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Sample records for 19th ed philadelphia

  1. The 19th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project is described. Project analysis and integration is discussed. Technology research in silicon material, large-area silicon sheet and environmental isolation; cell and module formation; engineering sciences, and module performance and failure analysis. It includes a report on, and copies of visual presentations made at, the 19th Project Integration Meeting held at Pasadena, California, on November 11, 1981.

  2. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  3. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  4. Technical improvements in 19th century Belgian window glass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauriks, Leen; Collette, Quentin; Wouters, Ine; Belis, Jan

    Glass was used since the Roman age in the building envelope, but it became widely applied together with iron since the 19th century. Belgium was a major producer of window glass during the nineteenth century and the majority of the produced window glass was exported all over the world. Investigating the literature on the development of 19th century Belgian window glass production is therefore internationally relevant. In the 17th century, wood was replaced as a fuel by coal. In the 19th century, the regenerative tank furnace applied gas as a fuel in a continuous glass production process. The advantages were a clean production, a more constant and higher temperature in the furnace and a fuel saving. The French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1787-1793) and later the Belgian chemist Ernest Solvay (1863) invented processes to produce alkali out of common salt. The artificial soda ash improved the quality and aesthetics of the glass plates. During the 19th century, the glass production was industrialized, influencing the operation of furnaces, the improvement of raw materials as well as the applied energy sources. Although the production process was industrialized, glassblowing was still the work of an individual. By improving his work tools, he was able to create larger glass plates. The developments in the annealing process followed this evolution. The industry had to wait until the invention of the drawn glass in the beginning of the 20th century to fully industrialise the window glass manufacture process.

  5. Vocational Education in the 19th Century American Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Gordon F.

    The phrase "all things useful and all things ornamental," coined by Benjamin Franklin, describes the stated mission of most of the approximately 6,000 educational academies flourishing in America in the mid-19th century. Built upon the roots of Latin grammar schools, the academies evolved to include courses in many areas, from classical…

  6. Woman Suffrage and the 19th Amendment. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Beginning in the mid-19th century, several generations of woman suffrage supporters lectured, wrote, marched, lobbied, and practiced civil disobedience to achieve what many people considered a radical change in the U.S. Constitution. Militant suffragists used tactics such as parades, silent vigils, and hunger strikes. In 1870 the 15th amendment to…

  7. [Popular knowledge about medicaments in 19th century periodicals].

    PubMed

    Arabas, Iwona

    2004-01-01

    Polish periodicals published since the beginning of 19th century contained household knowledge which was of great importance to peasants. In the second half of 19th century the number of articles related to prevention, treatment as well as life hygiene (including nutrition guidance) enlarged significantly. The term "household medicine box# was very often used in periodicals as titles of both: sections dedicated to hygiene or medicine as well as for articles describing medicaments intended to be kept in the boxes. Articles referenced law regulations stated in "law for pharmacists and pharmacies# from 1844. The availability of medical handbooks widened with the end of the century and this fact may have caused the changes in profiles of numerous medical sections in popular periodicals. However the changes did not affect publications related to contents of medical boxes.

  8. 6. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 3.11. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. 7. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 3.11. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. [Suicide and cultural criticism in 19th century Spanish medicine].

    PubMed

    Plumed Domingo, José Javier; Novella, Enric J

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the major role of suicide in the cultural criticism deployed by 19th century Spanish doctors by analysing the most important theoretical models that inspired their contributions to its aetiology. In the first half of the century, the most commonly debated causal factor was the passions, which were thought to stand in a permanent tension with a free, reflexive and conscious self, in accordance with the spiritualist doctrine that was then dominant. In the context of a growing somatisation of moral and intellectual phenomena, the notion of suicide as an act of free will was later modified, and it became considered the consequence of certain organic disturbances. However, this process did not alter the central role of suicidal behaviour within 19th-century cultural criticism, because the advent of degeneration theory meant that doctors finally had a doctrine that allowed them to combine biological determinism with the extended perception of a moral and social crisis threatening the stability and achievements of bourgeois society.

  11. [The advent of a newborn specialty: 19th century pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Baudon, Jean-Jacques

    2017-04-05

    Pediatrics began under the most unfavorable conditions that are difficult to imagine nowadays. Children at the start of the 19th century were considered as negligible. The death rate was tremendous, increased by the work of children in factories as soon as 6 years of age in textile industries. In upper classes, infants were fed by a wet nurse, far from their parents and death rate was high as well. The emergence of pediatrics was the result of work carried out in adult medicine in the first half of the 19th century: clinical anatomic method, knowledge of contagious diseases even before the discovery of bacteria, birth of bacteriology. During the whole century, infectious diseases contributed in a large part to children mortality, as that of adults, by cholera, typhus, variola, diphtheria, measles and tuberculosis. Progresses noted during the 2nd part of the century resulted from beginning of hygiene, antisepsis, nutrition improvement, taking consideration of children as human being asking for protection. In contrast, therapeutics as serotherapy, vaccinations at the break of the 20th century played a secondary role.

  12. [The technicalization of medicine in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Olsén, J E

    2001-01-01

    The paper focuses on the role that instruments played in the medical discourse of the 19th century. Towards the end of the century, instruments had imbued the medical sciences to such an extent that the situation soon was compared to the vernacular confusion of the biblical tower of Babel. Whereas the autonomical recordings of laboratory apparatus, vouched for guarantee against biased test results, clinicians and general practitioners were finding it difficult to incorporate the new techniques into their daily routines. A tension between the instrument as invention, moulded to fit a particular series of experiments, and the instrument as a reproducible item, was inevitable. Hence, the unification of the science and practice of medicine, became an important topic at the international medical meetings of the late 19th century. Seen in the light of the industrialization and urbanization of occidental culture and society, the instrumentation of medicine entailed a number of significant issues which hinged on the relationship between the biological destiny of man and the artificial wonders of technology. Grand metaphors like the organic machine and the human motor, did not only signal a scientific preoccupation with the shortcomings of the living organism as opposed to the perfection of the machine, but also indicated closer ties between the human body and technology at large. In a certain sense, medical instruments, along with apparatuses such as the camera, the steam-engine, the telegraph, the phonograph and the cinematograph, offered a new set-up of codes with which the body and its functions could be reinterpreted. In this respect, the late nineteenth-century strive for the standardisation and unification of medical instruments, was not irreconcilable with the notion of the l'homme moyen, as conceived, for example, in the work of the Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet. The paper outlines the span of medical measuring devices, dating from the sphygmometer of

  13. Florence Nightingale. A 19th-century mystic.

    PubMed

    Dossey, B M

    1998-06-01

    Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) received a clear and profoundly moving Call to serve God at the age of 16. Through a lifetime of hard work and discipline, she became a practicing mystic in the Western tradition, thereby becoming an instrument of God's love, which was the primary source of her great energy and the fabled "Nightingale power." To understand the life and work of this legendary healer, who forever changed human consciousness, the role of women, and nursing and public health systems in the middle of the 19th century, it is necessary to understand her motivation and inspiration. The purpose of this article is to discuss her life and work in the context of her mystical practice and to show the parallels between her life and the lives of three recognized women mystics.

  14. Cholera in Haiti and Other Caribbean Regions, 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Medical journals and other sources do not show evidence that cholera occurred in Haiti before 2010, despite the devastating effect of this disease in the Caribbean region in the 19th century. Cholera occurred in Cuba in 1833–1834; in Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Nevis, Trinidad, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, Granada, Anguilla, St. John, Tortola, the Turks and Caicos, the Grenadines (Carriacou and Petite Martinique), and possibly Antigua in 1850–1856; and in Guadeloupe, Cuba, St. Thomas, the Dominican Republic, Dominica, Martinique, and Marie Galante in 1865–1872. Conditions associated with slavery and colonial military control were absent in independent Haiti. Clustered populations, regular influx of new persons, and close quarters of barracks living contributed to spread of cholera in other Caribbean locations. We provide historical accounts of the presence and spread of cholera epidemics in Caribbean islands. PMID:22099117

  15. JANNAF 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Kuckels, Melanie C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 25 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 37th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS), and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee (MSS) meetings. The meeting was held 13-17 November 2000 at the Naval Postgraduate School and Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: impact and thermal vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction and detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact loading; and hazard classification, and insensitive munitions testing of propellants and propulsion systems.

  16. [Gymnastics and therapeutic gymnastics in 19th century Hungary].

    PubMed

    Kölnei, Lívia

    2009-01-01

    Gymnastics as a way of healing and of preserving health spread in Hungary--almost exclusively among higher classes--only in the first half of the 19th century. The movement was inspired by naturopathic theories of the time, first of all by Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland's macrobiotics, by Vinzenz Priessnitz's hydrotherapy and by his healing gymnastics. Gymnastics has been utilized from the 30ies by a new bough of medicine, orthopaedy. The so called Swedish Gymnastics invented by Per Henrik Ling and by his son Hjalmar Ling or the method of the German gymnast Adolf Spiess were well known in Hungary as well. The pediatrist Agost Schöp-Merei founded the first Institute for Gymnastics in Pest in 1835. As orthopaedy developed, gymnastics was more and more utilized in curing locomotor disorders. Gymnastics however stood in close connection with hydropathy as well. Several institutes for hydropathy and gymnastics were founded in the 50ies and 60ies throughout the country. The most popular of them were those of Károly Siklósy and Sámuel Batizfalvy. Preventive gymnastics gained popularity only in the second half of the 19th century, as 1830 the French gymnast Ignatius Clair moved to Pest and founded the "Pester gymnastische Schule" (Gymnastics School of Pest). This private school flourished till 1863. The Gymnastic Federation of Pest (later National Gymnastics Federation), the first Hungarian sport club was founded in 1866. Tivadar Bakody played an important role in its creation. Gymnastics and sport at the beginning were closely connected with fire-service, so gymnastics clubs often functioned also as fire-guard-bodies. In the 70ies and 80ies the social basis of sport movement was slowly broadened out. The end of the century saw already 44 gymnastics-clubs in Hungary united in a single union, the National Federation of Gymnasts, which organized the education of the profession as well. The trend of development didn't cease up to the Great War. This time the movement was

  17. "Depressive pseudodementia" or "Melancholic dementia": a 19th century view.

    PubMed Central

    Berrios, G E

    1985-01-01

    Nineteenth century views on the interaction between dementia, depressive illness, general paralysis and brain localisation are discussed in the context of a book by A Mairet entitled: Melancholic Dementia. It is shown that by 1883 there was already awareness of the fact that severe affective disorder could lead to cognitive impairment. General paralysis was the commonest diagnosis put forward to account for patients with depression who went on to develop dementia. Patients so diagnosed, however, often recovered and clinical and statistical analysis of Mairet's case histories suggests that some were in fact suffering from depressive pseudodementia. Evidence is marshalled to show that during the 19th century there was wide disagreement concerning the clinical domain, course and even histopathology of general paralysis. This casts doubt on the traditional view that this condition served as "a paradigm" for other psychiatric diseases during this period. It is shown that by the turn of the century these difficulties led to a redefinition of the concept of dementia and to a marked narrowing of the clinical bounds of general paralysis. PMID:3889224

  18. [Cholera in Europe and Denmark in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bonderup, G

    1996-01-01

    There are several reasons for dealing with cholera in the 19th century: it acted as a spotlight throwing into sharp relief the darkest corners of society that are seldom mentioned in the sources. We learn about everyday life in large parts of the population, especially the poor. The fight against the disease also reveals how a society worked socially and politically. When cholera arrived in Europe -- the first time was in the 1830's and several times after that--the population reacted very violently, often by lynching doctors, while the authorities more or less let matters take their course. That is why international researchers have come to see cholera as a catalyst for the constantly latent social unrest following in the train of wars and revolutions. During my research on cholera in Denmark it became clear to me that matters were different here. There were no riots, nor any signs of social unrest--neither before nor after the outbreak of cholera. On the contrary, the authorities and the population joined forces against the epidemic. There was an atmosphere of mutual trust, and almost everybody turned out to be worthy of such trust. That points to a balanced society based on consensus, so cholera also functions as a detector of the fundamental structure of a society.

  19. Austrian pharmacy in the 18 and 19th century.

    PubMed

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecaryâs profession and education. In the 18(th) century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecaryâs profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19(th) century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecariesâ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900.

  20. [Origin of animal experimentation legislation in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Pocard, M

    1999-01-01

    The first legislation in the world, designed to protect animals used in research, was passed in England in 1876, and is still in force today. It is one of the strictest in Europe. At the same period, France had no such law, and was the country conducting the greatest amount of animal experimentation. Comparing, these two countries, in the middle of the 19th century, can account for this difference. The most important difference seems to be related to the theological question: are animals endowed with a soul? Saint Augustine, claimed, in the 4th century, perhaps because of an experiment with the centipede, that animals do not have a soul. In the 17th century, René Descartes, using a different philosophical system, reached a similar conclusion, in France. On the other hand, under the influence of Charles Darwin, England rejected the Roman Catholic conclusion, about the soul of animals. The industrial revolution, occurring earlier in England than in France, also changed the society, developing urban areas, where people were cut off from rural life and changing human relationships with animals. The industrial revolution enabled the development of the press, giving impetus to public opinion. These facts, combined with a caution of science, which was more developed in England than in France, brought about the first important "anti-doctor" campaign.

  1. Faces and Photography in 19th-Century Visual Science.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-09-01

    Reading faces for identity, character, and expression is as old as humanity but representing these states is relatively recent. From the 16th century, physiognomists classified character in terms of both facial form and represented the types graphically. Darwin distinguished between physiognomy (which concerned static features reflecting character) and expression (which was dynamic and reflected emotions). Artists represented personality, pleasure, and pain in their paintings and drawings, but the scientific study of faces was revolutionized by photography in the 19th century. Rather than relying on artistic abstractions of fleeting facial expressions, scientists photographed what the eye could not discriminate. Photography was applied first to stereoscopic portraiture (by Wheatstone) then to the study of facial expressions (by Duchenne) and to identity (by Galton and Bertillon). Photography opened new methods for investigating face perception, most markedly with Galton's composites derived from combining aligned photographs of many sitters. In the same decade (1870s), Kühne took the process of photography as a model for the chemical action of light in the retina. These developments and their developers are described and fixed in time, but the ideas they initiated have proved impossible to stop.

  2. Laser cleaning of 19th century Congo rattan mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, N.; Oujja, M.; Roemich, H.; Castillejo, M.

    2011-09-01

    There is a growing interest by art conservators for laser cleaning of organic materials, such as wooden artworks, paper and textiles, since traditional cleaning with solvents can be a source of further decay and mechanical cleaning may be too abrasive for sensitive fibers. In this work we present a successful laser cleaning approach for 19th century rattan mats from the Brooklyn Museum collection of African Art, now part of the study collection at the Conservation Center in New York. Tests were carried out using the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelength of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to measure threshold values both for surface damage and color changes for different types of rattan samples. The irradiated substrates were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and by UV-vis spectroscopy in order to determine the efficiency of laser cleaning and to assess possible deterioration effects that may have occurred as a result of laser irradiation. The study showed that by using the laser emission at 532 nm, a wavelength for which photon energy is below the bond dissociation level of the main cellulosic compounds and the water absorption is negligible, it is possible to select a range of laser fluences to remove the black dust layer without damaging the rattan material.

  3. Florence Nightingale: a 19th-century mystic.

    PubMed

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) received a clear and profoundly moving Call to serve God at the age of 16. Through a lifetime of hard work and discipline, she became a practicing mystic in the Western tradition, thereby becoming an instrument of God's love, which was the primarily source of her great energy and the fabled "Nightingale power." To understand the life and work of this legendary healer, who forever changed human consciousness, the role of women, and nursing and public health systems in the middle of the 19th century, it is necessary to understand her motivation and inspiration. This article will discuss her life and work in the context of her mystical practice and to show the parallels between her life and the lives of three recognized women mystics. In her epic Crimean war mission (1854-1856) of leading and directing women nurses in the army hospital at Scutari, Turkey, Florence Nightingale burst into world consciousness as a spiritual beacon of hope and compassion for all who suffered. Her historic breakthrough achievement--pioneering the modern administrative role of nurse superintendent with measurable outcomes supported by irrefutable data--in the face of incredible adversity was merely the cornerstone of her life work.

  4. William Prout: early 19th century physician-chemist.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2003-04-01

    In the early 19th century, the discoveries of new substances in the healthy and diseased body spawned a search for chemical explanations for physiologic phenomena to guide medical diagnosis and control therapy. William Prout's work on the nature and treatment of diseases of the urinary organs established his reputation as one of Britain's most distinguished physiological chemists. Prout was very skeptical of chemical remedies because of possible side effects, but he suggested iodine treatment for goiter. He emphasized that a satisfactory diet should include carbohydrates, fats, protein, and water. In 1824, he showed that the acid of the gastric juice was hydrochloric acid. Prout applied chemical methods and reasoning to physiology and was criticized for his view that the body's vital functions could be explained by chemistry. His remedy for lack of progress in animal chemistry was for physiologists to become chemists. Prout stimulated much discussion on atomic theory by his hypothesis that the atomic weights of all chemical elements are whole-number multiples of the atomic weight of hydrogen and that the chemical elements were condensed from hydrogen atoms.

  5. The Philadelphia Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Jay

    2003-01-01

    Describes how the School District of Philadelphia turned over 20 schools to Edison Schools, the for-profit school management firm. Presents the cases of both the opponents and proponents of Edison Schools. Outlines the academic and financial records of the Edison firm and its efforts in Philadelphia. (WFA)

  6. [Developments in neurophysiology in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Hess, C W

    1994-04-19

    The rise of neurophysiology in the 19th century was kindled by Luigi Aloysius Galvani's revolutionary claim for animal electricity at the end of the preceding century. He was first challenged by Allessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta who showed that the muscle twitch in Galvani's experiment was the result of electric stimulation rather than of an enabled biological current. The controversy between Galvani and Volta became a predominant and stimulating issue among the scientists of the early century and found its ultimate elucidation only 40 years later by the pioneering work of Carlo Matteucci of Pisa and Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond of Berlin, who both deserve the reknown as founders of modern neurophysiology. As the first influential promoter and mastermind of the experimental physiology, François Magendie of Paris primarily investigated the nervous system and inaugurated the lesion experiments to clarify specific functions of neural structures. Johannes Müller founded the German school of physiology with its eminent neurophysiological offspring: Du Bois-Reymond, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, and Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger. It was Helmholtz's merit to have for the first time precisely assessed the motor conduction velocity by measuring the time interval between two different stimulation sites of the sciatic nerve of the frog. In their brilliant work published in 1870 Gustav Theodor Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig demonstrated that appropriately located focal electrical stimulation of the exposed cortex of dogs induces movement of the contralateral limbs and unequivocally disproved the then prevailing dogma of holistic capacity of the hemispheres, which denied localised functions within the cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. [Earth magnetism research in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Schröder, W; Wiederkehr, K H

    2000-01-01

    Even before the discovery of the electromagnetism by Oersted, and before Ampère, who attributed all magnetism to the flux of electrical currents, A. v. Humboldt and Hansteen had turned to geomagnetism. With the help of the "Göttinger Magnetische Verein", a worldwide cooperation under the leadership of Gauss game into existence. Even today, Gauss' theory of the geomagnetism is one of the pillars for geomagnetical research work. Thereafter, J. v. Lamont, Prof. in Munich, took over the leadership in Germany. In England, the Magnetic Crusade was started by the initiative of John Herschel and E. Sabine. At the beginning of the forties, James Clarke Ross advanced to the Antarctic Continent, which was then quite unknown. Ten years later, Sabine was able to gather solar-terrestrial relations from the data of the colonical observatories. In the eighties, Arthur Schuster, following Balfour Stewart's ideas, succeeded in interpreting the daily variations of the electrical process in the high atmosphere. The geomagnetic research work in Germany was given a fresh impetus by the First Polar Year 1882-1883. Georg Neumayer, director of the "Deutsche Seewarte" in Hamburg, had been one of the initiators of the Polar Year. He had a close cooperation with the newly founded "Kaiserliches Marineobservatorium" in Wilhelmshaven, and he also managed to gain the collaboration of the "Gauss-Observatorium für Erdmagnetismus" in Göttingen under E. Schering. In the Polar Year, the first automatic recording magnetometers (Kew-Model) were used in a German observatory in Wilhelmshaven. Here M. Eschenhagen, who later became director of the geomagnetic section in the new Meterological-Magnetic Observatory in Potsdam, gained special merit. The treatise considers preceding hypotheses of geomagnetism as well as the palaeomagnetic studies. The essential seismological investigations at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century are briefly treated. They represent one of the keystones for the modern

  8. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

    PubMed Central

    Padosch, Stephan A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kröner, Lars U

    2006-01-01

    Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet. PMID:16722551

  9. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  10. Reading for Moral Progress: 19th Century Institutions Promoting Social Change. Occasional Papers No. 207.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Donald G., Jr.; And Others

    The three papers in this document examine the motives behind the collecting and loaning of publications in the 19th century. They describe the effects of three discrete movements designed to assist religious, military, and academic endeavors. The first paper, "Bread Upon the Waters: The Printed Word in Sunday Schools in 19th Century England…

  11. Henoch-Schönlein purpura

    MedlinePlus

    ... St. Geme J, Schor N, Behrman RE, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... Schöenlein purpura. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  12. Philadelphia's New World Symphony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Edith Brill

    1980-01-01

    An outgrowth of a school for immigrants' children, the Philadelphia Settlement Music School offers music education to children of all races and classes, with the primary aim of teaching children to enjoy and understand music throughout their lives. (SK)

  13. View northwest of commander's office for Philadelphia Naval Base. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest of commander's office for Philadelphia Naval Base. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Commander's Office-Naval Base, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 4. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARDS LOCKS. 19TH CENTURY GRAVITY LOCKS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARDS LOCKS. 19TH CENTURY GRAVITY LOCKS ON RIGHT. 20TH CENTURY ELECTRIC LIFT LOCKS ON LEFT. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

  15. The Electric Whirl in the 19th and 21st Centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2012-12-01

    The electric whirl or electric fly in Fig. 1 is one of the many electrostatic demonstrations from the 19th century that continue to amuse and delight students today. It also introduces them to some good physics.

  16. PHOTOCOPY OF 19th CENTURY PHOTO OF THE ORIGINAL BRIDGE, courtesy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PHOTOCOPY OF 19th CENTURY PHOTO OF THE ORIGINAL BRIDGE, courtesy of Erie Railway Company - Erie Railway, Buffalo Division, Bridge 361.66, Genesee River, State Route 436, Portageville, Wyoming County, NY

  17. Heat and Kinetic Theory in 19th-Century Physics Textbooks: The Case of Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaquero, Jose M.; Santos, Andres

    2001-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the contents of 19th century Spanish textbooks. These textbooks are centered on imponderable fluids, the concept of energy, the mechanical theory of heat, and the kinetic theory of gases. (SAH)

  18. Heat and Kinetic Theory in 19th-Century Physics Textbooks: The Case of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, Joseb M.; Santos, Andrebs

    Spain was a scientifically backward country in the early 19th century. The causes were various political events, the War of Independence, and the reign of Fernando VII. The introduction of contemporary physics into textbooks was therefore a slow process. An analysis of the contents of 19th-century Spanish textbooks is presented here, centred on imponderable fluids, the concept of energy, the mechanical theory of heat, and the kinetic theory of gases.

  19. Anti-reflux surgery - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... reflux disease. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, ... surgery - children - discharge Anti-reflux surgery - discharge ...

  20. Partners in Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezzacappa, Dale

    2001-01-01

    University of Pennsylvania professor Lee Benton saw fire-ravaged city blocks in Philadelphia as an opportunity to involve the university in remaking K-12 education. Penn successfully initiated various community-outreach programs, focusing on building a community school and encouraging cooperation between college students and neighborhoods. (MLH)

  1. Philadelphia and the Tomato.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew F.; Kling, Tatiana

    This booklet describes for elementary students the many contributions of people, traveling many places, over many years to bring the tomato to Philadelphia. The booklet includes the following: (1) "Introduction to the Tomato"; (2) "Where Does the Tomato Come From?"; (3) "The Spanish Tomato"; (4) "The Philadelphia…

  2. School Closings in Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, James; Sludden, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the School District of Philadelphia closed six schools. In 2013, it closed 24. The closure of 30 schools has occurred amid a financial crisis, headlined by the district's $1.35 billion deficit. School closures are one piece of the district's plan to cut expenditures and close its budget gap. The closures are also intended to make…

  3. The purple coloration of four late 19th century silk dresses: A spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, Andrea L.; Cosgrove, Bronwyn; Church, Jeffrey S.

    2016-02-01

    Prior to the 19th century the use of purple dyes for textile coloration was expensive and usually limited to royalty. The discovery of several synthetic purple dyes during the 19th century made the production of purple textiles more affordable and thus more readily available. The identification of the source of the purple coloration is of historical interest. Small yarn samples from four late 19th century silk dresses were analyzed using a combination of thin layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. This combination of techniques enabled the analysis of the complex extraction products. While three of the dresses were found to be dyed using methyl violet, the fourth dress was found to be constructed from a warp yarn dyed with methyl violet in the presence of a tannic acid mordant, and a weft yarn dyed with mauve and a tin mordant.

  4. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantomme, André; Temst, Kristiaan

    2015-12-01

    It is our pleasure to present the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, which took place from September 14th until September 19th, 2014. The conference was held in the historic center of Leuven, a medieval city in the heart of Europe, a city where centuries-old culture meets frontier science and technology. Among other places, the conference brought us to the University Hall, which has been in use by the university since its foundation in 1425, to the Infirmerie of the Grand Beguinage and to the medieval city of Bruges, the latter two being Unesco World Heritage sites.

  5. [Foods and drinks in a 19th century human physiology textbook].

    PubMed

    Chiancone, Francesco M

    2004-01-01

    The Author reports on the chapter of "Nutrition" in the Human Physiology textbook by P. Albertoni and A. Stefani published in the first half of the 19th century. This is one of the first textbooks that treats Physiology as an experimental science in contrast with the thinking of the previous century which was still dominated by Galen and Dioscorides.

  6. Missionaries and Tonic Sol-fa Music Pedagogy in 19th-Century China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane E.; Lee, Angela Hao-Chun

    2008-01-01

    In the 19th century, Christian missionaries in China, as elsewhere, used the Tonic Sol-fa method of music instruction to aid their evangelizing. This system was designed to improve congregational singing in churches, Sunday schools and missions. The London Missionary Society and other evangelical groups employed the method. These missionaries took…

  7. 5. Photocopy, GENERAL VIEW OF FORT TOTTEN, LOOKING NORTHWEST, mid19th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy, GENERAL VIEW OF FORT TOTTEN, LOOKING NORTHWEST, mid-19th century. Original photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. B 37 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  8. The Romantic Rhetoric of 19th Century Obituaries: "She Gave a Few Faint Gasps and Died."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, Eleanor

    Scholars of writing, language, and culture will find a rich fund of research material in 19th-century obituaries which convey extensive details of the deceased's life through an elegant language reminiscent of an oral culture. In contrast to today's newspaper obituaries, which are business-like, tight-lipped, and entirely devoid of any details or…

  9. An Analysis of Environmental Issues in 19th Century England Using the Writings of Charles Dickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Ann Haley

    2008-01-01

    Charles Dickens lived during the best and worst of times in 19th century England. His writings were greatly influenced by the ongoing industrial revolution. He described abhorrent environmental conditions, inadequate sanitary practices, child abuse, and other social maladies of the times. By bringing Charles Dickens into the biology classroom,…

  10. Circumcision of the Female Intellect: 19th Century Women Who Opposed Scholarly Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Marbeth

    2009-01-01

    In 19th century America, some women decried the opportunity for scholarly education as rebellion against religion and predicted a grim decline in the quality of life, home, and hearth for American families and for American culture and politics. In particular, women who opposed scholarly education argued that God had not created men and women…

  11. The Rise of Age Homogamy in 19th Century Western Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Putte, Bart; Van Poppel, Frans; Vanassche, Sofie; Sanchez, Maria; Jidkova, Svetlana; Eeckhaut, Mieke; Oris, Michel; Matthijs, Koen

    2009-01-01

    In many parts of Western Europe the age at first marriage and the level of celibacy declined in the second half of the 19th century. This weakening of the European marriage pattern (EMP) can be interpreted as a "classic" response to the increase of the standard of living, but a more far-reaching interpretation is that the erosion of the…

  12. Japanese Concepts of Child Development from the Mid-17th to Mid-19th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kojima, Hideo

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes beliefs and values about child rearing from documents written by experts on the mid-17th to mid-19th centuries. The experts argued that children are innately good rather than evil; environmental factors accounted for differences among children rather than innate factors; and children were autonomous rather than passive learners. (HOD)

  13. The Garbers: Using Digital History To Recreate a 19th-Century Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Cheryl L.; Carter, Alice

    1999-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which students read a letter from the Web site "Valley of the Shadow: Two Communities during the American Civil War," an interactive archive of digitized primary sources. Students search the site's 1860 population census to learn about Thomas Garber and his family. Students also learn about life in the 19th century.…

  14. Seriously Popular: Rethinking 19th-Century American Literature through the Teaching of Popular Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Curious about the connections between the author's students' reading tastes and those of 19th-century readers, the author read Nina Baym's excellent text "Novels, Readers, and Reviewers: Responses to Fiction in Antebellum America" to gain a sense of how readers in the 1800s might have thought about the texts that they read. Nineteenth-century…

  15. MOSQUITO VECTOR CONTROL AND BIOLOGY IN LATIN AMERICA - A 19TH SYMPOSIUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 19th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 75th Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA, in April 2009. The principal objective, as for the previous 18 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control s...

  16. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (19th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 19-22, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J., Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

    This PTC'97 volume contains papers presented at the 19th annual conference of the Pacific Telecommunications Council, "Pacific Connections: Policy and Technology in the Information Economy" (1997). Three super-session groupings--industry, policy, and technology--provide attendees with a conceptual foundation from which subsequent…

  17. 1. COPY OF A LATE 19TH CENTURY BUSINESS CARD FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. COPY OF A LATE 19TH CENTURY BUSINESS CARD FOR A. ALEXANDER & SON FLOURING MILLS. CARD OWNED BY THOMAS R. WILSON. Photographer: Berni Rich, Score Photographers, September 1986. - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  18. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  19. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume I: 15th-19th Centuries. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This VHS videotape recording is the first in a two-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It focuses on the 15th-19th centuries, including Renaissance nobility, Baroque extravagance, Regency refinement, and Victorian romanticism. Each era reflects the changing relationships between men and women through the…

  20. [Rape and transgression. Forensic medicine and sexual morality in Spain in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Carpena, Amalio Lorente

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the importance of the contribution of the Spanish forensic medical discourse in the 19th century, and its application in cases of sexual harassment, to legitimize the sexual moral value of the time. For that reason we will analyse the main forensic medicine treaties edited in Spain during this century.

  1. 12. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 10. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 9. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 8. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station Powerhouse. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station Powerhouse. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.11. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 11. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Pennsylvania Railroad: 30th Street Station. Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 88.10. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. "Le Droit de L'Enfant:" Ideologies of the Child in 19th Century French Literature and Child Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Suzanne

    This paper examines ideological themes present in movements for child labor reform and in literature in 19th century France. Separate sections cover early industrialization and child labor reform, the image of the romantic child in French literature, and ideology and reforms. By the mid-19th century, England, America, and France all had their…

  7. The tympanostomy tube: an ingenious invention of the mid 19th century.

    PubMed

    Mudry, Albert

    2013-02-01

    The introduction of the tympanostomy tube in the treatment of otitis media with effusion in the mid 20th century completely revolutionized its therapy. Nevertheless, it was not a new idea. The aim of this research is to elucidate the origin of prosthetic middle ear ventilation in the mid 19th century. A review of primary sources revealed at least seven different models of tympanostomy tube which were manufactured between 1845 and 1875. These included: Frank's gold tube, Lincke's rubber tube, Bonnafont's silver cannula, Politzer's hard rubber drain, Miot's metallic eyelet, Voltolini's gold ring, and Bonnafont's eyelet. Study of these early innovations shows that all of the technical and surgical principles of the tympanostomy tube were known in the mid 19th century. Widespread introduction into otological practice did not occur until the mid 20th century invention of the operating microscope.

  8. Racial differences in body mass indices of men imprisoned in 19th Century Texas.

    PubMed

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2009-03-01

    A limited amount of research has been done on the body mass index values of 19th century Americans. This paper uses Texas prison records to demonstrate that, in contrast to today's distributions, most BMI values were in the normal range. Only 21.5% and 1.2% of the population was overweight or obese, while today comparable figures are 36% and 23%. There was also little change in BMI values between 1876 and 1919. Farmers were consistently heavier than non-farmers, while Southwestern men had lower BMI values than their counterparts from other regions of the US. BMI values indicate that 19th century African-Americans, and whites populations were well fed in spite of large expenditures on energy.

  9. [Criminology and superstition at the turn of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Criminology, which institutionalised at university level at the turn of the 19th century, was intensively engaged in the exploration of superstition. Criminologists investigated the various phenomena of superstition and the criminal behaviour resulting from it. They discovered bizarre (real or imagined) worlds of thought and mentalities, which they subjected to a rationalistic regime of interpretation in order to arrive at a better understanding of offences and crimes related to superstition. However, they sometimes also considered the use of occultist practices such as telepathy and clairvoyance to solve criminal cases. As a motive for committing homicide superstition gradually became less relevant in the course of the 19th century. Around 1900, superstition was accepted as a plausible explanation in this context only if a psychopathic form of superstition was involved. In the 20th century, superstition was no longer regarded as an explanans but an explanandum.

  10. Physics education in the Greek community schools of Istanbul (19th century). The books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazos, Panayotis; Vlahakis, George N.

    2016-03-01

    During the 19th century a number of elementary and high schools were established for the need of the Greek community of Istanbul. Among the courses included in the curricula were those concerning the scientific study of Nature like Botany, Chemistry and Physics. In the present study we attempt to give a thorough description of the educational material used in these schools for the study of natural sciences with an emphasis in Physics. Especially we shall discuss the books used as course books as well as their probable sources. Furthermore we shall try to make a comparison with the relevant situation in the Greek state and the Ottoman Empire, where modern physics had been already introduced through textbooks based on Ganot's treatise on Physics. The results of our research will give for the first time a picture of the way Greek students in the 19th century Istanbul received their basic knowledge about Physics.

  11. Late 19th- and early 20th-century discussions of animal magnetism.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Carlos S

    2009-10-01

    The mesmerists explained the phenomena of what was later called hypnosis as the effects of a force called animal magnetism. Both psychologists' and physicians' writings generally create the impression that the magnetic movement disappeared after the mid-19th century. While the concept of animal magnetism declined significantly by the end of the 19th century, it did not disappear completely. Some examples include the work of Hector Durville, Henri Durville, Emile Magnin, and Edmund Shaftesbury. Detailed accounts of the work of Edmund Gurney and Albert de Rochas are presented. Similar to its earlier counterpart, the late mesmeric movement was associated with what today is known as parapsychological phenomena. This association, and the belief that the demise of magnetic theory represents scientific progress, has led many to emphasize a history that is incomplete.

  12. Proceedings of the 19th annual meeting of the Adhesion Society

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is the proceedings of the 19th Annual Meeting of the Adhesion Society, held February 18-21, 1996. Papers are presented on various aspects of adhesion, ranging from studies at the molecular level, to studies of the intermixing of polymer chains across interface joints, to the study of polymer/metal joints. Separate abstracts of articles from this proceedings have been indexed into the database.

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, Preparations for the 19th Party Conference, Part 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    important element that would be political, that is, would fully meet the require- ments of party allegiance and party policy, which is a science and...historical sciences , former secretary of the party’s Saratov Obkom, under rubric "Towards the 19th Ail-Union Party Conference": "Teaching That Which...only two do not exist, but even one does not exist? According to the data of medical science , the risk factor for getting a heart attack has

  14. [Hygiene, hygienism and public health policy in late 19th century France].

    PubMed

    Cavé, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In France the desire to expand public health developed mainly because of the hygienist movement which prevailed in the 19th century. This paper aims to show how medical doctors committed themselves deeply at the Chambre des députés and Sénat with the objective of creating the legislation to control sanitary standards which was written between 1870 and 1914.

  15. [From ancient pot collections to the modern medicines. Menier's pot collection-19th century].

    PubMed

    Demouy, Isabelle

    2012-02-01

    At the beginning of the 19th century in 1816, Jean Antoine Brutus Menier founded the "Maison Centrale de Droguerie Menier". It supplied most of the pharmacies in France with drugs of animal, plant and mineral origin for the pharmaceutical preparations recommended at that time. The company provided training for many chemists and pharmacists, and as such, had a collection of pots containing over seven hundred drugs that is currently held at the head office of the Council of the College of Pharmacists in Paris. After having described the pot collection, set it against the 19th century background which experienced a real revolution within this profession, and after retracing its history, a study was then carried out in order to compare the former uses with the modern uses for each of the drugs. Thanks to this detailed, comparative analysis it is now possible to evaluate the relevance of the therapeutic range of drugs in the first half of the 19th century, before the significant rise in chemistry. The Germinal Law changed the pharmacist's profession, and with the birth of chemistry, the art of the pharmacy was revolutionised. However, the drugs, and particularly those of plant origin, have managed to keep a dominant position in today's pharmaceutical domain and in the French or European Pharmacopoeia.

  16. The psychologist as a poet: Kierkegaard and psychology in 19th-century Copenhagen.

    PubMed

    Pind, Jörgen L

    2016-11-01

    Psychology had an early start at the University of Copenhagen in the first half of the 19th century, where it was taught as the major part of a compulsory course required of all first-year students. Particularly important in the establishment of psychology at the university was Frederik Christian Sibbern, who was professor of philosophy from 1813 to 1870. Sibbern wrote numerous works on psychology throughout his career. In his first book on psychology, Sibbern expressed the view that the ideal psychologist should also be a poet. Søren Kierkegaard, Sibbern's student, was precisely such a poet-psychologist. Kierkegaard discussed psychology in many of his works, reflecting the gathering momentum of psychology in 19th-century Copenhagen, Denmark. The article brings out some aspects of Kierkegaard's poetic and literary-imaginative approach to psychology. In his opinion, psychology was primarily a playful subject and limited in the questions about human nature it could answer, especially when it came up against the "eternal" in man's nature. Kierkegaard had a positive view of psychology, which contrasts sharply with his negative views on the rise of statistics and the natural sciences. In the latter half of the 19th century, psychology turned positivistic at the University of Copenhagen. This left little room for Kierkegaard's kind of poetic psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. View westsouthwest of marine railway at reserve basin of Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west-southwest of marine railway at reserve basin of Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Reserve Basin & Marine Railway, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. PREFACE: EDS2010 Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggie, Malcolm I.

    2011-03-01

    The biennial international conference on Extended Defects in Semiconductors started in 1978 with a meeting in Hünfeld, Germany. Subsequent meetings rotated between Poland, France, Great Britain, Germany, Russia and Italy, culminating in EDS2004 in Chernogolovka, EDS2006 in Halle and EDS2008 in Poitiers. EDS2010 was held at the University of Sussex at Brighton, UK from September 19th to 24th. An extension of the tabulation of this history, which first appeared on the EDS2006 website, is given in the attached PDF. It is with sadness that we note one of the founders of the series, Prof. Dr Helmut Alexander, passed away on 3 December 2009 and we were proud to dedicate EDS2010 to his memory. It has become a tradition to make an award in his name, and this year it was made to Ivan Isacov for his poster "Electrical levels of dislocation networks in p- and n-type silicon". A short and warm celebration of Prof. Dr Alexander's life by his friends and colleagues, Prof. Drs Helmut Gottschalk, Eicke Weber and Wolfgang Schröter, is included in this volume. The conference was a forum for the state-of-the-art of investigation and modelling of extended defects in semiconductors. Scientists from universities, research institutes and industry made contributions to a deeper understanding of extended defects, their interaction with point defects and their role in the development of semiconductor technology. The remit of the conference included extended defects, nanostructures, nanoparticles, quantum dots and interfaces within semiconducting materials ranging from narrow to wide band gaps, including graphene-derived materials and diamond. Scientific interests range from defect geometry, electronic structure, dynamics, spectroscopy, microscopy, reactions and chemistry to introduction mechanisms, such as implantation and strained layers and the operation of devices such as integrated circuits, heterostructures, and solar cells. The organisers were confronted with a long period between

  19. [Epidemic Cholera and American Reform Movements in the 19th Century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Seohyung

    2015-12-01

    The 19th century was the age of great reform in American history. After constructing of the canal and railroads, the industrialization began and American society changed so rapidly. In this period, there were so many social crisis and American people tried to solve these problems within the several reform movements. These reform movements were the driving forces to control cholera during the 19th century. Cholera was the endemic disease in Bengal, India, but after the 19th century it had spread globally by the development of trade networks. The 1832 cholera in the United States was the first epidemic cholera in American history. The mortality of cholera was so high, but it was very hard to find out the cause of this fatal infectious disease. So, different social discourses happened to control epidemic cholera in the 19th century, these can be understood within the similar context of American reform movements during this period. Board of Health in New York States made a new public health act to control cholera in 1832, it was ineffective. Some people insisted that the cause of this infectious disease was the corruption of the United States. They emphasized unjust and immoral system in American society. Moral reform expanded to Nativism, because lots of Irish immigrants were the victims of cholera. So, epidemic cholera was the opportunity to spread the desire for moral reform. To control cholera in 1849, the sanitary reform in Britain had affected. The fact that it was so important to improve and maintain the water quality for the control and prevention of disease spread, the sanitary reform happened. There were two different sphere of the sanitary reform. The former was the private reform to improve sewer or privy, the latter was the public reform to build sewage facilities. The 1849 cholera had an important meaning, because the social discourse, which had emphasized the sanitation of people or home expanded to the public sphere. When cholera broke out in 1866 again

  20. Glacier changes on South Georgia since the late-19th century documented in historical photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, John; Haynes, Valerie

    2014-05-01

    South Georgia is one of the few landmasses in the Southern Ocean. It provides a crucial geographical datapoint for glacier responses to climate change over different timescales. As part of an ongoing glacier inventory of the island, we are compiling a database of historical glacier photographs. Since the late 19th century, the island has been visited by numerous scientific and survey expeditions, as well as being the land-base for a major whaling industry. Historical photographs of the island are available from the late-19th century, beginning with the 1882-83 German International Polar Year Expedition. Many more exist from the 20th century, notably from the South Georgia Surveys in the 1950s. An assessment of the value of the photographs indicates that spatial coverage is variable, many lack reference features to pinpoint glacier positions and, in the case of smaller glaciers, the presence of snowcover makes it difficult to define the ice edge. Nevertheless, the photographs provide useful corroboration of more advanced glacier positions during the late-19th century and recession of smaller mountain and valley glaciers during the mid-20th century, while larger tidewater and sea-calving glaciers generally remained in relatively advanced positions until the 1980s. Since then, nearly all the glaciers have retreated; some of these retreats have been dramatic and a number of small mountain glaciers have fragmented or disappeared. The response of the glaciers can be related to synoptic-scale warming, particularly since the 1950s, moderated by individual glacier geometry and topography.

  1. Parents and children: ideas of heredity in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Waller, John C

    2003-06-01

    The concept of heredity played a powerful role in structuring 19th-century debates over sickness, morality, class, race, education, social change and evolution. But there was very little agreement as to which qualities were heritable and how new hereditary variants were acquired. In consequence, notions of heredity existed in a wide variety of forms, expressing anything from extreme determinism and a belief in the incorrigibility of individuals, social and racial groups, to unleavened optimism, and a faith in ultimate human perfectibility. This article explores these rich hereditarian discourses to convey an impression of a century that was at least as preoccupied with the concept of biological inheritance as we are today.

  2. A 19th Century "Ideal" Oil Paint Medium: A Complex Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Gel.

    PubMed

    de Viguerie, Laurence; Jaber, Maguy; Pasco, Hélène; Lalevée, Jacques; Morlet-Savary, Fabrice; Ducouret, Guylaine; Rigaud, Baptiste; Pouget, Thierry; Sanchez, Clément; Walter, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    British 19th century painters such as J. M. W. Turner, commonly modified the properties of their paint by using gels called "gumtions". These gels allowed them to easily tune the paint handling and drying properties. The fascinating properties of these "gumtions" were obtained by adding lead acetate to a ternary system based on mastic resin, linseed oil and turpentine. Herein, we report and investigate in depth the rheological properties of these gels as well as their structure at a molecular and supra-molecular scale.

  3. Proceedings of the 19th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Stephanie (Compiler); Morton, Thomas (Compiler)

    2007-01-01

    The 19th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT XIX) was held September 20 to 22, 2005, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT Conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year's conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVIII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

  4. [Private clinics in Nuremberg in the 19th and 20th century].

    PubMed

    Vasold, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    As a consequence of the industrialization German cities grew very rapidly during the 19th century. Nuremberg reached the number of 100 000 in 1881. Although that city had a large Municipality Hospital (since 1845), a number of specialized private hospitals was founded. Julius Cnopf, a doctor from Nuremberg, founded a children's hospital, one of the first children's hospitals in Germany. The Nuremberg Muncipality Hospital had more than 1000 beds before 1914 and many more than 2000 after 1945, for this reason the number of private owned hospitals remained rather small. Nonetheless were these small and highly specialized hospitals quite important for the city population of Nuremberg.

  5. An archival exploration of 19th-century American adult female offender parricides.

    PubMed

    Shon, Phillip Chong Ho; Williams, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    Social and behavioral scientists have increasingly attended to the contexts and motivational dynamics underlying parricidal events. These efforts notwithstanding, most research has focused on adolescent or adult male offender populations. One largely neglected area of study is that of adult female offender parricide. The present study utilizes archival records to examine the contexts and sources of conflict that gave rise to adult female offender parricides in the late 19th century. Three general themes emerged, representing the primary contexts behind adult female offender parricide: (1) abuse and neglect; (2) instrumental, financially-motivated killings; and (3) expressive killings, often during the course of arguments. Each of these contexts is explored.

  6. 19th JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, J. E. (Editor); Becker, D. L. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a compilation of 22 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 19th Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. The meeting was held 18-21 March 2002 at the Sheraton Colorado Springs Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Topics covered include green energetic materials and life cycle pollution prevention; space launch range safety; propellant/munitions demilitarization, recycling, and reuse: and environmental and occupational health aspects of propellants and energetic materials.

  7. [Emergence, migrations and reduction to routine in the political sciences (17th-19th centuries)].

    PubMed

    Beaud, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the paths through which percentage imposed itself in the political sciences. At first used in the financial domain, percentage is incorporated in 1662 by Graunt in the field of studies of mortality; in the beginning of the 19th century it migrates towards studies in population growth, then it migrates to other territories to become a tool of general application. Each migration enters the framework of a new problematic: "the birth of mortality" in one case; "the birth of population" in the other. The recourse to percentages thus appears as one of the elements in the foundation of statistical objectivism.

  8. [The politics of the self: psychological science and bourgeois subjectivity in 19th century Spain.].

    PubMed

    Novella, Enric J

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers an analysis of the process of institutionalization of psychological knowledge in Spain following the educative reforms implemented during the second third of the 19th century, which prescribed its inclusion in the curricular program of the new secondary education. After a detailed examination of the theoretical orientation, the ideological assumptions and the socio-political connections of the contents transmitted to the students throughout the century, its militant spiritualism is interpreted as a highly significant attempt on the part of the liberal elites to articulate a pedagogy of subjectivity intended to counteract the trends toward reduction, naturalization and fragmentation of psychic life inherent to the development of modern science.

  9. [The explicative models of infectious diseases in Canada in the 19th Century].

    PubMed

    Goulet, Denis; Thouez, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Until the last third of the 19th Century in Canada, physicians looked for the causes of infectious diseases and adopted explicative models associated to airist theories, climatic variations and the physical environment. Rarely did they mention the social environment. Yet, the interpretation of disease plays a fundamental role in the elaboration of preventive measures. Consequently, Canadian physicians adopted a naturalist approach based on local sanitation rather than a social approach of the disease. This reinforced the concept of "predisposing causes". By examining local conditions and, to a lesser extent, the living conditions of Quebec's population, the pre-bacteriologist theories prepared the way for the intervention of modern hygienists.

  10. Yale University Is Preserving Its Great Late-19th-Century Architecture by Remodeling the Old Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Architectural Record, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Renovation of four late-19th-century Yale dormitories makes the most of their unique architectural character. Available from: Publications Office, 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10020; $5.00 single copy. (Author/MLF)

  11. The 'Ajuda Paralyses': history of a neuropsychiatric debate in mid-19th-century Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, Paulo

    2010-10-01

    The second half of the 19th century witnessed an increasing interest in neurology and psychiatry by Portuguese physicians, in parallel with the overall development of these disciplines in other countries. This process is reflected in the numerous case report publications as well as in debates taking place at the Lisbon Society of Medical Sciences, the major scientific forum of that time. The 'Ajuda Paralyses' were a mysterious succession of epidemics that occurred during 1860-64 in the Ajuda asylum for cholera and yellow fever orphans, which were extensively discussed during 1865-66 by Bernardino Antonio Gomes, Antonio Maria Barbosa, Abel Jordão and Eduardo Motta. Studying this debate helps understand the initial stages of development and the great interest that 'nervous diseases' had for Portuguese clinicians in the mid-19th century and possibly provides one of the first modern descriptions of nutrition-related polyradiculoneuropathy and the ocular findings associated with avitaminosis A. This debate took place at a decisive time for the scientific development of neurology and psychiatry, concurrent with the widespread application of the clinical-anatomical method and neuropathology to the study of diseases of the nervous system, which would set the foundations for our own modern pathophysiological framework. Therefore, the 'Ajuda paralyses' debate also provides a good basis for a discussion on the evolution of the concepts of hysteria and psychosomatic disease and the description of peripheral neuropathy from among a wealth of other entities that did not withstand the test of science.

  12. [Public health services and healthcare workforce in Bakar of the 18th and 19th century].

    PubMed

    Čulina, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    This review article draws on scarce and poorly studied archival information and several published articles to describe the development and organisation of public health services in the town of Bakar over the 18th and 19th century. For a short while at the turn of the 19th century, Bakar established a hospital run by two physicians and one surgeon to treat patients affected by the so called Škrljevo disease, an endemic type of syphilis. As the century went on, the number of healthcare providers increased by two more physicians, four surgeons, and three to six licensed midwives. There was also a town pharmacy, that worked all that time. As a busy port, the town also provided well-organised maritime sanitary services. As its economy changed over the two centuries to come to a halt after an initial boom, which resulted in a severe drop in population from 7600 to 2000 people, public services deteriorated, including public health. Maritime services suffered the hardest blow, while the workforce gradually came down to one or two physicians and surgeons and several midwives.

  13. Accounts from 19th-century Canadian Arctic explorers' logs reflect present climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, James E.; Wood, Kevin

    The widely perceived failure of 19th-century expeditions to find and transit the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic is often attributed to extraordinary cold climatic conditions associated with the “Little Ice Age” evident in proxy records. However, examination of 44 explorers' logs for the western Arctic from 1818 to 1910 reveals that climate indicators such as navigability, the distribution and thickness of annual sea ice, monthly surface air temperature, and the onset of melt and freeze were within the present range of variability.The quest for the Northwest Passage through the Canadian archipelago during the 19th century is frequently seen as a vain and tragic failure. Polar exploration during the Victorian era seems to us today to have been a costly exercise in heroic futility, which in many respects it was. This perspective has been reinforced since the 1970s, when paleoclimate reconstructions based on Arctic ice core stratigraphy appeared to confirm the existence of exceptionally cold conditions consistent with the period glaciologists had termed the “Little Ice Age” (Figure 1a), with temperatures more than one standard deviation colder relative to an early 20th-century mean [Koerner, 1977; Koerner and Fisher, 1990; Overpeck et al., 1998]. In recent years, the view of the Little Ice Age as a synchronous worldwide and prolonged cold epoch that ended with modern warming has been questioned [Bradley and Jones, 1993; Jones and Briffa, 2001 ;Ogilvie, 2001].

  14. A comparison of 19th century and current attitudes to female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Studd, John

    2007-12-01

    The 19th century medical attitude to normal female sexuality was cruel, with gynecologists and psychiatrists leading the way in designing operations for the cure of the serious contemporary disorders of masturbation and nymphomania. The gynecologist Isaac Baker Brown (1811-1873) and the distinguished endocrinologist Charles Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) advocated clitoridectomy to prevent the progression to masturbatory melancholia, paralysis, blindness and even death. Even after the public disgrace of Baker Brown in 1866-7, the operation remained respectable and widely used in other parts of Europe. This medical contempt for normal female sexual development was reflected in public and literary attitudes. Or perhaps it led and encouraged public opinion. There is virtually no novel or opera in the last half of the 19th century where the heroine with 'a past' survives to the end. H. G. Wells's Ann Veronica and Richard Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier, both of which appeared in 1909, broke the mould and are important milestones. In the last 50 years new research into the sociology, psychology and physiology of sexuality has provided an understanding of decreased libido and inadequate sexual response in the form of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. This is now regarded as a disorder worthy of treatment, either by various forms of counseling or by the use of hormones, particularly estrogens and testosterone.

  15. Extending the African instrumental record to the early 19th century

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, S.E.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes progress toward the production of a data set that extends the African climate record back to the beginning of the 19th century. Qualitative documentary evidence, lake-level fluctuations and other proxy indicators are combined with historical rainfall records to produce regional time series. The data set has relatively high temporal and spatial resolution. The conceptualization is based on a climatic regionalization produced using modern data and an anomaly method in previous historical reconstructions. The data set provides information for some 100 regions with a 1 to 5 year resolution for most of the nineteenth century. Three to five quantitative classes of rainfall are utilized in the data set. Here, the available information to produce this record is summarized. The methodology utilized to combine proxy data and observations to produce a quantitative rainfall data set is described. This historical data set is compared with actual rainfall records for select regions where both are available. This comparison indicates the reliability of the proxy African data set. An analysis of the historical record indicates that the main characteristics of rainfall variability evident in the modern African record are also apparent in the 19th century record. 5 figs.

  16. Human Genetic Variation and Yellow Fever Mortality during 19th Century U.S. Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We calculated the incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates for Caucasians and non-Caucasians during 19th century yellow fever (YF) epidemics in the United States and determined statistical significance for differences in the rates in different populations. We evaluated nongenetic host factors, including socioeconomic, environmental, cultural, demographic, and acquired immunity status that could have influenced these differences. While differences in incidence rates were not significant between Caucasians and non-Caucasians, differences in mortality and case fatality rates were statistically significant for all epidemics tested (P < 0.01). Caucasians diagnosed with YF were 6.8 times more likely to succumb than non-Caucasians with the disease. No other major causes of death during the 19th century demonstrated a similar mortality skew toward Caucasians. Nongenetic host factors were examined and could not explain these large differences. We propose that the remarkably lower case mortality rates for individuals of non-Caucasian ancestry is the result of human genetic variation in loci encoding innate immune mediators. PMID:24895309

  17. Tuberculosis epidemiology and selection in an autochthonous Siberian population from the 16th-19th century.

    PubMed

    Dabernat, Henri; Thèves, Catherine; Bouakaze, Caroline; Nikolaeva, Dariya; Keyser, Christine; Mokrousov, Igor; Géraut, Annie; Duchesne, Sylvie; Gérard, Patrice; Alexeev, Anatoly N; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of most ancient diseases affecting human populations. Although numerous studies have tried to detect pathogenic DNA in ancient skeletons, the successful identification of ancient tuberculosis strains remains rare. Here, we describe a study of 140 ancient subjects inhumed in Yakutia (Eastern Siberia) during a tuberculosis outbreak, dating from the 16(th)-19(th) century. For a long time, Yakut populations had remained isolated from European populations, and it was not until the beginning of the 17(th) century that first contacts were made with European settlers. Subsequently, tuberculosis spread throughout Yakutia, and the evolution of tuberculosis frequencies can be tracked until the 19(th) century. This study took a multidisciplinary approach, examining historical and paleo-epidemiological data to understand the impact of tuberculosis on ancient Yakut population. In addition, molecular identification of the ancient tuberculosis strain was realized to elucidate the natural history and host-pathogen co-evolution of human tuberculosis that was present in this population. This was achieved by the molecular detection of the IS6110 sequence and SNP genotyping by the SNaPshot technique. Results demonstrated that the strain belongs to cluster PGG2-SCG-5, evocating a European origin. Our study suggests that the Yakut population may have been shaped by selection pressures, exerted by several illnesses, including tuberculosis, over several centuries. This confirms the validity and necessity of using a multidisciplinary approach to understand the natural history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease.

  18. [From spermatic animalcules to sperm cells: the reconceptualization of generation in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Vienne, Florence

    2009-09-01

    At the end of the 18th and still at the beginning of the 19th century most naturalists considered spermatic animalcules to be parasites of the seminal fluid that played no role in procreation. This view was progressively questioned by 19th century physiologists. They gradually redefined the spermatic animals as (cellular) products of the male organism, as agents of fertilization and bearers of the male heredity material. This article discusses this change from two different perspectives: on a microhistorical level, it analyzes the experimental research of the naturalist Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) and of the physiologist Albert Kölliker (1817-1905) in order to show how spermatozoa were turned into a new epistemic object of biology--the sperm cell. Further, it asks how the role of the reconceptualization of spermatic animalcules affected the long-term transformations that gave rise of our modern understanding of heredity, generation and the sexed body. By combining these two perspectives, the article aims to connect historiographies that are often kept separate: the macrohistorical narratives about gender and the body in the modern age and the microhistorical studies of biomedical practices and objects.

  19. [Medecine, Law, and Knowledge Production about the "Civilized" War in the Long 19th Century].

    PubMed

    Goltermann, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    The aim to 'civilize' warfare accompanied Medicine and International Law ever since the mid-19th century. However, the entanglement of Medicine and Law, crucial for such an endeavour, has not been taken into consideration so far; likewise, the huge importance of medical knowledge for the perception of wars and their ramifications did not garner much attention in historical research. Hence, by focusing on the 'long' 19th century, this paper shows, firstly, that the production of surgical knowledge during warfare aimed at measuring the effects of combat on human bodies in order to develop prognostic medical knowledge for future wars, as well as maintaining the combat strength of soldiers. Moreover, this knowledge production during warfare strived for the enhancement of medical competence in the diagnosis and treatment of wounds in general. Secondly, I show that this medical knowledge was not only relevant for warfare, but also crucial for the design of International Law: it served to nourish the debates among the so called 'civilized' nations about legitimate and illegitimate weaponry and warfare.

  20. A history of leprosy in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Mohammad Hossein; Bahadori, Moslem

    2011-11-01

    From ancient time leprosy has been regarded as a terrifying, stigmatized disease; nevertheless, its cause remained unidentified up to the late 19th century. For centuries numerous leprosy victims worldwide suffered from its morbidity and were socially isolated. The afflicted individuals were segregated because they were considered 'unclean' and had to live in leper colonies, generally under very poor conditions. Physicians believed that leprosy was an incurable, highly contagious, and hereditary disease. In 1873 the Norwegian physician, Gerhard Armauer Hansen (1841-1912), ended the myth of leprosy and discovered its causative agent, known as Mycobacterium leprae. Hansen's discovery was a great triumph in the fight against leprosy. In the 1930's, the first effective antileprosy drug, dapsone, was introduced and in the early 1980's multi-drug therapy was popularized because of high efficacy in resistant cases. Here, we have presented a brief look at the history of leprosy in the world with special focus on the historical account of leprosy in Iran, particularly during the 19th and 20th centuries.

  1. Geometric frustration on a 1/9th site depleted triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, John; Beck, Jarrett

    2013-03-01

    In the searches both for new spin liquid and spin ice (artificial and macroscopic) candidates, geometrically frustrated two-dimensional spin systems have played a prominent role. Here we present a study of the classical antiferromagnetic Ising (AFI) model on the sorrel net, a 1/9th site depleted and 1/7th bond depleted triangular lattice. The AFI model on this corner-shared triangle net is found to have a large residual entropy per spin S/N = 0 . 48185 +/- 0 . 00008 , indicating the sorrel net is highly geometrically frustrated. Anticipating that it may be difficult to achieve perfect bond depletion, we investigate the physics resulting from turning back on the depleted bonds (J2). We present the phase diagram, analytic expressions for the long range partially ordered ground state spin structure for antiferromagnetic J2 and the short range ordered ground state spin structure for ferromagnetic J2, the magnetic susceptibility and the static structure factor. We briefly comment on the possibility that artificial spin ice on the sorrel lattice could by made, and on a recent report [T. D. Keene et al., Dalton Trans. 40 2983 (2011)] of the creation of a 1/9th depleted cobalt hydroxide oxalate. This work was supported by NSERC (JMH) and NSERC USRA (JJB)

  2. Overview from west bank of Schuykill River. Philadelphia & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview from west bank of Schuykill River. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Bridge at West Falls, Spanning Schuylkill River, southeast of Roosevelt Boulevard Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. EDITORIAL: The 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 2008) The 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnakenberg, Uwe

    2009-07-01

    This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering is devoted to the 19th MicroMechanics Europe Workshop (MME 08), which took place at the RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, from 28-30 September, 2008. The workshop is a well recognized and established European event in the field of micro system technology using thin-film technologies for creating micro components, micro sensors, micro actuators, and micro systems. The first MME Workshop was held 1989 in Enschede (The Netherlands) and continued 1990 in Berlin (Germany), 1992 in Leuven (Belgium), and then was held annually in Neuchâtel (Switzerland), Pisa (Italy), Copenhagen (Denmark), Barcelona (Spain), Southampton (UK), Ulvik in Hardanger (Norway), Gif-sur-Yvette (France), Uppsala (Sweden), Cork (Ireland), Sinaia (Romania), Delft (The Netherlands), Leuven (Belgium), Göteborg (Sweden), Southampton (UK), and in Guimarães (Portugal). The two day workshop was attended by 180 delegates from 26 countries all over Europe and from Armenia, Austria, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Cuba, Iran, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United States of America. A total of 97 papers were accepted for presentation and there were a further five keynote presentations. I am proud to present 22 high-quality papers from MME 2008 selected for their novelty and relevance to Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. All the papers went through the regular reviewing procedure of IOP Publishing. I am eternally grateful to all the referees for their excellent work. I would also like to extend my thanks to the members of the Programme Committee of MME 2008, Dr Reinoud Wolffenbuttel, Professor José Higino Correia, and Dr Patrick Pons for pre-selection of the papers as well as to Professor Robert Puers for advice on the final selection of papers. My thanks also go to Dr Ian Forbes of IOP Publishing for managing the entire process and to the editorial staff of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. I

  4. Paths to and from poverty in late 19th century novels

    PubMed Central

    Howden‐Chapman, Philippa; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Late 19th century novels provide graphic descriptions of working and living conditions and their impact on population health, in particular the detrimental effects of hunger, poor housing, environmental conditions, hazardous work and poor pay, smoking and alcohol and crime, but also the transformative possibilities of social and political action. The popularity of these novels helped raise the collective conscience of citizens and illuminated the direction for 20th century welfare reforms. Yet many of these problems remain and the pathways to and from poverty are still recognisable today. Although novels are now less central in conveying social information, re‐reading these novels enables us to understand how social and economic circumstances were understood at the time and what led to social and political change. PMID:16415257

  5. Following rules in the intermontane west: 19th-century mormon settlement.

    PubMed

    Norton, W

    2001-01-01

    The academic discipline of human geography is concerned with human activities, especially as these relate to physical landscapes and contribute to the modification of those landscapes. Although little attention has been paid to objectivist philosophies to inform human geography, behavior analysis might offer a useful explanatory model. As an example, a behavior analysis of selected aspects of 19th-century Mormon movement and settlement in the intermontane West is conducted. Mormons are a society of believers who practice cooperative effort and support for other members, and the Mormon church is governed by priesthood authority with members being called to perform tasks. This analysis employs the concepts of metacontingency, rule-governed behavior, and delayed reinforcement to analyze how Mormons settled the intermontane West.

  6. Electrical treatment of spinal cord injuries in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Silver, John R; Weiner, M-F

    2013-05-01

    Two centuries ago, electricity was being used for the treatment of paraplegia and trials were taking place in France. This study aims to identify cases of traumatic paraplegia treated with electricity in the 19th century in order to assess the therapeutic benefit. Only four such cases were identified, none with a complete transection of the spinal cord since these patients would have died from pressure sores and urinary tract infections. The personalities involved, William Gull, William Erb, Guillaume Duchenne and Cyril Henry Golding Bird are portrayed and contemporaneous views on electrotherapy analysed. While the four patients apparently benefited from the treatment, the lack of follow-up and the incomplete data prevented a definitive conclusion on the therapeutic value of electrical treatment in traumatic paraplegia.

  7. Apothecary activity in Dubrovnik Dominican Monastery from 17th to the beginning 19th century.

    PubMed

    Krasic, Stjepan

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the Dominican monastery pharmacy is not clear, but sources suggest that it had operated from the eve of the great earthquake in Dubrovnik in 1667 to the beginning of the 19th century. Its last pharmacist, praised for his competence, passed away in 1803, leaving no one behind The prior travelled all the way to Naples to find a competent pharmacist in his stead, but never returned. Story has it that on the way back, the abbot and the pharmacist lost their lives in a shipwreck. The French army occupied the town in 1806, and the monastery was turned into a military camp. Following the retreat of the French army in 1814, the monastery was returned to the Dominicans, but the pharmacy was never restored.

  8. Height of female Americans in the 19th century and the antebellum puzzle.

    PubMed

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2011-03-01

    Using 19th century state prison records, this study contrasts the biological standard of living of comparable US African-American and white females during a period of relatively rapid economic development. White females were consistently taller than black females by about 1.5 cm (0.6 in.). Whites from Great Lakes and Plains states and black Southwestern females were the tallest. US females were tall compared to their European counterparts. The height of females began to decline in the antebellum period, possibly before that of males. The recovery of physical stature was also earlier among females than among males. This implies that the biological standard of lower-class men and women did not move in parallel during the onset of modern economic growth. It also implies that the antebellum puzzle was most likely rooted in the endogenous forces of socio-economic change rather than the exogenous changes in the disease environment.

  9. Placenta Accreta and Total Placenta Previa in the 19th Week of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Findeklee, S; Costa, S D

    2015-08-01

    Placentation disorders are the result of impaired embedding of the placenta in the endometrium. The prevalence of these disorders is estimated to be around 0.3 %. A history of previous prior uterine surgery (especially cesarean section and curettage) is the most common risk factor. Impaired placentation is differentiated into deep placental attachment; marginal, partial and total placenta previa; and placenta accreta, increta and percreta. Treatment depends on the severity of presentation and ranges from expectant management to emergency hysterectomy. In most cases, preterm termination of pregnancy is necessary. We report here on the case of a 39-year-old woman with placenta accreta and total placenta previa who underwent hysterectomy in the 19th week of pregnancy.

  10. [Healthcare in times of epidemics in Rio de Janeiro in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Tânia Salgado

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to examine the provision of healthcare for the population of Rio de Janeiro in the mid-19th century and describe its reorganization during the crisis caused by outbreaks of yellow fever and cholera. In this context, it is essential to consider the significant changes taking place in healthcare during this period, also affecting the spaces in which hospital care was offered. Therefore, we focussed our investigation on Santa Casa da Misericórdia Hospital, the most important hospital in the capital of the Brazilian Empire. The sources used are the correspondence between the government and the hospital, the hospital annual reports, archives of the Central Board of Public Hygiene, and wide-circulation medical journals.

  11. Following rules in the intermontane west: 19th-century mormon settlement

    PubMed Central

    Norton, William

    2001-01-01

    The academic discipline of human geography is concerned with human activities, especially as these relate to physical landscapes and contribute to the modification of those landscapes. Although little attention has been paid to objectivist philosophies to inform human geography, behavior analysis might offer a useful explanatory model. As an example, a behavior analysis of selected aspects of 19th-century Mormon movement and settlement in the intermontane West is conducted. Mormons are a society of believers who practice cooperative effort and support for other members, and the Mormon church is governed by priesthood authority with members being called to perform tasks. This analysis employs the concepts of metacontingency, rule-governed behavior, and delayed reinforcement to analyze how Mormons settled the intermontane West. PMID:22478355

  12. The Rise of Commercial Telescope Making in 19th Century America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launie, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Very few telescopes were made in America in the 18th century; astronomers needed to rely on distant European makers. While there is evidence of a few American craftsman-made telescopes that were shown at early to mid-19th century Mechanics' Fairs, Massachusetts native Amasa Holcomb appears to have been the first to offer them for sale commercially. Most of Holcomb's instruments were Herschelian reflectors with speculum metal mirrors. Henry Fitz started his optical career by making mirrors used for the first Daguerreotype portrait cameras, and by the mid 1840's he was offering refractors of ever-increasing size. Not long after Fitz started, Alvan Clark began selling telescopes, and the premature death of Fitz in 1863 may have aided Alvan Clark and Sons' rise to prominence. The later decades of the 1800s saw a dramatic increase in the number of college observatories, and with that came more manufacturers to supply the demand.

  13. [Brain physiology and the development of psychiatry in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Pelaez, R

    1993-01-01

    Great developments in study of the central and peripheral nervous system took place throughout the 19th century, especially in Britain. These studies, together with other factors, gave rise to the development of a somaticism of mental illness. The followers of this school of thought, most notably Henry Maudsley, supported the idea of materialism, based on the theory of evolution. They were opposed by those who believed in the duality of body and mind whith its different variants. These two visions constituted the centre of the theoretical debate of psychiatry at that time. The author pays special attention to the first stance and reaches the conclusion that this process of knowledge made mental illness to be considered as an organic disease and contribuited to the entry of the lunatic wholly into the sphere or medical action.

  14. Prospects for using sonar for underwater archeology on the Yenisei: surveying a 19th century shipwreck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. E.; Mednikov, D. M.; Karelin, N. M.; Nasyrov, I. R.

    2016-11-01

    Current progress in underwater archeology is based on a rich arsenal of high-tech appliances, among which sonar technology plays a key role; it enables scientists not only to detect submerged archeological objects, but to examine them in high definition without having to conduct diving operations or use expensive underwater unmanned vehicles. While the majority of sensational scientific discoveries using sonar have been made in saltwater environments, freshwater ones, rivers in particular, have seen limited activity. The river Yenisei in central Siberia contains an unrecorded number of shipwrecks that await being discovered and studied. In this article we focus on the peculiarities of using sonar for detecting archeological sites on the Yenisei. This article is based on the results of the 2016 expedition, which has determined the location of Thames, a 19th century British steam schooner which was wrecked on the Yenisei.

  15. Lockyer's "Astronomy" among Serbs in the second half of the 19th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajkovska, V.; Ninković, S.

    1997-08-01

    The dynamical development of astronomy in the second half of 19th century has also found its adequate response among Serbs. As a good example may serve, in the opinion of the present authors, the translation of "Astronomy" by N. Lockyer into Serbian (the book was printed in 1880 in Novi Sad). The translator was Djordje Natošević who translated not the English original, but the German translation. The authors find Natošević an interesting personality. A physician by education he devoted the best part of his life to pedagogy and to enhancing the educational level in Serbian primary and secondary schools in Austria-Hungary of those days. He spent some time also in Serbia. It was then that he translated from German the textbook "Astronomy" by Lockyer, popular in those days.

  16. 2. Photocopy of the fountain in front of Philadelphia Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of the fountain in front of Philadelphia Museum of Art, ca. 1928, courtesy of Philadelphia Museum of Art - Fountain of the Sea Horses, Aquarium Lane, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Reconstructions of global near-surface temperature change since the mid 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice, Colin; Rayner, Nick; Kennedy, John

    2016-04-01

    Incomplete and non-uniform global observational coverage is a prominent source of uncertainty in instrumental records of global near-surface temperature change. In this study statistical methods are applied to the HadCRUT4 near-surface temperature data set to obtain improved estimates of global near-surface temperature change since the mid 19th century. Methods applied include those that interpolate according to local correlation structure (kriging) and reduced space methods that learn large-scale temperature patterns. The performance of each statistical reconstruction method has been benchmarked in application to a subset of CMIP5 simulations. Model fields are sub-sampled and simulated observational errors added to emulate observational data, permitting assessment of temperature field reconstruction algorithms in controlled tests in which globally complete temperature fields are known. In application to HadCRUT4 data the statistical reconstructions show relatively increased warming in the global average over the 21st century owing to reconstruction of temperatures in high northern latitudes, supporting the findings of Cowtan & Way (2014) and Karl et al. (2015). There is broad agreement between estimates of global and hemispheric changes throughout much of the 20th and 21st century. Agreement is reduced in data sparse periods and regions, notably in the 19th century and in the southern hemisphere. This finding is supported by the results of the climate model based benchmarks and highlights the importance of continued data rescue activities, such as those of the International Surface Temperature Initiative and ACRE. The results of this study will form an addition to the HadCRUT4 global near-surface temperature data set.

  18. Ochres and earths: matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials.

    PubMed

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

    2013-02-15

    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Raman microscopy, μ-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. μ-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. μ-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

  19. Ochres and earths: Matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

    2013-02-01

    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Raman microscopy, μ-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. μ-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. μ-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

  20. Science Fiction In Naples In The Middle Of The 19th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaccioli, Massimo; Cirella, Emilia Olostro; Stendardo, Enrica; Virgilio, Nicla

    Astronomer, intellectual, passionate patriot, and refined humanist, Ernesto Capocci Belmonte (Picinisco, May 31, 1798 - Naples, January 6, 1864) was a prominent figure of the scientific, cultural, and political life in Naples around the middle of the 19th century. He acquired international recognition for his studies on the orbits of comets and, since 1833, he was named director of the newly built Osservatorio Astronomico in Capodimonte: A prestigious position that he lost for political retaliation as a result of his participation in the movement against the Bourbon rulers in 1848, but which he regained in 1860 upon the arrival in Naples of Giuseppe Garibaldi. An intuitive and open-minded scholar, he looked always at the contemporary experiences in Europe and, as a scientist and cultivated human being, he sought to serve the community by enthusiastically devoting himself also to education and public outreach. He developed clear interests in literature and, as a forerunner, he dared to tackle the genre of science fiction. His short novel Relazione del viaggio alla Luna fatto da una donna nell'anno di grazia 2057 (Report of the Trip to the Moon done by a Woman in the Year of our Lord 2057), written in the period of his exile from the Observatory and practically given up as lost until a private copy was found in the library of one of Capocci's descendants, offers an interesting overview of astronomical knowledge and taste for the elegance in writing, and gives an unusual, and often ironic, viewpoint on the situation of sciences in Naples in the middle of the 19th century.

  1. Philadelphia's Parkway Program: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wofford, Joan; Ross, Joanne

    The Parkway Program is the prototype school-without-walls created by the School District of Philadelphia in 1967. The program presently consists of four units of approximately 200 students (chosen by lottery from throughout the city), ten teachers, ten to 12 interns, and a Unit Head and administrative assistant housed in four separate non-school…

  2. Building 21: B21 Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    As a non-selective neighborhood high school in the School District of Philadelphia, B21's mission is to empower networks of learners to connect with their passions and build agency to impact their world. Building 21 is organized into studios, workshops, and advisories. Core studios engage students in project-based learning. Blended learning…

  3. Philadelphia's "Servant-Leader" Superintendent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    This article profiles William Hite, Jr., a longtime educator and administrator, who began his career more than two decades ago as a high school athletic coach. Hite says his biggest passion is educating young people. And one of the best ways to serve students, he says, is by listening. Hite, 51, assumed his duties as Philadelphia's new…

  4. 21. Scrapping In Dry Dock #4. Naval Shipyard Philadelphia. February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Scrapping In Dry Dock #4. Naval Shipyard Philadelphia. February 18, 1946. Original Photograph In Collection of National Archives, Mid-Atlantic Regional Records Center, Philadelphia. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 4, Broad Street south of Government Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. Examining the ground layer of St. Anthony from Padua 19th century oil painting by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vančo, Ľubomír; Kadlečíková, Magdaléna; Breza, Juraj; Čaplovič, Ľubomír; Gregor, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we studied the material composition of the ground layer of a neoclassical painting. We used Raman spectroscopy (RS) as a prime method. Thereafter scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were employed as complementary techniques. The painting inspected was of the side altar in King St. Stephen's Church in Galanta (Slovakia), signed and dated by Jos. Chr. Mayer 1870. Analysis was carried out on both covered and uncovered ground layers. Four principal compounds (barite, lead white, calcite, dolomite) and two minor compounds (sphalerite, quartz) were identified. This ground composition is consistent with the 19th century painting technique used in Central Europe consisting of white pigments and white fillers. Transformation of lead white occurred under laser irradiation. Subdominant Raman peaks of the components were measured. The observed results elucidate useful partnership of RS and SEM-EDS measurements supported by X-ray powder diffraction as well as possibilities and limitations of non-destructive analysis of covered lower layers by RS.

  6. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 19th International Colloquium on Magnetic Films and Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, T.; Inoue, J.

    2007-03-01

    The 19th International Colloquium on Magnetic Films and Surfaces (ICMFS 2006) was held on 14-18 August 2006 at the Sendai International Center in Sendai, Japan. The purpose of the Colloquium was to bring together scientists working on magnetic thin films and surfaces and to provide an opportunity for presentation and discussion of recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field. 285 scientists from 17 countries (Japan: 167, overseas: 118) participated in the Colloquium, as well as 6 family members. There were 56 oral and 178 poster presentations. The oral presentations consisted of 3 plenary talks, 23 invited talks and 30 contributed talks. The number of presentations by scientific category are as follows: Spin dependent transport: 43 Magnetic storage/memory: 9 Magnetization reversal and fast dynamics: 15 Spin injection and spin transfer torque: 26 Magnetic thin films and multilayers: 71 High spin polarization materials: 17 Hard and soft magnetic materials: 3 Magneto-optics: 5 Characterization techniques for thin films and surfaces: 7 Exchange coupling: 13 Micro- and nanopatterned magnetic structures: 18 Micromagnetic modelling: 2 One of the characteristics of the present Colloquium is an increase in the number of presentations in the field of spin-electronics, as seen above. This Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics includes several important papers in this rapidly developing field. We believe that, in the future, the field of magnetic materials will maintain its popularity and, on top of that, other fields such as spintronics materials, materials related to life sciences and medicine and also materials related to the environment will be investigated further. The ICMFS Conference started in London in 1964, and is now one of the world-wide conferences on magnetism. The Colloquium has been held in Japan four times now: the previous ones being the 5th ICMFS in the Mount Fuji area, the 10th at Yokohama and the 17th at Kyoto, which was

  7. How to compare the faces of the Earth? Walachia in mid-19th century and nowadays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartos-Elekes, Zsombor; Magyari-Sáska, Zsolt; Timár, Gábor; Imecs, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    In 1864 a detailed map was made about Walachia, its title is Charta României Meridionale (Map of Southern Romania), it has 112 map sheets, it is often called after his draughtsman: Szathmári's map. The map has an outstanding position in the history of Romanian cartography, because it indicates a turning-point. Before the map, foreigners (Austrians and Russians) had made topographic maps about this vassal principality of the Ottoman Empire. The Austrian topographic survey (1855-1859) - which served as a basis for this map - was the last one and the most detailed of these surveys. The map was made between the personal-union (1859) and independence (1878) of the Danubian Principalities. This map was the first (to a certain extent) own map of the forming country. In consequence of this survey and map, the Romanian mapping institute was founded, which one - based on this survey and map - began the topographic mapping of the country. In the Romanian scientific literature imperfect and contradictory information has been published about this map. Only a dozen copies of the map were kept in few map collections; the researchers could have reached them with difficulties. During our research we processed the circumstances of the survey and mapmaking discovering its documentation in the archives of Vienna, as well as using the Romanian, Hungarian and German scientific literature. We found the copies in map collections from Vienna to Bucharest. We digitized all the map sheets from different collections. We calculated the parameters of the used geodetic datum and map projection. We published on the web, such we made the map reachable for everybody. The map can be viewed in different zoom levels; can be downloaded; settlements can be found using the place name index; areas can be exported in modern projection, so the conditions of that time could be compared with today's reality. Our poster presents on the one hand the survey and the map realized in mid-19th century and our

  8. [Epidemic diseases in the Polish Kingdom in the thirties of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Marek

    2004-01-01

    We can observe that after downfall of the November Insurrection the authorities of the Polish Kingdom were effectively engaged in the fight against numerous epidemic diseases plaguing the local society. Among "contagions" of the time there were varicella, "gastric-nervous fever", "gastric-rhinitis fever" and typhus (especially in 1836). As usual, cholera was the most dangerous one. All medical and epidemiological services in the Polish Kingdom were making effective remedial measures in order to neutralize results of the epidemics. The implemented methods were effective enough to limit considerably the incidence and number of deceased during the epidemic, which started in October 1836 and lasted till the next year. An obligation of effective cooperation between the Polish authorities and the Russian army was introduced then. The sanitary action against cholera in 1836-1837 should be very highly assessed from the logistic point of view. The wide action of protective vaccination against varicella and numerous sanitary rules completed the favorable image of the Polish Kingdom sanitary services. All the factors mentioned above lead to a conclusion that in the thirtieth of the 19th century both civil and military authorities of the Polish Kingdom did practically utmost in order to limit negative results of cyclical recurrences of epidemic diseases. It should be also stressed that the protective actions undertaken in that time were both direct and long lasting enterprises.

  9. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: Evidence from late 19th century America

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900–1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20–50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  10. Naming and Necessity: Sherborn’s Context in the 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    McOuat, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract By the late 19th Century, storms plaguing early Victorian systematics and nomenclature seemed to have abated. Vociferous disputes over radical renaming, the world-shaking clash of all-encompassing procrustean systems, struggles over centres of authority, and the issues of language and meaning had now been settled by the institution of a stable imperial museum and its catalogues, a set of rules for the naming of zoological objects, and a new professional class of zoologists. Yet, for all that tranquillity, the disputes simmered below the surface, re-emerging as bitter struggles over synonyms, trinomials, the subspecies category, the looming issues of the philosophy of scientific language, and the aggressive new American style of field biology – all pressed in upon the received practice of naming and classifying organisms and the threat of anarchy. In the midst rose an index. This paper will explore the context of CD Sherborn’s Index Animalium and those looming problems and issues which a laborious and comprehensive “index of nature” was meant to solve. PMID:26877652

  11. Factors influencing the recession rate of Niagara Falls since the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2009-09-01

    The rate of recession of Niagara Falls (Horseshoe and American Falls) in northeastern North America has been documented since the 19th century; it shows a decreasing trend from ca. 1 m y - 1 a century ago to ca. 0.1 m y - 1 at present. Reduction of the flow volume in the Niagara River due to diversion into bypassing hydroelectric schemes has often been taken to be the factor responsible, but other factors such as changes in the waterfall shape could play a role and call for a quantitative study. Here, we examine the effect of physical factors on the historically varying recession rates of Niagara Falls, using an empirical equation which has previously been proposed based on a non-dimensional multiparametric model which incorporates flow volume, waterfall shape and bedrock strength. The changes in recession rates of Niagara Falls in the last century are successfully modeled by this empirical equation; these changes are caused by variations in flow volume and lip length. This result supports the validity of the empirical equation for waterfalls in rivers carrying little transported sediment. Our analysis also suggests that the decrease in the recession rate of Horseshoe Falls is related to both artificial reduction in river discharge and natural increase in waterfall lip length, whereas that of American Falls is solely due to the reduction in flow volume.

  12. Collateral damage to marine and terrestrial ecosystems from Yankee whaling in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Drew, Joshua; López, Elora H; Gill, Lucy; McKeon, Mallory; Miller, Nathan; Steinberg, Madeline; Shen, Christa; McClenachan, Loren

    2016-11-01

    Yankee whalers of the 19th century had major impacts on populations of large whales, but these leviathans were not the only taxa targeted. Here, we describe the "collateral damage," the opportunistic or targeted taking of nongreat whale species by the American whaling industry. Using data from 5,064 records from 79 whaling logs occurring between 1840 and 1901, we show that Yankee whalers captured 5,255 animals across three large ocean basins from 32 different taxonomic categories, including a wide range of marine and terrestrial species. The taxa with the greatest number of individuals captured were walruses (Odobenus rosmarus), ducks (family Anatidae), and cod (Gadus sp.). By biomass, the most captured species were walruses, grampus (a poorly defined group within Odontoceti), and seals (family Otariidae). The whalers captured over 2.4 million kg of nongreat whale meat equaling approximately 34 kg of meat per ship per day at sea. The species and areas targeted shifted over time in response to overexploitation of whale populations, with likely intensive local impacts on terrestrial species associated with multiyear whaling camps. Our results show that the ecosystem impacts of whaling reverberated on both marine and coastal environments.

  13. F/A-18 1/9th scale model tail buffet measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. A.; Glaister, M. K.; Maclaren, L. D.; Meyn, L. A.; Ross, J.

    1991-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were carried out on a 1/9th scale model of the F/A-18 at high angles of attack to investigate the characteristics of tail buffet due to bursting of the wing leading edge extension (LEX) vortices. The tests were carried out at the Aeronautical Research Laboratory low-speed wind tunnel facility and form part of a collaborative activity with NASA Ames Research Center, organized by The Technical Cooperative Program (TTCP). Information from the program will be used in the planning of similar collaborative tests, to be carried out at NASA Ames, on a full-scale aircraft. The program covered the measurement of unsteady pressures and fin vibration for cases with and without the wing LEX fences fitted. Fourier transform methods were used to analyze the unsteady data, and information on the spatial and temporal content of the vortex burst pressure field was obtained. Flow visualization of the vortex behavior was carried out using smoke and a laser light sheet technique.

  14. [Contribution of 19th-century religious congregations in the development of the nursing profession].

    PubMed

    Bezze, Sabrina; Manzoni, Edoardo; Di Mauro, Stefania

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this historical research project is to examine the contribution of 19th-century religious congregations in the development of the nursing profession, based on the historical example of the Sisters of Charity of Sts. Bartolomea Capitanio and Vincenza Gerosa (or the Sisters of the Holy Child Mary). To this end, sixty three volumes were analysed, all taken from the historical archive of the Generalate of the Sisters of the Holy Child Mary in Milan, in via S. Sofia n.13, with the exception of just one, taken from the Braidense National Library, also in Milan. This research project has highlighted the sociological contribution provided by the Sisters of the Holy Child Mary to the professional nature of nursing, and to the development of the distinctive features of the nursing profession (Greenwood, 1980). All documentary sources were analysed in line with the Chabod historical research method (2006), and for their critical interpretation, a scheme of analysis was created. Two lines of investigation emerged from the data collected: the role of Sister Emilia Vinante as an expert with regard to the nursing profession, and the professional strategies promoted by FIRO (Federation of Italian Religious Nurses). Based on the conclusions of the research project, it may be stated that religious congregations contributed greatly to the nursing profession, leaving a decisive mark on the cultural and professional development of nurses.

  15. Elizabeth Brown and the Classification of Sunspots in the 19th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Kristine

    2014-06-01

    British amateur astronomers collected solar observation data as members of organizations such as the British Astronomical Association (BAA) and Liverpool Astronomical Society (LAS) in the late 1800s. Amateur astronomer Elizabeth Brown (1830-99) served as Solar Section Director of both groups, and not only aggregated solar observations (including hand-drawn illustrations) from observers from around the globe, but worked closely with solar astronomer Edward Maunder and other professionals in an attempt to garner specific types of observations from BAA members in order to answer a number of astronomical questions of the day. For example, she encouraged the monitoring of the growth and decay of sunspot groups and published a number of her own observations of particular groups, urging observers to note whether faculae were seen before the birth of sunspots in a given region, a topic of controversy at that time. She also developed a system for classifying sunspots and sunspot groups based on their appearance, dividing then into 11 types: normal, compound, pairs, clusters, trains, streams, zigzags, elliptical, vertical, nebulous, and dots. This poster will summarize Brown’s important contributions to solar observing in the late 19th century and situate her classification scheme relative to those of A.L. Cortie (1901), M. Waldmeier (1938; 1947) and the modified Zurich system of McIntosh (1966; 1969; 1989).

  16. The mid 19th and early 20th Century Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifácio, Vitor

    2012-09-01

    The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and early 20th century astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.

  17. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  18. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    PubMed

    Drew, Joshua; Philipp, Christopher; Westneat, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific), like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah) and the Dusky (C. obscurus), were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th) century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity.

  19. Age-specific measles mortality during the late 19th-early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G D; Waller, M; Briem, H; Gottfredsson, M

    2015-12-01

    Measles mortality fell prior to the introduction of vaccines or antibiotics. By examining historical mortality reports we sought to determine how much measles mortality was due to epidemiological factors such as isolation from major population centres or increased age at time of infection. Age-specific records were available from Aberdeen; Scotland; New Zealand and the states of Australia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Despite the relative isolation of Australia, measles mortality was concentrated in very young children similar to Aberdeen. In the more isolated states of Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland adults made up 14-15% of measles deaths as opposed to 8-9% in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales. Mortality in Iceland and Faroe Islands during the 1846 measles epidemic was used as an example of islands isolated from respiratory pathogens. The transition from crisis mortality across all ages to deaths concentrated in young children occurred prior to the earliest age-specific mortality data collected. Factors in addition to adult age of infection and epidemiological isolation such as nutritional status and viral virulence may have contributed to measles mortality outcomes a century ago.

  20. Neurologic approaches to hysteria, psychogenic and functional disorders from the late 19th century onwards.

    PubMed

    Stone, J

    2017-01-01

    The history of functional neurologic disorders in the 20th century from the point of view of the neurologist is U-shaped. A flurry of interest between the 1880s and early 1920s gave way to lack of interest, skepticism, and concern about misdiagnosis. This was mirrored by increasing professional and geographic divisions between neurology and psychiatry after the First World War. In the 1990s the advent of imaging and other technology highlighted the positive nature of a functional diagnosis. Having been closer in the early 20th century but later more separate, these disorders are now once again the subject of academic and clinical interest, although arguably still very much on the fringes of neurology and neuropsychiatry. Revisiting older material provides a rich source of ideas and data for today's clinical researcher, but also offers cautionary tales of theories and treatments that led to stagnation rather than advancement of the field. Patterns of treatment do have a habit of repeating themselves, for example, the current enthusiasm for transcranial magnetic stimulation compared to the excitement about electrotherapy in the 19th century. For these reasons, an understanding of the history of functional disorders in neurology is arguably more important than it is for other areas of neurologic practice.

  1. The dawn of chelonian research: turtles between comparative anatomy and embryology in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    MacCord, Kate; Caniglia, Guido; Moustakas-Verho, Jacqueline E; Burke, Ann C

    2015-05-01

    Many evo-devo studies of the turtle's shell draw hypotheses and support from historical sources. The groundbreaking works of Cuvier, Geoffroy St. Hilaire, Carus, Rathke, Owen, and others are being revived in modern research, and their centuries-old understanding of the turtle's shell reconsidered. In the works of these eminent biologists of the 19th century, comparative anatomy and embryology of turtle morphology set the stage for future studies in developmental biology, histology, and paleontology. Given the impact that these works still make on modern research, it is important to develop a thorough appreciation of previous authors, regarding how they arrived at their conclusions (i.e., what counted as evidence?), whether there was debate amongst these authors about shell development (i.e., what counted as an adequate explanation?), and even why these men, some of the most powerful and influential thinkers and anatomists of their day, were concerned with turtles. By tracing and exposing the context and content of turtle shell studies in history, our aim is to inform modern debates about the evolution and development of the turtle's shell.

  2. Threads of Change in 19th Century American Literature: A Language Arts Unit for Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossett, Becky F.; And Others

    This unit of study for junior-high level high-ability language arts students explores five themes in 19th century American history through literature of the times: romanticism, transcendentalism, abolitionism, industrialism, and feminism. Each of the five "isms" has its own "literature box" that contains appropriate documents…

  3. ​​​History of Cholera Outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, MH; Azizi, F

    2010-01-01

    Cholera is an acute infectious disease with high mortality if left untreated. Historically, between the 19th and 20th centuries seven great pandemics of cholera occurred and worldwide, thousands of people died. Based on an old theory, cholera was considered an air-born disease and the emergence of its outbreaks were attributed to bad weather or miasma. However later in the 18th century, British physician John Snow (1813-1858) explained the association of a terrible cholera outbreak in London in 1849 to contamination of the drinking water supply with human excreta. Despite his finding, the causative agent of this dreaded illness was unidentified until later in the 19th century. In 1854, Filippo Pacini (1812-1883) an anatomist from Italy and then in 1883, Robert Koch (1843-1910) the German bacteriologist, discovered ‘vibrio cholerae’ as the etiologic agent. During the major pandemics of cholera in 19th and 20th centuries this illness reached Iran and led to vast depopulation and a crucial impact on the country’s socioeconomic status. Poor public health conditions, lack of a well-organized public health authority for implementing preventive and quarantine measures as well as Iran’s specific geographic location were the main facilitating factors of the emergence of various epidemics, including cholera in Iran. The present paper briefly reviews the cholera outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries. PMID:25197514

  4. How To Dance through Time. Volume I: The Romance of Mid-19th Century Couple Dances. Beginning Level. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This 35-minute VHS videotape is the first in a series of "How To Dance Through Time" videos. It provides how-to instructions to help beginning dancers learn the mid-19th century ballroom couple dances. It introduces dancers to the basic steps, which accompany the romantic dance music of the past. Each dance segment is introduced by a…

  5. The use of Congreve-type war Rockets by the Spanish in the 19th century: A chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancho, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    A yearly account of military uses, by the Spanish, of Congreve war rockets is given, from the year 1810 until 1895. Events prior to the 19th century are also recorded which include the use of rockets against the Moors of Valencia and documentation, from literature of that period, relating to rocket applications.

  6. The Case for Consolidation: Our 19th-Century Model of Governance Is a Formula for Mediocrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amdursky, Saul

    2004-01-01

    We need fewer public libraries with greater dependence. Here at the beginning of the 21st century, public libraries are still saddled with a 19th-century model of government. They are far too beholden to governing authorities, usually municipal or county governments, for their financial sustenance. This is a formula for mediocrity. "Local control"…

  7. Founding of Compulsory Civil Education According to the Education Acts from Second Half of the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    Records of education in Croatia occur very soon after the settlement of Croats in this area. It is tied to 9th century and Duke Trpimir. Initial steps of education were not legally bounded nor the school was obligatory. In the second half of the 19th century, more precisely in 1871, with the First Education Act education becomes obligatory. Using…

  8. How Conceptual Frameworks Influence Clinical Practice: Evidence from the Writings of John Thelwall, a 19th-Century Speech Therapist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchan, Judith F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The impact of speech therapists' conceptual frameworks on their clinical methods tends to be ignored or taken for granted by today's practitioners. One way to show the importance of such frameworks is to study how they were used previously. John Thelwall, a 19th-century elocutionist, offers a rich source for studying the influence of…

  9. The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

  10. [Eventful life stories. Members of student fraternities persecuted in Silesia in the early 19th century].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Walter

    2003-01-01

    This study supplemented by three charts and a list of biographies, is, for the first time, encompassing their life-data, their resumés and even their professional careers as well as political commitments shown by more than 200 Silesian students. They, at the University of Breslau, but also at other German universities, had joined the student fraternities in the 20-ies and early 30-ies of the 19th century and, in consequence, were persecuted by state authorities, notably in Prussia and, in the majority of cases, had been sentenced to prison terms of varying degrees. The first demagogic persecution, which happened in the first half of the twenties, culminating in 1822 in the Breslau Arminen Trail and ending up with the staging of the Youth-Association-Trail in 1826, had implicated about 100 Silesians, with a smaller portion of them - apart from teh three Youth-Association Silesians who were sentenced to five years imprisonment in a fortress - getting away with a relatively short "political fortress imprisonment". Later a considerable part of them made a career in the prussian judicial authority, in the institutions of higher learning, as parish priests, physicians and scientists, whereas any political engagement remained a rare exception. Out of the 137 Silesian members of the student fraternities affected by the second wave of persecution, the overwhelming majority of them being Protestants and originating partly from the middle classes, mostly artisans, and from intellectual background, with about a hundred of them being given essentially higher sentences ranging from six years up to capital punishment and, in the event of reprieves, they had to serve their sentences between six months and four-to-six years in a fortress. The majority of them made a medium-level professional career, never exceeding the medium ranks, as judicial officers, lawyers in state or communal services, parish priests, teachers or physicians. However, from this group of persecuted persons, a

  11. PREFACE: 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, T.; Martín-Martínez, M. J.; Mateos, J.

    2015-10-01

    The 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19) was held at the Hospedería Fonseca (Universidad de Salamanca, Spain), on 29 June - 2 July, 2015, and was organized by the Electronics Area from the University of Salamanca. The Conference is held biannually and covers the recent progress in the field of electron dynamics in solid-state materials and devices. This was the 19th meeting of the international conference series formerly named Hot Carriers in Semiconductors (HCIS), first held in Modena in 1973. In the edition of 1997 in Berlin the name of the conference changed to International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors, keeping the same acronym, HCIS; and finally in the edition of Montpellier in 2009 the name was again changed to the current one, International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON). The latest editions took place in Santa Barbara, USA, in 2011 and Matsue, Japan, in 2013. Research work on electron dynamics involves quite different disciplines, and requires both fundamental and technological scientific efforts. Attendees to the conference come mostly from academic institutions, belonging to both theoretical and experimental groups working in a variety of fields, such as solid-state physics, electronics, optics, electrical engineering, material science, laser physics, etc. In this framework, events like the EDISON conference become a basic channel for the progress in the field. Here, researchers working in different areas can meet, present their latest advances and exchange their ideas. The program of EDISON'19 included 13 invited papers, 61 oral contributions and 73 posters. These contributions originated from scientists in more than 30 different countries. The Conference gathered 140 participants, coming from 24 different countries, most from Europe, but also with a significant participation

  12. 19th century London dust-yards: a case study in closed-loop resource efficiency.

    PubMed

    Velis, Costas A; Wilson, David C; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2009-04-01

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries.

  13. The lost origin of chemical ecology in the late 19th century.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Thomas

    2008-03-25

    The origin of plant chemical ecology generally dates to the late 1950s, when evolutionary entomologists recognized the essential role of plant secondary metabolites in plant-insect interactions and suggested that plant chemical diversity evolved under the selection pressure of herbivory. However, similar ideas had already flourished for a short period during the second half of the 19th century but were largely forgotten by the turn of the century. This article presents the observations and studies of three protagonists of chemical ecology: Anton Kerner von Marilaun (1831-1898, Innsbruck, Austria, and Vienna, Austria), who mainly studied the impact of geological, climatic, and biotic factors on plant distribution and survival; Léo Errera (1858-1906, Brussels, Belgium), a plant physiologist who analyzed the localization of alkaloids in plant cells and tissues histochemically; and Ernst Stahl (1848-1919, Jena, Germany), likely the first experimental ecologist and who performed feeding studies with snails and slugs that demonstrated the essential role of secondary metabolites in plant protection against herbivores. All three, particularly Stahl, suggested that these "chemical defensive means" evolved in response to the relentless selection pressure of the heterotrophic community that surrounds plants. Although convincingly supported by observations and experiments, these ideas were forgotten until recently. Now, more than 100 years later, molecular analysis of the genes that control secondary metabolite production underscores just how correct Kerner von Marilaun, Errera, and, particularly, Stahl were in their view. Why their ideas were lost is likely a result of the adamant rejection of all things "teleological" by the physiologists who dominated biological research at the time.

  14. Geomagnetic research in the 19th century: a case study of the German contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, W.; Wiederkehr, K.-H.

    2001-10-01

    Even before the discovery of electromagnetism by Oersted, and before the work of Ampère, who attributed all magnetism to the flux of electrical currents, A.v. Humboldt and Hansteen had turned to geomagnetism. Through the ``Göttinger Magnetischer Verein'', a worldwide cooperation under the leadership of Gauss came into existence. Even today, Gauss's theory of geomagnetism is one of the pillars of geomagnetic research. Thereafter, J.v. Lamont, in Munich, took over the leadership in Germany. In England, the Magnetic Crusade was started by the initiative of John Herschel and E. Sabine. At the beginning of the 1840s, James Clarke Ross advanced to the vicinity of the southern magnetic pole on the Antarctic Continent, which was then quite unknown. Ten years later, Sabine was able to demonstrate solar-terrestrial relations from the data of the colonial observatories. In the 1980s, Arthur Schuster, following Balfour Stewart's ideas, succeeded in interpreting the daily variations of the electrical process in the high atmosphere. Geomagnetic research work in Germany was given a fresh impetus by the programme of the First Polar Year 1882-1883. Georg Neumayer, director of the ``Deutsche Seewarte'' in Hamburg, was one of the initiators of the Polar Year. He forged a close cooperation with the newly founded ``Kaiserliches Marineobservatorium'' in Wilhelmshaven, and also managed to gain the collaboration of the ``Gauss-Observatorium für Erdmagnetismus'' in Göttingen under E. Schering. In the Polar Year, the first automatic recording magnetometers (Kew-Model) were used in the German observatory at Wilhelmshaven. Here, M. Eschenhagen, who later became director of the geomagnetic section in the new Meteorological Magnetic Observatory in Potsdam, deserves special credit. Early hypotheses of geomagnetism and pioneering palaeomagnetic experiments are briefly reviewed. The essential seismological investigations at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century are also briefly described as

  15. The lost origin of chemical ecology in the late 19th century

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The origin of plant chemical ecology generally dates to the late 1950s, when evolutionary entomologists recognized the essential role of plant secondary metabolites in plant–insect interactions and suggested that plant chemical diversity evolved under the selection pressure of herbivory. However, similar ideas had already flourished for a short period during the second half of the 19th century but were largely forgotten by the turn of the century. This article presents the observations and studies of three protagonists of chemical ecology: Anton Kerner von Marilaun (1831–1898, Innsbruck, Austria, and Vienna, Austria), who mainly studied the impact of geological, climatic, and biotic factors on plant distribution and survival; Léo Errera (1858–1906, Brussels, Belgium), a plant physiologist who analyzed the localization of alkaloids in plant cells and tissues histochemically; and Ernst Stahl (1848–1919, Jena, Germany), likely the first experimental ecologist and who performed feeding studies with snails and slugs that demonstrated the essential role of secondary metabolites in plant protection against herbivores. All three, particularly Stahl, suggested that these “chemical defensive means” evolved in response to the relentless selection pressure of the heterotrophic community that surrounds plants. Although convincingly supported by observations and experiments, these ideas were forgotten until recently. Now, more than 100 years later, molecular analysis of the genes that control secondary metabolite production underscores just how correct Kerner von Marilaun, Errera, and, particularly, Stahl were in their view. Why their ideas were lost is likely a result of the adamant rejection of all things “teleological” by the physiologists who dominated biological research at the time. PMID:18218780

  16. Forgotten research from 19th century: science should not follow fashion.

    PubMed

    Galler, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    The fine structure of cross-striated muscle and its changes during contraction were known already in considerable detail in the 19th century. This knowledge was the result of studying birefringence properties of muscle fibres under the polarization microscope, a method mainly established by Brücke (Denk Kais Akad Wiss Math Naturwiss Cl 15:69-84, 1858) in Vienna, Austria. The knowledge was seemingly forgotten in the first half of the 20th century before it was rediscovered in 1954. This rediscovery was essential for the formulation of the sliding filament theory which represents the commonly accepted concept of muscle contraction (A.F. Huxley and Niedergerke, Nature 173:971-973, 1954; H.E. Huxley and Hanson, Nature 173:973-976, 1954). The loss of knowledge was the result of prevailing views within the scientific community which could be attributed to "fashion": it was thought that the changes of cross-striations, which were observed under the microscope, were inconsequential for contraction since other types of movements like cell crawling and smooth muscle contraction were not associated with similar changes of the fine structure. The basis for this assumption was the view that all types of movements associated with life must be caused by the same mechanisms. Furthermore, it was assumed that the light microscopy was of little use, because the individual molecules that carry out life functions cannot be seen under the light microscope. This unfortunate episode of science history teaches us that the progress of science can severely be retarded by fashion.

  17. Philadelphia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Service and the state of New Jersey. A portion of the Appalachian Mountains in Pennsylvania is captured in the upper left corner. The ... location:  United States region:  Eastern United States Order:  25 ...

  18. Changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands inferred from 19th and 20th century landscape paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Wevers, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity is the natural and cultural range of geological, geomorphological and soil features. We analysed the large database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis and Buunk (www.Simonis-Buunk.com) to track changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands since pre-photographic times. Peat dominated in two of the eight main landscapes of the Netherlands: the Lowland peats in the Holocene west and the Highland peats in the sandy Pleistocene eastern parts. Painters were mainly attracted by the lowland peats. Since more than thousand years, peat plays a major role in Dutch military security, economy, ecology and cultural life. Natural variety and cultural use resulted in a geodiversity that is unique in Europe. There are more than 100 place names with 'veen' (= peat), and surnames with 'veen' are common. Proof of the exploitation of peat for salt and fuel exists from the Roman times onwards. In the 9th century, peatlands were drained and reclaimed for growing wheat. Already in the 11th century, it was necessary to build dikes to prevent flooding, to control waterlevels to avoid further oxidation, and to convert landuse to grassland. But subsidence continued, and in the 14th century windmills were needed to drain the lands and pump the water out. In the 16th century industrial peat exploitation fuelled the rise of industries and cities. All this draining and digging caused the peat surface to shrink. The few remaining living peats are conserved by nature organisations. Geodiversity and landscape paintings In the peat landscapes, popular painting motives were high water levels, the grasslands of the 'Green Heart', the winding streams and remaining lakes. The paintings of landscapes where peat had been removed, show watermanagement adaptations: wind mills, different water levels, canals made for the transport of fuel, bridges, tow paths and the 'plassen', i.e. the lakes left after peat exploitation. The droogmakerijen (reclaimed lakes), now 2 to 5 m below

  19. Musical expressions of life: a look at the 18th and 19th century from a human becoming perspective.

    PubMed

    Jonas-Simpson, Christine

    2004-10-01

    What follows is an exploration of 18th and 19th century music of the Western world through a nursing science lens, specifically that of the human becoming theory. This article was written while I was enrolled in a music history course, which afforded me the opportunity to explore music as musical expressions of life. Rooted in the human becoming philosophical perspective, which focuses on unitary human experience and the quality of human life, I discuss musical expressions of life with examples from various composers throughout the 18th and 19th century. This article concludes with a reflection on musical expressions and their contribution to the enhancement of the quality of human life, a focus of nursing from a human becoming perspective.

  20. [The construction of a medical discipline and its challenges: Orthopedics in Switzerland during the 19th and 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Kaba, Mariama

    2015-07-01

    During the 19th century, numerous figures, with different qualifications, claimed to practice orthopedics: doctors, surgeons, inventors of equipment and instruments, and other empiricists. They performed certain types of techniques, massages, surgical operationsand/or fitted prostheses. The polysemous notion of orthopedics had created conflicts of interest that would reach their height at the end of the 19th century. The integration of orthopedics into the training at the university level enhanced its proximity to surgery, a discipline that has dominated the so-called modern medicine. During the 20th century, various medical branches defend the legitimacy of certain orthopedic practices, thereby threating to a degree the title itself of this specialization. By examining the challenges that have shaped the history of orthopedics in Switzerland, this article also seeks to shed light on the strategies that were implemented in adopting a medical and technical discipline within a transforming society.

  1. The Lowland Rivers of The Netherlands - Geodiversity and Cultural Heritage on 19th and early 20th century Landscape Paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Moes, Constance

    2015-04-01

    One of the major Dutch landscapes is formed by lowland rivers. They divide the country in a southern and a northern part, both physically and culturally. We screened the freely available database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis & Buunk, www.simonis-buunk.com, looking for lowland river landscapes depicting geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships (See References for other landscapes). Emperor Napoleon declared The Netherlands as naturally belonging to his empire as its lands originated from muds originating in France and transported there by the big rivers. A description that may have given rise to the idea of the Netherlands as a delta, but from a geomorphological perspective The Netherlands consists of series of river plains of terrestrial origin, of which the north-western part are subsiding and invaded by the sea. Now, the rivers Meuse and Rhine (including its branches Waal and IJssel) meander through ever larger river plains before reaching the North Sea. They end in estuaries, something one would not expect of rivers with catchments discharging a large part of Western Europe. Apart from the geological subsidence, the estuaries might be due to human interference, the exploitation of peat and building of dikes since the 11th century, heavy storms and the strong tidal currents. Archaeological finds show Vikings and Romans already used the river Rhine system for trading and transporting goods. During the Roman Empire the Rhine was part of The Limes, the northern defence line of the empire. Romans already influenced the distribution of water over the different river branches. Since the middle of the 19th century groins and canalization drastically changed the character of the rivers. The 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings illustrate this change as well as changes in land use. Examples of geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships shown: - meanders and irregular banks disappear as river management increases, i.a. bends

  2. 11. SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA SAVING FUND SOCIETY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA SAVING FUND SOCIETY (PSFS) BUILDING WITH MEETING HOUSE CORNICE IN FOREGROUND. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 2. Photocopy of photograph (from Moses King, Philadelphia and Notable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (from Moses King, Philadelphia and Notable Philadelphians , 1902, p. 260) OBLIQUE VIEW, SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) AND EAST(SIDE) ELEVATIONS - Old U.S. Mint, Chestnut & Juniper Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Interior view; Street Car Waiting House North Philadelphia Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view; Street Car Waiting House - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 1. BEGINNING OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE IN PHILADELPHIA COUNTY. FACING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BEGINNING OF RAILWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE IN PHILADELPHIA COUNTY. FACING EAST DOWN MARKET STREET. - Market Street Elevated Railway, Market Street between Sixty-ninth & Forty-sixth Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-12-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For the first time in Denmark this study makes a comparison between skeletal stature and contemporary Danish conscript heights and investigates stature of males and females temporally and between socially distinct individuals and populations in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A total of 357 individuals (181 males, 176 females) excavated at the Assistens cemetery in Copenhagen is analyzed. Two stature regression formulae (Trotter, 1970; Boldsen, 1990) are applied using femur measurements and evaluated compared to conscript heights. The results indicate that mean male stature using Boldsen follows a similar trend as the Danish conscript heights and that Trotter overestimate stature by ca. 6cm over Boldsen. At an inter population level statistically significant differences in male stature are observed between first and second half of the 19th century towards a slight stature decrease and larger variation while there are no significant changes observed in female stature. There are insignificant differences in stature between middle and high class individuals, but male stature differs statistically between cemeteries (p=0.000) representing middle/high class, paupers and navy employees, respectively. Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females.

  7. Philadelphia Youth Network. 2005 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Youth Network, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the annual report of the Philadelphia Youth Network (PYN) for 2005. Throughout the year, PYN's members continued their focus on linking work and education in ways that promote access for young people to Philadelphia's growth economy, and supply a high-quality workforce to power the City's continued economic development. [For…

  8. Comprehensive District Reform: Philadelphia's Grand Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useem, Elizabeth; Balfanz, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This report describes "Philadelphia's Grand Experiment" in comprehensive school district reform, from its conception through its initial months of implementation. In 2001, as part of the remedy for low student performance, the governor ordered the state to take over governance of the Philadelphia School District, with a substantial…

  9. [The comparison of the two Ottoman books of anatomy (17-19th centuries) with regard to the circulatory system].

    PubMed

    Uluçam, E; Gökçe, N

    2000-01-01

    17th and 19th centuries were particularly important for the development of the Ottoman medicine. Westernization which had already started in the 17th century continued along the 19th and the early 20th centuries. Turkish physicians began to contact with their European colleagues and in this period Latin medical terminology began to appear in the Ottoman medical literature. Sirvanli Semseddin Itaki's work of the 17th century, the Teşrihü'l Ebdan ve Tercüman-i Kibale-i Feylesufan, is the first illustrated Turkish manuscript of anatomy. The illustrations are qualified as developed examples, compared with the medical literature and knowledge of the period. In the 19th century, Sanizade Mehmet Ataullah Efendi (1771-1826) wrote a modern book of anatomy for the Ottoman medical doctors. Miyarü'l Etibba was one of the earliest printed medical books in Turkish. The second volume of Sanizade's Hamse, Miratü'l Ebdan fi Teşrih-i Azai'l Insan is the first printed Ottoman book on anatomy. In Usulü't-Tabia, the third volume of Hamse, the circulatory system is discussed. In this article, we studied the circulatory system described in Semseddin Itaki's Teşrih-ül Ebdan ve Tercüman-i Kibale-i Feylesufan and in Sanizade's Usulü't-Tabia and compared them.

  10. Laser therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of preoperative and operative surgery: surgical devices and energy sources. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery . 19th ed. Philadelphia, ... technologies: principles and skin interactions. In: Bolognia JL, ...

  11. Hyperactivity and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... their child has hyperactivity that is part of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or another mental health condition. ... Cunningham N, Jensen P. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. ... eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  12. [Mortality in Nuremberg in the 19th century (about 1800 to 1913)].

    PubMed

    Vasold, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Before the middle of the 19th century urban life was hazardous, life expectancy in big cities was shorter than in the countryside, it was half as high as it is today. Cities used to be called "the graves of mankind"; they were unhygienic, since their inhabitants lived under crowded, unhealthy conditions. In German cities infant mortality was extremely high, one out of three new-born children died within its first year. In most big cities more people died in any given year than were born. In 1806, when the Imperial City of Nuremberg was absorbed by the Kingdom of Bavaria, it had 25 000 inhabitants, fewer than around the year 1600. In the following decades Nuremberg grew quickly, up to 50000 in 1846 and 100000 in 1881, 330000 in 1910. Its population was living extremely crowded within the medieval city-walls, up to 58 000 (1885) in the old parts of the city, more than twice as many as in 1806. Mortality was bound to increase, as more and more people moved to Nuremberg. Mortality rose from 25.5 per thousand in the 1820's to 29.4 in the 1850's and 32.8 in the 1860's. This increase of population was mainly due to migration from outside, from the countryside. New industries settled down in Nuremberg and provided new jobs, the new factories produced lots of smoke and dangerous dust. The general living conditions of the workers were poor, people were much smaller than nowadays. During the industrialisation labor was backbreaking, working hours were extremely long, and annual working hours were more than twice as long as today. New and better legislation was written by the Northern German Confederation, founded in 1867. Now the magistrate of Nuremberg recognised that something had to be done. In the following years physicians began to collect information as to morbidity and mortality in various parts of Nuremberg. Very many people still died of infectious diseases, esp. of tubercolosis, typhoid fever, diphtheria, pertussis, scarlet fever and other infectious diseases. There

  13. On Ideas as Actors: How Ideas about Yellow Fever Causality Shaped Public Health Policy Responses in 19th-Century Galveston.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    This article uses debates regarding yellow fever causality among leading healers in 19th-century Galveston, Texas, U.S., as a means of exploring the extent to which ideas are social actors. That is, the analysis demonstrates that ideas about yellow fever causality shaped contemporaneous public health policy responses to yellow fever outbreaks in 19th-century Galveston. The article contributes to the growing literature documenting that contagionist and anticontagionist views were often assimilated, and also supports the historiography showing that the predisposing/exciting causes dichotomy is a more robust intellectual framework for understanding 19th-century attributions of disease causality.

  14. Nitrogen, land and water inputs in changing cattle farming systems. A historical comparison for France, 19th-21st centuries.

    PubMed

    Chatzimpiros, Petros; Barles, Sabine

    2010-09-15

    This paper provides an original account of the long-term regional metabolism in relation to the cattle rearing in western France starting by the precise formulation of animal diets at three key dates of the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries. We established links between the demand in fodder of the meat and dairy sectors and the necessary inputs of nitrogen, water and land as well as the land cover changes occurring on the affected local and remote cattle acreage. The average agricultural productivity for fodder supply is estimated at about 50 kg N/ha in the mid-19th, 54 kg N/ha in the early 20th and 150 kg N/ha at the turning of the 21st century. Jointly for the dairy and meat productions, the potential efficiency in the conversion of the vegetal into animal protein more than doubled over the studied period, passing from less than 9% in the 19th to 20% in the 21st century. The current cattle sector is sustained for about 25% by land situated beyond the regional frontiers and uses water at intensities that approach or exceed the availability of renewable water. The nitrogen pollution is expressed in terms of the Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI) and, by comparison to the N recovered in products, is used to define the N-Environmental Efficiency of the farming. We discuss the historical succession of the factors that contributed to the growth of the meat and milk production and make a comparison of the impacts and policy between the local and distant resources.

  15. The identification of the pigments used to paint statues of Feixiange Cliff in China in late 19th century by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Pu-jun; Huang, Wei; Jianhua-Wang; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiao-ling

    2010-11-01

    The application of micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to the research of pigments collected from Statues of Feixiange Cliff No. 67 and No. 69 niche of Tang Dynasty in China is reported. Five kinds of pigments were found in the experimental data, including black (carbon), white (gypsum + quartz), blue (lapis lazuli) and green (Paris green + Barium sulphate). After synthesized in 1814, Paris green was reported for a large import as a light and bright green pigment to paint architectures in China from the late 19th century. The analyzed blue pigment demonstrated the similar Raman spectra to the Lâjvardina blue glazed ceramics, which indicated lapis lazuli was an artificial product. This confirmed the painting of Feixiange Cliff in the early Republic of China as the historical record, and also reveals that some pigments were imported from abroad.

  16. Analysis of 18th-19th century's historical samples of Iranian ink and paper belonging to the Qajar dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha-Aligol, D.; Khosravi, F.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Baghizadeh, A.; Oliaiy, P.; Shokouhi, F.

    2007-11-01

    Thirteen historical Iranian manuscripts belonging to the Qajar dynasty (18th-19th Century BC) were investigated by micro-PIXE technique using Van de Graaff accelerator in the Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute in Iran. The aim of the present work has mainly been to determine the elemental composition of different inks and papers. In addition, the effects due to the variation of thickness and texture of the paper were simultaneously measured with the off-axis STIM technique. Elemental maps by micro-PIXE were compared to photographs taken in visible light.

  17. Causes of mortality due to rheumatic diseases in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) during the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Peral Pacheco, Diego; Suárez-Guzmán, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    A total of 26,203 of the deaths in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) during the 19th century were collected and grouped according to the Bertillon's Classification, in order to study the causes of death from rheumatic diseases. An analysis was made using the Death Registers, those located in the Parish Archives, and files of the Municipal Archives. There were a total of 31 deaths due to rheumatic diseases, with the 65-74 years age group being most frequent. The lack of records may be due to the inaccuracy of the diagnoses. September was the month of increased mortality.

  18. The influence of inequality on the standard of living: worldwide anthropometric evidence from the 19th and 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Blum, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    We provide empirical evidence on the existence of the Pigou-Dalton principle. The latter indicates that aggregate welfare is - ceteris paribus - maximized when incomes of all individuals are equalized (and therefore marginal utility from income is as well). Using anthropometric panel data on 101 countries during the 19th and 20th centuries, we determine that there is a systematic negative and concave relationship between height inequality and average height. The robustness of this relationship is tested by means of several robustness checks, including two instrument variable regressions. These findings help to elucidate the impact of economic inequality on welfare.

  19. ["The mind-body problem". The relation of psychical to physical in 19th century German psychology].

    PubMed

    Romand, David

    2010-01-01

    During the 19th century, the question of the relation between the soul and the body was deeply renewed by German psychological studies. The new elaborated conception of the relationship between the psychical and the physical coincides with the appearance of a cognitivist paradigm, in which mental phenomena are considered as entities that may be individualised, isolated, and then correlated with the activity of specific neural substrates. German psychologists were confronted with the problem of the correlation between psychical life and the nervous system (localisation of mental phenomena and nature of this correlative relationship), and propose an extensive analysis on the neural conditions and the emergence of psychical processes.

  20. An archival exploration of homicide--suicide and mass murder in the context of 19th-century American parricides.

    PubMed

    Shon, Phillip Chong Ho; Roberts, Michael A

    2010-02-01

    There has been little attempt to integrate contemporary studies of suicide and mass murder to homicide-suicides. The current research attempts to do so in the context of 19th-century parricides in America. This project uses archival records from The New York Times and the Chicago Tribune, 1851-1899, resulting in a total of 231 incidents. Our results indicate that parricides, mass murders, and suicides tended to originate as spontaneous acts, usually during the course of an argument, gathering momentum as the interaction unfolded. We contend that suicide is one way of alleviating threats to offender's loss of self-identity.

  1. An early 19th-century Canadian surgical practice: the casebook of John Mackieson of Charlottetown, 1795–1885

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, David A.E.; Grogono, Basil J.S.

    2002-01-01

    A casebook written by Dr. John Mackieson (1795–1885), of Charlottetown, contains the records of 49 surgical cases he managed between 1826 and 1857. In view of the rarity of first-hand accounts of surgical practice in Canada in the mid-19th century, Mackieson’s case records are a significant source of information. These cases are discussed in order to delineate Mackieson’s approach to the surgical problems he faced in his general practice. His case records also illustrate some of the general problems that beset surgeons in that era. PMID:11939660

  2. An international effort to cure a global health problem: A report on the 19th Hemoglobin Switching Conference.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Gerd A; Bodine, David; Brand, Marjorie; Crispino, John; de Bruijn, Marella F T R; Nathan, David; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Porcher, Catherine; Strouboulis, John; Zon, Len; Higgs, Douglas R; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Engel, James Douglas

    2015-10-01

    Every 2 years since 1978, an international group of scientists, physicians, and other researchers meet to discuss the latest developments in the underlying etiology, mechanisms of action, and developmental acquisition of cellular and systemic defects exhibited and elicited by the most common inherited human disorders, the hemoglobinopathies. The 19th Hemoglobin Switching Conference, held in September 2014 at St. John's College in Oxford, once again exceeded all expectations by describing cutting edge research in cellular, molecular, developmental, and genomic advances focused on these diseases. The conference comprised about 60 short talks over 3 days by leading investigators in the field. This meeting report describes the highlights of the conference.

  3. Clinical Anatomy of the Liver: Review of the 19th Meeting of the Japanese Research Society of Clinical Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Kokudo, Norihiro; Kawaguchi, Yoshikuni; Akita, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    Precise clinical knowledge of liver anatomy is required to safely perform a hepatectomy, for both open and laparoscopic surgery. At the 19th meeting of the Japanese Research Society of Clinical Anatomy (JRSCA), we conducted special symposia on essential issues of liver surgery, such as the history of hepatic segmentation, the glissonean pedicle approach, application of 3-D imaging simulation and fluorescent imaging using indocyanine green solution, a variety of segmentectomies including caudate lobectomy, the associating liver partition and portal vein embolization for stage hepatectomy and harvesting liver grafts for living donor liver transplantation. The present review article provides useful information for liver surgeons and anatomic researchers. PMID:28275581

  4. Philadelphia Eagles Honor NASA Astronaut Chris Ferguson

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA astronaut Chris Ferguson returned to his hometown on Nov. 7 to serve as the Philadelphia Eagles' Honorary Captain during the NFL's "Monday Night Football" game. The Eagles hosted the Chicago B...

  5. Philadelphia Printing and Publishing, 1876-1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Thomas M.

    1976-01-01

    Two Philadelphia printing histories, both reflecting the relationship of printing to publishing, are examined in this article: the manufacture by the publisher of his own product and the development and commercialization of the photomechanical halftone process. (Author)

  6. Early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases - the long awaited Holy Grail and bottleneck of modern brain research - 19th HUPO BPP workshop: May 22-24, 2013, Dortmund, Germany.

    PubMed

    Schrötter, Andreas; Magraoui, Fouzi El; Gröttrup, Bernd; Wiltfang, Jens; Heinsen, Helmut; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T; Park, Young Mok

    2013-10-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 19th workshop in Dortmund, Germany, from May 22 to 24, 2013. The focus of the spring workshop was on strategies and developments concerning early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar.

    PubMed

    Tsiamis, Costas; Vrioni, Georgia; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Gennimata, Vasiliki; Murdjeva, Mariana А; Tsakris, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia), urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen's ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  8. Sleepwalking in Italian operas: a window on popular and scientific knowledge on sleep disorders in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Sironi, Vittorio Alessandro; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Lombardi, Carolina; De Vito, Giovanni; Ferrarese, Carlo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    There is little knowledge on sleepwalking in ancient times even though it is a very common condition. The aim of this report is to describe the backgrounds of medical knowledge on somnambulism in the 19th century, a key period in the development of neurosciences, by analysing its representation in two famous Italian operas: La Sonnambula by Vincenzo Bellini and Macbeth by Giuseppe Verdi. The 19th-century operas may be considered as a crossing point between the popular and intellectual world because they mirror popular answers to phenomena that were still awaiting scientific explanations. Shakespeare's play Macbeth was also considered. In Shakespeare's play and in Verdi's Macbeth, sleepwalking is looked upon as a neuropsychiatric disorder, a manifestation of internal anxiety. In La Sonnambula by Bellini, this condition is considered as common disorder that anticipates scientific theories. The analysed Italian operas provide two different views on sleepwalking, probably because they are based on texts belonging to different periods. Their examination allows one to understand the gradual evolution of theories on sleepwalking, from demoniac possession to mental disorder and sleep disease. At the same time, this analysis throws some light on the history of psychological illnesses.

  9. Improvement of health care for the poor in Split (southern Croatia) during the first half of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Brisky, Livia; Brisky, Tibor

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the health care available for the poor citizens of Split during the first half of the 19th century. Soon after being constructed in 1797, the Civic Hospital in Split founded by the Ergovac brothers for the needs of the poor was transformed into a military hospital. Consequently, caring for this social stratum was taken over by two inadequate shelters and later by a small civic hospital situated in the Split suburb of Dobri. The year of the application of Petar Ergovac to the supreme ruler for the transformation of the hospital building established by his family from a military to a civil institution was found, as well as the correct data regarding its return to initial idea in 1821. On the basis of the archival documents kept in the Archaeological Museum in Split and in the State Archives in Zadar, the work organization of the Civic Hospital in Split and the first stage of its change from a charitable to a public health hospital institution were presented. This study revealed the aspiration of the authorities in the first half of the 19th century to improve the health system of the city of Split.

  10. [JAN JĘDRZEJEWICZ AND EUROPEAN ASTRONOMY OF THE 2ND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY].

    PubMed

    Siuda-Bochenek, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Jan Jędrzejewicz was an amateur astronomer who in the 2nd half of the 19th century created an observation centre, which considering the level of research was comparable to the European ones. Jędrzejewicz settled down in Plonsk in 1862 and worked as a doctor ever since but his greatest passion was astronomy, to which he dedicated all his free time. In 1875 Jędrzejewicz finished the construction of his observatory. He equipped it with basic astronomical and meteorological instruments, then began his observations and with time he became quite skilled in it. Jędrzejewicz focused mainly on binary stars but he also pointed his telescopes at the planets of the solar system, the comets, the Sun, as well as all the phenomena appearing in the sky at that time. Thanks to the variety of the objects observed and the number of observations he stood out from other observers in Poland and took a very good position in the mainstream of the 19th-century astronomy in Europe. Micrometer observations of binary stars made in Płońsk gained recognition in the West and were included in the catalogues of binary stars. Interest in Jędrzejewicz and his observatory was confirmed by numerous references in the English "Nature" magazine.

  11. Medical diagnosis of legal culpability: the impact of early psychiatric testimony in the 19th century English criminal trial.

    PubMed

    Toole, Ciara J

    2012-01-01

    Fast-paced developments in psychiatry, neuroscience and emerging neuroimaging technologies place continual pressure on the legal recognition of mental illness and disease across jurisdictional boundaries. Nevertheless, the Canadian legal definition of exculpatory mental disease in the context of criminal liability has remained largely static, sheltered from the immediate influence of medical theory and advancements. In order to effectively reflect on the intersection of mental health and criminal justice systems in this area, it is important to understand its historical development and the English common law origins of the current approach. Specifically turning to the early 19th century, documented history and accounts of early medical witness testimony on the mental state of the accused provide a unique opportunity to understand the initial collision between fundamental concepts of moral and legal culpability and new scientific understandings of mental function and disease. In this article, I suggest that early psychiatric testimony to the accused's mental state challenged the evolving criminal law of 19th century England to reconcile its restrictive definition of "insanity" with expanding scientific reasoning and accounts of mental disease. The trial of Edward Oxford, an attempted royal assassination case of 1840, is examined as a symbolic height in this conflict prior to the first common law pronouncement of the current approach in 1843. As debate continues on the role of medical advancement in the identification of exculpatory medical disorders in law, this historical perspective may serve as a touchstone in balancing the enforcement of legal culpability with our society's greater appreciation for mental illness.

  12. Evolution of disability in late 19th century America: Civil War pensions for Union Army veterans with musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed

    Blanck, Peter; Linares, Claudia; Song, Chen

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of musculoskeletal (MSK) disability and its impact on mortality and work patterns in the late 19th century in America, in the context of the Civil War disability policy scheme. The study was conducted on 17,702 Union Army (UA) Civil War veterans. Of these, 10,789 were examined and diagnosed with major MSK conditions, rheumatism, sciatica, and spinal curvature, between 1862 and 1907. Analyses examine MSK (i) prevalence rates by birth cohort and age group; (ii) fatality rates as compared with other disabilities; (iii) risk rates by occupation type; and (iv) lifespan for MSK patients. MSK conditions are commonly claimed disabilities within the Civil War data set, with prevalence rates increasing with age. Regression studies show that working in clerical and professional (relative to manual labor) occupations decreases the likelihood of being examined for and diagnosed with MSK conditions. MSK patients examined at older ages tended to have longer lifespan than those examined at younger ages. The findings suggest that changes in age, environmental, and occupational conditions during the late 19th century affected MSK condition prevalence and the average lifespan of MSK patients. Implications for contemporary disability policy are discussed.

  13. Anthropometric comparison of portraits of Korean and Japanese beauty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Ho

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study is to elaborate comparative portraits of Korean and Japanese beauty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Six portraits of beauty in the Korean Joseon Dynasty (early 19th century) and 5 in Japanese Edo Dynasty (late 18th century) were analyzed. Twenty anthropometric items were applied to the measure of the features on each portrait and 18 proportional indices of the face were calculated. Among the 18 indices, Korean and Japanese beauty did not show any significant differences in 13, but in 5: 1) the ratio of eye fissure to intercanthal distance was greater in Japanese beauty; 2) eye inclination was greater in Japanese beauty; 3) the ratio of nasal width to intercanthal distance was greater in Japanese beauty; 4) the ratio of nasal and facial width was greater in Korean beauty; and 5) the ratio of vermilion size to mouth width was greater in Japanese beauty. It is assumed that Korean had narrower eye fissure, lower eye inclination, wider nasal ala, and thinner lip than what Japanese craved during that era.

  14. A light on medical practice in 19th-century Canada: the medical manuscripts of Dr. John Mackieson of Charlottetown

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, D A

    1998-01-01

    During his long career as a physician in Charlottetown, Dr. John Mackieson (1795-1885) compiled 4 medical manuscripts: 2 sets of case records, a synopsis of the medical conditions that were common in his day and a formulary. As primary sources, these documents provide information about medicine in 19th-century Canada and augment our knowledge of the problems of medical practice in that era. They illustrate aspects of the work of Dr. Mackieson, a generalist with interests in surgery and obstetrics, and they facilitate an understanding of the rationale underlying the treatments that he and his contemporaries used. Although 150 years old, the case records can be appreciated for their relevance to the art of medicine. Two excerpts from the case records, presented in this article, provide a sense of Dr. Mackieson's writings and introduce a discussion on the significance of these manuscripts in relation to the ideas on disease and treatment that governed medical practice, both in Prince Edward Island and elsewhere in Canada, in the 19th century. PMID:9724982

  15. NorthEast view; Platform, canopy, and freight elevator North Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North-East view; Platform, canopy, and freight elevator - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Evidence of active dune sand on the Great Plains in the 19th century from accounts of early explorers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Holliday, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    Dune fields are found in several areas of the Great Plains, and though mostly stabilised today, the accounts of early explorers show that they were more mobile in the last century. Using an index of dune mobility and tree ring data, it is found that these periods of mobility were related to temperature-induced drought, the high temperatures increasing evapotranspiration. Explorers also record that rivers upwind of these dune fields had shallow braided channels in the 19th century, and these would have supplied further aeolian sand. It is concluded that these dunes are extremely susceptible to climate change and that it may not need global warming to increase their mobility again. -K.Clayton

  17. [Military Knowledge: War Sciences and Army Libraries in France in the 19th Century (c. 1800-c. 1900)].

    PubMed

    Thoral, Marie-Cecile

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the development of military knowledge in France in the 19th century, both in terms of production of knowledge (especially through the Dépôt de la Guerre) and of transmission through a network of army libraries. The strategic dimension of this form of knowledge required a direct intervention of the state, to control or restrict the publication of sensitive data. State intervention was also necessary to coordinate and generate a unified, applied military knowledge using data submitted by members of different army branches, or by civilians. The work of military librarians and bibliologists was all the more difficult because of the very wide range of sciences which could be used by the army. Growing state intervention and public funding were thus essential for the production and transmission of military knowledge.

  18. The dentist's armamentarium: a collection of 19th century instruments in the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry Library.

    PubMed

    Cheramie, Toby J; Strother, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    A small collection of antique dental instruments located in the LSU School of Dentistry Library (LSUSD) provides a glimpse into the world of the 19th century dentist. The instruments in this collection, with handles carved from common and rare early materials such as bone, wood, ivory, ebony, cameo, shell and pearl, provide a striking contrast to all-steel instruments of the 20th century. An understanding of their development and function substantially increases appreciation of these instruments, which can be categorized as instruments for oral surgery, prophylaxis, restoration, and general use. In this article, the authors summarize the historical development of each type of instrument and describe the specific items in the LSUSD Library collection.

  19. Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  20. [The delayed emergence of the printing chronograph in French observatories (late 19th - early 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Lamy, Jérôme; Soulu, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Western observatories became scientific factories from the mid-19th century. Astrometry symbolized the transition to an industrious economy of scientific practices. The printing chronograph, which reduced the personal equations of the observers, was, first in the United States, then in England, the symbolic instrument of this transformation. In France, the initiatives of the astronomer Liais were prototypical. In the practices of the Hendaye Observatory, and thanks to the abbé Verschaffel, the printing chronograph made its definitive entry in French observatories at the beginning of the 20th century. Excessive centralization of French astronomy, the authoritarianism of Urbain Le Verrier, the director of the Paris Observatory, and the poor market for scientific instruments explain why the printing chronograph took root, belatedly, in France.

  1. From facial expressions to bodily gestures: Passions, photography and movement in French 19(th)-century sciences.

    PubMed

    Pichel, Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    This article aims to determine to what extent photographic practices in psychology, psychiatry and physiology contributed to the definition of the external bodily signs of passions and emotions in the second half of the 19(th) century in France. Bridging the gap between recent research in the history of emotions and photographic history, the following analyses focus on the photographic production of scientists and photographers who made significant contributions to the study of expressions and gestures, namely Duchenne de Boulogne, Charles Darwin, Paul Richer and Albert Londe. This article argues that photography became a key technology in their works due to the adequateness of the exposure time of different cameras to the duration of the bodily manifestations to be recorded, and that these uses constituted facial expressions and bodily gestures as particular objects for the scientific study.

  2. The biological standard of living and mortality in Central Italy at the beginning of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Michela

    2013-12-01

    The biological standard of living in Central Italy at the beginning of the 19th century is analyzed using newly collected data on the height of recruits in the army of the Papal States. The results reveal a decline in height for the cohorts born under French rule (1796-1815). Although this trend was common to many parts of Europe, the estimated magnitude of the decline suggests a worsening of the biological standard of living of the working classes in the Papal States even relative to that of other countries. Despite the differences in the economic systems within the Papal States, no significant geographical variation in height has been found: even the most dynamic and advanced regions experienced a dramatic height decline. Mortality also increased during the period under consideration.

  3. [Traces of blood. The significance of blood in criminology at the turn of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2010-03-01

    In late 19th and early 20th century, criminology became institutionalized as an independent branch of science. Methodologically it focused on the 'exact' methods of the natural sciences, but also it tried to integrate the methods of the humanities. This mix of methods becomes visible in the treatment of blood, which on the one hand was an object of then brand new methods of scientific analysis (identification of human blood by the biological or precipitin method), and on the other hand was analyzed as a product of the magic and superstitious mentalities of criminals. The methodical tension resulting from this epistemological crossbreeding did not disturb the criminologists, for whom the reconciliation of opposite ways of thinking and researching seemed to be possible. In this encyclopaedic analysis of blood early criminology tried to combine the anthropological exploration of vampirism with the chemical and microscopic detection of antibodies and haemoglobin, thus mirroring the positivistic optimism that was then prevalent.

  4. The black cholera comes to the central valley of America in the 19th century - 1832, 1849, and later.

    PubMed

    Daly, Walter J

    2008-01-01

    In mid-19th Century, cholera was epidemic throughout the world. Small towns of the American Midwest were not spared. The disease was blamed on miasmas arising from local causes, so flight from affected localities were logical and common. Flight, added to mortality, caused virtual depopulation of many small towns. Drinking water was drawn from rivers or shallow wells, often near seeping cesspools. Local merchants tried unsuccessfully to calm panic by suppressing information. Cholera was not good for business. Business was depressed. Organized religion thrived. National and state days of prayer were appointed to appease an angry God. During these frightening times, the people learned nothing about the infectiousness of cholera or about its prevention through sanitation. Their experiences tended to reinforce their belief in miasmas or divine retribution. The great epidemics of mankind describe human behavior in times of unavoidable and incurable crisis. Nineteenth Century cholera experiences illustrate a people's reaction to catastrophic disease, which they believed was incurable and unpreventable.

  5. Paleontology and Darwin's Theory of Evolution: The Subversive Role of Statistics at the End of the 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines the subversive role of statistics paleontology at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. In particular, I will focus on German paleontology and its relationship with statistics. I argue that in paleontology, the quantitative method was questioned and strongly limited by the first decade of the 20th century because, as its opponents noted, when the fossil record is treated statistically, it was found to generate results openly in conflict with the Darwinian theory of evolution. Essentially, statistics questions the gradual mode of evolution and the role of natural selection. The main objections to statistics were addressed during the meetings at the Kaiserlich-Königliche Geologische Reichsanstalt in Vienna in the 1880s. After having introduced the statistical treatment of the fossil record, I will use the works of Charles Léo Lesquereux (1806-1889), Joachim Barrande (1799-1833), and Henry Shaler Williams (1847-1918) to compare the objections raised in Vienna with how the statistical treatment of the data worked in practice. Furthermore, I will discuss the criticisms of Melchior Neumayr (1845-1890), one of the leading German opponents of statistical paleontology, to show why, and to what extent, statistics were questioned in Vienna. The final part of this paper considers what paleontologists can derive from a statistical notion of data: the necessity of opening a discussion about the completeness and nature of the paleontological data. The Vienna discussion about which method paleontologists should follow offers an interesting case study in order to understand the epistemic tensions within paleontology surrounding Darwin's theory as well as the variety of non-Darwinian alternatives that emerged from the statistical treatment of the fossil record at the end of the 19th century.

  6. 3. DETAIL OF WEST TOWER, LOOKING NE. Philadelphia & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF WEST TOWER, LOOKING NE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  7. 2. LOOKING NW, WITH READING DEPOT IN BACKGROUND. Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING NW, WITH READING DEPOT IN BACKGROUND. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  8. 1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 3/4 VIEW, LOOKING NE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  9. 4. VIEW RECONSTRUCTED TOWER, LOOKING NNE. Philadelphia & Reading ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW RECONSTRUCTED TOWER, LOOKING NNE. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Pedestrian Suspension Bridge, Foot of Sixth Street at Schuylkill River (formerly spanned Philadelphia & Reading main line at Reading Depot), Reading, Berks County, PA

  10. EPAs Educational Exhibit Honored at Philadelphia Flower Show

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (March 8, 2016) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's exhibit at the 2016 Philadelphia Flower Show was recognized with three prestigious awards. The awards include a Gold Medal Award by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society for

  11. 14. LION SCULPTURE, AT THE PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART, MOVED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. LION SCULPTURE, AT THE PHILADELPHIA MUSEUM OF ART, MOVED FROM MERCHANTS' EXCHANGE, WHERE IT RESTED ON THE STAIR WALL OF SIDE ENTRANCE STAIRS. (A REPLACEMENT LION HAS BEEN PLACED IN THE ORIGINAL SITE, AS DID ANOTHER REPLACEMENT IN THE OTHER SIDE OF THE BUILDING. FOR THIS LATTER REPLACEMENT SEE PA-1028-15). A VIEW OF THE MUSEUM IS IN THE BACKGROUND - Philadelphia Exchange Company, 143 South Third Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 161. Photocopy of photograph in the Philadelphia city Archives, dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    161. Photocopy of photograph in the Philadelphia city Archives, dated July 8, 1930, showing east elevation of North Entrance House with William Rush's allegorical sculpture of 'Schuylkill Chained' in place over portal to Entrance House. If reproduced, please credit Philadelphia Historical Commission. In 1930, this structure is identified as the Elevator Shaft Building. - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. South Philadelphia Passive Sampler and Sensor Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    From June 2013 to March 2015, a total of 41 two-week duration passive sampler deployments were conducted at 17 sites in South Philadelphia, with results for benzene discussed here. Complementary time-resolved measurements with lower cost prototype fenceline sensors and an open-pa...

  14. Philadelphia's Independence Starts Here: Disability Arts Festival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mimi Kenney

    2008-01-01

    In tribute to Philadelphia's world-changing past, Festival partners dubbed the month-long Disability Arts Festival "Independence Starts Here." Through it, they hoped to begin to change the future for over 675,000 people with disabilities in the area and their families. Led by Amaryllis Theatre Company, which now also serves as VSA arts…

  15. The Philadelphia School District's Ongoing Financial Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caskey, John; Kuperberg, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the budget crisis that the School District of Philadelphia has faced for the past few years. Three specific events triggered the 2012 crisis: an abrupt reduction in federal and state funding, the inability of the district to cut many of its costs, and political pressures on the district to spend available revenues in a given…

  16. Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative after Four Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratos, Kati; Wolford, Tonya; Reitano, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    In 2010-2011, the School District of Philadelphia (the District) launched its Renaissance Schools Initiative, a program designed to dramatically improve student achievement in the District's lowest performing schools. Some schools became Promise Academies, based on the federal turnaround model, and remained District-operated neighborhood schools.…

  17. The State of Black Philadelphia 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Claude, Ed.; Perry, Carrolle, Ed.

    The articles in this report describe current social conditions of blacks in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and examine how government policies can affect such conditions. Brenda Maisha Jefferson Jackson discusses black housing opportunities and the negative impact of racial discrimination, political powerlessness, and economics on these…

  18. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Philadelphia, PA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  19. Amachi: Mentoring Children of Prisoners in Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucovy, Linda

    This report documents the work of Amachi, a mentoring program for children of incarcerated and formerly incarcerated parents in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Volunteers are recruited from inner-city congregations to provide one-to-one mentoring to the children. Beyond being the source of mentors, the congregations are a key part of the initiative.…

  20. South Philadelphia Passive Sampler and Sensor Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Starting in June 2013, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the City of Philadelphia Air Measurements Services began collaborative research on the use of passive samplers (PSs) and stand-alone air measurement (SAM) systems to improve information on the...

  1. Effect of hemostasis and electrosurgery on the development and evolution of brain tumor surgery in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Vender, John R; Miller, Jason; Rekito, Andy; McDonnell, Dennis E

    2005-04-15

    Hemostatic options available to the surgeon in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were limited. The surgical ligature was limited in value to the neurological surgeon because of the unique structural composition of brain tissue as well as the approaches and operating angles used in this type of surgery. In this manuscript the authors review the options available and the evolution of surgical hemostatic techniques and electrosurgery in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and the impact of these methods on the surgical management of tumors of the brain and its coverings.

  2. 20. Scrapping C112 U.S.S. Marblehead. Naval Shipyard Philadelphia. January 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Scrapping C1-12 U.S.S. Marblehead. Naval Shipyard Philadelphia. January 10, 1946. Original Photograph In Collection of National Archives, Mid-Atlantic Regional Records Center, Philadelphia. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 4, Broad Street south of Government Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. [Development of animal husbandry in Groningen in the 18th and 19th century; a broad outline].

    PubMed

    Paping, R F

    2001-01-01

    This overview is mainly focussed on the clay area forming the northern half of the province. It is the wealthiest and most characteristic part, being cultured since the Middle Ages as testified by the many churches that even small villages were able to construct. About 1700 the province of Groningen enjoyed already a modern economy, fitting in with that of the other coastal areas of Friesland, Zeeland and Holland (the last mentioned was the richest region of the world in the 17th and 18th century). As aspects of modernity at that time can be considered: 1) the use of modern agricultural methods with higher yields per hectare and higher milk yields per cow than produced in the land provinces on the sandy soils; 2) Agriculture was aimed at earning money by selling of hte products. In opposition to the farmers in the land provinces, who mainly produced for subsistence farming, the farmers in the coastal areas produced for the trade; 3) A high degree of specialization was found in the rural areas. 30-40% of the families had own farms, 25% of the population were labourers, owing only small pieces of land and the rest of the working population had occupations outside agriculture (craftmen, shopkeepers, shipmasters, merchants etc.). Whereas on the sandy soils practically every family owned a farm, be it mostly a very small one. After reviewing the changes in the distribution of land in use of the production of fieldcrops or for meadows-always in function of the market value of the products-and after a discussion of type of cattle husbandry (breeding, fattening, dairying) it is concluded that a relative decrease of the importance of cattle husbandry in the clay region during the 18th - 19th century can be observed. Intensification of land use had a positive effect on crop-production. The much-heard opinion that the cattle plague epizootic of 1768-1786 caused a transition in land use through a switch from animal husbandry to arable farming, is not held by the author

  4. Scrotal swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 539. Read More Scrotum Testicle lump Testicular torsion Review Date 1/21/2015 Updated by: Scott Miller, MD, urologist in private practice in Atlanta, ...

  5. Undescended testicle repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 539. Read More Infertility Scrotum Testes Undescended testicle Review Date 1/21/2015 Updated by: Scott Miller, MD, urologist in private practice in Atlanta, ...

  6. Selected contributions to neurology by Philadelphia neurologists since 1980.

    PubMed

    Asbury, Arthur K; Sperling, Michael R; Aguirre, Geoffrey Karl; Liu, Grant T

    2010-01-01

    On the occasion of the 125th anniversary of the Philadelphia Neurologic Society, 3 short talks were given that highlighted accomplishments by Philadelphia's neurologists over the past 30 years. The theme for the celebration was "Contributions to Neurology by Philadelphia Neurologists, 1980-2008." Each of the 3 speakers was chosen because of his contributions and the sequential time frames in which they occurred. Dr. Arthur K. Asbury detailed the original description of the Lewis-Sumner syndrome, Dr. Michael R. Sperling summarized the growth of epilepsy surgery in Philadelphia, and Dr. Geoffrey K. Aguirre depicted the roots of functional magnetic resonance imaging in Philadelphia.

  7. Embryonic development of chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus) from 1st to 19th day-ectodermal structures.

    PubMed

    Toledo Fonseca, Erika; De Oliveira Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Alcântara, Dayane; Carvalho Cardoso, Rafael; Luís Franciolli, André; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto Palmeira; Fratini, Paula; José Piantino Ferreira, Antônio; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2013-12-01

    Birds occupy a prominent place in the Brazilian economy not only in the poultry industry but also as an animal model in many areas of scientific research. Thus the aim of this study was to provide a description of macro and microscopic aspects of the ectoderm-derived structures in chicken embryos / fetuses poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) from 1st to 19th day of incubation. 40 fertilized eggs, from a strain of domestic chickens, with an incubation period of 2-19 days were subjected to macroscopic description, biometrics, light, and scanning microscopy. All changes observed during the development were described. The nervous system, skin and appendages and organs related to vision and hearing began to be identified, both macro and microscopically, from the second day of incubation. The vesicles from the primitive central nervous system-forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain-were identified on the third day of incubation. On the sixth day of incubation, there was a clear vascularization of the skin. The optic vesicle was first observed fourth day of development and on the fifth day there was the beginning of the lens formation. Although embryonic development is influenced by animal line as well as external factors such as incubation temperature, this paper provides a chronological description for chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) during its embryonic development.

  8. From Coin to Medal: A Metallurgical Study of the Brazing Drop on a 19th Century Scudo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breda, M.; Canovaro, C.; Pérez, A. F. Miranda; Calliari, I.

    2012-11-01

    In the past, it was customary to use out-of-circulation coins as pendants by brazing a peg or ring on the edge of the coin in order to transform it into a devotional or decorative object; this practice was very common for specimens of the Papal States, especially for silver coins. This metallurgical investigation of a 19th century Scudo aimed to relate the internal structure of the coin to the minting technology with a special focus on the brazing drop, in order to provide information on the solidification microstructure arising from a strongly nonequilibrium process such as brazing. The results show that the Ag content in the coin ranges from 92% in the bulk up to 97% on the surface, due to enrichment, while analysis of the brazing revealed that it consists of an Ag-Cu-Zn-Pb alloy, for which the melting temperature has been estimated. Considering the distribution of minor elements, Zn segregates in the secondary (Cu-rich) β-dendrites and inside the whole eutectic structure, while Pb is only present in the Ag-based phases and seems to reduce the solubility of Zn inside the primary (Ag-rich) α-dendrites.

  9. Scurvy in the British Mercantile Marine in the 19th century, and the contribution of the Seamen's Hospital Society.

    PubMed

    Cook, G C

    2004-04-01

    When long voyages in sailing vessels were commonplace, scurvy was a major health hazard in mariners of all nations. The observations of James Lind (1716-94) and others indicated that citrus fruits had both a preventive and curative role in this disease. In the light of this work, by 1800 the disease had been virtually eliminated from Britain's Royal Navy. However, it continued in the merchant navies of all nations until the latter half of the 19th century. In 1867, the Merchant Shipping Amendment Act was passed by the British Parliament largely as a result of a concerted effort by the Seamen's Hospital Society (SHS), one of whose physicians, Harry Leach (1836-79) was the major proselytiser for improved conditions in the merchant service. Examination of the SHS records before and after this event demonstrate a marked reduction in the prevalence of scurvy in the Port of London. Although other factors-such as the introduction of steam ships, which resulted in faster voyages-were clearly important, the compulsory administration of genuine lime juice under supervision in the merchant service seems to have exerted a significant effect.

  10. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  11. The Black Cholera Comes to the Central Valley of America in the 19th Century - 1832, 1849, and Later

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Walter J.

    2008-01-01

    In mid-19th Century, cholera was epidemic throughout the world. Small towns of the American Midwest were not spared. The disease was blamed on miasmas arising from local causes, so flight from affected localities were logical and common. Flight, added to mortality, caused virtual depopulation of many small towns. Drinking water was drawn from rivers or shallow wells, often near seeping cesspools. Local merchants tried unsuccessfully to calm panic by suppressing information. Cholera was not good for business. Business was depressed. Organized religion thrived. National and state days of prayer were appointed to appease an angry God. During these frightening times, the people learned nothing about the infectiousness of cholera or about its prevention through sanitation. Their experiences tended to reinforce their belief in miasmas or divine retribution. The great epidemics of mankind describe human behavior in times of unavoidable and incurable crisis. Nineteenth Century cholera experiences illustrate a people's reaction to catastrophic disease, which they believed was incurable and unpreventable. PMID:18596846

  12. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct ancient forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-04-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  13. Theodor Waitz's theory of feelings and the rise of affective sciences in the mid-19th century.

    PubMed

    Romand, David

    2015-11-01

    The German psychologist Theodor Waitz (1821-1864) was an important theorist of affectivity in the mid-19th century. This article aims to revisit Waitz's contribution to affective psychology at a crucial moment of its history. First, I elaborate the context in which Waitz's ideas were carried out by showing how affective sciences emerged as an autonomous field of investigation between about 1770 and 1910. Second, I discuss the principles of Waitz's model of affectivity and their contextual significance. Third, I deal with the first major category of affective states identified by Waitz, namely, "formal feelings," which are supposed to be involved in the appraisal of the relational properties between representations. Fourth, I investigate "qualitative feelings," the second major category of affective states identified by Waitz, which refer to affective processes that relate to specific representational contents, namely, intellectual, aesthetic, and moral feelings. In conclusion, I emphasize the genealogical link between Waitz's pioneering research on musical feelings and current research on emotion and expectation in music.

  14. [The midwives of Guadalajara (México) in the 19th century, the plundering of their art].

    PubMed

    Díaz Robles, Laura Catalina; Oropeza Sandoval, Luciano

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the social devaluation of the knowledge and practice used by midwives in their work. The research is limited to historical events that took place during the 19th century in the city of Guadalajara, capital of the state of Jalisco in Mexico. The study shows how the displacement and subordination of these women were associated with the higher social status of physicians. Supported by advances in medicine and by the authority derived from the knowledge acquired through formal educational institutions, doctors started to undermine the value of empirical knowledge and subordinate it to the knowledge that came from these advances. It is shown how doctors detract from and subordinated the midwife to the scientific-employment field of medicine by using a discourse that degraded empirical knowledge and by institutionalizing training courses that tended to ignore the practical know-how of these women and replace it with knowledge derived from scientific medicine. The study is based on information from archives and scientific journals of the time: Archiva Fondos Especiales de la Biblioteca Pública de Jalisco, Archivo Histórico de Jalisco, Archivo Histórico de la Universidad de Guadalajara, Archivo Municipal de Guadalajara and Revista Médica.

  15. Geophysical survey applied to underwater archaeology: a 19th century town submerged in Tequesquitengo Lake, Morelos, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo Dominguez, R. E.; Bandy, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    In August 2009, we conducted an underwater geophysical survey with archaeological objectives at the Tequesquitengo Lake, in Morelos, Mexico. This survey was supervised by researchers from the UNAM’s Institute of Geophysics. The main objectives were to locate and delimitate the archaeological site of a submerged town which lies at the bottom of the lake since the mid 19th century by using geophysical survey techniques. A small size vessel used for our survey was provided by the local Harbour Master, onboard which we mounted a differential GPS unit, navigation system, a dual 38 kHz/200 Khz echosounder and 200 kHz sidescan sonar system, and a marine proton magnetometer, to accomplish our objectives. A bathymetric survey of the site was carried out. And using magnetometry the archaeological site was delimitated. We acquired various sonar images of the higher structures of a church. The magnetic maps showed us some anomalies, which could be an indication of the remains of the submerged town. Additional future surveys, backed up by more research dives could definitely help us in obtaining a broad insight into the history and cultural diversity of this site.

  16. The "Abyssal Society". François-Alphonse Forel and the Case of Deep Fauna in Late 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Ichthyological investigations and technological advancements, such as the laying of submarine telegraph cables, promoted new dredging methods in the second half of the 19th century. In contrast to the idea of a lifeless deep ocean (Edward Forbes' azoic hypothesis), the discovery of deep water fauna and the challenge of defining its systematics opened up new theoretical perspectives. In this frame, which was already marked by the impact of Darwin's theory, naturalistic surveys in freshwater environments in western Switzerland intertwined with those of oceanographic expeditions. The study of the fauna in the depths of subalpine lakes by the Swiss savant François-Alphonse Forel was one of the most striking examples of this turning point, because the relatively recently evolution of its freshwater fauna allowed him to investigate: (a) the role of isolation, (b) the progressive differentiation of species from a common ancestor, and (c) the constitution of a species-specific category in form transition, from a genealogical viewpoint to an ecological one.

  17. [Psychophysical parallelism. On a discursive figure in the field of scientific changes in the late 19th century].

    PubMed

    Wegener, Mai

    2009-01-01

    The article traces the rise and fall of "psychophysical parallelism" - which was the most advanced scientific formulation of the mind / body relationship in the second half of the 19th century - through an interdisciplinary and broad geographical spectrum. It sheds light on the extremely different positions that rallied round this discursive figure, ranging from Fechner, Hering, Mach, Wundt, Bain, Hughlings Jackson, and Taine to Freud and Saussure. The article develops the thesis that the psychophysical parallelism functioned as a 'hot zone' within and a symptom of the changes in the order of sciences at that time. Against that background, the criticism of the psychophysical parallelism which became prominent around 1900 (Stumpf, Busse, Bergson, Mauthner et. al.) indicates the cooling of this 'hot zone' and the establishment of a new order within the scientific disciplines. The article pays particular attention to the position of this figure in contemporaneous language theories. Its basic assumption is that the relationship between the body and the psyche is itself constituted by language.

  18. "Winged sponges": houseflies as carriers of typhoid fever in 19th- and early 20th-century military camps.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Vincent J

    2006-01-01

    Typhoid fever was the scourge of 19th- and early 20th-century armies. During the Spanish-American War (1898) and the Anglo-Boer War (1899- 1902), typhoid killed more soldiers than enemy bullets. Walter Reed and his coworkers investigated the cause of the typhoid epidemics in the U.S. Army camps and concluded that, next to human contact, the housefly (Musca domestica) was the most active agent in the spread of the disease. British medical officers in South Africa, facing even worse typhoid epidemics, reached the same conclusion. The experiences of the American and British armies finally convinced the medical profession and public health authorities that these insects conveyed typhoid. The housefly was now seen as a health menace. Military and civilian sanitarians waged fly-eradication campaigns that prevented the housefly's access to breeding places (especially human excrement), and that protected food and drink from contamination. Currently, M. domestica is recognized as the mechanical vector of a wide variety of viral, bacterial, and protozoal pathogens. Fly control is still an important public health measure in the 21st century, especially in developing countries.

  19. Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology (19th, Monticello, New York, April 6-8, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaromatidis, Katherine, Ed.; Oswald, Patricia A., Ed.; Levine, Judith R., Ed.; Indenbaum, Gene, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The 19th Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology was held on April 6-8, 2005 at Kutsher's Country Club in Monticello, New York. The conference was sponsored by the Psychology Department of the State University of New York at Farmingdale. The conference featured two keynote speakers--Dr. James Naire, sponsored by Wadsworth…

  20. American Journalism Historians Association Annual Convention (London, Ontario, Canada, October 3-5, 1996). Part I: Selected Papers Covering the Colonial Period through the 19th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journalism Historians' Association.

    The 16 papers presented in this collection all deal with journalism and journalists from colonial America through the 19th century. The papers and their authors are: "Fighting for a Continent: Newspaper Coverage of the English and French War for Control of North America, 1754-1760" (David A. Copeland); "A Romance with 'Local'…

  1. Development of Formal Agricultural Education in Canada (Based on the Analysis of Scientific Periodicals of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havrylenko, Kateryna

    2016-01-01

    The article states that one of the world leaders in agricultural sector training is Canada, which has gained a great scientific and practical experience. The paper examines the role of periodicals of the 19th-early 20th centuries, preserved in the Canadian book funds for the establishment and development of formal agricultural education of this…

  2. Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn

    This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

  3. Library Automation as a Source of Management Information. Papers presented at the Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing (19th, Urbana, IL, April 25-28, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, F. Wilfrid, Ed.

    Papers presented at the 19th Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing represent a great variety, ranging from a tutorial on management information and decision support systems, through more philosophical discussions of the value of computer-derived information in library management, to studies of the use of automated systems as sources of…

  4. Cultural and Educational Dimensions Reflected in Books Popularizing Scientific Knowledge--A Case Study: "The Sky", a 19th Century Book Popularizing Astronomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halkia, Krystallia; Botouropoulou, Iphigenia

    2005-01-01

    The present work is concerned with one of the most successful books popularizing astronomy of the last half of the 19th century, published in France under the title "L' Astronomie Populaire". The book was translated into Greek and was the first book, out of 100, which was published in order to be a part of a popular library meant to educate the…

  5. National Gender Policy in Public Education in the Russian Empire in the Latter Half of the 19th-Early 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saifullova, Razilia Rauilovna; Maslova, Inga Vladimirovna; Krapotkina, Irina Evgenevna; Kaviev, Airat Farkhatovich; Nasyrova, Liliya Gabdelvalievna

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the national gender policy in public education in the Russian Empire in the latter half of the 19th-early 20th centuries. In the course of work the authors have used special historical research methods enabling to hammer out the facts and to approach historical sources from a critical standpoint. The comparative method…

  6. History at the Mercy of Politicians and Ideologies: Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilschut, Arie H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares developments in history teaching in Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th centuries. The development of history teaching in the three countries shows striking similarities. National politics have always used history education for purposes which did not necessarily tally with distanced critical…

  7. The Rise and Fall of Science Education: A Content Analysis of Science in Elementary Reading Textbooks of the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century the textbook dominated the curriculum and methods of instruction. The most important textbook was the textbook of reading known as the reader. In the early 1800s science was not established as a separate primary grade subject. The science students encountered in these reading textbooks may have been their only formal science…

  8. The Humanistic Approach to Upbringing and Education in the Creative Legacy of the Ukrainian Pedagogues of the Second Half of the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anosov, Ivan Pavlovych; Elkin, Mark Veniaminovych; Golovkova, Marina Mykhaylivna; Korobchenko, Angelina Anatoliivna; Oksa, Mykola Mykolayovych

    2015-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the study of the humanistic approach to upbringing and education in the creative legacy of the Ukrainian pedagogues of the second half of the 19th century. Through the analysis of S. Myropolskiy's and Kh. Alchevska's pedagogical legacy, a world outlook position of scholars concerning humanisation of the educational…

  9. Ideological Themes in Movements for Child Labor Reform and in Images of Children in Literature in 19th Century England and America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Suzanne

    This paper explores ideological factors that influenced child labor reform and the image of the child as depicted in romantic and sentimental literature of 19th century England and the United States. In both countries the image of the child and the view of the relative roles of the parent and the state in bearing responsibility for children…

  10. Technology in Mathematics Education: Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA) (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, June 30-July 3, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Philip C., Ed.

    This document contains papers presented at the 19th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia. Topics of the presentations include learning research, mathematical representations, problem solving, strategic learning behaviors, algebraic thinking and learning environments, teaching and learning of algebra,…

  11. (Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and…

  12. New early instrumental series since the beginning of the 19th century in eastern Iberia (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Barriendos, Mariano; Guinaldo, Elena; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.

    2010-05-01

    Early instrumental series are the main source for climate information in the 18th and the first part of the 19th century, which is when systematic meteorological observations started in most national meteorological services. The first continuous series in Spain starts in 1780 in Barcelona due to meteorological observations made by the medical doctor Francisco Salvá Campillo. Moreover, only two other series have been recovered at the present in Spain: Madrid and Cádiz/San Fernando. Until present, in Spain the major part of the meteorological observations detected in early instrumental periods were made by medical doctors, who started to pay attention to the environmental factors influencing population health under the Hippocrates oath, although also there are military institutions and academic university staff (e.g. physicists, mathematicians, etc.). Due to the high spatial and temporal climate variability in the Iberian Peninsula, it is important to recover and digitize more climatic series, and this is one of the main goals of the Salvá-Sinobas project (http://salva-sinobas.uvigo.es/) funded by the Spanish Ministry of Environment, and Rural and Marine Affairs for the 2009-2011 period. The first new series with systematic observations was detected in the city of Valencia, in the eastern façade of the Iberian Peninsula. The meteorological observations were daily published in the newspapers Diario de Valencia (1804-1834) and Diario Mercantil de Valencia (1837-1863) until official meteorological observations started in 1858 at the University of Valencia. Each day 3-daily observations (morning, midday, afternoon) were published with five climatic variables: temperature, air pressure, humidity, wind direction and the sky state. Only during the 1804-1808 period daily rainfall data is available. We checked the observer comments published in the newspapers to obtain metadata about the instruments and meteorological station information. Unfortunately, temperature data

  13. Two Intense Decades of 19th Century Whaling Precipitated Rapid Decline of Right Whales around New Zealand and East Australia

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Emma L.; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D.

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time. PMID:24690918

  14. 19th-20th century rainfall patterns reconstructed from sediment provenance in a Santa Barbara Basin box core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napier, T.; Hendy, I. L.; Schimmelmann, A.

    2013-12-01

    Rainfall patterns in Southern California directly affect the availability of water resources and induce hazards in this highly populated and water stressed region. Extreme weather consists of heavy rainfall events in winter associated with atmospheric rivers, and drought conditions when winter rains do not arrive. Water availability has a significant societal impact in Southern California. Here we reconstruct 19th-20th century precipitation history of river catchments draining into Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) through a combination of high-resolution elemental and mineralogical analyses. The deep center of the SBB features suboxic bottom waters and high sedimentation rates resulting in minimal bioturbation of annual sedimentation, which enables high-resolution paleoclimate research. Scanning XRF analysis at a 200 μm resolution of box core SPR0901-04BC from SBB was used to determine annual changes in sediment composition. Samples at 1 cm resolution from the same box core were analyzed for a more extensive suite of elements by ICP-MS, while mineralogy in each sample was determined from whole rock and clay fraction (<2 μm) analysis using X-ray defraction. Elements associated with siliciclastic sediment increase in relative abundance during wet years when significant river runoff events (floods) occurred. The relative proportions of these elements differ between flood events, possibly reflecting differences in temporal and/or spatial rainfall patterns that vary the response of each river catchment draining into SBB. Watershed sediment from the Santa Ynez Mountain streams and Ventura and Santa Clara River catchments derives mostly from Cenozoic sedimentary units, except the Santa Clara River catchment, which contains metamorphic and igneous units. As river runoff is responsible for a significant portion of the terrigenous input into SBB, and is primarily the result of precipitation events, characteristic mineralogy and elemental signatures are a direct recorder of

  15. Hydrometeorological extremes reconstructed from documentary evidence for the Jihlava region in the 17th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolak, Lukas; Brazdil, Rudolf; Chroma, Katerina; Valasek, Hubert; Belinova, Monika; Reznickova, Ladislava

    2016-04-01

    Different documentary evidence (taxation records, chronicles, insurance reports etc.) is used for reconstruction of hydrometeorological extremes (HMEs) in the Jihlava region (central part of the recent Czech Republic) in the 17th-19th centuries. The aim of the study is description of the system of tax alleviation in Moravia, presentation of utilization of early fire and hail damage insurance claims and application of the new methodological approaches for the analysis of HMEs impacts. During the period studied more than 400 HMEs were analysed for the 16 estates (past basic economic units). Late frost on 16 May 1662 on the Nove Mesto na Morave estate, which destroyed whole cereals and caused damage in the forests, is the first recorded extreme event. Downpours causing flash floods and hailstorms are the most frequently recorded natural disasters. Moreover, floods, droughts, windstorms, blizzards, late frosts and lightning strikes starting fires caused enormous damage as well. The impacts of HMEs are classified into three categories: impacts on agricultural production, material property and the socio-economic impacts. Natural disasters became the reasons of losses of human lives, property, supplies and farming equipment. HMEs caused damage to fields and meadows, depletion of livestock and triggered the secondary consequences as lack of seeds and finance, high prices, indebtedness, poverty and deterioration in field fertility. The results are discussed with respect to uncertainties associated with documentary evidences and their spatiotemporal distribution. Archival records, preserved in the Moravian Land Archives in Brno and other district archives, create a unique source of data contributing to the better understanding of extreme events and their impacts.

  16. Achievements of Polish doctors in gastrodiaphanoscopy at the turn of the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries.

    PubMed

    Kierzek, Andrzej; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Pozowski, Andrzej; Kuciel-Lewandowska, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Diaphanoscopy/transillumination, the method of shining a bright light through tissues, was devised in the mid-19(th) century and developed after the invention of the light bulb by T.A. Edison. Benjamin Milliot was the first to examine the stomach by means of an incandescent platinum wire. The experiments conducted by Max Einhorn using a device consisting of a Nelaton catheter with an inserted light bulb, were valuable. In Poland the method of gastrodiaphanoscopy was popularized by Teodor Heryng, Mikołaj Rejchman and by Warsaw doctors. They used a diaphanoscope consisting of a gutta-percha probe distally equipped with a metal attachment with a light bulb hidden in it and with a so-called cooling device. The examination would usually be conducted in the standing position after the stomach had been filled with water. Light patches corresponding to the stomach's lower and side boundaries would be obtained. Rejchman's observation, that such a contractile and flexible organ as the stomach, changing its volume and position, is bound to change its light image, was correct. Heryng's and Rejchman's research inspired the foreign researchers Renvier, Leopold Kuttner and John Jacobson. Extensive research was subsequently conducted by C.A. Meltzing and Wilhelm Schwartz. Diaphanoscopy would also be performed by Walery Jaworski, the pioneer of gastrology. He was particularly interested in transillumination of the stomach, peritoneum and omentum tumours. Eugeniusz Kozierowski, a practicing physician from Gorlice, diagnosed neoplastic pylorostenosisusing this method. Gastrodiaphanoscopy is a historical method, now of no value against gastroendoscopy and the state-of-the-art methods of image diagnostics.

  17. Nelson's wound: treatment of spinal cord injury in 19th and early 20th century military conflicts.

    PubMed

    Hanigan, William C; Sloffer, Chris

    2004-01-15

    During the first half of the 19th century, warfare did not provide a background for a systematic analysis of spinal cord injury (SCI). Medical officers participating in the Peninsular and Crimean Wars emphasized the dismal prognosis of this injury, although authors of sketchy civil reports persuaded a few surgeons to operate on closed fractures. The American Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion was the first text to provide summary of results in 642 cases of gunshot wounds of the spine. The low incidence of this injury (0.26%) and the high mortality rate (55%) discouraged the use of surgery in these cases. Improvements in diagnoses and the introduction of x-ray studies in the latter half of the century enabled Sir G. H. Makins, during the Boer War, to recommend delayed intervention to remove bone or bullet fragments in incomplete injuries. The civil experiences of Elsberg and Frazier in the early 20th century promoted a meticulous approach to treatments, whereas efficient transport of injured soldiers during World War I increased the numbers of survivors. Open large wounds or cerebrospinal fluid leakage, signs of cord compression in recovering patients, delayed clinical deterioration, or intractable pain required surgical exploration. Wartime recommendations for urological and skin care prevented sepsis, and burgeoning pension systems provided specialized longterm rehabilitation. By the Armistice, the effective surgical treatment and postoperative care that had developed through decades of interaction between civil and military medicine helped reduce incidences of morbidity and dispel the hopelessness surrounding the combatant with an SCI.

  18. Achievements of Polish doctors in gastrodiaphanoscopy at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries

    PubMed Central

    Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Pozowski, Andrzej; Kuciel-Lewandowska, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Diaphanoscopy/transillumination, the method of shining a bright light through tissues, was devised in the mid-19th century and developed after the invention of the light bulb by T.A. Edison. Benjamin Milliot was the first to examine the stomach by means of an incandescent platinum wire. The experiments conducted by Max Einhorn using a device consisting of a Nelaton catheter with an inserted light bulb, were valuable. In Poland the method of gastrodiaphanoscopy was popularized by Teodor Heryng, Mikołaj Rejchman and by Warsaw doctors. They used a diaphanoscope consisting of a gutta-percha probe distally equipped with a metal attachment with a light bulb hidden in it and with a so-called cooling device. The examination would usually be conducted in the standing position after the stomach had been filled with water. Light patches corresponding to the stomach’s lower and side boundaries would be obtained. Rejchman’s observation, that such a contractile and flexible organ as the stomach, changing its volume and position, is bound to change its light image, was correct. Heryng’s and Rejchman’s research inspired the foreign researchers Renvier, Leopold Kuttner and John Jacobson. Extensive research was subsequently conducted by C.A. Meltzing and Wilhelm Schwartz. Diaphanoscopy would also be performed by Walery Jaworski, the pioneer of gastrology. He was particularly interested in transillumination of the stomach, peritoneum and omentum tumours. Eugeniusz Kozierowski, a practicing physician from Gorlice, diagnosed neoplastic pylorostenosisusing this method. Gastrodiaphanoscopy is a historical method, now of no value against gastroendoscopy and the state-of-the-art methods of image diagnostics. PMID:24868282

  19. [Coping with leprosy in the Dutch West Indies in the 19th century; opposing but meaningful views from Suriname].

    PubMed

    Menke, Henk; Snelders, Stephen; Pieters, Toine

    2009-01-01

    Leprosy was highly prevalent among African slaves in the Dutch West Indian colony of Suriname. Largely based on observations in Suriname, Dutch physicians described the aetiology of leprosy in terms of'a substrate' to which all sorts of mixtures of infection, heredity and hygiene contributed ('seed and soil'). This explanatory model with multiple options for prevention and treatment left room for different developmental trajectories to control the spread of the disease in the various tropical colonies of the Dutch empire. In Suriname there was a growing worry in the 19th century regarding the spread of leprosy, threatening the health of slaves, settlers and colonial administrators. And this could be harmful to an already weakening plantation economy. This concern prompted the local administration to develop a rigorous policy of strict isolation of leprosy sufferers. This, in turn, intersected with a changing insight in Europe - including the Netherlands - that leprosy was non-contagious. However,'in splendid isolation' in the economically and politically marginal colony Suriname, Dutch physicians like Charles Landre and his son, Charles Louis Drognat Landré, could afford to ignore the European non-contagious approach and continue to support the strict isolation policies. Moreover, they developed a dissident radical explanation of leprosy as a disease caused only by contagion. In the absence of a receptive Dutch audience Drognat Landré published his contagion theory in French and so succeeded in inspiring the Norwegian Hansen, who subsequently discovered the culpable micro-organism. At the same time colonial administrators and physicians in the economically and politically important Dutch colonies in the East Indies adhered to the prevailing European concept and changed policies: the system of isolation was abolished. Given the rather different trajectories of leprosy health policies in the Dutch East and West Indies we point out the importance of a comparative

  20. A chaotic model for the plague epidemic that has occurred in Bombay at the end of the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain

    2015-04-01

    The plague epidemic that has occurred in Bombay at the end of the 19th century was detected in 1896. One year before, an Advisory Committee had been appointed by the Secretary of State for India, the Royal Society, and the Lister Institute. This Committee made numerous investigations and gathered a large panel of data including the number of people attacked and died from the plague, records of rat and flea populations, as well as meteorological records of temperature and humidity [1]. The global modeling technique [2] aims to obtain low dimensional models able to simulate the observed cycles from time series. As far as we know, this technique has been tried only to one case of epidemiological analysis (the whooping cough infection) based on a discrete formulation [3]. In the present work, the continuous time formulation of this technique is used to analyze the time evolution of the plague epidemic from this data set. One low dimensional model (three variables) is obtained exhibiting a limit cycle of period-5. A chaotic behavior could be derived from this model by tuning the model parameters. It provides a strong argument for a dynamical behavior that can be approximated by low dimensional deterministic equations. This model also provides an empirical argument for chaos in epidemics. [1] Verjbitski D. T., Bannerman W. B. & Kápadiâ R. T., 1908. Reports on Plague Investigations in India (May,1908), The Journal of Hygiene, 8(2), 161 -308. [2] Mangiarotti S., Coudret R., Drapeau L. & Jarlan L., 2012. Polynomial search and Global modelling: two algorithms for modeling chaos. Physical Review E, 86(4), 046205. [3] Boudjema G. & Cazelles B., 2003. Extraction of nonlinear dynamics from short and noisy time series. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 12, 2051-2069.

  1. Using sunshine duration data to reconstruct total solar radiation time series since the late 19th century, for Athens area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Founda, Dimitra; Kazadzis, Stelios; Pierros, Fragiskos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Due to the scarcity of surface solar radiation measurements and the lack of long term time series of this variable, sunshine duration (SDu) has been widely considered as a useful proxy for surface total solar radiation (TSR) reaching the earth. Numerous relationships between SDu and TSR have been proposed which vary between sites, as a result of the dependence of the two variables from climatic and astronomical components. At the National Observatory of Athens (NOA), measurements of sunshine duration and surface total solar radiation have been conducted continuously since 1897 and 1953 respectively. These are the longest uninterrupted time series of SDu and TSR in the country. The ability of SDu observations at NOA to serve as a proxy for the estimation of TSR and the detection of its interannual and multi decadal variability is examined in the study. Using the respective time series we have retrieved the relationship between SDu and TSR on a monthly, seasonal and annual basis. To test the retrieved functions we have derived them for the period 1985-2013 and tested them for the period 1953-1984, where synchronous SDu and TSR measurements are available. A strong linear relationship between the time series of monthly SDU and TSR was found. The two series were highly correlated (correlation coefficient > 0.95, p<0.001). On a seasonal basis, stronger correlation between SDu and TSR was detected in winter, autumn and spring, when SDu and TSR exhibit larger variability due to cloudiness. The correlation coefficient was lower in summer, when almost clear sky conditions prevail in Athens. The results showed that SDu observations in Athens can successfully provide quantitative information on shortwave solar radiation, particularly under all-sky conditions. The calculated functions can be used for the reconstruction of TSR back to the late 19th century. This unique 115-yrs SDu and TSR retrieved datasets can provide valuable and unknown information of TSR variability over the

  2. Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and East Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Emma L; Jackson, Jennifer A; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time.

  3. PREFACE: The 19th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases Preface: The 19th European Sectional Conference on Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Vazquez, F. J.

    2009-07-01

    The 19th Europhysics Sectional Conference on the Atomic and Molecular Physics of Ionized Gases (ESCAMPIG-2008) took place in Granada (Spain) from 15 to 19 July 2008. The conference was mainly organized by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), with the collaboration and support of the University of Córdoba (UCO) and the Research Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT). It is already 35 years since the first ESCAMPIG in 1973. The first editions of ESCAMPIG were in consecutive years (1973 and 1974) but later on it became a biennial conference of the European Physical Society (EPS) initially focusing on the collisional and radiative atomic and molecular processes in low temperature plasmas. The successive ESCAMPIGs took place in Bratislava in 1976 (3rd), Essen in 1978 (4th), Dubrovnik in 1980 (5th) and so on until the last one organized in Granada in 2008 (19th), the first ESCAMPIG in Spain. A number of changes have taken place in the Granada edition of ESCAMPIG. First, the previous six topics that have remained unchanged for almost two decades (since 1990) have now been updated to become twelve new topics which, in the opinion of the International Scientific Committee (ISC), will enhance the opportunity for discussions and communication of new findings and developments in the field of low temperature plasmas. The new list of topics for ESCAMPIG is: • Atomic and molecular processes in plasmas • Transport phenomena, particle velocity distribution function • Physical basis of plasma chemistry • Plasma surface interaction (boundary layers, sheath, surface processes) • Plasma diagnostics • Plasma and dicharges theory and simulation • Self-organization in plasmas, dusty plasmas • Upper atmospheric plasmas and space plasmas • Low pressure plasma sources • High pressure plasma sources • Plasmas and gas flows • Laser produced plasmas Secondly, a new prize has been created, the `William Crookes' prize in Plasma Physics to be

  4. Policy Commercializing Nonprofits in Health: The History of a Paradox From the 19th Century to the ACA

    PubMed Central

    FOX, DANIEL M

    2015-01-01

    growth and commercialization of nonprofits in the health sector since the late 19th century remains influential in health policy, especially for the allocation of resources. However, aspects of the implementation of the ACA may constrain some of the effects of the paradox. PMID:25752354

  5. Analysis of Climatic Variations based on the Instrumental Meteorological Records at Dejima, Japan since 19th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaiki, M.

    2001-12-01

    When we make a study of past climatic variations, it would be preferable to get as long instrumental records as possible. In Japan, however, the earliest official meteorological observations by JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) started at Hakodate in 1872, since which only 128 years have passed. Prior to that period, there was no official instrumental record in Japan. Recently, we could fortunately get information that several instrumental observations were taken under the responsibility of the Dutch in Dejima (Nagasaki) covering the periods 1819-1828, 1845-1858 and 1871-1878. As Nagasaki meteorological observatory was established in 1878, these Dutch instrumental series could be connected with the instrumental Nagasaki observatory series (1878-present). Although a lot of benefits are available in using long-term meteorological data for a study of climatic variations, there are some problems to be solved beforehand, such as inhomogeneity between historical data and modern data. In response to this fact mentioned above, we made the study of 1) making the database of Dejima/Nagasaki meteorological records for 180 years since 1819; 2) homogenizing monthly mean temperatures; 3) analyzing climate evolution in Nagasaki since early 19th century; and 4) developing and constructing the method for homogenizing daily mean temperatures. Firstly, in order to make the data base of Dejima/Nagasaki records, all meteorological elements (temperature, pressure, humidity, wind and precipitation) in Dutch records were converted to the same units as the present ones and digitized into the computer readable form. Secondly, inhomogenized monthly mean temperature data were completed by applying the mean calculation and height correction method, and the Jones et al. (1986) method. The latter method would be reasonable compared to the former method. Thirdly, climate variability of homogenized monthly mean temperature in Nagasaki was analyzed by comparing to the estimated temperatures from

  6. PREFACE: 19th International Conference on the Application of High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics and Nanotechnology (HMF-19)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraki, Koji; Takeyama, Shojiro

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 19th International Conference on the Application of High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics and Nanotechnology (HMF-19) held in Fukuoka, Japan, from 1-6 August 2010. This conference was mainly sponsored by the Tokyo University-'Horiba International fund', which was donated by Dr Masao Horiba, the founder of Horiba Ltd. The scientific program of HMF-19 consisted of 37 invited talks, 24 contributed talks, and 83 posters, which is available from the conference homepage http://www.hmf19.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/index.html. Each manuscript submitted for publication in this volume has been independently reviewed. The Editor is very grateful to all the reviewers for their quick responses and helpful reports and to all the authors for their submissions and patience for the delay in the editorial process. Finally, the Editor would like to express his sincere gratitude to all the individuals involved in the conference organization and all the attendees, who made this conference so successful. Koji Muraki Conference photograph Committees Chair Conference chairS Takeyama(ISSP-UT) Conference secretary T Machida (IIS-UT) Program chair K Muraki (NTT) Local organizing chair K Oto (Chiba Univ.) Advisory Committee International Domestic L Brey (ES) T Ando (TIT) Z H Chen (CN) Y Hirayama (Tohoku Univ.) S Das Sarma (US) G Kido (NIMS) L Eaves (GB) N Miura (JP) J P Eisenstein (US) J Nitta (Tohoku Univ.) K Ensslin (CH) T Takamasu (NIMS) J Furdyna (US) G M Gusev (BR) I Kukushkin (RU) Z D Kvon (RU) G Landwehr (DE) J C Maan (NL) A H MacDonald (US) N F Oliveira Jr (BR) A Pinczuk (US) J C Portal (FR) A Sachrajda (CA) M K Sanyal(IN) R Stepniewski(PL) Program Committee Chair: K Muraki(NTT) International Domestic G Bauer (AU) H Ajiki (Osaka Univ.) G Boebinger (US) H Aoki (Hongo, UT) S Ivanov (RU) K Nomura (RIKEN) K von Klitzing (DE) T Okamoto (Hongo, UT) R Nicholas (GB) T Osada (ISSP-UT ) M Potemski (FR) N Studart (BR) U Zeitler (NL

  7. Improvements in the wallpaper industry during the second half of the 19th century: micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of pigmented wallpapers.

    PubMed

    Castro, K; Vandenabeele, P; Rodríguez-Laso, M D; Moens, L; Madariaga, J M

    2005-08-01

    Scientific studies of the pigments used in the manufacturing process of some pigmented wallpapers are presented in this work. Non-destructive micro-Raman spectroscopy was selected for this purpose, and provides important information about how the 19th century wallpaper industry incorporated new materials in their works and designs. At the same time, analysis can help to date the samples of uncatalogued wallpapers. Chrome yellow, burnt Sienna, Prussian blue, ultramarine blue, red lead, carbon black, calcium carbonate, red iron oxide and a red organic pigment were identified. According to the palette used, as well as to the manufacturing process, the wallpapers in this study can be dated to the second half of the 19th century.

  8. Improvements in the wallpaper industry during the second half of the 19th century: Micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of pigmented wallpapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, K.; Vandenabeele, P.; Rodríguez-Laso, M. D.; Moens, L.; Madariaga, J. M.

    2005-08-01

    Scientific studies of the pigments used in the manufacturing process of some pigmented wallpapers are presented in this work. Non-destructive micro-Raman spectroscopy was selected for this purpose, and provides important information about how the 19th century wallpaper industry incorporated new materials in their works and designs. At the same time, analysis can help to date the samples of uncatalogued wallpapers. Chrome yellow, burnt Sienna, Prussian blue, ultramarine blue, red lead, carbon black, calcium carbonate, red iron oxide and a red organic pigment were identified. According to the palette used, as well as to the manufacturing process, the wallpapers in this study can be dated to the second half of the 19th century.

  9. Proceedings of the Conference on Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation (19th), held in Charleston, South Carolina, 21 - 24 March 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    34 "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA," and leading field journals. Popular accounts have appeared in newspapers, magazines, books, online ... online at http://brimsconference.org/archives/2007/abstract/07bri ms-203.htm Proceedings of the 19th Conference on Behavior Representation in...three high school students explored an online IMMEXTM problem space where the goal was to make a decision whether the simulated person should seek

  10. Hydrologic data for aquifers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulachok, G.N.; Wood, C.R.; Norton, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Selected data on the ground-water resources of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, are presented in this report. Information including water levels and data on aquifers is tabulated for 828 wells and 3 sumps. Chemical analyses are given for 1,467 water samples obtained from 205 sites and include 103 analyses for trace elements and 68 analyses for volatile organic compounds. An index of geophysical logs including gamma ray, neutron, caliper, fluid conductivity, fluid velocity, single-point resistance, spontaneous potential, and temperature determinations made in 51 wells is also presented. Data-collection sites are shown on a 1:50,000 scale location map.

  11. Impact of Community College of Philadelphia Allied Health Programs on the Philadelphia Region. Report #117.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Community Coll., PA.

    This report discusses the Allied Health programs at Community College of Philadelphia (CCP): (1) Clinical Laboratory Technician; (2) Dental Assisting Hygiene; (3) Dental Assisting Certificate; (4) Diagnostic Medical Imaging; (5) Dietetic Technician; (6) Health Information Technology; (7) Medical Assisting and Office Management; (8) Nursing; and…

  12. Summary of the 19th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research (July 23-27, 2008 in Montreal, Canada)

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Julian I

    2009-10-01

    The 19th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research was a successful meeting attended by 815 scientists from around the world including 322 from the United States, 146 attendees from Canada, 179 from Europe, 134 from Asia, and 34 from a combination of Australia, South America, Africa and the Middle East. The scientific program was of excellent quality featuring 64 talks, including 41 from invited speakers. The Keynote Lecture, delivered by Chris Somerville (Energy Biosciences Institute/UC Berkeley) was particularly relevant to US agriculture and energy research and was titled The Development of Cellulosic Biofuels. There were also 6 community-organized workshops featuring 30 additional talks on topics including Frontiers in Plant Systems Biology, Sources and strategies for Gene Structure, Gene Function, and Metabolic Pathway annotation at TAIR and AraCyc, Advanced Bioinformatic Resources for Arabidopsis, Laser Microtechniques and Applications with Arabidopsis, Plant Proteomics- Tools, Approaches, Standards and Breakthroughs in Studying the Proteome, and Phytohormone Biosynthesis and Signal Transduction. Conference organizers arranged a special seminar by Jim Collins (head of the Directorate of Biosciences at NSF) to provide a community discussion forum regarding the future of Arabidopsis research. Approximately 575 posters were presented in topic areas including, among others, Development, Signal Transduction, Cell Walls, Non-Arabidopsis Systems, and Interactions with Biotic and Abiotic Factors. All conference abstracts and the full program are posted at The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR), a publicly-accessibly website (www.arabidopsis.org/news/abstracts.jsp.) A survey completed by approximately 40% of the meeting attendees showed high satisfaction with the quality of the presentations, meeting organization and the city of Montreal. The conference is the largest annual international Arabidopsis venue which allowed the exchange of information at the

  13. 78 FR 27025 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Philadelphia, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... modifies the Philadelphia, PA, Class B airspace area to ensure the containment of large turbine-powered... in the Philadelphia terminal area. DATES: Effective Date: 0901 UTC, July 25, 2013. The Director of the Federal Register approves this incorporation by reference action under 1 CFR part 51, subject...

  14. Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools: Start up and Early Implementation. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Action, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In April 2009, Superintendent Arlene Ackerman announced her reform plan for the School District of Philadelphia (the District)--"Imagine 2014". Among other major initiatives, "Imagine 2014" laid the groundwork for Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative. The Renaissance Initiative, set to enter its second year in 2011-12, is an effort to…

  15. Time's Up: Applying Teacher Management Skills to Solving Philadelphia's Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lax, Zach

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are natural problem solvers, and they should be using this quality to their advantage when it comes to solving the systemic issues that plague Philadelphia's education system. Many of the articles in this issue have already gone into great detail about what is happening in Philadelphia. Torch Lytle has provided a summary of the recent…

  16. South Philadelphia Passive Sampler Method project communication sheet

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development (EPA ORD), EPA Region 3, and the City of Philadelphia Air Measurements Services (AMS) are collaborating on research project in South Philadelphia starting in the spring of 2013. This project investigates how...

  17. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  18. For-Profit Writes Mandatory Courses for Philadelphia High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    This article reports how Kaplan K12 Learning Services Group, a division of Kaplan Inc., has developed a new, standardized college-preparatory curriculum for the Philadelphia school district. The curriculum, which made its debut in the Philadelphia district in 2005, was a critical element in the district leadership's plan to improve secondary…

  19. A Trip to Historic Philadelphia on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elizabeth K.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an electronic field trip to colonial Philadelphia (Pennsylvania). The historic locale has generated enough websites (Philadelphia Historic District, Betsy Ross homepage, and the Franklin Institute Science Museum) for students to take a virtual tour of the colonial capital. Suggests structuring the activity as a know-want-learn (KWL)…

  20. Marylanders defeat Philadelphia: yellow fever updated.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, T. E.; Beisel, W. R.; Faulkner, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Those strategic points which influence this amateur historian to declare a victory for Baltimore and Maryland over Philadelphia are: I. Based upon clinical and epidemiological data, two Marylanders, Potter and Davidge, were among the first to contest Rush and his contagion theory; they told him so and published their views. To prove this point, Potter went to the extreme of inoculating himself with presumedly infected material. Stubbins Ffirth, a young University of Pennsylvania medical student, did the same four years later. To Rush's credit was ultimate abandonment of his originally held views. II. John Crawford, of Baltimore, although not the originator of the insect concept of transmission of infectious agents, published his concepts in 1811. III. Henry Rose Carter, a Maryland graduate, clearly delineated, in 1898, that after identification of an index case of yellow fever an extrinsic incubation period was necessary before the evolution of secondary cases. IV. James Carroll, another University of Maryland graduate, who worked as Deputy under Walter Reed with Lazear and Agramonte, helped prove Finlay's original concept that the Aedes aegypti mosquito was the natural vector of yellow fever. Carroll himself was the first experimentally induced case. V. Studies in primates provide new approaches for management of yellow fever. Nutritional support and treatment with specific anti-viral agents may be useful for therapy of human yellow fever. Maryland members of the Climatological are mindful of Philadelphia's rich medical heritage and of the many battles won in the City of Brotherly Love. Physicians in colonial and early America experienced The best and worst of times, theirs was an age of foolishness and belief, of incredulity and light, of darkness, despair and hope. This tale of two cities ends in peace. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 PMID:822563

  1. [Cathedrals to sciences or temples of knowledge? The museums of natural sciences of Cordoba, Argentina, by the end of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Tognetti, L

    2001-01-01

    The museums of Botany, Mineralogy and Zoology of the Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas were created along with a world wide phenomenon, defined by some authors as the "museum movement," in a time the basics of this movement were being restructured. Thus, this work intends to go over the building stage of the natural history museums in a peripheral domain --- Cordoba by the end of the 19th century --- in order to partially understand this transition process. The strategy is to analyze the collections and find out how and why they were gathered. Two other aspects are also relevant: the human resources and the funds these institutions were granted.

  2. [The mind on the stage of justice: the formation of criminal psychology in the 19th century and its interdisciplinary research].

    PubMed

    Vec, Milos

    2007-09-01

    Criminal psychology emerges at the end of the 18th century as a new academic discipline in lectures and publications. It has recently been investigated by a considerable number of contributions from researchers of different academic backgrounds. In many respects criminal psychology can be seen as a predecessor of criminology. Its subject is the analysis of the origins of crime and its causes and determinants in the human mind. Criminal psychology embraced at that time philosophical, medical, legal and biological aspects. The latter increase in importance in the second half of the 19th century. The conditions of individual responsibility were generally codified in penal law, but had to be individually investigated in crucial cases through expertise in court. There a conflict emerged between medical experts and judges about their ability and competence to decide. At the end of the 19th century criminal psychology is used to fulfil the needs and interests of a criminal law which understands itself as increasingly utilitarian. Force and new instruments of treatment of offenders were legitimized by scientists who were very optimistic about their own epistemological abilities.

  3. Chapter 52: the emergence of the age variable in 19th-century neurology: considerations of recovery patterns in acquired childhood aphasia.

    PubMed

    Hellal, Paula; Lorch, Marjorie P

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, descriptions of patients with disorders of higher cerebral functions were typically presented in a mixed series of children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly. There was no indication in the analysis or interpretation that age was thought to play a role in the signs or symptoms displayed, or in the prognosis. The role of age in the manifestation of language disorders only became explicit in the late 19th century in the elaboration of ideas regarding perinatal illnesses, developmental difficulties, and the emerging clinical category of "cerebral palsy" as evinced in the work of Bastian, Osler, Sachs and Peterson, and Freud. Their patient series studies afforded the opportunity to identify relations between age at symptom onset and patterns of language acquisition and impairment. These analyses contributed directly to the elaboration of hypotheses regarding localization of function, hemispheric specialization, and patterns of recovery. The factor of "age at symptom onset" would steadily assume even greater theoretical importance, as explanations of patterns of symptom co-occurrence, etiology, and prognosis were elaborated through the increasing appreciation of a developmental/maturational perspective.

  4. Science Policy at the Wrong Scale and Without Adequate Political Institutions: Parallels between the U.S. 19th Century and the 21st Century Global Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Constitution of the United States is a document for economic development written by people wary of government failure at the extremes, whether too heavy handed a central government or too loose a confederation. The strong central government favored by Hamilton, Industrialists and later by forward thinking men of the 19th century created a discontinuity wherein government institutions designed to facilitate agriculture were incapable of regulating corporations operating on a national scale, which made mineral and other natural resource exploitation needed to support industrialization enormously profitable. At the same time, Agriculturalists and other conservative citizens sought to control the economy by protecting their rural interests and power. The political institutional power remained with states as agriculturalists and industrialists struggled for economic superiority in the 19th century. As Agriculture moved west, Science warned of the dangers of extending Homesteading regulations into arid regions to no avail. The west was settled in townships without concern for watersheds, carrying capacity, or climatic variability. Gold seekers ignored the consequences of massive hydraulic mining techniques. The tension resident in the Constitution between strong local control of government (states' rights) and a strong central government (nationalism) provided no institutional context to resolve mining problems or other 19th century policy problems linked to rapid population expansion and industrialization. Environmental protection in the late 20th century has been the last wave of nationalized policy solutions following the institution-building blueprint provided by electoral successes in the Progressive, New Deal, and Great Society eras. Suddenly in the 21st century, scientific warnings of dangers again go unheeded, this time as evidence of global warming mounts. Again, tension in policy making exists in all political arenas (executive, legislative and judicial at

  5. RadNet Air Data From Philadelphia, PA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Philadelphia, PA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  6. Human teeth as historical biomonitors of environmental and dietary lead: some lessons from isotopic studies of 19th and 20th century archival material.

    PubMed

    Farmer, J G; MacKenzie, A B; Moody, G H

    2006-10-01

    The lead isotopic composition of various sections (crown, crown base, root) of teeth was determined in specimens collected from 19th century skulls preserved in museum collections and, upon extraction or exfoliation, from humans of known ages residing in Scotland in the 1990s. For most 20th century samples, calculation of accurate crown-complete or root-complete dates of tooth formation ranging from the 1920s to the 1990s enabled comparison of (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios for teeth sections (crown base root) with corresponding decadally averaged data for archival herbarium Sphagnum moss samples. This showed that the teeth sections had been significantly influenced by incorporation of non-contemporaneous (more recent) lead subsequent to the time of tooth formation, most probably via continuous uptake by dentine. This finding confirmed that separation of enamel from dentine is necessary for the potential of teeth sections as historical biomonitors of environmental (and dietary) lead exposure at the time of tooth formation to be realised. Nevertheless, the mean 19th century value of 1.172+/-0.007 for the (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio in teeth was very similar to the corresponding mean value of 1.173+/-0.004 for 19th century archival moss, although relative contributions from environmental sources - whether direct, by inhalation/ingestion of dust contaminated by local lead smelting ((206)Pb/(207)Pb~1.17) and coal combustion ((206)Pb/(207)Pb~1.18) emissions, or indirect, through ingestion of similarly contaminated food - and drinking/cooking water contaminated by lead pipes of local origin, cannot readily be determined. In the 20th century, however, the much lower values of the (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio (range 1.100-1.166, mean 1.126+/-0.013, median 1.124) for the teeth collected from various age groups in the 1990s reflect the significant influence of imported Australian lead of lower (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio (~1.04) and released to the environment most notably through car

  7. In naming the dead: Autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR typing on human skeletal remains from an 18th/19th century aristocratic crypt in Gallspach, Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Reinhard; Renhart, Silvia; Gruber, Heinz; Kli Mesch, Wolfgang; Neuhuber, Franz; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA analyses have shown to be a powerful tool in the joint transdisciplinary assessment of archaeological records involving human remains. In this study we set out to identify single inhumations by synoptically evaluating the historical, archaeological, anthropological and molecular records on human remains from the crypt of the aristocratic family of Hoheneck (or: Hohenegg) dating to the 18(th) and 19(th) century AD. A total of 11 individuals were under investigation, yielding complete autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR profiles for 5 persons clearly showing a family group. DNA results, anthropological data and archaeological records taken together resulted in (almost) unambiguous correlation to historical records on the persons entombed in the crypt.

  8. Rise of the mutants: report from the 19th conference of the European Haematology Association, Milan, 12-15 June 2014.

    PubMed

    Mazzarella, Luca

    2014-01-01

    At the 19th conference of the European Haematology Association in Milan, we saw the true and dramatic changes brought about by the integration of extensive genomic information in clinical practice, and the dilemmas that accompany such a rapid increase in knowledge. Each disease is sliced more and more into smaller pieces, each with its own better-determined outcome and treatment. We also observed the rise of mutant-specific epigenetic agents, which benefit from knowing the underlying genetic abnormality to specifically assign an epigenetic drug where it is needed. In contrast to the 'one mutation, one drug' approach, others are pursuing the search for drugs targeting pathways fundamental for the survival of all or most cancer cells, sometimes looking at more 'exotic' pathways like neddylation or nuclear export.

  9. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  10. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  11. J. M. Despréaux' lichens from the Canary Islands and West Africa: an account of a 19th century collection found in an English archive.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Hudson, Begoña; Whitworth, Isabella; Spooner, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    This is an historical and descriptive account of 28 herbarium specimens, 27 lichens and an alga, found in the archives of Charles Chalcraft, a descendant of the Bedford family, who were dye manufacturers in Leeds, England, in the 19th century. The lichens comprise 13 different morphotypes collected in the Canary Islands and West Africa by the French botanist J. M. Despréaux between 1833 and 1839. The collections include samples of "Roccella fuciformis", "R. phycopsis" and "R. tinctoria" (including the fertile morphotype "R. canariensis"), "Ramalina crispatula" and "R. cupularis", two distinct morphotypes of "Sticta", "S. canariensis" and "S. dufouri", "Physconia enteroxantha", "Pseudevernia furfuracea var. ceratea" and "Pseudocyphellaria argyracea". The herbarium also includes authentic material of "Parmotrema tinctorum" and a probable syntype of "Seirophora scorigena". Most of these species are known as a source of the purple dye orchil, which was used to dye silk and wool.

  12. Widow and widower remarriage: an analysis in a rural 19th century Costa Rican population and a cross-cultural discussion.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, L; Ware, B; Melendez, M

    2003-12-01

    Although the topic of remarriage features saliently in the cultural anthropological literature, it is virtually absent in the biological anthropology journals. This is perplexing, given that remarriage affects the differential reproductive success of males and females in a community, and could well impact a community's population structure. In this paper, we research remarriage practices in a rural 19th century community in Costa Rica. Although we find support for the proposition that males are more likely to remarry than females, we find that widows who remarry are not all young and able to reproduce. Our findings support the cross-culturally-generated suggestion that a female's ability not to remarry is tied to her to ability to own property. Remarriage is a topic of interest to biological anthropologists from a cross-cultural and biocultural perspective.

  13. The Use of Complementary GPR Surveys with Different Grid Spacing to Locate Unmarked Graves in a 19th Century Cemetery in Selinsgrove PA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachhab, A.; Zawacki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical survey tool with many archaeological applications, including the search for graves. A 400 megahertz GPR was employed to locate unmarked graves and buried headstones in a neglected Pennsylvania cemetery dating from the 19th century. The site was initially scanned using a grid pattern with 50cm transect spacings. A smaller site within the cemetery was then selected and scanned at a higher 'resolution,' using smaller transect spacings, to determine whether this improved the accuracy of the findings. Supplementary perpendicular transects were also added. A number of potential sources of error were identified and their consequences were outlined. Short transects with small spacings were found to significantly improve the quality of the obtained data, as was the addition of perpendicular transects. The results are applicable to the search for graves and, more broadly, the use of GPR to identify and locate other subsurface features.

  14. Dealing with Variability: Inter and Intra-annual Climate Variability and its Impacts on Water Availability in the 19th Century Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloysius, N. R.; Witherell, B. B.; Allen, T. L.; Arrigo, J. S.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Freshwater plays a critical role in preserving the biological and hydrological functions of the terrestrial ecosystems that sustain civilization. Hydrologic processes shape the distribution, structure, and dynamics of biological systems, while the feedbacks from biological systems impact the hydrologic cycle. Climate is the main driver that adds dynamics to the hydrologic cycle. In order to identify the changes and variability in the Northeast region’s climate and to understand their impacts on the hydrological cycle, we are conducting an assessment of the region’s climate. Annual and monthly time series of precipitation and temperature data collected for one hundred locations in the region, spanning from Maine to Virginia, during the period 1800 to 1920 are analyzed to assess the spatial and temporal variations in climate. It has been reported that the region’s climate during the 19th century is largely modulated by climatic oceanicity and the sunspot rhythm, and, that human influence did not have significant impact on the regional climate. Our preliminary findings do not show significant variations in the mean annual climate, but show variations in intra-annual climate, particularly monthly precipitation. Based on the review of historical documents, the intra-annual variation in precipitation was a concern of water resource planners during the 19th century. The present research attempts to bring out linkages between spatial and temporal variations in the regional climate and water availability. Additional information on land cover, measured and modeled runoff for a selected location will be used as case study to highlight climate variability and its impact on water availability.

  15. [Records of the invisible: Visa reperta in 18th- and 19th-century forensic medicine and their role as promoters of pathological-anatomical knowledge].

    PubMed

    Müller, Irmgard; Fangerau, Heiner

    2010-01-01

    Case reports in medicine serve as a tool to collect and to transfer knowledge. A special kind of case report in forensic medicine during the 18th and 19th centuries was the so-called Visum repertum. This format of note-taking and of rendering an expert opinion without presuppositions has rarely investigated in the history of medicine. Analyzing Visa reperta the authors argue that due to their special structure and mode of representation Visa reperta not only shaped the practice of forensic medicine but also the standardized examination and documentation in pathological anatomy. Based on previous studies on medical case reports, medical expert witnesses in court and traditions in pathological anatomy the authors examine two examples from the 18th and 19th centuries in order to show how semiological, classifying methods of presenting forensic examinations were replaced by the material aspect of the observation of examination results itself. The examples are a forensic case report by Michael Alberti (1682-1757) from 1728 and a Visum repertum by Joseph Bernt (1770-1842) from 1827. The authors argue that Visa reperta transcended their original forensic purpose and served as a guideline for pathology leading to an understanding of the origin of diseases in organs. They served as a promoter of scientific medicine, and their persuasiveness was backed by factors such as (a) the extreme conditions of forensic practice, (b) the claim to act as a tool for the sound and precise recording of facts and c) the awareness that they documented objects that were destroyed during the process of documentation.

  16. [The physician between the ideal and reality: medical profession and popular attitude towards health and medicine in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Zeleznik, Urska

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the attitude of the society towards the medical profession, which was torn between high social expectations and ideals and medical practice confronted with real-life obstacles. In the 19th century, the physician's position was still precarious and called for a renegotiation in the community. Physician's work was faced with people's distrust and resistance, superstitions and prejudices, folk medicine and religion. Even such ideal qualities as dignity, conscientiousness, and courage, would quickly be called into question by events such as epidemics. Particularly in 19th century rural areas, the physician's position was far from acknowledged and official medicine had yet to win people's trust. This paper explores the polyvalent attitude of people towards medicine and health. It investigates the discourse used to describe health and medicine in daily press, professional and popular literature, as well as in official medical documents of the time. It shows a long struggle of public health care to gain people's approval. During cholera epidemics, which apart from presenting serious threat to human life were an opportunity for medicine to win people's trust and obedience, the attitude towards health gradually began to change. To some extent this was a result of medical advances, new scientific discoveries, and increasing success in abating the epidemics. At the same time, as the society became more secular, medicine slowly gained people's trust and gradually replaced the healing methods of folk medicine. Health was less and less understood as a result of God's will and mercy, and the attitude towards disease began to evolve from passive resignation to an active battle for health.

  17. Historical stocking data and 19th century DNA reveal human-induced changes to native diversity and distribution of cutthroat trout.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, J L; Love Stowell, S; Kennedy, C M; Rogers, K B; McDonald, D; Epp, J; Keepers, K; Cooper, A; Austin, J J; Martin, A P

    2012-11-01

    Many species are threatened with extinction and efforts are underway worldwide to restore imperilled species to their native ranges. Restoration requires knowledge of species' historical diversity and distribution. For some species, many populations were extirpated or individuals moved beyond their native range before native diversity and distribution were documented, resulting in a lack of accurate information for establishing restoration goals. Moreover, traditional taxonomic assessments often failed to accurately capture phylogenetic diversity. We illustrate a general approach for estimating regional native diversity and distribution for cutthroat trout in the Southern Rocky Mountains. We assembled a large archive of historical records documenting human-mediated change in the distribution of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and combined these data with phylogenetic analysis of 19th century samples from museums collected prior to trout stocking activities and contemporary DNA samples. Our study of the trout in the Southern Rocky Mountains uncovered six divergent lineages, two of which went extinct, probably in the early 20th century. A third lineage, previously declared extinct, was discovered surviving in a single stream outside of its native range. Comparison of the historical and modern distributions with stocking records revealed that the current distribution of trout largely reflects intensive stocking early in the late 19th and early 20th century from two phylogenetically and geographically distinct sources. Our documentation of recent extinctions, undescribed lineages, errors in taxonomy and dramatic range changes induced by human movement of fish underscores the importance of the historical record when developing and implementing conservation plans for threatened and endangered species.

  18. The genetic legacy of the 19th-century decline of the British polecat: evidence for extensive introgression from feral ferrets.

    PubMed

    Costa, M; Fernandes, C; Birks, J D S; Kitchener, A C; Santos-Reis, M; Bruford, M W

    2013-10-01

    In the 19th century, the British polecat suffered a demographic contraction, as a consequence of direct persecution, reaching its lowest population in the years that preceded the First World War. The polecat is now recovering and expanding throughout Britain, but introgressive hybridization with feral ferrets has been reported, which could be masking the true range of the polecat and introducing domestic genes into the species. We used a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region and 11 microsatellite loci to characterize the frequency and extent of hybridization and introgression between the two species and assess whether the 19th-century decline corresponded to a genetic bottleneck in the polecat. The proportion of admixture detected in the wild was high (31%) and hybrids were more frequently found outside Wales, suggesting that hybridization is more likely to occur along the eastern edge of the polecat's range expansion. The patterns observed in the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data show that introgression was mediated by crosses between male polecats and female ferrets, whose offspring backcrossed with polecats. No first-generation (F1 ) hybrids were identified, and the broad range of observed admixture proportions agrees with a scenario of past extensive hybridization between the two species. Using several different methods to investigate demographic history, we did not find consistent evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the British polecat, a result that could be interpreted as a consequence of hybridization with ferrets. Our results highlight the importance of the Welsh polecat population for the conservation and restoration of the genetic identity of the British polecat.

  19. Edward (Ed) T. Schneider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Research Pilot Edward T. Schneider is shown sitting in the cockpit of a McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet that was used in the High Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) program at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ames - Dryden Flight Research Facility. When the aircraft arrived at the Dryden Facility in 1987, from the US Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Maryland, it consisted of parts in crates. The aircraft crew made an airplane from those parts, and in doing so they took a 'sow's ear' and created a 'silk purse', thus the name on the side of the aircraft. Ed's helmet is from his time in the Navy. The design was taken from the Flag that is flown on the bow of a Navy ship, referred to as the Jack, and is navy blue with the 50 States being represented by the white stars. Ed arrived at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later renamed the Dryden Flight Research Center) on July 5, 1982, as a Navy Liaison Officer, becoming a NASA research pilot one year later. Ed was the project pilot for the F-18 High Angle-of-Attack program and later served as a project pilot for the F-15 aeronautical research aircraft, the NASA B-52 launch aircraft, and the SR-71 'Blackbird' aircraft. He served on active duty with the U.S. Navy from 1968 to 1983. Following squadron service he graduated from the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School, Patuxent River, Maryland, in 1973, and then served as an engineering test pilot, and test pilot school instructor at the Naval Air Test Center. Ed has been an active member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots since 1974. He was made a Fellow of the Society in 1993 and served as its President in 1993/94. In 1996 he was awarded the NASA Exceptional Service Medal and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics' Chanute Flight Award. He retired as a NASA research pilot in September 2000.

  20. Philadelphia chromosome duplication as a ring-shaped chromosome.

    PubMed

    Borjas-Gutierrez, Cesar; Gonzalez-Garcia, Juan Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The gain of a second copy of the Philadelphia chromosome is one of the main secondary chromosomal changes related to the clonal evolution of cells with t(9;22) in chronic myelogenous leukemia. This gain causes the acquisition of another copy of the BCR/ABL1 fusion gene. Isochromosomes of the der(22) chromosome or double minute chromosomes are well known to lead an increased copy number of BCR/ABL1 gene. There is no antecedent of Philadelphia chromosome duplication as a ring chromosome. A recent published report contains evidence that strongly suggests that the Philadelphia chromosome was duplicated as a ring chromosome, observation that was overlooked by the authors. The instability inherent to the ring chromosome increases the risk of emergence of clones containing more and more BCR/ABL1 gene copies, which would produce increased fitness for clonal selection, resulting in worsening of the patient's prognosis.

  1. Low incidence of painless thyroiditis in the Philadelphia area

    SciTech Connect

    Schorr, A.B.; Miller, J.L.; Shtasel, P.; Rose, L.I.

    1986-06-01

    Publications from the midwestern region of the United States have demonstrated an incidence of 14-23% of painless thyroiditis in hyperthyroid individuals. This possibly could represent a local phenomenon, and perhaps is not typical for other areas of the country. The 24 hour radioactive iodine uptakes in 152 consecutive hyperthyroid individuals in the Philadelphia area were evaluated. No patient in the series, with clinical and biochemical evidence of hyperthyroidism, had painless thyroiditis. It is concluded that the incidence of painless thyroiditis is markedly lower in the Philadelphia area than in the Midwest regions of the United States.

  2. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  3. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired

  4. EPA Funding to Temple University will help Revitalize Philadelphias North Kensington Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (March 27, 2015) Funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to Temple University will help plan for health, environmental and economic improvements for Philadelphia's Kensington area residents through the cleanup and reuse of brownf

  5. EPA Announces Excellence in Site Reuse Award for Philadelphia Freedom Valley YMCA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (October 9, 2015) - Today, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Mid-Atlantic Regional Administrator Shawn M. Garvin presented the Philadelphia Freedom Valley YMCA and its Vice President of Facilities, Michael Troupe, with a 2015 Excelle

  6. 75 FR 21386 - Philadelphia International Airport, Capacity Enhancement Program, Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ..., Environmental Impact Statement, Announcement of a Preferred Alternative AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... Alternative for the Philadelphia International Airport, Capacity ] Enhancement Program, Environmental Impact... the process of completing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Philadelphia...

  7. 76 FR 77669 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; North Philadelphia, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... airspace at Northeast Philadelphia Airport, North Philadelphia, PA, due to the closing of Willow Grove... reconfigured due to the closing of the Willow Grove Naval Air Station and Warminster NAWC. The boundary...

  8. 78 FR 14359 - Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Specialist-Tech Customer Service, Philadelphia, PA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Specialist-Tech Customer Service, Philadelphia, PA; Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc., Specialist-Tech Customer Service...-Tech Customer Service, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Verizon Business Networks Services,...

  9. 19th International Seapower Symposium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Derecho del Mar, or UNCLOS, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea], the sea convention that deals with drug trafficking and the protection of...framework for info sharing. Quite clearly, I think the maritime challenges today take all countries, working col- laboratively , to deal with [them...the region. Especially in this era of fiscal constraints, col- laborating with regional partners can enhance the overall capacity in the region by

  10. [Insanity, life crises and longing for a "real life". On the discussion of deviant behavior and mental disorders in psychiatry of the 19th and 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kanis-Seyfried, Uta

    On insanity, life crises and the longing for a "right life". A contribution to the discussion on the deviant behavior and mental disorders in the psychiatry of the 19th and 20th centuries using the example of patient stories. History of psychiatry, understood as social and cultural history, provides the framework for this micro-historical article. Using the example of three patients treated in Wuerttemberg or Baden psychiatric asylums between 1875 and 1912, the article focuses on the critical analysis of types of asylums, their practices of admissions, therapies and power relations between patients and staff. Ways of thinking and acting, subjective experiences and emotions are exemplified by patient records, personal testimonials and contemporary publications again by patients and staff. The article examines options of patients to influence the institutional daily asylum routine against the background of its complexity and dynamics. Borders, manipulations, malingering and querulous paranoia are at stake here. Furthermore, the article reflects various forms of social interaction with the power regulating therapeutic and disciplinary aspects against the backdrop of the "canons of rules" of the asylum as well as the contemporary political and legal framework.

  11. By their words ye shall know them: Evidence of genetic selection against general intelligence and concurrent environmental enrichment in vocabulary usage since the mid 19th century.

    PubMed

    Menie, Michael A Woodley Of; Fernandes, Heitor B F; José Figueredo, Aurelio; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    It has been theorized that declines in general intelligence (g) due to genetic selection stemming from the inverse association between completed fertility and IQ and the Flynn effect co-occur, with the effects of the latter being concentrated on less heritable non-g sources of intelligence variance. Evidence for this comes from the observation that 19th century populations were more intellectually productive, and also exhibited faster simple reaction times than modern ones, suggesting greater information-processing ability and therefore higher g. This co-occurrence model is tested via examination of historical changes in the utilization frequencies of words from the highly g-loaded WORDSUM test across 5.9 million texts spanning the period 1850-2005. Consistent with predictions, words with higher difficulties (δ parameters from Item Response Theory) and stronger negative correlations between pass rates and completed fertility declined in use over time whereas less difficult and less strongly selected words, increased in use over time, consistent with a Flynn effect stemming in part from the vocabulary enriching effects of increases in population literacy. These findings persisted when explicitly controlled for word age, changing literacy rates and temporal autocorrelation. These trends constitute compelling evidence for the co-occurrence model.

  12. Non-invasive and non-destructive micro-XRF and micro-Raman analysis of a decorative wallpaper from the beginning of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Pérez-Alonso, Maite; Rodríguez-Laso, María Dolores; Etxebarria, Nestor; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2007-02-01

    Non-destructive and non-invasive micro-Raman fibre optic and micro-XRF analyses were performed to study a wallpaper from the beginning of the 19th century. The complementarity of these two non-destructive techniques is shown in this work. The analysed artwork is considered one of the most beautiful wallpapers ever manufactured according to the catalogues and books; it is known as Chasse de Compiègne, manufactured by Jacquemart, Paris, in 1812. During the analysis, an unexpected pigment was detected by both analytical techniques: lead-tin yellow type II. This pigment was used until ca. 1750, when other yellow pigments replaced it, thus it is very difficult to find it in paintings afterwards. Together with this pigment, red lead, Prussian blue, brochantite, yellow iron oxide, calcium carbonate, vermilion, carbon black of animal origin (bone black), lead white, and raw and burnt sienna were also determined by combining the analytical information provided by both techniques. A possible degradation of brochantite to antlerite is also discussed.

  13. [Incurable disease in Spain during the 19th century. The Hospital para Hombres Incurables Nuestra Señora del Carmen].

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the State's assumption of medical care for patients with "permanent needs" in 19th century Spain. These patients were the incurably ill, the chronically ill and the elderly. This process is contextualized within the liberal reforms of the Spanish healthcare system in the reign of Isabel 11 (1833-1868). The goal of these reforms was the creation and consolidation of a national health system that would gradually replace the religious health charities. Healthcare reform became necessary due to the increase in migration that started in the 1830's and intensified in the 1850's. Traditional care networks formed by the family, local community and religious charities were no longer available to those who had left their village or town. In addition, many religious charities were bankrupted by the seizure of their properties in a programme of confiscation. Similar healthcare reform processes were taking place in the United Kingdom, France and Germany, among other European countries, and involved significant changes in the lives of patients, who became strictly controlled and medicalised. My aim was to identify changes in the patients' experience of illness through a case study of the living conditions of inmates at the Nuestra Señora del Carmen Hospital for Incurable Men, based in Madrid from 1852 to 1949. This was one of the institutions devoted to caring for patients with "permanent needs" and was under the direct control of the General State Administration.

  14. Structural and behavioural changes in the short term preventive check in the northwest Balkans in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Hammel, E A; Galloway, P R

    2000-03-01

    Fertility responded negatively to grain insufficiency (proxied by grain price increases), and mortality responded positively in Croatia-Slavonia-Srem in the 18th and 19th centuries, as in most of Europe. Shifts in the intensity and timing of these responses occurred over time as social and economic structures changed. Shifts in the elasticity of fertility with respect to grain supply inversely mimic and lag changes in the elasticity of mortality. Both appear to be induced by increasing land shortage, the collapse of feudalism, and differences in the patterns of adjustment to post-feudal conditions among former civil and military serfs. Generally, responses are stronger for civil and former civil serfs, who may have been in less favorable economic circumstances than the military. Fertility responses in the year of a price shock come to dominate those in the year following, suggesting a shift from contraception to abortion as economic and social conditions apparently worsened and strategies of control intensified. Analysis of monthly responses supports the conjecture based on the annual responses. The shift to the preventive check and strength of the preventive check in the same year as the price shock is unusual in Europe and beyond. Analysis is based on 25 parishes and employs lagged annual and monthly time series analysis with corrections for autocorrelation, in combination with ethnographic and historical data.

  15. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation.

  16. Understanding Edward Muybridge: historical review of behavioral alterations after a 19th-century head injury and their multifactorial influence on human life and culture.

    PubMed

    Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Alkhachroum, Ayham M; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro

    2015-07-01

    Edward Muybridge was an Anglo-American photographer, well known for his pioneering contributions in photography and his invention of the "zoopraxiscope," a forerunner of motion pictures. However, this 19th-century genius, with two original patents in photographic technology, made outstanding contributions in art and neurology alike, the latter being seldom acknowledged. A head injury that he sustained changed his behavior and artistic expression. The shift of his interests from animal motion photography to human locomotion and gait remains a pivotal milestone in our understanding of patterns in biomechanics and clinical neurology, while his own behavioral patterns, owing to an injury to the orbitofrontal cortex, remain a mystery even for cognitive neurologists. The behavioral changes he exhibited and the legal conundrum that followed, including a murder of which he was acquitted, all depict the complexities of his personality and impact of frontal lobe injuries. This article highlights the life journey of Muybridge, drawing parallels with Phineas Gage, whose penetrating head injury has been studied widely. The wide sojourn of Muybridge also illustrates the strong connections that he maintained with Stanford and Pennsylvania universities, which were later considered pinnacles of higher education on the two coasts of the United States.

  17. 77 FR 3545 - Receipt of Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review for Philadelphia International...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Noise Compatibility Program and Request for Review for Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia... Administration (FAA) announces that it is reviewing a proposed noise compatibility program that was submitted for Philadelphia International Airport under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47504 (the Aviation Safety and...

  18. South Philadelphia Passive Sampler and Sensor Study: Interim Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Starting in June 2013, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the City of Philadelphia Air Measurements Services began collaborative research on the use of passive samplers (PSs) and stand-alone air measurement (SAM) systems to improve information on the...

  19. Item Response Theory Modeling of the Philadelphia Naming Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Kellough, Stacey; Hula, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we investigated the fit of the Philadelphia Naming Test (PNT; Roach, Schwartz, Martin, Grewal, & Brecher, 1996) to an item-response-theory measurement model, estimated the precision of the resulting scores and item parameters, and provided a theoretical rationale for the interpretation of PNT overall scores by relating…

  20. The Library Company of Philadelphia: Historical Survey, Bibliography, Chronology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Martin H.

    1987-01-01

    Traces the history of the Library Company of Philadelphia, which was founded by Benjamin Franklin. Early book selection and scope of the collection, subsequent growth and development, and the various directors of the company are described. The bibliography includes publications of the Library Company and publications about the Library Company.…

  1. Systemwide Implementation of Project-Based Learning: The Philadelphia Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwalm, Jason; Tylek, Karen Smuck

    2012-01-01

    Citywide implementation of project-based learning highlights the benefits--and the challenges--of promoting exemplary practices across an entire out-of-school time (OST) network. In summer 2009, the City of Philadelphia and its intermediary, the Public Health Management Corporation (PHMC), introduced project-based learning to a network of more…

  2. Detail, turntable manufactured by the "Light Railway Equipment Company, Philadelphia, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, turntable manufactured by the "Light Railway Equipment Company, Philadelphia, Penna." This device turned seaplanes ninety degrees in their movement between storage in the hangars (to the left, out of view) and the Delaware River used for take-offs and landings. - Lazaretto Quarantine Station, Marine Aviation Hangars, Wanamaker Avenue and East Second Street, Essington, Delaware County, PA

  3. The politics of urban informality in Philadelphia's recovery house movement.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks II, Robert P

    2011-01-01

    There are some 60,000 vacant properties in the city of Philadelphia, 30,000 of which are abandoned row houses. In the neighbourhood of Kensington, street-level entrepreneurs have reconfigured hundreds of former working-class row homes to produce the Philadelphia recovery house movement: an extra-legal poverty survival strategy for addicts and alcoholics located in the city's poorest and most heavily blighted zones. The purpose of this paper is to explore, ethnographically, the ways in which informal poverty survival mechanisms articulate with the restructuring of the contemporary welfare state and the broader political economy of Philadelphia. It is argued that recovery house networks accommodate an interrelated set of political rationalities animated not only by retrenchment and the churning of welfare bodies, but also by the agency of informal operators and the politics of self-help. Working as an alternative and partially vestigial boundary institution or buffer zone to formal regimes of governance, the recovery house movement reflects the ‘other story’ of the new urban politics in Philadelphia.

  4. South Philadelphia Passive Sampler and Sensor Study - Interim Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Starting in the June 2013, the U.S. EPA and the City of Philadelphia Air Measurements Services (AMS) began a collaborative research project to investigate how sensor-based, stand-alone air measurements (SAMs) and passive samplers (PSs) can help improve information on air pollutan...

  5. Short-Form Philadelphia Naming Test: Rationale and Empirical Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To create two matched short forms of the Philadelphia Naming Test (PNT; Roach, Schwartz, Martin, Grewal, & Brecher, 1996) that yield similar results to the PNT for measuring anomia. Method: In Study 1, archived naming data from 94 individuals with aphasia were used to identify which PNT items should be included in the short forms. The 2…

  6. Renewing Schools: A Report on the Cluster Initiative in Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useem, Elizabeth L.

    From 1990 to 1993 PATHS/PRISM worked with five elementary schools and two middle schools in Philadelphia to try to bring about systemic change for schools serving low-income students. This Cluster Initiative attempted to achieve greater coordination of curriculum and instruction, to develop teacher-driven collegial processes, and to revamp school…

  7. Assessing Community College of Philadelphia: Student Outcomes and Improvement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This report examines the Community College of Philadelphia (CCP) and its effectiveness in helping Philadelphians attain higher education and marketable job skills. The study compares the college with three sets of similar institutions nationwide based on data from 2008 to 2013 and includes insights from the school's leaders, as well as local and…

  8. Actionable Intelligence about Early Childhood Risks in Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Barghaus, Katherine; Fantuzzo, John; Coe, Kristen; Brumley, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    "Early childhood risks" are markers of early childhood experiences that extensive research has shown to be detrimental to later academic and behavioral outcomes. In Philadelphia, evidence indicates that seven early childhood risks tracked by public agencies have negative effects on early school outcomes. These risks include low…

  9. Gratifications Lost: The 1985 Philadelphia Newspaper Strike and Media Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William R.; Rosenberg, William L.

    A study examined the relationship between newspaper gratifications sought and media use during and after a 1985 strike by unions of two Philadelphia newspapers, and the compensatory media behaviors, if any, people adopted to make up for the loss of their daily newspaper(s). It was hypothesized that during the strike, people would read more…

  10. Identity Performance and Collectivist Leadership in the Philadelphia Student Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Sonia M.

    2016-01-01

    Youth organizing work benefits young people in myriad ways, equipping them with the skills and dispositions to organize around the systemic inequities and policy decisions that threaten their communities. The findings from this life histories study in the Philadelphia Student Union (PSU) reveal that the organization's collectivist leadership model…

  11. Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative: 18 Month Interim Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Eva; Norton, Michael H.; Good, Deborah; Levin, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This report presents Year One (2010-11) school level achievement and attendance outcomes and case study findings from fall 2011 that focused on school leadership and instruction. Thirteen schools were included in the first year of Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative (2010-11). Of these schools: (1) Four K-8 schools were…

  12. The Future of Instructional Technology. Summary Report of the Lake Okoboji Educational Media Leadership Conference (19th Iowa Lakeside Laboratory, Lake Okoboji, Milford, Iowa, August 12-17, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Lida M., Ed.; Cochran, Lee W., Ed.

    A summary is provided of the proceedings of the 19th Lake Okoboji Educational Media Leadership Conference. The first section of the report presents a transcript of the conference's keynote address, which deals with projections, probes and problems of instructional technology in the future. Brief reviews of each of the general sessions are next…

  13. "Do Not Turn a Deaf Ear or a Blind Eye on Me, as I Am Your Son": New Conceptions of Childhood and Parenthood in 18th- and 19th-Century Jewish Letter-Writing Manuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogman, Tal

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the cultural functions of Hebrew letter-writing manuals published in German-speaking countries in the 18th and 19th centuries, aimed at young people. I argue that these books, which were used frequently as textbooks for studying Hebrew writing, conveyed modern ideological values and at the same time corresponded to the…

  14. Pacific Visions: Finding, Selecting, and Using Resources for Your Libraries, Archives, and Museums. Selected Papers from PIALA 2009, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (19th, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 19th annual conference was held in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2009 Planning…

  15. De Renatu Linguarum Antiquarum in Scholis Publicis Philadelphiae (On the Revival of Classical Languages in the Public Schools of Philadelphia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    1977-01-01

    The enrollment in Latin and Greek classes in the Philadelphia public schools has increased greatly in the last ten years. Courses are offered in elementary as well as secondary schools. An audiolingual approach is used. Available from Universitaet des Saarlandes, Fachbereich 6.2, D-6600 Saarbrueken, West Germany. (Text is in Latin.) (CFM)

  16. What Is Ag-Ed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Judy

    Ag-Ed is an agricultural education project aimed at upper primary students, held in conjunction with the Toowoomba Show (similar to a county fair) in Queensland, Australia. The program achieves its purpose of helping children understand the impact and relevance that agriculture has on their everyday lives through two components, an Ag-Ed day and a…

  17. Rebooting the EdD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wergin, Jon F.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Jon Wergin reminds readers of the philosophical and historical foundations of the doctor of education (EdD) degree. He argues that the EdD should be based, in large part, on John Dewey's progressive ideals of democratization and Paulo Freire's concepts of emancipatory education. Drawing on theories of reflective practice,…

  18. [Historical sketch of modern pharmaceutical science and technology (Part 3). From the second half of the 19th century to World War II].

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, K

    1995-01-01

    The history of modern pharmaceutical science and technology, from the second half of the 19th century to the end of World War II, is divided into nine sections for the purpose of discussion. 1. The European medical and pharmaceutical science and technology at the end of the 19th century is reviewed. Pharmacology, bacteriology and biochemistry were built in this period. 2. The Meiji Government accepted Western medicine and medical law and regulations in 1883. Consequently, the Japanese physician changed from Eastern (Kanpooi) to Western (Seiyooi). 3. Modern scientific and engineering education had been accepted in America, England, Germany, and France etc. Foreign scientists and engineers (Oyatoi-gai-kokujin) were educated by practice and theory. The Faculty of Engineering was established in the universities in Japan. This fact is one of the differences in the history of universities in Europe and America. 4. Pharmaceutical education in the Meiji period (1873-1911). Twenty-nine schools of pharmacy were built in this period. However, 20 schools of pharmacy had been closed. Pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry was not established in the Meiji era. 5. The profession of pharmacist in 1873-1944. The policy of medicine was changed by the Meiji Government in 1889, when Western physicians were allowed to prepare medicines for patients, and this practice continues today. Political and technological power of Japanese pharmacists was weak, so their role was not estimated. 6. Consequences of world War I, and the establishment of the pharmaceutical industry. The Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) and Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) were won fortunately. The first pharmaceutical company was established in 1885. At this times, many pharmaceutical manufacturing companies, which were converted from whole sale merchants, were built. Then started the manufacturing of commercial drugs. 7. Hygienic chemistry and some problems of public hygiene. The causes of diseses unique to Japan, such as

  19. Correction: Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and east Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Emma L; Jackson, Jennifer A; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time.

  20. Source parameters of the major historical earthquakes in the Tien-Shan region from the late 19th to the early 20th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikova, Galina; Krüger, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The Tien-Shan is one of the largest mountain belts in the world. Its deformation is dominated by intermontane basins bounded by active thrust and reverse faulting. The Tien-Shan mountain belt is characterized by a very high rate of seismicity along its margins as well as within the Tien-Shan interior. The study area of the here presented work, the western part of the Tien-Shan region, is currently seismically active with small and moderate sized earthquakes. However, at the end of 19th beginning of 20th century, this region was struck by a remarkable series of large magnitude (M>7) earthquakes, two of them reached magnitude 8. These large earthquakes occurred before the global digital seismic network was installed and therefore were recorded only by analog seismic instruments. The processing of the analog is complicated especially due to the digitization of the records - a very time-consuming and delicate part. Therefore a special set of techniques is developed and modern methods are adapted for the digitized instrumental data analysis. Here presented study evaluates the impact of large magnitude M>7.0 earthquakes, in the Tien-Shan region, on the overall regional tectonics. It also investigates the accuracy of previously estimated source parameters for those earthquakes, which were mainly based on macroseismic observations, and re-estimate them based on the instrumental data. Ten strongest and most interesting historical earthquakes in Tien-Shan region are analyzed with in presented work. With the developed techniques, the source parameters of these major earthquakes are determined and their impact on the regional tectonics was investigated. The large magnitudes of the earthquakes are confirmed by instrumental data. The focal mechanisms of these earthquakes were determined providing evidence for responsible faults or fault systems.

  1. Analysis of reporting quality for oral presentations of observational studies at 19th National Surgical Congress: Proposal for a national evaluation system

    PubMed Central

    Hasbahçeci, Mustafa; Başak, Fatih; Acar, Aylin; Şişik, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the quality of oral presentations presented at the 19th National Surgical Congress with a national evaluation system with respect to the applicability of systems, and consistency between systems and reviewers. Material and Methods Fifty randomly selected observational studies, which were blinded for author and institute information, were evaluated by using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies (STROBE), Timmer Score, and National Evaluation System by two reviewers. Abstract scores, evaluation periods, and compatibility between reviewers were compared for each evaluation system. Abstract scores by three different evaluation systems were regarded as the main outcome. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank and Friedman tests for comparison of scores and times, kappa analysis for compatibility between reviewers, and Spearman correlation for analysis of reviewers based on pairs of evaluation systems were used. Results There was no significant difference between abstract scores for each system (p>0.05). A significant difference for evaluation period of reviewers was detected for each system (p<0.05). Compatibility between reviewers was the highest for the Timmer Score (medium, κ=0.523), and the compatibility for STROBE and National Evaluation System was regarded as acceptable (κ=0.394 and κ=0.354, respectively). Assessment of reviewers for pairs of evaluation systems revealed that scores increased in the same direction with each other significantly (p<0.05). Conclusion The National Evaluation System is an appropriate method for evaluation of conference abstracts due to the consistent results between the referees similarly with the current international evaluation systems and ease of applicability with regard to evaluation period. PMID:28149124

  2. [A mere assistant, in every respect subordinate to the physician. Vicissitudes of emancipating 'heilgymnasten' in the Netherlands in the late 19th century].

    PubMed

    Terlouw, T J

    1994-01-01

    During the eighties of the 19th century several physical education teachers who were engaged in physical therapy activities, so called 'heilgynasten', believed that only a solid organization of serious, educated and well-trained heilgymnasten could bring about a positive change in the situation at hand in the field of physical therapy. On September 1st 1889 the 'Genootschap ter beoefening van de Heilgymnastiek in Nederland' ('Society for practising heilgymnastiek in the Netherlands') was founded. The main aim of its members was to establish a state-exam, a public trainingschool as well as to ensure proper legislation for this 'new' profession. In this paper the focus of attention is on the founding of the 'Genootschap' and the reactions it provoked from organizations and practitioners in the fields of physical education and medicine during the first years of its existance. One could say that at first the 'Genootschap' was tolerated. Several well-known Dutch physicians joined the 'Genootschap' as 'extraordinary-member'. Very soon however, some physicians came to see the activities of this organization as a threat to the process of differentiation and specialization in the field of orthopaedic surgery that had just began. They emphasized that the 'heilgymnasten' who worked relatively independent from physicians in the field of physical therapy had no legal status; in fact they argued that these practitioners were actually breaking the law. A solution to these problems was sought through law-suits against 'heilgymnasten' to ensure that they would only practise physical therapy under supervision of physicians. In a next article the plight of one of the Dutch 'heilgymnasten', Hendrik Soeter, who can be considered as a 'victim' of this strategy, will be discussed in more detail. The Dutch 'heilgymnasten' did finally gain a legal status for their profession, but they had to wait for that untill more than fifty years after the foundation of the 'Genootschap'.

  3. International Symposium on Neurotoxins in Neurobiology (4th) Held in Bath, United Kingdom on 19th-23rd September 1993. Speakers’ Abstracts 1-25

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Jorge H. Medina+ 0 *Instituto de Quimica y Fisiocoquimica Biologicas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica , Junin 956 (1113) and +Instituto de Biologia...Action", pp 6-67. Lunt. G.G. (Ed). Excerpta Medica . Elsevier, Amsterdam. 8. Jackson. H. and Usherwood. P.N.R. (1988). TINs, 11, 278-283. 0 "* 0 0 01 0

  4. EDS operator and control software

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, L.L.

    1985-04-01

    The Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to acquire, display and analyze large quantities of transient data for a real-time Advanced Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) experiment. Major topics discussed in this paper are the EDS operator interface (SHELL) program, the data acquisition and analysis scheduling software, and the graphics software. The workstation concept used in EDS, the software used to configure a user's workstation, and the ownership and management of a diagnostic are described. An EDS diagnostic is a combination of hardware and software designed to study specific aspects of the process. Overall system performance is discussed from the standpoint of scheduling techniques, evaluation tools, optimization techniques, and program-to-program communication methods. EDS is based on a data driven design which keeps the need to modify software to a minimum. This design requires a fast and reliable data base management system. A third party data base management product, Berkeley Software System Database, written explicitly for HP1000's, is used for all EDS data bases. All graphics is done with an in-house graphics product, Device Independent Graphics Library (DIGLIB). Examples of devices supported by DIGLIB are: Versatec printer/plotters, Raster Technologies Graphic Display Controllers, and HP terminals (HP264x and HP262x). The benefits derived by using HP hardware and software as well as obstacles imposed by the HP environment are presented in relation to EDS development and implementation.

  5. Demonstration Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting: Philadelphia, PA

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.; Tuenge, Jason R.; Poplawski, Michael E.

    2012-09-01

    For this demonstration assessment, 10 different groups of LED luminaires were installed at three sites in Philadelphia, PA. Each of the three sites represented a different set of conditions, most importantly with regard to the incumbent HPS luminaires, which were nominally 100 W, 150 W, and 250 W. The performance of each product was evaluated based on manufacturer data, illuminance calculations, field measurements of illuminance, and the subjective impressions of both regular and expert observers.

  6. The Visual Difficulties of Selected Artists and Limitations of Ophthalmological Care During The 19th and Early 20th Centuries (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Ravin, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of eye diseases on several important artists who have been given little attention from a medical-historical viewpoint. The examples chosen demonstrate problems artists have had to face from different types of eye disease, including cataract, glaucoma, and retinal diseases. The ophthalmological care provided is described in terms of scientific knowledge at the time. Methods Investigation of primary and secondary source material. Discussion with art historians and ophthalmic historians. Examination of work by the artists. Results Artists can be markedly affected by ocular diseases that change their ability to see the world. The individuals described here worked during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Homer Martin suffered from cataracts, and his works reveal changes in details and color as he aged. Henri Harpignies, who had an extremely long career, undoubtedly had cataracts and may also have had macular degeneration. Angle-closure glaucoma blinded Jules Chéret. Auguste Ravier suffered from neovascular glaucoma in one eye and was able to work with his remaining eye, which developed a cataract. Louis Valtat suffered from what was in all likelihood open-angle glaucoma, but specific changes due to this disease are not apparent in his work. Roger Bissière developed glaucoma and did well following filtration surgery. George Du Maurier lost one eye from what was probably a retinal detachment and later suffered from a central retinal problem in the other eye. Conclusions Diseases of the eye may profoundly influence artists by altering their perception of the world. The specific effects may vary, depending on the disease, its severity, and the psychology of the artist. Cataracts typically affect an artist’s ability to depict color and detail. The effect of glaucoma generally depends on whether central vision is preserved. Disease that affects the center of the retina has a substantial effect on an artist’s ability

  7. North Atlantic influence on 19th-20th century rainfall in the Dead Sea watershed, teleconnections with the Sahel, and implication for Holocene climate fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushnir, Yochanan; Stein, Mordechai

    2010-12-01

    The importance of understanding processes that govern the hydroclimate of the Mediterranean Basin is highlighted by the projected significant drying of the region in response to the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations. Here we study the long-term hydroclimatic variability of the central Levant region, situated in the eastern boundary of the Basin, as reveled by instrumental observations and the Holocene record of Dead Sea level variations. Observations of 19th and 20th century precipitation in the Dead Sea watershed region display a multidecadal, anti-phase relationship to North Atlantic (NAtl) sea surface temperature (SST) variability, such that when the NAtl is relatively cold, Jerusalem experiences higher than normal precipitation and vice versa. This association is underlined by a negative correlation to precipitation in the sub-Saharan Sahel and a positive correlation to precipitation in western North America, areas that are also affected by multidecadal NAtl SST variability. These observations are consistent with a broad range of Holocene hydroclimatic fluctuations from the epochal, to the millennial and centennial time scales, as displayed by the Dead Sea lake level, by lake levels in the Sahel, and by direct and indirect proxy indicators of NAtl SSTs. On the epochal time scale, the gradual cooling of NAtl SSTs throughout the Holocene in response to precession-driven reduction of summer insolation is associated with previously well-studied wet-to-dry transition in the Sahel and with a general increase in Dead Sea lake levels from low stands after the Younger Dryas to higher stands in the mid- to late-Holocene. On the millennial and centennial time scales there is also evidence for an anti-phase relationship between Holocene variations in the Dead Sea and Sahelian lake levels and with proxy indicators of NAtl SSTs. However the records are punctuated by abrupt lake-level drops, which appear to be in-phase and which occur during previously documented

  8. A model for the 19th century eruption of Eta Carinae: CSM interaction like a scaled-down Type IIn Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a simple model for the 19th century eruption of Eta Carinae that consists of two components: (1) a strong wind (dot{M}=0.33 M_{{odot }} yr-1; v∞ = 200 km s-1), blowing for 30 yr, followed by (2) a 1050 erg explosion (10 M⊙; 750-1000 km s-1) occurring in 1844. The ensuing collision between the fast ejecta and the dense circumstellar material (CSM) causes an increase in brightness observed at the end of 1844, followed by a sustained high-luminosity phase lasting for 10-15 yr that provides a close match to the observed historical light curve. The emergent luminosity is powered by converting kinetic energy to radiation through CSM interaction, analogous to the process occurring in more luminous Type IIn supernovae, except with ˜10 times lower explosion energy and at slower speeds (causing a longer duration and lower emergent luminosity). We demonstrate that such an explosive event not only provides a natural explanation for the light-curve evolution, but also accounts for a number of puzzling attributes of the highly scrutinized Homunculus, including: (1) rough equipartition of total radiated and kinetic energy in the event, (2) the double-shell structure of the Homunculus, with a thin massive outer shell (corresponding to the coasting cold dense shell) and a thicker inner layer (between the cold dense shell and the reverse shock), (3) the apparent single age and Hubble-like flow of the Homunculus resulting from the thin swept-up shell, (4) the complex mottled appearance of the polar lobes in Hubble Space Telescope images, arising naturally from Raleigh-Taylor or Vishniac instabilities at the contact discontinuity of the shock, (5) efficient and rapid dust formation, which has been observed in the post-shock zones of Type IIn supernovae, and (6) the fast (3000-5000 km s-1) material outside the Homunculus, arising from the acceleration of the forward shock upon exiting the dense CSM. In principle, the bipolar shape could be explained borrowing

  9. The Influence of The Geological and Geomorphological Settings On The Shallow Landslides Triggered During The 19th June, 1996 Heavy Rainfalls In Southern Apuan Alps (italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amato Avanzi, G.; Giannecchini, R.; Puccinelli, A.

    On June the 19th, 1996 many disastrous shallow landslides (nearly 700) occurred in the southern Apuan Alps (Tuscany, Italy) as a consequence of an exceptionally heavy rainstorm (474 mm/12 hours). Here, the results of the studies on the landslides oc- curred in the most severely damaged basins (Cardoso, Mulina and Turrite di Galli- cano torrents) are summarized. The most significant parameters of the landslides were analysed, to identify the factors which most influenced their activation. Moreover, the total amount of mobilized material was estimated. The most common type of landslide movement was complex, from very to extremely rapid, debris slide-debris flow, with a high length to breadth ratio. Most of them were probably first time landslides; ca. 90% of them involved the colluvium cover of slopes. The studies in the landslide sites also highlighted many geomorphically and geologically recurrent factors, summarized be- low. 85% of landslides occurred on rather steep slopes (30-45), in first-order basins and hollows. In these situations, the concave geometry of the colluvium/bedrock inter- face favoured the convergence of groundwater flow and the build-up of pore pressure, leading to failure. In landslide sites, a concave shape of the surface and a rectilinear profile of the slope were a frequent feature. The bedrock of landslide sites was gener- ally made up of impervious or scarcely pervious rocks. In many cases, the presence of a main discontinuity in the bedrock (bedding or schistosity) dipping downslope was significant. The total surface involved in landslides of June 19, 1996 was estimated at ca. 1 Km2, 2.2% of the basins surface. More than 80% of this surface was covered by chestnut trees: thus, ca. 7,000 chestnut trees were uprooted by the landslides and fell into the riverbeds. This significantly contributed to the extensive destruction and blockage of bridge spans. The total volume of mobilized material was estimated at ca. 1,350,000 m3: most of this

  10. Electronic Transfer of Information and Its Impact on Aerospace and Defence Research and Development. Proceedings of the Technical Information Panel Specialists’ Meeting Held in Brussels, Belgium on 17th-19th October 1989 Abstracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    INTRODUCTION 1 SUMMARIES OF PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS COMMENTS ON TECHNOLOGIES 13 RECOMMENDATIONS 15 p fl ton for DTIK TAs Ummnonn e a hJatirtca~io S...was heid from 17th- 19th October 1989 in Brussels, Belgium; and comments on the state of the art of the technologies presented, discusses their possible...introduction into scientific and technical organisations, and provides recommendations on the use of technologies with emphasis on the aerospace and

  11. Effects of Using a Neuroeducational Intervention to Enhance Perseverance for Online EdD and EdS Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadle, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Developing and maintaining a "completion mindset" is a necessary mental condition for online educational doctorate (EdD) and educational specialist (EdS) students to obtain their advanced degrees. The purpose of this research study was to examine the effect of a neuroeducational intervention on a volunteer convenience sample of EdD and…

  12. Geodiversity and biodiversity interactions in the sand landscapes of the Netherlands on 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter; van den Ancker, Hanneke

    2014-05-01

    Sand landscapes occupy about half of the territory of the Netherlands. Apart from an insignificant amount of Tertiary deposits, these sands are of Pleistocene and Holocene age. They include Saalian push moraines, Weichselian cover sands and Holocene drift sands. To these geological landscapes, cultural variants should be added such as the essen, i.e. a landscape with plaggen soils, and reclaimed lands (e.g. former moors). Not included are the coastal sands, which we dealt with in an earlier EGU contribution (van den Ancker & Jungerius 2012). Nature and man created a wide variety of sceneries that inspired painters in the 19th and early 20th century (Jungerius et al. 2012). Painter communities on the sandy soils flourished in Oosterbeek/Wolfheze, Laren/Blaricum, Nijkerk, Nunspeet/Elspeet, Hattem and Heeze. Many of the landscape paintings are found in the database of Simonis en Buunk that can be freely consulted on line (http//www.simonis&buunk.com). For this presentation we selected specimens that show geodiversity-biodiversity relationships, some of which have changed since. Painters of push moraines were attracted by the rolling terrain, the dry valleys and occasionally the colourful podzol soil profiles. Popular themes in the cover sands were the undulating relief and heathlands with herds of sheep, sandy footpaths and country roads with erosion phenomena. The dynamics of erosion captivated the painters of Holocene drift sand scenery, as did the bare fields of cultivated lands. Their paintings show the rural areas that since the beginning of the 20th century lost their traditional charm in large-scale re-allotment schemes and artificial nature-building project, that changed geodiversity-biodiversity relationships. Changes in the sandy terrains that can be inferred from the paintings are on a landscape scale, the scale of the landform and vegetation type, and are illustrated by changes in colour, pattern, structure and texture. Examples are: · active drift sands

  13. The Recovery Act is "Lighting Up" the streets of Philadelphia

    ScienceCinema

    Nutter, Michael; Gajewski, Katherine; Russell, Toby; Williams, Doug; Best, DeLain

    2016-07-12

    The Philadelphia Streets Department is converting 58,000 yellow and green traffic signals and will replace approximately 27,000 red LED lights that have come to the end of their useful life. The project will use approximately $3 million in EECBG funds, matched with $3 million in PECO funding, and will save the city approximately $1 million in electric costs each year. For more information on Recovery Act projects funded by the Department of Energy in Pennsylvania: http://www.energy.gov/recovery/pa.htm

  14. The Recovery Act is "Lighting Up" the streets of Philadelphia

    SciTech Connect

    Nutter, Michael; Gajewski, Katherine; Russell, Toby; Williams, Doug; Best, DeLain

    2010-01-01

    The Philadelphia Streets Department is converting 58,000 yellow and green traffic signals and will replace approximately 27,000 red LED lights that have come to the end of their useful life. The project will use approximately $3 million in EECBG funds, matched with $3 million in PECO funding, and will save the city approximately $1 million in electric costs each year. For more information on Recovery Act projects funded by the Department of Energy in Pennsylvania: http://www.energy.gov/recovery/pa.htm

  15. Uncovering Clinical Features of De Novo Philadelphia Positive Myelodysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Armas, Aristides; Chen, Chen; Mims, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is cytogenetically heterogeneous and retains variable risk for acute myeloid leukemia transformation. Though not yet fully understood, there is an association between genetic abnormalities and defects in gene expression. The functional role for infrequent cytogenetic alteration remains unclear. An uncommon chromosomic abnormality is the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. Here, we report a patient with Ph+ MDS treated with low dose Dasatinib who achieved hematologic response for 7 months. In addition, we also examined the English literature on all de novo Ph + MDS cases between 1996 and 2015 to gain insight into clinical features and outcome. PMID:28321349

  16. Establishing a Physics mentoring Program for a Philadelphia Middle School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlack, J. T.; Wilson, A.; Harris, W.; White, A.; Mehta, S. S.; Ramdass, V.

    2010-03-01

    Our SPS chapter has established a regular physics mentoring program at Independence Charter Middle School located in Philadelphia, PA. Members visit the school on a bi-weekly basis and perform 1-2 hour, inquiry-based lecture demonstrations of physics phenomena that integrate with the science lessons of middle school students. At the end of the school year, a capstone activity in the form of a Rube Goldberg competition among the middle school students was held on the Drexel campus with Drexel faculty and graduate students participating as judges.

  17. Mitigating Higher Ed Cyber Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation we will discuss the many and varied cyber attacks that have recently occurred in the higher ed community. We will discuss the perpetrators, the victims, the impact and how these institutions have evolved to meet this threat. Mitigation techniques and defense strategies will be covered as will a discussion of effective security…

  18. Urban ecosystem services and decision making for a green Philadelphia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogan, Dianna M.; Shapiro, Carl D.; Karp, David N.; Wachter, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional approaches to urban development often do not account for, or recognize, the role of ecosystem services and the benefits these services provide to the health and well-being of city residents. Without such accounting, urban ecosystem services are likely to be degraded over time, with negative consequences for the sustainability of cities and the well-being of their residents (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005; Hirsch, 2008). On May 23, 2013, the Spatial Integration Laboratory for Urban Systems (SILUS), a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science and Decisions Center and the Wharton GIS Lab, convened a one-day symposium—Urban Ecosystem Services and Decision Making: A Green Philadelphia—at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to examine the role of green infrastructure in the environmental, economic, and social well-being of cities. Cosponsored by the USGS and the Penn Institute for Urban Research (Penn IUR), the symposium brought together policymakers, practitioners, and researchers from a range of disciplines to advance a research agenda on the use of science in public decision making to inform investment in green infrastructure and ecosystem services in urban areas. The city of Philadelphia has recently implemented a program designed to sustain urban ecosystem services and advance the use of green infrastructure. In 2009, the Philadelphia Mayor’s Office of Sustainability launched its Greenworks plan, establishing a citywide sustainability strategy. Major contributions towards its goals are being implemented in coordination with the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD). The Green City, Clean Waters initiative, the city’s nationally recognized stormwater management plan, was signed into action with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in April 2012. The plan outlines a 25-year strategy to use green infrastructure to protect and improve the city’s watershed. Widespread support for the

  19. How Students Are Leading Us: Youth Organizing and the Fight for Public Education in Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Jerusha; Rosen, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Philadelphia has a rich history of high school student activism, stretching back to 1967, when 3,500 Philadelphia students walked out of their schools, marched to the Board of Education, and demanded the addition of black history courses taught by black teachers, the removal of police from high schools, and an increase in the hiring of black…

  20. 33 CFR 165.T05-0511 - Safety Zone, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Philadelphia, PA. 165.T05-0511 Section 165.T05-0511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF...-0511 Safety Zone, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Delaware River in Chester, PA, inside a boundary encompassing all waters just...

  1. 75 FR 80568 - Proposed Modification of the Philadelphia, PA, Class B Airspace Area; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ..., PA. The name and phone number of the person to contact for further information has changed from that... Philadelphia, PA (75 FR 74127). The name and phone number of the person to contact for further information has... following correction: FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dennis Sweeney, Philadelphia ATCT/ TRACON, 15...

  2. A Tale of Two Cities: School Privatization in Philadelphia and Chester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maranto, Robert

    2005-01-01

    In August 2001, the state-run Control Board for the Chester-Upland School District awarded control of nine of their 10 schools to Edison Schools, with little opposition. In contrast, nearby Philadelphia fought state efforts to privatize schools. Finally, on July 31, 2002, the joint state-city Philadelphia School Reform Commission partially…

  3. 78 FR 76779 - Proposed Modification of the Philadelphia, PA, Class B Airspace Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...This action proposes to amend the description of Area G of the Philadelphia Class B airspace area to correct a design error that resulted in the Class B airspace being published 2.1 nautical miles (NM) larger on the southeast side of the area than intended. No other changes to the Philadelphia Class B airspace are being...

  4. Strengthening Career and Technical Education and 21st Century Skills in Philadelphia. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Youth Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In Spring 2007, the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation awarded funds to the Philadelphia Youth Network (PYN) to undertake an analysis of Career and Technical Education (CTE) in Philadelphia, and to make recommendations on how CTE and other forms of career-connected education could better align with high-wage/high-demand jobs in the regional…

  5. Addressing the Need for School Age Child Care: A Guide for Philadelphia Elementary School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintzer, Janet L.

    The Delaware Valley Child Care Council (DVCCC) developed this booklet to help Philadelphia school principals plan and develop privately run after-school centers in their schools. First, an executive summary documents the need for school-age day care nationwide and in the Philadelphia area. Section I offers guidance on planning a school-age child…

  6. Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools: A Report on Start up and Early Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Eva; Good, Deborah; Robertson-Kraft, Claire; Callahan, M. Kate

    2011-01-01

    In April 2009, Superintendent Arlene Ackerman announced her reform plan for the School District of Philadelphia (the District)--"Imagine 2014". Among other major initiatives, "Imagine 2014" laid the groundwork for Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative. The Renaissance Initiative, set to enter its second year in 2011-12,…

  7. Grow Your Own School Leaders: A Case Study of Principal Development in Philadelphia Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Education Collaborative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2004-05, the School District of Philadelphia (SDP) began a groundbreaking partnership with the Eli Broad Foundation to develop the Academy for Leadership in Philadelphia Schools (ALPS), one of several Broad-funded, alternative principal development programs initiated across the country. The ALPS effort was designed to respond to two challenges:…

  8. Philadelphia Youth Network Report for the Year Ending December 08: On the Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Youth Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This year's annual report of Philadelphia Youth Network (PYN) celebrates the continuing expansion of opportunities for high-quality education and career preparation available to Philadelphia youth. These opportunities--offered by an ever-growing set of partners and program providers--are present in neighborhoods and communities all across the…

  9. Assessment of soil-gas, soil, and water contamination at the former 19th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Soil gas, soil, and water were assessed for organic and inorganic constituents at the former 19th Street landfill at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from February to September 2010. Passive soil-gas samplers were analyzed to evaluate organic constituents in the hyporheic zone and flood plain of a creek and soil gas within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. Soil and water samples were analyzed to evaluate inorganic constituents in soil samples, and organic and inorganic constituents in the surface water of a creek adjacent to the landfill, respectively. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental constituent data to Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. The passive soil-gas samplers deployed in the water-saturated hyporheic zone and flood plain of the creek adjacent to the former landfill indicated the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and octane above method detection levels in groundwater beneath the creek bed and flood plain at all 12 soil-gas sampler locations. The TPH concentrations ranged from 51.4 to 81.4 micrograms per liter. Octane concentrations ranged from 1.78 to 2.63 micrograms per liter. These detections do not clearly identify specific source areas in the former landfill; moreover, detections of TPH and octane in a soil-gas sampler installed at a seep on the western bank of the creek indicated the potential for these constituents to be derived from source areas outside the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. A passive soil-gas sampler survey was conducted in the former landfill from June 30 to July 5, 2010, and involved 56 soil-gas samplers that were analyzed for petroleum and halogenated compounds not classified as chemical agents or explosives. The TPH soil-gas mass exceeded 2.0 micrograms in 21 samplers. Most noticeable are the two sites with TPH detections which are located in and near the hyporheic zone and are likely to affect

  10. Overview of Deployed EDS Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H E; Crawford, C

    2009-09-24

    The term explosive detection system (EDS) is used by the TSA to describe equipment that is certified to detect explosives in checked bags. The EDS, as certified, by the TSL must consist of device for interrogating a bag and an automated detection algorithm (ATD) for evaluating the results of the interrogation. We only consider CT as the interrogation device in this report. A schematic drawing of a CT-based EDS is shown in Figure 2. The output of the ATD is the binary decision of alarm or non-alarm. Alarms may true- or false-positives. Non-alarms may be true- or false-negatives. False positives are also denoted false alarms. The true detection means that the ATD reports an alarm when a threat is present in the scanned bag. The probability of detecting a threat given that a threat is present is denoted the probability of detection (PD). The probability of false alarm (PFA) is the case when an alarm is reported when a threat is not present in a bag. Certification in this context means passing tests for PD and PFA at the TSL. The results of the EDS include CT cross-sectional images of the bag and specifics about the alarmed objects generated by ATD. These results are presented on a display so that a person may override the decision of ATD and declare the alarm to be a non-alarm. This process is denoted clearing. Bags that are not cleared by the person are sent to a secondary inspection process. Here the bags may be opened or assessed with explosive trace detection (ETD) in order to clear the bags. Bags that are not cleared at this point are evaluated by an ordinance disposal team. The CT scanner along with ATD is denoted Level 1 screening. The process of clearing on a display is denoted Level 2 screening. Secondary inspection is denoted Level 3 screening. Vendors of the deployed EDSs supply the TSA with equipment for all three levels. Therefore, the term EDS may include the equipment provided for Levels 1, 2 and 3. A schematic diagram of an EDS and the levels of

  11. Health assessment for Publicker Industries Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, Region 3. CERCLIS No. PAD981939200. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-12

    The Publicker Industries, Inc. (Publicker) site is on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List. Publicker is located in Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. About 3,500 persons reside within 1 mile of Publicker. The area surrounding Publicker is primarily industrial. Across the Delaware River in New Jersey, ground water is used by several community water systems to supply about 100,000 persons with potable water. Based on the information reviewed, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has concluded that this site is of public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible fire or explosion at the site. This site is also a potential public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. As noted in the Human Exposure Pathways Section, human exposure to organic chemical contaminants may occur via ingestion of, inhalation of, and dermal contact with soils, ground water, sediments, and air. Additional information is needed to evaluate more fully the releases, migration, and resulting levels of contaminants at points of potential human exposure.

  12. [The patent of Dr. Thibert: models of organs and his secret modeling at the beginning of the 19th century. Analysis of the stomach model (a8n°8) at the Conservatory of Montpellier].

    PubMed

    Noirot, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    In the early 19th century, Dr. Thibert discovered a process to overcome the difficulties of casting soft and moist organs. However, the analysis of a stomach made by Thibert reveals a modeling, changing the strict mechanical objectivity of the cast. This modeling inside the cast named "reparation" structures the illusionism of this cast. The scientific and artistic aspect of this study is to establish the typology of a secret modeling. This last one is the inheritance of the tricks of the mediocritas: between material and matter, so valuable for the goldsmiths of the 16th century.

  13. Introduction to the special issue on the joint meeting of the 19th IEEE International Symposium on the Applications of Ferroelectrics and the 10th European Conference on the Applications of Polar Dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Tsurumi, Takaaki

    2011-09-01

    The joint meeting of the 19th IEEE International Symposium on the Applications of Ferroelectrics and the 10th European Conference on the Applications of Polar Dielectrics took place in Edinburgh from August 9-12, 2010. The conference was attended by 390 delegates from more than 40 different countries. There were 4 plenary speakers, 56 invited speakers, and a further 222 contributed oral presentations in 7 parallel session. In addition there were 215 poster presentations. Key topics addressed at the conference included piezoelectric materials, leadfree piezoelectrics, and multiferroics.

  14. [Problems arising from the professionalization of nursing in the German Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century compared to the USA. A contribution to the current discussion].

    PubMed

    Hähner-Rombach, Sylvelyn

    2012-01-01

    The process of professionalization in Germany was hindered by several factors: the tradition of denominational nursing, the increasing segregation in the field of nursing, the resistance against nurses' professionalization, the late and sporadic institutionalization of nursing schools, and the classification of nursing as "ärztlicher Heilhilfsberuf". On the basis of these five influencing factors this paper will discuss the development in Germany in comparison to the USA at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The aim is to explain the differences in the process of professionalization in the German Reich and the USA which are rooted in that period.

  15. Mesoscale wetfall chemistry around Philadelphia during frontal storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrinos, A. A. N.; Brown, R. M.

    Preliminary results from a mesoscale "acid rain" study are presented. The study concentrates on precipitation-event sampling at a network of ˜40 stations located between 20 km and 60 km from the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, with the goal of establishing the contribution of local emissions to the total ionic wet deposition load and of determining the spatial variability of this deposition on the suburban-rural scale. Two storms associated with weak warm fronts and displaying similar meteorological features were sampled successfully. For the first, urban emissions appear to have significantly affected the deposition of several inorganic ionic species, most notably NO3- no effect was evident for the second storm. A possible explanation of the apparent contrast is given in terms of the weekday-weekend emissions variability. A sampling density of approximately one collector per 200 to 300 km² appears adequate for both storms.

  16. Learning From Philadelphia: Topographies of HIV/AIDS Media Assemblages.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    For this contribution to the special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," the author employs an array of public health and popular media texts (especially Jonathan Demme's film Philadelphia) to challenge the construction and reconstruction of HIV-positive bodies as sites of bioethical concern. In outlining notions of "digital restoration," the author argues that there has been of late a remapping of the first decade of the HIV/AIDS pandemic through media projects assembled from archived materials. Accordingly, the author suggests that in the first decades of the 2000s, we have witnessed a media-archaeological turn, whereby old materials have been reassembled for commemorative purposes that oftentimes perform a reshaping of the topography of the first decade of the AIDS pandemic.

  17. Geophysical investigation at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. Final report,

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, M.K.

    1992-03-01

    Results of a geophysical investigation at the incinerator site of Philadelphia Naval Shipyard are presented. Following the end of World War II, 50 to 60 pallets of gas cylinders were reportedly buried to the west of the old incinerator at Girard Point. The contents of the cylinders are unknown. Extensive filling operations occurred at Girard Point from 1940 to 1970, resulting in shallow groundwater surface in the area, 2 to 10 ft deep, which would indicate that the cylinders are probably in direct contact with the water surface. The geophysical investigation presented in this report was designed to help alleviate uncertainties produced from previous studies in the area. The geophysical program included electromagnetic induction and magnetic survey methods. The results of the various surveys were integrated, and numerous anomalous areas were interpreted. Anomalies warranting further investigation were presented along with a priority ranking.

  18. Reverse engineering course at Philadelphia University in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bani Younis, M.; Tutunji, T.

    2012-03-01

    Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of testing and analysing a system or a device in order to identify, understand and document its functionality. RE is an efficient tool in industrial benchmarking where competitors' products are dissected and evaluated for performance and costs. RE can play an important role in the re-configuration and redesign of legacy and/or undocumented systems. It can also play a key role in helping students understand engineering products. This paper presents the Philadelphia University experience in constructing a RE course and integrating it within the engineering curricula. This paper can be used as a guide to other universities that wish to introduce RE to their curricula. The information provided in this paper covers the RE methodology for a system level, as well as mechanical, electronics and software levels. Finally, samples of student projects are presented in order to show the learning capabilities provided throughout the course.

  19. Temperature of ground water at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1979- 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulachok, Gary N.

    1986-01-01

    Anthropogenic heat production has undoubtedly caused increased ground-water temperatures in many parts of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as shown by temperatures of 98 samples and logs of 40 wells measured during 1979-81. Most sample temperatures were higher than 12.6 degrees Celsius (the local mean annual air temperature), and many logs depict cooling trends with depth (anomalous gradients). Heating of surface and shallow-subsurface materials has likely caused the elevated temperatures and anomalous gradients. Solar radiation on widespread concrete and asphalt surfaces, fossil-fuel combustion, and radiant losses from buried pipelines containing steam and process chemicals are believed to be the chief sources of heat. Some heat from these and other sources is transferred to deeper zones, mainly by conduction. Temperatures in densely urbanized areas are commonly highest directly beneath the land surface and decrease progressively with depth. Temperatures in sparsely urbanized areas generally follow the natural geothermal gradient and increase downward at about that same rate.

  20. Characterisation of the rare cadmium chromate pigment in a 19th century tube colour by Raman, FTIR, X-ray and EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Marie Bitsch; Sørensen, Mikkel Agerbæk; Sanyova, Jana; Bendix, Jesper; Simonsen, Kim Pilkjær

    2017-03-01

    In an investigation of the artists' materials used by P. S. Krøyer the contents of the tube colours found in Krøyer's painting cabinet were examined. In most cases, the results of the pigment analyses were as expected based on our knowledge of artists' colours used in the late 1800s and early 1900s. However, in one of the tube colours labelled "Jaune de Cadmium Citron" (cadmium lemon yellow) an extremely rare cadmium chromate pigment was found. The pigment was analysed and characterised by Raman microscopy (MRS), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Cadmium chromate was synthesised by precipitation from an aqueous solution of cadmium nitrate and potassium chromate, and the resulting yellow crystals proved identical to the pigment found in the tube colour "Jaune de Cadmium Citron". The structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction identified the pigment as 2CdCrO4·KOH·H2O or more accurately as KCd2(CrO4)2(H3O2) illustrating the μ-H3O2- species. The yellow colour of the paint sample taken from the tube had a greenish hue, which became even more prominent upon storage and drying. EPR analysis of the sample showed the presence of paramagnetic degradation products containing Cr(III) and Cr(V).

  1. Real time analysis under EDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    The analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis.

  2. Real time analysis under EDS

    SciTech Connect

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes the analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis. Each of these components are described with an emphasis upon how each contributes to overall system capability. 3 figs.

  3. PREFACE: Special issue: Proceedings of the Joint 19th AIRAPT and 41st EHPRG International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology (Bordeaux, 7--11 July 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demazeau, Gérard

    2004-04-01

    This volume is the outcome of a three-day meeting held 7-10 August, 2004 in St Adèle, Québec honouring Michael F Thorpe, Foundation Professor of Physics, Chemistry and Biophysics at Arizona State University. Michael Thorpe has made many important contributions to condensed matter physics, broadly defined. From the famous Weaire and Thorpe Hamiltonian in 1971 [1] to rigidity percolation theory [2] and flexibility in proteins [3], he has always provided highly original solutions to difficult problems. He has also demonstrated an uncommon gift for selecting and solving problems of remarkably broad significance (for example, rigidity theory is now a powerful tool in glasses, microelectronics and proteins). Throughout his career, Mike has also made a point of establishing contact with scientists from all disciplines and origins, organizing tens of conferences and maintaining a very active visitor's program both at Michigan State University, where he spent 25 years, and, now, at Arizona State University, where he moved a year ago. It is therefore not surprising that the participants, all with scientific or personal links with Mike, usually both, came from Europe, Asia and North America to celebrate the 60th birthday of an eminent physicist and friend. Reflecting the impact of Mike's work across the traditional scientific boundaries, the meeting included contributions ranging from studies of concrete by Ed Garboczi (NIST), a hybrid VCA/CPA treatment of the Hubbard model presented by Sir Roger Elliott (Oxford) to the assembly process of viral capsids by Brandon Hespenheide (ASU). Especially memorable talks were given by Rafael Barrio (with his photogenic striped imperial fish), Alex Kolobov (presenting impressive scientific results using equally impressive computer graphics), and Dick Zallen, for a remarkably good `roast' of the honoree and work with his daughter (a molecular biologist) on biophysics. The meeting had an unusual warmth befitting the birthday celebration

  4. The Impacts of Advancing Glaciers and Jökulhlaups on the 19th Century Farming Community in the Suðursveit District South of Vatnajökull Glacier, Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurmundsson, F. S.; Gísladóttir, G.; Erlendsson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Few areas in Iceland were as vulnerable to climate changes during the 19th century as the region south of Vatnajökull glacier. The region was repeatedly affected by glacier advance and jökulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) during the Little Ice Age AD 1300-1900 (LIA). The land area between the glacier and the coast was occupied by farming community. The aim of this research is to quantify and map the size of lost vegetated area in the 19th century during the glacial advance in the climax of the LIA and the impact these events had on the community, land-use, ownership, value of estates and livelihood. This research employs historical written sources to investigate changes in the cultural and natural landscape. Historical data and field observations will be collected and stored in a GIS database designed for the research, allowing data to be analyzed and presented on maps. The first recorded impact on the settlement is from 1794 when the Breiðármerkurjökull outlet glacier advanced and devastated pastures and crofts belonging in west of the district. Seventy five years later, in 1868, the largest estate was completely destroyed by a jökulhlaup. In 1829 a farm site in the middle of the district was moved due to repeated jökulhlaup. The outlet glacier Brókarjökull initiated annual jökulhlaups during 1820 -1870, devastating pastures and hayfields and woodlands of a total of 3 prominent estates in the area (by 1200 ha), causing devaluation of 33-66% on these estates. In the eastern part extensive jökulhlaups changed the glacial river channel causing the river to flow over vast area devastating 80 % of the eastern most estate causing its abandonment in 1892. The climate change and accompanied hazards during the 19th century changed the landscape of the Suðursveit district significantly. By the turn of the 20thcentury the vegetated land in the district had been reduced by 35% and areas of sediments increased by 25% and glaciated area increased by 10%. These

  5. Using Local History To Understand National Themes: The Yellow Fever Epidemic in Philadelphia in 1793.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbury, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information for a local history project about the 1793 Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) yellow fever outbreak. Offers potential project topics to help students learn about local history and understand life in the eighteenth century United States. (CMK)

  6. 76 FR 49383 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; North Philadelphia, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Airport, North Philadelphia, PA, due to the closing of Willow Grove Naval Air Station and Warminster NAWC... due to the closing of Willow Grove Naval Air Station and Warminster NAWC. Class D and Class E...

  7. Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Philadelphia Housing Authority Energy-Efficiency Turnover Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    2016-02-24

    The Philadelphia Housing Authority worked with the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America Program to integrate energy-efficiency measures into the refurbishment process that each unit normally goes through between occupancies.

  8. The origins of American physical anthropology in Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Mann, Alan

    2009-01-01

    With its location on a river with easy access to the sea, its central placement between the English speaking colonies to the north and south and its trading connections with the western frontier, there were many reasons Philadelphia became one of the most important towns of prerevolutionary America. In the early 1770s, it was the site of the first meeting organized to deal with the perceived inequities of the British government toward the colonies. It was where Thomas Jefferson wrote much of the Declaration of Independence, whose soaring statements reflecting the Age of Enlightenment spoke of the equality of all men. It was to this debate, centered on just who was included in this declaration that the origins of physical anthropology in America can be traced. Notable men in the early phases of this disputation included Samuel Stanhope Smith and especially Samuel George Morton, considered the founder of American physical anthropology. The American School of Anthropology, which argued for the polygenic origins of human races was substantially founded on Morton's work. Recent accusations that Morton manipulated data to support his racist views would appear unfounded. The publication of The Origin of Species in 1859 and the issuing of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1862-63 effectively ended the earlier debates. By the time of the American Civil War, 1861-65, physical anthropology was beginning to explore other topics including growth and development and anthropometry.

  9. Geohydrology and ground-water resources of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulachok, Gary N.

    1991-01-01

    The aquifers underlying the 134.6-square-mile city of Philadelphia are divided by the Fall Line into the unconsolidated aquifers (chiefly sand and gravel) of the Coastal Plain and the consolidated-rock aquifers (chiefly schist of the Wissahickon Formation) of the Piedmont. Ground water is present under confined and unconfined conditions. The principal units of the confined-aquifer system are the lower and middle sands of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system. The lower sand unit is the most productive aquifer in Philadelphia. The median yield of wells screened in the lower sand unit is 275 gal/min (gallons per minute), and yields of some wells are as high as 1,350 gal/min. The median specific capacity is 16 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot of drawdown). The principal units of the unconsolidated unconfined-aquifer system are the upper sand unit of the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system and the informally named Trenton gravel. The median yield of wells tapping these two undifferentiated units is 90 gal/min, and yields of some wells are as high as 1,370 gal/min. The median specific capacity is 12 (gal/min)/ft. The consolidated unconfined-aquifer system consists mainly of the Wissahickon Formation. The median yield of nondomestic wells that tap the Wissahickon Formation is 45 gal/min, and yields are as high as 350 gal/min. The median specific capacity is 0.5 (gal/min)/ft. Urbanization has considerably modified the hydrologic cycle in Philadelphia. Impervious surfaces have reduced recharge areas and evapotranspiration and have increased direct runoff. Leakage from the water-distribution system, which is supplied from the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, was about 60 to 72 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) in 1980. Groundwater infiltration to sewers is estimated to be as much as 135 Mgal/d when the water table is high. The potentiometric surface of the lower sand unit has been lowered substantially by pumping. By 1954, cones of depression were more than

  10. Philadelphia Electric Company's computer replacement lessons learned at Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.M.; O'Hara, J.

    1989-01-01

    The current regulatory climate continues to prod today's nuclear utilities toward safer and more reliable operation of their plants. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission guides NUREG-0660, NUREG-0696, and Supplement I to NUREG-0737 have all set forth increased requirements for plant monitoring. In response, the industry has looked at their existing plant computer systems as targets for enhancement or upgrade. This external pressure is nearly matched by the increasing demands made on existing computer systems by utility engineering and operations departments. The longer utilities postpone this evolution, the more likely they are to replace the entire system rather than upgrade the existing one. The older systems become harder to maintain and eventually are technically inferior to new systems, which have benefited from advances in computer technology in recent years. Enhancements become less economically advantageous than system replacements as the spread in technology widens. The object of this paper is to describe the Plant Process Computer Replacement Project at Philadelphia Electric Company's (PECo's) Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This paper explores (a) the impact on the plant, (b) the design and engineering services required, and (c) the planning and communication essential to a successful computer replacement project.

  11. [Is medicine an art or a science?--considerations in the light of Polish school of medicine philosophy and views of other European doctors from the beginning of 19th century till outbreak of the Second World War"].

    PubMed

    Gryglewski, Ryszard W

    2006-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the problem of real nature of medicine, as it was seen in Polish school of the philosophy of the medicine. Is medicine more (or only) science, or is it an art was the crucial point of discussion, which was held in European philosophy of the medicine for the first time in late 19th century. The important voice in it was given by Polish scientists such as Zygmunt Kramsztyk, Henryk Nusbaum, Władysław Biegański, Edmund Biernacki, Władyslaw Szumowski and Ludwik Zembrzuski. How they understood place and meaning of medicine in the realm of human activities, in which points they found the same grounds and in which they differed, should be seen as the main topic for this article.

  12. "He Says You're Going To Play the Giant": Ethnographic Perspectives on a Cambodian Arts Class in Philadelphia. Philadelphia Folklore Project Working Papers #8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerman, William

    This project began when the Philadelphia Folklore Project (PFP) initiated a residency partnership with the Samuel S. Fleisher Art Memorial in traditional Cambodian arts. The PFP anticipated raising issues that might help in the understanding of the cultural dynamics and elements that were likely to shape and effect the residency. The PFP imagined…

  13. Modeling epilepsy disparities among ethnic groups in Philadelphia, PA

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David C.; Waller, Lance A.; Elliott, John O.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defined epilepsy as an emerging public health issue in a recent report and emphasized the importance of epilepsy studies in minorities and people of low socioeconomic status. Previous research has suggested that the incidence rate for epilepsy is positively associated with various measures of social and economic disadvantage. In response, we utilize hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze health disparities in epilepsy and seizure risks among multiple ethnicities in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The goals of the analysis are to highlight any overall significant disparities in epilepsy risks between the populations of Caucasians, African Americans, and Hispanics in the study area during the years 2002–2004 and to visualize the spatial pattern of epilepsy risks by ethnicity to indicate where certain ethnic populations were most adversely affected by epilepsy within the study area. Results of the Bayesian model indicate that Hispanics have the highest epilepsy risk overall, followed by African Americans, and then Caucasians. There are significant increases in relative risk for both African Americans and Hispanics when compared with Caucasians, as indicated by the posterior mean estimates of 2.09 with a 95 per cent credible interval of (1.67, 2.62) for African Americans and 2.97 with a 95 per cent credible interval of (2.37, 3.71) for Hispanics. Results also demonstrate that using a Bayesian analysis in combination with geographic information system (GIS) technology can reveal spatial patterns in patient data and highlight areas of disparity in epilepsy risk among subgroups of the population. PMID:18381676

  14. Increased mortality in Philadelphia associated with daily air pollution concentrations.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J; Dockery, D W

    1992-03-01

    Cause-specific deaths by day for the years 1973 to 1980 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, were extracted from National Center for Health Statistics mortality tapes. Death from accidents (International Classification of Disease, Revision 9 greater than or equal to 800) and deaths outside of the city were excluded. Daily counts of deaths were regressed using Poisson regression on total suspended particulate (TSP) and/or SO2 on the same day and on the preceding day, controlling for year, season, temperature, and humidity. A significant positive association was found between total mortality (mean of 48 deaths/day) and both TSP (second highest daily mean, 222 micrograms/m3) and SO2 (second highest daily mean, 299 micrograms/m3). The strongest associations were found with the mean pollution of the current and the preceding days. Total mortality was estimated to increase by 7% (95% CI, 4 to 10%) with each 100-micrograms/m3 increase in TSP, and 5% (95% CI, 3 to 7%) with each 100-micrograms/m3 increase in SO2. When both pollutants were considered simultaneously, the SO2 association was no longer significant. Mortality increased monotonically with TSP. The effect of 100 micrograms/m3 TSP was stronger in subjects older than 65 yr of age (10% increase) compared with those younger than 65 yr of age (3% increase). Cause-specific mortality was also associated with a 100-micrograms/m3 increase in TSP: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICD9 490-496), +19% (95% CI, 0 to 42%), pneumonia (ICD9 480-486 & 507), +11% (95% CI, -3 to +27%), and cardiovascular disease (ICD9 390-448), +10% (95% CI, 6 to 14%). These results are somewhat higher than previously reported associations, and they add to the body of evidence showing that particulate pollution is associated with increased daily mortality at current levels in the United States.

  15. Reptile neoplasia at the Philadelphia Zoological Garden, 1901-2002.

    PubMed

    Sykes, John M; Trupkiewicz, John G

    2006-03-01

    A retrospective study of neoplasia in reptiles held at the Philadelphia Zoological Garden was conducted. A total of 3,684 original necropsy reports for the period 1901-2002 were reviewed and revealed 86 cases of neoplasia. Original glass slides or re-cuts from paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were examined for confirmation of the original diagnosis. At necropsy, a total of six neoplasms were identified in six of 490 chelonians (1.2%), 22 neoplasms in 19 of 736 lizards (3.0%), and 58 neoplasms in 53 of 1,835 snakes (2.9%). An additional 12 neoplasms were found in biopsies of one turtle and 10 snakes. In the chelonians, all the neoplasms were seen in turtles, four of six tumors were malignant (66%) and no organ predilection was noted. For lizards, the liver was the most commonly affected organ, with 7 of 22 primary neoplasms (31%). Multiple tumor types were identified in three lizards (15%), metastasis occurred in five cases (25%), and malignant tumors were identified in 16 cases (73%). In snakes, the liver was most frequently affected by neoplasia at necropsy, with 13 of 58 primary neoplasms (22%); multiple types of neoplasm were identified in five cases (10%) and metastasis in six (9%); and 42 tumors (80%) were diagnosed as malignant. When biopsies were included for snakes, however, the skin was the most commonly affected organ, with 17 of 69 neoplasms (24%). One of five lizards (20%) and four of six snakes (66%) with metastasis also had a second primary neoplasm. Since 1967, the incidence of lizard neoplasia has increased from 0.7% to 5.9%, and snake neoplasia has increased from 2.6% to 9.3%.

  16. Diversity of breakpoints of variant Philadelphia chromosomes in chronic myeloid leukemia in Brazilian patients

    PubMed Central

    Chauffaille, Maria de Lourdes Lopes Ferrari; Bandeira, Ana Carolina de Almeida; da Silva, Aline Schiavoni Guarnieri

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic myeloid leukemia is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by the Philadelphia chromosome or t(9;22)(q34.1;q11.2), resulting in the break-point cluster region-Abelson tyrosine kinase fusion gene, which encodes a constitutively active tyrosine kinase protein. The Philadelphia chromosome is detected by karyotyping in around 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia patients, but 5–10% may have variant types. Variant Philadelphia chromosomes are characterized by the involvement of another chromosome in addition to chromosome 9 or 22. It can be a simple type of variant when one other chromosome is involved, or complex, in which two or more chromosomes take part in the translocation. Few studies have reported the incidence of variant Philadelphia chromosomes or the breakpoints involved among Brazilian chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Objective The aim of this report is to describe the diversity of the variant Philadelphia chromosomes found and highlight some interesting breakpoint candidates for further studies. Methods the Cytogenetics Section Database was searched for all cases with diagnoses of chronic myeloid leukemia during a 12-year period and all the variant Philadelphia chromosomes were listed. Results Fifty (5.17%) cases out of 1071 Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid leukemia were variants. The most frequently involved chromosome was 17, followed by chromosomes: 1, 20, 6, 11, 2, 10, 12 and 15. Conclusion Among all the breakpoints seen in this survey, six had previously been described: 11p15, 14q32, 15q11.2, 16p13.1, 17p13 and 17q21. The fact that some regions get more frequently involved in such rare rearrangements calls attention to possible predisposition that should be further studied. Nevertheless, the pathological implication of these variants remains unclear. PMID:25638762

  17. Perspective: Academic obstetrics-gynecology departments in the city of Philadelphia: are the wheels coming off?

    PubMed

    Croft, Damien J

    2011-03-01

    Maternity care in Philadelphia is in an unprecedented and precarious situation, as all the community hospitals that once provided maternity care services have either closed completely or stopped providing maternity services. Six academic medical centers (AMCs) in the city of Philadelphia now provide care to a population of 1.5 million requiring increasingly complex and expensive maternity care, at the same time as insurance premiums and the malpractice crisis in Pennsylvania peaked. The AMCs are able to continue providing maternity care to this population that includes a large proportion of poor, minority, and un- or underinsured patients thanks to government subsidization of resident education, the services provided by resident physicians, and the influx of government and industry research funds, but the financial outlook of academic obstetrics-gynecology departments in this city is dire. Obstetric academic medicine in Philadelphia has come to more closely resemble a "big wheel" tricycle than Flexner's "three-legged stool." Clinical medicine is the driver (the large front wheel and pedal) pulling along education and research, the two smaller wheels in the back. A maternity care alliance is needed in Philadelphia allowing area AMCs to pool and trade resources, reduce costs, improve quality and innovation, and share risks. Philadelphia may serve as an early warning for other cities and AMCs around the country and has the opportunity to serve as a model for how to overcome these serious challenges.

  18. Annual AFOSR Chemistry Program Review (19th)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-01-01

    organomercury compounds. Through decomposition of C6HsHgCX 2 Cl (where X is chlorine, fluorine or bromine) he has obtained CX 2 intermediates which add...34Ground States of -bonded Molecules. XVII. Fluorine Compounds," M. J. S. Dewar and D. H. Lo, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 94, 15, 5296 (1972). "Ground...B. T. Nakata, and J. D. Park, J. Fluorine Chem., 1, 235 (1971). "Free-Radical Reactions of Silanes with 1,2-Dihalopolyfluorocycloalkenes," J. D. Park

  19. 19th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2008-01-01

    The construction of residence hall facilities at colleges and universities continues to be strong, as institutions scramble to meet the housing needs and varied demands of a growing student population. This article presents data collected from 39 new residence hall projects completed in 2007. According to American School & University's 19th…

  20. Mechanical Ventilation and ARDS in the ED

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Nicholas M.; Miller, Christopher N.; Deitchman, Andrew R.; Castagno, Nicole; Hassebroek, Elizabeth C.; Dhedhi, Adam; Scott-Wittenborn, Nicholas; Grace, Edward; Lehew, Courtney; Kollef, Marin H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few data regarding mechanical ventilation and ARDS in the ED. This could be a vital arena for prevention and treatment. METHODS: This study was a multicenter, observational, prospective, cohort study aimed at analyzing ventilation practices in the ED. The primary outcome was the incidence of ARDS after admission. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of ARDS. RESULTS: We analyzed 219 patients receiving mechanical ventilation to assess ED ventilation practices. Median tidal volume was 7.6 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW) (interquartile range, 6.9-8.9), with a range of 4.3 to 12.2 mL/kg PBW. Lung-protective ventilation was used in 122 patients (55.7%). The incidence of ARDS after admission from the ED was 14.7%, with a mean onset of 2.3 days. Progression to ARDS was associated with higher illness severity and intubation in the prehospital environment or transferring facility. Of the 15 patients with ARDS in the ED (6.8%), lung-protective ventilation was used in seven (46.7%). Patients who progressed to ARDS experienced greater duration in organ failure and ICU length of stay and higher mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Lung-protective ventilation is infrequent in patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the ED, regardless of ARDS status. Progression to ARDS is common after admission, occurs early, and worsens outcome. Patient- and treatment-related factors present in the ED are associated with ARDS. Given the limited treatment options for ARDS, and the early onset after admission from the ED, measures to prevent onset and to mitigate severity should be instituted in the ED. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01628523; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:25742126

  1. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Brittain, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates.

  2. Philadelphia obtains useful information from its customers about taste and odour quality.

    PubMed

    Burlingame, G A; Mackey, E D

    2007-01-01

    Customers are sensitive to the flavour of water. Customers evaluate drinking water based on their expectations, on experiences with their usual drinking water and on experiences with alternative waters. The Philadelphia Water Department provides one example of success in developing a better understanding of customer perceptions and attitudes about tap water taste and odour. Philadelphia found that customers do communicate in ways that water utilities can understand. Water utilities can enhance that communication and collect useful data. In addition, water utilities can characterise their tap water flavour, track it for changes and correlate changes to customer complaints.

  3. Un-Leaded Only: Toward a Safer City for Children. A 2002 Report on Childhood Lead Paint Poisoning in Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCauley, Colleen; Yanoff, Shelly D.; Fynes, Steven E.

    As part of its work in improving the lives and life changes of children in the Philadelphia region, the Philadelphia Citizens for Children and Youth examined the problem of local childhood lead paint poisoning. This report describes their efforts, beginning with a description of the impact of lead poisoning on children's health and a discussion of…

  4. Student Achievement in Privately Managed and District-Managed Schools in Philadelphia Since the State Takeover. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Brian; Zimmer, Ron; Christman, Jolley; Blanc, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    Following a state takeover of the Philadelphia public schools in 2002, 45 schools were turned over to private managers, making Philadelphia the site of the nation's largest experiment in the private management of public schools. This study examines achievement effects in the privately managed schools, as well as in schools with district-led…

  5. 40 CFR 52.2053 - The Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets for the Pennsylvania Counties in the Philadelphia-Wilmington...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Pennsylvania Counties in the Philadelphia-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE 1997 Fine Particulate Matter...-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE 1997 Fine Particulate Matter Nonattainment Area As of April 3, 2013, EPA approves the... nitrogen oxides (NOX) for the Pennsylvania Counties in the Philadelphia-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE 1997...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2053 - The Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets for the Pennsylvania Counties in the Philadelphia-Wilmington...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Pennsylvania Counties in the Philadelphia-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE 1997 Fine Particulate Matter...-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE 1997 Fine Particulate Matter Nonattainment Area As of April 3, 2013, EPA approves the... nitrogen oxides (NOX) for the Pennsylvania Counties in the Philadelphia-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE 1997...

  7. Expedition 7 Crew Interview: Ed Lu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Ed Lu of Expedition Seven is seen during a pre-launch interview. He explains why he became interested in space flight. He states that this is a different type of mission and gives his reaction to the Columbia Space Shuttle tragedy. The handover of Expedition six is explained by Ed Lu. The challenges of this mission are also described by Lu. These challenges include working with a crew member reduction from three to two, and the conservation of clothing and consumables. Ed Lu talks about what it is like to work with commander Yuri Malenchenko in space. Finally, Ed Lu states that he will continue scientific experiments in space on calcium loss in bones.

  8. MicroED data collection and processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hattne, Johan; Reyes, Francis E.; Nannenga, Brent L.; Shi, Dan; Cruz, M. Jason de la; Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Gonen, Tamir

    2015-07-01

    The collection and processing of MicroED data are presented. MicroED, a method at the intersection of X-ray crystallography and electron cryo-microscopy, has rapidly progressed by exploiting advances in both fields and has already been successfully employed to determine the atomic structures of several proteins from sub-micron-sized, three-dimensional crystals. A major limiting factor in X-ray crystallography is the requirement for large and well ordered crystals. By permitting electron diffraction patterns to be collected from much smaller crystals, or even single well ordered domains of large crystals composed of several small mosaic blocks, MicroED has the potential to overcome the limiting size requirement and enable structural studies on difficult-to-crystallize samples. This communication details the steps for sample preparation, data collection and reduction necessary to obtain refined, high-resolution, three-dimensional models by MicroED, and presents some of its unique challenges.

  9. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN PARTICULATE MATTER COMPONENTS AND DAILY MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY IN PHILADELPHIA, PA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In evaluating the health risks from particulate matter (PM), the question remains as to which component(s) of PM are most harmful. We investigated this issue using PM mass, PM constituents, mortality, and the elderly hospital admission data in Philadelphia, PA. Daily paired PM...

  10. Contracting Out Schools: The First Year of the Philadelphia Diverse Provider Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulkley, Katrina; Mundell, Leah; Riffer, Morgan

    2004-01-01

    Educators nationwide focused on Philadelphia in the summer of 2001 as politicians and policy makers explored the possibility of a state takeover of the city's school system, a seismic power shift that would produce the largest privatization of a public school district in American history. The findings reported in this document are based on…

  11. Characteristics of English Language Learners in the School District of Philadelphia. PERC Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Joshua; Hughes, Rosemary; Long, Daniel; Kim, Dae

    2016-01-01

    As a group, English Language Learners (ELLs) are diverse and come from a variety of home languages, cultures, educational backgrounds, and educational needs. This brief focuses on descriptive characteristics of the ELL students served by the School District of Philadelphia in 2014-2015. Specifically, this brief highlights the diversity of the ELL…

  12. Elements of Success: WorkReady Philadelphia Program Year 2011-2012 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Youth Network, 2012

    2012-01-01

    What does it take to deliver WorkReady Philadelphia's high-quality career-connected programming? In short, it's all about the "elements"--those essential components of the system that combine to produce success for young people. This 2011-12 WorkReady report reinforces this theme by using visual aspects of the "Periodic Table of…

  13. Extension, Communities, and Schools: Results of a Collaborative Forestry Education Project in Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Shorna R.; Jones, Stephen B.

    2001-01-01

    Penn State Extension, Philadelphia community leaders, school district administrators, and teachers developed a comprehensive program to teach inner-city youth about forestry and forest management. Evaluation results indicate that students were more knowledgeable about forestry and forest management; teachers were more likely to use natural…

  14. PM CONSTITUENT ROLES IN MASS ASSOCIATIONS WITH HEALTH EFFECTS IN PHILADELPHIA, PA

    EPA Science Inventory

    An environmental and health database was constructed for Philadelphia, PA for the period 1992-1995 in order to assess the importance of PM components in mass associations with adverse health effects. PM data were collected by Harvard University for the U.S. EPA. Daily measureme...

  15. Spatial analysis of volatile organic compounds in South Philadelphia using passive samplers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in the vicinity of a petroleum refinery and related operations in South Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, using passive air sampling and laboratory analysis methods. Two-week, time-integrated samplers were deployed at 17 sites...

  16. 75 FR 25285 - John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge at Tinicum, Philadelphia and Delaware Counties, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... comprehensive conservation plan and environmental assessment; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish... environmental assessment (EA) for John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) at Tinicum in Philadelphia... issues to consider in the environmental document and during development of the CCP. Background The...

  17. Learn at Home: A Philadelphia Distance Learning Project. Program Year 1992-1993. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Donna

    The Power Learning Project was a pilot test of the potential of home-based computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for adults with intermediate reading skills and adult nonnative speakers of English. Project development was made possible by a partnership involving public, private, and community-based organizations in Philadelphia. Online services were…

  18. A Philadelphia Story: Building Civic Capacity for School Reform in a Privatizing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Eva; Simon, Elaine; Cucchiara, Maia; Mitchell, Cecily; Riffer, Morgan

    2007-01-01

    This report was undertaken to assess the state of civic capacity for education reform in Philadelphia. It challenges community and civic sectors of the city to put aside individual interests and work together to mobilize resources to pursue the collective good of public school improvement. The report demonstrates that many of the elements…

  19. Osage Avenue Is Burning: The Influence of Race upon Crisis Public Relations in Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Robert L.; Boles, Wendy Gotchel

    A study examined public relations aspects of the police confrontation and bombing of the revolutionary Black group, MOVE, in Philadelphia, in which 11 persons were killed, 250 were left homeless, and 61 homes were destroyed. It explored if and how race affected the crisis and whether Black media and general media were treated differently. City…

  20. Environmental Investigation and Risk Assessment. Phase 1 Report Tacony Warehouse, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-24

    Sayreville sand, the middle clay, the Old Bridge sand, and the upper clay. The Raritan is overlain in adjacent parts of New Jersey by the Magothy ...Formation, but the Magothy Formation has not been identified in the Philadelphia area. The sediments that overlie the Raritan are Pleistocene deposits...Qc,Pleistocene -.-- Unconjormity ... so Pensauken formation , Qp (Illinoian) Unconformitg . . . Magothy formation Kn 10 ... Uncontormity .... Upper

  1. You "Can" Get There from Here: 2009 and 2010 Philadelphia Youth Network Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Youth Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the annual report of Philadelphia Youth Network (PYN) for 2009-2010. This annual report documents the journeys of several participants in their programs who have gone on successfully to college and careers, and demonstrates the potential of young Philadelphians to begin to reach their goals. In telling these stories, they build…

  2. History, Heritage, and Hearsay: A Children's Guide to Ethnic South and Southwest Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Joseph J.; Newcombe, Ellen

    This guide for elementary students will help them learn about five of South and Southwest Philadelphia's ethnic groups and examine their own ethnic heritage. These groups are: Afro Americans, Irish Americans, Italian Americans, Jewish Americans, and Polish Americans. The guide has different sections. "Hearsay" sections contain short…

  3. Seizing Opportunities: Genie Tyburski--Ballard Spahr Andrews & Ingersoll, LLP, Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Genie Tyburski did not set out to be a law librarian. When asked at Drexel's library school what kind of librarian she wanted to be, she was surprised that "a good one" was not one of the options. But six weeks into the semester, she landed a part-time cataloging job at Community Legal Services in Philadelphia; six months later she was…

  4. Unfulfilled Promise: The Dimensions and Characteristics of Philadelphia's Dropout Crisis, 2000-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neild, Ruth Curran; Balfanz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This report uses a unique set of data obtained from the Kids Integrated Data System (KIDS), which is housed at the University of Pennsylvania's Cartographic Modeling Laboratory. The KIDS system merges individual-level data on young people from the School District of Philadelphia and the city's social service agencies, including the Department of…

  5. Getting a Feel for the Market: The Use of Privatized School Management in Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Vaughan

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of the privatization of education services in the Philadelphia School District, using an interrupted time series design. The sample observes 88 middle-grades schools, beginning with the 1996-97 school year, and finds that, by 2006, four years postintervention, the achievement growth rate of schools run by…

  6. Public Education in Philadelphia: The Crucial Need for Civic Capacity in a Privatized Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Suzanne; Simon, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Like many other U.S. cities, Philadelphia experienced a prolonged period of deindustrialization and job loss during the second half of the 20th century. As in other northern cities, the process of suburbanization went hand in hand with white flight, increased racial segregation of the city and its schools, and increasingly inadequate funding of…

  7. Philadelphia's Talent Development High Schools: Second-Year Results, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useem, Elizabeth; Neild, Ruth Curran; Morrison, William

    Philadelphia, Pennsylvania's Talent Development High School comprehensive reform model addresses low student achievement and poor school climate, blending a common core academic curriculum with career themes in the upper grades. It includes a separate Ninth Grade Success Academy with interdisciplinary teacher teams, ninth and tenth grade Career…

  8. 49 CFR 37.53 - Exception for New York and Philadelphia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exception for New York and Philadelphia. 37.53 Section 37.53 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.53 Exception for New York and...

  9. 49 CFR 37.53 - Exception for New York and Philadelphia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exception for New York and Philadelphia. 37.53 Section 37.53 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.53 Exception for New York and...

  10. 49 CFR 37.53 - Exception for New York and Philadelphia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exception for New York and Philadelphia. 37.53 Section 37.53 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.53 Exception for New York and...

  11. 49 CFR 37.53 - Exception for New York and Philadelphia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exception for New York and Philadelphia. 37.53 Section 37.53 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.53 Exception for New York and...

  12. 78 FR 75902 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Philadelphia County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ...-- Delaware Station; (2) Exelon--Richmond Station; (3) Exelon--Schuylkill Station; (4) Veolia--Edison Station... ozone standard for Philadelphia County pursuant to section 110(k)(4) of the CAA. Additional details on... Company); (8) Temple University, Health Sciences Center; (9) GATX Terminals Corporation; and...

  13. WWC Review of the Report "Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative: 18 Month Interim Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study reviewed in this report examined the effects of Philadelphia's "Renaissance Schools Initiative" on students in K-8 schools after one year of implementation. Schools were selected for participation based on their School Performance Index (SPI) at the start of the 2010-11 school year. The SPI rates every school in Philadelphia…

  14. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative: 18 Month Interim Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Philadelphia's Renaissance Schools Initiative after one year of implementation. The Renaissance Schools Initiative, which began in the 2010-11 school year, aimed at improving low-performing schools by providing new management, additional resources, and new educational strategies. The study reported that…

  15. Blurring the Boundaries: A Case Study of Private Sector Involvement in Philadelphia Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Eva; Christman, Jolley Bruce; Herold, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    As a result of a state takeover, the School District of Philadelphia has been implementing a "diverse provider model" in which for-profit and nonprofit organizations have been hired as school managers. This study explores the first three years of the model, examining the shift away from the rhetoric of competition to the evolution of a…

  16. "Welcome to Philadelphia": An Original Dramatization of Life in the 1780s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stakes, Mary E.

    Teachers can create an interest in the founding period of U.S. history and present students with an authentic view of this time period through the presentation of this play. The dramatic pretense of the play is that the audience, by their presence, is part of the drama. The audience plays the part of travelers visiting a Philadelphia home in the…

  17. Uneven Playing Field: Demographic Differences and High School "Choice" in Philadelphia. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Action, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Every fall, eighth graders participate in the School District of Philadelphia's high school application and admissions process, vying for spots in a tiered system of public high schools across the city. This policy brief looks at disparities in the students who are successful in exercising school "choice" in the District's high school…

  18. Parents' "Hard" Knowledge of Admission Criteria and Acceptance in Philadelphia's High School Choice Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haxton, Clarisse L.; Neild, Ruth Curran

    2012-01-01

    We examine parents' knowledge of discrete, verifiable facts--what we call "hard knowledge"--in a high school application process. Using parent survey data (n = 658) from the School District of Philadelphia, this study examines whether parents knew the admission criteria and acceptance rate at the high school they most wanted their child…

  19. The Launch of the Philadelphia Education Research Consortium: Lessons Learned from the First Year of Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The Philadelphia Education Research Consortium (PERC) was launched in July 2014 as an innovative place-based consortium of educational research partners from multiple sectors. Its primary objective is to provide research and analyses on some of the city's most pressing education issues. As such, PERC's research agenda is driven by both traditional…

  20. The Efficacy of Philadelphia's K-to-8 Schools Compared to Middle Grades Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offenberg, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Natural experiments explored the effects of attending public Philadelphia K-to-8 schools or public middle schools on eighth- and ninth-grade achievement. Found that students attending K-8 schools had higher reading, mathematics, and science achievement than students attending middle schools serving similar communities. Suggested that number of…

  1. Sowing City Schools: Teachers and Garden Education in Havana and Philadelphia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Katie Ann

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines how pedagogies of sustainability are embedded in socio-cultural contexts and policy structures and driven by the localized actions of teachers. Through a comparative case study in two cities with extensive and varied school garden programs, Havana and Philadelphia, this dissertation analyzes the roles, understandings,…

  2. 78 FR 3482 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Stock Clearing Corporation of Philadelphia; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change With Respect to the Amendment of the By-Laws of Its Parent Corporation, The NASDAQ...

  3. Reproducibility of the WHO histological criteria for the diagnosis of Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Gianelli, Umberto; Bossi, Anna; Cortinovis, Ivan; Sabattini, Elena; Tripodo, Claudio; Boveri, Emanuela; Moro, Alessia; Valli, Riccardo; Ponzoni, Maurilio; M Florena, Ada; F Orcioni, Giulio; Ascani, Stefano; Bonoldi, Emanuela; Iurlo, Alessandra; Gugliotta, Luigi; Franco, Vito

    2014-06-01

    This study, performed on behalf of the Italian Registry of Thrombocythaemias (Registro Italiano Trombocitemie), aimed to test the inter-observer reproducibility of the histological parameters proposed by the WHO classification for the diagnosis of the Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. A series of 103 bone marrow biopsy samples of Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms consecutively collected in 2004 were classified according to the WHO criteria as follows: essential thrombocythaemia (n=34), primary myelofibrosis (n=44) and polycythaemia vera (n=25). Two independent groups of pathologists reviewed the bone marrow biopsies. The first group was asked to reach a collegial 'consensus' diagnosis. The second group reviewed individually all the cases to recognize the main morphological parameters indicated by the WHO classification and report their results in a database. They were subsequently instructed to individually build a 'personal' diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms subtype just assembling the parameters collected in the database. Our results indicate that high levels of agreement (≥70%) have been reached for about all of the morphological features. Moreover, among the 18 evaluated histological features, 11 resulted statistically more useful for the differential diagnosis among the different Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Finally, we found a high percentage of agreement (76%) between the 'personal' and 'consensus' diagnosis (Cohen's kappa statistic >0.40). In conclusion, our results support the use of the histological criteria proposed by the WHO classification for the Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms to ensure a more precise and early diagnosis for these patients.

  4. Educating English Language Learners: Instructional Approaches and Teacher Collaboration in Philadelphia Public Schools. PERC Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reumann-Moore, Rebecca; Rowland, Jeannette; Hughes, Rosemary; Lin, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Districts, charter management organizations, and individual schools can learn a great deal from each other about strategies for creating robust and supportive learning environments for English Language Learners (ELLS). This brief highlights key findings about how Philadelphia public schools were crafting instructional approaches to serve their…

  5. Heterogeneity of genomic fusion of BCR and ABL in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, C.M.; Carrino, J.J.; Dickler, M.N.; Leibowitz, D.; Smith, S.D.; Westbrook, C.A.

    1988-04-01

    Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia occurs in two molecular forms, those with and those without rearrangement of the breakpoint cluster region on chromosome 22. The molecular abnormality in the former group is similar to that found in chronic myelogenous leukemia. To characterize the abnormality in the breakpoint cluster region-unrearranged form, the authors have mapped a 9; 22 translocation from the Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line SUP-B13 by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and have cloned the DNA at the translocation junctions. They demonstrate a BCR-ABL fusion gene on the Philadelphia chromosome. The exons from ABL are the same. Analysis of leukemic cells from four other patients with breakpoint cluster region-unrearranged Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia revealed a rearrangement on chromosome 22 close to the breakpoint in SUP-B13 in only one patient. These data indicate that breakpoints do not cluster tightly in this region but are scattered, possibly in a large intron. Given the large size of BCR and the heterogeneity in breakpoint location, detection of BCR rearrangement by standard Southern blot analysis is difficult. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis should allow detection at the DNA level in every patient and thus will permit clinical correlation of the breakpoint location with prognosis.

  6. What Love Can Do: A Brief History of Quaker Education in Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashatus, William C., III

    1994-01-01

    William Penn understood that many colonial settlers would not be members of the Religious Society of Friends, so he tried to ensure the practice of Quaker ideals by establishing a compulsory, universal school system embodying the values of community, equality, pacifism, and simplicity. After 300 years, the Philadelphia Yearly Meeting's Committee…

  7. What Next?: Educational Innovation and Philadelphia's School of the Future. Educational Innovations Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullinane, Mary, Ed.; Hess, Frederick M., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "What Next?" offers a detailed study of the School of the Future's first three years (2006-2009) revealing what the School of the Future can teach us about high school redesign, public-private partnerships, and the use of technology in school reform. When the school district of Philadelphia teamed up with the Microsoft Corporation in…

  8. 49 CFR 37.53 - Exception for New York and Philadelphia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exception for New York and Philadelphia. 37.53 Section 37.53 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Transportation Facilities § 37.53 Exception for New York and...

  9. SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic molecular markers were measured in airborne particulate matter (PM10) from the City of Philadelphia North Broad Street air quality monitoring site to identify the seasonal abundances of key tracer compounds together with their dominant sources. Daily PM10...

  10. QUANTITATION, DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT PRECISION OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work focuses on analysis of organic molecular markers in airborne particulate matter (PM) by Gas Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (GC/IT MS). The particulate samples used in the method development were collected as PM10 in metropolitan Philadelphia during...

  11. Powerful Ideas, Modest Gains: Five Years of Systemic Reform in Philadelphia Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christman, Jolley Bruce

    This report details what happened in Philadelphia's middle schools during the Children Achieving reform effort, a comprehensive, one-size-fits-all reform project. Based on research of the program over a 5-year period, the paper explains why reforms fell short of their intended outcomes. The critical levers for change were content standards, the…

  12. Development and Simulation Testing of a Computerized Adaptive Version of the Philadelphia Naming Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, William D.; Kellough, Stacey; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a computerized adaptive test (CAT) version of the Philadelphia Naming Test (PNT; Roach, Schwartz, Martin, Grewal, & Brecher, 1996), to reduce test length while maximizing measurement precision. This article is a direct extension of a companion article (Fergadiotis, Kellough, & Hula, 2015),…

  13. Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

    2013-04-01

    landscapes, characterized by deflation plains (gleyic arenosols) and complexes of inland dunes (haplic arenosols). Clear cutting was responsible for the mediaeval first large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. In such driftsand landscapes, the majority of the podzolic soils in coversand has been truncated by aeolian erosion. Only on scattered sheltered sites in the landscape, palaeopodzols were buried under mono or polycyclic driftsand deposits. They are now the valuable soil archives for palaeoecological research. During the 18th century, the population growth and regional economic activity stimulated the agricultural productivity. Farmers introduced the innovative 'deep stable' technique to increase the production of fertilizers. Farmers started sod digging, including the top of the Ah horizon of the humus forms. This consequently promoted heath degradation and sand drifting, resulting in the extension of driftsand landscapes. Deep stable economy and sod digging was responsible for the 18th century second large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. During the 19th century, farmers tried to find alternative fertilizers and authorities initiated reforestation projects. The invention of chemical fertilizers at the end of the 19th century marked the end of the period of heath management and plaggic agriculture. The heath was no longer used for the harvesting of plaggic matter and new land management practices were introduced. Heath was reclaimed to new arable land or reforested with Scotch pine. Geomorphological features as inland dunes and plaggic covers survived in the landscape and are now included in the geological inheritance.

  14. [Changes of medico-pharmaceutical profession and private practice from the late 19th century to the early 20th century: ebb and flow of western pharmacies and clinics attached to pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Lee, Heung-Ki

    2010-12-31

    This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers.Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical

  15. MicroED data collection and processing

    PubMed Central

    Hattne, Johan; Reyes, Francis E.; Nannenga, Brent L.; Shi, Dan; de la Cruz, M. Jason; Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Gonen, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    MicroED, a method at the intersection of X-ray crystallography and electron cryo-microscopy, has rapidly progressed by exploiting advances in both fields and has already been successfully employed to determine the atomic structures of several proteins from sub-micron-sized, three-dimensional crystals. A major limiting factor in X-ray crystallography is the requirement for large and well ordered crystals. By permitting electron diffraction patterns to be collected from much smaller crystals, or even single well ordered domains of large crystals composed of several small mosaic blocks, MicroED has the potential to overcome the limiting size requirement and enable structural studies on difficult-to-crystallize samples. This communication details the steps for sample preparation, data collection and reduction necessary to obtain refined, high-resolution, three-dimensional models by MicroED, and presents some of its unique challenges. PMID:26131894

  16. One Year Medical Outcomes and ED Recidivism Following ED Observation for Cocaine-Associated Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca; Walton, Maureen A.; Weber, Jim Edward; O'Broin, Samantha; Tripathi, Shanti P; Maio, Ronald F.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Chest pain is the most common complaint among cocaine users who present to the ED seeking care and many hospital resources are applied to stratify cocaine users in regard to future cardiac morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the longitudinal cardiac and non cardiac medical outcomes of cocaine users who have been stratified to an ED observation period following their ED visit. Objectives to examine one-year cardiac outcomes in a low-intermediate risk sample of patients with cocaine- associated chest pain in an urban ED, as well as to examine ED recidivism one year for cardiac and non-cardiac complaints. Methods Prospective consecutive cohort study of patients (18–60 years) who presented to an urban Level 1 ED with cocaine-associated chest pain and were risk stratified to low-intermediate cardiac risk. Exclusion criteria: EKG suggestive of AMI, elevated serum cardiac markers, history of AMI or CABG, hemodynamic instability, unstable angina. Baseline interviews using validated measures of health functioning, and substance use were conducted during CPOU stay, and 3, 6, and 12 months. ED utilization during the study year was abstracted from medical chart. Zero-Inflated Poisson regression analyses were conducted to predict recurrent ED visits. Results 219 participants (73% participation) were enrolled, 65% returned to the ED post index visit; 23% returned for chest pain, of these 66% had a positive cocaine urine screen. No patient had an AMI within the one year follow up period. Patients with continued cocaine use were more likely to have a recurrent ED visit (p<0.001) but these repeat visits were most often related to musculoskeletal pain (21%), and injury (30%) rather than potential cardiac complaints. Conclusions Patients with cocaine-associated chest pain who are low to intermediate cardiac risk and complete a CPOU protocol have less then 1% rate of MI in the subsequent 12-months. PMID:18824277

  17. Canadian EdGEO National Workshop Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, L. A.; Haidl, F. M.; Hymers, L. A.; van der Flier-Keller, E.

    2009-05-01

    Established in the early 1970s, EdGEO supports locally driven geosciences workshops for Canadian teachers. Workshops are organized by geoscientists and teachers, and typically have field, laboratory and classroom components. Grants of up to $3000 per workshop are available from the National EdGEO Program. By providing educational opportunities for today's teachers and, through them, their students, EdGEO seeks to cultivate a heightened awareness of our planet. EdGEO workshops provide teachers with potential fieldtrip sites for their students and the knowledge, enthusiasm and materials to inspire their students to engage in geoscience. Networking opportunities with local experts promote the importance of the geoscience profession. The expected result is an improved capacity on the part of Canadians to understand the Earth and to make informed decisions, especially with regard to the use of mineral and energy resources, the maintenance and remediation of the environment, and response to geological hazards. There exists a critical need to provide teachers with training and resources to tackle their Earth science curricula. In 2008, EdGEO supported fourteen workshops, with an unprecedented 521 teachers attending. These teachers then used our resources to reach an estimated 14,000 students during that single academic year. EdGEO workshops are locally driven and are therefore very diverse. Workshops are strongly tied to the provincial curriculum, focus on a specific geoscience topic, or may be largely field-based to demonstrate and practice how field activities could be incorporated into Earth science teaching. Many strive to include all of these important components. Geoscientists and teachers work collaboratively to develop and deliver EdGEO workshops to ensure that the activities can be effectively used in the classroom. The length of these professional development opportunities range from two-hour sessions to several days, and can generally accommodate up to twenty

  18. 34 CFR 85.942 - ED Deciding Official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false ED Deciding Official. 85.942 Section 85.942 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.942 ED Deciding Official. The ED Deciding Official is an ED officer who has...

  19. 34 CFR 85.942 - ED Deciding Official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false ED Deciding Official. 85.942 Section 85.942 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.942 ED Deciding Official. The ED Deciding Official is an ED officer who has...

  20. A three-variable chaotic system for the epidemic of bubonic plague in Bombay by the end of the 19th century and its coupling to the epizootics of the two main species of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    A plague epidemic broke out in Bombay by the end of the 19th century. A committee was first appointed by the Bombay City [1] in order to stop the epidemic before the rain season started. Unfortunately, the disease could not be stopped and the epidemic became endemic. After several years, another Advisory Committee [2] was appointed that tried to investigate the causes of plague in all possible directions. An impressing quantity of information was gathered during the period 1907-1911 and published. In particular, it was noticed that the epidemic was systematically preceded by epizootics of rats. For this reason, the populations of the main species of rodents were systematically monitored. This data set is revisited here by using a multivariate version of the global modeling technique [3]. The aim of this technique is to obtain a set of Ordinary Differential Equations directly from time series. Three observational time series are considered: the number of person died of bubonic plague per half month (1), and the number of captured infected black rats Mus rattus (2) and brown rats Mus decumanus (3). Several models are obtained, all based on the same algebraic basic structure. These models are, either directly chaotic, or close to chaos (chaos could easily be obtained by tuning one model parameter). The algebraic structure of the simplest model obtained is analyzed in more details. Surprisingly, it is found that the interpretation of the coupling between the three variables can be done term by term. This interpretation is in quite good coherence with the conclusions of the Advisory Committee published one hundred years ago. This structure also shows that the human action to slow down the disease during this period was obviously effective, although insufficient to stop the epidemic drastically. This result suggests that the global modeling technique can be a powerful tool to detect causal couplings in epidemiology, and, more generally, among observational variables from

  1. The Consequences of edTPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenblatt, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    States and teacher preparation programs across the country are increasingly using a teacher candidate assessment called edTPA. The purpose? To make sure that teacher candidates are ready and able to teach before they begin their careers. The teacher performance assessment requires candidates to compile a portfolio that consists of lesson plans,…

  2. Manufacturing techniques help turn ED around.

    PubMed

    2005-05-01

    Borrowing quality tools from other industries can help give you a new perspective on the operations of your ED. Computer simulations can help you visualize impact of patient arrivals at peak hours. A flexible approach opens up new options for using existing space more efficiently. 'Manufacturing' approach enables you to break down large processes into more manageable subsets.

  3. ED's Oasis: Teacher Support for Internet Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Terrie

    1998-01-01

    Describes ED's Oasis, a multifunction Web site funded by the AT&T Foundation, through the AT&T Learning Network program, and developed by a team of educators to help teachers use the Internet with their students. Examples are given of various possible uses, including designing interdisciplinary units. (LRW)

  4. What Should I Know about ED Grants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The Department of Education's ability to create a high-performance education system is directly linked to the public's understanding of how to apply for and make proper use of federal grant funds. This booklet is intended for individuals who are interested in applying to the U.S. Department of Education (ED) for discretionary grants and…

  5. The Workshop and the Classroom: Philadelphia Engineering, the Decline of Apprenticeship, and the Rise of Industrial Training, 1878-1900.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the change from the system of workshop apprenticeship to that of industrial training, pioneered in 1878 by the Baldwin Locomotive Works and the Spring Garden Institute, that eventually spread to the public school system in Philadelphia (Pennsylvania). (CMK)

  6. Acute, fatal Sarcocystis calchasi-associated hepatitis in Roller pigeons (Columbia livia f. dom.) at Philadelphia Zoo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and fr...

  7. Philadelphia chromosome-negative non-Hodgkin's lymphoma occurring in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, ZHENG-LEI; YIN, LIE-FEN; MAO, WEN-WEN; LIANG, JIN; YANG, LING

    2016-01-01

    The current study reports the case of a patient with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph−) non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic phase (CP) Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) that also possessed characteristic enlarged lymph nodes. A lymph node biopsy resulted in the diagnosis of CP-CML, in addition to T-lymphoblastic cell NHL with negative break point cluster/Abelson tyrosine kinase fusion genes in the lymph node of the patient, which was diagnosed as Ph− NHL. A review of the literature was performed in the present study to investigate the genetic differences between Ph− NHL and Ph+ NHL in patients with CML. The median age of patients with NHL and CML was 41 years. The follow-up time of patients with Ph+ NHL was significantly shorter (mean, <6 months) compared to the follow-up time of patients with Ph− NHL (mean, >15 months). Therefore the present study concludes that Ph+ NHL may be more aggressive compared with Ph+ NHL. The present study suggests that additional studies are required to assess the clinical and genetic characteristics of NHL patients with CML. PMID:27073575

  8. Fin-de-siècle Philadelphia and the founding of the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    Groen, F

    1999-01-01

    Philadelphia at the time of the founding of the Medical Library Association (MLA) is described. Several factors that promoted the birth of the association are discussed, including the rapid increase in the labor force and the rise of other health related professions, such as the American Hospital Association and the professionalization of nursing. The growth of the public hygiene movement in Philadelphia at the time of Sir William Osler's residency in the city is discussed. Finally, the rapid growth of the medical literature is considered a factor promoting the development of the association. This article continues the historical consideration of the MLA begun in the author's article on the three founders of the association. The background information is drawn from the items listed in the bibliography, and the conclusions are those of the author. Images PMID:10427436

  9. Philadelphia Chromosome Symposium: commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the Ph chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, H. Sharat; Heistekamp, Nora C.; Hungerford, Alice; Morrissette, Jennifer J.D.; Nowell, Peter C.; Rowley, Janet D.; Testa, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes highlights of the ‘Philadelphia Chromosome Symposium: Past, Present and Future’, held September 28, 2010, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the Philadelphia chromosome. The symposium sessions included presentations by investigators who made seminal contributions concerning the discovery and molecular characterization of the Ph chromosome and others who developed a highly successful therapy based on the specific molecular alteration observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia. Additional presentations highlighted future opportunities for the design of molecularly targeted therapies for various types of cancer. Also included here are reminiscences connected with the discovery of the Ph chromosome by David Hungerford and Peter Nowell, the discovery that the abnormality arises from a chromosomal translocation, by Janet Rowley, and the cloning of the 9;22 translocation breakpoints by Nora Heisterkamp, John Groffen and colleagues. PMID:21536234

  10. Trend Analyses of Users of a Syringe Exchange Program in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 1999-2014.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Laurie A; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Ye, Du; Benitez, José; Mazzella, Silvana; Krafty, Robert

    2016-12-01

    This study examines trends of injection drug users' (IDUs) use of a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, syringe exchange program (SEP) from 1999 to 2014, including changes in demographics, drug use, substance abuse treatment, geographic indicators, and SEP use. Prevention Point Philadelphia's SEP registration data were analyzed using linear regression, Pearson's Chi square, and t-tests. Over time new SEP registrants have become younger, more racially diverse, and geographically more concentrated in specific areas of the city, corresponding to urban demographic shifts. The number of new registrants per year has decreased, however syringes exchanged have increased. Gentrification, cultural norms, and changes in risk perception are believed to have contributed to the changes in SEP registration. Demographic changes indicate outreach strategies for IDUs may need adjusting to address unique barriers for younger, more racially diverse users. Implications for SEPs are discussed, including policy and continued ability to address current public health threats.

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns in Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) reporting in Philadelphia, PA.

    PubMed

    Mabud, Tarub S; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Katelyn H; Edinger, Jason; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed a comprehensive telephone log of pest infestation reports to assess the spatial and temporal trends in Cimex lectularius L. (bed bug) reporting throughout Philadelphia, PA. Citywide spatial analyses of reports from September 2011 to June 2012 revealed several statistically significant bed bug hotspots. However, these were small and diffuse. Temporal analyses of reports from December 2008 to May 2011 detected prominent seasonality in bed bug reporting, peaking in August and reaching a nadir in February each year. Controlling for seasonal cycling, the number of bed bug reports in Philadelphia increased steadily at a rate of approximately 4.5% per month (or 69.45% per year) from December 2008 to May 2011. While it may be difficult to spatially target citywide bed bug control measures because of the insects' widespread migration, interventions informed by seasonal trends may enhance efforts to curb the recent increases in urban bed bug populations.

  12. Update on the management of Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myelogenous leukemia: role of nilotinib

    PubMed Central

    Emole, Josephine; Talabi, Taiwo; Pinilla-Ibarz, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a pluripotent stem cell disease characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome and the bcr-abl gene. The discovery of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) revolutionized therapy for CML, such that durable response, increased overall survival, and increased progression-free survival of patients in chronic phase CML is now possible. Due to resistance and intolerance to imatinib, there was need for development of second- and third-generation TKIs for the treatment of CML. This review examines the role of nilotinib, an oral second-generation TKI, in the treatment of Philadelphia positive CML. The pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of nilotinib are critically evaluated. Patient-related issues, including tolerance, drug interactions, and quality of life issues are also examined. PMID:27013862

  13. The feasibility of refuse-fired energy generation in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christman, W. M., III

    1982-02-01

    The City of Philadelphia presently disposes of 816, 480 megagrams per year (MGY) of residential refuse, with 1 megagram = 10 to the 3rd power hilograms. Alternatives to a base case of continued incineration and landfilling are evaluated. It is assured that the feasibility studies will yield compatible products and will run a uniform economic analysis against the base case, using as inputs the outputs of the feasibility analyses.

  14. Drinking water turbidity and gastrointestinal illness in the elderly of Philadelphia

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, J.; Levin, R.; Goldstein, R.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To investigate the association between drinking water quality and gastrointestinal illness in the elderly of Philadelphia.
DESIGN—Within the general population, children and the elderly are at highest risk for gastrointestinal disease. This study investigates the potential association between daily fluctuations in drinking water turbidity and subsequent hospital admissions for gastrointestinal illness of elderly persons, controlling for time trends, seasonal patterns, and temperature using Poisson regression analysis.
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS—All residents of Philadelphia aged 65 and older in 1992-1993 were studied through their MEDICARE records.
MAIN RESULTS—For Philadelphia's population aged 65 and older, we found water quality 9 to 11 days before the visit was associated with hospital admissions for gastrointestinal illness, with an interquartile range increase in turbidity being associated with a 9% increase (95% CI 5.3%, 12.7%). In the Belmont service area, there was also an association evident at a lag of 4 to 6 days (9.1% increase, 95% CI 5.2, 13.3). Both associations were stronger in those over 75 than in the population aged 65-74. This association occurred in a filtered water supply in compliance with US standards.
CONCLUSIONS—Elderly residents of Philadelphia remain at risk of waterborne gastrointestinal illness under current water treatment practices. Hospitalisations represent a very small percentage of total morbidity.


Keywords: waterborne disease; drinking water; gastrointestinal illness; elderly PMID:10692962

  15. In Search of a Better Life: The Education and Housing Problems of Puerto Ricans in Philadelphia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, Harrisburg.

    In early 1972, the Pennsylvania State Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights turned its attention to the growing Puerto Rican population in Philadelphia, a population estimated to be anywhere from 30,000 to 125,000. A two-day open meeting or informal hearing was held on June 6 and 7, 1972, to look at two major problem areas for…

  16. Using Multispectral Analysis in GIS to Model the Potential for Urban Agriculture in Philadelphia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmochowski, J. E.; Cooper, W. P.

    2010-12-01

    In the context of growing concerns about the international food system’s dependence on fossil fuels, soil degradation, climate change, and other diverse issues, a number of initiatives have arisen to develop and implement sustainable agricultural practices. Many seeking to reform the food system look to urban agriculture as a means to create localized, sustainable agricultural production, while simultaneously providing a locus for community building, encouraging better nutrition, and promoting the rebirth of depressed urban areas. The actual impact of such system, however, is not well understood, and many critics of urban agriculture regard its implementation as impractical and unrealistic. This project uses multispectral imagery from United States Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Imagery Program with a one-meter resolution to quantify the potential for increasing urban agriculture in an effort to create a sustainable food system in Philadelphia. Color infrared images are classified with a minimum distance algorithm in ArcGIS to generate baseline data on vegetative cover in Philadelphia. These data, in addition to mapping on the ground, form the basis of a model of land suitable for conversion to agriculture in Philadelphia, which will help address questions related to potential yields, workforce, and energy requirements. This research will help city planners, entrepreneurs, community leaders, and citizens understand how urban agriculture can contribute to creating a sustainable food system in a major North American city.

  17. Risk factors for ED use among homeless veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2013-05-01

    Despite national concern about homeless veterans, there has been little examination of their use of emergency department (ED) services. This study examines factors related to the use of ED services in the Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system, where insurance is not a barrier to ambulatory healthcare. National VA administrative data from fiscal year 2010 are used to describe the proportions of ED users among homeless and domiciled VA patients. A case-control design is then used to compare homeless ED and non-ED users on sociodemographic and clinical correlates, as well as use of ambulatory care and psychotropic medications. Sixteen percent of domiciled VA patients used EDs at least once during the year and 1% were frequent ED users (>4 ED visits) compared to 45% of homeless VA patients, 10% who were frequent ED users. Among homeless VA patients, those who used EDs were more likely to have a range of psychiatric and medical conditions, and had more service visits and psychotropic medication prescriptions than non-ED users. Multivariate analyses suggest their risk for psychiatric and medical conditions increase their likelihood of using ED services. The high rate of ED use among homeless veterans is associated with significant morbidity, but also greater use of ambulatory care and psychotropics suggesting their ED use may reflect unmet psychosocial needs.

  18. Cytoplasmic Streaming - Skylab Student Experiment ED-63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This chart describes the Skylab student experiment (ED-63), Cytoplasmic Streaming, proposed by Cheryl A. Peitz of Arapahoe High School, Littleton, Colorado. Experiment ED-63 was to observe the effect of zero-gravity on cytoplasmic streaming in the aquatic plant named Elodea, commonly called water weed or water thyme. The phenomenon of cytoplasmic streaming is not well understood, but it is recognized as the circulation mechanism of the internal materials or cytoplasm of a cell. Cytoplasm is a gelatinous substance that has the ability to change its viscosity and flow, carrying various cell materials with it. The activity can be stimulated by sunlight or heat. In March 1972, NASA and the National Science Teachers Association selected 25 experiment proposals for flight on Skylab. Science advisors from the Marshall Space Flight Center aided and assisted the students in developing the proposals for flight on Skylab.

  19. Ethanol elimination rates in an ED population.

    PubMed

    Brennan, D F; Betzelos, S; Reed, R; Falk, J L

    1995-05-01

    Knowledge of the rate of ethanol elimination is essential in the assessment of the intoxicated patient. Surprisingly little literature is available regarding ethanol elimination rates in emergency department (ED) patients; prior studies almost exclusively examined populations of alcoholics or normal controls. Consequently, this prospective observational study was undertaken to assess the rate of ethanol elimination in an ED population. Twenty-four consecutive adult ED patients clinically suspected of intoxication who had serum ethanol determinations drawn were enrolled. Patients underwent serial ethanol determinations via breathalyzer (Intoxilyzer 1400, CMI Inc., Owensboro, KY). Linear regression analysis of the plot of decrease in ethanol level over time was performed to determine the rate of ethanol elimination. Initial ethanol levels in the 24 patients ranged from 58 to 447 mg/dL (mean, 249 +/- 109 [SD] mg/dL). Patients were observed for a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 9 observations (mean, 3.9 +/- 1.7), over a period of 0.5 to 12.1 hours (mean, 4.4 +/-3.5 h). Clinical features of intoxication were poorly correlated with ethanol level (r < .5). The rate of ethanol elimination in the ED population was 19.6 mg/dL/h (r = .83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9 to 22.3 mg/dL/h). Subgroup analysis found differences that were statistically significant but small. Multiple regression analysis showed that time was the major variable useful in predicting changes in ethanol level (P < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. EDs pool resources to weather flood.

    PubMed

    2006-10-01

    When disaster strikes your community, creativity can go a long way toward keeping your ED up and running, but cooperating with neighboring facilities can double your available resources in a hurry. Contact all unscheduled staff members and request that they accept additional shifts during the crisis. If nearby facilities are shut down, contact their manager to ascertain availability of their staff and supplies. Seek additional staffing help from local residency programs.

  1. The formation of chlorine-induced alterations in daguerreotype image particles: a high resolution SEM-EDS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centeno, Silvia A.; Schulte, Franziska; Kennedy, Nora W.; Schrott, Alejandro G.

    2011-10-01

    The daguerreotype image, composed of nanosized silver-mercury or silver-mercury-gold amalgam particles formed on a polished silver substrate, is particularly sensitive to deterioration by chlorine-containing compounds resulting in the formation of AgCl that generates redeposited silver upon exposure to UV and visible lights. In the present study, alterations caused by chlorides on daguerreotype test samples prepared following 19th century recipes were studied. The dependence of variations in the production steps of daguerreotypes, such as multiple sensitization and gilding, on the impact of the exposure to chlorine were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), complemented by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and Raman spectroscopy. It was observed that AgCl nucleates on the image particles and in the substrate defects, regardless of the particle density or the sensitization process. In gilded samples, Au was observed over the image particles and the polished silver substrate as a tightly packed grainy layer, which conformably follows the polishing irregularities. For the first time it is shown that Au preferentially accumulates on top of the image particles. This gold layer does not protect the image from chlorine-induced deterioration.

  2. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Mai, T.; Mowers, M.; Uriarte, C.; Blair, N.; Heimiller, D.; Martinez, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a deterministic optimization model of the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States into the future. The model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, is designed to analyze the critical energy issues in the electric sector, especially with respect to potential energy policies, such as clean energy and renewable energy standards or carbon restrictions. ReEDS provides a detailed treatment of electricity-generating and electrical storage technologies and specifically addresses a variety of issues related to renewable energy technologies, including accessibility and cost of transmission, regional quality of renewable resources, seasonal and diurnal generation profiles, variability of wind and solar power, and the influence of variability on the reliability of the electrical grid. ReEDS addresses these issues through a highly discretized regional structure, explicit statistical treatment of the variability in wind and solar output over time, and consideration of ancillary services' requirements and costs.

  3. Expanding the Territory of Historical Reconstruction: The Study of Frequency and Severity of Hail Storms, Based on 19th and 20th-Century Records from Swiss Insurance Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauelshagen, F.

    2009-09-01

    than observations from the existing network of meteorological offices. Some researchers have even suggested that the entire period before radar observation, beginning in the 1980s, should be classified as pre-instrumental. However, it is undoubted that documents kept in the archives of insurance companies provide valuable proxy information on hail storm occurrence for, at least, the pre-1950-period (well back into the 19th century). This paper discusses key problems in dealing with these proxy data (reliability, interpretation and density of records), as well as methodologies that may lead to extend existing time series on hail storm occurrence in Switzerland. As a consequence, this paper suggests that, for some meteorological phenomena, the field of reconstruction from documentary archival sources must be extended well up into the 20th century, which cannot simply and statically be categorized as "instrumental period”.

  4. 2 CFR 3485.937 - ED Deciding Official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false ED Deciding Official. 3485.937 Section 3485.937 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 3485.937 ED Deciding Official. The ED Deciding Official...

  5. 2 CFR 3485.937 - ED Deciding Official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false ED Deciding Official. 3485.937 Section 3485.937 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Definitions § 3485.937 ED Deciding Official. The ED Deciding Official...

  6. EDS Coal Liquefaction Process Development. Phase V. Laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of EDS Illinois bottoms

    SciTech Connect

    Lao, T C; Levasseur, A A

    1984-02-01

    This interim report documents work carried out by Combustion Engineering, Inc. under a contract to Exxon Research and Engineering Company to develop a conceptual Hybrid Boiler design fueled by the vacuum distillation residue (vacuum bottoms) derived from Illinois No. 6 coal in the EDS Coal Liquefaction Process. This report was prepared by Combustion Engineering, Inc., and is the first of two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler program. This report covers the results of a laboratory investigation to assess the fuel and ash properties of EDS vacuum bottoms. The results of the laboratory testing reported here were used in conjunction with Combustion Engineering's design experience to predict fuel performance and to develop appropriate boiler design parameters. These boiler design parameters were used to prepare the engineering design study reported in EDS Interim Report FE-2893-113, the second of the two reports on the predevelopment phase of the Hybrid Boiler Program. 46 figures, 29 tables.

  7. Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... DL, et al., eds. Bleeding and thrombosis. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, ... et al., eds. Arterial and venous thrombosis. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, ...

  8. Lump in the abdomen

    MedlinePlus

    ... In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery . 19th ed. ... In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery . 19th ed. ...

  9. Evolving Therapeutic Strategies for the Classic Philadelphia-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Jason B.; Stein, Brady L.; McMahon, Brandon; Giles, Francis J.; Platanias, Leonidas C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the emergence of JAK inhibitors, there is a need for disease-modifying treatments for Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). JAK inhibitors ameliorate symptoms and address splenomegaly, but because of the heterogeneous contributors to the disease process, JAK inhibitor monotherapy incompletely addresses the burden of disease. The ever-growing understanding of MPN pathogenesis has provided the rationale for testing novel and targeted therapeutic agents, as monotherapies or in combination, in preclinical and clinical settings. A number of intriguing options have emerged, and it is hoped that further progress will lead to significant changes in the natural history of MPNs. PMID:26870834

  10. [Control discourses and power relations of yellow fever: Philadelphia in 1793].

    PubMed

    Kim, Seohyung

    2014-12-01

    1793 Yellow fever in Philadelphia was the most severe epidemics in the late 18th century in the United States. More than 10% of the population in the city died and many people fled to other cities. The cause of yellow fever in the United States had close relationship with slaves and sugar in Philadelphia. Sugarcane plantation had needed many labors to produce sugar and lots of Africans had to move to America as slaves. In this process, Aëdes aegypti, the vector of yellow fever had migrated to America and the circumstances of ships or cities provided appropriate conditions for its breeding. In this period, the cause of yellow fever could not be established exactly, so suggestions of doctors became entangled in political and intellectual discourses in American society. There was a critical conflict between Jeffersonian Republicanism and Federalism about the origin and treatment of yellow fever. Benjamin Rush, a Jeffersonian Republican, suggested urban sanitation reform and bloodletting. He believed the infectious disease happened because of unsanitary city condition, so he thought the United States could be a healthy nation by improvement of the public health and sanitation. He would like to cope with national crisis and develop American society on the basis of republicanism. While Rush suggested the improvement of public health and sanitation, the city government of Philadelphia suggested isolation of yellow fever patients and quarantine. City government isolated the patients from healthy people and it reconstructed space of hospital. Also, it built orphanages to take care of children who lost their parents during the epidemic and implemented power to control people put in the state of exception. Of course, city government tried to protect the city and nation by quarantine of every ship to Philadelphia. Control policies of yellow fever in 1793 showed different conflicts and interactions. Through the yellow fever, Jeffersonian Republicanism and Federalism had

  11. Astronomy Teaching in Argentina in the 19th Century. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Argentina del Siglo XIX.) O Ensino de Astronomia na Argentina no Século XIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberto Cornejo, Jorge; Santilli, Haydée

    2010-12-01

    Sarmiento believed that Copernican astronomy was one of the critical scientific disciplines to the formation of a "modern" citizen. In this work, we shall study astronomical science from two points of view: from the scientific knowledge and the educational presentation of such knowledge. Our study will address in Argentina in 19th century, starting from the initiative of Bernardino Rivadavia in 1821, who founded an astronomic observatory at Buenos Aires, until the first activities of the observatories at Córdoba and La Plata. On both lines, scientific and educative, we shall analyze the influence of positivist ideas. We shall highlight epistemological differences between both observatories, Córdoba's based on French positivism and La Plata's based on German positivism. We shall also show the different attitude of both observatories towards education. We shall see the way in which positivist ideas had great relevance in the training of elementary school teachers. We shall also establish the relevant influence of the socio-historical context over the astronomical development, and show that astronomy was a fundamental social factor at Argentina history. Domingo F. Sarmiento consideraba que la astronomía copernicana era una de las disciplinas científicas fundamentales para la conformación de un ciudadano "moderno". En este trabajo estudiaremos la ciencia astronómica desde dos vertientes: la referida específicamente al conocimiento científico y aquella vinculada con la presentación educativa de dicho conocimiento. Nuestro estudio se desarrollará en Argentina durante el siglo XIX, desde la iniciativa de Bernardino Rivadavia en 1821, de establecer en Buenos Aires un observatorio astronómico, hasta las primeras actividades de los observatorios de Córdoba y de La Plata. En ambas vertientes, científica y educativa, analizaremos la influencia de las ideas positivistas. Resaltaremos las diferencias epistemológicas entre los dos observatorios, orientado el primero

  12. Text message program improves outcomes, decreases ED utilization among ED patients with poorly controlled diabetes.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    Diabetic patients who lack access to primary care tend to frequent the ED, often with complications from their disease that could have been prevented with proper management and education. To get around the problem of access, researchers tested an automated program that continuously delivered educational messaging via text to a group of patients who presented to the ED with poorly controlled diabetes. After six months, researchers noted improvements in Hb A1c levels, self-reported medication adherence, and ED utilization when compared with a control group. And the impact was particularly noteworthy among Latinos, according to the researchers. The text messaging program, dubbed TExT-Med, was developed by four physicians and two diabetes educators. The messages were delivered daily, and contained educational as well motivational content derived from the National Diabetes Education Program.There were also medication reminders, healthy living challenges, and trivia questions about diabetes. At six months, Hb A1c levels decreased by 1.05% in the intervention group, compared to 0.60% in the control group, and self-reported medication adherence improved from 4.5 to 5.4 (as measured on an 8 point scale) in the intervention group versus a decrease of 0.1 in the control group. During the six-month study period, 35.9% of patients in the intervention group presented to the ED for care, as compared to 51.6% of patients in the control group.

  13. Cannabis Extract Treatment for Terminal Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with a Philadelphia Chromosome Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Yadvinder; Bali, Chamandeep

    2013-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the white blood cells and is typically well treated with combination chemotherapy, with a remission state after 5 years of 94% in children and 30–40% in adults. To establish how aggressive the disease is, further chromosome testing is required to determine whether the cancer is myeloblastic and involves neutrophils, eosinophils or basophils, or lymphoblastic involving B or T lymphocytes. This case study is on a 14-year-old patient diagnosed with a very aggressive form of ALL (positive for the Philadelphia chromosome mutation). A standard bone marrow transplant, aggressive chemotherapy and radiation therapy were revoked, with treatment being deemed a failure after 34 months. Without any other solutions provided by conventional approaches aside from palliation, the family administered cannabinoid extracts orally to the patient. Cannabinoid resin extract is used as an effective treatment for ALL with a positive Philadelphia chromosome mutation and indications of dose-dependent disease control. The clinical observation in this study revealed a rapid dose-dependent correlation. PMID:24474921

  14. Cannabis extract treatment for terminal acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a Philadelphia chromosome mutation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Yadvinder; Bali, Chamandeep

    2013-09-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the white blood cells and is typically well treated with combination chemotherapy, with a remission state after 5 years of 94% in children and 30-40% in adults. To establish how aggressive the disease is, further chromosome testing is required to determine whether the cancer is myeloblastic and involves neutrophils, eosinophils or basophils, or lymphoblastic involving B or T lymphocytes. This case study is on a 14-year-old patient diagnosed with a very aggressive form of ALL (positive for the Philadelphia chromosome mutation). A standard bone marrow transplant, aggressive chemotherapy and radiation therapy were revoked, with treatment being deemed a failure after 34 months. Without any other solutions provided by conventional approaches aside from palliation, the family administered cannabinoid extracts orally to the patient. Cannabinoid resin extract is used as an effective treatment for ALL with a positive Philadelphia chromosome mutation and indications of dose-dependent disease control. The clinical observation in this study revealed a rapid dose-dependent correlation.

  15. Quantifying Disparities in Urban Firearm Violence by Race and Place in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: A Cartographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher N.; Jacoby, Sara F.; Dong, Beidi; Smith, Randi; Sims, Carrie A.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To describe variability in the burden of firearm violence by race, income, and place in an urban context. Methods. We used Philadelphia Police Department data from 2013 to 2014 to calculate firearm assault rates within census block groups for both victim residence and event locations, stratifying by race and block group income. We used cartographic modeling to determine variations in incidence of firearm assault by race, neighborhood income, and place. Results. The overall rate of firearm assault was 5.0 times higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5, 5.6) for Black people compared with White people. Firearm assault rates were higher among Black people across all victim residence incomes. Relative risk of firearm assault reached 15.8 times higher (95% CI = 10.7, 23.2) for Black residents in the highest-income block groups when compared with high-income White individuals. Firearm assault events tended to occur in low-income areas and were concentrated in several “hot spot” locations with high proportions of Black residents. Conclusions. Profound disparity in exposure to firearm violence by race and place exists in Philadelphia. Black people were substantially more likely than White people to sustain firearm assault, regardless of neighborhood income. PMID:28103077

  16. Lessons for providers and hospitals from Philadelphia's obstetric services closures and consolidations, 1997-2012.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Scott A; Martin, Ashley E; Ranade, Richa; Srinivas, Sindhu K; Grande, David

    2014-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act is triggering an increase in hospital consolidation and mergers. How other hospitals respond to these disruptions in supply could influence patient outcomes. We examined the experience of Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania (coterminous with the city of Philadelphia), where thirteen of nineteen hospital obstetric units closed between 1997 and 2012. Between October 2011 and January 2012 we interviewed twenty-three key informants from eleven hospitals (six urban and five suburban) whose obstetric units remained open, to understand how the large number of closures affected their operations. Informants reported having confronted numerous challenges as a result of the obstetric unit closures, including sharp surges in delivery volume and an increase in the proportion of patients with public insurance or no insurance. Informants reported adopting a number of strategies, such as innovative staffing models, to cope with the added demand brought about by the closure of nearby obstetric units. Informants emphasized that interhospital communication could mitigate closures' stresses on the health care system. Our study supports the need for policy makers to anticipate reductions in supply and monitor patient outcomes.

  17. Emergency Preparedness for a Mass Gathering: the 2015 Papal Visit to Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Paras, Emma; Butler, Matthew; Maguire, Brian F; Scarfone, Rich

    2016-09-29

    In September 2015, Pope Francis visited Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and led outdoor events over the course of 2 days. As a result, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) was faced with the challenge of planning for and responding to a mass gathering that was anticipated to be one of the largest in US history. As a result of unprecedented traffic restrictions, it was anticipated that patients, staff, and vendors would have severe challenges accessing the hospital, along with impaired communications from widespread cell phone service disruption. Previous mass gatherings have proven a need for early, detailed planning with multidisciplinary stakeholders, but little has been published on the impact of mass gatherings on area hospitals. This lack of data makes it difficult to predict the extent to which demand for hospital services would be increased and which services would be most affected. Early, coordinated planning allowed CHOP leaders to delegate responsibilities to those with specific expertise, prioritize needs, prevent duplication of efforts, and ensure engagement and accountability from key stakeholders. Emergency preparedness-led efforts including housing almost 1000 employees for 3 consecutive nights and assisting families with access allowed our hospital to maintain operations. The planning strategies shared here will provide emergency preparedness planners with a blueprint for future mass gathering preparedness. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 10).

  18. Genomic Analysis Reveals Novel Diversity among the 1976 Philadelphia Legionnaires’ Disease Outbreak Isolates and Additional ST36 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Mercante, Jeffrey W.; Morrison, Shatavia S.; Desai, Heta P.; Raphael, Brian H.; Winchell, Jonas M.

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila was first recognized as a cause of severe and potentially fatal pneumonia during a large-scale outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease (LD) at a Pennsylvania veterans’ convention in Philadelphia, 1976. The ensuing investigation and recovery of four clinical isolates launched the fields of Legionella epidemiology and scientific research. Only one of the original isolates, “Philadelphia-1”, has been widely distributed or extensively studied. Here we describe the whole-genome sequencing (WGS), complete assembly, and comparative analysis of all Philadelphia LD strains recovered from that investigation, along with L. pneumophila isolates sharing the Philadelphia sequence type (ST36). Analyses revealed that the 1976 outbreak was due to multiple serogroup 1 strains within the same genetic lineage, differentiated by an actively mobilized, self-replicating episome that is shared with L. pneumophila str. Paris, and two large, horizontally-transferred genomic loci, among other polymorphisms. We also found a completely unassociated ST36 strain that displayed remarkable genetic similarity to the historical Philadelphia isolates. This similar strain implies the presence of a potential clonal population, and suggests important implications may exist for considering epidemiological context when interpreting phylogenetic relationships among outbreak-associated isolates. Additional extensive archival research identified the Philadelphia isolate associated with a non-Legionnaire case of “Broad Street pneumonia”, and provided new historical and genetic insights into the 1976 epidemic. This retrospective analysis has underscored the utility of fully-assembled WGS data for Legionella outbreak investigations, highlighting the increased resolution that comes from long-read sequencing and a sequence type-matched genomic data set. PMID:27684472

  19. Young People Take Their Rightful Places as Full and Contributing Members of a World Class Workforce: Philadelphia Youth Network Annual Report 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Youth Network, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The title of this year's annual report has particular meaning for all of the staff at the Philadelphia Youth Network. The phrase derives from Philadelphia Youth Network's (PYN's) new vision statement, developed as part of its recent strategic planning process, which reads: All of our city's young people take their rightful places as full and…

  20. The Plight of the "Able Student": Ruth Wright Hayre and the Struggle for Equality in Philadelphia's Black High Schools, 1955-1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delmont, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This article features Ruth Wright Hayre, Philadelphia's first black high school teacher and principal whose work at William Penn High School for Girls became a model for counseling and motivation programs at other majority-black high schools in Philadelphia, expanding educational and career opportunities for thousands of "able" students.…