processes and refined techniques advanced the clinical use of disease images. The increasingly superior quality of these images aided in the early distinction between rosacea and acne. This article highlights these illustrative contributions in dermatology, and includes key images that serve as a road map to early clinical understanding of skin diseases.

  19. [The neuron theory: one of the main scientific achievements of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Probst, A; Langui, D

    1994-04-19

    The cell theory, enunciated by Theodor Schwann in 1839, stated that all tissues in the body are composed of individual cells. The theory gained immediate acceptance for all organs except for the nervous system where some basic problems were encountered, among them the difficulties in establishing the relation between nerve cells, nerve fibers and terminal branches. Deiters observations (1865) had provided evidence that the basic structure of a nerve cell was made up of a cell body, protoplasmic prolongations (dendrites), and a single long axon. This helped to define the nerve cell as the basic unit of the nervous tissue but it remained then to understand how the nerve cells are connected since they do not make direct contact through their cell bodies and are separated by the 'neuroglia'. Two fundamentally different views of the organization of neurons arose, one holding that neurons are individual and contiguous units, connected in chains to form specific pathways (His, Forel, Nansen, Ramón y Cajal), the other that thin nerve cell branches from continuous diffuse networks through which the neuronal activity propagates (Gerlach, Golgi). The key technological advance that led to the resolution of most of these uncertainties came in 1873 with the introduction by Camillo Golgi of a new method of staining individual nerve cells. In 1887, Santiago Ramón y Cajal stumbled on the Golgi stain and began an intense study of neuronal morphology throughout the nervous system. As far back as 1887 it was shown that the nervous system is not a mass of fused cells showing a common cytoplasm, but a highly intricate network of discrete cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Community Schools in 19th Century Texas and School Choice Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Alan W.

    2000-01-01

    Community schools arose in Texas in opposition to a post-Civil War centralized school system. Emphasis on parental control, minimal regulation, and funding similar to vouchers echo today's issues about school choice. Their history provides lessons for current school reform efforts. (SK)

  1. Anton Dohrn and the problems of 19th century phylogenetic morphology.

    PubMed

    Breidbach, Olaf; Ghiselin, Michael T

    2007-05-01

    According to Anton Dohrn, evolutionary development was performed in a single progressive lineage where some proto-annelid initiated an evolutionary development that went straight on via annelids and lower vertebrates to man. From that line, a kind of metamorphosing nature, certain branches were derived, like protists or worms or even tunicates, which Dohrn thought off as degenerating groups. With that concept Dohrn came close to typological ideas of his time. Nevertheless, recent evo-devo literature seems to be influenced by Dohrn's outline of evolution.

  2. Accepting Pain Over Comfort: Resistance to the Use of Anesthesia in the Mid-19th Century.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Rachel; Desai, Sukumar P

    2015-10-01

    News of the successful use of ether anesthesia on October 16, 1846, spread rapidly through the world. Considered one of the greatest medical discoveries, this triumph over man's cardinal symptom, the symptom most likely to persuade patients to seek medical attention, was praised by physicians and patients alike. Incredibly, this option was not accepted by all, and opposition to the use of anesthesia persisted among some sections of society decades after its introduction. We examine the social and medical factors underlying this resistance. At least seven major objections to the newly introduced anesthetic agents were raised by physicians and patients. Complications of anesthesia, including death, were reported in the press, and many avoided anesthesia to minimize the considerable risk associated with surgery. Modesty prevented female patients from seeking unconsciousness during surgery, where many men would be present. Biblical passages stating that women would bear children in pain were used to discourage them from seeking analgesia during labor. Some medical practitioners believed that pain was beneficial to satisfactory progression of labor and recovery from surgery. Others felt that patient advocacy and participation in decision making during surgery would be lost under the influence of anesthesia. Early recreational use of nitrous oxide and ether, commercialization with patenting of Letheon, and the fighting for credit for the discovery of anesthesia suggested unprofessional behavior and smacked of quackery. Lastly, in certain geographical areas, notably Philadelphia, physicians resisted this Boston-based medical advance, citing unprofessional behavior and profit seeking. Although it appears inconceivable that such a major medical advance would face opposition, a historical examination reveals several logical grounds for the initial societal and medical skepticism.

  3. [Experimental testing of Pflüger's reflex hypothesis of menstruation in late 19th century].

    PubMed

    Simmer, H H

    1980-07-01

    Pflüger's hypothesis of a nerve reflex as the cause of menstruation published in 1865 and accepted by many, nonetheless did not lead to experimental investigations for 25 years. According to this hypothesis the nerve reflex starts in the ovary by an increase of the intraovarian pressure by the growing follicles. In 1884 Adolph Kehrer proposed a program to test the nerve reflex, but only in 1890, Cohnstein artificially increased the intraovarian pressure in women by bimanual compression from the outside and the vagina. His results were not convincing. Six years later, Strassmann injected fluids into ovaries of animals and obtained changes in the uterus resembling those of oestrus. His results seemed to verify a prognosis derived from Pflüger's hypothesis. Thus, after a long interval, that hypothesis had become a paradigma. Though reasons can be given for the delay, it is little understood, why experimental testing started so late. PMID:6161737

  4. [EMBALMING IN 19TH-20TH CENTURY LOMBARDY: PAOLO GORINI AND GIUSEPPE PARAVICINI].

    PubMed

    Carli, Alberto; Piombino-Mascali, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The Gorini Museum, later renamed Gorini Anatomical Collection, was founded in 1981 by pathologist Antonio Allegri. Many of the anatomical pieces created by scientist Paolo Gorini between 1843 and 1881 are held in the ancient chapterhouse of the Old Hospital of Lodi. These remains bear witness to Gorini's preparation skills and represent a precious historical and scientific heritage. Beyond the Gorini anatomical collection, the Museum has recently acquired the specimens prepared by Giuseppe Paravicini, a scientist and physician who developed a preservation method for educational and funerary purposes. Both the Gorini and the Paravicini specimens represent a unique opportunity to assess the evolution of preparation arts in terms of materials employed and the results achieved, and will successfully engage the general public with the world of anatomical mummies.

  5. Investigating 19th and early 20th century Earthquakes in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albini, Paola; Strasser, Fleur O.; Flint, Nicolette S.

    2014-05-01

    The seismicity for the years between 1820 and 1936 of Grahamstown, a settlement located in the heart of the current Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, is investigated with recourse to contemporaneous documentary sources. This investigation led to the development of a seismic history incorporating consideration of the broader geo-political context of the Eastern Cape colonial territory at that time. Individual studies of five regional events, ranging from Mw 6 to 4, that were felt in Grahamstown during that period are presented. An additional earthquake that was not felt at Grahamstown was included to present the exhaustive approach adopted in the study of the seismicity of the area. Each earthquake study includes the development of a full set of intensity data points (IDPs), which are used to determine reappraised epicentral locations and magnitudes, some of which differ significantly from previously listed parameters. The results thus obtained highlight the value of seeking out additional contemporary sources from a variety of sources in different languages when revisiting the source parameters of earthquakes for which no or only very limited instrumental information is available.

  6. [Experimental testing of Pflüger's reflex hypothesis of menstruation in late 19th century].

    PubMed

    Simmer, H H

    1980-07-01

    Pflüger's hypothesis of a nerve reflex as the cause of menstruation published in 1865 and accepted by many, nonetheless did not lead to experimental investigations for 25 years. According to this hypothesis the nerve reflex starts in the ovary by an increase of the intraovarian pressure by the growing follicles. In 1884 Adolph Kehrer proposed a program to test the nerve reflex, but only in 1890, Cohnstein artificially increased the intraovarian pressure in women by bimanual compression from the outside and the vagina. His results were not convincing. Six years later, Strassmann injected fluids into ovaries of animals and obtained changes in the uterus resembling those of oestrus. His results seemed to verify a prognosis derived from Pflüger's hypothesis. Thus, after a long interval, that hypothesis had become a paradigma. Though reasons can be given for the delay, it is little understood, why experimental testing started so late.

  7. Jean-Martin Charcot's role in the 19th century study of music aphasia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julene K; Lorch, Marjorie; Nicolas, Serge; Graziano, Amy

    2013-05-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-93) was a well-known French neurologist. Although he is widely recognized for his discovery of several neurological disorders and his research into aphasia, Charcot's ideas about how the brain processes music are less well known. Charcot discussed the music abilities of several patients in the context of his 'Friday Lessons' on aphasia, which took place at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris in 1883-84. In his most comprehensive discussion about music, Charcot described a professional trombone player who developed difficulty copying music notation and playing his instrument, thereby identifying a new isolated syndrome of music agraphia without aphasia. Because the description of this case was published only in Italian by one of his students, Domenico Miliotti, there has been considerable confusion and under-acknowledgement of Charcot's ideas about music and the brain. In this paper, we describe Charcot's ideas regarding music and place them within the historical context of the growing interest in the neurological underpinnings of music abilities that took place in the 1880s.

  8. Then and Now: Fundraising during a Fiscal Crisis--Lessons from the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muscatelli, Anton; Mackay, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    A housing and municipal construction bubble popped and generated a lending crisis in which interbank lending rates became impossibly high. The banking crisis, which spread across Europe and the United States, eventually impacted other industries, leading to a stock market crash and an economic contraction lasting several years. This was not in…

  9. [Three female physicians of the Montpellier faculty at the turn of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Jacqueline; Gilgenkrantz, Simone

    2015-01-01

    As a part of a study on the census of female students listed in medicine at the faculty of Montpellier since it opened to women in 1868 until the end of the Third Republic, we selected three women who passed their thesis respectively in 1899, 1905 and 1911. Thanks to the documents found in the archives, and the testimony of their descendants, we were able to trace their biography. In obstetrics, surgery and orthopaedics, they were exceptional pioneers and set an example for new vocations. PMID:27029136

  10. Struck by lightning: Lichtenberg figures on a 19th-century wax model.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Lang, Johanna; Klemm, Eckart; Wollina, Karin; Nowak, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Wax models in dermatology were used to a large extent until the 1930s as three-dimensional models to illustrate various pathologic conditions and in particular cutaneous signs of disease. As an example, a young woman who was struck by lightning and developed Lichtenberg figures is presented. Lichtenberg figures are a fernlike pattern on skin, characteristic of lightning. Such a wax model housed in the German Hygiene Museum Dresden, Germany, illustrates the significance of wax models and how, even today, they can play an important role in medical education.

  11. PREFACE: 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, T.; Martín-Martínez, M. J.; Mateos, J.

    2015-10-01

    The 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19) was held at the Hospedería Fonseca (Universidad de Salamanca, Spain), on 29 June - 2 July, 2015, and was organized by the Electronics Area from the University of Salamanca. The Conference is held biannually and covers the recent progress in the field of electron dynamics in solid-state materials and devices. This was the 19th meeting of the international conference series formerly named Hot Carriers in Semiconductors (HCIS), first held in Modena in 1973. In the edition of 1997 in Berlin the name of the conference changed to International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors, keeping the same acronym, HCIS; and finally in the edition of Montpellier in 2009 the name was again changed to the current one, International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON). The latest editions took place in Santa Barbara, USA, in 2011 and Matsue, Japan, in 2013. Research work on electron dynamics involves quite different disciplines, and requires both fundamental and technological scientific efforts. Attendees to the conference come mostly from academic institutions, belonging to both theoretical and experimental groups working in a variety of fields, such as solid-state physics, electronics, optics, electrical engineering, material science, laser physics, etc. In this framework, events like the EDISON conference become a basic channel for the progress in the field. Here, researchers working in different areas can meet, present their latest advances and exchange their ideas. The program of EDISON'19 included 13 invited papers, 61 oral contributions and 73 posters. These contributions originated from scientists in more than 30 different countries. The Conference gathered 140 participants, coming from 24 different countries, most from Europe, but also with a significant participation

  12. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (19th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 19-22, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J., Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

    This PTC'97 volume contains papers presented at the 19th annual conference of the Pacific Telecommunications Council, "Pacific Connections: Policy and Technology in the Information Economy" (1997). Three super-session groupings--industry, policy, and technology--provide attendees with a conceptual foundation from which subsequent concurrent…

  13. Organic Education in Public Schools of Late Nineteenth Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    Organic education, which was introduced into the United States during the last third of the 19th century, was based upon Froebel's ideal of life as a connected whole. The late 19th century was a favorable period for innovation, for its economic prosperity made leaders feel that with the use of scientific methods anything was possible, and its…

  14. For better or for worse? The dilemmas of unmarried motherhood in mid-twentieth-century popular British film and fiction.

    PubMed

    Fink, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates representations of unmarried motherhood in the late 1940s and early 1950s through readings of popular British film and fiction. These sources are used to illustrate contradictions and conflicts in the meanings afforded to unmarried motherhood and, in turn, to highlight how the unmarried mother was used as a motif for exploring post-war normative boundaries around marriage, motherhood, and female sexuality. The article draws upon Raymond Williams's idea of a 'structure of feeling' to make connections between these representations and issues and debates about the role and status of women and mothers more generally in post-war Britain.

  15. Chapter 39: an historical overview of British neurology.

    PubMed

    Rose, F Clifford

    2010-01-01

    In the UK, neurology stemmed from general (internal) medicine rather than psychiatry. In 1886 the Neurological Society of London was founded, with Hughlings Jackson as its first President. After World War I, Kinnier Wilson was made Physician in Charge of the first independent department of neurology, which was at Westminster Hospital in London. Although before the 17th century there were British doctors who took an interest in diseases of the nervous system, e.g. Gilbertus Anglicus (c. 1230), who distinguished epilepsy from apoplexy, and Bartholomeus Anglicus, whose encyclopedia (c. 1260) provided the first picture of a dissection printed in English, John of Gaddesden (1280-1361) was the first in Britain to produce a manuscript on neurological disorders. Thomas Willis (1621-1675) was the founder of Neurology, being the first to use the term, and was also the leader of the first multidisciplinary team in neurological science, helping to shift attention from the chambers of the brain to the brain substance itself. He wrote seven books, all but the last in Latin, and his second one, Cerebri anatome (1664) was the first on the nervous system to include the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves, introducing such new terms as lentiform body, corpus striatum, optic thalamus, inferior olives and peduncles. Most of his neurology was in his fifth book, De anima brutorum (1672). Before Willis the brain was a mystery, but his work laid the foundations for neurological advances. After the 17th century of William Harvey and Thomas Sydenham and the 18th century of William Heberden and Robert Whytt there followed the 19th century of James Parkinson (1755-1824), John Cooke (1756-1838), Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), Marshall Hall (1790-1856) and Bentley Todd (1809-1860). Besides its "Father," Hughlings Jackson, the giants who established the unique superiority of British neurology were Sir William Gowers, Sir David Ferrier, Kinnier Wilson, Sir Gordon Holmes and Sir Charles

  16. Proceedings of the 19th annual meeting of the Adhesion Society

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is the proceedings of the 19th Annual Meeting of the Adhesion Society, held February 18-21, 1996. Papers are presented on various aspects of adhesion, ranging from studies at the molecular level, to studies of the intermixing of polymer chains across interface joints, to the study of polymer/metal joints. Separate abstracts of articles from this proceedings have been indexed into the database.

  17. A Retrospective and Prospective Look at the "Happy English Child"--The Applicability of Postcolonial Theory to the British Government's Education Policy in Ireland in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relihan, Martina

    2005-01-01

    This paper looks at traditional nationalist and revisionist schools of historiography in relation to the British government's educational policy in Ireland following the establishment of the national school system in 1831 until the beginning of the twentieth century. It contrasts this with the postcolonial historiographical approach. It also looks…

  18. The tropics and the rise of the British Empire: Mungo Park's perspective on Africa in the late eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Viana, Larissa

    2011-03-01

    The young Scottish physician Mungo Park, aged 23, arrived in Africa in 1795 with a mission as specific as it was complex in those bygone days, namely to travel the entire length of the River Niger. In 1799, the story of this journey was published in a book that sold 1500 copies in the first month alone, with two further editions published that same year, as well as the translation of the work into French and German the following year. In this article, the narrative of Mungo Park is examined by taking due consideration of the relationship between the tropics, science and travel in the early days of British expansionism into the heart of Africa.

  19. The Bottom Line: Cable Telegraphy and the Rise of Field Theory in the Victorian British Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Bruce

    The networks of telegraph wires and undersea cables that began to spread across the world in the 1840s and 1850s had far-reaching effects on commerce and the dissemination of news. They also had deep effects on electrical science. In this paper, I will argue that what might at first appear to be a prime example of pure science--the development of electromagnetic field theory in Britain in the middle decades of the 19th century--was in fact driven in important ways by developments in the telegraph industry, particularly British scientists' and engineers' encounters with puzzling new phenomenon of the `retardation' of signals that turned up on underground wires and undersea cables in the early 1850s.

  20. The history of British gynaecological pathology.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    The venerable tradition of British gynaecological pathology is honoured by brief comments on those who have pioneered work in this arena, using as the starting point the remarkable Scottish physician Dr Matthew Baillie who, with his uncles, the legendary William and John Hunter, can arguably be considered the founders of medicine in Great Britain. The impact of Baillie's great work 'The Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Parts of the Human Body' is noted. Because of the fame they achieved in working in other areas, the contributions to gynaecological pathology of Thomas Hodgkin and Richard Bright, particularly the former, are often overlooked and are noted herein as is a remarkable book on the ovary by Charles G. Ritchie, published in 1865. The middle years of the 19th century were notable because of the activities of pioneering surgeons such as Sir Spencer Wells and Lawson Tait which gradually led to a greater emphasis on pathologic examination of specimens removed at operation, as opposed to autopsy evaluation. The closing years of the 19th century and early years of the 20th century were dominated by five individuals, Alban Doran, John Bland-Sutton, Cuthbert Lockyer, Elizabeth Hurdon and John Hammond Teacher. Doran wrote an early study of tubal carcinoma and a book on that organ and the ovary. Bland-Sutton was a remarkably influential surgeon with a significant interest in pathology and also contributed a book on the ovary and fallopian tube as well as one of the early good papers on metastatic tumours to the ovary. Lockyer wrote an outstanding book on uterine fibroids and established, and funded, a museum at Charing Cross Hospital. Hurdon can be considered the first female gynaecological pathologist. She spent much of her active career in the United States working at Johns Hopkins Hospital. She co-authored a monumental book on the appendix, likely never to be equalled. Teacher worked in Glasgow for many years and was almost single-handedly responsible

  1. 19th JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, J. E. (Editor); Becker, D. L. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a compilation of 22 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 19th Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. The meeting was held 18-21 March 2002 at the Sheraton Colorado Springs Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Topics covered include green energetic materials and life cycle pollution prevention; space launch range safety; propellant/munitions demilitarization, recycling, and reuse: and environmental and occupational health aspects of propellants and energetic materials.

  2. Proceedings of the 19th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Stephanie (Compiler); Morton, Thomas (Compiler)

    2007-01-01

    The 19th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT XIX) was held September 20 to 22, 2005, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT Conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year's conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVIII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

  3. Adult Learning in the Nineteenth Century in the Mirror of Novels and Short Stories: Czech Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, Jindra

    Czech novels and short stories dealing with life in the 19th century were reviewed for information about how adults in rural areas of Czechoslovakia learned and the topics that interested them. The literature review confirmed that adults living in rural areas of Czechoslovakia in the 19th century generally had a great desire for education,…

  4. Geometric frustration on a 1/9th site depleted triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, John; Beck, Jarrett

    2013-03-01

    In the searches both for new spin liquid and spin ice (artificial and macroscopic) candidates, geometrically frustrated two-dimensional spin systems have played a prominent role. Here we present a study of the classical antiferromagnetic Ising (AFI) model on the sorrel net, a 1/9th site depleted and 1/7th bond depleted triangular lattice. The AFI model on this corner-shared triangle net is found to have a large residual entropy per spin S/N = 0 . 48185 +/- 0 . 00008 , indicating the sorrel net is highly geometrically frustrated. Anticipating that it may be difficult to achieve perfect bond depletion, we investigate the physics resulting from turning back on the depleted bonds (J2). We present the phase diagram, analytic expressions for the long range partially ordered ground state spin structure for antiferromagnetic J2 and the short range ordered ground state spin structure for ferromagnetic J2, the magnetic susceptibility and the static structure factor. We briefly comment on the possibility that artificial spin ice on the sorrel lattice could by made, and on a recent report [T. D. Keene et al., Dalton Trans. 40 2983 (2011)] of the creation of a 1/9th depleted cobalt hydroxide oxalate. This work was supported by NSERC (JMH) and NSERC USRA (JJB)

  5. Tropical mathematics and the financial catastrophe of the 17th century. Thermoeconomics of Russia in the early 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V. P.

    2010-03-01

    In the paper, an example is presented concerning relationships (which cannot be neglected) between mathematics and other sciences. In particular, the relationship between the tropical mathematics and the humanitarian-economic catastrophe of 17th century (related to slavery of Africans) is considered. The notion of critical state of economy of the 19th century is introduced by using the refined Fisher equation. A correspondence principle for thermodynamics of fluids and economics of the 19th century is presented.

  6. 'No "Sane" Person Would Have Any Idea': Patients' Involvement in Late Nineteenth-century British Asylum Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Chaney, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In his 1895 textbook, Mental Physiology, Bethlem Royal Hospital physician Theo Hyslop acknowledged the assistance of three fellow hospital residents. One was a junior colleague. The other two were both patients: Walter Abraham Haigh and Henry Francis Harding. Haigh was also thanked in former superintendent George Savage's book Insanity and Allied Neuroses (1884). In neither instance were the patients identified as such. This begs the question: what role did Haigh and Harding play in asylum theory and practice? And how did these two men interpret their experiences, both within and outside the asylum? By focusing on Haigh and Harding's unusual status, this paper argues that the notion of nineteenth-century 'asylum patient' needs to be investigated by paying close attention to specific national and institutional circumstances. Exploring Haigh and Harding's active engagement with their physicians provides insight into this lesser-known aspect of psychiatry's history. Their experience suggests that, in some instances, representations of madness at that period were the product of a two-way process of negotiation between alienist and patient. Patients, in other words, were not always mere victims of 'psychiatric power'; they participated in the construction and circulation of medical notions by serving as active intermediaries between medical and lay perceptions of madness.

  7. 'No "Sane" Person Would Have Any Idea': Patients' Involvement in Late Nineteenth-century British Asylum Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Chaney, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In his 1895 textbook, Mental Physiology, Bethlem Royal Hospital physician Theo Hyslop acknowledged the assistance of three fellow hospital residents. One was a junior colleague. The other two were both patients: Walter Abraham Haigh and Henry Francis Harding. Haigh was also thanked in former superintendent George Savage's book Insanity and Allied Neuroses (1884). In neither instance were the patients identified as such. This begs the question: what role did Haigh and Harding play in asylum theory and practice? And how did these two men interpret their experiences, both within and outside the asylum? By focusing on Haigh and Harding's unusual status, this paper argues that the notion of nineteenth-century 'asylum patient' needs to be investigated by paying close attention to specific national and institutional circumstances. Exploring Haigh and Harding's active engagement with their physicians provides insight into this lesser-known aspect of psychiatry's history. Their experience suggests that, in some instances, representations of madness at that period were the product of a two-way process of negotiation between alienist and patient. Patients, in other words, were not always mere victims of 'psychiatric power'; they participated in the construction and circulation of medical notions by serving as active intermediaries between medical and lay perceptions of madness. PMID:26651187

  8. EDITORIAL: The 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 2008) The 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnakenberg, Uwe

    2009-07-01

    This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 08), which took place at the RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, from 28-30 September, 2008. The workshop is a well recognized and established European event in the field of micro system technology using thin-film technologies for creating micro components, micro sensors, micro actuators, and micro systems. The first MME Workshop was held 1989 in Enschede (The Netherlands) and continued 1990 in Berlin (Germany), 1992 in Leuven (Belgium), and then was held annually in Neuchâtel (Switzerland), Pisa (Italy), Copenhagen (Denmark), Barcelona (Spain), Southampton (UK), Ulvik in Hardanger (Norway), Gif-sur-Yvette (France), Uppsala (Sweden), Cork (Ireland), Sinaia (Romania), Delft (The Netherlands), Leuven (Belgium), Göteborg (Sweden), Southampton (UK), and in Guimarães (Portugal). The two day workshop was attended by 180 delegates from 26 countries all over Europe and from Armenia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Cuba, Iran, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United States of America. A total of 97 papers were accepted for presentation and there were a further five keynote presentations. I am proud to present 22 high-quality papers from MME 2008 selected for their novelty and relevance to Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. All the papers went through the regular reviewing procedure of IOP Publishing. I am eternally grateful to all the referees for their excellent work. I would also like to extend my thanks to the members of the Programme Committee of MME 2008, Dr Reinoud Wolffenbuttel, Professor José Higino Correia, and Dr Patrick Pons for pre-selection of the papers as well as to Professor Robert Puers for advice on the final selection of papers. My thanks also go to Dr Ian Forbes of IOP Publishing for managing the entire process and to the editorial staff of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. I

  9. JP Morgan Hambrecht & Quist - 19th Annual Healthcare Conference. Gilead Sciences, American Home Products and Curis.

    PubMed

    Hookes, J

    2001-03-01

    The 19th Annual JP Morgan H and Q Healthcare Conference provided yet another fascinating opportunity to meet with, and hear presentations by, a number of representatives of wellestablished Big Pharma companies, biotech start-up companies and the healthcare service and healthcare 'dot.com' industries. The conference was hosted by JP Morgan H and Q, part of the newly formed JP Morgan - the wholesale banking group of JP Morgan Chase and Co - which led-managed 13 IPOs in the healthcare industry in 2000. This year, the conference was attended by over 5000 delegates, and in excess of 270 company presentations in six parallel sessions were made to members of the healthcare industries, the media and the investment community. PMID:16025374

  10. Placenta Accreta and Total Placenta Previa in the 19th Week of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Findeklee, S.; Costa, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Placentation disorders are the result of impaired embedding of the placenta in the endometrium. The prevalence of these disorders is estimated to be around 0.3 %. A history of previous prior uterine surgery (especially cesarean section and curettage) is the most common risk factor. Impaired placentation is differentiated into deep placental attachment; marginal, partial and total placenta previa; and placenta accreta, increta and percreta. Treatment depends on the severity of presentation and ranges from expectant management to emergency hysterectomy. In most cases, preterm termination of pregnancy is necessary. We report here on the case of a 39-year-old woman with placenta accreta and total placenta previa who underwent hysterectomy in the 19th week of pregnancy. PMID:26366004

  11. Geomorphic and stratigraphic evidence for an unusual tsunami or storm a few centuries ago at Anegada, British Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, Brian F.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Buckley, Mark; Halley, Robert S.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; López-Venegas, Alberto M.; Reinhardt, Eduard G.; Tuttle, Maritia P.; Watt, Steve; Wei, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Waters from the Atlantic Ocean washed southward across parts of Anegada, east-northeast of Puerto Rico, during a singular event a few centuries ago. The overwash, after crossing a fringing coral reef and 1.5 km of shallow subtidal flats, cut dozens of breaches through sandy beach ridges, deposited a sheet of sand and shell capped with lime mud, and created inland fields of cobbles and boulders. Most of the breaches extend tens to hundreds of meters perpendicular to a 2-km stretch of Anegada’s windward shore. Remnants of the breached ridges stand 3 m above modern sea level, and ridges seaward of the breaches rise 2.2–3.0 m high. The overwash probably exceeded those heights when cutting the breaches by overtopping and incision of the beach ridges. Much of the sand-and-shell sheet contains pink bioclastic sand that resembles, in grain size and composition, the sand of the breached ridges. This sand extends as much as 1.5 km to the south of the breached ridges. It tapers southward from a maximum thickness of 40 cm, decreases in estimated mean grain size from medium sand to very fine sand, and contains mud laminae in the south. The sand-and-shell sheet also contains mollusks—cerithid gastropods and the bivalve Anomalocardia—and angular limestone granules and pebbles. The mollusk shells and the lime-mud cap were probably derived from a marine pond that occupied much of Anegada’s interior at the time of overwash. The boulders and cobbles, nearly all composed of limestone, form fields that extend many tens of meters generally southward from limestone outcrops as much as 0.8 km from the nearest shore. Soon after the inferred overwash, the marine pond was replaced by hypersaline ponds that produce microbial mats and evaporite crusts. This environmental change, which has yet to be reversed, required restriction of a former inlet or inlets, the location of which was probably on the island’s south (lee) side. The inferred overwash may have caused restriction

  12. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 19th International Colloquium on Magnetic Films and Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, T.; Inoue, J.

    2007-03-01

    The 19th International Colloquium on Magnetic Films and Surfaces (ICMFS 2006) was held on 14-18 August 2006 at the Sendai International Center in Sendai, Japan. The purpose of the Colloquium was to bring together scientists working on magnetic thin films and surfaces and to provide an opportunity for presentation and discussion of recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field. 285 scientists from 17 countries (Japan: 167, overseas: 118) participated in the Colloquium, as well as 6 family members. There were 56 oral and 178 poster presentations. The oral presentations consisted of 3 plenary talks, 23 invited talks and 30 contributed talks. The number of presentations by scientific category are as follows: Spin dependent transport: 43 Magnetic storage/memory: 9 Magnetization reversal and fast dynamics: 15 Spin injection and spin transfer torque: 26 Magnetic thin films and multilayers: 71 High spin polarization materials: 17 Hard and soft magnetic materials: 3 Magneto-optics: 5 Characterization techniques for thin films and surfaces: 7 Exchange coupling: 13 Micro- and nanopatterned magnetic structures: 18 Micromagnetic modelling: 2 One of the characteristics of the present Colloquium is an increase in the number of presentations in the field of spin-electronics, as seen above. This Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics includes several important papers in this rapidly developing field. We believe that, in the future, the field of magnetic materials will maintain its popularity and, on top of that, other fields such as spintronics materials, materials related to life sciences and medicine and also materials related to the environment will be investigated further. The ICMFS Conference started in London in 1964, and is now one of the world-wide conferences on magnetism. The Colloquium has been held in Japan four times now: the previous ones being the 5th ICMFS in the Mount Fuji area, the 10th at Yokohama and the 17th at Kyoto, which was

  13. F/A-18 1/9th scale model tail buffet measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. A.; Glaister, M. K.; Maclaren, L. D.; Meyn, L. A.; Ross, J.

    1991-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were carried out on a 1/9th scale model of the F/A-18 at high angles of attack to investigate the characteristics of tail buffet due to bursting of the wing leading edge extension (LEX) vortices. The tests were carried out at the Aeronautical Research Laboratory low-speed wind tunnel facility and form part of a collaborative activity with NASA Ames Research Center, organized by The Technical Cooperative Program (TTCP). Information from the program will be used in the planning of similar collaborative tests, to be carried out at NASA Ames, on a full-scale aircraft. The program covered the measurement of unsteady pressures and fin vibration for cases with and without the wing LEX fences fitted. Fourier transform methods were used to analyze the unsteady data, and information on the spatial and temporal content of the vortex burst pressure field was obtained. Flow visualization of the vortex behavior was carried out using smoke and a laser light sheet technique.

  14. Findings from the Survey of Participants of the 19th Annual National Conference of Black Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollison, Julius; Neuschatz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    On the weekend of February 3-6, the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois hosted the 2005 National Conference of Black Physics Students, marking the 19th consecutive year that the Conference has provided African American physics students with the unique opportunity to meet and network with counterparts from all across…

  15. How Gender Shaped Science and Education: A History of Nutritional Sciences in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Rima D.

    2010-01-01

    Many societies view the world as composed of two distinct and complementary spheres: the female (domestic) sphere and the male (public) sphere. Because science was part of the male sphere, women were inhibited from pursuing a career in scientific research. However, the more limited female sphere often found within university departments of home…

  16. Stature, economy and migration during the 19th century: comparative analysis of Haute-Vienne and Hautes-Alpes, France.

    PubMed

    Boëtsch, Gilles; Brus, Aude; Ancel, Bruno

    2008-03-01

    Data sources are achieved records of men workers' passbooks and registry for work permits in two rural parts of Southern France. We obtained three samples: masons from Rancon, a Limousin village, local sedentary alpine workers and Italian immigrants. The results obtained provide two types of information. The first concerns adult height, which is thought to be a result of both a growth pattern and environmental factors. The second concerns growth rates at the end of adolescence. The results seem to contradict the statements made above concerning the relationships between misery, elevation and height. While the alpine inhabitants are shorter, the Limousin inhabitants are taller in sprite they live in a miserable environment. It appears that taller individuals select themselves into migration. Thus, this model would contradict the idea of a regional genetic base. PMID:18444275

  17. Demonstration of LED Retrofit Lamps at an Exhibit of 19th Century Photography at the Getty Museum

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Naomi J.; Druzik, Jim

    2012-03-02

    This document is a report of observations and results obtained from a lighting demonstration project conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) GATEWAY Demonstration Program. The program supports demonstrations of high-performance solid-state lighting (SSL) products in order to develop empirical data and experience with in-the-field applications of this advanced lighting technology. The DOE GATEWAY Demonstration Program focuses on providing a source of independent, third-party data for use in decision-making by lighting users and professionals; this data should be considered in combination with other information relevant to the particular site and application under examination. Each GATEWAY Demonstration compares SSL products against the incumbent technologies used in that location. Depending on available information and circumstances, the SSL product may also be compared to alternate lighting technologies. Though products demonstrated in the GATEWAY program may have been prescreened for performance, DOE does not endorse any commercial product or in any way guarantee that users will achieve the same results through use of these products. This report reviews the installation and use of LED PAR38 lamps to light a collection of toned albument photographic prints at the J. Paul Getty Museum in Malibu, California. Research results provided by the Getty Conservation Institute are incorporated and discussed.

  18. Characterization of porosity in a 19th century painting ground by synchrotron radiation X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervais, Claire; Boon, Jaap J.; Marone, Federica; Ferreira, Ester S. B.

    2013-04-01

    The study of the early oeuvre of the Swiss painter Cuno Amiet (1868-1961) has revealed that, up to 1907, many of his grounds were hand applied and are mainly composed of chalk, bound in protein. These grounds are not only lean and absorbent, but also, as Synchrotron radiation X-ray microtomography has shown, porous. Our approach to the characterization of pore structure and quantity, their connectivity, and homogeneity is based on image segmentation and application of a clustering algorithm to high-resolution X-ray tomographic data. The issues associated with the segmentation of the different components of a ground sample based on X-ray imaging data are discussed. The approach applied to a sample taken from "Portrait of Max Leu" (1899) by Amiet revealed the presence of three sublayers within the ground with distinct porosity features, which had not been observed optically in cross-section. The upper and lower layers are highly porous with important connectivity and thus prone to water uptake/storage. The middle layer however shows low and nonconnected porosity at the resolution level of the X-ray tomography images, so that few direct water absorption paths through the entire sample exist. The potential of the method to characterize porosity and to understand moisture-related issues in paint layer degradation are discussed.

  19. Vegetation changes and human impact inferred from an oxbow lake in southwestern Amazonia, Brazil since the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Zorro, Paula A.; Enters, Dirk; Hermanowski, Barbara; da Costa, Marcondes Lima; Behling, Hermann

    2015-10-01

    Pollen and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) analyses from a 272 cm-long sediment core of Lago Amapá, an oxbow lake in western Amazonia, reveal the first palaeoecological investigation of late Holocene sediments in Acre state, Brazil. Radiocarbon dating of older sediments failed due to re-deposition of organic material but a historical map suggests that lacustrine deposition started at 1900 AD. We detected two periods of changes in sediment and vegetation, dominated by pioneer taxa especially Cecropia. The first period around 1900 AD is documenting an initial oxbow lake, with regular fluvial input (high Ti) and low accumulation of organic matter (low inc/coh ratio). During that period Andean pollen taxa originating from Peruvian Andean headwaters were deposited. A fully lacustrine phase started about 1950 AD and is characterized by prolonged periods of stagnant water (low Fe/Mn ratio). The increase of pioneer taxa, sedimentation rates and a reduction of most of the XRF element counts point to a period during which Lago Amapá was a more isolated lake which was flooded only during exceptional severe flood events and is catching mainly anthropogenic disturbances. The extensive human influence during this period was assumed by 1) the high occurrence of pioneer taxa and the absence of charcoal which could indicate changes in vegetation possibly as a result of logging, 2) the Ca and Ti/K ratio which reflect changes to a local sediment source, and 3) comparison of Landsat images from the last 30 years which shows broad changes in vegetation cover and land transformation in the peripheral areas of the oxbow lake.

  20. Educational Actions of some Greek Scholars in Romania: end of 16th-beginning of 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovithis, Petros; Rovithis-Livaniou, Eleni

    2008-09-01

    The scientific work of some outstanding personalities like Chrysanthos Notaras (1668-1732), Nikiforos Theotokis (1731-1800) and Benjamin Lesvios (1759-1824), who acted and worked in Greece and Romania and contributed in the Cultural Heritage of both countries are presented and discussed. Their important role in the development and spreading of their times' sciences, mainly in Mathematics, Physics, Geography and Astronomy are referred, too.

  1. The physical stature of Jewish men in Poland in the second half of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Kopczyński, Michał

    2011-03-01

    Since 1843 Jews inhabiting the Kingdom of Poland were obliged to serve in the Russian army and therefore were examined by draft boards on a par with Christians. We explore the trends in the height of recruits by religion and place of birth. Basing on samples drawn from 21-year-old conscripts born between 1845 and 1892 we find that Jewish conscripts were shorter than the Christians by 2.5 cm at the beginning of the period under scrutiny and the difference exceeded 4 cm in the 1890s. The height of Jewish conscripts inhabiting provincial towns declined in the late 1880s and in the early 1890s was about the same as in the 1840s, i.e. 161 cm. The socioeconomic crisis of provincial towns caused a massive migration to Warsaw and abroad as well. In the 1870s the stature of Warsaw and provincial Jews was similar, but in the early 1890s men from Warsaw were by 2 cm taller than provincial Jews. The height gap mirrors the difference in the standard of living between Warsaw and provincial towns.

  2. Stature, economy and migration during the 19th century: comparative analysis of Haute-Vienne and Hautes-Alpes, France.

    PubMed

    Boëtsch, Gilles; Brus, Aude; Ancel, Bruno

    2008-03-01

    Data sources are achieved records of men workers' passbooks and registry for work permits in two rural parts of Southern France. We obtained three samples: masons from Rancon, a Limousin village, local sedentary alpine workers and Italian immigrants. The results obtained provide two types of information. The first concerns adult height, which is thought to be a result of both a growth pattern and environmental factors. The second concerns growth rates at the end of adolescence. The results seem to contradict the statements made above concerning the relationships between misery, elevation and height. While the alpine inhabitants are shorter, the Limousin inhabitants are taller in sprite they live in a miserable environment. It appears that taller individuals select themselves into migration. Thus, this model would contradict the idea of a regional genetic base.

  3. Falsehood on the move. The Aztec children and science in the second half of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Podgorny, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Allegedly kidnapped from a secret city in Central America, the "Aztec children" began a showman's career in the early-1850s. They died around 1900, after being observed by countless pathologists and ethnologists from Europe and the US. Most of the literature on the "Aztec children" has emphasized racial theories, the imperial gaze, and the character of "ethnological shows", where monstrosity and ethnicity were practically synonymous. Less attention has been paid to the fact that scientists continuously insisted that the case was false, an argument that instead of debunking the myth of the "Aztec children", contributed to establishing the "Aztecs" as "a matter of fact". In examining the case of the "Aztec children", this essay aims to explore what can be called the shifting nature or elusiveness of falsehood. PMID:25702387

  4. Scurvy in the Great Irish Famine: Evidence of Vitamin C Deficiency From a Mid-19th Century Skeletal Population

    PubMed Central

    Geber, Jonny; Murphy, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Scurvy has increasingly been recognized in archaeological populations since the 1980s but this study represents the first examination of the paleopathological findings of scurvy in a known famine population. The Great Famine (1845–1852) was a watershed in Irish history and resulted in the death of one million people and the mass emigration of just as many. It was initiated by a blight which completely wiped out the potato—virtually the only source of food for the poor of Ireland. This led to mass starvation and a widespread occurrence of infectious and metabolic diseases. A recent discovery of 970 human skeletons from mass burials dating to the height of the famine in Kilkenny City (1847–1851) provided an opportunity to study the skeletal manifestations of scurvy—a disease that became widespread at this time due to the sudden lack of Vitamin C which had previously almost exclusively been provided by the potato. A three-scale diagnostic reliance approach has been employed as a statistical aid for diagnosing the disease in the population. A biocultural approach was adopted to enable the findings to be contextualized and the etiology and impact of the disease explored. The results indicate that scurvy indirectly influenced famine-induced mortality. A sex and stature bias is evident among adults in which males and taller individuals displayed statistically significantly higher levels of scorbutic lesions. The findings have also suggested that new bone formation at the foramen rotundum is a diagnostic criterion for the paleopathological identification of scurvy, particularly among juveniles. Am J Phys Anthropol, 148:512–524, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22460661

  5. Case study of IR reflectivity to detect and document the underdrawing of a 19 th century oil painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinwiddie, R. B.; Dean, S. W.

    2006-04-01

    There are a number of paintings in the McClung collection [East Tennessee History Center] by East Tennessee artists of some notoriety. In the cleaning process, curators had noticed that a painting attributed to Lloyd Branson is actually painted over a previous painting or drawing. This underdrawing is only partially visible with the naked eye. Infrared Reflectography was used to detect and document the underdrawing. The top painting is oriented in the portrait direction with the subject being an American Civil War general by the name of John P. McCown. The underdrawing is oriented in the landscape direction with the subject being a mill scene, complete with a water wheel. Contrast optimization through the use of filters and spatial resolution enhancement by assembling a mosaic from a set of close-up images will be discussed.

  6. The "Unsavory Researches" of Helen Campbell: A 19th-Century Journalist's Investigation of Urban Women's Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Susan

    In 1886, the New York "Tribune" ran a series of articles by Helen Campbell, "The Prisoners of Poverty," which investigated the sufferings of working women in New York's slums. Initially a fiction and housekeeping writer, Helen Campbell's home economics orientation first pointed her toward the problems of the poor. In the late 1870s, she wrote a…

  7. [Some uses of electricity in medicine in Mexico City and in Puebla at the end of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Godoy Dardano, E

    1992-01-01

    This article is an overview of the history of electrotherapy, as well as of different ways in which medical technology arrived in Mexico. The doctors who introduced this innovation will be considered, as well as the organization of their clinics and the principle activities that took place within them. Finally, other applications will be studied: for example, the new apparatus for general diagnoses and treatments, the modernizing of lighting systems and of the provision of drinking water in the hospitals, the electric purification of water, etc.

  8. Scurvy in the Great Irish Famine: evidence of vitamin C deficiency from a mid-19th century skeletal population.

    PubMed

    Geber, Jonny; Murphy, Eileen

    2012-08-01

    Scurvy has increasingly been recognized in archaeological populations since the 1980s but this study represents the first examination of the paleopathological findings of scurvy in a known famine population. The Great Famine (1845-1852) was a watershed in Irish history and resulted in the death of one million people and the mass emigration of just as many. It was initiated by a blight which completely wiped out the potato-virtually the only source of food for the poor of Ireland. This led to mass starvation and a widespread occurrence of infectious and metabolic diseases. A recent discovery of 970 human skeletons from mass burials dating to the height of the famine in Kilkenny City (1847-1851) provided an opportunity to study the skeletal manifestations of scurvy-a disease that became widespread at this time due to the sudden lack of Vitamin C which had previously almost exclusively been provided by the potato. A three-scale diagnostic reliance approach has been employed as a statistical aid for diagnosing the disease in the population. A biocultural approach was adopted to enable the findings to be contextualized and the etiology and impact of the disease explored. The results indicate that scurvy indirectly influenced famine-induced mortality. A sex and stature bias is evident among adults in which males and taller individuals displayed statistically significantly higher levels of scorbutic lesions. The findings have also suggested that new bone formation at the foramen rotundum is a diagnostic criterion for the paleopathological identification of scurvy, particularly among juveniles.

  9. The evolution of anatomical illustration and wax modelling in Italy from the 16th to early 19th centuries

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Alessandro; Conti, Gabriele; Solinas, Paola; Loy, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Although the contribution to anatomical illustration by Vesalius and his followers has received much attention, less credit has been given to Veslingius and particularly Fabricius. By 1600, Fabricius had amassed more than 300 paintings that together made the Tabulae Pictae, a great atlas of anatomy that was highly admired by his contemporaries. Many of his new observations were incorporated into subsequent books, including those by Casserius, Spighelius, Harvey and Veslingius. Also of importance were the Tabulae by Eustachius (1552), which, although only published in 1714, greatly influenced anatomical wax modelling. In 1742, Pope Benedict XIV established a Museum of Anatomy in Bologna, entrusting to Ercole Lelli the creation of several anatomical preparations in wax. Felice Fontana realised that the production of a large number of models by the casting method would make cadaveric specimens superfluous for anatomical teaching and in 1771 he asked the Grand Duke to fund a wax-modelling workshop in Florence as part of the Natural History Museum, later known as La Specola. Fontana engaged Giuseppe Ferrini as his first modeller and then the 19-year-old Clemente Susini who, by his death in 1814, had superintended the production of, or personally made, more than 2000 models. In 1780, the Austrian Emperor Joseph II visited La Specola and ordered a great number of models for his Josephinum museum; these were made by Fontana with the help of Clemente Susini and supervised by the anatomist Paolo Mascagni. It is, however, in Cagliari that some of Susini’s greatest waxes are to be found. These were made when he was free of Fontana’s influence and were based on dissections made by Francesco Antonio Boi (University of Cagliari). Their distinctive anatomical features include the emphasis given to nerves and the absence of lymphatics in the brain, a mistake made on earlier waxes. The refined technical perfection of the anatomical details demonstrates the closeness of the cooperation between Susini and Boi, whereas the expressiveness of the faces and the harmony of colours make the models of Cagliari masterpieces of figurative art. PMID:19900181

  10. Leadership in British nursing: a historical dimension.

    PubMed

    Lorentzon, M; Bryant, J

    1997-09-01

    A historical overview of nurse leadership in the late 19th and late 20th centuries is presented, supported by relevant material from the literature. The 19th century material revealed the following main themes: emphasis on practical and domestic aspects of management; prominent input of religious ideals and social conscience and, autocratic and feminized style of leadership. The main themes in the contemporary literature examined were: role models in history, dysfunctional leadership styles, importance of knowledge, gender as an influencing factor on nurse leadership and threats to the autonomy of nurse leaders. It was concluded that formal nurse professionalization has progressed steadily during the past hundred years with associated evolution of nurse leaders to fit in with contemporary needs. It is hoped that future policies for nursing will encourage decision-making nearer the 'bed-side', more resource-driven care and value-based leadership.

  11. Psychology and homosexuality: the British Sexological Society.

    PubMed

    Weigle, D C

    1995-04-01

    The British Sexological Society was a largely unknown society composed of influential people of the early twentieth century in Great Britain. The present research is an archival study of the Society and its work concerning homosexuality. Issues addressed by the British Sexological Society are relevant to the early development of sexual emancipation movements as well as to issues of sexuality today.

  12. Is worst-case scenario streamflow drought underestimated in British Columbia? A multi-century perspective for the south coast, derived from tree-rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulthard, Bethany; Smith, Dan J.; Meko, David M.

    2016-03-01

    Recent streamflow droughts in south coastal British Columbia have had major socioeconomic and ecological impacts. Increasing drought severity under projected climate change poses serious water management challenges, particularly in the small coastal watersheds that serve as primary water sources for most communities in the region. A 332-year dendrohydrological record of regionalized mean summer streamflow for four watersheds is analyzed to place recent drought magnitudes in a long-term perspective. We present a novel approach for optimizing tree-ring based reconstructions in small watersheds in temperate environments, combining winter snow depth and summer drought sensitive proxies as model predictors. The reconstruction model, estimated by regression of observed flows on Tsuga mertensiana ring-width variables and a tree-ring derived paleorecord of the Palmer Drought Severity Index, explains 64% of the regionalized streamflow variance. The model is particularly accurate at estimating lowest flow events, and provides the strongest annually resolved paleohydrological record in British Columbia. The extended record suggests that since 1658 sixteen natural droughts have occurred that were more extreme than any within the instrumental period. Flow-duration curves show more severe worst-case scenario droughts and a higher probability of those droughts in the long-term reconstruction than in the hydrometric data. Such curves also highlight the value of dendrohydrology for probabilistic drought assessment. Our results suggest current water management strategies based on worst-case scenarios from historical gauge data likely underestimate the potential magnitudes of natural droughts. If the low-flow magnitudes anticipated under climate change co-occur with lowest possible natural flows, streamflow drought severities in small watersheds in south coastal British Columbia could exceed any of those experienced in the past ∼350 years.

  13. British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The province of British Columbia has a dubious history where support for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) issues in education is concerned. Most notable is the Surrey School Board's decision in 1997 to ban three picture books for children that depict families with two moms or two dads. The North Vancouver School Board has also…

  14. Economists & Higher Learning in the Nineteenth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, William J., Ed.

    As part of a multi-nation research project on the institutionalization of political economy in European, Japanese, and North American universities, the 14 essays in this volume explore the roots of academic economics in the United States during the 19th century. The organization of the essays is designed to show the catalytic role economists…

  15. 21ST CENTURY MOLD ANALYSIS IN FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, the indoor air community has relied on mold analysis performed by either microscopic observations or the culturing of molds on various media to assess indoor air quality. These techniques were developed in the 19th century and are very laborious and time consumin...

  16. Integrating Women into U.S. History: A Sourcebook. Part I: Women in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Part II: Women in the 20th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, D'Ann; And Others

    This sourcebook, in two parts, aims at supplementing the limited material dealing with women's history normally found in junior and senior high school U.S. history textbooks. The lessons were developed by teachers at an intensive summer institute dealing with women's issues. The teachers and their colleagues field-tested the lessons and revised…

  17. [Old age in primary school readers: a journey through the end of the 19th century to the start of the 21st century in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Oddone, María Julieta

    2013-04-01

    This article presents the content (discourse) analysis of messages transmitted by primary school readers in the period between 1880 to 2012. This study allowed us to explore the image of old age and aging that society has and passes on to new generations as well as the role assigned to this generational group. The historical periods that provide the context for the data were defined according to the continuity of or the turning points in the social values transmitted in the reading materials. The role assigned to elderly people and the image of old age that the Argentine society passed on and continues to pass on to younger generations demonstrate that each period described has its own model of aging. PMID:23680747

  18. The Role of Education Redefined: 18th Century British and French Educational Thought and the Rise of the Baconian Conception of the Study of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2011-01-01

    The idea that science teaching in schools should prepare the ground for society's future technical and scientific progress has played an important role in shaping modern education. This idea, however, was not always present. In this article, I examine how this idea first emerged in educational thought. Early in the 17th century, Francis Bacon…

  19. Report of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century, Fourth Session (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, April 13-15, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century (UNESCO), Paris (France).

    This session of the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-First Century was preceded by a 2-day working group on the processes of education. The Commission also held an afternoon of hearings that included an in-depth exchange between Canadian educational leaders and the Commission members on a wide range of topics that included…

  20. Nineteenth-Century Agrarian Populism and Twentieth-Century Communitarianism: Points of Contact and Contrast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    Connects contemporary communitarian ideas to the agenda of the 19th-century populist movement. The populist educational agenda (the agrarian revolt and Farmers' Alliance) provides historical examples of the implementation of communitarian educational theory. The populist movement as an example of communitarianism highlights an instance of a…