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Sample records for 19th international colloquium

  1. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 19th International Colloquium on Magnetic Films and Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, T.; Inoue, J.

    2007-03-01

    The 19th International Colloquium on Magnetic Films and Surfaces (ICMFS 2006) was held on 14-18 August 2006 at the Sendai International Center in Sendai, Japan. The purpose of the Colloquium was to bring together scientists working on magnetic thin films and surfaces and to provide an opportunity for presentation and discussion of recent experimental and theoretical advances in the field. 285 scientists from 17 countries (Japan: 167, overseas: 118) participated in the Colloquium, as well as 6 family members. There were 56 oral and 178 poster presentations. The oral presentations consisted of 3 plenary talks, 23 invited talks and 30 contributed talks. The number of presentations by scientific category are as follows: Spin dependent transport: 43 Magnetic storage/memory: 9 Magnetization reversal and fast dynamics: 15 Spin injection and spin transfer torque: 26 Magnetic thin films and multilayers: 71 High spin polarization materials: 17 Hard and soft magnetic materials: 3 Magneto-optics: 5 Characterization techniques for thin films and surfaces: 7 Exchange coupling: 13 Micro- and nanopatterned magnetic structures: 18 Micromagnetic modelling: 2 One of the characteristics of the present Colloquium is an increase in the number of presentations in the field of spin-electronics, as seen above. This Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics includes several important papers in this rapidly developing field. We believe that, in the future, the field of magnetic materials will maintain its popularity and, on top of that, other fields such as spintronics materials, materials related to life sciences and medicine and also materials related to the environment will be investigated further. The ICMFS Conference started in London in 1964, and is now one of the world-wide conferences on magnetism. The Colloquium has been held in Japan four times now: the previous ones being the 5th ICMFS in the Mount Fuji area, the 10th at Yokohama and the 17th at Kyoto, which was

  2. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vantomme, André; Temst, Kristiaan

    2015-12-01

    It is our pleasure to present the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, which took place from September 14th until September 19th, 2014. The conference was held in the historic center of Leuven, a medieval city in the heart of Europe, a city where centuries-old culture meets frontier science and technology. Among other places, the conference brought us to the University Hall, which has been in use by the university since its foundation in 1425, to the Infirmerie of the Grand Beguinage and to the medieval city of Bruges, the latter two being Unesco World Heritage sites.

  3. Second International Colloquium on Mars: Abstracts for a colloquium. [bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Abstracts of 110 papers relating to investigations of the planet Mars and intended for consideration at the colloquium are presented. Entries are arranged alphabetically according to the author's name.

  4. PREFACE: 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, T.; Martín-Martínez, M. J.; Mateos, J.

    2015-10-01

    The 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19) was held at the Hospedería Fonseca (Universidad de Salamanca, Spain), on 29 June - 2 July, 2015, and was organized by the Electronics Area from the University of Salamanca. The Conference is held biannually and covers the recent progress in the field of electron dynamics in solid-state materials and devices. This was the 19th meeting of the international conference series formerly named Hot Carriers in Semiconductors (HCIS), first held in Modena in 1973. In the edition of 1997 in Berlin the name of the conference changed to International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors, keeping the same acronym, HCIS; and finally in the edition of Montpellier in 2009 the name was again changed to the current one, International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON). The latest editions took place in Santa Barbara, USA, in 2011 and Matsue, Japan, in 2013. Research work on electron dynamics involves quite different disciplines, and requires both fundamental and technological scientific efforts. Attendees to the conference come mostly from academic institutions, belonging to both theoretical and experimental groups working in a variety of fields, such as solid-state physics, electronics, optics, electrical engineering, material science, laser physics, etc. In this framework, events like the EDISON conference become a basic channel for the progress in the field. Here, researchers working in different areas can meet, present their latest advances and exchange their ideas. The program of EDISON'19 included 13 invited papers, 61 oral contributions and 73 posters. These contributions originated from scientists in more than 30 different countries. The Conference gathered 140 participants, coming from 24 different countries, most from Europe, but also with a significant participation

  5. EDITORIAL: The 19th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, OFS-19 The 19th International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, OFS-19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, David D.; Jones, Julian D. C.; Tatam, Ralph P.

    2009-03-01

    OFS-19 was held in April 2008 in Perth, Australia, with Professor David Sampson (University of Western Australia) as General Chair assisted by Technical Programme Co-Chairs Professor Stephen Collins (Victoria University, Australia), Professor Kyunghwan Oh (Yonsei University, Korea) and Dr Ryozo Yamauchi (Fujikura Ltd, Japan). 'OFS-19' has once again affirmed the OFS series as the leading international conference for the optical fibre sensor community. Since its inception, in London in 1983, and under the leadership of an international steering committee independent of any learned society or professional institution, it has been held approximately every eighteen months. The venue nominally rotates from Europe, to the Americas, and thence to Asia and the Pacific. OFS-19 demonstrated the continuing vigour of the community, with some 240 papers presented, plus 8 tutorials; submissions and attendance were from 29 countries, with a little over half coming from the Asia-Pacific Region. In recent years, it has become a tradition to publish a post-conference special issue in Measurement Science and Technology, and these special issues offer a representative sample of the current status of the field. In the 25 years since OFS began, many of the early ideas and laboratory-based proof-of-principle experiments have successfully evolved into highly developed instrumentation systems and commercial products. One of the greatest success stories has been the optical fibre Bragg grating. Its exquisite intrinsic sensitivity to temperature and strain has led to an expanding niche in structural monitoring, especially in civil engineering. It has formed the 'beach-head' for penetration of optical fibre sensors into the oil and gas industry, initially in the harsh environment of down-hole monitoring. Latterly, it has paved the way for new applications of one of the earliest fibre optic sensors, the fibre hydrophone, which is now making its mark in sub-sea seismic surveying. Additionally

  6. An international effort to cure a global health problem: A report on the 19th Hemoglobin Switching Conference.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Gerd A; Bodine, David; Brand, Marjorie; Crispino, John; de Bruijn, Marella F T R; Nathan, David; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Porcher, Catherine; Strouboulis, John; Zon, Len; Higgs, Douglas R; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Engel, James Douglas

    2015-10-01

    Every 2 years since 1978, an international group of scientists, physicians, and other researchers meet to discuss the latest developments in the underlying etiology, mechanisms of action, and developmental acquisition of cellular and systemic defects exhibited and elicited by the most common inherited human disorders, the hemoglobinopathies. The 19th Hemoglobin Switching Conference, held in September 2014 at St. John's College in Oxford, once again exceeded all expectations by describing cutting edge research in cellular, molecular, developmental, and genomic advances focused on these diseases. The conference comprised about 60 short talks over 3 days by leading investigators in the field. This meeting report describes the highlights of the conference. PMID:26143582

  7. Paired and Interacting Galaxies: International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 124

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulentic, Jack W. (Editor); Keel, William C. (Editor); Telesco, C. M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings of the International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 124, held at the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, on December 4 to 7, are given. The purpose of the conference was to describe the current state of theoretical and observational knowledge of interacting galaxies, with particular emphasis on galaxies in pairs.

  8. The 19th International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment. Proceedings, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The technology and applications of terrestrial remote sensing (RS) are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics examined include the future of the NASA earth-sciences program, NOAA plans for earth observations in the 1990s, space RS in France, international coordination of RS satellite programs, and applications of geocoded imagery. Consideration is given to spatial and tabular databases for order-three soil surveys, an AVHRR and Landsat regional inventory of irrigated agriculture, classification of wetlands, microwave radiometry of ocean surface winds and sea ice, and floodplain land-cover mapping with Thematic-Mapper data.

  9. PREFACE: 19th International Conference on the Application of High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics and Nanotechnology (HMF-19)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraki, Koji; Takeyama, Shojiro

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains invited and contributed papers from the 19th International Conference on the Application of High Magnetic Fields in Semiconductor Physics and Nanotechnology (HMF-19) held in Fukuoka, Japan, from 1-6 August 2010. This conference was mainly sponsored by the Tokyo University-'Horiba International fund', which was donated by Dr Masao Horiba, the founder of Horiba Ltd. The scientific program of HMF-19 consisted of 37 invited talks, 24 contributed talks, and 83 posters, which is available from the conference homepage http://www.hmf19.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/index.html. Each manuscript submitted for publication in this volume has been independently reviewed. The Editor is very grateful to all the reviewers for their quick responses and helpful reports and to all the authors for their submissions and patience for the delay in the editorial process. Finally, the Editor would like to express his sincere gratitude to all the individuals involved in the conference organization and all the attendees, who made this conference so successful. Koji Muraki Conference photograph Committees Chair Conference chairS Takeyama(ISSP-UT) Conference secretary T Machida (IIS-UT) Program chair K Muraki (NTT) Local organizing chair K Oto (Chiba Univ.) Advisory Committee International Domestic L Brey (ES) T Ando (TIT) Z H Chen (CN) Y Hirayama (Tohoku Univ.) S Das Sarma (US) G Kido (NIMS) L Eaves (GB) N Miura (JP) J P Eisenstein (US) J Nitta (Tohoku Univ.) K Ensslin (CH) T Takamasu (NIMS) J Furdyna (US) G M Gusev (BR) I Kukushkin (RU) Z D Kvon (RU) G Landwehr (DE) J C Maan (NL) A H MacDonald (US) N F Oliveira Jr (BR) A Pinczuk (US) J C Portal (FR) A Sachrajda (CA) M K Sanyal(IN) R Stepniewski(PL) Program Committee Chair: K Muraki(NTT) International Domestic G Bauer (AU) H Ajiki (Osaka Univ.) G Boebinger (US) H Aoki (Hongo, UT) S Ivanov (RU) K Nomura (RIKEN) K von Klitzing (DE) T Okamoto (Hongo, UT) R Nicholas (GB) T Osada (ISSP-UT ) M Potemski (FR) N Studart (BR) U Zeitler (NL

  10. Papers presented to the International Colloquium on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains short papers that have been accepted for the International Colloquium on Venus, August 10-12, Pasadena, California. The Program Committee consisted of Stephen Saunders (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and Sean C. Solomon (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Chairmen: Raymond Arvison (Washington University); Vassily Moroz (Institute for Space Research); Donald B. Campbell (Cornell University); Thomas Donahue (University of Michigan); James W. Head III (Brown University); Pamela Jones (Lunar and Planetary Institute); Mona Jasnow, Andrew Morrison, Timothy Pardker, Jeffrey Plaut, Ellen Stofan, Tommy Thompson, Cathy Weitz (Jet Propulsion Laboratory); Gordon Pettengil (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); and Janet Luhmann (University of California, Los Angeles).

  11. Summary of the 19th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research (July 23-27, 2008 in Montreal, Canada)

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Julian I

    2009-10-01

    The 19th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research was a successful meeting attended by 815 scientists from around the world including 322 from the United States, 146 attendees from Canada, 179 from Europe, 134 from Asia, and 34 from a combination of Australia, South America, Africa and the Middle East. The scientific program was of excellent quality featuring 64 talks, including 41 from invited speakers. The Keynote Lecture, delivered by Chris Somerville (Energy Biosciences Institute/UC Berkeley) was particularly relevant to US agriculture and energy research and was titled The Development of Cellulosic Biofuels. There were also 6 community-organized workshops featuring 30 additional talks on topics including Frontiers in Plant Systems Biology, Sources and strategies for Gene Structure, Gene Function, and Metabolic Pathway annotation at TAIR and AraCyc, Advanced Bioinformatic Resources for Arabidopsis, Laser Microtechniques and Applications with Arabidopsis, Plant Proteomics- Tools, Approaches, Standards and Breakthroughs in Studying the Proteome, and Phytohormone Biosynthesis and Signal Transduction. Conference organizers arranged a special seminar by Jim Collins (head of the Directorate of Biosciences at NSF) to provide a community discussion forum regarding the future of Arabidopsis research. Approximately 575 posters were presented in topic areas including, among others, Development, Signal Transduction, Cell Walls, Non-Arabidopsis Systems, and Interactions with Biotic and Abiotic Factors. All conference abstracts and the full program are posted at The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR), a publicly-accessibly website (www.arabidopsis.org/news/abstracts.jsp.) A survey completed by approximately 40% of the meeting attendees showed high satisfaction with the quality of the presentations, meeting organization and the city of Montreal. The conference is the largest annual international Arabidopsis venue which allowed the exchange of information at the

  12. Live surgery and teleconferencing at the 19th World Congress of the International Association of Surgeons, Gastroenterologists and Oncologists (IASGO) in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shuji; Han, Ho-Seong; Okamura, Koji; Bao, Congxiao; Kitamura, Yasuichi; Nakashima, Naoki; Tanaka, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Advanced technologies were introduced for the first time at the 19th World Congress of the Inter-national Association of Surgeons, Gastroenterologists and-Oncologists (IASGO) in Beijing, China. Live surgery and multi-station teleconferencing were performed using the super high-speed inter-net to transmit and preserve the high quality life- like images of surgical operations. This is the first time in the history of IASGO that use has been made of this worldwide academic network and user friendly digital video transport system, which has many advantages over traditional telemedicine systems. Here we briefly report these epoch-making sessions and their future expectations PMID:21940304

  13. Report on the international colloquium on cardio-oncology (rome, 12-14 march 2014).

    PubMed

    Ewer, Michael; Gianni, Luca; Pane, Fabrizio; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Steiner, Rudolf K; Wojnowski, Leszek; Yeh, Edward T; Carver, Joseph R; Lipshultz, Steven E; Minotti, Giorgio; Armstrong, Gregory T; Cardinale, Daniela; Colan, Steven D; Darby, Sarah C; Force, Thomas L; Kremer, Leontien Cm; Lenihan, Daniel J; Sallan, Stephen E; Sawyer, Douglas B; Suter, Thomas M; Swain, Sandra M; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2014-01-01

    Cardio-oncology is a relatively new discipline that focuses on the cardiovascular sequelae of anti-tumour drugs. As any other young adolescent discipline, cardio-oncology struggles to define its scientific boundaries and to identify best standards of care for cancer patients or survivors at risk of cardiovascular events. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was held in Rome, Italy, 12-14 March 2014, with the aim of illuminating controversial issues and unmet needs in modern cardio-oncology. This colloquium embraced contributions from different kind of disciplines (oncology and cardiology but also paediatrics, geriatrics, genetics, and translational research); in fact, cardio-oncology goes way beyond the merging of cardiology with oncology. Moreover, the colloquium programme did not review cardiovascular toxicity from one drug or the other, rather it looked at patients as we see them in their fight against cancer and eventually returning to everyday life. This represents the melting pot in which anti-cancer therapies, genetic backgrounds, and risk factors conspire in producing cardiovascular sequelae, and this calls for screening programmes and well-designed platforms of collaboration between one key professional figure and another. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was promoted by the Menarini International Foundation and co-chaired by Giorgio Minotti (Rome), Joseph R Carver (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States), and Steven E Lipshultz (Detroit, Michigan, United States). The programme was split into five sessions of broad investigational and clinical relevance (what is cardiotoxicity?, cardiotoxicity in children, adolescents, and young adults, cardiotoxicity in adults, cardiotoxicity in special populations, and the future of cardio-oncology). Here, the colloquium chairs and all the session chairs briefly summarised what was said at the colloquium. Topics and controversies were reported on behalf of all members of the working group of

  14. Report on the International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology (Rome, 12–14 March 2014)

    PubMed Central

    Ewer, Michael; Gianni, Luca; Pane, Fabrizio; Sandri, Maria Teresa; Steiner, Rudolf K; Wojnowski, Leszek; Yeh, Edward T; Carver, Joseph R; Lipshultz, Steven E; Minotti, Giorgio; Armstrong, Gregory T; Cardinale, Daniela; Colan, Steven D; Darby, Sarah C; Force, Thomas L; Kremer, Leontien CM; Lenihan, Daniel J; Sallan, Stephen E; Sawyer, Douglas B; Suter, Thomas M; Swain, Sandra M; van Leeuwen, Flora E

    2014-01-01

    Cardio-oncology is a relatively new discipline that focuses on the cardiovascular sequelae of anti-tumour drugs. As any other young adolescent discipline, cardio-oncology struggles to define its scientific boundaries and to identify best standards of care for cancer patients or survivors at risk of cardiovascular events. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was held in Rome, Italy, 12–14 March 2014, with the aim of illuminating controversial issues and unmet needs in modern cardio-oncology. This colloquium embraced contributions from different kind of disciplines (oncology and cardiology but also paediatrics, geriatrics, genetics, and translational research); in fact, cardio-oncology goes way beyond the merging of cardiology with oncology. Moreover, the colloquium programme did not review cardiovascular toxicity from one drug or the other, rather it looked at patients as we see them in their fight against cancer and eventually returning to everyday life. This represents the melting pot in which anti-cancer therapies, genetic backgrounds, and risk factors conspire in producing cardiovascular sequelae, and this calls for screening programmes and well-designed platforms of collaboration between one key professional figure and another. The International Colloquium on Cardio-Oncology was promoted by the Menarini International Foundation and co-chaired by Giorgio Minotti (Rome), Joseph R Carver (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States), and Steven E Lipshultz (Detroit, Michigan, United States). The programme was split into five sessions of broad investigational and clinical relevance (what is cardiotoxicity?, cardiotoxicity in children, adolescents, and young adults, cardiotoxicity in adults, cardiotoxicity in special populations, and the future of cardio-oncology). Here, the colloquium chairs and all the session chairs briefly summarised what was said at the colloquium. Topics and controversies were reported on behalf of all members of the working group

  15. PREFACE: XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP) (Group30)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackx, Fred; De Schepper, Hennie; Van der Jeugt, Joris

    2015-04-01

    The XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP), also known as the Group30 conference, took place in Ghent (Belgium) from Monday 14 to Friday 18 July 2014. The conference was organised by Ghent University (Department of Applied Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics, and Department of Mathematical Analysis). The website http://www.group30.ugent.be is still available. The ICGTMP is one of the traditional conference series covering the most important topics of symmetry which are relevant to the interplay of present-day mathematics and physics. More than 40 years ago a group of enthusiasts, headed by H. Bacry of Marseille and A. Janner of Nijmegen, initiated a series of annual meetings with the aim to provide a common forum for scientists interested in group theoretical methods. At that time most of the participants belonged to two important communities: on the one hand solid state specialists, elementary particle theorists and phenomenologists, and on the other mathematicians eager to apply newly-discovered group and algebraic structures. The conference series has become a meeting point for scientists working at modelling physical phenomena through mathematical and numerical methods based on geometry and symmetry. It is considered as the oldest one among the conference series devoted to geometry and physics. It has been further broadened and diversified due to the successful applications of geometric and algebraic methods in life sciences and other areas. The first four meetings took place alternatively in Marseille and Nijmegen. Soon after, the conference acquired an international standing, especially following the 1975 colloquium in Nijmegen and the 1976 colloquium in Montreal. Since then it has been organized in many places around the world. It has become a bi-annual colloquium since 1990, the year it was organized in Moscow. This was the first time the colloquium took place in Belgium. There were 246 registered

  16. Proceedings of the eighth international colloquium on ultraviolet and x-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas (IAU colloquium 86)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This volume represents the Proceedings of the Eighth International Colloquium on Ultraviolet and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas. The aim of this series of colloquia has been to bring together workers in the fields of astrophysical spectroscopy, laboratory spectroscopy and atomic physics in order to exchange ideas and results on problems which are common to these different disciplines. In addition to the presented papers there was a poster paper session. (WRF)

  17. Higher Education in Federal Systems. Proceedings of an International Colloquium (Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada, May 8-10, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Douglas, Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains the proceedings of an international colloquium on higher education in federal countries with complex divisions of responsibility for the many facets of higher education. The volume is organized in four parts. Part I contains one paper, "The Federal Context for Higher Education" by Ronald L. Watts and a description of the…

  18. Proceeding of the International Scientific Colloquium: MATHEMATICS AND CHILDREN (How to Teach and Learn Mathematics) (Osijek, Croatia, April 13, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlekovic, Margita, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of the Organisational Committee of the international scientific colloquium Mathematics and Children is to encourage additional scientific research in the field of mathematics teaching in Croatia. The development of science and education is a part of a long-term Education Sector Development Plan 2005-2010. Following the example of…

  19. PREFACE: XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP) (Group30)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brackx, Fred; De Schepper, Hennie; Van der Jeugt, Joris

    2015-04-01

    The XXXth International Colloquium on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics (ICGTMP), also known as the Group30 conference, took place in Ghent (Belgium) from Monday 14 to Friday 18 July 2014. The conference was organised by Ghent University (Department of Applied Mathematics, Computer Science and Statistics, and Department of Mathematical Analysis). The website http://www.group30.ugent.be is still available. The ICGTMP is one of the traditional conference series covering the most important topics of symmetry which are relevant to the interplay of present-day mathematics and physics. More than 40 years ago a group of enthusiasts, headed by H. Bacry of Marseille and A. Janner of Nijmegen, initiated a series of annual meetings with the aim to provide a common forum for scientists interested in group theoretical methods. At that time most of the participants belonged to two important communities: on the one hand solid state specialists, elementary particle theorists and phenomenologists, and on the other mathematicians eager to apply newly-discovered group and algebraic structures. The conference series has become a meeting point for scientists working at modelling physical phenomena through mathematical and numerical methods based on geometry and symmetry. It is considered as the oldest one among the conference series devoted to geometry and physics. It has been further broadened and diversified due to the successful applications of geometric and algebraic methods in life sciences and other areas. The first four meetings took place alternatively in Marseille and Nijmegen. Soon after, the conference acquired an international standing, especially following the 1975 colloquium in Nijmegen and the 1976 colloquium in Montreal. Since then it has been organized in many places around the world. It has become a bi-annual colloquium since 1990, the year it was organized in Moscow. This was the first time the colloquium took place in Belgium. There were 246 registered

  20. EDITORIAL: Precision Measurement Technology at the 56th International Scientific Colloquium in Ilmenau Precision Measurement Technology at the 56th International Scientific Colloquium in Ilmenau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manske, E.; Froehlich, T.

    2012-07-01

    The 56th International Scientific Colloquium was held from 12th to 16th September 2011 at the Ilmenau University of Technology in Germany. This event was organized by the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering under the title: 'Innovation in Mechanical Engineering—Shaping the Future' and was intended to reflect the entire scope of modern mechanical engineering. In three main topics many research areas, all involving innovative mechanical engineering, were addressed, especially in the fields of Precision Engineering and Precision Measurement Technology, Mechatronics and Ambient-Assisted Living and Systems Technology. The participants were scientists from 21 countries, and 166 presentations were given. This special issue of Measurement Science and Technology presents selected contributions on 'Precision Engineering and Precision Measurement Technology'. Over three days the conference participants discussed novel scientific results in two sessions. The main topics of these sessions were: Measurement and Sensor Technology Process measurement Laser measurement Force measurement Weighing technology Temperature measurement Measurement dynamics and Nanopositioning and Nanomeasuring Technology Nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machines Nanometrology Probes and tools Mechanical design Signal processing Control and visualization in NPM devices Significant research results from the Collaborative Research Centre SFB 622 'Nanopositioning and Nanomeasuring Machines' funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) were presented as part of this topic. As the Chairmen, our special thanks are due to the International Programme Committee, the Organization Committee and the conference speakers as well as colleagues from the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology who helped make the conference a success. We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions, the referees for their time spent reviewing the contributions and their valuable comments, and the whole

  1. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (19th, Recife, Brazil, July 22-27, 1995), Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meira, Luciano, Ed.; Carraher, David, Ed.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following research papers: "Some Aspects of the Construction of the Geometrical Conception of the Phenomenon of the Sun's Shadow" (P. Boero, R. Garuti, E. Lemut, T. Gazzolo, & C. Llado); "Towards the Design of a…

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (19th, Recife, Brazil, July 22-27, 1995), Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meira, Luciano, Ed.; Carraher, David, Ed.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following research papers: "The Impact of Meaning on Students' Ability to Negate Statements" (T. Barnard); "A Study of the Secondary Teaching System about the Concept of Limit" (L. Espinosa & C. Azcarate);…

  3. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 19th, Ann Arbor, MI, October 21-25, 1985, Proceedings. Volumes 1 & 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The technology and applications of terrestrial remote sensing (RS) are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics examined include the future of the NASA earth-sciences program, NOAA plans for earth observations in the 1990s, space RS in France, international coordination of RS satellite programs, and applications of geocoded imagery. Consideration is given to spatial and tabular databases for order-three soil surveys, an AVHRR and Landsat regional inventory of irrigated agriculture, classification of wetlands, microwave radiometry of ocean surface winds and sea ice, and floodplain land-cover mapping with Thematic-Mapper data.

  4. Technical improvements in 19th century Belgian window glass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauriks, Leen; Collette, Quentin; Wouters, Ine; Belis, Jan

    Glass was used since the Roman age in the building envelope, but it became widely applied together with iron since the 19th century. Belgium was a major producer of window glass during the nineteenth century and the majority of the produced window glass was exported all over the world. Investigating the literature on the development of 19th century Belgian window glass production is therefore internationally relevant. In the 17th century, wood was replaced as a fuel by coal. In the 19th century, the regenerative tank furnace applied gas as a fuel in a continuous glass production process. The advantages were a clean production, a more constant and higher temperature in the furnace and a fuel saving. The French chemist Nicolas Leblanc (1787-1793) and later the Belgian chemist Ernest Solvay (1863) invented processes to produce alkali out of common salt. The artificial soda ash improved the quality and aesthetics of the glass plates. During the 19th century, the glass production was industrialized, influencing the operation of furnaces, the improvement of raw materials as well as the applied energy sources. Although the production process was industrialized, glassblowing was still the work of an individual. By improving his work tools, he was able to create larger glass plates. The developments in the annealing process followed this evolution. The industry had to wait until the invention of the drawn glass in the beginning of the 20th century to fully industrialise the window glass manufacture process.

  5. 19th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2008-01-01

    The construction of residence hall facilities at colleges and universities continues to be strong, as institutions scramble to meet the housing needs and varied demands of a growing student population. This article presents data collected from 39 new residence hall projects completed in 2007. According to American School & University's 19th annual…

  6. The 19th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    The Flat-Plate Solar Array Project is described. Project analysis and integration is discussed. Technology research in silicon material, large-area silicon sheet and environmental isolation; cell and module formation; engineering sciences, and module performance and failure analysis. It includes a report on, and copies of visual presentations made at, the 19th Project Integration Meeting held at Pasadena, California, on November 11, 1981.

  7. The International Scientific Colloquium MATHEMATICS AND CHILDREN (The Math Teacher) = Treci medunarodni znanstveni skup MATEMATIKA I DIJETE (Ucitelj matematike) (3rd, Osijek, Croatia, March 18, 2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlekovic, Margita, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In the monograph The Math Teacher (following the Third International Scientific Colloquium Mathematics and Children in 2011), the term "teacher" designates a person who teaches mathematics, and the context of each article reveals whether this implies the teacher at a pre-school institution, a school or a university instructor. In Croatia, much…

  8. EDITORIAL: 19th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GR19), México, 4-9 July 2010 19th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GR19), México City, México, 4-9 July 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marolf, Don; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    subject: Carlo Rovelli, and an interesting update on one the recent developments in the ADF/CFT correspondence 'the condensed matter-gravity connection' presented by Gary Horowitz, among other excellent contributions. The material presented by other plenary speakers, which is not represented in this issue, has already been widely reported either by themselves or by others. The parallel sessions covered a wide range of topics currently under investigation by the worldwide gravity community, and were enthusiastically attended by the conference participants. In the past, it has been traditional to ask session chairs to write a brief summary of the talks presented. This time, however, we asked the parallel session chairs to nominate a small number of individual speakers to contribute to this issue. By focusing on a smaller number of topics, we were able to allocate more space to each, which we hope will provide a more useful overview of at least some of the most exciting physics at GR19. We hope that this novel approach will become a standard feature of future proceedings of the GR meetings. Anther aspect we should mention is the satellite meeting on Quantum Gravity and its preceding PASI Quantum Gravity Summer School held at the Institute for Mathematics, National Autonomous University of México (UNAM), Campus Morelia, Morelia México, from 23 June to 3 July, 2010 which was attended by many students from Mexican institutions, as well as by several participants who came from abroad to learn about this fascinating subject. The organizers want to thank the generous support of the following institutions: the Mexican National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT), the National Autonomous University of México (UNAM), the Autonomous Metropolitan University of México UAM, the Center for Research and Advanced Studies CINVESTAV, the Mexican Physical Society (SMF), The Mexican Academy of Sciences AMC, The Institute for Nuclear Sciences of UNAM (ICN), the International Union

  9. EDITORIAL: 19th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GR19), México, 4-9 July 2010 19th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GR19), México City, México, 4-9 July 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marolf, Don; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    subject: Carlo Rovelli, and an interesting update on one the recent developments in the ADF/CFT correspondence 'the condensed matter-gravity connection' presented by Gary Horowitz, among other excellent contributions. The material presented by other plenary speakers, which is not represented in this issue, has already been widely reported either by themselves or by others. The parallel sessions covered a wide range of topics currently under investigation by the worldwide gravity community, and were enthusiastically attended by the conference participants. In the past, it has been traditional to ask session chairs to write a brief summary of the talks presented. This time, however, we asked the parallel session chairs to nominate a small number of individual speakers to contribute to this issue. By focusing on a smaller number of topics, we were able to allocate more space to each, which we hope will provide a more useful overview of at least some of the most exciting physics at GR19. We hope that this novel approach will become a standard feature of future proceedings of the GR meetings. Anther aspect we should mention is the satellite meeting on Quantum Gravity and its preceding PASI Quantum Gravity Summer School held at the Institute for Mathematics, National Autonomous University of México (UNAM), Campus Morelia, Morelia México, from 23 June to 3 July, 2010 which was attended by many students from Mexican institutions, as well as by several participants who came from abroad to learn about this fascinating subject. The organizers want to thank the generous support of the following institutions: the Mexican National Council for Science and Technology (CONACYT), the National Autonomous University of México (UNAM), the Autonomous Metropolitan University of México UAM, the Center for Research and Advanced Studies CINVESTAV, the Mexican Physical Society (SMF), The Mexican Academy of Sciences AMC, The Institute for Nuclear Sciences of UNAM (ICN), the International Union

  10. Proceedings of Colloquium 110 of the International Astronomical Union on Library and Information Services in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, George A.; Stevens-Rayburn, Sarah

    This report provides an overview of the presentations and summaries of discussions at IAU Colloquium 110, which was held in Washington, D.C., on 26-30 July 1988 and at the Goddard Space Flight Center on 1 August 1988. The topics included: the publication and acquisition of books and journals; searching for astronomical information; the handling and use of special-format materials; conservation; archiving of unpublished documents; uses of computers in libraries; astronomical databases and various aspects of the administration of astronomy libraries and services. Particular attention was paid to new developments, but the problems of astronomers and institutions in developing countries were also considered.

  11. FOREWORD: 4th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckrone, David S.; Sugar, Jack

    1993-01-01

    common. The series has also demonstrated that the dialogue between "users" and "providers" of atomic data is a two-way conversation, with atomic physicists beginning to view astrophysical and laboratory plasmas as unique sources of new information about the structure of complex atomic species. The fifth International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas is scheduled to take place in Meudon, France in 1995.

  12. Educational interventions to improve antibiotic use in the community: report from the International Forum on Antibiotic Resistance (IFAR) colloquium, 2002.

    PubMed

    Finch, Roger G; Metlay, Joshua P; Davey, Peter G; Baker, Lee J

    2004-01-01

    National and international strategies for the control of antibiotic resistance recommend education for health-care professionals and the public to promote prudent antibiotic use. This paper, based on discussions at the 2002 colloquium of the International Forum on Antibiotic Resistance (IFAR), provides an international discourse between theoretical approaches to behaviour change and practical experience gained in large-scale antibiotic use educational campaigns. Interventions are more likely to be effective if their aim is to change behaviour, rather than provide information. They should target all relevant groups, especially parents, children, day-care staff, and health-care professionals. They should use clear and consistent messages concerning bacterial versus viral infection, prudent antibiotic use, symptomatic treatment, and infection-control measures (eg, handwashing). Campaigns should use a range of communications using pilot-testing, strong branding, and sociocultural adaptation. Prime-time television is likely to be the most effective public medium, while academic detailing is especially useful for health-care professionals. Multifaceted interventions can improve antibiotic prescribing to some degree. However, there are few data on their effects on resistance patterns and patient outcomes, and on their cost-effectiveness. Current research aims include the application of behaviour-change models, the development and validation of prudent antibiotic prescribing standards, and the refinement of tools to assess educational interventions. PMID:14720568

  13. FOREWORD: The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchang-Brillet, Wad Lydia; Wyart, Jean-François; Zeippen, Claude

    1996-01-01

    The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas was held in Meudon, France, from August 28 to 31 1995. It was the fifth in a series started by the Atomic Spectroscopic Group at the University of Lund, Sweden, in 1983. Then followed the meetings in Toledo, USA, Amsterdam, The Nether- lands and Gaithersburg, USA, with a three year period. The original title of the series ended with "... for Astrophysics and Fusion Research" and became more general with the 4th colloquium in Gaithersburg. The purpose of the present meeting was, in line with tradition, to bring together "producers" and "users" of atomic data so as to ensure optimal coordination. Atomic physicists who study the structure of atoms and their radiative and collisional properties were invited to explain the development of their work, emphasizing the possibilities of producing precise transition wavelengths and relative line intensities. Astrophysicists and laboratory plasma physicists were invited to review their present research interests and the context in which atomic data are needed. The number of participants was about 70 for the first three meetings, then exploded to 170 at Gaithersburg. About 140 participants, coming from 13 countries, attended the colloquium in Meudon. This large gathering was partly due to a number of participants from Eastern Europe larger than in the past, and it certainly showed a steady interest for interdisciplinary exchanges between different communities of scientists. This volume includes all the invited papers given at the conference and, in the appendix, practical information on access to some databases. All invited speakers presented their talks aiming at good communication between scientists from different backgrounds. A separate bound volume containing extended abstracts of the poster papers has been published by the Publications de l'Observatoire de Paris, (Meudon 1996), under the responsibility of

  14. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  15. Women in 19th Century Irish immigration.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P

    1984-01-01

    By the 1950s--100 years after the great famine of 1845-49-- 57% of emigrants from the 26 countries of Ireland were women. In the latter 1/2 of the 19th Century, increasing proportions of women emigrated, until they outnumbered men. For women it was more than a flight from poverty. It was also an escape from an increasingly patriarchal society, whose asymetrical development as a colony curtailed women's social space, even in their traditional role as wife and mother. The famine, which is the single greatest influence forcing emigration, undermined the social fabric of an agrarian society, hastening the process of agricultural transformation. The growth of a new class of Irish a British grazier landlords resulted in a situation of acute land scarcity, encouraging tendencies to cling to one's land holding without dividing it. This, combined with new inheritance practices, gave rise to widespread arranged marriages as a means of land consolidation, and the dowry system. The spontaneous marriage practices of famine days also were replaced by a postponement of marriage. These trends severely reduced the choices exerted by women. The absence of big industrialized cities, which might have absorbed displaced rural populations, removed available options, particularly for women. The system of land monopoly and inheritance revolving around male heads of households reinforced partriarchal relations, within a framework of rigid sexual norms, whose enforcement was easy because the church, which played an important role in the emergence of these values, was a major landowner in itself. The subordinated, invisible status of women in post-famine Ireland, and growing barriers to easy access to marriage partners, to waged employment and self-expression, all helped ensure the higher and higher emigration rates of women. The economic transformation of Irish agriculture accelerated the establishment of oppressive values and helped depreciate the position of women to a very low level. The

  16. [The technicalization of medicine in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Olsén, J E

    2001-01-01

    The paper focuses on the role that instruments played in the medical discourse of the 19th century. Towards the end of the century, instruments had imbued the medical sciences to such an extent that the situation soon was compared to the vernacular confusion of the biblical tower of Babel. Whereas the autonomical recordings of laboratory apparatus, vouched for guarantee against biased test results, clinicians and general practitioners were finding it difficult to incorporate the new techniques into their daily routines. A tension between the instrument as invention, moulded to fit a particular series of experiments, and the instrument as a reproducible item, was inevitable. Hence, the unification of the science and practice of medicine, became an important topic at the international medical meetings of the late 19th century. Seen in the light of the industrialization and urbanization of occidental culture and society, the instrumentation of medicine entailed a number of significant issues which hinged on the relationship between the biological destiny of man and the artificial wonders of technology. Grand metaphors like the organic machine and the human motor, did not only signal a scientific preoccupation with the shortcomings of the living organism as opposed to the perfection of the machine, but also indicated closer ties between the human body and technology at large. In a certain sense, medical instruments, along with apparatuses such as the camera, the steam-engine, the telegraph, the phonograph and the cinematograph, offered a new set-up of codes with which the body and its functions could be reinterpreted. In this respect, the late nineteenth-century strive for the standardisation and unification of medical instruments, was not irreconcilable with the notion of the l'homme moyen, as conceived, for example, in the work of the Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet. The paper outlines the span of medical measuring devices, dating from the sphygmometer of

  17. The International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugar, J.; Leckrone, D.

    1993-01-01

    This was the fourth in a series of colloquia begun at the University of Lund, Sweden in 1983 and subsequently held in Toledo, Ohio and Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The purpose of these meetings is to provide an international forum for communication between major users of atomic spectroscopic data and the providers of these data. These data include atomic wavelengths, line shapes, energy levels, lifetimes, and oscillator strengths. Speakers were selected from a wide variety of disciplines including astrophysics, laboratory plasma research, spectrochemistry, and theoretical and experimental atomic physics.

  18. Tenth International Colloquium on UV and X-Ray Spectroscopy of Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Eric H.; Kahn, Steven M.

    UV and X-ray spectroscopy of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas draws interest from many disciplines. Contributions from international specialists are collected together in this book from a timely recent conference. In astrophysics, the Hubble Space Telescope, Astro 1 and ROSAT observatories are now providing UV and X-ray spectra and images of cosmic sources in unprecedented detail, while the Yohkoh mission recently collected superb data on the solar corona. In the laboratory, the development of ion-trap facilities and novel laser experiments are providing vital new data on high temperature plasmas. Recent innovations in the technology of spectroscopic instrumentation are discussed. These papers constitute an excellent up-to-date review of developments in short-wavelength spectroscopy and offer a solid introduction to its theoretical and experimental foundations. These proceedings give an up-to-date review of developments in short-wavelength spectroscopy and offer a solid introduction to its theoretical and experimental foundations. Various speakers presented some of the first results from the high resolution spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, the high sensitivity far ultraviolet and X-ray spectrometers of the ASTRO 1 Observatory, the imaging X-ray spectrometer on the ROSAT Observatory, and the high resolution solar X-ray spectrometer on Yohkoh. The development of ion trap devices had brought about a revolution in laboratory investigations of atomic processes in highly charged atoms. X-ray laser experiments had not only yielded considerable insight into electron ion interactions in hot dense plasmas, but also demonstrated the versatility of laser plasmas as laboratory X-ray sources. Such measurements also motivated and led to refinements in the development of large-scale atomic and molecular codes. On the instrumental side, the design and development of the next series of very powerful short wavelength observatories had generated a large number of

  19. Vocational Education in the 19th Century American Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Gordon F.

    The phrase "all things useful and all things ornamental," coined by Benjamin Franklin, describes the stated mission of most of the approximately 6,000 educational academies flourishing in America in the mid-19th century. Built upon the roots of Latin grammar schools, the academies evolved to include courses in many areas, from classical studies to…

  20. Woman Suffrage and the 19th Amendment. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Beginning in the mid-19th century, several generations of woman suffrage supporters lectured, wrote, marched, lobbied, and practiced civil disobedience to achieve what many people considered a radical change in the U.S. Constitution. Militant suffragists used tactics such as parades, silent vigils, and hunger strikes. In 1870 the 15th amendment to…

  1. The Sun as a variable star: Solar and stellar irradiance variations; Colloquium of the International Astronomical Union, 143rd, Boulder, CO, Jun. 20-25, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, Judit M. (Editor); Froehlich, Claus (Editor); Hudson, Hugh S. (Editor); Tobiska, W. Kent (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Variations in solar and stellar irradiances have long been of interest. An International Astronomical Union (IAU) colloquium reviewed such relevant subjects as observations, theoretical interpretations, and empirical and physical models, with a special emphasis on climatic impact of solar irradiance variability. Specific topics discussed included: (1) General Reviews on Observations of Solar and Stellar Irradiance Variability; (2) Observational Programs for Solar and Stellar Irradiance Variability; (3) Variability of Solar and Stellar Irradiance Related to the Network, Active Regions (Sunspots and Plages), and Large-Scale Magnetic Structures; (4) Empirical Models of Solar Total and Spectral Irradiance Variability; (5) Solar and Stellar Oscillations, Irradiance Variations and their Interpretations; and (6) The Response of the Earth's Atmosphere to Solar Irradiance Variations and Sun-Climate Connections.

  2. Contributions to the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Studies of heavy nuclei in cosmic radiation were studied in an attempt to determine source abundances for various elements. Much of the data analyzed was supplied by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 3 (HEAO 3) and employed the use of ionization chambers and Cherenrov counters.

  3. Contributions to the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of cosmic radiation, its measurements and their patterns are presented. Measurement techniques and variations in solar cosmic ray patterns and calculations of elemental abundances are reviewed.

  4. [Popular knowledge about medicaments in 19th century periodicals].

    PubMed

    Arabas, Iwona

    2004-01-01

    Polish periodicals published since the beginning of 19th century contained household knowledge which was of great importance to peasants. In the second half of 19th century the number of articles related to prevention, treatment as well as life hygiene (including nutrition guidance) enlarged significantly. The term "household medicine box# was very often used in periodicals as titles of both: sections dedicated to hygiene or medicine as well as for articles describing medicaments intended to be kept in the boxes. Articles referenced law regulations stated in "law for pharmacists and pharmacies# from 1844. The availability of medical handbooks widened with the end of the century and this fact may have caused the changes in profiles of numerous medical sections in popular periodicals. However the changes did not affect publications related to contents of medical boxes. PMID:17152882

  5. Reconciling reconstructed and simulated features of the winter Pacific-North-American pattern in the early 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchettin, D.; Bothe, O.; Lehner, F.; Ortega, P.; Raible, C. C.; Swingedouw, D.

    2014-11-01

    Reconstructions of past climate behavior often describe prominent anomalous periods that are not necessarily captured in climate simulations. Here, we illustrate the contrast between an interdecadal strong positive phase of the winter Pacific/North American pattern (PNA) in the early 19th century that is described by a PNA reconstruction based on tree-rings from northwestern North America, and a slight tendency towards negative winter PNA anomalies during the same period in an ensemble of state-of-the-art coupled climate simulations. Additionally, a pseudo-proxy investigation with the same simulation ensemble allows assessing the robustness of PNA reconstructions using solely geophysical predictors from northwestern North America for the last millennium. The reconstructed early-19th-century positive PNA anomaly emerges as a potentially reliable feature, although it is subject to a number of sources of uncertainty and potential deficiencies. The pseudo-reconstructions demonstrate that the early-19th-century discrepancy between reconstructed and simulated PNA does not stem from the reconstruction process. Instead, reconstructed and simulated features of the early-19th-century PNA can be reconciled by interpreting the reconstructed evolution during this time as an expression of internal climate variability, hence unlikely to be reproduced in its exact temporal occurrence by a small ensemble of climate simulations. However, firm attribution of the reconstructed PNA anomaly is hampered by known limitations and deficiencies of coupled climate models and uncertainties in the early-19th-century external forcing and background climate conditions.

  6. [Strength training at the beginning of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Seignan, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 19th century, the therapies of strength had part task to revive vital energy and thus to restore the body forces. Under the method assigned with this objective, there were the baths, body exercises and a continuation of preservation recommended by hygiene. On a general level, the doctor had in hearth to harder the body and to make it robust and healthy. He is to the sick of the head could benefit from this care. Electrification made demonstration of its curative action and its interest to treat the languid state. Considered under this angle, strength could not be then the prerogative of the only muscles. PMID:26050431

  7. The development of the dementia concept in 19th century.

    PubMed

    Caixeta, Leonardo; Costa, Jean Newton Lima; Vilela, Ana Caroline Marques; Nóbrega, Magno da

    2014-07-01

    The dementia concept has been reformulated through its history and the 19th century was remarkable in the construction of this concept as we understand it today. Like other syndromes, much of the history of the dementia concept comes from the attempt to separate it from other nosological conditions, giving it a unique identity. The fundamental elements for the arising of the dementia modern concept were: a) correlation of the observed syndrome with organic-cerebral lesions; b) understanding of the irreversibility of the dementia evolution; c) its relation with human ageing; and d) the choice of the cognitive dysfunction as a clinical marker of the dementia concept. PMID:25054992

  8. OVERALL VIEW OF CEMETERY ENTRANCE GATE AND 19TH STREET APPROACH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF CEMETERY ENTRANCE GATE AND 19TH STREET APPROACH, LOOKING INTO CEMETERY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Baton Rouge National Cemetery, 220 North 19th Street, Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Parish, LA

  9. REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF MAINTENANCE BUILDING FROM ACROSS 19TH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF MAINTENANCE BUILDING FROM ACROSS 19TH STREET, WITH ENCLOSURE WALL IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Baton Rouge National Cemetery, 220 North 19th Street, Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Parish, LA

  10. Nostalgia in the Army (17th-19th Centuries).

    PubMed

    Battesti, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    People died from nostalgia in the army in the 17th-19th centuries. The term 'nostalgia', created by the doctor Johannes Hofer (1669-1752), from Mulhouse, came from the Germanic Heimweh, or 'homesickness'. It affected the young people enrolled in the army, such as Swiss mercenaries. Longing for their native land, they were consumed by an ongoing desire to return home. If it was impossible to do so, they sank into 'a sadness accompanied with insomnia, anorexia and other unpleasant symptoms' that could lead to death. Nostalgia became classified as a disease during the last quarter of the 18th century and ravaged the French army during the Revolution and the Napoleonic wars. However, as soon as the wars ended, it ceased to exist in the army (except the colonial army). It was removed from the nosology in the first half of the 19th century. Rapidly explained as an example of a misdiagnosis or a confusion between 'connection and cause', nostalgia needs to be assessed in regard to the medical debate between 'alienists' and 'organicists'. Creating much concern, nostalgia needs to be considered in the historical context of a society destabilized by modernity, with some individuals uprooted by the sudden transition from civil society to military life. It raises questions about the role that the army played in the creation of the French national union. Nostalgia may have also covered psychic traumatisms later designated as combat fatigue, war neurosis, or post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:27035922

  11. [Suicide and cultural criticism in 19th century Spanish medicine].

    PubMed

    Plumed Domingo, José Javier; Novella, Enric J

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the major role of suicide in the cultural criticism deployed by 19th century Spanish doctors by analysing the most important theoretical models that inspired their contributions to its aetiology. In the first half of the century, the most commonly debated causal factor was the passions, which were thought to stand in a permanent tension with a free, reflexive and conscious self, in accordance with the spiritualist doctrine that was then dominant. In the context of a growing somatisation of moral and intellectual phenomena, the notion of suicide as an act of free will was later modified, and it became considered the consequence of certain organic disturbances. However, this process did not alter the central role of suicidal behaviour within 19th-century cultural criticism, because the advent of degeneration theory meant that doctors finally had a doctrine that allowed them to combine biological determinism with the extended perception of a moral and social crisis threatening the stability and achievements of bourgeois society. PMID:26012336

  12. Glacier changes on South Georgia since the late-19th century documented in historical photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, John; Haynes, Valerie

    2014-05-01

    South Georgia is one of the few landmasses in the Southern Ocean. It provides a crucial geographical datapoint for glacier responses to climate change over different timescales. As part of an ongoing glacier inventory of the island, we are compiling a database of historical glacier photographs. Since the late 19th century, the island has been visited by numerous scientific and survey expeditions, as well as being the land-base for a major whaling industry. Historical photographs of the island are available from the late-19th century, beginning with the 1882-83 German International Polar Year Expedition. Many more exist from the 20th century, notably from the South Georgia Surveys in the 1950s. An assessment of the value of the photographs indicates that spatial coverage is variable, many lack reference features to pinpoint glacier positions and, in the case of smaller glaciers, the presence of snowcover makes it difficult to define the ice edge. Nevertheless, the photographs provide useful corroboration of more advanced glacier positions during the late-19th century and recession of smaller mountain and valley glaciers during the mid-20th century, while larger tidewater and sea-calving glaciers generally remained in relatively advanced positions until the 1980s. Since then, nearly all the glaciers have retreated; some of these retreats have been dramatic and a number of small mountain glaciers have fragmented or disappeared. The response of the glaciers can be related to synoptic-scale warming, particularly since the 1950s, moderated by individual glacier geometry and topography.

  13. JANNAF 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, James E. (Editor); Kuckels, Melanie C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes is a compilation of 25 unclassified/unlimited-distribution technical papers presented at the Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) 19th Propulsion Systems Hazards Subcommittee (PSHS) meeting held jointly with the 37th Combustion Subcommittee (CS) and 25th Airbreathing Propulsion Subcommittee (APS), and 1st Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee (MSS) meetings. The meeting was held 13-17 November 2000 at the Naval Postgraduate School and Hyatt Regency Hotel, Monterey, California. Topics covered at the PSHS meeting include: impact and thermal vulnerability of gun propellants; thermal decomposition and cookoff behavior of energetic materials; violent reaction and detonation phenomena of solid energetic materials subjected to shock and impact loading; and hazard classification, and insensitive munitions testing of propellants and propulsion systems.

  14. [The disease called "Barbiers" in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Gaüzère, B A; Aubry, P

    2014-01-01

    Described by French, English, and Dutch physicians, the disease known as Barbiers struck the island of Reunion in 1805, 1821, 1838 and 1847. It also ravaged India and other parts of the world during the 19(th) century. The origin of the name Barbiers nonetheless remains unknown. Because no diagnostic tests existed at the time, Barbiers has been thought to refer to several clinical entities, and has been the topic of passionate debates among French doctors, including Auguste Vinson and Le Roy De Méricourt, as well as among their British colleagues. This article reviews its history and tries to understand its true nature in 2014, but cannot reach a firm conclusion. PMID:25295833

  15. Cholera in Haiti and Other Caribbean Regions, 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Medical journals and other sources do not show evidence that cholera occurred in Haiti before 2010, despite the devastating effect of this disease in the Caribbean region in the 19th century. Cholera occurred in Cuba in 1833–1834; in Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Nevis, Trinidad, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, Granada, Anguilla, St. John, Tortola, the Turks and Caicos, the Grenadines (Carriacou and Petite Martinique), and possibly Antigua in 1850–1856; and in Guadeloupe, Cuba, St. Thomas, the Dominican Republic, Dominica, Martinique, and Marie Galante in 1865–1872. Conditions associated with slavery and colonial military control were absent in independent Haiti. Clustered populations, regular influx of new persons, and close quarters of barracks living contributed to spread of cholera in other Caribbean locations. We provide historical accounts of the presence and spread of cholera epidemics in Caribbean islands. PMID:22099117

  16. Reconciling reconstructed and simulated features of the winter Pacific/North American pattern in the early 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchettin, D.; Bothe, O.; Lehner, F.; Ortega, P.; Raible, C. C.; Swingedouw, D.

    2015-06-01

    Reconstructions of past climate behavior often describe prominent anomalous periods that are not necessarily captured in climate simulations. Here, we illustrate the contrast between an interdecadal strong positive phase of the winter Pacific/North American pattern (PNA) in the early 19th century that is described by a PNA reconstruction based on tree rings from northwestern North America, and a slight tendency towards negative winter PNA anomalies during the same period in an ensemble of state-of-the-art coupled climate simulations. Additionally, a pseudo-proxy investigation with the same simulation ensemble allows for assessing the robustness of PNA reconstructions using solely geophysical predictors from northwestern North America for the last millennium. The reconstructed early 19th-century positive PNA anomaly emerges as a potentially reliable feature, although the pseudo-reconstructions are subject to a number of sources of uncertainty and deficiencies highlighted especially at multidecadal and centennial timescales. The pseudo-reconstructions demonstrate that the early 19th-century discrepancy between reconstructed and simulated PNA does not stem from the reconstruction process. Instead, reconstructed and simulated features of the early 19th-century PNA can be reconciled by interpreting the reconstructed evolution during this time as an expression of internal climate variability, which is unlikely to be reproduced in its exact temporal occurrence by a small ensemble of climate simulations. However, firm attribution of the reconstructed PNA anomaly is hampered by known limitations and deficiencies of coupled climate models and uncertainties in the early 19th-century external forcing and background climate state.

  17. Naming and Necessity: Sherborn's Context in the 19(th) Century.

    PubMed

    McOuat, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    By the late 19(th) Century, storms plaguing early Victorian systematics and nomenclature seemed to have abated. Vociferous disputes over radical renaming, the world-shaking clash of all-encompassing procrustean systems, struggles over centres of authority, and the issues of language and meaning had now been settled by the institution of a stable imperial museum and its catalogues, a set of rules for the naming of zoological objects, and a new professional class of zoologists. Yet, for all that tranquillity, the disputes simmered below the surface, re-emerging as bitter struggles over synonyms, trinomials, the subspecies category, the looming issues of the philosophy of scientific language, and the aggressive new American style of field biology - all pressed in upon the received practice of naming and classifying organisms and the threat of anarchy. In the midst rose an index. This paper will explore the context of CD Sherborn's Index Animalium and those looming problems and issues which a laborious and comprehensive "index of nature" was meant to solve. PMID:26877652

  18. Colombian approaches to psychology in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Gilberto Leonardo

    2012-11-01

    Colombian intellectuals of the 19th century widely consulted scientific psychology in regard to their political, religious, and educational interests. Colombian independence from Spain (1810) introduced the necessity of transforming the former subjects into illustrious citizens and members of a modern state. After independence, political liberals embraced Bentham's thesis of utilitarianism and the theories of sensibility, with a teaching style based in induction. Conservatives defended the Catholic tradition about the divine origin of the soul and used scholasticism as a model of teaching. A bipartisan coalition, the Regeneration, incorporated the ideas of modern psychology based on the principles of Thomistic thought (Neo-Thomism). The Neo-Thomists considered psychology as a science of the soul and debated physiological explanations of the mind. The conceptual advances of the period have been trivialized in historical accounts of psychology in Colombia, due to the emphasis on the institutionalization processes of the discipline in 1947. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23397920

  19. Faces and Photography in 19th-Century Visual Science.

    PubMed

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-09-01

    Reading faces for identity, character, and expression is as old as humanity but representing these states is relatively recent. From the 16th century, physiognomists classified character in terms of both facial form and represented the types graphically. Darwin distinguished between physiognomy (which concerned static features reflecting character) and expression (which was dynamic and reflected emotions). Artists represented personality, pleasure, and pain in their paintings and drawings, but the scientific study of faces was revolutionized by photography in the 19th century. Rather than relying on artistic abstractions of fleeting facial expressions, scientists photographed what the eye could not discriminate. Photography was applied first to stereoscopic portraiture (by Wheatstone) then to the study of facial expressions (by Duchenne) and to identity (by Galton and Bertillon). Photography opened new methods for investigating face perception, most markedly with Galton's composites derived from combining aligned photographs of many sitters. In the same decade (1870s), Kühne took the process of photography as a model for the chemical action of light in the retina. These developments and their developers are described and fixed in time, but the ideas they initiated have proved impossible to stop. PMID:27146124

  20. Austrian Pharmacy in the 18th and 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecary’s profession and education. In the 18th century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecary’s profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19th century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecaries’ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900. PMID:21179353

  1. Austrian pharmacy in the 18 and 19th century.

    PubMed

    Kletter, Christa

    2010-01-01

    This overview reflects the extensive changes in the health care system which had significant effects on the apothecaryâs profession and education. In the 18(th) century Maria Theresia assigned Gerard van Swieten to modernize the medical curriculum and to work out reforms for health care. The resulting sanitary bill released in 1770 and amended in 1773 became effective for the whole empire and influenced greatly the apothecaryâs profession. The Viennese Medical Faculty continued to be the supervisory body for the apothecaries, a situation which prolonged the conflicts between the faculty and the apothecaries. The financial and social distress prevalent in the 19(th) century also affected the apothecary business and led to a crisis of the profession. Furthermore, the apothecariesâ missing influence over the sanitary authorities delayed the release of a badly needed new apothecary bill until 1906. The introduction of a specific pharmaceutical curriculum at the university in 1853 was a great step forward to improve the pharmaceutical education. Nevertheless, the secondary school exam was not compulsory for the studies until 1920 and, therefore, the graduates were not on a par with other university graduates before that date. Women, except nuns, were not allowed to work as pharmacists until 1900. PMID:21179353

  2. Florence Nightingale: a 19th-century mystic.

    PubMed

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) received a clear and profoundly moving Call to serve God at the age of 16. Through a lifetime of hard work and discipline, she became a practicing mystic in the Western tradition, thereby becoming an instrument of God's love, which was the primarily source of her great energy and the fabled "Nightingale power." To understand the life and work of this legendary healer, who forever changed human consciousness, the role of women, and nursing and public health systems in the middle of the 19th century, it is necessary to understand her motivation and inspiration. This article will discuss her life and work in the context of her mystical practice and to show the parallels between her life and the lives of three recognized women mystics. In her epic Crimean war mission (1854-1856) of leading and directing women nurses in the army hospital at Scutari, Turkey, Florence Nightingale burst into world consciousness as a spiritual beacon of hope and compassion for all who suffered. Her historic breakthrough achievement--pioneering the modern administrative role of nurse superintendent with measurable outcomes supported by irrefutable data--in the face of incredible adversity was merely the cornerstone of her life work. PMID:20467024

  3. Eleventh NASTRAN User's Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    NASTRAN (NASA STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS) is a large, comprehensive, nonproprietary, general purpose finite element computer code for structural analysis which was developed under NASA sponsorship. The Eleventh Colloquium provides some comprehensive general papers on the application of finite element methods in engineering, comparisons with other approaches, unique applications, pre- and post-processing or auxiliary programs, and new methods of analysis with NASTRAN.

  4. Colloquium Participants Speak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafe, Joanne

    1996-01-01

    Presents a summary and interpretation of responses from the participants of the Catholic-Jewish Colloquium. The participants reflect on a number of issues including the changing nature of the relationship between Judaism and Christianity, the rationale and impact of this changed relationship, the particular elements involved in the…

  5. A creative approach to the development of an agenda for knowledge utilization: outputs from the 11th international knowledge utilization colloquium (KU 11).

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Joyce E; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Davies, Huw T O; McCormack, Brendan

    2012-12-01

    A group of researchers and practitioners interested in advancing knowledge utilization met as a colloquium in Belfast (KU 11) and used a "world café" approach to exploit the social capital and shared understanding built up over previous events to consider the research and practice agenda. We considered three key areas of relevance to knowledge use: (1) understanding the nature of research use, influence and impact; (2) blended and collaborative approaches to knowledge production and use; and (3) supporting sustainability and spread of evidence-informed innovations. The approach enabled the development of artifacts that reflected the three areas and these were analyzed using a creative hermeneutic approach. The themes that emerged and which are outlined in this commentary are not mutually exclusive. There was much overlap in the discussions and therefore of the themes, reflecting the complex nature of knowledge translation work. The agenda that has emerged from KU 11 also reflects the participatory and creative approach in which the meeting was structured and focused, and therefore emphasizes the processual, relational and contingent nature of some of the challenges we face. The past 20 years has seen an explosion in activity around understanding KU, and we have learned much about the difficulties. Whilst the agenda for the next decade may be becoming clearer, colloquia such as KU 11, using creative and engaging approaches, have a key role to play in dissecting, articulating and sharing that agenda. In this way, we also build an ever-expanding international community that is dedicated to working towards increasing the chances of success for better patient care. PMID:22849391

  6. [Earth magnetism research in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Schröder, W; Wiederkehr, K H

    2000-01-01

    Even before the discovery of the electromagnetism by Oersted, and before Ampère, who attributed all magnetism to the flux of electrical currents, A. v. Humboldt and Hansteen had turned to geomagnetism. With the help of the "Göttinger Magnetische Verein", a worldwide cooperation under the leadership of Gauss game into existence. Even today, Gauss' theory of the geomagnetism is one of the pillars for geomagnetical research work. Thereafter, J. v. Lamont, Prof. in Munich, took over the leadership in Germany. In England, the Magnetic Crusade was started by the initiative of John Herschel and E. Sabine. At the beginning of the forties, James Clarke Ross advanced to the Antarctic Continent, which was then quite unknown. Ten years later, Sabine was able to gather solar-terrestrial relations from the data of the colonical observatories. In the eighties, Arthur Schuster, following Balfour Stewart's ideas, succeeded in interpreting the daily variations of the electrical process in the high atmosphere. The geomagnetic research work in Germany was given a fresh impetus by the First Polar Year 1882-1883. Georg Neumayer, director of the "Deutsche Seewarte" in Hamburg, had been one of the initiators of the Polar Year. He had a close cooperation with the newly founded "Kaiserliches Marineobservatorium" in Wilhelmshaven, and he also managed to gain the collaboration of the "Gauss-Observatorium für Erdmagnetismus" in Göttingen under E. Schering. In the Polar Year, the first automatic recording magnetometers (Kew-Model) were used in a German observatory in Wilhelmshaven. Here M. Eschenhagen, who later became director of the geomagnetic section in the new Meterological-Magnetic Observatory in Potsdam, gained special merit. The treatise considers preceding hypotheses of geomagnetism as well as the palaeomagnetic studies. The essential seismological investigations at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century are briefly treated. They represent one of the keystones for the modern

  7. The Historical Roots Of Exobiology In The 19th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coliolo, F.

    2003-04-01

    Scientific studies on the air's microorganisms started in France with Gaultier de Claubry, who declared during a conference at Academy of Science: "The atmosphere carries spores and germs that can develop themselves in contact with water; this does not exclude the possibility to carry these substances by spring water and hot springs" (de Claubry G., Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, t. XLI, p.645). These researches were improved by Pasteur, and have constituted the basis of Panspermy's theory. In the mid 19th century, several events, particularly by the second epidemy of cholera that attacked Europe in 1847 and 1848, attracted the interest of researchers involved in the study of atmosphere's microbes. Here-below are names of some important scientists of the past: - Antony Van Leeuwenhoeck, a Dutch microbiologist, who found some infusorians in the rain water - Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, a German biologist, who showed that atmospheric dust inside homes and hospitals are full cryptogamic seeds that he himself found on Altai, Alps crest and in other places - Dundas Thompson, an English doctor, who performed the analysis of the air contained in five environments, out of which: 1) three in hospital rooms hosting different proportions of persons infected by cholera 2) one in the open air 3) one in the dramage In this contribution, we will consider through the work of French scientist Miquel, "La Terre avant l'Histoire", several studies about the existence of many "nits" and germs in the air. The question is: Taking in account the scientific knowledge and available technologies at that time, can we consider these "ancient researches" as an anticipation of modern exobiology experiments on the bacterial spores?

  8. [Developments in neurophysiology in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Hess, C W

    1994-04-19

    The rise of neurophysiology in the 19th century was kindled by Luigi Aloysius Galvani's revolutionary claim for animal electricity at the end of the preceding century. He was first challenged by Allessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta who showed that the muscle twitch in Galvani's experiment was the result of electric stimulation rather than of an enabled biological current. The controversy between Galvani and Volta became a predominant and stimulating issue among the scientists of the early century and found its ultimate elucidation only 40 years later by the pioneering work of Carlo Matteucci of Pisa and Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond of Berlin, who both deserve the reknown as founders of modern neurophysiology. As the first influential promoter and mastermind of the experimental physiology, François Magendie of Paris primarily investigated the nervous system and inaugurated the lesion experiments to clarify specific functions of neural structures. Johannes Müller founded the German school of physiology with its eminent neurophysiological offspring: Du Bois-Reymond, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, and Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger. It was Helmholtz's merit to have for the first time precisely assessed the motor conduction velocity by measuring the time interval between two different stimulation sites of the sciatic nerve of the frog. In their brilliant work published in 1870 Gustav Theodor Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig demonstrated that appropriately located focal electrical stimulation of the exposed cortex of dogs induces movement of the contralateral limbs and unequivocally disproved the then prevailing dogma of holistic capacity of the hemispheres, which denied localised functions within the cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8191189

  9. Absinthism: a fictitious 19th century syndrome with present impact

    PubMed Central

    Padosch, Stephan A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kröner, Lars U

    2006-01-01

    Absinthe, a bitter spirit containing wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.), was banned at the beginning of the 20th century as consequence of its supposed unique adverse effects. After nearly century-long prohibition, absinthe has seen a resurgence after recent de-restriction in many European countries. This review provides information on the history of absinthe and one of its constituent, thujone. Medical and toxicological aspects experienced and discovered before the prohibition of absinthe are discussed in detail, along with their impact on the current situation. The only consistent conclusion that can be drawn from those 19th century studies about absinthism is that wormwood oil but not absinthe is a potent agent to cause seizures. Neither can it be concluded that the beverage itself was epileptogenic nor that the so-called absinthism can exactly be distinguished as a distinct syndrome from chronic alcoholism. The theory of a previous gross overestimation of the thujone content of absinthe may have been verified by a number of independent studies. Based on the current available evidence, thujone concentrations of both pre-ban and modern absinthes may not have been able to cause detrimental health effects other than those encountered in common alcoholism. Today, a questionable tendency of absinthe manufacturers can be ascertained that use the ancient theories of absinthism as a targeted marketing strategy to bring absinthe into the spheres of a legal drug-of-abuse. Misleading advertisements of aphrodisiac or psychotropic effects of absinthe try to re-establish absinthe's former reputation. In distinction from commercially manufactured absinthes with limited thujone content, a health risk to consumers is the uncontrolled trade of potentially unsafe herbal products such as absinthe essences that are readily available over the internet. PMID:16722551

  10. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  11. Reading for Moral Progress: 19th Century Institutions Promoting Social Change. Occasional Papers No. 207.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Donald G., Jr.; And Others

    The three papers in this document examine the motives behind the collecting and loaning of publications in the 19th century. They describe the effects of three discrete movements designed to assist religious, military, and academic endeavors. The first paper, "Bread Upon the Waters: The Printed Word in Sunday Schools in 19th Century England and…

  12. Reconstructions of global near-surface temperature change since the mid 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice, Colin; Rayner, Nick; Kennedy, John

    2016-04-01

    Incomplete and non-uniform global observational coverage is a prominent source of uncertainty in instrumental records of global near-surface temperature change. In this study statistical methods are applied to the HadCRUT4 near-surface temperature data set to obtain improved estimates of global near-surface temperature change since the mid 19th century. Methods applied include those that interpolate according to local correlation structure (kriging) and reduced space methods that learn large-scale temperature patterns. The performance of each statistical reconstruction method has been benchmarked in application to a subset of CMIP5 simulations. Model fields are sub-sampled and simulated observational errors added to emulate observational data, permitting assessment of temperature field reconstruction algorithms in controlled tests in which globally complete temperature fields are known. In application to HadCRUT4 data the statistical reconstructions show relatively increased warming in the global average over the 21st century owing to reconstruction of temperatures in high northern latitudes, supporting the findings of Cowtan & Way (2014) and Karl et al. (2015). There is broad agreement between estimates of global and hemispheric changes throughout much of the 20th and 21st century. Agreement is reduced in data sparse periods and regions, notably in the 19th century and in the southern hemisphere. This finding is supported by the results of the climate model based benchmarks and highlights the importance of continued data rescue activities, such as those of the International Surface Temperature Initiative and ACRE. The results of this study will form an addition to the HadCRUT4 global near-surface temperature data set.

  13. FOREWORD: The 9th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas (ASOS 9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Wiese, Wolfgang L.; Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2008-07-01

    For the first time since its inaugural meeting in Lund in 1983, the triennial international conference on Atomic Spectroscopy and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas (ASOS) returned to Lund, Sweden. Lund has been a home to atomic spectroscopy since the time of Janne Rydberg, and included the pioneering work in laboratory and solar spectroscopy of Bengt Edlén, who presented the initial ASOS talk in 1983. The ninth ASOS was hosted by the Lund Observatory and the Physics Department of Lund University during from 8 to 10 August 2007 and was attended by nearly 100 registrants. An encouraging sign for the field was the number of young researchers in attendance. This volume contains the submitted contributions from the poster presentations of the conference, and represents approximately forty percent of the presented posters. A complementary volume of Physica Scripta provides the written transactions of the ASOS9 invited presentations. With these two volumes the character of ASOS9 is more fully evident, and they serve as a review of the state of atomic spectroscopy for spectrum analysis and the determination of oscillator strengths and their applications. The goal of ASOS is to be a forum for atomic spectroscopy where both the providers and users of atomic data, which includes wavelengths, energy levels, lifetimes, oscillator strengths, and line shape parameters, can meet to discuss recent advances in experimental and theoretical techniques and their application to understanding the physical processes that are responsible for producing observed spectra. The applications mainly originate from the fields of astrophysics and plasma physics, the latter including fusion energy and lighting research. As a part of ASOS9 we were honored to celebrate the retirement of Professor Sveneric Johansson. At a special session on the spectroscopy of iron, which was conducted in his honor, he presented his insights into the Fe II term system and his most recent

  14. 4. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARDS LOCKS. 19TH CENTURY GRAVITY LOCKS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARDS LOCKS. 19TH CENTURY GRAVITY LOCKS ON RIGHT. 20TH CENTURY ELECTRIC LIFT LOCKS ON LEFT. - New York State Barge Canal, Lockport Locks, Richmond Avenue, Lockport, Niagara County, NY

  15. 39. PHOTOCOPY OF CA. MID19TH CENTURY PORTRAIT TITLED ON BACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. PHOTOCOPY OF CA. MID-19TH CENTURY PORTRAIT TITLED ON BACK 'HAMILTON SMITH,' FROM COLLECTION OF OTIS SAALMAN, TELL CITY, IND. - Cannelton Cotton Mill, Front & Fourth Streets, Cannelton, Perry County, IN

  16. 41. VIEW WEST OF 19TH CENTURY RESERVOIR ALONG RIGHT SHOULDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VIEW WEST OF 19TH CENTURY RESERVOIR ALONG RIGHT SHOULDER OF DAMIEN ROAD, USED FOR KALAWAO SETTLEMENT. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  17. Heat and Kinetic Theory in 19th-Century Physics Textbooks: The Case of Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaquero, Jose M.; Santos, Andres

    2001-01-01

    Presents an analysis of the contents of 19th century Spanish textbooks. These textbooks are centered on imponderable fluids, the concept of energy, the mechanical theory of heat, and the kinetic theory of gases. (SAH)

  18. 10. Photograph of engraving. W.E. Tucker, Printer, undated (19th century). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photograph of engraving. W.E. Tucker, Printer, undated (19th century). EAST FACADE AND ORIGINAL LANDSCAPING - Pennsylvania Hospital for Mental & Nervous Diseases, Forty-fourth & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Third International Colloquium on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Abstracts of papers concerning the geology and geophysics of Mars, volcanism on Mars, the Mars atmosphere, and the long term history of the atmosphere-cap-regolith volatile regime are presented. Formation of the Mars surface, climatology, gravity and magnetism, atmospheric boundary layers, and interpretation of Viking imagery and Earth-based observations are considered.

  20. The winter Pacific-North-American pattern in the early 19th century in proxy-based reconstructions and climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchettin, Davide; Bothe, Oliver; Lehner, Flavio; Ortega, Pablo; Raible, Christoph C.; Swingedouw, Didier

    2015-04-01

    Reconstructions of past climate behavior often describe prominent anomalous periods that are not necessarily captured in climate simulations. In this contribution, we illustrate the case of the winter Pacific/North American pattern (PNA) in the early 19th century. During this period, the interdecadal strong positive PNA phase described by a PNA reconstruction based on tree-rings from northwestern North America contrasts with the slight tendency towards negative winter PNA anomalies in an ensemble of state-of-the-art coupled climate simulations. In an attempt to reconcile the simulated and reconstructed behaviors, the robustness of PNA reconstructions based exclusively on geophysical predictors from northwestern North America is investigated following a pseudo-proxy analysis in the same simulation ensemble. The reconstructed early-19th-century positive PNA anomaly emerges as a potentially reliable feature, although it is subject to a number of sources of uncertainty and potential deficiencies. The pseudo-reconstructions demonstrate that the early-19th-century discrepancy between reconstructed and simulated PNA does not stem from the reconstruction process. Instead, reconstructed and simulated features of the early-19th-century PNA can be reconciled by interpreting the reconstructed evolution during this time as an expression of internal climate variability, hence distinguished from the externally-forced signal described by the ensemble mean and unlikely to be reproduced in its exact temporal occurrence by a small ensemble of climate simulations.

  1. [The French maritime health police in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Hillemand, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The French law of 1822 created a homogeneous maritime health police all along the French coastline. Noteworthy in many respects, it was however very binding since it included some penalties of an extraordinary harshness as hard labour or even death. It was first disputed by those against the theory of contagion and the maritime and commercial circles, but subsequently it became overtaken by scientific knowledge despite numerous facilities and some important remodelling decrees were decided, one of them in 1876 just before the Pasteur revolution and another in 1896. The aim was then not only to prevent, epidemics (plague, cholera, yellow fever) crossing the borders of the national country, but also to prevent them from spreading out of their original cradles. Later it was the beginning of the sanitary international cooperation with the training of special eastern practitioners who could take sanitary precautions close to the sources of infection. PMID:23038863

  2. [Keynote address to the 19th congress of ALANAM].

    PubMed

    Goic, Alejandro

    2010-12-01

    In his keynote address to the international seminar of the ALANAM (Association of Latin American National Academies of Medicine), held October 28-30, 2010, in Santiago, Chile, Dr. Alejandro Goic, President of the Chilean Academy of Medicine, discussed the state of health and of medical and health research in Latin American countries. He called attention to the fact that the National Academies of Medicine are learned and honorific institutions whose main function is to reflect on, and foster, medical practice, medical education, and public health. He noted that medical doctors bear a great individual and collective responsibility in the organization and management of sanitary services, but that health care as such concerns all citizens. Poverty is one of the most important factors conditioning the state of health in any society, particularly in developing countries. Because of the very nature of the medical profession, doctors are acquainted not only with the physical and mental ailments that afflict the poor, but also with their precarious housing, income, and labor conditions, as well as with how difficult it is for them to have access to good health care and education. He emphasized that health care is not only a technical, administrative and economic institution, but a moral one as well. When the economic considerations of the health care industry and its financial mechanisms prevail over the medical needs of the general population, a severe social problem arises to the extent that important segments of the population are denied access to health care, and preventable human suffering is left unattended. Society and governments have the responsibility of financing health services and ensure that the humanitarian ends of medicine are met in health care services and sanitary institutions. The superior aim in health care should always be to afford a humane, caring, and respectful relationship between health care professionals and all users of the health care system

  3. The purple coloration of four late 19th century silk dresses: A spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, Andrea L.; Cosgrove, Bronwyn; Church, Jeffrey S.

    2016-02-01

    Prior to the 19th century the use of purple dyes for textile coloration was expensive and usually limited to royalty. The discovery of several synthetic purple dyes during the 19th century made the production of purple textiles more affordable and thus more readily available. The identification of the source of the purple coloration is of historical interest. Small yarn samples from four late 19th century silk dresses were analyzed using a combination of thin layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. This combination of techniques enabled the analysis of the complex extraction products. While three of the dresses were found to be dyed using methyl violet, the fourth dress was found to be constructed from a warp yarn dyed with methyl violet in the presence of a tannic acid mordant, and a weft yarn dyed with mauve and a tin mordant.

  4. The purple coloration of four late 19th century silk dresses: A spectroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, Andrea L; Cosgrove, Bronwyn; Church, Jeffrey S

    2016-02-01

    Prior to the 19th century the use of purple dyes for textile coloration was expensive and usually limited to royalty. The discovery of several synthetic purple dyes during the 19th century made the production of purple textiles more affordable and thus more readily available. The identification of the source of the purple coloration is of historical interest. Small yarn samples from four late 19th century silk dresses were analyzed using a combination of thin layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. This combination of techniques enabled the analysis of the complex extraction products. While three of the dresses were found to be dyed using methyl violet, the fourth dress was found to be constructed from a warp yarn dyed with methyl violet in the presence of a tannic acid mordant, and a weft yarn dyed with mauve and a tin mordant. PMID:26523685

  5. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar.

    PubMed

    Tsiamis, Costas; Vrioni, Georgia; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Gennimata, Vasiliki; Murdjeva, Mariana А; Tsakris, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia), urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen's ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs. PMID:27383872

  6. Sleepwalking in Italian operas: a window on popular and scientific knowledge on sleep disorders in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Sironi, Vittorio Alessandro; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Lombardi, Carolina; De Vito, Giovanni; Ferrarese, Carlo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    There is little knowledge on sleepwalking in ancient times even though it is a very common condition. The aim of this report is to describe the backgrounds of medical knowledge on somnambulism in the 19th century, a key period in the development of neurosciences, by analysing its representation in two famous Italian operas: La Sonnambula by Vincenzo Bellini and Macbeth by Giuseppe Verdi. The 19th-century operas may be considered as a crossing point between the popular and intellectual world because they mirror popular answers to phenomena that were still awaiting scientific explanations. Shakespeare's play Macbeth was also considered. In Shakespeare's play and in Verdi's Macbeth, sleepwalking is looked upon as a neuropsychiatric disorder, a manifestation of internal anxiety. In La Sonnambula by Bellini, this condition is considered as common disorder that anticipates scientific theories. The analysed Italian operas provide two different views on sleepwalking, probably because they are based on texts belonging to different periods. Their examination allows one to understand the gradual evolution of theories on sleepwalking, from demoniac possession to mental disorder and sleep disease. At the same time, this analysis throws some light on the history of psychological illnesses. PMID:20110713

  7. Colloquium: Topological band theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansil, A.; Lin, Hsin; Das, Tanmoy

    2016-04-01

    The first-principles band theory paradigm has been a key player not only in the process of discovering new classes of topologically interesting materials, but also for identifying salient characteristics of topological states, enabling direct and sharpened confrontation between theory and experiment. This review begins by discussing underpinnings of the topological band theory, which involve a layer of analysis and interpretation for assessing topological properties of band structures beyond the standard band theory construct. Methods for evaluating topological invariants are delineated, including crystals without inversion symmetry and interacting systems. The extent to which theoretically predicted properties and protections of topological states have been verified experimentally is discussed, including work on topological crystalline insulators, disorder and interaction driven topological insulators (TIs), topological superconductors, Weyl semimetal phases, and topological phase transitions. Successful strategies for new materials discovery process are outlined. A comprehensive survey of currently predicted 2D and 3D topological materials is provided. This includes binary, ternary, and quaternary compounds, transition metal and f -electron materials, Weyl and 3D Dirac semimetals, complex oxides, organometallics, skutterudites, and antiperovskites. Also included is the emerging area of 2D atomically thin films beyond graphene of various elements and their alloys, functional thin films, multilayer systems, and ultrathin films of 3D TIs, all of which hold exciting promise of wide-ranging applications. This Colloquium concludes by giving a perspective on research directions where further work will broadly benefit the topological materials field.

  8. Negative Numbers in the 18th and 19th Centuries: Phenomenology and Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maz-Machado, Alexander; Rico-Romero, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a categorization of the phenomena and representations used to introduce negative numbers in mathematics books published in Spain during the 18th and 19th centuries. Through a content analysis of fourteen texts which were selected for the study, we distinguished four phenomena typologies: physical, accounting, temporal and…

  9. Circumcision of the Female Intellect: 19th Century Women Who Opposed Scholarly Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Marbeth

    2009-01-01

    In 19th century America, some women decried the opportunity for scholarly education as rebellion against religion and predicted a grim decline in the quality of life, home, and hearth for American families and for American culture and politics. In particular, women who opposed scholarly education argued that God had not created men and women…

  10. 14. 19th ST. AND PACIFIC AVE., SHAUB AND ELLISON BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. 19th ST. AND PACIFIC AVE., SHAUB AND ELLISON BUILDING (1931) AT CENTER; WALSH AND GARDNER BUILDING (AMERICAN SUPPLY BUILDING) (1911), DESIGNED BY CARL AUGUST DARMER ON LEFT. SNOQUALMIE FALLS POWER COMPANY TRANSFORMER BUILDING IN BACKGROUND. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  11. An Analysis of Environmental Issues in 19th Century England Using the Writings of Charles Dickens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Ann Haley

    2008-01-01

    Charles Dickens lived during the best and worst of times in 19th century England. His writings were greatly influenced by the ongoing industrial revolution. He described abhorrent environmental conditions, inadequate sanitary practices, child abuse, and other social maladies of the times. By bringing Charles Dickens into the biology classroom,…

  12. 1. COPY OF A LATE 19TH CENTURY BUSINESS CARD FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. COPY OF A LATE 19TH CENTURY BUSINESS CARD FOR A. ALEXANDER & SON FLOURING MILLS. CARD OWNED BY THOMAS R. WILSON. Photographer: Berni Rich, Score Photographers, September 1986. - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  13. The Romantic Rhetoric of 19th Century Obituaries: "She Gave a Few Faint Gasps and Died."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnew, Eleanor

    Scholars of writing, language, and culture will find a rich fund of research material in 19th-century obituaries which convey extensive details of the deceased's life through an elegant language reminiscent of an oral culture. In contrast to today's newspaper obituaries, which are business-like, tight-lipped, and entirely devoid of any details or…

  14. The Development of the Progressive in 19th Century English: A Quantitative Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnaud, Rene

    1998-01-01

    Expansion of the progressive (be+ing periphrastic form, where "be" is at the same time the copula and a statement of existence) was a major feature of modernization of the English verb system in the 19th century. A survey (1787-1880) of a collection of private letters, most from famous writers, reveals that linguistic factors played a small role…

  15. The Garbers: Using Digital History To Recreate a 19th-Century Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Cheryl L.; Carter, Alice

    1999-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which students read a letter from the Web site "Valley of the Shadow: Two Communities during the American Civil War," an interactive archive of digitized primary sources. Students search the site's 1860 population census to learn about Thomas Garber and his family. Students also learn about life in the 19th century. (CMK)

  16. Dancetime! 500 Years of Social Dance. Volume I: 15th-19th Centuries. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This VHS videotape recording is the first in a two-volume series that presents 500 years of social dance, music, and fashion. It focuses on the 15th-19th centuries, including Renaissance nobility, Baroque extravagance, Regency refinement, and Victorian romanticism. Each era reflects the changing relationships between men and women through the…

  17. 10. Photocopy, WATER TOWERS, late 19th or early 20th century. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy, WATER TOWERS, late 19th or early 20th century. Original Photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. TF899 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  18. 9. Photocopy, VIEW OF FORT TOTTEN LOOKING NORTH, late 19th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photocopy, VIEW OF FORT TOTTEN LOOKING NORTH, late 19th century. Original photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. TF827 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  19. 8. Photocopy, VIEW OF COMPANY BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTHEAST, late 19th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy, VIEW OF COMPANY BARRACKS, LOOKING NORTHEAST, late 19th century. Original photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. TF848 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  20. 5. Photocopy, GENERAL VIEW OF FORT TOTTEN, LOOKING NORTHWEST, mid19th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy, GENERAL VIEW OF FORT TOTTEN, LOOKING NORTHWEST, mid-19th century. Original photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. B 37 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  1. 12. Photocopy, BOYS' MILITARY BAND, mid or late 19th century. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopy, BOYS' MILITARY BAND, mid or late 19th century. Original photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. TF854 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  2. 13. photocopy, SCHOOLCHILDREN ENJOYING A WAGON RIDE, late 19th or ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. photocopy, SCHOOLCHILDREN ENJOYING A WAGON RIDE, late 19th or early 20th century. Original photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. TF851 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  3. 11. Photocopy, VIEW OF FORT TOTTEN, LOOKING NORTHWEST, late 19th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy, VIEW OF FORT TOTTEN, LOOKING NORTHWEST, late 19th or early 20th century (note telephone poles). Original photograph at State Historical Society of North Dakota, file No. TF832 - Fort Totten, 12 miles southwest of Devils Lake City off Route 57, Devils Lake, Ramsey County, ND

  4. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (19th, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 19-22, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J., Ed.; Nickelson, Richard, Ed.

    This PTC'97 volume contains papers presented at the 19th annual conference of the Pacific Telecommunications Council, "Pacific Connections: Policy and Technology in the Information Economy" (1997). Three super-session groupings--industry, policy, and technology--provide attendees with a conceptual foundation from which subsequent concurrent…

  5. Seriously Popular: Rethinking 19th-Century American Literature through the Teaching of Popular Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatti, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Curious about the connections between the author's students' reading tastes and those of 19th-century readers, the author read Nina Baym's excellent text "Novels, Readers, and Reviewers: Responses to Fiction in Antebellum America" to gain a sense of how readers in the 1800s might have thought about the texts that they read. Nineteenth-century…

  6. Missionaries and Tonic Sol-fa Music Pedagogy in 19th-Century China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane E.; Lee, Angela Hao-Chun

    2008-01-01

    In the 19th century, Christian missionaries in China, as elsewhere, used the Tonic Sol-fa method of music instruction to aid their evangelizing. This system was designed to improve congregational singing in churches, Sunday schools and missions. The London Missionary Society and other evangelical groups employed the method. These missionaries took…

  7. MOSQUITO VECTOR CONTROL AND BIOLOGY IN LATIN AMERICA - A 19TH SYMPOSIUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 19th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 75th Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA, in April 2009. The principal objective, as for the previous 18 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control s...

  8. The Rise of Age Homogamy in 19th Century Western Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Putte, Bart; Van Poppel, Frans; Vanassche, Sofie; Sanchez, Maria; Jidkova, Svetlana; Eeckhaut, Mieke; Oris, Michel; Matthijs, Koen

    2009-01-01

    In many parts of Western Europe the age at first marriage and the level of celibacy declined in the second half of the 19th century. This weakening of the European marriage pattern (EMP) can be interpreted as a "classic" response to the increase of the standard of living, but a more far-reaching interpretation is that the erosion of the EMP was…

  9. [From the history of the 19th century pathology. Pathological anatomy and pathology in the first half of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Stochik, A M; Pal'tsev, M A; Zatravkin, S N; Stochik, A A

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the first half of the 19th century collective notions on disease as the event that is alien to the human body (which is embodied as a living being), which occurs and develops in accordance with its own laws differing from the laws of human vital functions; on the causes and essence of diseases and the methods of their study. It also shows a place of human pathology in the structure of medical knowledge of that time and its role in the investigation of diseases. PMID:19938694

  10. Nineteenth NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the the Nineteenth NASTRAN Users' Colloquium held April 22 to 26, 1991 are presented. Topics covered include the application of finite elements in engineering, comparisons with other approaches, unique applications, pre- and postprocessing or auxiliary programs, and new methods of analysis with NASTRAN.

  11. Fourteenth NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of a colloquium are presented along with technical papers contributed during the conference. Reviewed are general applications of finite element methodology and the specific application of the NASA Structural Analysis System, NASTRAN, to a variety of static and dynamic sturctural problems.

  12. Eighteenth NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This publication is the proceedings of the Eighteenth NASTRAN Users' Colloquium held in Portland, Oregon, April 23-27, 1990. It provides some comprehensive general papers on the application of finite elements in engineering, comparisons with other approaches, unique applications, pre- and post-processing or auxiliary programs, and new methods of analysis with NASTRAN.

  13. Sixteenth NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the Sixteenth NASTRAN Users' Colloquium held in Arlington, Virginia from 25 to 29 April, 1988. Technical papers contributed by participants review general application of finite element methodology and the specific application of the NASA Structural Analysis System (NASTRAN) to a variety of static and dynamic structural problems.

  14. Astrometry and early astrophysics at Kuffner Observatory in the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habison, Peter

    The astronomer and mathematician Norbert Herz encouraged Moriz von Kuffner, owner of the beer brewery in Ottakring, to finance a private scientific observatory in the western parts of Vienna. In the years 1884-87 the Kuffner Observatory was built at the Gallitzinberg in Wien-Ottakring. It was an example of enlighted patronage and noted at the time for its rapid acquisition of new instruments and by increasing international recognition. It contained the largest heliometer in the world and the largest meridian circle in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Of the many scientists who worked here we mention Leo de Ball, Gustav Eberhard, Johannes Hartmann and we should not forget Karl Schwarzschild. Here in Vienna he published papers on celestial mechanics, measuring techniques, optics and his fundamental papers concerning photographic photometry, in particular the quantitative determination of the departure of the reciprocity law. The telescope and the associated camera with which he carried out his measurements are still in existence at the observatory. The observatory houses important astronomical instruments from the 19th century. All telescopes were made by Repsold und Söhne in Hamburg, and Steinheil in Munich. These two German companies were best renowned for quality and precision in high standard astronomical instruments. The Great Refractor (270/3500 mm) is still the third largest refractor in Austria. It was installed at the observatory in 1886 and was used together with the Schwarzschild Refractor for early astrophysical work including photography. It is this double refractor, where Schwarzschild carried out his measurements on photographic photometry. The Meridian Circle (132/1500 mm) was the largest meridian passage instrument of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today it is the largest meridian circle in Austria and still one of the largest in Europe. The telescope is equipped with one of the first impersonal micrometers of that time. First observations were carried

  15. "Le Droit de L'Enfant:" Ideologies of the Child in 19th Century French Literature and Child Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Suzanne

    This paper examines ideological themes present in movements for child labor reform and in literature in 19th century France. Separate sections cover early industrialization and child labor reform, the image of the romantic child in French literature, and ideology and reforms. By the mid-19th century, England, America, and France all had their…

  16. The Second Colloquium on Petroleum Engineering Education

    SciTech Connect

    Willhite, G.P.; Forney, R.H.

    1993-11-30

    This paper describes findings from the Second Colloquium on Petroleum engineering Education. The purpose of this colloquium was to provide a forum for petroleum engineering educators and representatives from industry and government to explore critical issues facing petroleum engineering education as we move into the 21st Century. It was expected that the colloquium would identify areas where changes are needed in petroleum engineering education, to best prepare students for careers in the oil and gas industry or other, related industries.

  17. Bilingualism and memory: early 19th century ideas about the significance of polyglot aphasia.

    PubMed

    Lorch, Marjorie

    2007-07-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, there was very little attention given to bilingual speakers within the growing clinical literature on aphasia. The first major publication on this topic (Pitres, 1895), appeared three decades after Broca's seminal work. Previously, Ribot (1881) had discussed the phenomenon of bilingual aphasia in the context of diseases of memory. Although interest in the neurological basis of the language faculty was in fact present throughout the century, the theoretical implications of the knowledge of more than one language did not appear to be linked to this issue. A number of British authors writing in the first half of the 19th century have been identified who did consider the significance of these cases. Importantly, these writers speculated on the implication of bilingual aphasia specifically with regard to ideas about memory rather than language. Consideration of these writings helps to illuminate the history of ideas about the organization of language in the brain. PMID:17715800

  18. [Criminology and superstition at the turn of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Criminology, which institutionalised at university level at the turn of the 19th century, was intensively engaged in the exploration of superstition. Criminologists investigated the various phenomena of superstition and the criminal behaviour resulting from it. They discovered bizarre (real or imagined) worlds of thought and mentalities, which they subjected to a rationalistic regime of interpretation in order to arrive at a better understanding of offences and crimes related to superstition. However, they sometimes also considered the use of occultist practices such as telepathy and clairvoyance to solve criminal cases. As a motive for committing homicide superstition gradually became less relevant in the course of the 19th century. Around 1900, superstition was accepted as a plausible explanation in this context only if a psychopathic form of superstition was involved. In the 20th century, superstition was no longer regarded as an explanans but an explanandum. PMID:22611911

  19. The tympanostomy tube: an ingenious invention of the mid 19th century.

    PubMed

    Mudry, Albert

    2013-02-01

    The introduction of the tympanostomy tube in the treatment of otitis media with effusion in the mid 20th century completely revolutionized its therapy. Nevertheless, it was not a new idea. The aim of this research is to elucidate the origin of prosthetic middle ear ventilation in the mid 19th century. A review of primary sources revealed at least seven different models of tympanostomy tube which were manufactured between 1845 and 1875. These included: Frank's gold tube, Lincke's rubber tube, Bonnafont's silver cannula, Politzer's hard rubber drain, Miot's metallic eyelet, Voltolini's gold ring, and Bonnafont's eyelet. Study of these early innovations shows that all of the technical and surgical principles of the tympanostomy tube were known in the mid 19th century. Widespread introduction into otological practice did not occur until the mid 20th century invention of the operating microscope. PMID:23183195

  20. Physics education in the Greek community schools of Istanbul (19th century). The books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazos, Panayotis; Vlahakis, George N.

    2016-03-01

    During the 19th century a number of elementary and high schools were established for the need of the Greek community of Istanbul. Among the courses included in the curricula were those concerning the scientific study of Nature like Botany, Chemistry and Physics. In the present study we attempt to give a thorough description of the educational material used in these schools for the study of natural sciences with an emphasis in Physics. Especially we shall discuss the books used as course books as well as their probable sources. Furthermore we shall try to make a comparison with the relevant situation in the Greek state and the Ottoman Empire, where modern physics had been already introduced through textbooks based on Ganot's treatise on Physics. The results of our research will give for the first time a picture of the way Greek students in the 19th century Istanbul received their basic knowledge about Physics.

  1. Proceedings of the 19th annual meeting of the Adhesion Society

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.C.

    1996-12-31

    This is the proceedings of the 19th Annual Meeting of the Adhesion Society, held February 18-21, 1996. Papers are presented on various aspects of adhesion, ranging from studies at the molecular level, to studies of the intermixing of polymer chains across interface joints, to the study of polymer/metal joints. Separate abstracts of articles from this proceedings have been indexed into the database.

  2. Visual hallucinations in the 19th century: research in a medical archive.

    PubMed

    di Diodoro, D; Bruschi, C; Esposito, W; Ferrari, G

    1998-11-01

    The authors have gathered and analyzed the visual hallucinations described in the mid- to late-19th century from archived medical records of the former psychiatric hospital "Osservanza" in Imola, northern Italy. Though the investigation was not intended as a statistical survey, the principal aim being to classify the hallucinations according to their outward characteristics, the authors have tried to locate the possible sources of these phenomena in folklore and religious iconography. PMID:9824175

  3. Summary of the 19th Joint EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angioni, C.; Mantica, P.; Naulin, V.; Bourdelle, C.; Hidalgo, C.; Maggi, C. F.; Rice, J. E.; Sharapov, S. E.; 19th Joint EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop, the Participants to the

    2015-06-01

    This conference report summarizes the contributions to, and discussions at, the 19th Joint EU-US Transport Task Force workshop, held in Culham, UK, during 8-11 September 2014. The workshop was organized under six topics: momentum transport, energetic particles, challenges in modelling transport in ITER and JT60-SA, L-H transition, impurity transport and SOL transport. This report follows the same structure.

  4. Sand Dust Weather in Beijing from the Late 19th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue Zhen; Fang, Xiuqi

    Based on an ancient Chinese diary named Weng Tonghe Diary written in the late Qing Dynasty, daily weather entries were extracted, excluding the months with more than 4 absent recording days. From the data, monthly sand dust days (SDD) and monthly colder days from 1860 to 1898 are reconstructed. Then, based on the records of complementary rainfall/sunshine days, monthly rainfall/snowfall days are reconstructed. The results reveal that sand dust weather of the later half of the 19th century is more frequent than the mid-1980s, and especially the 1990s. The monthly distribution of the past differs to the recent several decades. The spring contribution to the total frequency during the later 19th century and during the years 1961-2000 is 70 and 60%, respectively. The spring SDD is significantly correlated with local meteorological conditions during the later 19th century. However, based on the present data, it would be difficult to attribute a dynamical mechanism as the prime meteorological factor responsible for the sand dust frequency distribution.

  5. Authorities and foundation of the orthopaedic school in Germany in the 19th century: part II: Richard von Volkmann, Julius Wolff, Albert Hoffa, Friedrich Trendelenburg and other German authors.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The national achievements of the orthopaedic school of Germany became international in the second part of the 19th century, and from 1860 through 1914 its educational system attracted many physicians and surgeons from all over the world. During this period of 50 years, German surgeons asserted their dominance in orthopaedic surgery, particularly with four famous surgeons: Richard von Volkmann, Julius Wolff, Albert Hoffa, and Friedrich Trendelenburg. They held annual meetings, during which papers were read and discussed. We also present contributions to orthopaedic sciences of the other German authors during 19th century according to different cities. PMID:26585866

  6. [Epidemic Cholera and American Reform Movements in the 19th Century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Seohyung

    2015-12-01

    The 19th century was the age of great reform in American history. After constructing of the canal and railroads, the industrialization began and American society changed so rapidly. In this period, there were so many social crisis and American people tried to solve these problems within the several reform movements. These reform movements were the driving forces to control cholera during the 19th century. Cholera was the endemic disease in Bengal, India, but after the 19th century it had spread globally by the development of trade networks. The 1832 cholera in the United States was the first epidemic cholera in American history. The mortality of cholera was so high, but it was very hard to find out the cause of this fatal infectious disease. So, different social discourses happened to control epidemic cholera in the 19th century, these can be understood within the similar context of American reform movements during this period. Board of Health in New York States made a new public health act to control cholera in 1832, it was ineffective. Some people insisted that the cause of this infectious disease was the corruption of the United States. They emphasized unjust and immoral system in American society. Moral reform expanded to Nativism, because lots of Irish immigrants were the victims of cholera. So, epidemic cholera was the opportunity to spread the desire for moral reform. To control cholera in 1849, the sanitary reform in Britain had affected. The fact that it was so important to improve and maintain the water quality for the control and prevention of disease spread, the sanitary reform happened. There were two different sphere of the sanitary reform. The former was the private reform to improve sewer or privy, the latter was the public reform to build sewage facilities. The 1849 cholera had an important meaning, because the social discourse, which had emphasized the sanitation of people or home expanded to the public sphere. When cholera broke out in 1866 again

  7. Proceedings of the 19th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Stephanie (Compiler); Morton, Thomas (Compiler)

    2007-01-01

    The 19th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT XIX) was held September 20 to 22, 2005, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT Conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year's conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVIII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

  8. 19th-century academic examinations for physicians in the United States Army Medical Department.

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, A P

    1994-01-01

    During the latter half of the 19th century, the United States Army commissioned medical officers or hired civilian physicians to serve its troops. The civilian physician signed a contract for services, and the candidate for a commission was subjected to rigorous examinations before becoming an officer. The rigorous testing of prospective medical officers was necessary because of the lack of standardization in the education of physicians. Examples of the test, statistics, and individual records show how the Army dealt with unqualified candidates. Images PMID:8048241

  9. 19th JANNAF Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cocchiaro, J. E. (Editor); Becker, D. L. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This volume, the first of two volumes, is a compilation of 22 unclassified/unlimited technical papers presented at the 19th Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAF) Safety & Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting. The meeting was held 18-21 March 2002 at the Sheraton Colorado Springs Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Topics covered include green energetic materials and life cycle pollution prevention; space launch range safety; propellant/munitions demilitarization, recycling, and reuse: and environmental and occupational health aspects of propellants and energetic materials.

  10. 19th International Montessori Training Course, London Lecture 29 17 November 1933

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Followers of Maria Montessori become accustomed to the oft-repeated stories that drive home a point, but here is a new treasure. This lecture tells of an experiment that Montessori began with 12- to 14-year-old children and then with 10-year-olds. When the poetry of Dante was introduced to these students, they became passionate and grew to love…

  11. Report on the 2015 COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection Colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipkin, Victoria; Kminek, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    In consultation with the COSPAR Scientific Commissions B (Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System) and F (Life Sciences as Related to Space), the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection organised a colloquium at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland, in September 2015, to cover two pertinent topics: * Icy moon sample return planetary protection requirements * Mars Special Regions planetary protection requirements These two topics were addressed in two separate sessions. Participation from European, North American and Japanese scientists reflected broad expertise from the respective COSPAR Commissions, recent NASA MEPAG Science Analysis Group and National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine/European Science Foundation Mars Special Regions Review Committee. The recommendations described in this report are based on discussions that took place during the course of the colloquium and reflect a consensus of the colloquium participants that participated in the two separate sessions. These recommendations are brought to the 2016 COSPAR Scientific Assembly for further input and discussion as part of the recognised process for updating COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy.

  12. Accounts from 19th-century Canadian Arctic explorers' logs reflect present climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, James E.; Wood, Kevin

    The widely perceived failure of 19th-century expeditions to find and transit the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic is often attributed to extraordinary cold climatic conditions associated with the “Little Ice Age” evident in proxy records. However, examination of 44 explorers' logs for the western Arctic from 1818 to 1910 reveals that climate indicators such as navigability, the distribution and thickness of annual sea ice, monthly surface air temperature, and the onset of melt and freeze were within the present range of variability.The quest for the Northwest Passage through the Canadian archipelago during the 19th century is frequently seen as a vain and tragic failure. Polar exploration during the Victorian era seems to us today to have been a costly exercise in heroic futility, which in many respects it was. This perspective has been reinforced since the 1970s, when paleoclimate reconstructions based on Arctic ice core stratigraphy appeared to confirm the existence of exceptionally cold conditions consistent with the period glaciologists had termed the “Little Ice Age” (Figure 1a), with temperatures more than one standard deviation colder relative to an early 20th-century mean [Koerner, 1977; Koerner and Fisher, 1990; Overpeck et al., 1998]. In recent years, the view of the Little Ice Age as a synchronous worldwide and prolonged cold epoch that ended with modern warming has been questioned [Bradley and Jones, 1993; Jones and Briffa, 2001 ;Ogilvie, 2001].

  13. Classic articles of 19th-century American neurologists: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to critically review citation classics of 19th-century members of the American Neurological Association (ANA), and to elaborate what these works contributed and why they continue to be important. Most classic articles of 19th-century American neurologists were initial or early descriptions of clinical conditions, diseases, or procedures. These include descriptions by Beard of the Jumping Frenchmen of Maine; by Sachs of "amaurotic family idiocy" (Tay-Sachs disease); by Hun of the lateral medullary syndrome; by Mitchell of phantom limbs; and by Dana of familial tremor. Few of these were the initial description, although most were clear and fairly complete by modern standards. Several citation classics were cited mainly as a point of comparison with later events or developments, including those by Corning on spinal anesthesia, Bartholow on electrical stimulation of the brain, Mitchell on the status of American psychiatry, and Starr on childhood brain tumors. The reports of Corning, Bartholow, and Mitchell have been the subjects of continued controversy. The only examples of basic neuroscience among the citation classics are the classic studies by Onuf and Collins involving ablation of portions of the sympathetic chain in cats, and Onuf's description of the nucleus of Onuf in the human spinal cord. Onuf's basic science work was made possible by a unique and short-lived multidisciplinary research environment created at the New York State Pathological Institute for the scientific investigation of insanity and neurologic diseases. PMID:12122807

  14. Causes for the late 19th century European floods, as simulated in ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichet, A.; Wild, M.; Folini, D.; Schär, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the late 19th century, an unusual large number of floods were recorded in central Europe, causing important damages. Different factors contributing to the occurrence of these floods have been discussed, including the anomalously high precipitation anomalies observed in central Europe. Based on the frequency and spatial pattern of these floods, previous studies suggest that changes in the large scale circulation payed a relevant role. We use an atmospheric Global Circulation Model forced with observed SSTs to test this hypothesis and identify causes for the associated atmospheric circulation pattern. We find that the reproducibility of the central European high precipitation in the late 19th century is not deterministic but probabilistic. We also show that between 1875 and 1890, transient SSTs, as opposed to climatological ones, increase the probability for high precipitation anomalies in central Europe, whereas transient aerosol emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations have almost no impact. Finally, our results suggest that between 1875 and 1890, transient SSTs enhanced central European precipitation via their impact on the atmospheric circulation, by increasing the probability to develop pressure patterns favorable for high precipitation in central Europe (namely, a low pressure system over the British Isles and a high pressure system over the North Atlantic Ocean).

  15. Extending the African instrumental record to the early 19th century

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, S.E.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes progress toward the production of a data set that extends the African climate record back to the beginning of the 19th century. Qualitative documentary evidence, lake-level fluctuations and other proxy indicators are combined with historical rainfall records to produce regional time series. The data set has relatively high temporal and spatial resolution. The conceptualization is based on a climatic regionalization produced using modern data and an anomaly method in previous historical reconstructions. The data set provides information for some 100 regions with a 1 to 5 year resolution for most of the nineteenth century. Three to five quantitative classes of rainfall are utilized in the data set. Here, the available information to produce this record is summarized. The methodology utilized to combine proxy data and observations to produce a quantitative rainfall data set is described. This historical data set is compared with actual rainfall records for select regions where both are available. This comparison indicates the reliability of the proxy African data set. An analysis of the historical record indicates that the main characteristics of rainfall variability evident in the modern African record are also apparent in the 19th century record. 5 figs.

  16. [Public health services and healthcare workforce in Bakar of the 18th and 19th century].

    PubMed

    Čulina, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    This review article draws on scarce and poorly studied archival information and several published articles to describe the development and organisation of public health services in the town of Bakar over the 18th and 19th century. For a short while at the turn of the 19th century, Bakar established a hospital run by two physicians and one surgeon to treat patients affected by the so called Škrljevo disease, an endemic type of syphilis. As the century went on, the number of healthcare providers increased by two more physicians, four surgeons, and three to six licensed midwives. There was also a town pharmacy, that worked all that time. As a busy port, the town also provided well-organised maritime sanitary services. As its economy changed over the two centuries to come to a halt after an initial boom, which resulted in a severe drop in population from 7600 to 2000 people, public services deteriorated, including public health. Maritime services suffered the hardest blow, while the workforce gradually came down to one or two physicians and surgeons and several midwives. PMID:25632775

  17. Samuel Wilmot, fish culture, and recreational fisheries in late 19th century Ontario.

    PubMed

    Knight, William

    2007-01-01

    Historians have shown that fish culturists and anglers enjoyed a mutually beneficial relationship in 19th century North America. Sharing interests in producing and protecting fish for recreation, the two groups supported emerging regimes of fisheries administration and fish culture that privileged angling and game fish species. In Ontario, it has been argued that anglers achieved control of inland fisheries with help from state fish culturist Samuel Wilmot who, as a sportsman, shared anglers' recreational perspective. A closer look at Wilmot and fish culture in late 19th century Ontario, however, reveals a more complex struggle over recreational fisheries administration. I show that game fish culture under Wilmot was subordinated to fish culture programs that supported the Great Lakes commercial fisheries. Indeed, Wilmot resisted anglers' reframing of Ontario's fisheries as a private recreational resource. By the 1890s, however, this position was unpopular with Ontario's anglers and government officials, who demanded greater provincial control over recreational fisheries and fish culture. It was only after Wilmot's retirement in 1895 that game fish culture received higher priority in Ontario with both federal and provincial governments engaging in programs of wild bass transfers. In 1899, Ontario won a share of fisheries jurisdiction and established its first provincial fisheries administration, which laid the basis for more comprehensive programs of game fish culture in the 20th century. PMID:19227681

  18. A comparison of 19th century and current attitudes to female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Studd, John

    2007-12-01

    The 19th century medical attitude to normal female sexuality was cruel, with gynecologists and psychiatrists leading the way in designing operations for the cure of the serious contemporary disorders of masturbation and nymphomania. The gynecologist Isaac Baker Brown (1811-1873) and the distinguished endocrinologist Charles Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) advocated clitoridectomy to prevent the progression to masturbatory melancholia, paralysis, blindness and even death. Even after the public disgrace of Baker Brown in 1866-7, the operation remained respectable and widely used in other parts of Europe. This medical contempt for normal female sexual development was reflected in public and literary attitudes. Or perhaps it led and encouraged public opinion. There is virtually no novel or opera in the last half of the 19th century where the heroine with 'a past' survives to the end. H. G. Wells's Ann Veronica and Richard Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier, both of which appeared in 1909, broke the mould and are important milestones. In the last 50 years new research into the sociology, psychology and physiology of sexuality has provided an understanding of decreased libido and inadequate sexual response in the form of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. This is now regarded as a disorder worthy of treatment, either by various forms of counseling or by the use of hormones, particularly estrogens and testosterone. PMID:18075842

  19. Tuberculosis Epidemiology and Selection in an Autochthonous Siberian Population from the 16th-19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Dabernat, Henri; Thèves, Catherine; Bouakaze, Caroline; Nikolaeva, Dariya; Keyser, Christine; Mokrousov, Igor; Géraut, Annie; Duchesne, Sylvie; Gérard, Patrice; Alexeev, Anatoly N.; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of most ancient diseases affecting human populations. Although numerous studies have tried to detect pathogenic DNA in ancient skeletons, the successful identification of ancient tuberculosis strains remains rare. Here, we describe a study of 140 ancient subjects inhumed in Yakutia (Eastern Siberia) during a tuberculosis outbreak, dating from the 16th–19th century. For a long time, Yakut populations had remained isolated from European populations, and it was not until the beginning of the 17th century that first contacts were made with European settlers. Subsequently, tuberculosis spread throughout Yakutia, and the evolution of tuberculosis frequencies can be tracked until the 19th century. This study took a multidisciplinary approach, examining historical and paleo-epidemiological data to understand the impact of tuberculosis on ancient Yakut population. In addition, molecular identification of the ancient tuberculosis strain was realized to elucidate the natural history and host-pathogen co-evolution of human tuberculosis that was present in this population. This was achieved by the molecular detection of the IS6110 sequence and SNP genotyping by the SNaPshot technique. Results demonstrated that the strain belongs to cluster PGG2-SCG-5, evocating a European origin. Our study suggests that the Yakut population may have been shaped by selection pressures, exerted by several illnesses, including tuberculosis, over several centuries. This confirms the validity and necessity of using a multidisciplinary approach to understand the natural history of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease. PMID:24587092

  20. Geometric frustration on a 1/9th site depleted triangular lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, John; Beck, Jarrett

    2013-03-01

    In the searches both for new spin liquid and spin ice (artificial and macroscopic) candidates, geometrically frustrated two-dimensional spin systems have played a prominent role. Here we present a study of the classical antiferromagnetic Ising (AFI) model on the sorrel net, a 1/9th site depleted and 1/7th bond depleted triangular lattice. The AFI model on this corner-shared triangle net is found to have a large residual entropy per spin S/N = 0 . 48185 +/- 0 . 00008 , indicating the sorrel net is highly geometrically frustrated. Anticipating that it may be difficult to achieve perfect bond depletion, we investigate the physics resulting from turning back on the depleted bonds (J2). We present the phase diagram, analytic expressions for the long range partially ordered ground state spin structure for antiferromagnetic J2 and the short range ordered ground state spin structure for ferromagnetic J2, the magnetic susceptibility and the static structure factor. We briefly comment on the possibility that artificial spin ice on the sorrel lattice could by made, and on a recent report [T. D. Keene et al., Dalton Trans. 40 2983 (2011)] of the creation of a 1/9th depleted cobalt hydroxide oxalate. This work was supported by NSERC (JMH) and NSERC USRA (JJB)

  1. The Second International Scientific Colloquium MATHEMATICS AND CHILDREN (Learning Outcomes) - Monography: Drugi medunarodni znanstveni skup MATEMATIKA I DIJETE (Ishodi ucenja)--monografija

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlekovic, Margita, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of mathematics teaching implies multi- and interdisciplinarity. We believe that the lectures, discussions and experience exchange between Croatian and international participants of the Mathematics and Children meetings (scientists from Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Austria, Hungary, Serbia) will initiate and intensify…

  2. Paths to and from poverty in late 19th century novels

    PubMed Central

    Howden‐Chapman, Philippa; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Late 19th century novels provide graphic descriptions of working and living conditions and their impact on population health, in particular the detrimental effects of hunger, poor housing, environmental conditions, hazardous work and poor pay, smoking and alcohol and crime, but also the transformative possibilities of social and political action. The popularity of these novels helped raise the collective conscience of citizens and illuminated the direction for 20th century welfare reforms. Yet many of these problems remain and the pathways to and from poverty are still recognisable today. Although novels are now less central in conveying social information, re‐reading these novels enables us to understand how social and economic circumstances were understood at the time and what led to social and political change. PMID:16415257

  3. [The art of improvising. The practice of medico-legal autopsies in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Menenteau, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Murder is perpetrated, suicide is committed and lethal accidents happen everywhere, even in the heart of the French country. In the 19th century, law often appealed to the lights of experts. During criminal investigation, improvisation and men's adaptation were important, although forensic autopsy was official and necessary. Sometimes the magistrates appealed to young people, not used to that kind of reports, who could only remind some bits of the forensic courses they had followed when they were students. As for the specialists, the circumstances often led them to examine--as Baudelaire would say--the "decaying carcass," in a dark and suffocating ruined house, on the kitchen table, and with a simple scapel. PMID:23038869

  4. [Biased objectivity--images of women in 19th century German neuroscience].

    PubMed

    Schröter, A; Riha, O; Steinberg, H

    2012-09-01

    At the beginning of the 19 (th) century German scholars wanted to differentiate men and women on the basis of anatomic brain or cerebrum particularities. With the help of scientific criteria such as the weight of the brain they aimed not only to prove pre-postulated intellectual differences, but also to find scientific justification for the inferiority of women in general and their inferior position and treatment in society. This paper presents insights into and excerpts from studies written by renowned scientists such as S. T. von Soemmerring, J. F. Ackermann, K. F. Burdach, F. Tiedemann, E. Huschke, H. Schaaffhausen, or P. J. Möbius. Covering the years from 1780 to 1900, these materials show how at the beginning the interest was primarily in comparative anatomic studies and results, but was soon mingled with sociological intentions. Hence this study gives insights into the history of modern gender studies of neurosciences. PMID:22173968

  5. [Crespi d'Adda: psychosocial risk factors in a late 19th century company town].

    PubMed

    Punzi, S

    2012-01-01

    Crespi d'Adda is a late 19th century company town established around a textile factory by Cristoforo Benigno Crespi and his son Silvio. It was an ideal model of company residency being a self-sufficient microcosm equipped with all the services needed by a community where the life of workers and their families was revolving around the factory and the working requirements. It was the expression of philanthropic and patronizing enlightened entrepreneurs at that time, committed in protecting workers' life inside and outside the factory, resulting into a more affectionate and productive manpower. Silvio Benigno Crespi developed an extensive activity to improve working conditions, with special reference to accident prevention and work-related diseases, as well as night work in factories, weekly day off, reduction of working hours: we can say that in some ways he was concerned also with psychosocial risks. PMID:23405777

  6. Lockyer's "Astronomy" among Serbs in the second half of the 19th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajkovska, V.; Ninković, S.

    1997-08-01

    The dynamical development of astronomy in the second half of 19th century has also found its adequate response among Serbs. As a good example may serve, in the opinion of the present authors, the translation of "Astronomy" by N. Lockyer into Serbian (the book was printed in 1880 in Novi Sad). The translator was Djordje Natošević who translated not the English original, but the German translation. The authors find Natošević an interesting personality. A physician by education he devoted the best part of his life to pedagogy and to enhancing the educational level in Serbian primary and secondary schools in Austria-Hungary of those days. He spent some time also in Serbia. It was then that he translated from German the textbook "Astronomy" by Lockyer, popular in those days.

  7. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population.

    PubMed

    Bower, Nathan W; McCants, Sarah A; Custodio, Joseph M; Ketterer, Michael E; Getty, Stephen R; Hoffman, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories. PMID:17126382

  8. Placenta Accreta and Total Placenta Previa in the 19th Week of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Findeklee, S.; Costa, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Placentation disorders are the result of impaired embedding of the placenta in the endometrium. The prevalence of these disorders is estimated to be around 0.3 %. A history of previous prior uterine surgery (especially cesarean section and curettage) is the most common risk factor. Impaired placentation is differentiated into deep placental attachment; marginal, partial and total placenta previa; and placenta accreta, increta and percreta. Treatment depends on the severity of presentation and ranges from expectant management to emergency hysterectomy. In most cases, preterm termination of pregnancy is necessary. We report here on the case of a 39-year-old woman with placenta accreta and total placenta previa who underwent hysterectomy in the 19th week of pregnancy. PMID:26366004

  9. Myelopathy among zinc-smelter workers in Upper Silesia during the late 19th century.

    PubMed

    Lanska, Douglas J; Remler, Bernd

    2014-04-01

    Zinc-induced myeloneuropathy was recently (re)discovered and its pathophysiology elaborated as resulting from secondary copper deficiency. However, myelopathy was a recognized problem among European zinc-smelter workers in the late 19th century, although these early reports have been overlooked in recent studies and reports. The purpose of this article is to translate and review German-language reports of myelopathy among zinc-smelter workers in Upper Silesia (now southern Poland) by Schlockow from the 1870s. Disease manifestations among zinc-smelter workers developed after sustained zinc exposure over many years. The earliest symptoms were sensory and included paresthesias, dysesthesias, allodynia, and formication in the lower extremities, particularly the feet. Workers ultimately developed a clinical picture resembling subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord with a spastic-ataxic gait with prominent proprioceptive impairment, sensory disequilibrium, and rombergism. PMID:24688096

  10. Following rules in the intermontane west: 19th-century mormon settlement

    PubMed Central

    Norton, William

    2001-01-01

    The academic discipline of human geography is concerned with human activities, especially as these relate to physical landscapes and contribute to the modification of those landscapes. Although little attention has been paid to objectivist philosophies to inform human geography, behavior analysis might offer a useful explanatory model. As an example, a behavior analysis of selected aspects of 19th-century Mormon movement and settlement in the intermontane West is conducted. Mormons are a society of believers who practice cooperative effort and support for other members, and the Mormon church is governed by priesthood authority with members being called to perform tasks. This analysis employs the concepts of metacontingency, rule-governed behavior, and delayed reinforcement to analyze how Mormons settled the intermontane West. PMID:22478355

  11. Apothecary activity in Dubrovnik Dominican Monastery from 17th to the beginning 19th century.

    PubMed

    Krasic, Stjepan

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the Dominican monastery pharmacy is not clear, but sources suggest that it had operated from the eve of the great earthquake in Dubrovnik in 1667 to the beginning of the 19th century. Its last pharmacist, praised for his competence, passed away in 1803, leaving no one behind The prior travelled all the way to Naples to find a competent pharmacist in his stead, but never returned. Story has it that on the way back, the abbot and the pharmacist lost their lives in a shipwreck. The French army occupied the town in 1806, and the monastery was turned into a military camp. Following the retreat of the French army in 1814, the monastery was returned to the Dominicans, but the pharmacy was never restored. PMID:22047479

  12. [Infant mortality and births in the 19th and early 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Treffers, P E

    2008-12-20

    During the 19th century infant mortality was very high in the Netherlands, particularly in the provinces of South Holland and Zeeland (up to 300 per 1000 live births and more), and also in parts of North Brabant and Limburg. In the northern provinces (Drenthe, Groningen and Friesland) mortality was lower. Where breast-feeding was infrequently given (in rural areas of South Holland, Zeeland and from the 1850s also in North Brabant), infant mortality was relatively high. In the northern provinces many mothers breast-fed their infants. The fertility rate of married women was high, especially in those parts of the country where breast-feeding was infrequent. From 1875-1880 fertility rate and infant mortality decreased: the so-called demographic transition. Improved social conditions and employment opportunities played an important role in this as did the vertical social mobility: limitation of the size of families gave children opportunities to climb the social ladder. PMID:19177920

  13. JP Morgan Hambrecht & Quist - 19th Annual Healthcare Conference. Gilead Sciences, American Home Products and Curis.

    PubMed

    Hookes, J

    2001-03-01

    The 19th Annual JP Morgan H and Q Healthcare Conference provided yet another fascinating opportunity to meet with, and hear presentations by, a number of representatives of wellestablished Big Pharma companies, biotech start-up companies and the healthcare service and healthcare 'dot.com' industries. The conference was hosted by JP Morgan H and Q, part of the newly formed JP Morgan - the wholesale banking group of JP Morgan Chase and Co - which led-managed 13 IPOs in the healthcare industry in 2000. This year, the conference was attended by over 5000 delegates, and in excess of 270 company presentations in six parallel sessions were made to members of the healthcare industries, the media and the investment community. PMID:16025374

  14. Height of female Americans in the 19th century and the antebellum puzzle.

    PubMed

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2011-03-01

    Using 19th century state prison records, this study contrasts the biological standard of living of comparable US African-American and white females during a period of relatively rapid economic development. White females were consistently taller than black females by about 1.5 cm (0.6 in.). Whites from Great Lakes and Plains states and black Southwestern females were the tallest. US females were tall compared to their European counterparts. The height of females began to decline in the antebellum period, possibly before that of males. The recovery of physical stature was also earlier among females than among males. This implies that the biological standard of lower-class men and women did not move in parallel during the onset of modern economic growth. It also implies that the antebellum puzzle was most likely rooted in the endogenous forces of socio-economic change rather than the exogenous changes in the disease environment. PMID:21276759

  15. [Pharmacies in Rzeszów (17th-19th centuries)].

    PubMed

    Swieboda, J

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation is available thanks to many years investigation into the development of education and the history of the church in Galicia and the surrounding region. On the basis of gathered record materials and works concerning medical care, the author presents a history of drug stores in Rzezów in 17th-19th centuries. First, he deals with a pharmacy run by the Pijar monks in the years 1670-1697. There is a unique polychromy in it showing the different way of treating sick patients in the years 1695-1697. Next, he depicts the development of pharmacies according to Austrian law, when southern Poland came under the rule of the Habsburg family between 1772-1918. The lot of all pharmacies, the role of their owners, illustrious pharmacists, Polish - Austrian marriages among pharmacists, their connections with doctors and their position in society during this period are also described. PMID:11770491

  16. Long run trends in the heights of European men, 19th-20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Timothy J; Bray, Bernice E

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents 5-yearly data on the height of young adult men in 15 Western European countries for birth cohorts from the middle of the 19th to the end of the 20th century. The results indicate that from the 1870s to the 1970s average height increased by around 11 cm, or more than 1cm per decade. The main finding is that for the northern and middle European groups of countries the gains in height were most rapid in the period 1911-15 to 1951-55, a period that embraced two World Wars and the Great Depression but also witnessed advances in public health and hygiene. For the southern countries growth was fastest in the period 1951-55 to 1976-80. These findings suggest that advances in height were determined not only by income and living standards but also by a variety of other socioeconomic trends. PMID:20399715

  17. Following rules in the intermontane west: 19th-century mormon settlement.

    PubMed

    Norton, W

    2001-01-01

    The academic discipline of human geography is concerned with human activities, especially as these relate to physical landscapes and contribute to the modification of those landscapes. Although little attention has been paid to objectivist philosophies to inform human geography, behavior analysis might offer a useful explanatory model. As an example, a behavior analysis of selected aspects of 19th-century Mormon movement and settlement in the intermontane West is conducted. Mormons are a society of believers who practice cooperative effort and support for other members, and the Mormon church is governed by priesthood authority with members being called to perform tasks. This analysis employs the concepts of metacontingency, rule-governed behavior, and delayed reinforcement to analyze how Mormons settled the intermontane West. PMID:22478355

  18. [Presentation of pyoderma gangraenosum in a dermatologic atlas of the early 19th century].

    PubMed

    Kuner, N; Hartschuh, W

    2000-07-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum was first described in 1930 by Brunsting, Goeckermann and O'Leary. Nevertheless we found some illustrations in an atlas on dermatology, published by Marie-Nicolas Devergie in the first half of the 19th century, which appear to be pyoderma gangrenosum. In addition to discussions of typical syphilitic affections of the skin, Devergie's "Clinique de la Maladie Syphilitique" includes illustrations of gangrenous ulcers, which appeared unexpectedly after local and systemic therapy with mercury. Devergie interpreted those enlarging ulcers as a side effect of mercury therapy. Thus we were able to find evidence of pyoderma gangrenosum more than 100 years before first description in 1930. The etiology of this clinical picture is still unsettled. The favorite postulate has been a bacterial genesis which was the subject of numerous publications until the 1960s. PMID:10969411

  19. One of the origins of modernity and naturalism of French literature in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Na-Mi

    2013-04-01

    Authors studied how Claude Bernard, the first founder of experimental medicine, contributed significantly to establishment of modernism and influenced European modern culture. Authors first studied his views on modernity, comparing with Descartes and Magendie, and on the similarity between "Experimental medicine" and the European literature in the 19th century. Bernard was not exclusively against vitalism, but the dogmatic misuse of vitalism. His objective thinking could be a useful model for the authors, who considered science to be an origin of modernity in literature of naturalism. Especially, Emile Zola was strongly influenced by Bernard's "An introduction to the study of Experimental medicine" and published "Experimental novel," a manifesto of naturalism. Although Bernard's experimental methodology and determinism deeply influenced modern European culture, the relationship between his Experimental medicine and modernism have not been fully investigated yet. His experimental medicine also needs to be discussed from the ecological viewpoints. His anthropo-centrism was unique since he emphasized any human theory could not surpass the principle of nature. Conventional anthropo-centrism claims that human beings are superior enough to own and govern the nature. And Bernard's the necessary determinism contains the ecological principle that all life forms and inanimate objects are organically related and intertwined to each other, irrespectively of their usefulness for the human beings. Although there were some ethical debates related to his medical experiments on living bodies of animal, his strict principle to perform experiments only after animal or human body died was worth considering as an effort to sustain ecological viewpoints. He was also unique in terms of being realistic and candid about his situation which was limited by the 19th century's scientific and medical development. In conclusion, the significance of convergence of literature and medical science

  20. Ochres and earths: Matrix and chromophores characterization of 19th and 20th century artist materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagner, Cristina; Sanches, Diogo; Pedroso, Joana; Melo, Maria João; Vilarigues, Márcia

    2013-02-01

    The present paper describes the main results obtained from the characterization of a wide range of natural and synthetic ochre samples used in Portugal from the 19th to the 20th century, including powder and oil painting samples. The powder ochre samples came from several commercial distributors and from the collection of Joaquim Rodrigo (1912-1997), a leading Portuguese artist, particularly active during the sixties and seventies. The micro-samples of oil painting tubes came from the Museu Nacional de Arte Contemporânea-Museu do Chiado (National Museum of Contemporary Art-Chiado Museum) in Lisbon and were used by Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (1857-1929), one of the most prominent naturalist Portuguese painters. These tubes were produced by the main 19th century colourmen: Winsor & Newton, Morin et Janet, Maison Merlin, and Lefranc. The samples have been studied using μ-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), Raman microscopy, μ-Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDXRF), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The analyzed ochres were found to be a mixture of several components: iron oxides and hydroxides in matrixes with kaolinite, gypsum and chalk. The results obtained allowed to identify and characterize the ochres according to their matrix and chromophores. The main chromophores where identified by Raman microscopy as being hematite, goethite and magnetite. The infrared analysis of the ochre samples allowed to divide them into groups, according to the composition of the matrix. It was possible to separate ochres containing kaolinite matrix and/or sulfate matrix from ochres where only iron oxides and/or hydroxides were detected. μ-EDXRF and Raman were the best techniques to identify umber, since the presence of elements such as manganese is characteristic of these pigments. μ-EDXRF also revealed the presence of significant amounts of arsenic in all Sienna tube paints.

  1. Invited Colloquium on Negotiating the Complexities of Multilingual Assessment, AAAL Conference 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menken, Kate; Shohamy, Elana

    2015-01-01

    The invited colloquium on New Directions in Language Assessment held at the American Association for Applied Linguistics (AAAL) annual meeting in Portland, Oregon on March 22, 2014 brought together an international panel of scholars to together explore the possibilities and challenges of translanguaging and bi/multilingual approaches in…

  2. Dilemmas of 19th-century Liberalism among German Academic Chemists: Shaping a National Science Policy from Hofmann to Fischer, 1865-1919.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey Allan

    2015-04-01

    This paper's primary goal is to compare the personalities, values, and influence of August Wilhelm Hofmann and Emil Fischer as exemplars and acknowledged leaders of successive generations of the German chemical profession and as scientists sharing a 19th-century liberal, internationalist outlook from the German wars of unification in the 1860s to Fischer's death in 1919 in the aftermath of German defeat in World War I. The paper will consider the influence of Hofmann and Fischer on the shaping of national scientific institutions in Germany, from founding of the German Chemical Society in 1867 to the first institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society founded in 1911, their academic leadership in other areas including the shaping of a successful academic-industrial symbiosis in organic chemistry, and finally their response to war as a force disruptive of scientific internationalism. All of these developments posed serious dilemmas, exacerbated by emerging strains of nationalism and anti-Semitism in German society. Whereas Hofmann's lifework came to a relatively successful end in 1892, Fischer was not so fortunate, as the war brought him heavy responsibilities and terrible personal losses, but with no German victory and no peace of reconciliation--a bleak end for Fischer and the 19th-century liberal ideals that had inspired him. PMID:26104166

  3. Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1998-09-14

    OAK B188 Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program. The purpose of the Travel Grant Program is to increase the awareness of plasma research. The new results and techniques of plasma research in fusion plasmas, plasma processing space plasmas, basic plasma science, etc, have broad applicability throughout science. The benefits of these results are limited by the relatively low awareness and appreciation of plasma research in the larger scientific community. Whereas spontaneous interactions between plasma scientists and other scientists are useful, a focused effort in education and outreach to other scientists is efficient and is needed. The academic scientific community is the initial focus of this effort, since that permits access to a broad cross-section of scientists and future scientists including undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and research staff.

  4. Science Policy at the Wrong Scale and Without Adequate Political Institutions: Parallels between the U.S. 19th Century and the 21st Century Global Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    national and state levels), and there is only weak international confederation provided in the United Nations and multilateral treaties used to restrain multinational corporations. Again, there is tension between unregulated economic development based on local control and strong centralized decision making, but the 21st century has inadequate international political institutions. National corporations did not fit into the institutional context of the 19th century. Multinational corporations do not fit the political institutions extant in the early 21st century. Hutton's insight about geologic time can be applied to politics. Time scale is important in understanding political as well as geologic processes. Policy trends begin with electoral surges and are sustained with subsequent incremental election results and consensus. Geoscientists of the 21st century may be able to look to their 19th century colleagues to recognize the level of political energy needed to convincingly explain the policy consequences of their data to elected officials. Geoscience influence in the policy process is critical to building a lasting political consensus for sustainable policy choices.

  5. How to compare the faces of the Earth? Walachia in mid-19th century and nowadays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartos-Elekes, Zsombor; Magyari-Sáska, Zsolt; Timár, Gábor; Imecs, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    In 1864 a detailed map was made about Walachia, its title is Charta României Meridionale (Map of Southern Romania), it has 112 map sheets, it is often called after his draughtsman: Szathmári's map. The map has an outstanding position in the history of Romanian cartography, because it indicates a turning-point. Before the map, foreigners (Austrians and Russians) had made topographic maps about this vassal principality of the Ottoman Empire. The Austrian topographic survey (1855-1859) - which served as a basis for this map - was the last one and the most detailed of these surveys. The map was made between the personal-union (1859) and independence (1878) of the Danubian Principalities. This map was the first (to a certain extent) own map of the forming country. In consequence of this survey and map, the Romanian mapping institute was founded, which one - based on this survey and map - began the topographic mapping of the country. In the Romanian scientific literature imperfect and contradictory information has been published about this map. Only a dozen copies of the map were kept in few map collections; the researchers could have reached them with difficulties. During our research we processed the circumstances of the survey and mapmaking discovering its documentation in the archives of Vienna, as well as using the Romanian, Hungarian and German scientific literature. We found the copies in map collections from Vienna to Bucharest. We digitized all the map sheets from different collections. We calculated the parameters of the used geodetic datum and map projection. We published on the web, such we made the map reachable for everybody. The map can be viewed in different zoom levels; can be downloaded; settlements can be found using the place name index; areas can be exported in modern projection, so the conditions of that time could be compared with today's reality. Our poster presents on the one hand the survey and the map realized in mid-19th century and our

  6. [The emergence of the Québec asylum in the 19th century.].

    PubMed

    Paradis, A

    1977-01-01

    This team of five philosophers analyses the 18th and 19th century Quebec discourse on the subject of insanity. The 18th century saw the insane excluded from social contact with the state recognizing only their indigence. They were relegated either to the "Loges", designed to expiate their sins since insanity was linked to an abuse of mind and body, or to prison for appropriate punishment, since madness was considered to lead to crime. But economic pressures produced by the growing number in indigents, including the mentally ill, led to the creation of the Beauport asylum in 1845. The authors then describe how the urban insane, marginal to both the French Canadian and English Canadian communities* were placed in private institutions and subjected to a system of profit maximization controlled by bourgeois physicians. This situation increased the distance between proprietors and occupants, and accounts for the lack of original discourse on the subject of insanity. In addition, the reasoning of the alienist physicians was without scientific foundation, taking root rather in the dominant industrial capitalist ideology. As for the content of the discourse, the Beauport physicians borrowed from moral treatment and restraint system notions, giving them a certain Quebec character. PMID:17093651

  7. [Development of the modern biological analogy concept in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bäumer, A

    1989-01-01

    At the beginning of the 19th century the term analogy was still synonymous with similarity, as for example in the case of Georges Cuvier. Exact criteria for determining analogy are first found in the work of Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Thereupon the English scientists Sharp MacLeay, William Swainson, John Obadiah Westwood and Edwin Strickland distinguished between analogy as correspondence between certain parts of the organism, i. e. only superficial resemblance, and affinity as an essential similarity in some remarkable aspects of form. Relying on these theories Richard Owen developed his theory of analogy ("a part which has the same function as another") and homology ("the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function"). The criteria to distinguish between these two terms had to be modified and specified when the theory of evolution was developed by Charles Darwin. In the work of Thomas Henry Huxley, Ernst Haeckel and Carl Gegenbaur the modern biological term of analogy was developed, but at the same time it lost much of its importance and homology as a criterion for natural affinity became the central objective of further biological research. PMID:2534606

  8. The mid 19th and early 20th Century Pull of a Nearby Eclipse Shadow Path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifácio, Vitor

    2012-09-01

    The unique observing conditions allowed by total solar eclipses made them a highly desirable target of 19th and early 20th century astronomical expeditions, particularly after 1842. Due to the narrowness of the lunar shadow at the Earth's surface this usually implied traveling to faraway locations with all the subsequent inconveniences, in particular, high costs and complex logistics. A situation that improved as travel became faster, cheaper and more reliable. The possibility to observe an eclipse in one's own country implied no customs, no language barriers, usually shorter travelling distances and the likely support of local and central authorities. The eclipse proximity also provided a strong argument to pressure the government to support the eclipse observation. Sometimes the scientific elite would use such high profile events to rhetorically promote broader goals. In this paper we will analyse the motivation, goals, negotiating strategies and outcomes of the Portuguese eclipse expeditions made between 1860 and 1914. We will focus, in particular, on the observation of the solar eclipses of 22 December 1870 and 17 April 1912. The former allowed the start-up of astrophysical studies in the country while the movie obtained at the latter led Francisco da Costa Lobo to unexpectedly propose a polar flattening of the Moon.

  9. [Masters of obstetrics in the area of Vojvodina in the 18th and 19th century].

    PubMed

    Berić, B M

    1994-01-01

    The author reviews data about masters of obstetrics, physicians and surgeons nonphysicians, who worked in Vojvodina from the second half of the 18th till the beginning of the 20th century. They used to be the professional and time bridge as well as extremely important developmental link of continuity between the obstetrics of untrained and subsequently educated midwives and physicians gyneco--surgeons, later specialists gynecologists--obstetricians all as a part of integral discipline of gynecology and obstetrics in the area of Vojvodina. The existence of about 30 masters of obstetrics in the area of today's Vojvodina from the 18th to the 20th century, educated at medical faculties of Vienna, Budapest and Graz, points to the fact that obstetrics and gynecology in our regions in the 18th and especially 19th and 20th centuries, used to have similar, and somewhere identical trends and directions of development, like the obstetrics and gynecology of Central Europe of that time and that it used to be, just like it is today, a part of European gynecology and obstetrics. PMID:7739446

  10. F/A-18 1/9th scale model tail buffet measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, C. A.; Glaister, M. K.; Maclaren, L. D.; Meyn, L. A.; Ross, J.

    1991-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were carried out on a 1/9th scale model of the F/A-18 at high angles of attack to investigate the characteristics of tail buffet due to bursting of the wing leading edge extension (LEX) vortices. The tests were carried out at the Aeronautical Research Laboratory low-speed wind tunnel facility and form part of a collaborative activity with NASA Ames Research Center, organized by The Technical Cooperative Program (TTCP). Information from the program will be used in the planning of similar collaborative tests, to be carried out at NASA Ames, on a full-scale aircraft. The program covered the measurement of unsteady pressures and fin vibration for cases with and without the wing LEX fences fitted. Fourier transform methods were used to analyze the unsteady data, and information on the spatial and temporal content of the vortex burst pressure field was obtained. Flow visualization of the vortex behavior was carried out using smoke and a laser light sheet technique.

  11. Age-specific measles mortality during the late 19th-early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G D; Waller, M; Briem, H; Gottfredsson, M

    2015-12-01

    Measles mortality fell prior to the introduction of vaccines or antibiotics. By examining historical mortality reports we sought to determine how much measles mortality was due to epidemiological factors such as isolation from major population centres or increased age at time of infection. Age-specific records were available from Aberdeen; Scotland; New Zealand and the states of Australia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Despite the relative isolation of Australia, measles mortality was concentrated in very young children similar to Aberdeen. In the more isolated states of Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland adults made up 14-15% of measles deaths as opposed to 8-9% in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales. Mortality in Iceland and Faroe Islands during the 1846 measles epidemic was used as an example of islands isolated from respiratory pathogens. The transition from crisis mortality across all ages to deaths concentrated in young children occurred prior to the earliest age-specific mortality data collected. Factors in addition to adult age of infection and epidemiological isolation such as nutritional status and viral virulence may have contributed to measles mortality outcomes a century ago. PMID:25865777

  12. Shark tooth weapons from the 19th Century reflect shifting baselines in Central Pacific predator assemblies.

    PubMed

    Drew, Joshua; Philipp, Christopher; Westneat, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    The reefs surrounding the Gilbert Islands (Republic of Kiribati, Central Pacific), like many throughout the world, have undergone a period of rapid and intensive environmental perturbation over the past 100 years. A byproduct of this perturbation has been a reduction of the number of shark species present in their waters, even though sharks play an important in the economy and culture of the Gilbertese. Here we examine how shark communities changed over time periods that predate the written record in order to understand the magnitude of ecosystem changes in the Central Pacific. Using a novel data source, the shark tooth weapons of the Gilbertese Islanders housed in natural history museums, we show that two species of shark, the Spot-tail (Carcharhinus sorrah) and the Dusky (C. obscurus), were present in the islands during the last half of the 19(th) century but not reported in any historical literature or contemporary ichthyological surveys of the region. Given the importance of these species to the ecology of the Gilbert Island reefs and to the culture of the Gilbertese people, documenting these shifts in baseline fauna represents an important step toward restoring the vivid splendor of both ecological and cultural diversity. PMID:23573214

  13. Factors influencing the recession rate of Niagara Falls since the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2009-09-01

    The rate of recession of Niagara Falls (Horseshoe and American Falls) in northeastern North America has been documented since the 19th century; it shows a decreasing trend from ca. 1 m y - 1 a century ago to ca. 0.1 m y - 1 at present. Reduction of the flow volume in the Niagara River due to diversion into bypassing hydroelectric schemes has often been taken to be the factor responsible, but other factors such as changes in the waterfall shape could play a role and call for a quantitative study. Here, we examine the effect of physical factors on the historically varying recession rates of Niagara Falls, using an empirical equation which has previously been proposed based on a non-dimensional multiparametric model which incorporates flow volume, waterfall shape and bedrock strength. The changes in recession rates of Niagara Falls in the last century are successfully modeled by this empirical equation; these changes are caused by variations in flow volume and lip length. This result supports the validity of the empirical equation for waterfalls in rivers carrying little transported sediment. Our analysis also suggests that the decrease in the recession rate of Horseshoe Falls is related to both artificial reduction in river discharge and natural increase in waterfall lip length, whereas that of American Falls is solely due to the reduction in flow volume.

  14. On the development of German beating-reed organ pipes during the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braasch, Jonas

    2001-05-01

    In the 19th century organ literature, it is often claimed that German organ builders generally adapted the way of building their beating-reed pipes after being influenced by new developments from England and France. To investigate whether this hypothesis is true or false, the reed-pipe sounds of several German historic organs and an English organ by Henry Willis were measured and analyzed. The outcome of the analysis, however, cannot confirm the given hypothesis. Organ builders of the 18th century, such as Gottfried Silbermann for example, were already able to build beating-reed pipes similar in sound to the pipes that are used nowadays in Germany. It is noteworthy that Silbermann used closed shallots in some of his stops, although they are thought to be one of the main inventions in the English and French organ reforms. The use of higher wind pressures, which is also a main part of this reform, on the other hand, never became a common standard in Germany, as was the case for France and Great Britain.

  15. ["Fabulous things". Drug narratives about coca and cocaine in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Wahrig, Bettina

    2009-12-01

    This contribution focuses on the history of Coca leaves and Cocaine in the second half of 19th century Europe. Even though, to date, no direct link has been established between the activities of the Milano physician Paolo Mantegazza, and the Göttingen chemist Friedrich Wöhler, it is not a mere coincidence that both published their findings in the same year, namely, 1859. Mantegazza authored the first treatise claiming that Coca had psychoactive qualities and touted its broad therapeutic faculties; he claimed that it should be introduced into European pharmacotherapy. In Wöhler's laboratory, cocaine was isolated from leaves by his pupil Alfred Niemann; later, Wilhelm Lossen refined and corrected Niemann's results. Narratives about medicinal drugs often streamline history into a story that starts with multiple meanings and impure matters and ends with well-defined substances, directed at clear-cut diseases and symptoms. In the case of Coca, however, the pure substance triggered no such process well into the 1880s, whereas the leaves continued to circulate as an exotic, pluripotent drug whose effects where miraculous and yet difficult to establish. PMID:20481059

  16. Dental health of the late 19th and early 20th century Khoesan.

    PubMed

    Botha, D; Steyn, M

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the dental analysis performed on a Khoesan skeletal sample representing the late 19th and early 20th century Cape Colony in southern Africa. Skeletal material from two European collections (Vienna and Paris) was selected to compile a total sample of 116 specimens. Dental pathology frequencies were calculated for caries (28.4%), antemortem tooth loss (37.9%), periapical abscesses (29.3%), periodontal disease (26.7%), calculus (44.0%) and impacted canines (4.3%). Attrition scores indicated that the group under study had an average rate of attrition compared to other southern African populations. Frequency and intensity data were compared to several other samples from both the pre-contact and contact phases by means of chi-squared analysis. The outcome of the study suggested that the group under study was most likely in a state of transition between a diet and lifestyle of hunting-and-gathering and agriculture. Results were also consistent with those of groups from a low socio-economic status. PMID:25882044

  17. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: Evidence from late 19th century America

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900–1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20–50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  18. Placebos in 19th century medicine: a quantitative analysis of the BMJ

    PubMed Central

    Raicek, Jacqueline E; Stone, Bradley H

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide the first quantitative data on the use of the term “placebo” in the 19th century. Design Computer search of BMJ’s archival database from January 1840 (the first issue) through December 1899 for uses of the words “placebo(s).” Grounded theory was used to categorise the implications of uses of the term. Results 71 citations contained the term “placebo(s).” Of these, 22 (31%) used the term to mean “no effect” or as a general pejorative term, 18 (25%) portrayed placebo treatment as permitting the unfolding of the natural history (the normal waxing and waning of illness), 14 (20%) described placebo as important to satisfy patients, 7 (10%) described it as fulfilling a physician’s performance role, 3 (4%) described its use to buy time, 3 (4%) described its use for financial gain, 2 (3%) used it in a manner similar to a placebo control, and only one implied that placebo could have a clinical effect. Only one citation mentioned telling the patient about his placebo treatment. Conclusion Nineteenth century physicians had diverse a priori assumptions about placebos. These findings remind us that contemporary medicine needs to use rigorous science to separate fact from its own beliefs concerning the “provision of care.” As in previous generations, ethical issues concerning placebos continue to challenge medicine. PMID:23249668

  19. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: evidence from late 19th century America.

    PubMed

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M

    2012-10-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900-1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20-50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  20. Legacy Contaminantion in UK catchments since the mid-19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Noacco, V.; Wagener, T.

    2014-12-01

    We present data from UK catchments to characterise impacts of industrial and agricultural development of UK river catchments since the mid-19th century. We draw heavily on the world's longest continuous water quality monitoring programme in the Thames River Basin (1868-date) and discuss the implications of both agricultural development, social and industrial change, and the impact of legislation on coupled land and water resource systems. Our review draws on both data and model analysis over a 145-year period and explores how a multitude of inter-linked drivers affects process-function and practical water resource management decision-support. Our work uncovers key drivers, catchment responses and emergent challenges for process science and regulation, with particular emphasis on the technical challenge for catchment scientists to provide both insight and workable solutions to maintain food and water security in intensively management river basins. We discuss issues of appropriate methods for both data capture and subsequent analyses to support short- and long-term decision making, and particularly considers the importance of advanced techniques to clarify uncertainties in extrapolation of short-term observations to inform long-term goals. We speculate as to future trajectories of catchment responses to current pressures, and potential pitfalls to immediate concerns that may often be at odds with overall requirements for continued use of natural resources in the future.

  1. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  2. [A new political contribution to medicine: homeopathy in 19th century Spain].

    PubMed

    Albarracin Teulon, A

    1993-01-01

    The author has sumarized the role of well known 19th century doctors, Thackray, Villermé, Chadwick and especially Virchow (whose socio-medical works are related in detail), in the influence of political ideas on Medicine. As a new contribution to this subject the author informs us of the participation or a Spanish homeopathic doctor in this task. Anastasio García López (1821-1897), was influenced by the works of Charles Fourier, whose doctrine was spreading throughout Spain at that time. García López aplied the sociological concepts of the French utopian philosopher to his idea of homeopaty. A review is made of how Fourierism penetrated and became implanted in Spain and the mark it left on Hahnemann is analized using the "passionate attraction" concept and the ideas of social constriction and violence. García López believed that Hahnemann was attempting to free therapeutics from the yoke of attacking symptoms, emphasizing the affinities of the illness with the cure. Finally, this influence is demostrated in all the activitires of this Spanish doctor, politican, spiritualist, mason and hydrologist of renown. PMID:11624939

  3. Naming and Necessity: Sherborn’s Context in the 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    McOuat, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract By the late 19th Century, storms plaguing early Victorian systematics and nomenclature seemed to have abated. Vociferous disputes over radical renaming, the world-shaking clash of all-encompassing procrustean systems, struggles over centres of authority, and the issues of language and meaning had now been settled by the institution of a stable imperial museum and its catalogues, a set of rules for the naming of zoological objects, and a new professional class of zoologists. Yet, for all that tranquillity, the disputes simmered below the surface, re-emerging as bitter struggles over synonyms, trinomials, the subspecies category, the looming issues of the philosophy of scientific language, and the aggressive new American style of field biology – all pressed in upon the received practice of naming and classifying organisms and the threat of anarchy. In the midst rose an index. This paper will explore the context of CD Sherborn’s Index Animalium and those looming problems and issues which a laborious and comprehensive “index of nature” was meant to solve. PMID:26877652

  4. The Struggle To Survive: Work for Racial Ethnic Women in the 18th- and 19th-Century United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    The work situations of Black, Mexican American, and Chinese immigrant women in 18th- and 19th-century United States are explored. Generally, when engaged in agricultural work, all ethnic people were considered units of labor. However, because the slave owner needed to perpetuate his property, Black women were allowed lower rates of production when…

  5. How Conceptual Frameworks Influence Clinical Practice: Evidence from the Writings of John Thelwall, a 19th-Century Speech Therapist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchan, Judith F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The impact of speech therapists' conceptual frameworks on their clinical methods tends to be ignored or taken for granted by today's practitioners. One way to show the importance of such frameworks is to study how they were used previously. John Thelwall, a 19th-century elocutionist, offers a rich source for studying the influence of…

  6. Founding of Compulsory Civil Education According to the Education Acts from Second Half of the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    Records of education in Croatia occur very soon after the settlement of Croats in this area. It is tied to 9th century and Duke Trpimir. Initial steps of education were not legally bounded nor the school was obligatory. In the second half of the 19th century, more precisely in 1871, with the First Education Act education becomes obligatory. Using…

  7. The Educational Utilization of Elements of the History of Natural Sciences (19th Century): Highlighting the Cognitive Continuity with Antiquity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniati, Helen A.

    2005-01-01

    In the current paper, the reasons why the late 19th century Greek university community of natural scientists used elements from the History of Natural sciences which refer exclusively to ancient Greek science, and the consequences of such a choice are evaluated. Emphasis will be given to the speech delivered by the Dean, Professor of Chemistry, A.…

  8. How To Dance through Time. Volume I: The Romance of Mid-19th Century Couple Dances. Beginning Level. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This 35-minute VHS videotape is the first in a series of "How To Dance Through Time" videos. It provides how-to instructions to help beginning dancers learn the mid-19th century ballroom couple dances. It introduces dancers to the basic steps, which accompany the romantic dance music of the past. Each dance segment is introduced by a brief…

  9. ​​​History of Cholera Outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, MH; Azizi, F

    2010-01-01

    Cholera is an acute infectious disease with high mortality if left untreated. Historically, between the 19th and 20th centuries seven great pandemics of cholera occurred and worldwide, thousands of people died. Based on an old theory, cholera was considered an air-born disease and the emergence of its outbreaks were attributed to bad weather or miasma. However later in the 18th century, British physician John Snow (1813-1858) explained the association of a terrible cholera outbreak in London in 1849 to contamination of the drinking water supply with human excreta. Despite his finding, the causative agent of this dreaded illness was unidentified until later in the 19th century. In 1854, Filippo Pacini (1812-1883) an anatomist from Italy and then in 1883, Robert Koch (1843-1910) the German bacteriologist, discovered ‘vibrio cholerae’ as the etiologic agent. During the major pandemics of cholera in 19th and 20th centuries this illness reached Iran and led to vast depopulation and a crucial impact on the country’s socioeconomic status. Poor public health conditions, lack of a well-organized public health authority for implementing preventive and quarantine measures as well as Iran’s specific geographic location were the main facilitating factors of the emergence of various epidemics, including cholera in Iran. The present paper briefly reviews the cholera outbreaks in Iran during the 19th and 20th centuries. PMID:25197514

  10. The Case for Consolidation: Our 19th-Century Model of Governance Is a Formula for Mediocrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amdursky, Saul

    2004-01-01

    We need fewer public libraries with greater dependence. Here at the beginning of the 21st century, public libraries are still saddled with a 19th-century model of government. They are far too beholden to governing authorities, usually municipal or county governments, for their financial sustenance. This is a formula for mediocrity. "Local control"…

  11. The use of Congreve-type war Rockets by the Spanish in the 19th century: A chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancho, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    A yearly account of military uses, by the Spanish, of Congreve war rockets is given, from the year 1810 until 1895. Events prior to the 19th century are also recorded which include the use of rockets against the Moors of Valencia and documentation, from literature of that period, relating to rocket applications.

  12. An Epistemological Approach to French Syllabi on Human Origins during the 19th and 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quessada, Marie-Pierre; Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on how human origins were taught in the French Natural Sciences syllabuses of the 19th and 20th centuries. We evaluate the interval between the publication of scientific concepts and their emergence in syllabuses, i.e., didactic transposition delay (DTD), to determine how long it took for scientific findings pertaining to our…

  13. Physics education in the Greek community schools of Istanbul (19th century). Scientific instruments and experiments in electrostatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazos, Panagiotis; Vlahakis, George N.

    2016-03-01

    The Greek schools operating in Istanbul date back to the 19th century. These schools have noteworthy collections of old scientific instruments that were used in teaching experimental physics. Amongst them, more outstanding are the scientific instruments used in demonstrating electrostatics. This paper briefly presents the equipment, focuses on exceptional scientific instruments and attempts to illuminate certain aspects in teaching the natural sciences.

  14. Self-Help Medical Literature in 19th-Century Canada and the Rhetorical Convention of Plain Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines self-help medical literature in 19th-century Canada. Shows that while authors repeatedly called for "plain" language in contrast to mysterious terminology employed by medical practitioners, comparison of their style with that of medical textbook authors reveals few real differences. Concludes that the posture adopted by Canadian self-help…

  15. How To Dance through Time. Volume VI: A 19th Century Ball--The Charm of Group Dances. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Carol

    This 48-minute VHS videotape is the sixth in a series of "How To Dance Through Time" videos. It shows the festivity of the 19th century group dances, enabling the viewer to plan and participate in the elegant opening to the ball, a refined square dance, and flirtatious Cotillion dancing games. Professional dancers demonstrate the patterns with…

  16. Threads of Change in 19th Century American Literature: A Language Arts Unit for Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossett, Becky F.; And Others

    This unit of study for junior-high level high-ability language arts students explores five themes in 19th century American history through literature of the times: romanticism, transcendentalism, abolitionism, industrialism, and feminism. Each of the five "isms" has its own "literature box" that contains appropriate documents to serve as a…

  17. [Eventful life stories. Members of student fraternities persecuted in Silesia in the early 19th century].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Walter

    2003-01-01

    This study supplemented by three charts and a list of biographies, is, for the first time, encompassing their life-data, their resumés and even their professional careers as well as political commitments shown by more than 200 Silesian students. They, at the University of Breslau, but also at other German universities, had joined the student fraternities in the 20-ies and early 30-ies of the 19th century and, in consequence, were persecuted by state authorities, notably in Prussia and, in the majority of cases, had been sentenced to prison terms of varying degrees. The first demagogic persecution, which happened in the first half of the twenties, culminating in 1822 in the Breslau Arminen Trail and ending up with the staging of the Youth-Association-Trail in 1826, had implicated about 100 Silesians, with a smaller portion of them - apart from teh three Youth-Association Silesians who were sentenced to five years imprisonment in a fortress - getting away with a relatively short "political fortress imprisonment". Later a considerable part of them made a career in the prussian judicial authority, in the institutions of higher learning, as parish priests, physicians and scientists, whereas any political engagement remained a rare exception. Out of the 137 Silesian members of the student fraternities affected by the second wave of persecution, the overwhelming majority of them being Protestants and originating partly from the middle classes, mostly artisans, and from intellectual background, with about a hundred of them being given essentially higher sentences ranging from six years up to capital punishment and, in the event of reprieves, they had to serve their sentences between six months and four-to-six years in a fortress. The majority of them made a medium-level professional career, never exceeding the medium ranks, as judicial officers, lawyers in state or communal services, parish priests, teachers or physicians. However, from this group of persecuted persons, a

  18. The lost origin of chemical ecology in the late 19th century

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The origin of plant chemical ecology generally dates to the late 1950s, when evolutionary entomologists recognized the essential role of plant secondary metabolites in plant–insect interactions and suggested that plant chemical diversity evolved under the selection pressure of herbivory. However, similar ideas had already flourished for a short period during the second half of the 19th century but were largely forgotten by the turn of the century. This article presents the observations and studies of three protagonists of chemical ecology: Anton Kerner von Marilaun (1831–1898, Innsbruck, Austria, and Vienna, Austria), who mainly studied the impact of geological, climatic, and biotic factors on plant distribution and survival; Léo Errera (1858–1906, Brussels, Belgium), a plant physiologist who analyzed the localization of alkaloids in plant cells and tissues histochemically; and Ernst Stahl (1848–1919, Jena, Germany), likely the first experimental ecologist and who performed feeding studies with snails and slugs that demonstrated the essential role of secondary metabolites in plant protection against herbivores. All three, particularly Stahl, suggested that these “chemical defensive means” evolved in response to the relentless selection pressure of the heterotrophic community that surrounds plants. Although convincingly supported by observations and experiments, these ideas were forgotten until recently. Now, more than 100 years later, molecular analysis of the genes that control secondary metabolite production underscores just how correct Kerner von Marilaun, Errera, and, particularly, Stahl were in their view. Why their ideas were lost is likely a result of the adamant rejection of all things “teleological” by the physiologists who dominated biological research at the time. PMID:18218780

  19. 19th century London dust-yards: A case study in closed-loop resource efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Velis, Costas A.; Wilson, David C.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-04-15

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries.

  20. 19th century London dust-yards: a case study in closed-loop resource efficiency.

    PubMed

    Velis, Costas A; Wilson, David C; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2009-04-01

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries. PMID:19121575

  1. Geomagnetic research in the 19th century: a case study of the German contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, W.; Wiederkehr, K.-H.

    2001-10-01

    Even before the discovery of electromagnetism by Oersted, and before the work of Ampère, who attributed all magnetism to the flux of electrical currents, A.v. Humboldt and Hansteen had turned to geomagnetism. Through the ``Göttinger Magnetischer Verein'', a worldwide cooperation under the leadership of Gauss came into existence. Even today, Gauss's theory of geomagnetism is one of the pillars of geomagnetic research. Thereafter, J.v. Lamont, in Munich, took over the leadership in Germany. In England, the Magnetic Crusade was started by the initiative of John Herschel and E. Sabine. At the beginning of the 1840s, James Clarke Ross advanced to the vicinity of the southern magnetic pole on the Antarctic Continent, which was then quite unknown. Ten years later, Sabine was able to demonstrate solar-terrestrial relations from the data of the colonial observatories. In the 1980s, Arthur Schuster, following Balfour Stewart's ideas, succeeded in interpreting the daily variations of the electrical process in the high atmosphere. Geomagnetic research work in Germany was given a fresh impetus by the programme of the First Polar Year 1882-1883. Georg Neumayer, director of the ``Deutsche Seewarte'' in Hamburg, was one of the initiators of the Polar Year. He forged a close cooperation with the newly founded ``Kaiserliches Marineobservatorium'' in Wilhelmshaven, and also managed to gain the collaboration of the ``Gauss-Observatorium für Erdmagnetismus'' in Göttingen under E. Schering. In the Polar Year, the first automatic recording magnetometers (Kew-Model) were used in the German observatory at Wilhelmshaven. Here, M. Eschenhagen, who later became director of the geomagnetic section in the new Meteorological Magnetic Observatory in Potsdam, deserves special credit. Early hypotheses of geomagnetism and pioneering palaeomagnetic experiments are briefly reviewed. The essential seismological investigations at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century are also briefly described as

  2. Forgotten research from 19th century: science should not follow fashion.

    PubMed

    Galler, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    The fine structure of cross-striated muscle and its changes during contraction were known already in considerable detail in the 19th century. This knowledge was the result of studying birefringence properties of muscle fibres under the polarization microscope, a method mainly established by Brücke (Denk Kais Akad Wiss Math Naturwiss Cl 15:69-84, 1858) in Vienna, Austria. The knowledge was seemingly forgotten in the first half of the 20th century before it was rediscovered in 1954. This rediscovery was essential for the formulation of the sliding filament theory which represents the commonly accepted concept of muscle contraction (A.F. Huxley and Niedergerke, Nature 173:971-973, 1954; H.E. Huxley and Hanson, Nature 173:973-976, 1954). The loss of knowledge was the result of prevailing views within the scientific community which could be attributed to "fashion": it was thought that the changes of cross-striations, which were observed under the microscope, were inconsequential for contraction since other types of movements like cell crawling and smooth muscle contraction were not associated with similar changes of the fine structure. The basis for this assumption was the view that all types of movements associated with life must be caused by the same mechanisms. Furthermore, it was assumed that the light microscopy was of little use, because the individual molecules that carry out life functions cannot be seen under the light microscope. This unfortunate episode of science history teaches us that the progress of science can severely be retarded by fashion. PMID:25432331

  3. Apprendre a vivre ensemble grace a l'enseignement de l'histoire et de la geographie. Rapport final du colloque sur le theme. (Learning To Live Together Thanks to the Teaching of History and Geography. Final Report on a Colloquium on That Theme.) Proceedings of a Colloquium Organized Jointly by the International Bureau of Education (UNESCO) and the University of Geneva (Geneva, Switzerland, June 12, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Yves, Ed.; Mouzoune, Abdelkrim, Ed.

    These Proceedings contain 14 chapters (or papers) from a colloquium on learning to live together in peaceful co-existence thanks to the teaching of history and geography. All the papers in the Proceedings are in French, but each paper has both an English summary and a Spanish summary. The 14 papers are, as follows: (1) "Introduction" (Yves Andre;…

  4. Instrumental evidence of an unusually strong West African Monsoon in the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, David; Ordoñez, Paulina; Ribera, Pedro; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina; Garcia-Herrera, Ricardo; Vega, Inmaculada; Gomez, Francisco de Paula

    2016-04-01

    The precipitation in the Sahel -which is mainly controlled by the dynamics of the West African Monsoon-, has been in the spot of the climate community for the last three decades due to the persistence of the drought period that started in the 1970s. Unfortunately, reliable meteorological series in this area are only available since the beginning of the 20th Century, thus limiting our understanding of the significance of this period from a long term perspective. Currently, our knowledge of what happened in times previous to the 20th Century essentially relies in documentary or proxy sources. In this work, we present the first instrumental evidence of a 50 year-long period characterised by an unusually strong West African monsoon in the19th Century. Following the recent advances in the generation of climatic indices based on data from ship's logbooks, we used historical wind observations to compute a new index (the so-called ASWI) for characterising the strength of the West African Monsoon. The ASWI is based in the persistence of the southwesterly winds in the [29°W-17°W;7°N-13°N] area and it has been possible to compute it since 1790 for July and since 1839 for August and September. We show that the ASWI is a reliable measure of the monsoon's strength and the Sahelian rainfall. Our new series clearly shows the well-known drought period starting in the 1970s. During this dry period, the West African Monsoon was particularly weak and interestingly, we found that since then, the correlations with different climatic patterns such as the Pacific and Atlantic "El Niño" changed significantly in relation to those of the previous century. Remarkably, our results also show that the period 1839-1890 was characterised by an unusually strong and persistent monsoon. Notwithstanding, two of the few dry years within this period were concurrent with large volcanic eruptions in the Northern Hemisphere. This latter result supports the recently suggested relationship between major

  5. Theoretical astrophysics in the 19th century (Homage to Radó von Kövesligethy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs, Lajos G.

    The nature of astronomical information is determined mostly by the incoming light. Theoretical astrophysics means basically the theory of light emission and its relation to the physical constitution of the emitting celestial bodies. The necessary physical disciplines include theory of gravitation, theory of radiation, thermodynamics, matter--radiation interaction. The most significant theoretical achievement in the 17th - 18th century was the axiomatic foundation of mechanics and the law of gravitation. In the context of the nature of light, there were two conceptions: Newton contra Huygens, i.e. particle versus wave phenomenon. Using the theory of gravitation, first speculations appeared on black holes (Michell, Laplace), cosmogony (Kant-Laplace theory), the structure of the Milky Way (Kant), and the explanation of motion of the celestial bodies. The Olbers Paradox, formulated in the 19th century, is still one of the most significant constraints on observational cosmology. The development of thermodynamics, matter-radiation interaction, development of the theory of electromagnetism became important milestones. Maxwell's theory was the classical framework of the interaction between matter and radiation. Kirchhoff and Bunsen's revolutionary discovery of spectral analysis (1859) showed that observation of spectra makes it possible to study the chemical composition of emitting bodies. Thermodynamics predicted the existence of the black body radiation. It did not succeed, however, to determine the functional form of the wavelength dependence. A combination of the thermodynamic equation of state with the equation of hydrostatics resulted in the first stellar models (Lane, Ritter, Schuster). The first successful spectral equation of black body radiation was the theory of continuous spectra of celestial bodies by Radó von Kövesligethy (published 1885 in Hungarian, 1890 in German). Kövesligethy made several assumptions on the matter-radiation interaction: radiating

  6. The Lowland Rivers of The Netherlands - Geodiversity and Cultural Heritage on 19th and early 20th century Landscape Paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Moes, Constance

    2015-04-01

    One of the major Dutch landscapes is formed by lowland rivers. They divide the country in a southern and a northern part, both physically and culturally. We screened the freely available database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis & Buunk, www.simonis-buunk.com, looking for lowland river landscapes depicting geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships (See References for other landscapes). Emperor Napoleon declared The Netherlands as naturally belonging to his empire as its lands originated from muds originating in France and transported there by the big rivers. A description that may have given rise to the idea of the Netherlands as a delta, but from a geomorphological perspective The Netherlands consists of series of river plains of terrestrial origin, of which the north-western part are subsiding and invaded by the sea. Now, the rivers Meuse and Rhine (including its branches Waal and IJssel) meander through ever larger river plains before reaching the North Sea. They end in estuaries, something one would not expect of rivers with catchments discharging a large part of Western Europe. Apart from the geological subsidence, the estuaries might be due to human interference, the exploitation of peat and building of dikes since the 11th century, heavy storms and the strong tidal currents. Archaeological finds show Vikings and Romans already used the river Rhine system for trading and transporting goods. During the Roman Empire the Rhine was part of The Limes, the northern defence line of the empire. Romans already influenced the distribution of water over the different river branches. Since the middle of the 19th century groins and canalization drastically changed the character of the rivers. The 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings illustrate this change as well as changes in land use. Examples of geodiversity and cultural heritage relationships shown: - meanders and irregular banks disappear as river management increases, i.a. bends

  7. [The construction of a medical discipline and its challenges: Orthopedics in Switzerland during the 19th and 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Kaba, Mariama

    2015-07-01

    During the 19th century, numerous figures, with different qualifications, claimed to practice orthopedics: doctors, surgeons, inventors of equipment and instruments, and other empiricists. They performed certain types of techniques, massages, surgical operationsand/or fitted prostheses. The polysemous notion of orthopedics had created conflicts of interest that would reach their height at the end of the 19th century. The integration of orthopedics into the training at the university level enhanced its proximity to surgery, a discipline that has dominated the so-called modern medicine. During the 20th century, various medical branches defend the legitimacy of certain orthopedic practices, thereby threating to a degree the title itself of this specialization. By examining the challenges that have shaped the history of orthopedics in Switzerland, this article also seeks to shed light on the strategies that were implemented in adopting a medical and technical discipline within a transforming society. PMID:26111839

  8. Proceedings of the Higher Education Colloquium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1973

    The Higher Education Colloquium is composed of individuals who have made significant contributions to American higher education as researchers, college or university administrators, foundation executives, or in other roles. These proceedings include the following: recognition of the efforts and excellence of Ruth E. Eckert; "New Tasks for New…

  9. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-12-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For the first time in Denmark this study makes a comparison between skeletal stature and contemporary Danish conscript heights and investigates stature of males and females temporally and between socially distinct individuals and populations in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A total of 357 individuals (181 males, 176 females) excavated at the Assistens cemetery in Copenhagen is analyzed. Two stature regression formulae (Trotter, 1970; Boldsen, 1990) are applied using femur measurements and evaluated compared to conscript heights. The results indicate that mean male stature using Boldsen follows a similar trend as the Danish conscript heights and that Trotter overestimate stature by ca. 6cm over Boldsen. At an inter population level statistically significant differences in male stature are observed between first and second half of the 19th century towards a slight stature decrease and larger variation while there are no significant changes observed in female stature. There are insignificant differences in stature between middle and high class individuals, but male stature differs statistically between cemeteries (p=0.000) representing middle/high class, paupers and navy employees, respectively. Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females. PMID:26256129

  10. Was the 19th Century end of the Little Ice Age in the Alps forced by industrial black carbon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, T. H.; Flanner, M.; Marzeion, B.; Kaser, G.; VanCuren, R. A.; Abdalati, W.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers in the European Alps began to retreat abruptly from their mid 19th century maximum, marking what appeared to be the end of the Little Ice Age. Alpine temperature and precipitation records suggest that glaciers should instead have continued to grow until circa 1910. Our current knowledge of the Alpine climate, climatologists consider the climatic end of the LIA to have come markedly later than the glaciological end, resulting in a paradox. Simulations of glacier length variations using glacier flow and mass balance models forced with instrumental and proxy temperature and precipitation fail to match the timing and magnitude of the observed late 19th century retreat. Matches between simulations and observations have only been achieved when additional glacier mass loss is imposed after 1865 or when precipitation signals are generated that would fit the glacier retreat rather than using actual precipitation records. A known transition however did occur across that half century and into the 20th century that may have held powerful potential consequences for absorption of solar radiation, earlier melt of snow cover, and, in turn, the retreat of glaciers. That transition was the dramatic rise in a byproduct of industrialization: black carbon. Ice cores indicate that BC concentrations increased abruptly at mid 19th century and largely continued to increase into the 20th century, consistent with known increases in BC emissions from the industrialization of Western Europe. We estimate the radiative forcings by these changes in BC loading and whether they were of sufficient magnitude to produce the pronounced negative glacier mass balance that began mid 19th century. Inferred annual surface radiative forcings increased stepwise to 13-17 W m-2 between 1850 and 1880, and to 9-22 W m-2 in the early 1900s, with snowmelt season (April/May/June) forcings reaching greater than 35 W m-2 by the early 1900s. These snowmelt season radiative forcings would have resulted in

  11. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  12. Official Languages and the Economy. New Canadian Perspectives. Papers Presented at a Colloquium (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, May 5, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Heritage, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Papers from a colloquium on the relationship between Canada's official languages and its economy include: "Economic Dimensions of Minority and Foreign Language Use: An International Overview" (Karim H. Karim); "European Research on the economics of Language: Recent Results and Relevance to Canada" (Francois Grin); "Reflections on Some Economic…

  13. Causes of mortality due to rheumatic diseases in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) during the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Peral Pacheco, Diego; Suárez-Guzmán, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    A total of 26,203 of the deaths in Jerez de los Caballeros (Badajoz) during the 19th century were collected and grouped according to the Bertillon's Classification, in order to study the causes of death from rheumatic diseases. An analysis was made using the Death Registers, those located in the Parish Archives, and files of the Municipal Archives. There were a total of 31 deaths due to rheumatic diseases, with the 65-74 years age group being most frequent. The lack of records may be due to the inaccuracy of the diagnoses. September was the month of increased mortality. PMID:26139377

  14. Mathematics and Astronomy in the Educational System of Serbia in the Second Half of the 19th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajkovska, V.

    2009-09-01

    In the second half of the 19th century solid fundaments of the educational system were formed in Serbia, in order to follow the contemporaneous development in Europe. Mathematics and astronomy found an important place in this educational system thanks to, above all, distinguished intellectuals who were pioneers in the improvement of education and science in these fields, such as Dimitrije Nešić, Dimitrije Danić, Bogdan Gavrilović and Mihailo Petrović in mathematics and Milan Nedeljković, Milan Andonović, Jovan Dragašević and Djordje Stanojević in astronomy.

  15. ["The mind-body problem". The relation of psychical to physical in 19th century German psychology].

    PubMed

    Romand, David

    2010-01-01

    During the 19th century, the question of the relation between the soul and the body was deeply renewed by German psychological studies. The new elaborated conception of the relationship between the psychical and the physical coincides with the appearance of a cognitivist paradigm, in which mental phenomena are considered as entities that may be individualised, isolated, and then correlated with the activity of specific neural substrates. German psychologists were confronted with the problem of the correlation between psychical life and the nervous system (localisation of mental phenomena and nature of this correlative relationship), and propose an extensive analysis on the neural conditions and the emergence of psychical processes. PMID:20533803

  16. [The links between technology and specialist practice in rehabilitation: the model of gymnastic technology in 19th century Spain].

    PubMed

    Climent, José M; Ballester, Rosa

    2003-01-01

    Gymnastic technology had a decisive role in the configuration of a particular medical specialty, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Its study is critical to understand the strong division of work roles that existed in this field, with a medical specialty and several professions linked to physiotherapy and rehabilitation. This process was developed in two well-defined phases: the assimilation of the knowledge and technological advances of gymnasts at the beginning of the 19th century, and the appropriation of the use of these appliances by doctors. Both factors favoured the emergence of the new professions. PMID:14626280

  17. The influence of inequality on the standard of living: worldwide anthropometric evidence from the 19th and 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Blum, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    We provide empirical evidence on the existence of the Pigou-Dalton principle. The latter indicates that aggregate welfare is - ceteris paribus - maximized when incomes of all individuals are equalized (and therefore marginal utility from income is as well). Using anthropometric panel data on 101 countries during the 19th and 20th centuries, we determine that there is a systematic negative and concave relationship between height inequality and average height. The robustness of this relationship is tested by means of several robustness checks, including two instrument variable regressions. These findings help to elucidate the impact of economic inequality on welfare. PMID:23352274

  18. Early Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases – The Long Awaited Holy Grail and Bottleneck of Modern Brain Research – 19th HUPO BPP Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Schrötter, Andreas; El Magraoui, Fouzi; Gröttrup, Bernd; Wiltfang, Jens; Heinsen, Helmut; Marcus, Katrin; Meyer, Helmut E.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Park, Young Mok

    2014-01-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 19th workshop in Dortmund, Germany, from May 22 to 24, 2013. The focus of the spring workshop was on strategies and developments concerning early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases PMID:24108682

  19. [JAN JĘDRZEJEWICZ AND EUROPEAN ASTRONOMY OF THE 2ND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY].

    PubMed

    Siuda-Bochenek, Magda

    2015-01-01

    Jan Jędrzejewicz was an amateur astronomer who in the 2nd half of the 19th century created an observation centre, which considering the level of research was comparable to the European ones. Jędrzejewicz settled down in Plonsk in 1862 and worked as a doctor ever since but his greatest passion was astronomy, to which he dedicated all his free time. In 1875 Jędrzejewicz finished the construction of his observatory. He equipped it with basic astronomical and meteorological instruments, then began his observations and with time he became quite skilled in it. Jędrzejewicz focused mainly on binary stars but he also pointed his telescopes at the planets of the solar system, the comets, the Sun, as well as all the phenomena appearing in the sky at that time. Thanks to the variety of the objects observed and the number of observations he stood out from other observers in Poland and took a very good position in the mainstream of the 19th-century astronomy in Europe. Micrometer observations of binary stars made in Płońsk gained recognition in the West and were included in the catalogues of binary stars. Interest in Jędrzejewicz and his observatory was confirmed by numerous references in the English "Nature" magazine. PMID:26455002

  20. Improvement of health care for the poor in Split (southern Croatia) during the first half of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Brisky, Livia; Brisky, Tibor

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the health care available for the poor citizens of Split during the first half of the 19th century. Soon after being constructed in 1797, the Civic Hospital in Split founded by the Ergovac brothers for the needs of the poor was transformed into a military hospital. Consequently, caring for this social stratum was taken over by two inadequate shelters and later by a small civic hospital situated in the Split suburb of Dobri. The year of the application of Petar Ergovac to the supreme ruler for the transformation of the hospital building established by his family from a military to a civil institution was found, as well as the correct data regarding its return to initial idea in 1821. On the basis of the archival documents kept in the Archaeological Museum in Split and in the State Archives in Zadar, the work organization of the Civic Hospital in Split and the first stage of its change from a charitable to a public health hospital institution were presented. This study revealed the aspiration of the authorities in the first half of the 19th century to improve the health system of the city of Split. PMID:22397228

  1. Evidence of Active Dune Sand on the Great Plains in the 19th Century from Accounts of Early Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Holliday, Vance T.

    1995-03-01

    Eolian sand is extensive over the Great Plains of North America, but is at present mostly stabilized by vegetation. Accounts published by early explorers, however, indicate that at least parts of dune fields in Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, and Texas were active in the 19th century. Based on an index of dune mobility and a regional tree-ring record, the probable causes for these periods of greater eolian activity are droughts, accompanied by higher temperatures, which greatly lowered the precipitation-to-evapotranspiration ratio and diminished the cover of stabilizing vegetation. In addition, observations by several explorers, and previous historical studies, indicate that rivers upwind of Great Plains dune fields had shallow, braided, sandy channels, as well as intermittent flow in the 19th century. Wide, braided, sandy rivers that were frequently dry would have increased sand supplies to active dune fields. We conclude that dune fields in the Great Plains are extremely sensitive to climate change and that the potential for reactivation of stabilized dunes in the future is high, with or without greenhouse warming.

  2. When realism made a difference: The constitution of matter and its conceptual enigmas in late 19th century physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilholt, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    The late 19th century debate among German-speaking physicists about theoretical entities is often regarded as foreshadowing the scientific realism debate. This paper brings out differences between them by concentrating on the part of the earlier debate that was concerned with the conceptual consistency of the competing conceptions of matter-mainly, but not exclusively, of atomism. Philosophical antinomies of atomism were taken up by Emil Du Bois-Reymond in an influential lecture in 1872. Such challenges to the consistency of atomism had repercussions within the physics community, as can be shown for the examples of Heinrich Hertz and Ludwig Boltzmann. The latter developed a series of counter-arguments, culminating in an ingenious attempt to turn the tables on the critics of atomism and prove the inconsistency of non-atomistic conceptions of nature. Underlying this controversy is a disagreement over specific goals of physical research which was considered crucially relevant to the further course of physical inquiry. It thereby exemplifies an attitude towards the realism issue that can be contrasted with a different, more neutral attitude of construing the realism issue as merely philosophical and indifferent with respect to concrete research programs in physics, which one also occasionally finds expressed in the 19th century controversy and which may be seen as the prevailing attitude of the 20th century debate.

  3. Constraining the geomagnetic field intensity in Western Europe during the 17-19th centuries from French faience shards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, J.; Genevey, A.; Gallet, Y.

    2003-12-01

    We obtained new archeointensity results for France from the analysis of seven groups of potsherds precisely dated from the beginning of the 17th century to the 19th century. These earthenware shards were found during excavations in Nevers which was an important production center of faience in France during the 17-18th centuries. For our intensity determinations, we used a new variant of the Thellier and Thellier (1959) method. This procedure ("IZZI" method; Tauxe et al., 2003) involves the alternation of pair of heatings in field-zero field ("IZ" steps) and pair of heatings in zero field-in field ("ZI" steps), and was specially designed to detect biased intensity results due to multi-domain magnetic grains. The raw intensity values were corrected for TRM anisotropy and cooling rate effects. Our preliminary results do not show strong intensity variations during the 17-19th centuries. In particularly they do not exhibit a rapid intensity decrease during the 17th century as predicted in Western Europe from the global geomagnetic models of Jackson et al. (2000). To constrain their models during the 1590-1840 period, during which directional but no intensity geomagnetic measurements are available, these authors used a backward extrapolation made on the basis of the linear decay of the dipole moment observed since 1840. Our study challenges the validity of this extrapolation and contributes to our knowledge on the recent variation of the dipole moment of the geomagnetic field.

  4. Symposium (International) on Combustion, 19th, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, August 8-13, 1982, Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Topics discussed are related to elementary reactions, reaction mechanisms and modeling, laminar flames, flame chemistry, turbulent reacting shear flows, turbulent premixed flames, turbulent combustion measurements, continuous combustors, detonation, detonation and explosion, heterogeneous detonation, propellant combustion, fire-ignition and thermal degradation, fire-flame spread and burning, fire-modeling, spray combustion, and droplet combustion. Coal combustion kinetics and mechanisms are considered along with coal combustion mechanisms and pyrolysis, coal combustion techniques, NOx in coal combustion, gaseous pollutants, soot and PAH, soot and inorganic pollutants, I.C. engine combustion, and ignition and extinction. Attention is given to intricate paths and simple steps in chemical kinetics and combustion, the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by combustion, turbulent flame structure and speed in spark ignition engines, and unresolved problems in SOx, NOx, and soot control in combustion.

  5. ICTE Tallahassee 2001. International Conference on Technology and Education Proceedings (19th, Tallahassee, Florida, May 2-5, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    The ICTE Tallahassee 2001 conference proceedings is organized into eight themes: "Harnessing the Internet To Raise Educational Standards"; "Policies and Strategies To Evaluate, Identify, and Acquire Effective Software"; "Technology Resources in Support of Learning"; "Distance, Flexible, and Open Learning"; "Creating Digital Assets for Education…

  6. Summary of the 19th International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Meeting on 'Research Using Small Fusion Devices'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Oost, G.; Mank, G.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a summary of recent results reported on several topics on magnetic confinement, dense magnetized plasmas, innovative fusion technology and applications, diagnostic systems and control and data acquisition systems. The main topics covered on the magnetic confinement devices, diagnostics and data acquisition concern the tokamak KTM (Kazakhstan Tokamak for Material testing) for materials research and testing, and IAEA Joint Experiments on small tokamaks. For the dense magnetized plasmas results on development and commissioning of plasma focus devices were reported. The plasmatron VISION I for innovative plasma-wall interaction studies, a lithium divertor for KTM and compact fusion reactors as neutron sources were presented.

  7. The concept of personality in 19th-century French and 20th-century American psychology.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Giovanni Pietro; Foschi, Renato

    2003-05-01

    Since the 1920s, the road to the acknowledgement of personality psychology as a field of scientific psychology that has individuality as its object began with the founding of the discipline by Gordon W. Allport. Historians of psychology have made serious attempts to reconstruct the cultural, political, institutional, and chronological beginnings of this field in America in the 20th century. In this literature, however, an important European tradition of psychological studies of personality that developed in France in the 2nd half of the 19th century has been overlooked. The aim of this article is to cast some light on this unexplored tradition of psychological personality studies and to discuss its influence on the development of the scientific study of personality in the United States. PMID:12817602

  8. Evidence of active dune sand on the Great Plains in the 19th century from accounts of early explorers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Holliday, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    Dune fields are found in several areas of the Great Plains, and though mostly stabilised today, the accounts of early explorers show that they were more mobile in the last century. Using an index of dune mobility and tree ring data, it is found that these periods of mobility were related to temperature-induced drought, the high temperatures increasing evapotranspiration. Explorers also record that rivers upwind of these dune fields had shallow braided channels in the 19th century, and these would have supplied further aeolian sand. It is concluded that these dunes are extremely susceptible to climate change and that it may not need global warming to increase their mobility again. -K.Clayton

  9. Medical and social care in Rovinj from the mid 15th to the mid 19th century.

    PubMed

    Teklić, Ante; Peterković, Vjerislav

    2012-09-01

    By using published and unpublished sources from various archival series kept in the Rovinj Heritage Museum, Chapter Archives of Rovinj and the Diocesan Archives of Porec the authors shed new light and present the health and social care system in the city of Rovinj covering the period which goes from the mid 15th to the mid 19th century. Altruistic mentality of individual citizens, lay and ecclesiastical institutions as well as the need to prevent diseases urged the foundation of medical-social-religious-charitable institutions. In the researched period Rovinj flourished demographically and economically, so that health and social institutions included offices in charge of prevention. When it came to various aspects of social activities, decisions were made by the foreign political authorities--Venetian, French and Austrian administration, although the first initiative would always come from the Rovinj Commune or individual citizens. PMID:23213973

  10. The biological standard of living and mortality in Central Italy at the beginning of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Michela

    2013-12-01

    The biological standard of living in Central Italy at the beginning of the 19th century is analyzed using newly collected data on the height of recruits in the army of the Papal States. The results reveal a decline in height for the cohorts born under French rule (1796-1815). Although this trend was common to many parts of Europe, the estimated magnitude of the decline suggests a worsening of the biological standard of living of the working classes in the Papal States even relative to that of other countries. Despite the differences in the economic systems within the Papal States, no significant geographical variation in height has been found: even the most dynamic and advanced regions experienced a dramatic height decline. Mortality also increased during the period under consideration. PMID:22542472

  11. Landscape paintings of the 17th and 19th century as a tool for coastal zone management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, P. D.; van den Ancker, J.

    2012-04-01

    For more than fifty years many Dutch landscapes suffered severe damage. For their management, it is valuable to know what they looked like in the past. Historic maps give inadequate information, and landscape and aerial photographs are scarcely available until the 1940s. Before then landscapes have been documented chiefly by landscape painters. Interpreted with care, Dutch landscape paintings of the 17th and 19th century are an invaluable geoheritage archive and also hold information that is relevant for present-day landscape management. We present paintings of the Dutch coastal zone as an example. The coastal zone of the Netherlands is geomorphologically well developed, with beaches, foredunes, medieval 'Young dunes', and 5000 year old beach ridges with several anthropic modifications. Each of these terrains attracted landscape painters. Representative paintings can be found in museums and art galleries. We evaluated hundreds of paintings of the collection of Simonis & Buunk, an art gallery in Ede specialised in 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings, for the geoheritage information they contain. The collection, which is the largest on the subject on¬line available in Europe, can be freely consulted (www.simonis--buunk.com). The freedom taken by the painters to adjust reality for compositional or stylistic reasons is still subject of discussion. The paintings became more realistic in the middle of the 19th century when paints became available in tubes and the painters could leave their studio to work in the field. We selected paintings that are sufficiently realistic to be translated in real landscape features, including geomorphological processes and elements. Some insights: • Because of the overriding control of marine and eolian processes, the appearance of the beaches has not changed since the 16th century. • The difference between the flat beaches of the Netherlands and the steeper beaches is accurately registered by the painters. • On a coast

  12. James Edmund Reeves (1829-1896) and the contentious 19th century battle for medical professionalism in the United States.

    PubMed

    Harris, John M

    2015-08-01

    During his life, Dr James E Reeves was a national figure in the US. His work included multiple professional publications, civic and professional leadership positions, and the drafting of a landmark law that confirmed the right of states to regulate the medical profession. While much of Reeves' work supported the successful struggle of 19th century regular physicians to gain control of the practice of medicine, he challenged his colleagues when their self-interests conflicted with his perception of the public good. He was frequently lauded for this work by physicians and the public but he also made professional enemies. Perhaps for this reason, his considerable accomplishments were forgotten after his death. His story reminds us of the difficult contradiction that exists within the regulation of medicine, guarding the public's welfare while protecting the interests of medical professionals. It also reminds us that history may temporarily overlook those who fight our difficult battles. PMID:24802355

  13. Geologic and hydrologic hazards in glacierized basins in North America resulting from 19th and 20th century global warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, J. E.; Costa, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Alpine glacier retreat resulting from global warming since the close of the Little Ice Age in the 19th and 20th centuries has increased the risk and incidence of some geologic and hydrologic hazards in mountainous alpine regions of North America. Abundant loose debris in recently deglaciated areas at the toe of alpine glaciers provides a ready source of sediment during rainstorms or outburst floods. This sediment can cause debris flows and sedimentation problems in downstream areas. Moraines built during the Little Ice Age can trap and store large volumes of water. These natural dams have no controlled outlets and can fail without warning. Many glacier-dammed lakes have grown in size, while ice dams have shrunk, resulting in greater risks of ice-dam failure. The retreat and thinning of glacier ice has left oversteepened, unstable valley walls and has led to increased incidence of rock and debris avalanches. ?? 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  14. [Military Knowledge: War Sciences and Army Libraries in France in the 19th Century (c. 1800-c. 1900)].

    PubMed

    Thoral, Marie-Cecile

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the development of military knowledge in France in the 19th century, both in terms of production of knowledge (especially through the Dépôt de la Guerre) and of transmission through a network of army libraries. The strategic dimension of this form of knowledge required a direct intervention of the state, to control or restrict the publication of sensitive data. State intervention was also necessary to coordinate and generate a unified, applied military knowledge using data submitted by members of different army branches, or by civilians. The work of military librarians and bibliologists was all the more difficult because of the very wide range of sciences which could be used by the army. Growing state intervention and public funding were thus essential for the production and transmission of military knowledge. PMID:26902056

  15. [Traces of blood. The significance of blood in criminology at the turn of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bachhiesl, Christian

    2010-03-01

    In late 19th and early 20th century, criminology became institutionalized as an independent branch of science. Methodologically it focused on the 'exact' methods of the natural sciences, but also it tried to integrate the methods of the humanities. This mix of methods becomes visible in the treatment of blood, which on the one hand was an object of then brand new methods of scientific analysis (identification of human blood by the biological or precipitin method), and on the other hand was analyzed as a product of the magic and superstitious mentalities of criminals. The methodical tension resulting from this epistemological crossbreeding did not disturb the criminologists, for whom the reconciliation of opposite ways of thinking and researching seemed to be possible. In this encyclopaedic analysis of blood early criminology tried to combine the anthropological exploration of vampirism with the chemical and microscopic detection of antibodies and haemoglobin, thus mirroring the positivistic optimism that was then prevalent. PMID:20503663

  16. Paleontology and Darwin's Theory of Evolution: The Subversive Role of Statistics at the End of the 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Tamborini, Marco

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines the subversive role of statistics paleontology at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. In particular, I will focus on German paleontology and its relationship with statistics. I argue that in paleontology, the quantitative method was questioned and strongly limited by the first decade of the 20th century because, as its opponents noted, when the fossil record is treated statistically, it was found to generate results openly in conflict with the Darwinian theory of evolution. Essentially, statistics questions the gradual mode of evolution and the role of natural selection. The main objections to statistics were addressed during the meetings at the Kaiserlich-Königliche Geologische Reichsanstalt in Vienna in the 1880s. After having introduced the statistical treatment of the fossil record, I will use the works of Charles Léo Lesquereux (1806-1889), Joachim Barrande (1799-1833), and Henry Shaler Williams (1847-1918) to compare the objections raised in Vienna with how the statistical treatment of the data worked in practice. Furthermore, I will discuss the criticisms of Melchior Neumayr (1845-1890), one of the leading German opponents of statistical paleontology, to show why, and to what extent, statistics were questioned in Vienna. The final part of this paper considers what paleontologists can derive from a statistical notion of data: the necessity of opening a discussion about the completeness and nature of the paleontological data. The Vienna discussion about which method paleontologists should follow offers an interesting case study in order to understand the epistemic tensions within paleontology surrounding Darwin's theory as well as the variety of non-Darwinian alternatives that emerged from the statistical treatment of the fossil record at the end of the 19th century. PMID:25758234

  17. Cooler Rings and their Applications - Proceedings of the 19th Ins Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, T.; Noda, A.

    1991-08-01

    for Cooler Rings * V-3 Storage Ring ESR as a Multi-Turn Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer * V-4 Accumulation and Cooling of Polarized Beam * V-5 Accumulation of Radioactive Beam and Collision with Electron Beam in TARN II * V-6 Design of Heavy Ion Collider at KEK PS * VI. INTERNAL TARGET * VI-1 Internal Targets at the CELSIUS Storage Ring * VI-2 A Thin Foil as an Internal Target for a Cooler Ring Experiment * VII. ATOMIC PHYSICS * VII-1 Radiative and Dielectronic Recombination: Measurements at UNILAC and ESR * VII-2 A High Density Cold Electron Target for the Study of Recombination of Partially Stripped Heavy Ions * VII-3 Electron-Ion Recombination Measurements with an Electron Cooler * Symposium Summary * Scientific Program * List of Participants * Author Index

  18. The 19th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: student built autonomous ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 19 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from almost 80 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  19. Evolutionary games on multilayer networks: a colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-05-01

    Networks form the backbone of many complex systems, ranging from the Internet to human societies. Accordingly, not only is the range of our interactions limited and thus best described and modeled by networks, it is also a fact that the networks that are an integral part of such models are often interdependent or even interconnected. Networks of networks or multilayer networks are therefore a more apt description of social systems. This colloquium is devoted to evolutionary games on multilayer networks, and in particular to the evolution of cooperation as one of the main pillars of modern human societies. We first give an overview of the most significant conceptual differences between single-layer and multilayer networks, and we provide basic definitions and a classification of the most commonly used terms. Subsequently, we review fascinating and counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes that emerge due to different types of interdependencies between otherwise independent populations. The focus is on coupling through the utilities of players, through the flow of information, as well as through the popularity of different strategies on different network layers. The colloquium highlights the importance of pattern formation and collective behavior for the promotion of cooperation under adverse conditions, as well as the synergies between network science and evolutionary game theory.

  20. IAU Colloquium 193 - A personal view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaler, S. D.

    2004-05-01

    One of the more famous (or infamous) films of all time was Akira Kurosawa's Rashomon. In this film, Kurosawa tells the story of a terrible crime... and tells it four times. Each telling is from the perspective of a different character. In this masterful film the viewer is never quite sure what really happened; each of the protagonists tells the same tale but with their own personal interpretation. Summarizing a week spent in the cold clear air of wintertime Christchurch (and that was inside the lecture hall) is indeed a daunting task. Each of us who was fortunate enough to have attended IAU Colloquium 193 came away from the meeting with our own impressions, highlights, and revelations. So by writing now about by own reflections, my goal is to rekindle yours, rather than persuade you that my summary is any more authoritative than one you might write. Of course, those of you reading this who were not at the conference are stuck with this summary - but by reading the preceding papers in this volume you, too, can have a sense of the variety we enjoyed. Below, I start with a survey of some broad themes that emerged. A few results were of the `Gee Whiz' variety, and are outlined in the next section. A few old problems were revisited by several participants, and also some new problems have emerged, and I outline them next. After a nod to two very special participants in this Colloquium, I conclude with some final thoughts.

  1. Conference Report: The Sino-American Colloquium on Moral Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gielen, Uwe

    1987-01-01

    Offers a report on a January 1987 colloquium on moral cognition in Chinese culture. Calls for creative teamwork on longitudinal interviews to gain a more exact picture of moral development structures in non-western cultures such as Taiwan. (BSR)

  2. Supporting Papers for A Colloquium on the Vietnamese Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen Hy Quang; Duong Thanh Binh

    These papers were written as supporting documents for a colloquium on the Vietnamese language. The first catalogues and analyzes Vietnamese vowels, diphthongs, consonants and tones. The second analyzes some facets of Vietnamese syntax. (CHK)

  3. [Development of animal husbandry in Groningen in the 18th and 19th century; a broad outline].

    PubMed

    Paping, R F

    2001-01-01

    This overview is mainly focussed on the clay area forming the northern half of the province. It is the wealthiest and most characteristic part, being cultured since the Middle Ages as testified by the many churches that even small villages were able to construct. About 1700 the province of Groningen enjoyed already a modern economy, fitting in with that of the other coastal areas of Friesland, Zeeland and Holland (the last mentioned was the richest region of the world in the 17th and 18th century). As aspects of modernity at that time can be considered: 1) the use of modern agricultural methods with higher yields per hectare and higher milk yields per cow than produced in the land provinces on the sandy soils; 2) Agriculture was aimed at earning money by selling of hte products. In opposition to the farmers in the land provinces, who mainly produced for subsistence farming, the farmers in the coastal areas produced for the trade; 3) A high degree of specialization was found in the rural areas. 30-40% of the families had own farms, 25% of the population were labourers, owing only small pieces of land and the rest of the working population had occupations outside agriculture (craftmen, shopkeepers, shipmasters, merchants etc.). Whereas on the sandy soils practically every family owned a farm, be it mostly a very small one. After reviewing the changes in the distribution of land in use of the production of fieldcrops or for meadows-always in function of the market value of the products-and after a discussion of type of cattle husbandry (breeding, fattening, dairying) it is concluded that a relative decrease of the importance of cattle husbandry in the clay region during the 18th - 19th century can be observed. Intensification of land use had a positive effect on crop-production. The much-heard opinion that the cattle plague epizootic of 1768-1786 caused a transition in land use through a switch from animal husbandry to arable farming, is not held by the author

  4. [Lódź--centre of medical sciences development at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries].

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    Social and economical changes in Lódź transforming the town into a strong textile industry centre at the turn of 19th and 20th century stimulated the development of medical sciences and professional activity. Between 1800 and 1914 a 600-fold increase in the number of inhabitants occured - a demographic phenomenon unknown in Europe at that time. This led to specific sanitary and hygiene conditions, negatively affecting the population's health. In these social and economic conditions, with Russian occupant unwillingness to act, medical professionals and other social groups, in particular founders ot the textile industry--K. Scheibler, I. Poznanski, I. Heinzel, I. Kunitzer and others spontaneously acted to solve urgent medical problems. In this period a number of modern private and public hospitals such as neuro-psychiatric " Kochanówka" hospital, paediatric "Anna-Maria" hospital, factory-owned hospitals and other social aid centres were organised. These institutions, apart clinical activities for the society, held scientific research. A number of scientists were active in Lódź at that time: Stanisław Bartoszewicz, Józef Brudzinski, Józef Kollnski, Jan Mazurkiewicz, Witold Chodźko, Tadeusz Mogielnicki, Józef Maybaum-Marzynski, Stanislaw Serkowski, Stanislaw Skalski, Emanuel Sonnenberg and others. They were involed in new fields of medical research, such as paediatric diseases, neurological and psychiatric diseases, neoplastic diseases, infectious diseases and occupational medicine. All these activities were co-ordinated by: Lódź Medical Association, Lódź Division of the Warsaw Society of Hygiene, Industrial Medicine Assocation and Tuberculosis League. At the turn of the 19th and 20th century Lódź was listed among well known centres of modern diagnostic and therapeutic methods in the menagement of tuberculosis, childhood diseases and neuropsychiatric diseases. Professional skills and scientific activity of physicians form Lódź, their efforts in

  5. Food, Hunger, and Agricultural Issues. Proceedings of a Colloquium on Future U.S. Development Assistance (Morrilton, Arkansas, February 17-19, 1988). Development Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clubb, Deborah, Ed.; Ligon, Polly C., Ed.

    Colloquium participants were asked to make informed guesses about whether developing countries can grow and equitably distribute the food they need over the next decade, what the international development community should do to help in both production and distribution, and what role the United States should play in the development process. The 17…

  6. Teaching the Teachers on Building Climatology. (CIB Steering Group S 4, Colloquium, Stockholm, September 4-6, 1972). CIB Proceedings No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Swedish Inst. for Building Research, Stockholm.

    This publication comprises a collection of papers and synopses of discussions dating from the "Teaching the Teachers in Building Climatology" colloquium which was held under the auspices of the International Council for Building Research (CIB) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The papers deal with the use of various meteorological…

  7. Modern temporal network theory: a colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, Petter

    2015-09-01

    The power of any kind of network approach lies in the ability to simplify a complex system so that one can better understand its function as a whole. Sometimes it is beneficial, however, to include more information than in a simple graph of only nodes and links. Adding information about times of interactions can make predictions and mechanistic understanding more accurate. The drawback, however, is that there are not so many methods available, partly because temporal networks is a relatively young field, partly because it is more difficult to develop such methods compared to for static networks. In this colloquium, we review the methods to analyze and model temporal networks and processes taking place on them, focusing mainly on the last three years. This includes the spreading of infectious disease, opinions, rumors, in social networks; information packets in computer networks; various types of signaling in biology, and more. We also discuss future directions.

  8. Colloquium: Nanoplasmas generated by intense radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrikov, Kostya Ken; Beg, Farhat; Ng, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Solid, liquid, and gaseous states of matter can exist and acquire unique properties when reduced in size into a nanometer domain. This Colloquium explores the approaches to produce plasmas with nanometer dimensions and the arising physical phenomena and properties associated with this extreme, nonequilibrium state of matter. Analysis of the spatial confinement, coupling, ideality, and degeneracy criteria lead to the possibilities to produce transient nanoplasma states near, in, and from solids by using ultrafast photoexcitation. These states arise through the interplay of nonequilibrium, many-body Coulomb interactions, thermal, and nonthermal effects. Examples include photoexcited electron-hole plasmas in semiconductors, transient solid-to-plasma states including warm dense matter, nanoplasmas produced by interaction of nanoclusters and nanoparticles with intense radiation, nanoplasmas in high-energy ion tracks within solids, nanoplasmas in relativistic regime, and others. Physical phenomena arising due to the localization of high-energy densities to microscales and nanoscales and their potential applications are discussed.

  9. Colloquium: Hierarchy of scales in language dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blythe, Richard A.

    2015-11-01

    Methods and insights from statistical physics are finding an increasing variety of applications where one seeks to understand the emergent properties of a complex interacting system. One such area concerns the dynamics of language at a variety of levels of description, from the behaviour of individual agents learning simple artificial languages from each other, up to changes in the structure of languages shared by large groups of speakers over historical timescales. In this Colloquium, we survey a hierarchy of scales at which language and linguistic behaviour can be described, along with the main progress in understanding that has been made at each of them - much of which has come from the statistical physics community. We argue that future developments may arise by linking the different levels of the hierarchy together in a more coherent fashion, in particular where this allows more effective use of rich empirical data sets.

  10. Geophysical survey applied to underwater archaeology: a 19th century town submerged in Tequesquitengo Lake, Morelos, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo Dominguez, R. E.; Bandy, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    In August 2009, we conducted an underwater geophysical survey with archaeological objectives at the Tequesquitengo Lake, in Morelos, Mexico. This survey was supervised by researchers from the UNAM’s Institute of Geophysics. The main objectives were to locate and delimitate the archaeological site of a submerged town which lies at the bottom of the lake since the mid 19th century by using geophysical survey techniques. A small size vessel used for our survey was provided by the local Harbour Master, onboard which we mounted a differential GPS unit, navigation system, a dual 38 kHz/200 Khz echosounder and 200 kHz sidescan sonar system, and a marine proton magnetometer, to accomplish our objectives. A bathymetric survey of the site was carried out. And using magnetometry the archaeological site was delimitated. We acquired various sonar images of the higher structures of a church. The magnetic maps showed us some anomalies, which could be an indication of the remains of the submerged town. Additional future surveys, backed up by more research dives could definitely help us in obtaining a broad insight into the history and cultural diversity of this site.

  11. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  12. [Psychophysical parallelism. On a discursive figure in the field of scientific changes in the late 19th century].

    PubMed

    Wegener, Mai

    2009-01-01

    The article traces the rise and fall of "psychophysical parallelism" - which was the most advanced scientific formulation of the mind / body relationship in the second half of the 19th century - through an interdisciplinary and broad geographical spectrum. It sheds light on the extremely different positions that rallied round this discursive figure, ranging from Fechner, Hering, Mach, Wundt, Bain, Hughlings Jackson, and Taine to Freud and Saussure. The article develops the thesis that the psychophysical parallelism functioned as a 'hot zone' within and a symptom of the changes in the order of sciences at that time. Against that background, the criticism of the psychophysical parallelism which became prominent around 1900 (Stumpf, Busse, Bergson, Mauthner et. al.) indicates the cooling of this 'hot zone' and the establishment of a new order within the scientific disciplines. The article pays particular attention to the position of this figure in contemporaneous language theories. Its basic assumption is that the relationship between the body and the psyche is itself constituted by language. PMID:20027909

  13. The black cholera comes to the central valley of America in the 19th century - 1832, 1849, and later.

    PubMed

    Daly, Walter J

    2008-01-01

    In mid-19th Century, cholera was epidemic throughout the world. Small towns of the American Midwest were not spared. The disease was blamed on miasmas arising from local causes, so flight from affected localities were logical and common. Flight, added to mortality, caused virtual depopulation of many small towns. Drinking water was drawn from rivers or shallow wells, often near seeping cesspools. Local merchants tried unsuccessfully to calm panic by suppressing information. Cholera was not good for business. Business was depressed. Organized religion thrived. National and state days of prayer were appointed to appease an angry God. During these frightening times, the people learned nothing about the infectiousness of cholera or about its prevention through sanitation. Their experiences tended to reinforce their belief in miasmas or divine retribution. The great epidemics of mankind describe human behavior in times of unavoidable and incurable crisis. Nineteenth Century cholera experiences illustrate a people's reaction to catastrophic disease, which they believed was incurable and unpreventable. PMID:18596846

  14. Quantifying pollen-vegetation relationships to reconstruct ancient forests using 19th-century forest composition and pollen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Andria; Paciorek, Christopher J.; McLachlan, Jason S.; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-04-01

    Mitigation of climate change and adaptation to its effects relies partly on how effectively land-atmosphere interactions can be quantified. Quantifying composition of past forest ecosystems can help understand processes governing forest dynamics in a changing world. Fossil pollen data provide information about past forest composition, but rigorous interpretation requires development of pollen-vegetation models (PVMs) that account for interspecific differences in pollen production and dispersal. Widespread and intensified land-use over the 19th and 20th centuries may have altered pollen-vegetation relationships. Here we use STEPPS, a Bayesian hierarchical spatial PVM, to estimate key process parameters and associated uncertainties in the pollen-vegetation relationship. We apply alternate dispersal kernels, and calibrate STEPPS using a newly developed Euro-American settlement-era calibration data set constructed from Public Land Survey data and fossil pollen samples matched to the settlement-era using expert elicitation. Models based on the inverse power-law dispersal kernel outperformed those based on the Gaussian dispersal kernel, indicating that pollen dispersal kernels are fat tailed. Pine and birch have the highest pollen productivities. Pollen productivity and dispersal estimates are generally consistent with previous understanding from modern data sets, although source area estimates are larger. Tests of model predictions demonstrate the ability of STEPPS to predict regional compositional patterns.

  15. Theodor Waitz's theory of feelings and the rise of affective sciences in the mid-19th century.

    PubMed

    Romand, David

    2015-11-01

    The German psychologist Theodor Waitz (1821-1864) was an important theorist of affectivity in the mid-19th century. This article aims to revisit Waitz's contribution to affective psychology at a crucial moment of its history. First, I elaborate the context in which Waitz's ideas were carried out by showing how affective sciences emerged as an autonomous field of investigation between about 1770 and 1910. Second, I discuss the principles of Waitz's model of affectivity and their contextual significance. Third, I deal with the first major category of affective states identified by Waitz, namely, "formal feelings," which are supposed to be involved in the appraisal of the relational properties between representations. Fourth, I investigate "qualitative feelings," the second major category of affective states identified by Waitz, which refer to affective processes that relate to specific representational contents, namely, intellectual, aesthetic, and moral feelings. In conclusion, I emphasize the genealogical link between Waitz's pioneering research on musical feelings and current research on emotion and expectation in music. PMID:26551862

  16. The Black Cholera Comes to the Central Valley of America in the 19th Century - 1832, 1849, and Later

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Walter J.

    2008-01-01

    In mid-19th Century, cholera was epidemic throughout the world. Small towns of the American Midwest were not spared. The disease was blamed on miasmas arising from local causes, so flight from affected localities were logical and common. Flight, added to mortality, caused virtual depopulation of many small towns. Drinking water was drawn from rivers or shallow wells, often near seeping cesspools. Local merchants tried unsuccessfully to calm panic by suppressing information. Cholera was not good for business. Business was depressed. Organized religion thrived. National and state days of prayer were appointed to appease an angry God. During these frightening times, the people learned nothing about the infectiousness of cholera or about its prevention through sanitation. Their experiences tended to reinforce their belief in miasmas or divine retribution. The great epidemics of mankind describe human behavior in times of unavoidable and incurable crisis. Nineteenth Century cholera experiences illustrate a people's reaction to catastrophic disease, which they believed was incurable and unpreventable. PMID:18596846

  17. [An unrivalled physician? Family strategies for child care in the late 19th century South Tyrolean countryside].

    PubMed

    Unterkircher, Alois

    2012-01-01

    Who was responsible for the treatment of sick children in the countryside during the second half of the 19th century? This paper investigates the medical complaint accusing the rural population of only reluctantly bringing their sick offspring to academic physicians. The following analyses the role Franz v. Ottenthal (1818-1899), a 'representative' of a private rural medical practice, played in the specialised medical market attending to childhood diseases. An exemplary survey of Ottenthal's medical records for patients from the age of one to 14 years throughout the 1890s has shown that children contributed a relevant percentage of the whole of the physician's patient distribution. It may therefore be assumed that Ottenthal knew how to successfully merchandise his specific therapies. On the demand side, however, parents of sick children were not solely reliant upon this physician. Evidence from the medical records provides information as to when parents regarded medical self-help as no longer supporting the recovery of their children, the cures of lay healers failed, or cases when parents were not satisfied with the therapeutic treatments other physicians had to offer and therefore consulted Ottenthal. PMID:23320379

  18. The "Abyssal Society". François-Alphonse Forel and the Case of Deep Fauna in Late 19th Century.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Ichthyological investigations and technological advancements, such as the laying of submarine telegraph cables, promoted new dredging methods in the second half of the 19th century. In contrast to the idea of a lifeless deep ocean (Edward Forbes' azoic hypothesis), the discovery of deep water fauna and the challenge of defining its systematics opened up new theoretical perspectives. In this frame, which was already marked by the impact of Darwin's theory, naturalistic surveys in freshwater environments in western Switzerland intertwined with those of oceanographic expeditions. The study of the fauna in the depths of subalpine lakes by the Swiss savant François-Alphonse Forel was one of the most striking examples of this turning point, because the relatively recently evolution of its freshwater fauna allowed him to investigate: (a) the role of isolation, (b) the progressive differentiation of species from a common ancestor, and (c) the constitution of a species-specific category in form transition, from a genealogical viewpoint to an ecological one. PMID:27356339

  19. Embryonic development of chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus) from 1st to 19th day-ectodermal structures.

    PubMed

    Toledo Fonseca, Erika; De Oliveira Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Alcântara, Dayane; Carvalho Cardoso, Rafael; Luís Franciolli, André; Sarmento, Carlos Alberto Palmeira; Fratini, Paula; José Piantino Ferreira, Antônio; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2013-12-01

    Birds occupy a prominent place in the Brazilian economy not only in the poultry industry but also as an animal model in many areas of scientific research. Thus the aim of this study was to provide a description of macro and microscopic aspects of the ectoderm-derived structures in chicken embryos / fetuses poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) from 1st to 19th day of incubation. 40 fertilized eggs, from a strain of domestic chickens, with an incubation period of 2-19 days were subjected to macroscopic description, biometrics, light, and scanning microscopy. All changes observed during the development were described. The nervous system, skin and appendages and organs related to vision and hearing began to be identified, both macro and microscopically, from the second day of incubation. The vesicles from the primitive central nervous system-forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain-were identified on the third day of incubation. On the sixth day of incubation, there was a clear vascularization of the skin. The optic vesicle was first observed fourth day of development and on the fifth day there was the beginning of the lens formation. Although embryonic development is influenced by animal line as well as external factors such as incubation temperature, this paper provides a chronological description for chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) during its embryonic development. PMID:24019213

  20. Evidence for tuberculosis in 18th/19th century slaves in Anse Sainte-Marguerite (Guadeloupe - French Western Indies).

    PubMed

    Lösch, Sandra; Kim, Mi-Ra; Dutour, Olivier; Courtaud, Patrice; Maixner, Frank; Romon, Thomas; Sola, Christophe; Zink, Albert

    2015-06-01

    During the American colonization in the 18th and 19th century, Africans were captured and shipped to America. Harsh living and working conditions often led to chronic diseases and high mortality rates. Slaves in the Caribbean were forced to work mainly on sugar plantations. They were buried in cemeteries like Anse Sainte-Marguerite on the isle of Grande-Terre (Guadeloupe) which was examined by archaeologists and physical anthropologists. Morphological studies on osseous remains of 148 individuals revealed 15 cases with signs for bone tuberculosis and a high frequency of periosteal reactions which indicates early stages of the disease. 11 bone samples from these cemeteries were analysed for ancient DNA. The samples were extracted with established procedures and examined for the cytoplasmic multicopy β-actin gene and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA (IS 6110) by PCR. An amplification product for M. tuberculosis with the size of 123 bp was obtained. Sequencing confirmed the result. This study shows evidence of M. tuberculosis complex DNA in a Caribbean slave population. PMID:25754341

  1. (Re)Constructions of Etymology of the Term "Electricity" in French German and Modern Greek Textbooks of Physics of 18th-19th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    The different and contrasting versions of the etymology of the term "electricity" in Modern Greek textbooks of Physics of the 18th and 19th century, which are influenced by French and German textbooks, are not mere (re)constructions that serve the didactic purposes and objectives of their authors. They are (in)directly related to the social and…

  2. The Rise and Fall of Science Education: A Content Analysis of Science in Elementary Reading Textbooks of the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century the textbook dominated the curriculum and methods of instruction. The most important textbook was the textbook of reading known as the reader. In the early 1800s science was not established as a separate primary grade subject. The science students encountered in these reading textbooks may have been their only formal science…

  3. American Journalism Historians Association Annual Convention (London, Ontario, Canada, October 3-5, 1996). Part I: Selected Papers Covering the Colonial Period through the 19th Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journalism Historians' Association.

    The 16 papers presented in this collection all deal with journalism and journalists from colonial America through the 19th century. The papers and their authors are: "Fighting for a Continent: Newspaper Coverage of the English and French War for Control of North America, 1754-1760" (David A. Copeland); "A Romance with 'Local' Happenings (Never…

  4. Teaching of Psychology: Ideas and Innovations. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology (19th, Monticello, New York, April 6-8, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaromatidis, Katherine, Ed.; Oswald, Patricia A., Ed.; Levine, Judith R., Ed.; Indenbaum, Gene, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The 19th Annual Conference on Undergraduate Teaching of Psychology was held on April 6-8, 2005 at Kutsher's Country Club in Monticello, New York. The conference was sponsored by the Psychology Department of the State University of New York at Farmingdale. The conference featured two keynote speakers--Dr. James Naire, sponsored by Wadsworth…

  5. Library Automation as a Source of Management Information. Papers presented at the Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing (19th, Urbana, IL, April 25-28, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, F. Wilfrid, Ed.

    Papers presented at the 19th Clinic on Library Applications of Data Processing represent a great variety, ranging from a tutorial on management information and decision support systems, through more philosophical discussions of the value of computer-derived information in library management, to studies of the use of automated systems as sources of…

  6. The Essence of Language Is History: A Theoretical Introduction to the Connection between Social Relations and Language Relations in 19th Century Brussels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Metsenaere, Machteld

    An examination of language use in 19th century Brussels seeks to explain how and why a link between language and social class came into operation. Hypotheses relating the social characteristics (material circumstances and consciousness) of social classes and segments of social classes to various resulting language patterns are proposed. This…

  7. Disability Care & Education in 19th Century India: Dates, Places & Documentation, with Some Additional Material on Mental Retardation and Physical Disabilities up to 1947. Revised Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    This monograph uses brief excerpts from many sources to document the history of the education and care of individuals with disabilities in India, primarily in the 19th century. An introduction describes the author's methodology in compiling and annotating the excerpts, which are listed alphabetically by locality in India. Under each locality,…

  8. Technology in Mathematics Education: Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia (MERGA) (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, June 30-July 3, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Philip C., Ed.

    This document contains papers presented at the 19th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia. Topics of the presentations include learning research, mathematical representations, problem solving, strategic learning behaviors, algebraic thinking and learning environments, teaching and learning of algebra,…

  9. Atomic Pioneers, Book 2, From the Mid-19th to the Early 20th Century. A World of the Atom Series Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Ray; Hiebert, Roselyn

    This booklet is concerned with the last half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century when a great surge of knowledge vital to atomic science took place, as illustrated by work by Faraday, Mendeleev, Roentgen, Becquerel and the Curies. Each succeeding discovery brought atomic science closer to the great breakthrough that marked the close…

  10. History at the Mercy of Politicians and Ideologies: Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilschut, Arie H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares developments in history teaching in Germany, England, and the Netherlands in the 19th and 20th centuries. The development of history teaching in the three countries shows striking similarities. National politics have always used history education for purposes which did not necessarily tally with distanced critical…

  11. Socialising Nurse Probationers in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries--Relevance of Historical Reflection for Modern Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorentzon, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Historical records from London hospitals in the late 19th-early 20th centuries were analyzed for their depiction of nursing trainees. Analysis reveals a strong emphasis on character traits rather than intellectual ability. In contrast, the literature of the last 3 decades shows a contemporary concern for nurses as knowledgeable doers. (Contains 31…

  12. The Humanistic Approach to Upbringing and Education in the Creative Legacy of the Ukrainian Pedagogues of the Second Half of the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anosov, Ivan Pavlovych; Elkin, Mark Veniaminovych; Golovkova, Marina Mykhaylivna; Korobchenko, Angelina Anatoliivna; Oksa, Mykola Mykolayovych

    2015-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the study of the humanistic approach to upbringing and education in the creative legacy of the Ukrainian pedagogues of the second half of the 19th century. Through the analysis of S. Myropolskiy's and Kh. Alchevska's pedagogical legacy, a world outlook position of scholars concerning humanisation of the educational…

  13. New early instrumental series since the beginning of the 19th century in eastern Iberia (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Barriendos, Mariano; Guinaldo, Elena; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.

    2010-05-01

    Early instrumental series are the main source for climate information in the 18th and the first part of the 19th century, which is when systematic meteorological observations started in most national meteorological services. The first continuous series in Spain starts in 1780 in Barcelona due to meteorological observations made by the medical doctor Francisco Salvá Campillo. Moreover, only two other series have been recovered at the present in Spain: Madrid and Cádiz/San Fernando. Until present, in Spain the major part of the meteorological observations detected in early instrumental periods were made by medical doctors, who started to pay attention to the environmental factors influencing population health under the Hippocrates oath, although also there are military institutions and academic university staff (e.g. physicists, mathematicians, etc.). Due to the high spatial and temporal climate variability in the Iberian Peninsula, it is important to recover and digitize more climatic series, and this is one of the main goals of the Salvá-Sinobas project (http://salva-sinobas.uvigo.es/) funded by the Spanish Ministry of Environment, and Rural and Marine Affairs for the 2009-2011 period. The first new series with systematic observations was detected in the city of Valencia, in the eastern façade of the Iberian Peninsula. The meteorological observations were daily published in the newspapers Diario de Valencia (1804-1834) and Diario Mercantil de Valencia (1837-1863) until official meteorological observations started in 1858 at the University of Valencia. Each day 3-daily observations (morning, midday, afternoon) were published with five climatic variables: temperature, air pressure, humidity, wind direction and the sky state. Only during the 1804-1808 period daily rainfall data is available. We checked the observer comments published in the newspapers to obtain metadata about the instruments and meteorological station information. Unfortunately, temperature data

  14. A chaotic model for the plague epidemic that has occurred in Bombay at the end of the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain

    2015-04-01

    The plague epidemic that has occurred in Bombay at the end of the 19th century was detected in 1896. One year before, an Advisory Committee had been appointed by the Secretary of State for India, the Royal Society, and the Lister Institute. This Committee made numerous investigations and gathered a large panel of data including the number of people attacked and died from the plague, records of rat and flea populations, as well as meteorological records of temperature and humidity [1]. The global modeling technique [2] aims to obtain low dimensional models able to simulate the observed cycles from time series. As far as we know, this technique has been tried only to one case of epidemiological analysis (the whooping cough infection) based on a discrete formulation [3]. In the present work, the continuous time formulation of this technique is used to analyze the time evolution of the plague epidemic from this data set. One low dimensional model (three variables) is obtained exhibiting a limit cycle of period-5. A chaotic behavior could be derived from this model by tuning the model parameters. It provides a strong argument for a dynamical behavior that can be approximated by low dimensional deterministic equations. This model also provides an empirical argument for chaos in epidemics. [1] Verjbitski D. T., Bannerman W. B. & Kápadiâ R. T., 1908. Reports on Plague Investigations in India (May,1908), The Journal of Hygiene, 8(2), 161 -308. [2] Mangiarotti S., Coudret R., Drapeau L. & Jarlan L., 2012. Polynomial search and Global modelling: two algorithms for modeling chaos. Physical Review E, 86(4), 046205. [3] Boudjema G. & Cazelles B., 2003. Extraction of nonlinear dynamics from short and noisy time series. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, 12, 2051-2069.

  15. Achievements of Polish doctors in gastrodiaphanoscopy at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries

    PubMed Central

    Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Pozowski, Andrzej; Kuciel-Lewandowska, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Diaphanoscopy/transillumination, the method of shining a bright light through tissues, was devised in the mid-19th century and developed after the invention of the light bulb by T.A. Edison. Benjamin Milliot was the first to examine the stomach by means of an incandescent platinum wire. The experiments conducted by Max Einhorn using a device consisting of a Nelaton catheter with an inserted light bulb, were valuable. In Poland the method of gastrodiaphanoscopy was popularized by Teodor Heryng, Mikołaj Rejchman and by Warsaw doctors. They used a diaphanoscope consisting of a gutta-percha probe distally equipped with a metal attachment with a light bulb hidden in it and with a so-called cooling device. The examination would usually be conducted in the standing position after the stomach had been filled with water. Light patches corresponding to the stomach’s lower and side boundaries would be obtained. Rejchman’s observation, that such a contractile and flexible organ as the stomach, changing its volume and position, is bound to change its light image, was correct. Heryng’s and Rejchman’s research inspired the foreign researchers Renvier, Leopold Kuttner and John Jacobson. Extensive research was subsequently conducted by C.A. Meltzing and Wilhelm Schwartz. Diaphanoscopy would also be performed by Walery Jaworski, the pioneer of gastrology. He was particularly interested in transillumination of the stomach, peritoneum and omentum tumours. Eugeniusz Kozierowski, a practicing physician from Gorlice, diagnosed neoplastic pylorostenosisusing this method. Gastrodiaphanoscopy is a historical method, now of no value against gastroendoscopy and the state-of-the-art methods of image diagnostics. PMID:24868282

  16. [Coping with leprosy in the Dutch West Indies in the 19th century; opposing but meaningful views from Suriname].

    PubMed

    Menke, Henk; Snelders, Stephen; Pieters, Toine

    2009-01-01

    Leprosy was highly prevalent among African slaves in the Dutch West Indian colony of Suriname. Largely based on observations in Suriname, Dutch physicians described the aetiology of leprosy in terms of'a substrate' to which all sorts of mixtures of infection, heredity and hygiene contributed ('seed and soil'). This explanatory model with multiple options for prevention and treatment left room for different developmental trajectories to control the spread of the disease in the various tropical colonies of the Dutch empire. In Suriname there was a growing worry in the 19th century regarding the spread of leprosy, threatening the health of slaves, settlers and colonial administrators. And this could be harmful to an already weakening plantation economy. This concern prompted the local administration to develop a rigorous policy of strict isolation of leprosy sufferers. This, in turn, intersected with a changing insight in Europe - including the Netherlands - that leprosy was non-contagious. However,'in splendid isolation' in the economically and politically marginal colony Suriname, Dutch physicians like Charles Landre and his son, Charles Louis Drognat Landré, could afford to ignore the European non-contagious approach and continue to support the strict isolation policies. Moreover, they developed a dissident radical explanation of leprosy as a disease caused only by contagion. In the absence of a receptive Dutch audience Drognat Landré published his contagion theory in French and so succeeded in inspiring the Norwegian Hansen, who subsequently discovered the culpable micro-organism. At the same time colonial administrators and physicians in the economically and politically important Dutch colonies in the East Indies adhered to the prevailing European concept and changed policies: the system of isolation was abolished. Given the rather different trajectories of leprosy health policies in the Dutch East and West Indies we point out the importance of a comparative

  17. Societal and ecological determinants of urban health: a case study of pre-reproductive mortality in 19th century Gibraltar.

    PubMed

    Sawchuk, L A

    1993-04-01

    A historical based enquiry of colonial Gibraltar at the turn of the 19th century was conducted in order to assess what factors gave rise to residential variation of pre-reproductive mortality. Gibraltar's unusual configuration of a port city, garrison town, and commercial centre at the tip of the Iberian peninsula offers a unique opportunity to examine the interplay of ecology, demographic and socio-economic factors on childhood mortality. Communal living under the patio system and the sharing of essential resources were characteristic features of life on the Rock. Using the residential district as the focus of enquiry, stepwise regression results for the period 1879-81, designated as a period of 'low ecological stress', indicated that the number of gallons of potable water per person captured a significant amount of variability in mortality. During the year 1878, a serious shortfall in rainfall was associated with lower life expectancy, a change in the seasonal pattern of mortality, and elevated rates of death attributable to the diarrhea complex. Under this period of 'high ecological stress', the percentage of servants in the household, a proxy for wealth/status, proved to be the single most important factor accounting for 46.6% of the variation in the death rate under 15. Analysis of mortality at the patio level revealed that residents of buildings of two household units had lower mortality than residents living in smaller or larger dwellings, particularly in the period of high ecological stress. The complex pattern of mortality at the district and patio level is explained in terms of the development of residential preferences and decentralized nature of vital resources, such as the water support system and food supply. PMID:8480234

  18. Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and East Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Emma L; Jackson, Jennifer A; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time. PMID:24690918

  19. Two Intense Decades of 19th Century Whaling Precipitated Rapid Decline of Right Whales around New Zealand and East Australia

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Emma L.; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D.

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time. PMID:24690918

  20. The emergence of the "motoneuron concept": from the early 19th C to the beginning of the 20th C.

    PubMed

    Clarac, François; Barbara, Jean-Gaël

    2011-08-29

    This article addresses the emergence of the "motoneuron concept," i.e., the idea that this cell had properties of particular advantage for its control of muscle activation. The motor function of the ventral roots was established early in the 19th C and the term "motor cell," (or "motor nerve cell") was introduced shortly thereafter by Albrecht von Kölliker and some other histologists. They knew that motor cells were among the neurons with the largest soma in vertebrates and for this reason they were, and remained for many decades, the best and most studied neuronal model. The work of clinicians like Guillaume Duchenne de Boulogne and Jean-Martin Charcot on motor degenerative syndromes began before a clear description of motor cells was available, because it was initially more difficult to establish whether the deficits of paralysis and muscle weakness were due to neuronal or muscular lesions. Next, the pioneering physiologist, Charles Sherrington, who was influenced greatly by the anatomical contributions and speculations of Santiago Ramón y Cajal, used the term, "motor neuron," rather than motor cell for the neuron that he considered was functionally "the final common path" for providing command signals to the musculature. In the early 20th C he proposed that activation of a motor neuron resulted from the sum of its various excitatory and inhibitory CNS inputs. The contraction of motor neuron to "motoneuron(e)" was put into common usage by John Fulton (among possibly others) in 1926. The motoneuron concept is still evolving with new discoveries on the horizon. PMID:21723536

  1. Using sunshine duration data to reconstruct total solar radiation time series since the late 19th century, for Athens area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Founda, Dimitra; Kazadzis, Stelios; Pierros, Fragiskos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Due to the scarcity of surface solar radiation measurements and the lack of long term time series of this variable, sunshine duration (SDu) has been widely considered as a useful proxy for surface total solar radiation (TSR) reaching the earth. Numerous relationships between SDu and TSR have been proposed which vary between sites, as a result of the dependence of the two variables from climatic and astronomical components. At the National Observatory of Athens (NOA), measurements of sunshine duration and surface total solar radiation have been conducted continuously since 1897 and 1953 respectively. These are the longest uninterrupted time series of SDu and TSR in the country. The ability of SDu observations at NOA to serve as a proxy for the estimation of TSR and the detection of its interannual and multi decadal variability is examined in the study. Using the respective time series we have retrieved the relationship between SDu and TSR on a monthly, seasonal and annual basis. To test the retrieved functions we have derived them for the period 1985-2013 and tested them for the period 1953-1984, where synchronous SDu and TSR measurements are available. A strong linear relationship between the time series of monthly SDU and TSR was found. The two series were highly correlated (correlation coefficient > 0.95, p<0.001). On a seasonal basis, stronger correlation between SDu and TSR was detected in winter, autumn and spring, when SDu and TSR exhibit larger variability due to cloudiness. The correlation coefficient was lower in summer, when almost clear sky conditions prevail in Athens. The results showed that SDu observations in Athens can successfully provide quantitative information on shortwave solar radiation, particularly under all-sky conditions. The calculated functions can be used for the reconstruction of TSR back to the late 19th century. This unique 115-yrs SDu and TSR retrieved datasets can provide valuable and unknown information of TSR variability over the

  2. Hydrometeorological extremes reconstructed from documentary evidence for the Jihlava region in the 17th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolak, Lukas; Brazdil, Rudolf; Chroma, Katerina; Valasek, Hubert; Belinova, Monika; Reznickova, Ladislava

    2016-04-01

    Different documentary evidence (taxation records, chronicles, insurance reports etc.) is used for reconstruction of hydrometeorological extremes (HMEs) in the Jihlava region (central part of the recent Czech Republic) in the 17th-19th centuries. The aim of the study is description of the system of tax alleviation in Moravia, presentation of utilization of early fire and hail damage insurance claims and application of the new methodological approaches for the analysis of HMEs impacts. During the period studied more than 400 HMEs were analysed for the 16 estates (past basic economic units). Late frost on 16 May 1662 on the Nove Mesto na Morave estate, which destroyed whole cereals and caused damage in the forests, is the first recorded extreme event. Downpours causing flash floods and hailstorms are the most frequently recorded natural disasters. Moreover, floods, droughts, windstorms, blizzards, late frosts and lightning strikes starting fires caused enormous damage as well. The impacts of HMEs are classified into three categories: impacts on agricultural production, material property and the socio-economic impacts. Natural disasters became the reasons of losses of human lives, property, supplies and farming equipment. HMEs caused damage to fields and meadows, depletion of livestock and triggered the secondary consequences as lack of seeds and finance, high prices, indebtedness, poverty and deterioration in field fertility. The results are discussed with respect to uncertainties associated with documentary evidences and their spatiotemporal distribution. Archival records, preserved in the Moravian Land Archives in Brno and other district archives, create a unique source of data contributing to the better understanding of extreme events and their impacts.

  3. Achievements of Polish doctors in gastrodiaphanoscopy at the turn of the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries.

    PubMed

    Kierzek, Andrzej; Paprocka-Borowicz, Małgorzata; Pozowski, Andrzej; Kuciel-Lewandowska, Jadwiga

    2013-01-01

    Diaphanoscopy/transillumination, the method of shining a bright light through tissues, was devised in the mid-19(th) century and developed after the invention of the light bulb by T.A. Edison. Benjamin Milliot was the first to examine the stomach by means of an incandescent platinum wire. The experiments conducted by Max Einhorn using a device consisting of a Nelaton catheter with an inserted light bulb, were valuable. In Poland the method of gastrodiaphanoscopy was popularized by Teodor Heryng, Mikołaj Rejchman and by Warsaw doctors. They used a diaphanoscope consisting of a gutta-percha probe distally equipped with a metal attachment with a light bulb hidden in it and with a so-called cooling device. The examination would usually be conducted in the standing position after the stomach had been filled with water. Light patches corresponding to the stomach's lower and side boundaries would be obtained. Rejchman's observation, that such a contractile and flexible organ as the stomach, changing its volume and position, is bound to change its light image, was correct. Heryng's and Rejchman's research inspired the foreign researchers Renvier, Leopold Kuttner and John Jacobson. Extensive research was subsequently conducted by C.A. Meltzing and Wilhelm Schwartz. Diaphanoscopy would also be performed by Walery Jaworski, the pioneer of gastrology. He was particularly interested in transillumination of the stomach, peritoneum and omentum tumours. Eugeniusz Kozierowski, a practicing physician from Gorlice, diagnosed neoplastic pylorostenosisusing this method. Gastrodiaphanoscopy is a historical method, now of no value against gastroendoscopy and the state-of-the-art methods of image diagnostics. PMID:24868282

  4. Industrial ecology: reflections on a colloquium.

    PubMed Central

    Ausubel, J H

    1992-01-01

    Industrial ecology is the network of all industrial processes as they may interact with each other and live off each other, not only in the economic sense, but also in the sense of direct use of each other's material and energy wastes and products. This paper, which reflects upon the papers and discussions at the National Academy of Sciences Colloquium on Industrial Ecology on May 20-21, 1991, is structured around 10 questions. Do sociotechnical systems have long-range environmental goals? How is the concept of industrial ecology useful and timely? What are environmental technologies? Is there a systematic way to choose among alternatives for improving the ecology of technologies? What are ways to measure performance with respect to industrial ecology? What are the sources and rates of innovation in environmental technologies? How is the market economy performing with respect to industrial ecology? What will be the effect of the ecological modernization of the developed nations of the North on the developing countries of the South? How can creative interaction on environmental issues be fostered among diverse social groups? How must research and education change? PMID:11607273

  5. Colloquium: Annual modulation of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine; Lisanti, Mariangela; Savage, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Direct detection experiments, which are designed to detect the scattering of dark matter off nuclei in detectors, are a critical component in the search for the Universe’s missing matter. This Colloquium begins with a review of the physics of direct detection of dark matter, discussing the roles of both the particle physics and astrophysics in the expected signals. The count rate in these experiments should experience an annual modulation due to the relative motion of the Earth around the Sun. This modulation, not present for most known background sources, is critical for solidifying the origin of a potential signal as dark matter. The focus is on the physics of annual modulation, discussing the practical formulas needed to interpret a modulating signal. The dependence of the modulation spectrum on the particle and astrophysics models for the dark matter is illustrated. For standard assumptions, the count rate has a cosine dependence with time, with a maximum in June and a minimum in December. Well-motivated generalizations of these models, however, can affect both the phase and amplitude of the modulation. Shown is how a measurement of an annually modulating signal could teach us about the presence of substructure in the galactic halo or about the interactions between dark and baryonic matter. Although primarily a theoretical review, the current experimental situation for annual modulation and future experimental directions is briefly discussed.

  6. Policy Commercializing Nonprofits in Health: The History of a Paradox From the 19th Century to the ACA

    PubMed Central

    FOX, DANIEL M

    2015-01-01

    growth and commercialization of nonprofits in the health sector since the late 19th century remains influential in health policy, especially for the allocation of resources. However, aspects of the implementation of the ACA may constrain some of the effects of the paradox. PMID:25752354

  7. Sex estimation using the femur of Austrians born in the 19th to the middle of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Kanz, Fabian; Fitzl, Christine; Vlcek, Alexander; Frommlet, Florian

    2015-01-01

    remains born in the 19(th) to the middle of the 20(th) century. PMID:25776530

  8. Improvements in the wallpaper industry during the second half of the 19th century: Micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of pigmented wallpapers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, K.; Vandenabeele, P.; Rodríguez-Laso, M. D.; Moens, L.; Madariaga, J. M.

    2005-08-01

    Scientific studies of the pigments used in the manufacturing process of some pigmented wallpapers are presented in this work. Non-destructive micro-Raman spectroscopy was selected for this purpose, and provides important information about how the 19th century wallpaper industry incorporated new materials in their works and designs. At the same time, analysis can help to date the samples of uncatalogued wallpapers. Chrome yellow, burnt Sienna, Prussian blue, ultramarine blue, red lead, carbon black, calcium carbonate, red iron oxide and a red organic pigment were identified. According to the palette used, as well as to the manufacturing process, the wallpapers in this study can be dated to the second half of the 19th century.

  9. Changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands inferred from 19th and 20th century landscape paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Wevers, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Geodiversity is the natural and cultural range of geological, geomorphological and soil features. We analysed the large database of 19th and early 20th century paintings of Simonis and Buunk (www.Simonis-Buunk.com) to track changes in the geodiversity of Dutch peatlands since pre-photographic times. Peat dominated in two of the eight main landscapes of the Netherlands: the Lowland peats in the Holocene west and the Highland peats in the sandy Pleistocene eastern parts. Painters were mainly attracted by the lowland peats. Since more than thousand years, peat plays a major role in Dutch military security, economy, ecology and cultural life. Natural variety and cultural use resulted in a geodiversity that is unique in Europe. There are more than 100 place names with 'veen' (= peat), and surnames with 'veen' are common. Proof of the exploitation of peat for salt and fuel exists from the Roman times onwards. In the 9th century, peatlands were drained and reclaimed for growing wheat. Already in the 11th century, it was necessary to build dikes to prevent flooding, to control waterlevels to avoid further oxidation, and to convert landuse to grassland. But subsidence continued, and in the 14th century windmills were needed to drain the lands and pump the water out. In the 16th century industrial peat exploitation fuelled the rise of industries and cities. All this draining and digging caused the peat surface to shrink. The few remaining living peats are conserved by nature organisations. Geodiversity and landscape paintings In the peat landscapes, popular painting motives were high water levels, the grasslands of the 'Green Heart', the winding streams and remaining lakes. The paintings of landscapes where peat had been removed, show watermanagement adaptations: wind mills, different water levels, canals made for the transport of fuel, bridges, tow paths and the 'plassen', i.e. the lakes left after peat exploitation. The droogmakerijen (reclaimed lakes), now 2 to 5 m below

  10. MayDay Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2012, Professor John Kratus welcomed the MayDay Group to Michigan State University for "Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education". On behalf of all members of the Mayday Group, the author wishes to extend his deepest gratitude to Professor Kratus and his colleagues at Michigan State for their extremely gracious and…

  11. Colloquium on Large Scale Improvement: Implications for AISI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI) is a province-wide partnership program whose goal is to improve student learning and performance by fostering initiatives that reflect the unique needs and circumstances of each school authority. It is currently ending its third cycle and ninth year of implementation. "The Colloquium on Large…

  12. Changing Currents in Second Language Writing Research: A Colloquium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Paul Kei; Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Harklau, Linda; Hyland, Ken; Warschauer, Mark

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on an invited colloqium on second language (L) writing presented at the 200 meeting of the American Association for Applied Linguistics. The colloquium featured five second language writing researchers two discussed some of the important currents that have shaped the field of second language writing. (Author/VWL)

  13. Codes, Ciphers, and Cryptography--An Honors Colloquium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karls, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    At the suggestion of a colleague, I read "The Code Book", [32], by Simon Singh to get a basic introduction to the RSA encryption scheme. Inspired by Singh's book, I designed a Ball State University Honors Colloquium in Mathematics for both majors and non-majors, with material coming from "The Code Book" and many other sources. This course became…

  14. The Twenty-First NASTRAN (R) Users' Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of the Twenty-First NASTRAN Users' Colloquium held in Tampa, FL, April 26 through April 30, 1993. It provides some comprehensive general papers on the application of finite elements in engineering, comparisons with other approaches, unique applications, pre-and postprocessing with other auxiliary programs and new methods of analysis with NASTRAN.

  15. Colloquium: Digital Technologies--Help or Hindrance for the Humanities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Elton; Bissell, Chris; Hardwick, Lorna; Jones, Allan; Ridge, Mia; Wolffe, John

    2012-01-01

    This article offers reflections arising from a recent colloquium at the Open University on the implications of the development of digital humanities for research in arts disciplines, and also for their interactions with computing and technology. Particular issues explored include the ways in which the digital turn in humanities research is also a…

  16. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. HE Sessions, Volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic ray Conference are compiled. This volume contains papers which address various aspects of extensive air showers (EAS) produced by energetic particles and gamma rays.

  17. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. OG Sessions, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume addresses cosmic ray sources and acceleration, interstellar propagation and nuclear interactions, and detection techniques and instrumentation.

  18. International Relations Program, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert P.

    This brochure describes the following 1991 international relations programs of the American Library Association (ALA): (1) the Books for Romania Program, which resulted in donations of books, journals, microfilm products, and microfilm readers valued at approximately $5 million to Rumanian libraries; (2) the Colloquium on Library Science, a…

  19. Proceedings of the International Conference and Workshop Summaries Book of the International Association for Experiential Education (19th, Lake Junaluska, North Carolina, October 24-27, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birmingham, Carolyn, Ed.; Shuler, Karen, Ed.

    This proceedings contains articles and workshop summaries from the 1991 conference of the Association for Experiential Education. Both articles and workshop summaries are categorized into the similar areas of: (1) open track, an outline of curriculum and models for training volunteer practitioners; (2) adventure alternatives track, discussing…

  20. Astronomy and pictorial descriptiveness - images in 19th century popular astronomy. (German Title: Astronomie und Anschaulichkeit - Die Bilder der populären Astronomie des 19. Jahrhunderts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utzt, Susanne

    Initiated by a debate on regaining a pictorial descriptiveness of the sciences, but also by technical developments, popular astronomy was mediated more and more by visual means in the 19th century. Based on illustrations in popular German and French astronomical treatises, this work investigates in what context certain pictures originated, where and for which purpose they were used in publications, how they interacted with accompanying texts, and to what degree they reflect the collision of two contrary aspects which are typical for popular science: the intention to entertain as well as to instruct. Text in German.

  1. ["I would like to so much--but then also; but, but--!!!"--torment of a private lecturer at the beginning of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Bettin, H; Friedrich, C

    2000-01-01

    The biography of Carl Friedrich August Theodor Kastner (1797-after 1841), the brother of the famous chemist and teacher of Justus von Liebig (1803-1873) Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner (1783-1857), is an interesting example of the difficult situation of outside lecturers at the universities in the first half of the 19th century; a big group of scientists, which are absolutely underrepresented in the source material and in the historiography too. This paper tries to show the facts and the backgrounds for the problems in the career of outside lecturers. PMID:11305171

  2. The height gap in 19th-century America: net-nutritional advantage of the elite increased at the onset of modern economic growth.

    PubMed

    Sunder, Marco

    2013-07-01

    We present evidence on the 19th-century trend in the height of male US passport applicants. These men represent a much wealthier segment of contemporary society than found in most stature samples previously analyzed. The height trend among the wealthy is much more robust in comparison to the average population that experienced a decline in stature. The resulting increase in the 'height gap'--by roughly 1 in. between cohorts born around 1820 and 1860--is in congruence with evidence on rising wealth inequality and the notion of dietary change in antebellum America. PMID:23481175

  3. [19th annual conference of the working group on kidney transplantation of the academy of german urologists : mainz, 10-12 november 2011].

    PubMed

    Mehralivand, S; Giessing, M; Fornara, P; Engehausen, D; Heynemann, H; Wunderlich, H; Dreikorn, K; Thüroff, J W; Stein, R

    2012-04-01

    The 19th Annual Conference of the Working Group on Kidney Transplantation (KTX) of the Academy of German Urologists took place on 10-12 November 2011 in Mainz. The main topics at the meeting were surgical and technical aspects, immunosuppressive therapy, transplant rejection, pregnancy, sexuality, and psychological conflicts of kidney transplant recipients. The speakers documented the pertinence of interdisciplinarity for KTX and were not only from the field of urology but also from anesthesiology, gynecology, surgery, dermatology, nephrology, radiology, and psychosomatic medicine. The Bernd Schönberger Prize was awarded at the end of the event. PMID:22437445

  4. Jean Martin Charcot (1825-93) and John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911): neurology in France and England in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Silvester, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    In 1862 Jean Martin Charcot was appointed Physician at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, and simultaneously John Hughlings Jackson was appointed as assistant physician at the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic, Queen Square, London. Both men made significant contributions to the development of neurology, many of which remain important to contemporary neurologists. The achievements and the work of Charcot and Hughlings Jackson are considered in the light of their respective localities and medical education, and the structure of hospital institutions and political allegiances are compared in the late 19th century in France and Britain. PMID:20029079

  5. [The problem of reforms in the European medicine between 16th and 19th century in the light of selected concepts of methodology of the history of science].

    PubMed

    Plonka-Syroka, B

    1997-01-01

    The article depicts major concepts present in the contemporary historiography of medicine (positivistic and social-cultural trends) and some of the concepts of modern methodology of the history of science, reviewing the possibilities of its use in the analysis of the process of modernizing the European medicine that was implemented between the 16th and the 19th century. The author advocates the social-cultural trend that dominates the contemporary historiography of medicine. She discusses and analyzes the concepts developed by Ludwik Fleck, Samuel Kuhn, Imre Lakatos, Kurt Godl, Stefan Amsterdamski in respect of their sue to a historian of modern medicine. PMID:11625427

  6. [History of the Halle Ars medica Judaica. IV. Development from the middle of the 19th century to the end of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, W; Völker, A

    1989-04-15

    The possibilities of an academic career of Jewish physicians were alleviated by the legalities of the second half of the 19th century, however, up to 1918 in many places restrictive statutes in higher education considerably confined a career as professor in ordinary of specialists of Jewish belief. The conditions at Halle university reflect this situation. A complete equalization beginning after 1918 only at some points of scientific concentration led to a recognizable increase of the Jewish-German members in the teaching staff. But already in this phase on the basis of a quickly spreading racial ideology an increasingly appreciable vulgar antisemitism developed. PMID:2662658

  7. Local Interstellar Medium. International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 81

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y. (Editor); Bruhweiler, F. C. (Editor); Savage, B. D. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Helium and hydrogen backscattering; ultraviolet and EUV absorption spectra; optical extinction and polarization; hot gases; soft X-ray observations; infrared and millimeter wavelengths; radio wavelengths and theoretical models of the interstellar matter within about 150 parsecs of the Sun were examined.

  8. Modern Quantum Field Theory II - Proceeeings of the International Colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. R.; Mandal, G.; Mukhi, S.; Wadia, S. R.

    1995-08-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Foreword * 1. Black Holes and Quantum Gravity * Quantum Black Holes and the Problem of Time * Black Hole Entropy and the Semiclassical Approximation * Entropy and Information Loss in Two Dimensions * Strings on a Cone and Black Hole Entropy (Abstract) * Boundary Dynamics, Black Holes and Spacetime Fluctuations in Dilation Gravity (Abstract) * Pair Creation of Black Holes (Abstract) * A Brief View of 2-Dim. String Theory and Black Holes (Abstract) * 2. String Theory * Non-Abelian Duality in WZW Models * Operators and Correlation Functions in c ≤ 1 String Theory * New Symmetries in String Theory * A Look at the Discretized Superstring Using Random Matrices * The Nested BRST Structure of Wn-Symmetries * Landau-Ginzburg Model for a Critical Topological String (Abstract) * On the Geometry of Wn Gravity (Abstract) * O(d, d) Tranformations, Marginal Deformations and the Coset Construction in WZNW Models (Abstract) * Nonperturbative Effects and Multicritical Behaviour of c = 1 Matrix Model (Abstract) * Singular Limits and String Solutions (Abstract) * BV Algebra on the Moduli Spaces of Riemann Surfaces and String Field Theory (Abstract) * 3. Condensed Matter and Statistical Mechanics * Stochastic Dynamics in a Deposition-Evaporation Model on a Line * Models with Inverse-Square Interactions: Conjectured Dynamical Correlation Functions of the Calogero-Sutherland Model at Rational Couplings * Turbulence and Generic Scale Invariance * Singular Perturbation Approach to Phase Ordering Dynamics * Kinetics of Diffusion-Controlled and Ballistically-Controlled Reactions * Field Theory of a Frustrated Heisenberg Spin Chain * FQHE Physics in Relativistic Field Theories * Importance of Initial Conditions in Determining the Dynamical Class of Cellular Automata (Abstract) * Do Hard-Core Bosons Exhibit Quantum Hall Effect? (Abstract) * Hysteresis in Ferromagnets * 4. Fundamental Aspects of Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory * Finite Quantum Physics and Noncommutative Geometry * Higgs as Gauge Field and the Standard Model * Canonical Quantisation of an Off-Conformal Theory * Deterministic Quantum Mechanics in One Dimension * Spin-Statistics Relations for Topological Geons in 2+1 Quantum Gravity * Generalized Fock Spaces * Geometrical Expression for Short Distance Singularities in Field Theory * 5. Mathematics and Quantum Field Theory * Knot Invariants from Quantum Field Theories * Infinite Grassmannians and Moduli Spaces of G-Bundles * A Review of an Algebraic Geometry Approach to a Model Quantum Field Theory on a Curve (Abstract) * 6. Integrable Models * Spectral Representation of Correlation Functions in Two-Dimensional Quantum Field Theories * On Various Avatars of the Pasquier Algebra * Supersymmetric Integrable Field Theories and Eight Vertex Free Fermion Models (Abstract) * 7. Lattice Field Theory * From Kondo Model and Strong Coupling Lattice QCD to the Isgur-Wise Function * Effective Confinement from a Logarithmically Running Coupling (Abstract)

  9. Proceedings of the Second International Colloquium on Drops and Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecroissette, D. H. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Applications of bubble and drop technologies are discussed and include: low gravity manufacturing, containerless melts, microballoon fabrication, ink printers, laser fusion targets, generation of organic glass and metal shells, and space processing. The fluid dynamics of bubbles and drops were examined. Thermomigration, capillary flow, and interfacial tension are discussed. Techniques for drop control are presented and include drop size control and drop shape control.

  10. [The mind on the stage of justice: the formation of criminal psychology in the 19th century and its interdisciplinary research].

    PubMed

    Vec, Milos

    2007-09-01

    Criminal psychology emerges at the end of the 18th century as a new academic discipline in lectures and publications. It has recently been investigated by a considerable number of contributions from researchers of different academic backgrounds. In many respects criminal psychology can be seen as a predecessor of criminology. Its subject is the analysis of the origins of crime and its causes and determinants in the human mind. Criminal psychology embraced at that time philosophical, medical, legal and biological aspects. The latter increase in importance in the second half of the 19th century. The conditions of individual responsibility were generally codified in penal law, but had to be individually investigated in crucial cases through expertise in court. There a conflict emerged between medical experts and judges about their ability and competence to decide. At the end of the 19th century criminal psychology is used to fulfil the needs and interests of a criminal law which understands itself as increasingly utilitarian. Force and new instruments of treatment of offenders were legitimized by scientists who were very optimistic about their own epistemological abilities. PMID:18173066

  11. Matronized nursing service at Mobile City Hospital in the mid-19th century: a paradigm of altruism and indigent patient care.

    PubMed

    Salley, R K; Rodning, C B

    1989-08-01

    Influences upon the development and evolution of nursing groups and the profession have been multifactorial: cultural, economic, political, and social. Although monastic and chivalric orders throughout antiquity provided the beginnings with hierarchical organizations and a sense of voluntarism and vocation, it was not until the mid-19th century that the concept of a nursing service became codified and more hospital-oriented. The inception of a matronized nursing service in the Mobile City Hospital under the tutelage of the Superintendent, Dr. Willis Roberts, antedated the rapid expansion of nursing education and service recommended and instituted by Florence Nightingale. The former served as a paradigm of altruism as "women attendants" became formally associated with a hospital-based "nursing service," initially under the directorship of a lay matron, Mrs. Sarah Dubois, and subsequently under a succession of Sisters of the Roman Catholic Order of the Sisters of Charity (America). Although ostensibly instituted to render care to "female paupers," the matronized nursing service was readily expanded, and subsequently delivered care to the entire, predominantly indigent patient population. The paradigm was worthily perpetuated during the latter half of the 19th century in vitually all hospitals as nursing education and services continued to become more secularized and technologically sophisticated. PMID:2669152

  12. 1984-2008. Predictions for Higher Education. From the 25th Anniversary Colloquium. [Proceedings].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardee, Melvene Draheim, Ed.

    Predictions on higher education for 1984-2009 are presented in the proceedings of a colloquium of the Institute for Studies in Higher Education of Florida State University. Presentations were made at the colloquium by 10 graduates of the university whose current positions represent administration-management, instruction, research, and student…

  13. Foreign Travel Trip Report for LLNL travel with DOE FES funding,May 19th-30th, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, I

    2012-07-05

    I attended the 20th biannual International Conference on Plasma Surface Interaction (PSI) in Fusion Devices in Aachen, Germany, hosted this year by the Forschungszentrum Julich (FZJ) research center. The PSI conference is one of the main international forums for the presentation and discussion of results on plasma surface interactions and edge plasma physics relevant to magnetic confinement fusion devices. I disseminated the recent results of FESP/LLNL tokamak research by presenting three posters on: (i) understanding reconnection and controlling edge localized modes (ELMs) using the BOUT++ code, (ii) simulation of resistive ballooning mode turbulence, and (iii) innovative design of Snowflake divertors. I learned of many new and recent results from international tokamak facilities and had the opportunity for discussion of these topics with other scientists at the poster sessions, conference lunches/receptions, etc. Some of the major highlights of the PSI conference topics were: (1) Review of the progress in using metallic tungsten and beryllium (ITER-like) walls at international tokamak facilities: JET (Culham, UK), TEXTOR (FZJ, Germany) and Alcator CMOD (MIT, USA). Results included: effect of small and large-area melting on plasma impurity content and recovery, expected reduction in retention of hydrogenic species, increased heat load during disruptions and need for mitigation with massive gas injection. (2) A review of ELM control in general (T. Evans, GA) and recent results of ELM control using n=2 external magnetic perturbations on ASDEX-Upgrade (MPI-Garching, Germany). (3) General agreement among the international tokamak database that, along the outer midplane of a low collisionality tokamak, the SOL power width in current experiments varies inversely with respect to plasma current (Ip), roughly as 1/Ip, with little dependence on other plasma parameters. This would imply roughly a factor of 1/4 of the width that was assumed for the design of the ITER tokamak

  14. [Jules Baretta and the secrets of modeling in pathology in the 19th century. Analysis of wax No. 1364 at the Museum of the Saint Louis hospital].

    PubMed

    Noirot, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    The Museum of the Saint-Louis hospital in Paris presents life casts produced by Jules Baretta in the 19th century: the casts seem incredible as they captured the complex forms of illness. How could Baretta cast in plaster an irregular epithelium or lupus without damaging the pathology or causing deep pains? From this observation, an investigation on those casts took place and especially one on an epithelium of the nose (no 1364) in order to understand the trade secrets. This investigation shows that Baretta used protective films on these pathologies and that he then interpreted them by modelling. The scientific and artistic interest of this discovery is to revise the mechanical objectivity of the casting through the modelling. PMID:25230526

  15. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: Presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France.

  16. Finnish wallpaper pigments in the 18th-19th century: presence of KFe3(CrO4)2(OH)6 and odd pigment mixtures.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz; Irazola, Mireia; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Several Finish wallpapers from the 18th and 19th century were analysed by using Raman spectroscopy assisted with EDXRF instrumentation, in an attempt of determine the pigments used in their manufacture process as well as of trying to date some of the samples through pigment composition. All pigments present in samples were determined and surprisingly the unusual and strange iron (III) chromate yellow pigment was found. Besides, unusual mixtures were found to obtain fashionable colours, especially in blue and green areas, where more than one blue pigments were mixed with green and yellow pigments. Blue verditer, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, chrome yellow, calcite, lead white, red and yellow iron oxide, gypsum and carbon black were identified. The presence of the risky and poisonous emerald green must be highlighted. The results were compared with those found in other wallpapers from Spain and France. PMID:23376265

  17. J. M. Despréaux' lichens from the Canary Islands and West Africa: an account of a 19th century collection found in an English archive.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Hudson, Begoña; Whitworth, Isabella; Spooner, Brian M

    2011-01-01

    This is an historical and descriptive account of 28 herbarium specimens, 27 lichens and an alga, found in the archives of Charles Chalcraft, a descendant of the Bedford family, who were dye manufacturers in Leeds, England, in the 19th century. The lichens comprise 13 different morphotypes collected in the Canary Islands and West Africa by the French botanist J. M. Despréaux between 1833 and 1839. The collections include samples of "Roccella fuciformis", "R. phycopsis" and "R. tinctoria" (including the fertile morphotype "R. canariensis"), "Ramalina crispatula" and "R. cupularis", two distinct morphotypes of "Sticta", "S. canariensis" and "S. dufouri", "Physconia enteroxantha", "Pseudevernia furfuracea var. ceratea" and "Pseudocyphellaria argyracea". The herbarium also includes authentic material of "Parmotrema tinctorum" and a probable syntype of "Seirophora scorigena". Most of these species are known as a source of the purple dye orchil, which was used to dye silk and wool. PMID:21941694

  18. Development of brewing science in (and since) the late 19th century: molecular profiles of 110-130year old beers.

    PubMed

    Walther, Andrea; Ravasio, Davide; Qin, Fen; Wendland, Jürgen; Meier, Sebastian

    2015-09-15

    The 19th century witnessed many advances in scientific enzymology and microbiology that laid the foundations for modern biotechnological industries. In the current study, we analyze the content of original lager beer samples from the 1880s, 1890s and 1900s with emphasis on the carbohydrate content and composition. The historic samples include the oldest samples brewed with pure Saccharomyces carlsbergensis yeast strains. While no detailed record of beer pasteurization at the time is available, historic samples indicate a gradual improvement of bottled beer handling from the 1880s to the 1900s, with decreasing contamination by enzymatic and microbial activities over this time span. Samples are sufficiently well preserved to allow comparisons to present-day references, thus yielding molecular signatures of the effects of 20th century science on beer production. Opposite to rather stable carbohydrate profiles, some aldehydes reach up to 40-fold higher levels in the historic samples as compared to present-day references. PMID:25863632

  19. Roots of Physical Medicine, Physical Therapy, and Mechanotherapy in the Netherlands in the 19th Century: A Disputed Area within the Healthcare Domain

    PubMed Central

    Terlouw, Thomas J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Physical medicine, which in the context of this article includes mechanotherapy, hydrotherapy, balneotherapy, electrotherapy, light therapy, air therapy, and thermotherapy, became a new field of labor in the healthcare domain in the Netherlands around 1900. This article gives an account of the introduction and development of mechanotherapy as a professional activity in the Netherlands in the 19th century. Mechanotherapy, which historically included exercises, manipulations, and massage, was introduced in this country around 1840 and became one of the core elements of physical medicine towards the end of that century. In contrast to what one might expect, mostly physical education teachers, referred to as “heilgymnasts,” dedicated themselves to this kind of treatment, whereas only a few physicians were active in this field until the 1880s. When, in the last quarter of the 19th century, differentiation and specialization within the medical profession took place, physicians specializing in physical medicine and orthopaedics began to claim the field of mechanotherapy exclusively for themselves. This led to tensions between them and the group of heilgymnasts that had already been active in this field for decades. The focus of attention in this article is on interprofessional relationships, on the roles played by the different professional organizations in the fields of physical education and medicine, the local and national governments, and the judicial system, and on the social, political, and cultural circumstances under which developments in the field of mechanotherapy took place. The article concludes with the hypothesis that the intra- and inter-occupational rivalries discussed have had a negative impact on the academic development of physical medicine, orthopaedics, and heilgymnastics/physical therapy in the Netherlands in the first half of the 20th century. PMID:19066646

  20. Historical stocking data and 19th century DNA reveal human-induced changes to native diversity and distribution of cutthroat trout.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, J L; Love Stowell, S; Kennedy, C M; Rogers, K B; McDonald, D; Epp, J; Keepers, K; Cooper, A; Austin, J J; Martin, A P

    2012-11-01

    Many species are threatened with extinction and efforts are underway worldwide to restore imperilled species to their native ranges. Restoration requires knowledge of species' historical diversity and distribution. For some species, many populations were extirpated or individuals moved beyond their native range before native diversity and distribution were documented, resulting in a lack of accurate information for establishing restoration goals. Moreover, traditional taxonomic assessments often failed to accurately capture phylogenetic diversity. We illustrate a general approach for estimating regional native diversity and distribution for cutthroat trout in the Southern Rocky Mountains. We assembled a large archive of historical records documenting human-mediated change in the distribution of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and combined these data with phylogenetic analysis of 19th century samples from museums collected prior to trout stocking activities and contemporary DNA samples. Our study of the trout in the Southern Rocky Mountains uncovered six divergent lineages, two of which went extinct, probably in the early 20th century. A third lineage, previously declared extinct, was discovered surviving in a single stream outside of its native range. Comparison of the historical and modern distributions with stocking records revealed that the current distribution of trout largely reflects intensive stocking early in the late 19th and early 20th century from two phylogenetically and geographically distinct sources. Our documentation of recent extinctions, undescribed lineages, errors in taxonomy and dramatic range changes induced by human movement of fish underscores the importance of the historical record when developing and implementing conservation plans for threatened and endangered species. PMID:22998121

  1. Summary Report on the Transportation Combustion Engine Efficiency Colloquium Held at USCAR, March 3 and 4, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C Stuart; Graves, Ronald L; Caton, Jerald A; Wagner, Robert M

    2010-11-01

    This report summarizes results from an invited two-day colloquium of twenty-nine combustion engine experts from academia, industry, and national labs that was convened March 3rd and 4th, 2010, at the headquarters of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) in Southfield, Michigan. The colloquium was held at the request of The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT) to review and assess the current state of transportation combustion engine technology from theoretical and practical perspectives. In the ensuing discussions, the experts were able to reach a broad consensus on some important questions regarding current fuel efficiency limits. They also identified technology barriers and recommended specific near and longer-term R&D priorities for DOE's consideration. Internal combustion engines currently play a dominant role in U.S. transportation and are expected to continue to do so well beyond 2020 [1]. Because of this, the Department of Energy (DOE) has placed high priority on promoting technologies that maximize combustion engine fuel efficiency while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions. Identification of the most promising paths to achieve these goals has recently become more complicated as non-traditional transportation fuels and hybrid electric vehicles become widely available. To reassess the state of combustion engine science and identify new opportunities for technology breakthroughs, an invited colloquium of combustion engine experts was convened on March 3rd and 4th, 2010, at the headquarters of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) in Southfield, Michigan. The colloquium objectives were: (1) Review and assess the current state of transportation combustion engine technology from both theoretical and practical perspectives; (2) Arrive at a consensus on the theoretical and practical fuel efficiencies that can be achieved; and (3) Recommend near and longer-term R&D priorities for

  2. Characterization of low-temperature pyroclastic surges that occurred in the northeastern Japan arc during the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujinawa, Akihiko; Ban, Masao; Ohba, Tsukasa; Kontani, Kazuo; Miura, Kotaro

    2008-11-01

    deposits might be attributable to poor thermally induced turbulence of eruption columns. Condensation of vapor in the surges might have contributed to the poor sorting. The estimated explosion energies were 6 × 10 13 J for Adatara AD1900, 6.5 × 10 10 J for Zao AD1895, and 6.5 × 10 15 J for Bandai AD1888, implying that the three events were hydrothermal eruptions with distinctive eruptive mechanisms. Regarding eruption sources, the Adatara 1900 event was caused solely by thermal energy of the hydrothermal fluid, although magma intrusion likely triggered evolution of hydrothermal systems at Zao in 1895. Steam eruptions in the Bandai 1888 event occurred simultaneously with sudden exposure of the hydrothermal system, whose triggers require no internal energy.

  3. Merging National and International Interests in Educational System Evaluation. Proceedings of the Conference (Jyvaskyla, Finland, March 19th and 20th, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leimu, Kimmo, Ed.; Linnakyla, Pirjo, Ed.; Valijarvi, Jouni, Ed.

    Papers from this conference focus on acquiring and using empirical information as a basis for monitoring and studying education with the special ambition of making such information both meaningful and powerful and the use of such information dynamic. The papers are: (1) "The Way to a Strategic View on Evaluation" (Kimmo Leimu); (2) "Strategic…

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Association of School LIbrarianship (19th, Umea, Sweden, July 8-12, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association of School Librarianship, Kalamazoo, MI.

    This conference report contains 32 presented papers: "Talking Books for Children in Sweden in Libraries and Schools" (L. Bergman); "At-Risk Students: How Do School (Library) Systems Respond?" (G. R. Brown); "Providing School Library Services to Immigrant Populations" (K. W. Craver); "Bibliographic Aids for School Libraries" (K. Darling); "The…

  5. An international campaign of the 19th century to determine the solar parallax. The US Naval expedition to the southern hemisphere 1849-1852

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrimpf, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In 1847 Christian Ludwig Gerling, Marburg (Germany), suggested the solar parallax to be determined by measuring the position of Venus close to its inferior conjunction, especially at the stationary points, from observatories on nearly the same meridian but widely differing in latitude. James M. Gilliss, astronomer at the newly founded U.S. Naval Observatory, enthusiastically adopted this idea and procured a grant for the young astronomical community of the United States for an expedition to Chile. There they were to observe several conjunctions of Venus and oppositions of Mars, while the accompanying measurements were to be taken at the US Naval Observatory in Washington D.C. and the Harvard College Observatory at Cambridge, USA. This expedition was supported by A.V. Humboldt, C.F. Gauß, J.F. Encke, S.C. Walker, A.D. Bache, B. Peirce and others. From 1849 to 1852 not only were astronomical, but also meteorological and magnetic observations and measurements recorded, mainly in Santa Lucia close to Santiago, Chile. By comparing these measurements with those taken simultaneously at other observatories around the world the solar parallax could be calculated, although incomplete data from the corresponding northern observatories threatened the project's success. In retrospect this expedition can be recognized as the foundation of the Chilean astronomy. The first director of the new National Astronomical Observatory of Chile was Dr. C.W. Moesta, a Hessian student of Christian Ludwig Gerling's. The exchange of data between German, American and other astronomers during this expedition was well mediated by J.G. Flügel, consul of the United States of America and representative of the Smithsonian Institution in Europe, who altogether played a major role in nurturing the relationship between the growing scientific community in the U.S. and the well established one in Europe at that time.

  6. PREFACE: Special issue: Proceedings of the Joint 19th AIRAPT and 41st EHPRG International Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology (Bordeaux, 7--11 July 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demazeau, Gérard

    2004-04-01

    This volume is the outcome of a three-day meeting held 7-10 August, 2004 in St Adèle, Québec honouring Michael F Thorpe, Foundation Professor of Physics, Chemistry and Biophysics at Arizona State University. Michael Thorpe has made many important contributions to condensed matter physics, broadly defined. From the famous Weaire and Thorpe Hamiltonian in 1971 [1] to rigidity percolation theory [2] and flexibility in proteins [3], he has always provided highly original solutions to difficult problems. He has also demonstrated an uncommon gift for selecting and solving problems of remarkably broad significance (for example, rigidity theory is now a powerful tool in glasses, microelectronics and proteins). Throughout his career, Mike has also made a point of establishing contact with scientists from all disciplines and origins, organizing tens of conferences and maintaining a very active visitor's program both at Michigan State University, where he spent 25 years, and, now, at Arizona State University, where he moved a year ago. It is therefore not surprising that the participants, all with scientific or personal links with Mike, usually both, came from Europe, Asia and North America to celebrate the 60th birthday of an eminent physicist and friend. Reflecting the impact of Mike's work across the traditional scientific boundaries, the meeting included contributions ranging from studies of concrete by Ed Garboczi (NIST), a hybrid VCA/CPA treatment of the Hubbard model presented by Sir Roger Elliott (Oxford) to the assembly process of viral capsids by Brandon Hespenheide (ASU). Especially memorable talks were given by Rafael Barrio (with his photogenic striped imperial fish), Alex Kolobov (presenting impressive scientific results using equally impressive computer graphics), and Dick Zallen, for a remarkably good `roast' of the honoree and work with his daughter (a molecular biologist) on biophysics. The meeting had an unusual warmth befitting the birthday celebration, and was also by any measure a scientific success, with innumerable questions and discussions among this diverse group, and the scholarly contributions in this volume. We thank the participants, and Dr Richard Palmer, the Publisher of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and his staff for working to make this volume appear very quickly, thereby increasing the value of the papers to the community. We would also thank the Office of the vice-president for research at Université de Montréal, the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Arizona State University, the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Ohio University and the Canada Research Chair Program for financial assistance that made the meeting more enjoyable. We were both pleased to be part of this delightful occasion, and wish to take this last opportunity to wish Mike a happy birthday, and urge him to even greater achievements in coming years. Bibliography [1] Weaire D and Thorpe M F 1971 Electronic Properties of an Amorphous Solid: I. A Simple Tight Binding Theory Phys. Rev. B 4 2508--20 [2] Thorpe M F 1983 Continuous Deformations in Random Networks J. Non-Cryst. Solids 57 355-70 [3] Jacobs D J, Rader A J, Kuhn L A and Thorpe M F 2001 Protein Flexibilty Predictions using Graph Theory Proteins 44 150-65

  7. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  8. Human impacts of hydrometeorological extremes in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands derived from documentary sources in the 18th-19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolák, Lukáš; Brázdil, Rudolf; Valášek, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    The extent of damage caused by hydrometeorological events or extremes (HME) has risen up in the entire world in the last few years. Especially the floods, flash floods, torrential rains and hailstorms are the most typical and one of the most frequent kind of natural disasters in the central Europe. Catastrophes are a part of human history and people were forced to cope with their consequences (e. g. material damage, economical losses, impacts on agriculture and society or losses of human lives). This paper analyses the human impacts of HME in the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands (central part of the Czech Republic) on the basis of documentary sources from the 18th-19th centuries. The paper presents various negative impacts of natural disasters on lives and property and subsequent inconveniences of Czech peasants. The preserved archival documents of estates or domains became the primary sources of data (e. g. taxation reliefs, damaged records, reports of afflicted farmers, administrative correspondence etc.). Particularly taxation reliefs relate to taxation system in the Czech lands during the 17th-19th centuries allowing to farmers to ask for tax alleviation when their crops were significantly damaged by any HME. These archival documents are a highly valuable source for the study of human impacts of natural disasters. Devastating consequences of these extremes affected individual farmers much more than the aristocracy. Floods caused inundations of farmer's fields, meadows, houses and farm buildings, washed away the arable land with crops, caused losses of cattle, clogged the land with gravel and mud and destroyed roads, bridges or agricultural equipment. Afflicted fields became worthless and it took them many years to become became fertile again. Crop was also damaged by hailstorms, droughts or late/early frosts. All these events led to lack of food and seeds in the following year and it meant the decrease of living standard, misery and poverty of farmers. Acquired

  9. Colloquium: 100 years of mass spectrometry: Perspectives and future trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Simon; Jjunju, Fred P. M.; Taylor, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is widely regarded as the most sensitive and specific general purpose analytical technique. More than a century has passed for MS since the ground-breaking work of Nobel laureate Sir Joseph John Thomson in 1913. This Colloquium aims to (1) give an historical overview of the major instrumentation achievements that have driven mass spectrometry forward in the past century, including those leading up to the initial work of Thomson, (2) provide the nonspecialist with an introduction to MS, and (3) highlight some key applications of MS and explore the current and future trends. Because of the vastness of the subject area and quality of the manifold research efforts that have been undertaken over the last 100 years, which have contributed to the foundations and subsequent advances in mass spectrometry, it should be understood that not all of the key contributions may have been included in this Colloquium. Mass spectrometry has embraced a multitude of scientific disciplines and to recognize all of the achievements is an impossible task, such has been the diverse impact of this invaluable technique. Scientific progress is usually made via the cumulative effort of a large number of researchers; the achievements reported herein are only a representation of that effort.

  10. [Bright disease in Turin and Italy from the middle of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Stratta, P; Bermond, F; Canavese, C; Colla, L; Burdese, M; Quaglia, M; Besso, L; Sandri, L; Dogliani, M

    2001-03-01

    For many years the term nephritis was used to indicate renal diseases (in the sense of Bright s disease) in a larger sense. This review summarizes the history of the concept of glolomerulonephritis from Egyptian Medicine up to the Post-Biopsy Era, in particularly in Turin and in Italy. This study reports an epidemiology survey of Bright s disease in Italy from 1880 up to 1960. Towards the end of the 19th century Bright s disease accounted for 26 deaths/year/105 population (in comparison with more than 200 from tubercolosis) in Italy. At the beginning of the 20th century, Bright s disease was the seventh cause of death in Italy. Moreover, in Italy autopsy studies showed a higher percentage of deaths attributed to Bright s disease (5-7%) in comparison with those obtained from vital studies. In 1960, just before the beginning of renal replacement therapy, Bright s disease accounted for 15.7 deaths/year/105 population. Probably it was difficult to recognize in the real incidence of chronic renal diseases leading to death in the 1960s, and vital studies were able to furnish only approximate estimates. However, noteworthy is the fact that these values were very close to those estimated as being the annual need for renal replacement therapy (10-20/year/105 population). PMID:11346720

  11. By their words ye shall know them: Evidence of genetic selection against general intelligence and concurrent environmental enrichment in vocabulary usage since the mid 19th century.

    PubMed

    Menie, Michael A Woodley Of; Fernandes, Heitor B F; José Figueredo, Aurelio; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    It has been theorized that declines in general intelligence (g) due to genetic selection stemming from the inverse association between completed fertility and IQ and the Flynn effect co-occur, with the effects of the latter being concentrated on less heritable non-g sources of intelligence variance. Evidence for this comes from the observation that 19th century populations were more intellectually productive, and also exhibited faster simple reaction times than modern ones, suggesting greater information-processing ability and therefore higher g. This co-occurrence model is tested via examination of historical changes in the utilization frequencies of words from the highly g-loaded WORDSUM test across 5.9 million texts spanning the period 1850-2005. Consistent with predictions, words with higher difficulties (δ parameters from Item Response Theory) and stronger negative correlations between pass rates and completed fertility declined in use over time whereas less difficult and less strongly selected words, increased in use over time, consistent with a Flynn effect stemming in part from the vocabulary enriching effects of increases in population literacy. These findings persisted when explicitly controlled for word age, changing literacy rates and temporal autocorrelation. These trends constitute compelling evidence for the co-occurrence model. PMID:25954211

  12. Understanding Edward Muybridge: historical review of behavioral alterations after a 19th-century head injury and their multifactorial influence on human life and culture.

    PubMed

    Manjila, Sunil; Singh, Gagandeep; Alkhachroum, Ayham M; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro

    2015-07-01

    Edward Muybridge was an Anglo-American photographer, well known for his pioneering contributions in photography and his invention of the "zoopraxiscope," a forerunner of motion pictures. However, this 19th-century genius, with two original patents in photographic technology, made outstanding contributions in art and neurology alike, the latter being seldom acknowledged. A head injury that he sustained changed his behavior and artistic expression. The shift of his interests from animal motion photography to human locomotion and gait remains a pivotal milestone in our understanding of patterns in biomechanics and clinical neurology, while his own behavioral patterns, owing to an injury to the orbitofrontal cortex, remain a mystery even for cognitive neurologists. The behavioral changes he exhibited and the legal conundrum that followed, including a murder of which he was acquitted, all depict the complexities of his personality and impact of frontal lobe injuries. This article highlights the life journey of Muybridge, drawing parallels with Phineas Gage, whose penetrating head injury has been studied widely. The wide sojourn of Muybridge also illustrates the strong connections that he maintained with Stanford and Pennsylvania universities, which were later considered pinnacles of higher education on the two coasts of the United States. PMID:26126403

  13. Structural and behavioural changes in the short term preventive check in the northwest Balkans in the 18th and 19th centuries.

    PubMed

    Hammel, E A; Galloway, P R

    2000-03-01

    Fertility responded negatively to grain insufficiency (proxied by grain price increases), and mortality responded positively in Croatia-Slavonia-Srem in the 18th and 19th centuries, as in most of Europe. Shifts in the intensity and timing of these responses occurred over time as social and economic structures changed. Shifts in the elasticity of fertility with respect to grain supply inversely mimic and lag changes in the elasticity of mortality. Both appear to be induced by increasing land shortage, the collapse of feudalism, and differences in the patterns of adjustment to post-feudal conditions among former civil and military serfs. Generally, responses are stronger for civil and former civil serfs, who may have been in less favorable economic circumstances than the military. Fertility responses in the year of a price shock come to dominate those in the year following, suggesting a shift from contraception to abortion as economic and social conditions apparently worsened and strategies of control intensified. Analysis of monthly responses supports the conjecture based on the annual responses. The shift to the preventive check and strength of the preventive check in the same year as the price shock is unusual in Europe and beyond. Analysis is based on 25 parishes and employs lagged annual and monthly time series analysis with corrections for autocorrelation, in combination with ethnographic and historical data. PMID:12159002

  14. Limnological instrumentation in the middle of the 19th century: the first temperature and density profiles measured in the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oren, Aharon

    2015-11-01

    The first modern survey of the Dead Sea was performed by the Geological Survey of Israel in 1959-1960, and the report published remains the baseline study for our understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the lake. At the time the Dead Sea was a meromictic lake with a strong salinity gradient separating the deep waters (>40 m depth) from the less saline surface waters. A few results of analyses of deeper water samples collected in the 1930s were reported, but overall we have very little information about the structure of the lake's water column before the 1959-1960 survey. However, it is little known that data on the physical and the chemical structure of the Dead Sea water column were obtained already in the middle of the 19th century, and the information collected then is highly relevant for the reconstruction of the limnological properties of the lake in earlier times. The expedition of Lieutenant William Lynch (U.S. Navy) in 1848 reported the presence of a temperature minimum at a depth of ~18 m, and also retrieved a water sample collected close to the bottom for chemical analysis. In 1864, the French Dead Sea exploration by the Duc de Luynes and his crew yielded detailed density and salinity profiles for a number of sampling stations. The results of these pioneering studies are discussed here, as well as the sampling equipment and measuring instruments used by the 1848 and the 1864 expeditions.

  15. [Medicine and chemistry around the middle of the 19th century in Erlangen. Eugen Franz Freiherr von Gorup-Besanez (1817--1878) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simmer, H H

    1981-07-01

    Eugen Franz Freiherr von Gorup-Besanez, born 1817 in Graz, was appointed on 28. 11. 1846 to the post of lecturer in the faculty of medicine of the University of Erlangen. He had previously studied medicine in Vienna, Padua and Munich, followed by physiological and clinical-chemical studies under Louis Andreas Buchner in Munich, and further studies in organic and analytical chemistry under Friedrich Wöhler in Göttingen. In 1849 in Erlangen he became reader in organic and analytical chemistry, then, in 1855, moved to the faculty of philosophy as professor of chemistry. Von Gorup-Besanez was one of the early representatives of clinical chemistry in Germany. He tried to help clinicians by the analysis of urine, blood and tissues. In his lectures and through his books he was an outstanding teacher. His greatest contribution was the discovery of the amino acid valine. The lack of a laboratory in the medical faculty and his dissatisfaction with what could be achieved in clinical chemistry at that time may chiefly explain his move from the medical to the philosophical faculty. The life of von Gorup-Besanez illustrates the difficulties faced by clinical chemistry and its exponents in the middle of the 19th century. PMID:7035607

  16. By their words ye shall know them: Evidence of genetic selection against general intelligence and concurrent environmental enrichment in vocabulary usage since the mid 19th century

    PubMed Central

    Menie, Michael A. Woodley of; Fernandes, Heitor B. F.; José Figueredo, Aurelio; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    It has been theorized that declines in general intelligence (g) due to genetic selection stemming from the inverse association between completed fertility and IQ and the Flynn effect co-occur, with the effects of the latter being concentrated on less heritable non-g sources of intelligence variance. Evidence for this comes from the observation that 19th century populations were more intellectually productive, and also exhibited faster simple reaction times than modern ones, suggesting greater information-processing ability and therefore higher g. This co-occurrence model is tested via examination of historical changes in the utilization frequencies of words from the highly g-loaded WORDSUM test across 5.9 million texts spanning the period 1850–2005. Consistent with predictions, words with higher difficulties (δ parameters from Item Response Theory) and stronger negative correlations between pass rates and completed fertility declined in use over time whereas less difficult and less strongly selected words, increased in use over time, consistent with a Flynn effect stemming in part from the vocabulary enriching effects of increases in population literacy. These findings persisted when explicitly controlled for word age, changing literacy rates and temporal autocorrelation. These trends constitute compelling evidence for the co-occurrence model. PMID:25954211

  17. Quantitative analysis of human remains from 18(th)-19(th) centuries using X-ray fluorescence techniques: The mysterious high content of mercury in hair.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Marta; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Dias, António

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report the unusual concentration of mercury in the hair of an individual buried in the 18th to mid-19th centuries and the comparison with the elemental composition of other remains from the same individual. Two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) setups, one with tri-axial geometry and the second one with micro-beam capabilities and a vacuum system, for light elements detection, have been used. Quantitative evaluation of the obtained spectra were made by fundamental parameters and winAXIL program by compare mode method. The levels of Hg in the hair of buried samples presented a concentration over 5% (w/w), a significantly lower presence of this element in the cranium, and no Hg in the remaining organs. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Hg in the burial soil, which has been also analyzed. From this result, we could conclude that the possibility of post-mortem contamination from the burial surroundings is very unlikely. The obtained results are indicative of the apparent use of a mercury-based compound for medical purposes, most likely lice infestation. PMID:26653740

  18. [Insanity, life crises and longing for a "real life". On the discussion of deviant behavior and mental disorders in psychiatry of the 19th and 20th century].

    PubMed

    Kanis-Seyfried, Uta

    On insanity, life crises and the longing for a "right life". A contribution to the discussion on the deviant behavior and mental disorders in the psychiatry of the 19th and 20th centuries using the example of patient stories. History of psychiatry, understood as social and cultural history, provides the framework for this micro-historical article. Using the example of three patients treated in Wuerttemberg or Baden psychiatric asylums between 1875 and 1912, the article focuses on the critical analysis of types of asylums, their practices of admissions, therapies and power relations between patients and staff. Ways of thinking and acting, subjective experiences and emotions are exemplified by patient records, personal testimonials and contemporary publications again by patients and staff. The article examines options of patients to influence the institutional daily asylum routine against the background of its complexity and dynamics. Borders, manipulations, malingering and querulous paranoia are at stake here. Furthermore, the article reflects various forms of social interaction with the power regulating therapeutic and disciplinary aspects against the backdrop of the "canons of rules" of the asylum as well as the contemporary political and legal framework. PMID:27501548

  19. Height as an indicator of economic status in the Polish territories under Russian rule at the turn of the 19th to 20th century.

    PubMed

    Czapla, Zbigniew; Liczbińska, Grażyna

    2014-09-01

    Height is regarded as one of the indicators of environmental stress at population level, being an excellent barometer of standard of living. The aim of this study was to describe diversity in height among populations living in different regions of the Kingdom of Poland in terms of the economic factors in the second half of the 19th and early 20th century. This study examines the height of adult inhabitants from five guberniyas (provinces) of the Kingdom of Poland (Łomża, Warsaw, Radom, Kalisz and Płock) collected in the years 1897-1914 (N = 732 men, N = 569 women). Differences in average height of male and female inhabitants across the five guberniyas were examined using ANOVA and the Fisher's LSD (Least Significant Difference) test of multiple comparisons. Statistically significant differences in the height between the guberniyas were observed. Diversity in the economic development in the studied guberniyas of the Kingdom of Poland translated into differences in the height of their inhabitants. Moreover, an increase in mean height over time was noted. PMID:24041152

  20. Non-invasive and non-destructive micro-XRF and micro-Raman analysis of a decorative wallpaper from the beginning of the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Pérez-Alonso, Maite; Rodríguez-Laso, María Dolores; Etxebarria, Nestor; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2007-02-01

    Non-destructive and non-invasive micro-Raman fibre optic and micro-XRF analyses were performed to study a wallpaper from the beginning of the 19th century. The complementarity of these two non-destructive techniques is shown in this work. The analysed artwork is considered one of the most beautiful wallpapers ever manufactured according to the catalogues and books; it is known as Chasse de Compiègne, manufactured by Jacquemart, Paris, in 1812. During the analysis, an unexpected pigment was detected by both analytical techniques: lead-tin yellow type II. This pigment was used until ca. 1750, when other yellow pigments replaced it, thus it is very difficult to find it in paintings afterwards. Together with this pigment, red lead, Prussian blue, brochantite, yellow iron oxide, calcium carbonate, vermilion, carbon black of animal origin (bone black), lead white, and raw and burnt sienna were also determined by combining the analytical information provided by both techniques. A possible degradation of brochantite to antlerite is also discussed. PMID:16838156

  1. English Translations Of The First Clinical Reports On Narcolepsy And Cataplexy By Westphal And Gélineau In The Late 19th Century, With Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Bassetti, Claudio L.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To publish the first English translations, with commentary, of the original reports describing narcolepsy and cataplexy by Westphal in German (1877) and by Gélineau in French (1880). Methods: A professional translation service translated the 2 reports from either German or French to English, with each translation then being slightly edited by one of the authors. All authors then provided commentary. Results: Both Westphal and Gélineau correctly identified and described the new clinical entities of cataplexy and narcolepsy, with recurrent, self-limited sleep attacks and/or cataplectic attacks affecting 2 otherwise healthy people. Narcolepsy was named by Gélineau (and cataplexy was named by Henneberg in 1916). The evidence in both cases is sufficiently convincing to conclude that they were likely each HLA-DQB1*0602 positive and hypocretin deficient. Conclusions: The original descriptions of narcolepsy and cataplexy are now available in English, allowing for extensive clinical and historical commentary. Citations: Schenck CH; Bassetti CL; Arnulf I et al. English translations of the first clinical reports on narcolepsy and cataplexy by Westphal and Gélineau in the late 19th century, with commentary. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(3):301–311 PMID:17561602

  2. A demographic transition altered the strength of selection for fitness and age-specific survival and fertility in a 19th century American population

    PubMed Central

    Moorad, Jacob A.

    2012-01-01

    Modernization has increased longevity and decreased fertility in many human populations, but it is not well understood how or to what extent these demographic transitions have altered patterns of natural selection. I integrate individual-based multivariate phenotypic selection approaches with evolutionary demographic methods to demonstrate how a demographic transition in 19th century female populations of Utah altered relationships between fitness and age-specific survival and fertility. Coincident with this demographic transition, natural selection for fitness, as measured by the opportunity for selection, increased by 13–20% over 65 years. Proportional contributions of age-specific survival to total selection (the complement to age-specific fertility) diminished from approximately 1/3 to 1/7 following a marked increase in infant survival. Despite dramatic reductions in age-specific fertility variance at all ages, the absolute magnitude of selection for fitness explained by age-specific fertility increased by approximately 45%. I show that increases in the adaptive potential of fertility traits followed directly from decreased population growth rates. These results suggest that this demographic transition has increased the adaptive potential of the Utah population, intensified selection on reproductive traits, and de-emphasized selection on survival-related traits. PMID:23730757

  3. The Future of Instructional Technology. Summary Report of the Lake Okoboji Educational Media Leadership Conference (19th Iowa Lakeside Laboratory, Lake Okoboji, Milford, Iowa, August 12-17, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Lida M., Ed.; Cochran, Lee W., Ed.

    A summary is provided of the proceedings of the 19th Lake Okoboji Educational Media Leadership Conference. The first section of the report presents a transcript of the conference's keynote address, which deals with projections, probes and problems of instructional technology in the future. Brief reviews of each of the general sessions are next…

  4. Pacific Visions: Finding, Selecting, and Using Resources for Your Libraries, Archives, and Museums. Selected Papers from PIALA 2009, Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives, and Museums Annual Conference (19th, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Paul B., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This publication follows the tradition of publishing selected papers from Pacific Islands Association of Libraries, Archives and Museums (PIALA) annual conferences. This 19th annual conference was held in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, November 16-21, 2009. The volume begins with a listing of the members of the PIALA 2009 Planning…

  5. "Do Not Turn a Deaf Ear or a Blind Eye on Me, as I Am Your Son": New Conceptions of Childhood and Parenthood in 18th- and 19th-Century Jewish Letter-Writing Manuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogman, Tal

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the cultural functions of Hebrew letter-writing manuals published in German-speaking countries in the 18th and 19th centuries, aimed at young people. I argue that these books, which were used frequently as textbooks for studying Hebrew writing, conveyed modern ideological values and at the same time corresponded to the…

  6. Dynamics of localized disturbances in engineering flows: a report on Euromech Colloquium 353

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfs, Jan; Oertel, Herbert, Jr.

    1997-09-01

    Euromech Colloquium 353, held at the University of Karlsruhe, Germany, 1 3 April 1996 brought together scientists working in the field of localized disturbances of flows in order to discuss new developments and the potential for application. The colloquium attracted a total of 56 participants from nine European countries, i.e. France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine and United Kingdom as well as from the US and Israel.

  7. [Historical sketch of modern pharmaceutical science and technology (Part 3). From the second half of the 19th century to World War II].

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, K

    1995-01-01

    The history of modern pharmaceutical science and technology, from the second half of the 19th century to the end of World War II, is divided into nine sections for the purpose of discussion. 1. The European medical and pharmaceutical science and technology at the end of the 19th century is reviewed. Pharmacology, bacteriology and biochemistry were built in this period. 2. The Meiji Government accepted Western medicine and medical law and regulations in 1883. Consequently, the Japanese physician changed from Eastern (Kanpooi) to Western (Seiyooi). 3. Modern scientific and engineering education had been accepted in America, England, Germany, and France etc. Foreign scientists and engineers (Oyatoi-gai-kokujin) were educated by practice and theory. The Faculty of Engineering was established in the universities in Japan. This fact is one of the differences in the history of universities in Europe and America. 4. Pharmaceutical education in the Meiji period (1873-1911). Twenty-nine schools of pharmacy were built in this period. However, 20 schools of pharmacy had been closed. Pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry was not established in the Meiji era. 5. The profession of pharmacist in 1873-1944. The policy of medicine was changed by the Meiji Government in 1889, when Western physicians were allowed to prepare medicines for patients, and this practice continues today. Political and technological power of Japanese pharmacists was weak, so their role was not estimated. 6. Consequences of world War I, and the establishment of the pharmaceutical industry. The Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) and Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) were won fortunately. The first pharmaceutical company was established in 1885. At this times, many pharmaceutical manufacturing companies, which were converted from whole sale merchants, were built. Then started the manufacturing of commercial drugs. 7. Hygienic chemistry and some problems of public hygiene. The causes of diseses unique to Japan, such as

  8. Colloquium: Statistical mechanics of money, wealth, and income

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovenko, Victor M.; Rosser, J. Barkley, Jr.

    2009-10-01

    This Colloquium reviews statistical models for money, wealth, and income distributions developed in the econophysics literature since the late 1990s. By analogy with the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution of energy in physics, it is shown that the probability distribution of money is exponential for certain classes of models with interacting economic agents. Alternative scenarios are also reviewed. Data analysis of the empirical distributions of wealth and income reveals a two-class distribution. The majority of the population belongs to the lower class, characterized by the exponential (“thermal”) distribution, whereas a small fraction of the population in the upper class is characterized by the power-law (“superthermal”) distribution. The lower part is very stable, stationary in time, whereas the upper part is highly dynamical and out of equilibrium.

  9. Colloquium: Geometry and optimal packing of twisted columns and filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grason, Gregory M.

    2015-04-01

    This Colloquium presents recent progress in understanding constraints and consequences of close-packing geometry of filamentous or columnar materials possessing nontrivial textures, focusing, in particular, on the common motifs of twisted and toroidal structures. The mathematical framework is presented that relates spacing between linelike, filamentous elements to their backbone orientations, highlighting the explicit connection between the interfilament metric properties and the geometry of non-Euclidean surfaces. The consequences of the hidden connection between packing in twisted filament bundles and packing on positively curved surfaces, like the Thomson problem, are demonstrated for the defect-riddled ground states of physical models of twisted filament bundles. The connection between the "ideal" geometry of fibrations of curved three-dimensional space, including the Hopf fibration, and the non-Euclidean constraints of filament packing in twisted and toroidal bundles is presented, with a focus on the broader dependence of metric geometry on the simultaneous twisting and folding of multifilament bundles.

  10. Correction: Two intense decades of 19th century whaling precipitated rapid decline of right whales around New Zealand and east Australia.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Emma L; Jackson, Jennifer A; Paton, David; Smith, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Right whales (Eubalaena spp.) were the focus of worldwide whaling activities from the 16th to the 20th century. During the first part of the 19th century, the southern right whale (E. australis) was heavily exploited on whaling grounds around New Zealand (NZ) and east Australia (EA). Here we build upon previous estimates of the total catch of NZ and EA right whales by improving and combining estimates from four different fisheries. Two fisheries have previously been considered: shore-based whaling in bays and ship-based whaling offshore. These were both improved by comparison with primary sources and the American offshore whaling catch record was improved by using a sample of logbooks to produce a more accurate catch record in terms of location and species composition. Two fisheries had not been previously integrated into the NZ and EA catch series: ship-based whaling in bays and whaling in the 20th century. To investigate the previously unaddressed problem of offshore whalers operating in bays, we identified a subset of vessels likely to be operating in bays and read available extant logbooks. This allowed us to estimate the total likely catch from bay-whaling by offshore whalers from the number of vessels seasons and whales killed per season: it ranged from 2,989 to 4,652 whales. The revised total estimate of 53,000 to 58,000 southern right whales killed is a considerable increase on the previous estimate of 26,000, partly because it applies fishery-specific estimates of struck and loss rates. Over 80% of kills were taken between 1830 and 1849, indicating a brief and intensive fishery that resulted in the commercial extinction of southern right whales in NZ and EA in just two decades. This conforms to the global trend of increasingly intense and destructive southern right whale fisheries over time. PMID:24770341

  11. Biodemographic study of a central Apennine area (Italy) in the 19th and 20th centuries: marriage seasonality and reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Danubio, M E; Amicone, E

    2001-07-01

    This study investigates seasonality of marriages and reproductive isolation in six long-isolated communities in the central Apennines (Italy). It had two objectives: (1) the identification of an Apennine biodemographic model in comparison with mountain communities of other regions, and with non-Apennine communities in Abruzzo, and (2) to identify the possible effects of the drainage of Lake Fucino (1854-1876) on that area. Marriages in this region show two very stable seasonal patterns: one is typical of sedentary rural societies, with summer migrations and marriages preferentially celebrated in the winter, and the other has marriages that are strongly concentrated in the summer months, i.e. between 75% and 93.5% of marriages were celebrated between June and October in these communities in the 1800s. These were traditionally pastoral communities with winter transhumance of the flocks and their shepherds towards the lowlands of southern Italy. In both groups, restrictions imposed by the Catholic Church do not seem to have affected the timing of marriages. Indeed, economic factors related to work activities seem to have had more influence. Concerning reproductive isolation, the results show high rates of endogamy: between 85% and 98% in both the 19th and 20th centuries. Rates of consanguineous marriages were between 5% and 20%, and those of isonymous marriages rarely exceeded 9%. The coefficient of inbreeding a shows that there was a delayed, limited period of increased consanguinity in the few decades around the turn of the century. This is different from the national situation, and thus could be a consequence of the Lake Fucino drainage. PMID:11446403

  12. The satellites of Jupiter; Proceedings of the Fifty-seventh Colloquium, Kailua, Hawaii, May 13-16, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Among the topics covered by the colloquium on the satellites of Jupiter are: the internal energy and thermophysics of the surface of Io, plume volcanism on Io, the photometric variability of Io, the near-surface flow of volcanic gases on Io, and the sodium emission cloud of Io and its north-south asymmetry. Also considered are: the physical processes and origins of Jupiter's ring and its possible effect on the Jovian inner plasmasphere, the composition of such moons of Jupiter as Amalthea, Ganymede, Europa and Callisto and their lithospheric and ice evolutions. Particular attention is given such topographic features as the domes and grooved terrain on Ganymede, water frost and ice, and the photometric properties of these outer satellites of Jupiter.

  13. Fram Strait ice export during the 19th and 20th centuries reconstructed from a multi-year sea-ice index from Southwestern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmith, T.; Hansen, C.

    2003-04-01

    Historical observations of multi-year ice, called 'Storis', in the Southwest Greenland waters exist from the period 1820-2000, obtained from ships logbooks and ice charts. It is argued that this ice originates in the Arctic Ocean and has travelled via the Fram Strait, southward along the Greenland coast in the East Greenland Current and around the southern tip of Greenland. Therefore, it is hypothesised that these observations can be used as 'proxies' for reconstructing the Fram Strait ice export on an annual basis. An index describing the Storis extent is extracted from the observations and a linear statistical model formulated relating this index to the Fram Strait ice export. The model is calibrated using ice export values from a hindcast study with a coupled ocean-ice model over the period 1949-1998. Subsequently, the model is used to reconstruct the Fram Strait annual ice export in the period 1820-2000. The model has significant skill, calculated on independent data. Based on this reconstruction, it is discussed how time periods with large and small ice export on multidecadal time scale coincide with time periods of cold and warm North Atlantic sea surface temperatures reported by others. This implies that trend studies based on satellite observations should be regarded with some care, since the time period of satellite observations, the last decades, where a particularly strong negative trend is observed in the ice export is preceded by a time period with a positive trend. The occurrence of 'Great salinity anomalies' (GSA's) are also connected to the multidecadal variability. The GSA's observed in Greenland waters around 1968-1970 and 1980-1982 both occurred when the general level of ice export was high. Prior to these there was a long period with generally low ice export and no GSA's but during an epoch around the turn of the 19th century several GSA's occurred. Finally, it is found that the correlation between the Fram Strait ice export and the NAO index

  14. The Visual Difficulties of Selected Artists and Limitations of Ophthalmological Care During The 19th and Early 20th Centuries (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Ravin, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of eye diseases on several important artists who have been given little attention from a medical-historical viewpoint. The examples chosen demonstrate problems artists have had to face from different types of eye disease, including cataract, glaucoma, and retinal diseases. The ophthalmological care provided is described in terms of scientific knowledge at the time. Methods Investigation of primary and secondary source material. Discussion with art historians and ophthalmic historians. Examination of work by the artists. Results Artists can be markedly affected by ocular diseases that change their ability to see the world. The individuals described here worked during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Homer Martin suffered from cataracts, and his works reveal changes in details and color as he aged. Henri Harpignies, who had an extremely long career, undoubtedly had cataracts and may also have had macular degeneration. Angle-closure glaucoma blinded Jules Chéret. Auguste Ravier suffered from neovascular glaucoma in one eye and was able to work with his remaining eye, which developed a cataract. Louis Valtat suffered from what was in all likelihood open-angle glaucoma, but specific changes due to this disease are not apparent in his work. Roger Bissière developed glaucoma and did well following filtration surgery. George Du Maurier lost one eye from what was probably a retinal detachment and later suffered from a central retinal problem in the other eye. Conclusions Diseases of the eye may profoundly influence artists by altering their perception of the world. The specific effects may vary, depending on the disease, its severity, and the psychology of the artist. Cataracts typically affect an artist’s ability to depict color and detail. The effect of glaucoma generally depends on whether central vision is preserved. Disease that affects the center of the retina has a substantial effect on an artist’s ability

  15. A model for the 19th century eruption of Eta Carinae: CSM interaction like a scaled-down Type IIn Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a simple model for the 19th century eruption of Eta Carinae that consists of two components: (1) a strong wind (dot{M}=0.33 M_{{odot }} yr-1; v∞ = 200 km s-1), blowing for 30 yr, followed by (2) a 1050 erg explosion (10 M⊙; 750-1000 km s-1) occurring in 1844. The ensuing collision between the fast ejecta and the dense circumstellar material (CSM) causes an increase in brightness observed at the end of 1844, followed by a sustained high-luminosity phase lasting for 10-15 yr that provides a close match to the observed historical light curve. The emergent luminosity is powered by converting kinetic energy to radiation through CSM interaction, analogous to the process occurring in more luminous Type IIn supernovae, except with ˜10 times lower explosion energy and at slower speeds (causing a longer duration and lower emergent luminosity). We demonstrate that such an explosive event not only provides a natural explanation for the light-curve evolution, but also accounts for a number of puzzling attributes of the highly scrutinized Homunculus, including: (1) rough equipartition of total radiated and kinetic energy in the event, (2) the double-shell structure of the Homunculus, with a thin massive outer shell (corresponding to the coasting cold dense shell) and a thicker inner layer (between the cold dense shell and the reverse shock), (3) the apparent single age and Hubble-like flow of the Homunculus resulting from the thin swept-up shell, (4) the complex mottled appearance of the polar lobes in Hubble Space Telescope images, arising naturally from Raleigh-Taylor or Vishniac instabilities at the contact discontinuity of the shock, (5) efficient and rapid dust formation, which has been observed in the post-shock zones of Type IIn supernovae, and (6) the fast (3000-5000 km s-1) material outside the Homunculus, arising from the acceleration of the forward shock upon exiting the dense CSM. In principle, the bipolar shape could be explained borrowing

  16. Washington Colloquium on Science and Society, Second Series (Held at Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. 1965-1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeds, Morton, Ed.

    This is the report of the third Washington Colloquium on Science and Society. It contains the papers presented by the eight main speakers and the rebuttal and discussion which followed. The theme of the colloquium was "Changing Man in a Changing Environment," and the papers presented aspects of this theme as seen by different specialists in…

  17. The globalization of public health: the first 100 years of international health diplomacy.

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, D. P.

    2001-01-01

    Global threats to public health in the 19th century sparked the development of international health diplomacy. Many international regimes on public health issues were created between the mid-19th and mid-20th centuries. The present article analyses the global risks in this field and the international legal responses to them between 1851 and 1951, and explores the lessons from the first century of international health diplomacy of relevance to contemporary efforts to deal with the globalization of public health. PMID:11584732

  18. Geodiversity and biodiversity interactions in the sand landscapes of the Netherlands on 19th and early 20th century landscape paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungerius, Pieter; van den Ancker, Hanneke

    2014-05-01

    Sand landscapes occupy about half of the territory of the Netherlands. Apart from an insignificant amount of Tertiary deposits, these sands are of Pleistocene and Holocene age. They include Saalian push moraines, Weichselian cover sands and Holocene drift sands. To these geological landscapes, cultural variants should be added such as the essen, i.e. a landscape with plaggen soils, and reclaimed lands (e.g. former moors). Not included are the coastal sands, which we dealt with in an earlier EGU contribution (van den Ancker & Jungerius 2012). Nature and man created a wide variety of sceneries that inspired painters in the 19th and early 20th century (Jungerius et al. 2012). Painter communities on the sandy soils flourished in Oosterbeek/Wolfheze, Laren/Blaricum, Nijkerk, Nunspeet/Elspeet, Hattem and Heeze. Many of the landscape paintings are found in the database of Simonis en Buunk that can be freely consulted on line (http//www.simonis&buunk.com). For this presentation we selected specimens that show geodiversity-biodiversity relationships, some of which have changed since. Painters of push moraines were attracted by the rolling terrain, the dry valleys and occasionally the colourful podzol soil profiles. Popular themes in the cover sands were the undulating relief and heathlands with herds of sheep, sandy footpaths and country roads with erosion phenomena. The dynamics of erosion captivated the painters of Holocene drift sand scenery, as did the bare fields of cultivated lands. Their paintings show the rural areas that since the beginning of the 20th century lost their traditional charm in large-scale re-allotment schemes and artificial nature-building project, that changed geodiversity-biodiversity relationships. Changes in the sandy terrains that can be inferred from the paintings are on a landscape scale, the scale of the landform and vegetation type, and are illustrated by changes in colour, pattern, structure and texture. Examples are: · active drift sands

  19. Report of the COSPAR mars special regions colloquium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kminek, G.; Rummel, J.D.; Cockell, C.S.; Atlas, R.; Barlow, N.; Beaty, D.; Boynton, W.; Carr, M.; Clifford, S.; Conley, C.A.; Davila, A.F.; Debus, A.; Doran, P.; Hecht, M.; Heldmann, J.; Helbert, J.; Hipkin, V.; Horneck, G.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Meyer, M.; Newsom, H.; Ori, G.G.; Parnell, J.; Prieur, D.; Raulin, F.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Spry, J.A.; Stabekis, P.E.; Stackebrandt, E.; Vago, J.; Viso, M.; Voytek, M.; Wells, L.; Westall, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the findings of a COSPAR Mars Special Regions Colloquium held in Rome in 2007. We review and discuss the definition of Mars Special Regions, the physical parameters used to define Mars Special Regions, and physical features on Mars that can be interpreted as Mars Special Regions. We conclude that any region experiencing temperatures > -25 ??C for a few hours a year and a water activity > 0.5 can potentially allow the replication of terrestrial microorganisms. Physical features on Mars that can be interpreted as meeting these conditions constitute a Mars Special Region. Based on current knowledge of the martian environment and the conservative nature of planetary protection, the following features constitute Mars Special regions: Gullies and bright streaks associated with them, pasted-on terrain, deep subsurface, dark streaks only on a case-by-case basis, others to be determined. The parameter definition and the associated list of physical features should be re-evaluated on a regular basis. ?? 2010 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Colloquium: Physical approaches to DNA sequencing and detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwolak, Michael; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2008-01-01

    With the continued improvement of sequencing technologies, the prospect of genome-based medicine is now at the forefront of scientific research. To realize this potential, however, a revolutionary sequencing method is needed for the cost-effective and rapid interrogation of individual genomes. This capability is likely to be provided by a physical approach to probing DNA at the single-nucleotide level. This is in sharp contrast to current techniques and instruments that probe (through chemical elongation, electrophoresis, and optical detection) length differences and terminating bases of strands of DNA. Several physical approaches to DNA detection have the potential to deliver fast and low-cost sequencing. Central to these approaches is the concept of nanochannels or nanopores, which allow for the spatial confinement of DNA molecules. In addition to their possible impact in medicine and biology, the methods offer ideal test beds to study open scientific issues and challenges in the relatively unexplored area at the interface between solids, liquids, and biomolecules at the nanometer length scale. This Colloquium emphasizes the physics behind these methods and ideas, critically describes their advantages and drawbacks, and discusses future research opportunities in the field.

  1. Colloquium: Fractional calculus view of complexity: A tutorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Bruce J.

    2014-10-01

    The fractional calculus has been part of the mathematics and science literature for 310 years. However, it is only in the past decade or so that it has drawn the attention of mainstream science as a way to describe the dynamics of complex phenomena with long-term memory, spatial heterogeneity, along with nonstationary and nonergodic statistics. The most recent application encompasses complex networks, which require new ways of thinking about the world. Part of the new cognition is provided by the fractional calculus description of temporal and topological complexity. Consequently, this Colloquium is not so much a tutorial on the mathematics of the fractional calculus as it is an exploration of how complex phenomena in the physical, social, and life sciences that have eluded traditional mathematical modeling become less mysterious when certain historical assumptions such as differentiability are discarded and the ordinary calculus is replaced with the fractional calculus. Exemplars considered include the fractional differential equations describing the dynamics of viscoelastic materials, turbulence, foraging, and phase transitions in complex social networks.

  2. Report of the proceedings of the Colloquium and Workshop on Multiscale Coupled Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Colloquium and Workshop on Multiscale Coupled Modeling was held for the purpose of addressing modeling issues of importance to planning for the Cooperative Multiscale Experiment (CME). The colloquium presentations attempted to assess the current ability of numerical models to accurately simulate the development and evolution of mesoscale cloud and precipitation systems and their cycling of water substance, energy, and trace species. The primary purpose of the workshop was to make specific recommendations for the improvement of mesoscale models prior to the CME, their coupling with cloud, cumulus ensemble, hydrology, air chemistry models, and the observational requirements to initialize and verify these models.

  3. Assessment of soil-gas, soil, and water contamination at the former 19th Street landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Soil gas, soil, and water were assessed for organic and inorganic constituents at the former 19th Street landfill at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from February to September 2010. Passive soil-gas samplers were analyzed to evaluate organic constituents in the hyporheic zone and flood plain of a creek and soil gas within the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. Soil and water samples were analyzed to evaluate inorganic constituents in soil samples, and organic and inorganic constituents in the surface water of a creek adjacent to the landfill, respectively. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental constituent data to Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. The passive soil-gas samplers deployed in the water-saturated hyporheic zone and flood plain of the creek adjacent to the former landfill indicated the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and octane above method detection levels in groundwater beneath the creek bed and flood plain at all 12 soil-gas sampler locations. The TPH concentrations ranged from 51.4 to 81.4 micrograms per liter. Octane concentrations ranged from 1.78 to 2.63 micrograms per liter. These detections do not clearly identify specific source areas in the former landfill; moreover, detections of TPH and octane in a soil-gas sampler installed at a seep on the western bank of the creek indicated the potential for these constituents to be derived from source areas outside the estimated boundaries of the former landfill. A passive soil-gas sampler survey was conducted in the former landfill from June 30 to July 5, 2010, and involved 56 soil-gas samplers that were analyzed for petroleum and halogenated compounds not classified as chemical agents or explosives. The TPH soil-gas mass exceeded 2.0 micrograms in 21 samplers. Most noticeable are the two sites with TPH detections which are located in and near the hyporheic zone and are likely to affect

  4. Colloquium: Non-Markovian dynamics in open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Laine, Elsi-Mari; Piilo, Jyrki; Vacchini, Bassano

    2016-04-01

    The dynamical behavior of open quantum systems plays a key role in many applications of quantum mechanics, examples ranging from fundamental problems, such as the environment-induced decay of quantum coherence and relaxation in many-body systems, to applications in condensed matter theory, quantum transport, quantum chemistry, and quantum information. In close analogy to a classical Markovian stochastic process, the interaction of an open quantum system with a noisy environment is often modeled phenomenologically by means of a dynamical semigroup with a corresponding time-independent generator in Lindblad form, which describes a memoryless dynamics of the open system typically leading to an irreversible loss of characteristic quantum features. However, in many applications open systems exhibit pronounced memory effects and a revival of genuine quantum properties such as quantum coherence, correlations, and entanglement. Here recent theoretical results on the rich non-Markovian quantum dynamics of open systems are discussed, paying particular attention to the rigorous mathematical definition, to the physical interpretation and classification, as well as to the quantification of quantum memory effects. The general theory is illustrated by a series of physical examples. The analysis reveals that memory effects of the open system dynamics reflect characteristic features of the environment which opens a new perspective for applications, namely, to exploit a small open system as a quantum probe signifying nontrivial features of the environment it is interacting with. This Colloquium further explores the various physical sources of non-Markovian quantum dynamics, such as structured environmental spectral densities, nonlocal correlations between environmental degrees of freedom, and correlations in the initial system-environment state, in addition to developing schemes for their local detection. Recent experiments addressing the detection, quantification, and control of

  5. The Proceedings for the Colloquium on Diversity in Education Abroad: How to Change the Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrin, Carl A., Ed.; Dadzie, Suzanne, Ed.; MacDonald, Sandra A., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The Academy for Educational Development (AED) Colloquium on Diversity in Education Abroad: How to Change the Picture was conceived of as a collaborative effort between the speakers, presenters, and participants. This publication presents the papers presented by the speakers. These are: (1) What We Know about Diversity in Education Abroad: State of…

  6. Colloquium--Toward a Reconceptualization of "Language" and "Acquisition" in SLA Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellermann, John; Olsher, David

    2010-01-01

    Held at the American Association for Applied Linguistics Annual Conference, Denver, CO, USA; 21 March 2009. This all-day colloquium was part of an ongoing discussion of ways that methods and frameworks from micro-ethnography, Conversation Analysis (CA), and Vygotskian Sociocultural Theory are re-specifying "language" and "acquisition" from a…

  7. A Colloquium on Environment, Ethics, and Education (Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada, July 14-16, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jickling, Bob, Ed.

    The papers in this proceedings explore two themes: "what environmental ethics can do for teachers," and "what teachers can do for environmental ethics." The papers are: "A Colloquium on Environment, Ethics, and Education: Considering the Context" (Bob Jickling); "Planning for the Future: Workshop Observations and Recommendations" (Colloquium…

  8. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Colloquium. Crisis, Challenge, and Change: Perspectives in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Council of Graduate Students in Education.

    Graduate students and faculty from within and outside of the University of Pittsburgh community were among the presenters at this colloquium on educational change and challenge. The papers include: Academic Freedom, Anti-Communism, and the McCarthy Era (Steve Aby); The Finnish Contribution to the American Workers' Education Movement (Richard J.…

  9. [The patent of Dr. Thibert: models of organs and his secret modeling at the beginning of the 19th century. Analysis of the stomach model (a8n°8) at the Conservatory of Montpellier].

    PubMed

    Noirot, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    In the early 19th century, Dr. Thibert discovered a process to overcome the difficulties of casting soft and moist organs. However, the analysis of a stomach made by Thibert reveals a modeling, changing the strict mechanical objectivity of the cast. This modeling inside the cast named "reparation" structures the illusionism of this cast. The scientific and artistic aspect of this study is to establish the typology of a secret modeling. This last one is the inheritance of the tricks of the mediocritas: between material and matter, so valuable for the goldsmiths of the 16th century. PMID:26050433

  10. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. SH Sessions, Volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume contains papers addressing cosmic ray gradients in the heliosphere; siderial, diurnal, and long term modulations; geomagnetic and atmospheric effects; cosmogenic nuclides; solar neutrinos; and detection techniques.

  11. Highlights of the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Veterinary immunologists have expanded understanding of the immune systems for our companion animals and developed new vaccines and therapeutics. This manuscript summarizes the highlights of the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto,...

  12. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. HE Sessions, Volume 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. The present volume contains papers addressing high energy interactions and related phenomena. Specific topic areas include muons, neutrinos, magnetic monopoles, nucleon decay, searches for new particles, and acoustic and thermoluminescence detection techniques.

  13. Ninteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. SH Sessions, Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers submitted for presentation at the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference are compiled. This volume covers solar and heliospheric phenomena, specifically, particle acceleration; cosmic ray compsotion, spectra, and anisotropy; propagation of solar and interplanetary energetic particles; solar-cycle modulation; and propagation of galactic particles in the heliosphere.

  14. Nineteenth International Cosmic Ray Conference. HE Sessions, Volume 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Papers contributed to the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference which address high energy interactions and related phenomena are compiled. Particular topic areas include cross sections; particle production; nuclei and nuclear matter; nucleus-nucleus collisions; gamma ray and hadron spectra; C-jets, a-jets, and super families; and emulsion chamber simulations.

  15. Large-Scale Sequencing: The Future of Genomic Sciences Colloquium

    SciTech Connect

    Margaret Riley; Merry Buckley

    2009-01-01

    Genetic sequencing and the various molecular techniques it has enabled have revolutionized the field of microbiology. Examining and comparing the genetic sequences borne by microbes - including bacteria, archaea, viruses, and microbial eukaryotes - provides researchers insights into the processes microbes carry out, their pathogenic traits, and new ways to use microorganisms in medicine and manufacturing. Until recently, sequencing entire microbial genomes has been laborious and expensive, and the decision to sequence the genome of an organism was made on a case-by-case basis by individual researchers and funding agencies. Now, thanks to new technologies, the cost and effort of sequencing is within reach for even the smallest facilities, and the ability to sequence the genomes of a significant fraction of microbial life may be possible. The availability of numerous microbial genomes will enable unprecedented insights into microbial evolution, function, and physiology. However, the current ad hoc approach to gathering sequence data has resulted in an unbalanced and highly biased sampling of microbial diversity. A well-coordinated, large-scale effort to target the breadth and depth of microbial diversity would result in the greatest impact. The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to discuss the scientific benefits of engaging in a large-scale, taxonomically-based sequencing project. A group of individuals with expertise in microbiology, genomics, informatics, ecology, and evolution deliberated on the issues inherent in such an effort and generated a set of specific recommendations for how best to proceed. The vast majority of microbes are presently uncultured and, thus, pose significant challenges to such a taxonomically-based approach to sampling genome diversity. However, we have yet to even scratch the surface of the genomic diversity among cultured microbes. A coordinated sequencing effort of cultured organisms is an appropriate place to begin

  16. The Impacts of Advancing Glaciers and Jökulhlaups on the 19th Century Farming Community in the Suðursveit District South of Vatnajökull Glacier, Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurmundsson, F. S.; Gísladóttir, G.; Erlendsson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Few areas in Iceland were as vulnerable to climate changes during the 19th century as the region south of Vatnajökull glacier. The region was repeatedly affected by glacier advance and jökulhlaups (glacier outburst floods) during the Little Ice Age AD 1300-1900 (LIA). The land area between the glacier and the coast was occupied by farming community. The aim of this research is to quantify and map the size of lost vegetated area in the 19th century during the glacial advance in the climax of the LIA and the impact these events had on the community, land-use, ownership, value of estates and livelihood. This research employs historical written sources to investigate changes in the cultural and natural landscape. Historical data and field observations will be collected and stored in a GIS database designed for the research, allowing data to be analyzed and presented on maps. The first recorded impact on the settlement is from 1794 when the Breiðármerkurjökull outlet glacier advanced and devastated pastures and crofts belonging in west of the district. Seventy five years later, in 1868, the largest estate was completely destroyed by a jökulhlaup. In 1829 a farm site in the middle of the district was moved due to repeated jökulhlaup. The outlet glacier Brókarjökull initiated annual jökulhlaups during 1820 -1870, devastating pastures and hayfields and woodlands of a total of 3 prominent estates in the area (by 1200 ha), causing devaluation of 33-66% on these estates. In the eastern part extensive jökulhlaups changed the glacial river channel causing the river to flow over vast area devastating 80 % of the eastern most estate causing its abandonment in 1892. The climate change and accompanied hazards during the 19th century changed the landscape of the Suðursveit district significantly. By the turn of the 20thcentury the vegetated land in the district had been reduced by 35% and areas of sediments increased by 25% and glaciated area increased by 10%. These

  17. Loss of genetic diversity in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) associated with the fur trade of the 18th and 19th centuries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, S.; Jameson, R.; Etnier, M.; Flemings, M.; Bentzen, P.

    2002-01-01

    During 1969 and 1970, surveys of the endangered Yuma Clapper Rail were conducted using taped calls to elicit responses from the birds. During the two summers, more than 158 Yuma clappers were located in cattailtule marshes along the Colorado River south of Needles, California, to the International Boundary, a distance of about 240 miles. Clappers (probably of the same race) were also found in estuarian marshes of the Colorado River Delta of Mexico; in the Salton Sea; in two freshwater marsh areas near Phoenix, Arizona; and in two freshwater marshes adjacent to the lower Gila River near Tacna, Arizona.....Populations of Sonora Clapper Rails were discovered as permanent residents in five separate mangrove swamps along the west coast of Mexico in the vicinity of Kino Bay, Sonora. These observations were farther north than any heretofore reported for the race R. l. rhizophorae, and the swamps also represent the extreme northward limit of mangroves in Sonora.....During the winter, Yuma clappers did not respond to taped calls north of the International Boundary, whereas clappers along the coast of Sonora readily answered the calls during the same period of time. We conclude that most Yuma Clapper Rails migrate from their summer habitat along the Colorado River in September and do not return to the breeding areas until late April.

  18. Colloquium and Report on Systems Microbiology: Beyond Microbial Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Merry R. Buckley

    2004-12-13

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium June 4-6, 2004 to confer about the scientific promise of systems microbiology. Participants discussed the power of applying a systems approach to the study of biology and to microbiology in particular, specifics about current research efforts, technical bottlenecks, requirements for data acquisition and maintenance, educational needs, and communication issues surrounding the field. A number of recommendations were made for removing barriers to progress in systems microbiology and for improving opportunities in education and collaboration. Systems biology, as a concept, is not new, but the recent explosion of genomic sequences and related data has revived interest in the field. Systems microbiology, a subset of systems biology, represents a different approach to investigating biological systems. It attempts to examine the emergent properties of microorganisms that arise from the interplay of genes, proteins, other macromolecules, small molecules, organelles, and the environment. It is these interactions, often nonlinear, that lead to the emergent properties of biological systems that are generally not tractable by traditional approaches. As a complement to the long-standing trend toward reductionism, systems microbiology seeks to treat the organism or community as a whole, integrating fundamental biological knowledge with genomics, metabolomics, and other data to create an integrated picture of how a microbial cell or community operates. Systems microbiology promises not only to shed light on the activities of microbes, but will also provide biology the tools and approaches necessary for achieving a better understanding of life and ecosystems. Microorganisms are ideal candidates for systems biology research because they are relatively easy to manipulate and because they play critical roles in health, environment, agriculture, and energy production. Potential applications of systems microbiology research

  19. COSPAR, IAU, LSI Colloquium on Lunar Dynamics and Observational Coordinate Systems: Revised abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moutsoulas, M. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The proceedings of a colloquium on lunar dynamics and observational coordinate systems are presented. Discussions were held on the establishment of a fundamental reference system and on the lunar ephemerides. Abstracts of the subjects discussed at the meeting are submitted. Some of the topics discussed are: (1) coordinates of the Apollo retroreflectors, (2) determination of lunar baselines, (3) numerical series for the variations of lunar coordinates, (4) fundamental craters for establishing a lunar coordinate system, and (5) composite lunar gravity fields.

  20. The identification of the pigments used to paint statues of Feixiange Cliff in China in late 19th century by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Pu-jun; Huang, Wei; Jianhua-Wang; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiao-ling

    2010-11-01

    The application of micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to the research of pigments collected from Statues of Feixiange Cliff No. 67 and No. 69 niche of Tang Dynasty in China is reported. Five kinds of pigments were found in the experimental data, including black (carbon), white (gypsum + quartz), blue (lapis lazuli) and green (Paris green + Barium sulphate). After synthesized in 1814, Paris green was reported for a large import as a light and bright green pigment to paint architectures in China from the late 19th century. The analyzed blue pigment demonstrated the similar Raman spectra to the Lâjvardina blue glazed ceramics, which indicated lapis lazuli was an artificial product. This confirmed the painting of Feixiange Cliff in the early Republic of China as the historical record, and also reveals that some pigments were imported from abroad.

  1. Proceedings of the 19th NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX 19) and the 7th Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Workshop (APSW 7)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX), supported by the NASA Propagation Program, is convened annually to discuss studies made on radio wave propagation by investigators from domestic and international organizations. NAPEX 19 was held on 14 Jun. 1995, in Fort Collins, Colorado. Participants included representatives from Canada, Japan, and the United States, including researchers from universities, government agencies, and private industry. The meeting focused on mobile personal satellite systems and the use of 20/30-GHz band for fixed and mobile satellite applications. In total, 18 technical papers were presented. Following NAPEX 19, the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Propagation Studies Workshop 7 (APSW 7) was held on 15-16 Jun. 1995, to review ACTS propagation activities with emphasis on the experimenters' status reports and dissemination of propagation data to industry.

  2. “Phossy Jaw” and “Bis-phossy Jaw” of the 19th and the 21st Centuries: The Diuturnity of John Walker and the Friction Match

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Richard A.; Brown, Ted W.; Rubin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Some 200 years ago, workers developed gingivitis, periodontal disease, alveolar crest bone sequestra, and draining fistulae after exposure to phosphorous fumes and phosphorous paste in the manufacture of the friction match. Many also suffered loss of teeth and pathologic fracture of the mandible. Known as “phossy jaw,” the constellation rather abruptly vanished following the International Berne Convention of 1906. Today, “bis-phossy jaw” (bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw) has surfaced with pathologic fractures and other features common to its predecessor, “phossy jaw.” This modern equivalent is reported with ever-increasing frequency and is presented here in the format of a brief historical review and a case report that includes segmental en bloc extirpation of necrotic mandible and pain-free salvage. Computerized imagery and three-dimensional printing technology were successfully chosen to create and apply a custom titanium bone plate, without free-tissue transfer. PMID:27053988

  3. "Phossy Jaw" and "Bis-phossy Jaw" of the 19th and the 21st Centuries: The Diuturnity of John Walker and the Friction Match.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Richard A; Brown, Ted W; Rubin, David M

    2015-09-01

    Some 200 years ago, workers developed gingivitis, periodontal disease, alveolar crest bone sequestra, and draining fistulae after exposure to phosphorous fumes and phosphorous paste in the manufacture of the friction match. Many also suffered loss of teeth and pathologic fracture of the mandible. Known as "phossy jaw," the constellation rather abruptly vanished following the International Berne Convention of 1906. Today, "bis-phossy jaw" (bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw) has surfaced with pathologic fractures and other features common to its predecessor, "phossy jaw." This modern equivalent is reported with ever-increasing frequency and is presented here in the format of a brief historical review and a case report that includes segmental en bloc extirpation of necrotic mandible and pain-free salvage. Computerized imagery and three-dimensional printing technology were successfully chosen to create and apply a custom titanium bone plate, without free-tissue transfer. PMID:27053988

  4. A consistent course of events or a series of coincidences: nursing in Poland from the 19(th) to the 21(st) century.

    PubMed

    Majda, Anna; Ziarko, Ewa; Zalewska-Puchała, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    The development of nursing began in Poland much later than it did elsewhere, for instance in the United Kingdom, the United States, or Germany, and it came up against difficult conditions. After a brief twenty-year period of development between 1918 and 1939, it almost stalled during the war (1939-45), only to be followed by nearly twenty years of chaos. Nursing started to come out of this difficult period at the beginning of the 1960s. The turn of the 21st century saw the emergence of extensive professional development and training opportunities for nurses. This change was brought about as much by political, social and economic issues, health care requirements, and the advancement of science, medicine, the birth of humanitarism, the growth of the feminist movement, the European Agreement on the Instruction and Education of Nurses, the WHO European Strategy for Nursing and Midwifery Education, the Bologna declaration, as well as the activities undertaken by the European Union, the International Council of Nurses, the American and Polish Red Cross, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Polish Association of Nurses, and the professional self-governing body. The transformation of nursing into an independent profession was further boosted by physicians deeply involved in the issue and female pioneers of nursing. PMID:26109382

  5. Toward Mastery Leadership in Access, Assessment, and Developmental Education: Summary Report of a Colloquium Held in Traverse City, Michigan, July, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyser, John S., Ed.; Floyd, Deborah L., Ed.

    In July 1986, a colloquium was convened to develop a position paper on access, assessment, and developmental education. This colloquium report contains the keynote speeches presented at the event, along with a statement developed by the participants regarding the issues. First, introductory material describes the purposes, sponsorship, and group…

  6. University, Government, and the Foreign Graduate Student; A Summary of the Colloquium on the Foreign Graduate Student, Held at Wingspread, Racine, Wisconsin, March 30-31, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY.

    This booklet contains a summary of the colloquium discussion including the major observations and recommendations, and three of the papers that were presented. The colloquium discussion focussed on a number of broad questions in relation to foreign graduate student programs: (1) prospects, assumptions, policies; and responsibilities from the…

  7. Microbial Production of Energy Colloquium- March 10-12, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Merry Buckley; Judy Wall

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  8. The XIIIth International Physiological Congress in Boston in 1929: American Physiology Comes of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rall, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    In the 19th century, the concept of experimental physiology originated in France with Claude Bernard, evolved in Germany stimulated by the teaching of Carl Ludwig, and later spread to Britain and then to the United States. The goal was to develop a physicochemical understanding of physiological phenomena. The first International Physiological…

  9. SPECIAL ISSUE VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOPATHOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS 8TH INTERNATIONAL VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the Special Issue of Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. that summarizes the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto, Brazil. The 8 th IVIS highlighted the importance of veterinary immunology for animal health, vaccinology, reproducti...

  10. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    PubMed

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. PMID:27384106

  11. Fine particles and carbon monoxide from wood burning in 17th-19th century Danish kitchens: Measurements at two reconstructed farm houses at the Lejre Historical-Archaeological Experimental Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Clausen, Geo; Chowdhury, Zohir; Smith, Kirk R.

    2010-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM 2.5) were measured in two reconstructed Danish farmhouses (17-19th century) during two weeks of summer. During the first week intensive measurements were performed while test cooking fires were burned, during the second week the houses were monitored while occupied by guest families. A masonry hearth was located in the middle of each house for open cooking fires and with heating stoves. One house had a chimney leading to the outside over the hearth; in the other, a brickwork hood led the smoke into an attic and through holes in the roof. During the first week the concentration of PM 2.5 averaged daily between 138 and 1650 μg m -3 inside the hearths and 21-160 μg m -3 in adjacent living rooms. CO averaged daily between 0.21 and 1.9 ppm in living areas, and up to 12 ppm in the hearths. Highest concentrations were measured when two fires were lit at the same time, which would cause high personal exposure for someone working in the kitchens. 15 min averages of up to 25 400 μg m -3 (PM 2.5) and 260 ppm CO were recorded. WHO air quality guidelines were occasionally exceeded for CO and constantly for PM 2.5. However, air exchange and air distribution measurements revealed a large draw in the chimney, which ensured a fast removal of wood smoke from the hearth area. The guest families were in average exposed to no more than 0.21 ppm CO during 48 h. Based on a hypothetical time-activity pattern, however, a woman living in this type of house during the 17-19th century would be exposed to daily averages of 1.1 ppm CO and 196 μg m -3 PM 2.5, which exceeds WHO guideline for PM 2.5, and is comparable to what is today observed for women in rural areas of developing countries.

  12. The Sackler Colloquium on promises and perils in nanotechnology for medicine

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Robert H.; Lim, Shuang-fang

    2008-01-01

    The Sackler Colloquium entitled “Nanomaterials in Biology and Medicine: Promises and Perils” was held on April 10–11, 2007. We have been able to assemble a representative sampling of 17 of the invited talks ranging over the topics presented. Any new technology carries with it both a promise of transforming the way we do things and the possibility that there are unforeseen consequences. The papers collected here represent a cross-section of these issues. As an example, we present our own work on nano-upconversion phosphors as an example of this new class of nanomaterials with potential use in medicine and biology. PMID:18981427

  13. The Sackler Colloquium on promises and perils in nanotechnology for medicine.

    PubMed

    Austin, Robert H; Lim, Shuang-fang

    2008-11-11

    The Sackler Colloquium entitled "Nanomaterials in Biology and Medicine: Promises and Perils" was held on April 10-11, 2007. We have been able to assemble a representative sampling of 17 of the invited talks ranging over the topics presented. Any new technology carries with it both a promise of transforming the way we do things and the possibility that there are unforeseen consequences. The papers collected here represent a cross-section of these issues. As an example, we present our own work on nano-upconversion phosphors as an example of this new class of nanomaterials with potential use in medicine and biology. PMID:18981427

  14. Scientific Research with the Space Telescope: International Astronomical Union Colloquium No. 54. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longair, M. S.; Warner, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The application of the space telescope for extragalactic astronomy, planetary research, and stellar, interstellar, and galactic structural problems is discussed. Topics include investigations of small solar system objects, the physical characteristics of ionized gaseous nebulae, the central regions of active galaxies and quasars, problems of cosmology, and the distribution and composition of interstellar matter.

  15. Contemporary Teaching: Collection of Scientific Papers. International Scientific Colloquium (Osijek, Croatia, December 5-6, 2002)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peko, Andelka, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of the new century, education of students faces an ambitious task, namely to realize the vision in which an individuals and institutions, all around the world, appreciate learning, not only as means of accomplishing an aim, but as an aim itself. To pursue the realization of that aim, Department for Educational and Psychological…

  16. Action Learning Research? Reflections from the Colloquium at the Third International Conference on Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghlan, David

    2013-01-01

    The case for the notion of action learning research has been posed and explored in several publications over the past few years. There is no tradition within action learning of understanding it as an approach to research. Within some academic circles, there has been a focus on the "action turn," the development of the notion of actionable…

  17. Proceedings of the 127th Colloquium of the International Astronomical Union Reference Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, James A.; Smith, Clayton A.; Kaplan, George H.

    Both invited oral and poster papers were presented on topics ranging from theoretical relativistic considerations to new observational programs and results. Partial contents include a report of the Subgroup on Time; preliminary report of the work of the Subgroup on Coordinate Frames and Origins; activity report of the IAU Working Group on reference system: subgroup on astronomical constants; relativistic hierarchy of reference systems and time scales; relativistic celestial mechanics and reference frames; current status of the astrometric capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope fine guidance sensors; necessary procedures to reach an agreeable reference frame: counterproposal to the circular letter no. 4 of Kovalevsky; stability of the extragalactic reference frame realized by VLBI; The ZMOA-1990 nutation series; and long-period perturbations in terrestrial reference frames.

  18. Supervision and the Teacher: The Odd Couple. Papers Presented at the New York State Association of Foreign Language Teachers Colloquium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Born, Warren C., Ed.

    This compilation of papers presented at the New York State Association of Foreign Language Teachers Colloquium focuses on the interrelated roles of the foreign language teacher and the language program supervisor. The following papers are included: (1) "The Foreign Language Curriculum: A Joint Venture" by Charles Blake; (2) "Updated Observation…

  19. College Scholarship Service Colloquium on Student Loan Counseling & Debt Management. Proceedings (Denver, Colorado, December 2-4, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY. Coll. Scholarship Service.

    Student loan counseling and debt management are discussed in three papers, six commentaries, and a panel discussion from a College Scholarship Service colloquium. In "Fulfilling the Institution's Responsibilities to Student Borrowers," Theodore J. Marchese discusses a shift in student financial aid marked by the ascendency of loans instead of…

  20. Colombo Plan Intra-Regional Technician Training Colloquium (6th, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April 21-25, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo Plan Bureau (Sri Lanka).

    Proceedings of the Sixth Colloquium on Intra-Regional Technical Training sponsored jointly by the Colombo Plan and the Government of Malaysia are presented in this report. Four working papers are presented centered around three main areas of concern: influence of technical education on economic development; how the status of technicians could be…

  1. Towards a Worldwide Library: A Ten Year Forecast. Proceedings of the International Essen Symposium (19th, Essen, Germany, September 23-26, 1996). Publications of Essen University Library, No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Ahmed H., Ed.; Weiss, Joachim W., Ed.

    The 25 papers presented at this symposium focus on the future of libraries and library services in an ever evolving Information Age. The papers deal with topics such as: economic and political issues in determining the future of the professionally managed library; adding value to library services; the need for librarians and library educators who…

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (19th, Bloomington-Normal, IL, October 18-21, 1997). Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossey, John A., Ed.; Swafford, Jane O., Ed.; Parmantie, Marilyn, Ed.; Dossey, Anne E., Ed.

    The conference proceedings volume for PME-NA-XIX contains a total of 72 reports: 34 research reports; 20 short oral reports; 11 poster session reports; and 7 discussion group reports. Only the research reports are full reports; the others are generally one-page abstracts. The full reports include: (1) "Equity, Teaching Practices, and Reform:…

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (19th, Bloomington-Normal, IL, October 18-21, 1997). Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dossey, John A., Ed.; Swafford, Jane O., Ed.; Parmantie, Marilyn, Ed.; Dossey, Anne E., Ed.

    This conference proceedings volume for PME-NA-XIX contains a total of 87 reports: one plenary session report; 39 research reports; 20 short oral reports; 25 poster session reports; and two discussion group reports. Only the plenary and research reports are full reports; the others are generally one-page abstracts. The full reports include: (1)…

  4. From bedside to bench--meeting report of the 7th International Conference on cGMP "cGMP: generators, effectors and therapeutic implications" in Trier, Germany, from June 19th to 21st 2015.

    PubMed

    Friebe, Andreas; Sandner, Peter; Seifert, Roland

    2015-12-01

    During the past decade, our knowledge on the physiology, pathophysiology, basic pharmacology, and clinical pharmacology of the second messenger (cGMP) has increased tremendously. It is now well-established that cGMP, generated by soluble and particulate guanylate cyclases, is highly compartmentalized in cells and regulates numerous body functions. New cGMP-regulated physiological functions include meiosis and temperature perception. cGMP is involved in the genesis of numerous pathologies including cardiovascular, pulmonary, endocrine, metabolic, neuropsychiatric, eye, and tumor diseases. Several new clinical uses of stimulators and activators of soluble guanylate cyclase and of phosphodiesterase inhibitors such as heart failure, kidney failure, cognitive disorders, obesity bronchial asthma, and osteoporosis are emerging. The combination of neprilysin inhibitors-enhancing stimulation of the particulate guanylate cyclase pathway by preventing natriuretic peptide degradation-with angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonists constitutes a novel promising strategy for heart failure treatment. The role of oxidative stress in cGMP signaling, application of cGMP sensors, and gene therapy for degenerative eye diseases are emerging topics. It is anticipated that cGMP research will further prosper over the next years and reach out into more and more basic and clinical disciplines. PMID:26486926

  5. Scientist to scientist colloquium steering committee planning session. Summary report of the proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The reason for holding a scientific colloquium of this nature is to bring together the most active scientific researchers for cross-disciplinary exchanges. As one scientist commented, it is a way to compensate for over-specialization. As a scientist/administrator noted, it helps administrators to have access to high-level scientific information in a setting where they can ask stupid questions. At a meeting of between 80 and 100 people small group exchanges are possible, allowing more in-depth discussion. In five days of meetings, there are many opportunities for a great number of these exchanges. The Keystone Process facilitates intermingling across disciplines and encourages debate. Because this meeting is unlike discipline-specific meetings, presenters must write a talk specifically for an interdisciplinary audience, touching on various scientific and social implications of their work. They use this opportunity to practice addressing a broad audience which includes their peers from other /fields, university administrators, industry executives, government officials, and members of the media who will help bring forefront scientific findings to the public. This report discusses purpose, funding, and outcome of the colloquium.

  6. Synopsis of the 6th Walker's Cay Colloquium on Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kast, W Martin; Levitsky, Hyam; Marincola, Francesco M

    2004-01-01

    The 6th annual Cancer Vaccines and Immunotherapy Colloquium at Walker's Cay was held under the auspices of the Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute on March 10–13, 2004. The Colloquium consisted of a select group of 34 scientists representing academia, biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry. The main goal of this gathering was to promote in a peaceful and comfortable environment exchanges between basic and clinical science. The secondary benefit was to inspire novel bench to bedside ventures and at the same time provide feed back about promising and/or disappointing clinical results that could help re-frame some scientific question or guide the design of future trials. Several topics were covered that included tumor antigen discovery and validation, platforms for vaccine development, tolerance, immune suppression and tumor escape mechanisms, adoptive T cell therapy and dendritic cell-based therapies, clinical trials and assessment of response. Here we report salient points raised by speakers or by the audience during animated discussion that followed each individual presentation. PMID:15212694

  7. Clear cutting (10-13th century) and deep stable economy (18-19th century) as responsible interventions for sand drifting and plaggic deposition in cultural landscapes on aeolian sands (SE-Netherlands).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, Jan; Vera, Hein; Wallinga, Jakob

    2013-04-01

    landscapes, characterized by deflation plains (gleyic arenosols) and complexes of inland dunes (haplic arenosols). Clear cutting was responsible for the mediaeval first large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. In such driftsand landscapes, the majority of the podzolic soils in coversand has been truncated by aeolian erosion. Only on scattered sheltered sites in the landscape, palaeopodzols were buried under mono or polycyclic driftsand deposits. They are now the valuable soil archives for palaeoecological research. During the 18th century, the population growth and regional economic activity stimulated the agricultural productivity. Farmers introduced the innovative 'deep stable' technique to increase the production of fertilizers. Farmers started sod digging, including the top of the Ah horizon of the humus forms. This consequently promoted heath degradation and sand drifting, resulting in the extension of driftsand landscapes. Deep stable economy and sod digging was responsible for the 18th century second large scale expansion of drift sand landscapes. During the 19th century, farmers tried to find alternative fertilizers and authorities initiated reforestation projects. The invention of chemical fertilizers at the end of the 19th century marked the end of the period of heath management and plaggic agriculture. The heath was no longer used for the harvesting of plaggic matter and new land management practices were introduced. Heath was reclaimed to new arable land or reforested with Scotch pine. Geomorphological features as inland dunes and plaggic covers survived in the landscape and are now included in the geological inheritance.

  8. The men of Nelson's navy: a comparative stable isotope dietary study of late 18th century and early 19th century servicemen from Royal Naval Hospital burial grounds at Plymouth and Gosport, England.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Patrick; Weston, Sam; Wild, Bastien; Boston, Ceridwen; Ditchfield, Peter; Shortland, Andrew J; Pollard, A Mark

    2012-05-01

    We present stable isotopic analyses of collagen from 80 servicemen excavated from the late 18th/early 19th century naval hospitals at Plymouth (50) and Haslar, Gosport (30) in southern England. Historical records suggest that, the diets of these two populations should be essentially identical. While δ(15) N of the rib collagen confirmed that naval servicemen were relatively well-catered for in terms of meat allowance (Plymouth average δ(15) N = 11.1‰, Gosport = 11.9‰), stable carbon isotope analysis produced average values for the two assemblages, which were significantly different (Plymouth average δ(13) C = -18.8‰, Gosport = -20.0‰). We postulate that these differences stem from divergent naval postings, with a greater proportion of Plymouth individuals serving in areas that entailed a greater input of C(4) foodstuffs. By comparison with published data from approximately contemporary burials at Snake Hill, Ontario, Canada and Chesapeake Bay, Virginia, we suggest that this area is the east coast of North America. For 15 of the 30 individuals from Gosport, we have data on ribs, femur, and dentine from the same skeleton, which appear to show that they came from a variety of locations in their preadolescence, but converged in dietary terms onto a "naval average," which is consistent with historical evidence for recruitment patterns into the Navy at the time. By comparison with published data from skeletons recovered from the wreck of the Mary Rose (sank 1545), we conclude that this naval diet was virtually unchanged from the 16th century to the end of the 18th century. PMID:22407735

  9. History of direct vision internal urethrotomy.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, D; Truss, M C; Jonas, U

    1998-10-01

    Throughout medical history, the treatment of urethral strictures ranged from catheterization, the insertion of bougies, and the application of caustics to different methods of dilation, blind internal urethrotomy, and open surgery. The rise of endoscopy in the 19th century added the possibility of direct vision internal urethrotomy to this therapeutic spectrum. The development of this endourologic method is recapitulated from the first report in 1865 to the gold standard of cold knife urethrotomy in 1971 and later modifications (eg, advanced laser techniques). PMID:9763106

  10. Federal science funding priorities, anti-terrorism debated at AAAS Colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    John Marburger, director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy has said that some federal science agencies not slated to receive big increases in the administration's proposed fiscal year 2003 budget could do better in upcoming years.In remarks on 11 April at a colloquium on science and technology policy, Marburger defended the Bush administration's push for increasing research funding for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and other administration priorities, and he cautioned that tough budget decisions have to be made in light of the current tight economic climate and the large number of potential scientific opportunities. But he also said that funding levels for some agencies and science areas could increase at a later date during the administration's tenure.

  11. Reshaped destinies: confronting our human future the need for and promise of an interdisciplinary colloquium.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Louis M; Noll, Rebekka C

    2008-12-01

    The genomic revolution is bringing with it simultaneous needs for both scientists and nonscientists to understand and assess, in an unvarnished and nonjudgmental way, the implications of genometry. This is the field of science and technology that is taking the genetic code and what we have learned from its secrets, and reshaping our individual and collective human destinies. Together with the editor-in-chief of Gender Medicine, the authors propose an interdisciplinary group-populated by those in science, law, ethics, social policy, and the interested public-to observe, understand, and disseminate information about what is occurring in the fields of biology and chemistry that is the driving force of the genomic revolution. This article discusses the background to the Redefined Destinies Colloquium (RDC) and summarizes 4 of the topics the RDC is studying. PMID:19108807

  12. Colloquium: The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox: From concepts to applications

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, M. D.; Drummond, P. D.; Bowen, W. P.; Cavalcanti, E. G.; Lam, P. K.; Bachor, H. A.; Andersen, U. L.; Leuchs, G.

    2009-10-15

    This Colloquium examines the field of the Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) gedanken experiment, from the original paper of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen, through to modern theoretical proposals of how to realize both the continuous-variable and discrete versions of the EPR paradox. The relationship with entanglement and Bell's theorem are analyzed, and the progress to date towards experimental confirmation of the EPR paradox is summarized, with a detailed treatment of the continuous-variable paradox in laser-based experiments. Practical techniques covered include continuous-wave parametric amplifier and optical fiber quantum soliton experiments. Current proposals for extending EPR experiments to massive-particle systems are discussed, including spin squeezing, atomic position entanglement, and quadrature entanglement in ultracold atoms. Finally, applications of this technology to quantum key distribution, quantum teleportation, and entanglement swapping are examined.

  13. Cellular Interactions and Signaling in NeuroAIDS: Emerging Issues Colloquium

    PubMed Central

    Al-Harthi, Lena; Buch, Shilpa; Geiger, Jonathan D.; Gendelman, Howard E.; He, Johnny; Jordan-Sciutto, Kelly L.; Kolson, Dennis L.; Rappaport, Jay; Roy, Sabita; Zheng, Jialin; Fox, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    On May 23, 2013 scientific leaders in the neuroAIDS community met at the University of Nebraska Medical Center to discuss cellular interaction and signaling for the third annual human immunodeficiency virus and neuroAIDS colloquium. The meeting continues a series of contemporary scientific issues related to how virus effects the nervous system. In 2011 the focus was on animal models and in 2012 in biomarkers. Here, our 2013 meeting featured ten presentations from outstanding scientists examining how inter- and intra-cellular processes contribute to neuropathogenesis. Talks highlighted emerging issues, findings, and potential therapies, followed by a panel discussion in which controversies in the field and gaps in our current knowledge were identified. The panel discussion was transcribed into the article and published as a field perspective. A link is available where all of the presentations and the concluding discussion can be seen and heard. PMID:24789373

  14. Oklo and the Speed of Light at SLAC’s Next Colloquium!

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Steve Lamoreaux

    2005-11-07

    Natural nuclear reactors? Changes in the speed of light? If either of these concepts seem implausible to you now they certainly won’t once Dr. Steve Lamoreaux (LANL) delivers his SLAC Colloquium lecture in the Panofsky Auditorium on November 7th at 4:15 pm entitled The Oklo Natural Reactor and the Time Variability of the Fundamental Constants of Nature. This lecture is a rare opportunity to learn not only about Oklo’s incredible natural nuclear reactors but also to gain understanding about how the present-day study of these sites may alter our understanding of fundamental constants such as the speed of light. This event is a must-see for the curious!

  15. A three-variable chaotic system for the epidemic of bubonic plague in Bombay by the end of the 19th century and its coupling to the epizootics of the two main species of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    A plague epidemic broke out in Bombay by the end of the 19th century. A committee was first appointed by the Bombay City [1] in order to stop the epidemic before the rain season started. Unfortunately, the disease could not be stopped and the epidemic became endemic. After several years, another Advisory Committee [2] was appointed that tried to investigate the causes of plague in all possible directions. An impressing quantity of information was gathered during the period 1907-1911 and published. In particular, it was noticed that the epidemic was systematically preceded by epizootics of rats. For this reason, the populations of the main species of rodents were systematically monitored. This data set is revisited here by using a multivariate version of the global modeling technique [3]. The aim of this technique is to obtain a set of Ordinary Differential Equations directly from time series. Three observational time series are considered: the number of person died of bubonic plague per half month (1), and the number of captured infected black rats Mus rattus (2) and brown rats Mus decumanus (3). Several models are obtained, all based on the same algebraic basic structure. These models are, either directly chaotic, or close to chaos (chaos could easily be obtained by tuning one model parameter). The algebraic structure of the simplest model obtained is analyzed in more details. Surprisingly, it is found that the interpretation of the coupling between the three variables can be done term by term. This interpretation is in quite good coherence with the conclusions of the Advisory Committee published one hundred years ago. This structure also shows that the human action to slow down the disease during this period was obviously effective, although insufficient to stop the epidemic drastically. This result suggests that the global modeling technique can be a powerful tool to detect causal couplings in epidemiology, and, more generally, among observational variables from

  16. MayDay Colloquium 23: The End(s) of Music Education? A Call for Re-Visioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Vincent C.

    2013-01-01

    In the summer of 2011 (June 16-19), the MayDay Group met in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA) for MayDay Colloquium 23, with presentations and discussions on the theme,"The End(s) of Music Education? A Call for Re-Visioning": In a time of rapidly changing political processes, power relations, and policies, music educators are challenged to…

  17. The Colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    HÉCTOR A.A brief introductory survey of Unified Field Mechanics (UFM) is given from the perspective of a Holographic Anthropic Multiverse cosmology in 12 `continuous-state' dimensions. The paradigm with many new parameters is cast in a scale-invariant conformal covariant Dirac polarized vacuum utilizing extended HD forms of the de Broglie-Bohm and Cramer interpretations of quantum theory. The model utilizes a unique form of M-Theory based in part on the original hadronic form of string theory that had a variable string tension, TS and included a tachyon. The model is experimentally testable, thus putatively able to demonstrate the existence of large-scale additional dimensionality (LSXD), test for QED violating tight-bound state spectral lines in hydrogen `below' the lowest Bohr orbit, and surmount the quantum uncertainty principle utilizing a hyperincursive Sagnac Effect resonance hierarchy.

  18. Reconstructing the discharges and geomorphological impacts of artificial floods using archives and field surveys. The case of timber floating in the Yonne Basin, France (16th - 19th centuries).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gob, Frederic; Anne-Sophie, Poux; Nicolas, Jacob

    2010-05-01

    Timber floating became a major industry in the Yonne basin between the 16th and 19th centuries due to the rapid growth of Paris and its increasing energy needs. The Yonne River is a tributary of the Seine basin. Its source is located in the Morvan region, a granitic small massif in the south eastern part of the basin. Logs were transported by floating from the production area in the upper valley to Paris through the Yonne and the Seine rivers. In order to ease log transport in the steep and narrow headwater streams, river channels were reshaped and artificial floods were regularly created from small reservoirs obstructing the very top of the valley. The extent and the duration of the timber floating industry led to major geomorphological, hydrological and ecological perturbations to the river system. In order to study the impacts of this industry we tried to reconstruct the artificial conditions of flow during the floating period using archives and field surveys. The reservoirs were located and dated using archives and historical maps in order to evaluate the modifications to the hydrological regime. At the end of the 18th century, reservoirs were present on every little tributary of the upper valley. Their volumes were reconstructed based on the areas of the reservoirs and the heights of their dykes. From historical data, we know that it only took a couple of hours to empty the reservoirs and a couple of days to fill them. Over decades, between November and February the reservoirs were emptied as often as possible (probably several times per week). Small steep and incised streams of no more than 5 m wide regularly experienced discharges of 2 to 3 m3/s on average. The energy associated with the discharges in these small streams is very high: stream powers range between 250 and 400 W/m². In such conditions, the streams should have been able to transport pebbles and boulders of 15 to 35 cm in diameter and therefore induce very high sediment transport rates. Further

  19. Expanding the Territory of Historical Reconstruction: The Study of Frequency and Severity of Hail Storms, Based on 19th and 20th-Century Records from Swiss Insurance Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauelshagen, F.

    2009-09-01

    than observations from the existing network of meteorological offices. Some researchers have even suggested that the entire period before radar observation, beginning in the 1980s, should be classified as pre-instrumental. However, it is undoubted that documents kept in the archives of insurance companies provide valuable proxy information on hail storm occurrence for, at least, the pre-1950-period (well back into the 19th century). This paper discusses key problems in dealing with these proxy data (reliability, interpretation and density of records), as well as methodologies that may lead to extend existing time series on hail storm occurrence in Switzerland. As a consequence, this paper suggests that, for some meteorological phenomena, the field of reconstruction from documentary archival sources must be extended well up into the 20th century, which cannot simply and statically be categorized as "instrumental period”.

  20. A comparison of high-resolution pollen-inferred climate data from central Minnesota, USA, to 19th century US military fort climate data and tree-ring inferred climate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Jacques, J.; Cumming, B. F.; Sauchyn, D.; Vanstone, J. R.; Dickenson, J.; Smol, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    -settlement calibration set give much more credible reconstructions. We then compare the temperature reconstructions based upon the two calibration sets for AD 1116-2002. Significant signal flattening and bias exist when using the conventional modern pollen-climate calibration set rather than the pre-settlement pollen-climate calibration set, resulting in an overestimation of Little Ice Age monthly mean temperatures of 0.5-1.5 oC. Therefore, regional warming from anthropogenic global warming is significantly underestimated when using the conventional method of building pollen-climate calibration sets. We also compare the Lake Mina pollen-inferred effective moisture record to early 19th century climate data and to a four-century tree-ring inferred moisture reconstruction based upon sites in Minnesota and the Dakotas. This comparison shows that regional tree-ring reconstructions are biased towards dry conditions and record wet periods poorly relative to high-resolution pollen reconstructions, giving a false impression of regional aridity. It also suggests that varve chronologies should be based upon cross-dating to ensure a more accurate chronology.

  1. Astronomy Teaching in Argentina in the 19th Century. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Argentina del Siglo XIX.) O Ensino de Astronomia na Argentina no Século XIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberto Cornejo, Jorge; Santilli, Haydée

    2010-12-01

    Sarmiento believed that Copernican astronomy was one of the critical scientific disciplines to the formation of a "modern" citizen. In this work, we shall study astronomical science from two points of view: from the scientific knowledge and the educational presentation of such knowledge. Our study will address in Argentina in 19th century, starting from the initiative of Bernardino Rivadavia in 1821, who founded an astronomic observatory at Buenos Aires, until the first activities of the observatories at Córdoba and La Plata. On both lines, scientific and educative, we shall analyze the influence of positivist ideas. We shall highlight epistemological differences between both observatories, Córdoba's based on French positivism and La Plata's based on German positivism. We shall also show the different attitude of both observatories towards education. We shall see the way in which positivist ideas had great relevance in the training of elementary school teachers. We shall also establish the relevant influence of the socio-historical context over the astronomical development, and show that astronomy was a fundamental social factor at Argentina history. Domingo F. Sarmiento consideraba que la astronomía copernicana era una de las disciplinas científicas fundamentales para la conformación de un ciudadano "moderno". En este trabajo estudiaremos la ciencia astronómica desde dos vertientes: la referida específicamente al conocimiento científico y aquella vinculada con la presentación educativa de dicho conocimiento. Nuestro estudio se desarrollará en Argentina durante el siglo XIX, desde la iniciativa de Bernardino Rivadavia en 1821, de establecer en Buenos Aires un observatorio astronómico, hasta las primeras actividades de los observatorios de Córdoba y de La Plata. En ambas vertientes, científica y educativa, analizaremos la influencia de las ideas positivistas. Resaltaremos las diferencias epistemológicas entre los dos observatorios, orientado el primero

  2. Colloquium: Time-reversal violation with quantum-entangled B mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabéu, J.; Martínez-Vidal, F.

    2015-01-01

    Symmetry transformations have been proven a bedrock tool for understanding the nature of particle interactions, formulating, and testing fundamental theories. Based on the up to now unbroken C P T symmetry, the violation of the C P symmetry between matter and antimatter by weak interactions, discovered in the decay of kaons in 1964 and observed more recently in 2001 in B mesons, strongly suggests that the behavior of these particles under weak interactions must also be asymmetric under time reversal T . However, until recent years there has not been a direct detection of the expected time-reversal violation in the time evolution of any system. This Colloquium examines the field of time-reversal symmetry breaking in the fundamental laws of physics. For transitions, its observation requires an asymmetry with exchange of initial and final states. A discussion is given of the conceptual basis for such an exchange with unstable particles, using the quantum properties of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement available at B meson factories combined with the decay as a filtering measurement. The method allows a clear-cut separation of different transitions between flavor and C P eigenstates in the decay of neutral B mesons. These ideas have been implemented for the experiment by the BABAR Collaboration at SLAC's B factory. The results, presented in 2012, prove beyond any doubt the violation of time-reversal invariance in the time evolution between these two states of the neutral B meson.

  3. Colloquium: Majorana fermions in nuclear, particle, and solid-state physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Steven R.; Franz, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Ettore Majorana (1906-1938) disappeared while traveling by ship from Palermo to Naples in 1938. His fate has never been fully resolved and several articles have been written that explore the mystery itself. His demise intrigues us still today because of his seminal work, published the previous year, that established symmetric solutions to the Dirac equation that describe a fermionic particle that is its own antiparticle. This work has long had a significant impact in neutrino physics, where this fundamental question regarding the particle remains unanswered. But the formalism he developed has found many uses as there are now a number of candidate spin-1 /2 neutral particles that may be truly neutral with no quantum number to distinguish them from their antiparticles. If such particles exist, they will influence many areas of nuclear and particle physics. Most notably the process of neutrinoless double beta decay can exist only if neutrinos are massive Majorana particles. Hence, many efforts to search for this process are underway. Majorana's influence does not stop with particle physics, however, even though that was his original consideration. The equations he derived also arise in solid-state physics where they describe electronic states in materials with superconducting order. Of special interest here is the class of solutions of the Majorana equation in one and two spatial dimensions at exactly zero energy. These Majorana zero modes are endowed with some remarkable physical properties that may lead to advances in quantum computing and, in fact, there is evidence that they have been experimentally observed. This Colloquium first summarizes the basics of Majorana's theory and its implications. It then provides an overview of the rich experimental programs trying to find a fermion that is its own antiparticle in nuclear, particle, and solid-state physics.

  4. Colloquium: Biophysical principles of undulatory self-propulsion in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Daniel I.

    2014-07-01

    Biological locomotion, movement within environments through self-deformation, encompasses a range of time and length scales in an organism. These include the electrophysiology of the nervous system, the dynamics of muscle activation, the mechanics of the skeletal system, and the interaction mechanics of such structures within natural environments like water, air, sand, and mud. Unlike the many studies of cellular and molecular scale biophysical processes, movement of entire organisms (like flies, lizards, and snakes) is less explored. Further, while movement in fluids like air and water is also well studied, little is known in detail of the mechanics that organisms use to move on and within flowable terrestrial materials such as granular media, ensembles of small particles that collectively display solid, fluid, and gaslike behaviors. This Colloquium reviews recent progress to understand principles of biomechanics and granular physics responsible for locomotion of the sandfish, a small desert-dwelling lizard that "swims" within sand using undulation of its body. Kinematic and muscle activity measurements of sand swimming using high speed x-ray imaging and electromyography are discussed. This locomotion problem poses an interesting challenge: namely, that equations that govern the interaction of the lizard with its environment do not yet exist. Therefore, complementary modeling approaches are also described: resistive force theory for granular media, multiparticle simulation modeling, and robotic physical modeling. The models reproduce biomechanical and neuromechanical aspects of sand swimming and give insight into how effective locomotion arises from the coupling of the body movement and flow of the granular medium. The argument is given that biophysical study of movement provides exciting opportunities to investigate emergent aspects of living systems that might not depend sensitively on biological details.

  5. Colloquium: Multimessenger astronomy with gravitational waves and high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Baret, Bruny; Bartos, Imre; Bouhou, Boutayeb; Chassande-Mottin, Eric; Corsi, Alessandra; Di Palma, Irene; Dietz, Alexander; Donzaud, Corinne; Eichler, David; Finley, Chad; Guetta, Dafne; Halzen, Francis; Jones, Gareth; Kandhasamy, Shivaraj; Kotake, Kei; Kouchner, Antoine; Mandic, Vuk; Márka, Szabolcs; Márka, Zsuzsa; Moscoso, Luciano; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Piran, Tsvi; Pradier, Thierry; Romero, Gustavo E.; Sutton, Patrick; Thrane, Eric; Van Elewyck, Véronique; Waxman, Eli

    2013-10-01

    Many of the astrophysical sources and violent phenomena observed in our Universe are potential emitters of gravitational waves and high-energy cosmic radiation, including photons, hadrons, and presumably also neutrinos. Both gravitational waves (GW) and high-energy neutrinos (HEN) are cosmic messengers that may escape much denser media than photons. They travel unaffected over cosmological distances, carrying information from the inner regions of the astrophysical engines from which they are emitted (and from which photons and charged cosmic rays cannot reach us). For the same reasons, such messengers could also reveal new, hidden sources that have not been observed by conventional photon-based astronomy. Coincident observation of GWs and HENs may thus play a critical role in multimessenger astronomy. This is particularly true at the present time owing to the advent of a new generation of dedicated detectors: the neutrino telescopes IceCube at the South Pole and ANTARES in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the GW interferometers Virgo in Italy and LIGO in the United States. Starting from 2007, several periods of concomitant data taking involving these detectors have been conducted. More joint data sets are expected with the next generation of advanced detectors that are to be operational by 2015, with other detectors, such as KAGRA in Japan, joining in the future. Combining information from these independent detectors can provide original ways of constraining the physical processes driving the sources and also help confirm the astrophysical origin of a GW or HEN signal in case of coincident observation. Given the complexity of the instruments, a successful joint analysis of this combined GW and HEN observational data set will be possible only if the expertise and knowledge of the data is shared between the two communities. This Colloquium aims at providing an overview of both theoretical and experimental state of the art and perspectives for GW and HEN

  6. PREFACE: SPECIAL SECTION OF THE JOURNAL OF AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PM AND HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This dedicated issue of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association contains 17 peer-reviewed scientific papers that were presented at the specialty conference, “Particulate Matter: Atmospheric Sciences, Exposure and the Fourth Colloquium on PM and Human Health,” that w...

  7. A Colloquium Review of Pirates of the Cell: The Story of Viruses from Molecule to Microbe, with Selected Readings from Popular Periodicals and Research Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagerstown Junior Coll., MD.

    This colloquium book review (occasioned by Andrew Scott's "Pirates of the Cell") contains seven selected readings from popular periodicals and research journals. It is designed to eliminate some of the mental barriers that many have to topics like molecular biology and virology. Included are: (1) "What Is A Virus?" (William D. Elliot); (2) "The…

  8. Actes du colloque sur le bilinguisme, Universite de Neuchatel, 14/15 Septembre, 1981 (Proceedings of the Colloquium on Bilingualism, University of Neuchatel, September 14-15, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRANEL, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This issue contains proceedings of a colloquium on linguistics at the University of Neuchatel: (1) "Propositions epistemologiques pour une etude du bilinguisme (Epistemological Propositions for a Study of Bilingualism)," by B. Py; (2) "Comment on di ca? Prolegomenes a une etude de la composante semantique du langage des migrants (How Do You Say…

  9. Invited Colloquium--on Publishing in Applied Linguistics: A Forum on Innovation and Challenges in a Changing World, AAAL Conference 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Under the leadership of then 1st vice president and program chair Aneta Pavlenko, Temple University, the 2014 AAAL conference had as one of its focal areas the changing scene of publishing in a digital and global age. Within an array of offerings addressing the theme, this three-hour invited colloquium, organized by Heidi Byrnes, Georgetown…

  10. Construct Validity in Psychological Measurement; Proceedings of a Colloquium on Theory and Application in Education and Employment (Henry Chauncey Conference Center, Princeton, New Jersey, October 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Personnel Management, Washington, DC.

    The stimulus for this colloquium was the convergence of several significant developments bearing on the construct validation of standardized tests and other assessment methods. Of these developments, some were fundamental to psychology as a science; others reflected socio-political pressures on measurement in education and employment. The ten…

  11. Actes des journees de linguistique: Colloque sur la recherche etudiante (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference: Colloquium on Student Research) (Quebec, Canada, March 18-19, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepage, Danielle, Ed.; Dominik, Annette, Ed.

    Presentations by students at a colloquium on student research on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the University of Laval's Faculty of Letters, March 18-19, 1988, include: "Une enquete sur la qualite du francais ecrit au Quebec"; "Amenagement linguistique et neologie"; "Analyse syntaxique des 'arrets et retours' en arabe morocain parle";…

  12. 22nd International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radović, Iva Bogdanović; Jakšić, Milko; Fazinić, Stjepko

    2016-03-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B contains the proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA 2015). The conference was held in Grand Hotel 4 Opatijska Cvijeta in Opatija, Croatia, between 14th and 19th June 2015. Opatija, one of the Croatia's most famous touristic destinations, often called the pearl of the Adriatic, is celebrating this year 170 years of tourism. During the past, kings and emperors, writers, philosophers, poets and composers, but also scientists, used to stay in the town mainly built at the turn of the 20th century.

  13. An International Colloquium on Education: British and American Perspectives. Proceedings (La Crosse, Wisconsin, September 29-30, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., La Crosse. Dept. of Educational Foundations.

    This document presents the results of an exchange between the College of Education at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse and the University College of Swansea in Wales to facilitate the development of a close departmental relationship in order to foster exchanges of information and personnel on preparing teachers by incorporating a global…

  14. International Colloquium on Education: British and American Perspectives (4th, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom, May 22-24, 1995). Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales Univ., Swansea. Dept. of Education.

    This collection of studies represents collaboration between the Departments of Education of the University of Wales Swansea and the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse. The papers are as follows: (1) "Analysing the Social Climate of Schools and Classrooms" (Robert W. Bilby); (2) "Reading Whose World?" (Diane Cannon); (3) "The National Council of…

  15. 19th Century Plains Indian Robe Painting: Wearable Art Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Gerald R.

    1983-01-01

    The Indians of the Great Plains of North America once wore some of the most magnificent works of art in the form of bison robes that were painted in a variety of modes. These forms of expression have become obsolete and their function has been replaced by new materials. (Availability: CHEA National Office, 151 Slater Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1P…

  16. [Cholera epidemics on Reunion Island during the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Gaüzère, B-A; Aubry, P

    2012-01-01

    The first cholera outbreak on Bourbon Island (now Reunion Island) was recorded in January 1820. The disease was imported from Mauritius Island aboard the steamer Pivert. The epidemic began on Mauritius in November 1819 after the English frigate, La Topaze, called from Calcutta, India. Dr. François Vinson demonstrated the transmissibility of cholera during this epidemic. Drastic sanitary measures spared Reunion from the two epidemics on Mauritius Island, in 1854 and 1856. The second outbreak of cholera on Reunion Island was recorded on March 6, 1859. The disease was introduced from East Africa by the steamer Mascareignes, which carried indentured servants. The captain (d'Agnel) et the supercargo (Menon) of the steamer claimed to the doctor who boarded the ship before landing that no passengers or crew had had cholera, in flagrant contradiction to the autopsy report issued by Navy surgeon Alfred Vaillant, who had concluded that cholera was present when the vessel left the African coast. This report was withheld from the boarding physician. Cholera spread quickly on the island and affected the poorest people, especially freed slaves, most severely. Dr. Petit, the chief Navy Physician and Director of the Health Department, obtained a confession by Menon about the fraudulent statements. On January 24, 1860, a trial for public health endangerment began on Reunion Island; it ended on February 1 with a not-guilty verdict, based largely on the testimony of several island doctors that cholera was not contagious. PMID:22992340

  17. Proceedings of the 19th Annual Software Engineering Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) is an organization sponsored by NASA/GSFC and created to investigate the effectiveness of software engineering technologies when applied to the development of applications software. The goals of the SEL are: (1) to understand the software development process in the GSFC environment; (2) to measure the effects of various methodologies, tools, and models on this process; and (3) to identify and then to apply successful development practices. The activities, findings, and recommendations of the SEL are recorded in the Software Engineering Laboratory Series, a continuing series of reports that include this document.

  18. Timeliness: Interpretations from a Sample of 19th Century Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooker-Gross, Susan R.

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes a sample of nineteenth-century newspapers and argues that timeliness varied in value according to the origin of news such that technological improvements alone did not explain the decrease in time lag in news reporting. (FL)

  19. 19th Century American Journals of Natural History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Ralph W.

    1976-01-01

    This article presents a brief list of journals containing information for historians and naturalists. The journals are presented in two lists from 1810-1875 and from 1876-1900. Each list is further classified into general natural history, microscopy, botany, entomology, conchology, ornithology, and geology and paleontology. (MR)

  20. [Limb prosthesis of the 19th and 20th century].

    PubMed

    Knoche, W

    2009-02-01

    Wouldn't the thought of a separate stump-cushioning, as mentioned by Heine, Eichler and others, make sense even today, regarding difficult and badly blood-supplied amputation-stumps? Shouldn't the thought of Hermann and Habermann, to do a knee-saving interference, be updated, especially for the weak and helpless patients? It is safe to say that one has to challenge the question, which objective methods of inspection are under consideration, to check and control the correct fit and construction for every individual patient. It is a credit to the executive of the orthopaedic-supply-center Hamburg-Altona, zur Verth, who challenged that question almost one hundred years ago. Not only zur Verth rated the value of amputation-levels in his amputation-scheme, but Arnsberger invented 1927 a device to objectify the composition of a prosthesis. PMID:19259935

  1. Apparatus for Natural Philosophy; 19th Century Wave Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the nineteenth century wave machines which can be found in the Smithsonian Institution, at Kenyon, and other colleges. Included is information about the apparatus, queries, and descriptions of different wave machines and how they work. Information included may inspire the reader with similar apparatus to repair it and use it again.…

  2. 19th century auroral observations reveal solar activity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Sam

    Growing interest in the aurora in the early part of the eighteenth century, which resulted from the spectacular reappearance of the aurora in 1707 and 1716, followed a relative scarcity of great auroras during the Maunder minimum, a period of prolonged reduced solar activity from about 1645-1715. Observations in the early eighteenth century led to questions about the geographical extent, nature, and temporal variability of the auroras. Typically, such observations were included as part of recorded meteorological notations, though occasionally early astronomers, such as Tycho Brahe in the 1590s, included auroras in their observations. Meteorological observations were important because of the effects of weather and climate on agriculture, and, according to the belief at the time, on disease.

  3. Inexpensive Books for Teaching the Classics: 19th Annual List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenheim, Ursula

    1968-01-01

    All the materials in this bibliography are designed for use in courses in classical literature in translation, classical civilization, and for supplementary reading in Latin and Greek courses. All the books are in English and are meant for grade levels seven and above. Books are grouped under subheadings which include (1) Authors, Texts,…

  4. 19th Century Textbook Illustrations - XLI, Hero's Fountain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information on and instructions for constructing a Hero's water fountain. Includes photographs of the apparatus from old textbooks and one in the collection of the National Museum of History and Technology at the Smithsonian Institution. (SK)

  5. Why Read the Great 19th-Century Historians?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clive, John

    1978-01-01

    Clive comments on the literary power of Karl Marx (The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon), Alexis de Tocqueville (The Old Regime and the Revolution), Thomas Carlyle (French Revolution), and Jakob Burkhardt (The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy); and notes Macaulay's sensitivity to the "public mind" (History of England). (SJL)

  6. Mary Carpenter: 19th Century English Correctional Education Hero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, Thom; Bowers, Fredalene B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes Mary Carpenter's (1807-1877) work in prison reform and correctional education. Provides biographical information and selections from her writings. (Contains 11 references and a chronology of her work.) (JOW)

  7. Etienne Leopold Trouvelot, 19th Century Artist and Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, B. G.

    2002-12-01

    Etienne Leopold Trouvelot, born in France in 1827, came to the United State with his family in 1855, settling in Massachusetts. He supported his family as an artist, but became interested in astronomy after observing and sketching auroras in the 1870s. When astronomers at Harvard saw the quality and detail in these drawings, they invited him to join the staff and use their telescopes for observation and making drawings of celestial objects. In 1875 the U. S. Naval Observatory invited him to Washington to use the 26 inch refractor, at that time the world's largest refractor. Through the years he made more than 7000 drawings which were highly regarded by astronomers who saw them, especially for the fine detail of the drawings. Trouvelet wanted to publish a portfolio of some of the best drawings and approached Charles Scribner's Sons, publishers in New York. The 15 drawings he chose were produced as chromolithographs, and the set was published in 1881 selling at \\$125. Very few complete sets remain in institutions today, and one set sold at auction within the last few years for many times the original price. However, Trouvelot will always be remembered not for his astronomical artistry but as the person who introduced the gypsy moth into the United States. In his attempt to bring better silk producing caterpillars into the country, some egg masses escaped and the rest is history.

  8. Colloquium on the Harmonization of Education and Training Programmes for Library, Information and Archival Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Russell

    1987-01-01

    Discusses past achievements and future plans of the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) and other international organizations, such as UNESCO, that are concerned with library education and training. The fields of management and information technology are emphasized, and resolutions and recommendations from various international…

  9. Philological Papers: Special Issue Devoted to the Teacher in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Literature and Film. Volume 36. Papers Presented at the West Virginia University's Annual Colloquium (13th, Morgantown, West Virginia, September 29-October 1, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Armand E., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains papers read at West Virginia University's Colloquium on "The Teacher in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Literature and Film" including the following 12 articles listed with their authors: "A Second Pair of Eyes: The Editor as Teacher" (Hart L. Wegner); "Don Juan Goes to the Movies" (Armand E. Singer); "The Teacher in Jean…

  10. Significant Wilderness Qualities: Can They Be Identified and Monitored? Proceedings of the Annual NOLS [National Outdoor Leadership School] Wilderness Research Colloquium (3rd, Shoshone National Forest, Wyoming, August 10-15, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, David N., Comp.; Lucas, Robert C., Comp.

    This report is a compilation of the papers presented at a colloquium on wilderness management and a synopsis of discussions held during the conference. The conference theme was how to determine and monitor the most significant features and qualities of the wilderness resource. Generally, participants identify solitude; pollution-free air and…

  11. Linguistic Insights in Applied Linguistics. Collection d'"Etudes linguistiques," No. 14. Papers from the Neuchatel Colloquium in Applied Linguistics in collaboration with AIMAV, AILA, CILA, and the University of Neuchatel (2nd, May 25-26, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, S. P., Ed.; Roulet, E., Ed.

    Papers from the 1973 Neuchatel Colloquium in Applied Linguistics are presented. Contents are as follows: "Karttunen's Types of Implication in English and German: A Contrastive Study," W. Abraham; "The Relevance of Generative Semantics for Language Teaching," R. Dirven; "'Be' plus 'ing' Revisited," H. Adamczeski; "The So-Called Deep Structures and…

  12. The 2008 Charles H. Thompson Lecture-Colloquium Presentation: From Du Bois to Obama--The Education of Peoples of African Descent in the United States in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Carol D.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the text of a lecture delivered by American Educational Research Association President Carol D. Lee at the 29th Annual Charles H. Thompson Lecture-Colloquium Series which was held on November 5, 2008. In her lecture, Lee discussed several points of similarities between W. E. B. Du Bois and President Barack Obama. These…

  13. Vinculacion Entre La Educacion Y El Mundo Del Trabajo: Informe Final. (Coloquio Regional Caracas, Venezuela, Septiembre 2-6, 1985) = The Linkage Between Education and Employment: Final Report of the Regional Colloquium (Caracas, Venezuela, September 2-6, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    At this regional colloquium 13 papers were presented concerning the relationship between education and employment. Themes addressed were: (1) the transformation of the workplace by technology and science; (2) the future of the disadvantaged population as a consequence of the technological revolution; and (3) the resulting changes in the education…

  14. Engineering and Technology Education for the 21st Century. A Report from the Regional Colloquium on Engineering and Technology Education for the 21st Century (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, February 11-14, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettle, Kevin C., Ed.

    This colloquium was held with the purposes of promoting cooperation and collaboration among engineering education institutions in the Mekong subregion and establishing the linkage with engineering institutions in France; to promote university-industry collaboration in the field of engineering and technology education; to establish a network of…

  15. Nineteenth International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    The Microgravity Measurements Group meetings provide a forum for an exchange of information and ideas about various aspects of microgravity acceleration research in international microgravity research programs. These meetings are sponsored by the PI Microgravity Services (PIMS) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The 19th MGMG meeting was held 11-13 July 2000 at the Sheraton Airport Hotel in Cleveland, Ohio. The 44 attendees represented NASA, other space agencies, universities, and commercial companies; 8 of the attendees were international representatives from Japan, Italy, Canada, Russia, and Germany. Twenty-seven presentations were made on a variety of microgravity environment topics including the International Space Station (ISS), acceleration measurement and analysis results, science effects from microgravity accelerations, vibration isolation, free flyer satellites, ground testing, vehicle characterization, and microgravity outreach and education. The meeting participants also toured three microgravity-related facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Contained within the minutes is the conference agenda, which indicates each speaker, the title of their presentation, and the actual time of their presentation. The minutes also include the charts for each presentation, which indicate the authors' name(s) and affiliation. In some cases, a separate written report was submitted and has been Included here

  16. EMC '86; Proceedings of the Colloquium, San Jose, CA, April 29, 30, 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wujek, J. H.

    Papers are presented on electric field-strength measurements; the design and use of current sensors; power line disturbance simulation, magnetic shielding factor measurements and permeabilities for a rigid steel conduit; conducting FCC tests in a noisy environment; and the effective attenuation of power line filters under operating conditions. Consideration is given to EMI shielding regulation and copper coatings, dc resistance measurements, advances in EMC interior-coupling modeling, intense electromagnetic wave interaction with systems, and the protection of systems against 200 V/m plus levels. The current domestic and international EMC standards activities, the development of standards for radio-frequency radiation exposure, and the effect of environmental regulations on EMI shielding coating performance are discussed.

  17. [More than a century of international immigration into Argentina].

    PubMed

    Celton, D E

    1995-01-01

    "From the second half of the 19th century, Argentina was, along with the United States and Brazil, one of the main destinations that attracted European emigration to America.... The arrival of more that six million people between 1869 and 1930 resulted in radical changes in the socioeconomic structure of the country. After the crisis of the 1930s the impact of a development plan based on the export of agricultural products waned and the economic growth accompanied with political instability generated a slowing decline of migratory flows, despite a new wave between 1945 and 1952. The decrease of international migration comes along with an important change in the composition by places of origin.... The article analyses the successive migratory policies of Argentina's government as well as the migrants' spatial distribution and their incorporation in the labor market." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12291043

  18. The International Ultraviolet Explorer Data Analysis Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, M.; Thompson, R.; Arquilla, R.; Caplinger, J.; Taylor, L.

    1995-12-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer Regional Data Analysis Facility (RDAF) was established in 1981 to assist users in the analysis and interpretation of IUE data. In October 1992, the Colorado RDAF was closed, and the Goddard RDAF was renamed the International Ultraviolet Explorer Data Analysis Center (IUEDAC). Programs written using the Interactive Data Language (IDL), marketed by Research Systems Incorporated (RSI) allow users to reduce and analyze IUE spectral data processed through IUESIPS and NEWSIPS, display images, perform various database searches and convert IUE data sets into various formats. IUEDAC personnel support US Guest Observers with 19th episode IUE observing programs and are actively involved with LASP scientists working under a NASA ADP grant to reformat and distribute data from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 3 (Copernicus) mission. The IUEDAC staff also maintains several homepages on the World Wide Web. These pages provide WWW users access to both information and services provided by the IUEDAC. Users may also access the IUEDAC either by visiting the DAC in person or by remote logins via the internet.

  19. Proposals to clarify and enhance the naming of fungi under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.

    PubMed

    Hawksworth, David L

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-three proposals to modify the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants adopted in 2011 with respect to the provisions for fungi are made, in accordance with the wishes of mycologists expressed at the 10(th) International Mycological Congress in Bangkok in 2014, and with the support of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF), the votes of which are presented here. The proposals relate to: conditions for epitypification, registration of later typifications, protected lists of names, removal of exemptions for lichen-forming fungi, provision of a diagnosis when describing a new taxon, citation of sanctioned names, avoiding homonyms in other kingdoms, ending preference for sexually typified names, and treatment of conspecific names with the same epithet. These proposals are also being published in Taxon, will be considered by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi and General Committee on Nomenclature, and voted on at the 19(th) International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen, China, in 2017. PMID:26203423

  20. Science and Society Colloquium

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  1. Seventh NASTRAN User's Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The general application of finite element methodology and the specific application of NASTRAN to a wide variety of static and dynamic structural problems are described. Topics include: fluids and thermal applications, NASTRAN programming, substructuring methods, unique new applications, general auxiliary programs, specific applications, and new capabilities.

  2. Southeastern Science Policy Colloquium

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, F.

    1995-06-22

    This conference covers four main topics: (1) Southeastern Labor Market and its Impact on Corporate/Industry Development; (2) New Issues for Science and Technology in the Year 2000 and Beyond; (3) The Role of Academia in Developing the Labor Force of the Southeast; and (4) K-12 Education: Challenges for the 21st Century.

  3. Science and Society Colloquium

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-10

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  4. Tenth NASTRAN User's Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The development of the NASTRAN computer program, a general purpose finite element computer code for structural analysis, was discussed. The application and development of NASTRAN is presented in the following topics: improvements and enhancements; developments of pre and postprocessors; interactive review system; the use of harmonic expansions in magnetic field problems; improving a dynamic model with test data using Linwood; solution of axisymmetric fluid structure interaction problems; large displacements and stability analysis of nonlinear propeller structures; prediction of bead area contact load at the tire wheel interface; elastic plastic analysis of an overloaded breech ring; finite element solution of torsion and other 2-D Poisson equations; new capability for elastic aircraft airloads; usage of substructuring analysis in the get away special program; solving symmetric structures with nonsymmetric loads; evaluation and reduction of errors induced by Guyan transformation.

  5. Colloquium: The neutron lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Geoffrey L; Wietfeldt, F

    2011-01-01

    The decay of the free neutron into a proton, electron, and antineutrino is the prototype semileptonic weak decay and is the simplest example of nuclear beta decay. It played a key role in the early Universe as it determined the ratio of neutrons to protons during the era of primordial light element nucleosynthesis. Neutron decay is physically related to important processes in solar physics and neutrino detection. The mean neutron lifetime has been the subject of more than 20 major experiments done, using a variety of methods, between 1950 and the present. The most precise recent measurements have stated accuracies approaching 0.1%, but are not in good agreement as they differ by as much as 5 sigma using quoted uncertainties. The history of neutron lifetime measurements is reviewed and the different methods used are described, giving important examples of each. The discrepancies and some systematic issues in the experiments that may be responsible are discussed, and it is shown by means of global averages that the neutron lifetime is likely to lie in the range of 880 884 s. Plans and prospects for future experiments are considered that will address these systematic issues and improve our knowledge of the neutron lifetime.

  6. Gasdynamics of detonations and explosions. International colloquium on gasdynamics of explosions and reactive systems, 7th, Gottingen, West Germany, August 20-24, 1979, technical papers

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, J.R.; Manson, N.; Oppenheim, A.K.; Soloukhin, R.I.

    1981-01-01

    Wall and confinement effects are considered along with liquid and solid phase phenomena, the cellular structure of detonations, and detonations at moderate pressures. Attention is given to turbulent flame propagation and acceleration in the presence of obstacles, the detonation of unconfined fuel aerosols, the initiation of unconfined gas detonations in hydrocarbon-air mixtures by a sympathetic mechanism, a detection method for the deflagration to detonation transition in gaseous explosive mixtures, the influence of the nature of confinement on gaseous detonation, mechanical effects of gaseous detonations on a flexible confinement, the pressure evolution behind spherical and hemispherical detonations in gases, molecular dynamics of shock and detonation phenomena in condensed matter, TNT explosions in a hard vacuum, the effect of the shock-wave front on the origin of reaction, induction delay and detonation failure diameter of nitromethane mixtures, the critical area concept for the initiation of a solid high explosive by the impact of small projectiles, the shock initiation of hydrazine mononitrate, the characterization of mass flow rates for various percussion primers, the diffraction of a planar detonation in various fuel-oxygen mixtures at an area change, and the detonation characteristics of two ethylene-oxygen-nitrogen mixtures containing aluminum particles in suspension.

  7. Internationally coordinated glacier monitoring - a timeline since 1894

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, Samuel U.; Armstrong, Richard; Fetterer, Florence; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Hoelzle, Martin; Machguth, Horst; Mölg, Nico; Paul, Frank; Raup, Bruce H.; Zemp, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Changes in glaciers and ice caps provide some of the clearest evidence of climate change, with impacts on sea-level variations, regional hydrological cycles, and natural hazard situations. Therefore, glaciers have been recognized as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV). Internationally coordinated collection and distribution of standardized information about the state and change of glaciers and ice caps was initiated in 1894 and is today organized within the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G). GTN-G ensures the continuous development and adaptation of the international strategies to the long-term needs of users in science and policy. A GTN-G Steering Committee coordinates, supports and advices the operational bodies responsible for the international glacier monitoring, which are the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), the US National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) initiative. In this presentation, we trace the development of the internationally coordinated glacier monitoring since its beginning in the 19th century. Today, several online databases containing a wealth of diverse data types with different levels of detail and global coverage provide fast access to continuously updated information on glacier fluctuation and inventory data. All glacier datasets are made freely available through the respective operational bodies within GTN-G, and can be accessed through the GTN-G Global Glacier Browser (http://www.gtn-g.org/data_browser.html). Glacier inventory data (e.g., digital outlines) are available for about 180,000 glaciers (GLIMS database, RGI - Randolph Glacier Inventory, WGI - World Glacier Inventory). Glacier front variations with about 45,000 entries since the 17th century and about 6,200 glaciological and geodetic mass (volume) change observations dating back to the 19th century are available in the Fluctuations of Glaciers (FoG) database. These datasets reveal clear evidence that

  8. Conference report: the 3rd Global CRO Council for Bioanalysis at the International Reid Bioanalytical Forum.

    PubMed

    Breda, Massimo; Garofolo, Fabio; Caturla, Maria Cruz; Couerbe, Philippe; Maltas, John; White, Peter; Struwe, Petra; Sangster, Timothy; Riches, Suzanne; Hillier, Jim; Garofolo, Wei; Zimmerman, Thomas; Pawula, Maria; Collins, Eileen; Schoutsen, Dick; Wieling, Jaap; Green, Rachel; Houghton, Richard; Jeanbaptiste, Bernard; Claassen, Quinton; Harter, Tammy; Seymour, Mark

    2011-12-01

    The 3rd Global CRO Council Closed Forum was held on the 3rd and 4th July 2011 in Guildford, United Kingdom, in conjunction with the 19th International Reid Bioanalytical Forum. In attendance were 21 senior-level representatives from 19 CROs on behalf of nine European countries and, for many of the attendees, this occasion was the first time that they had participated in a GCC meeting. Therefore, this closed forum was an opportunity to increase awareness of the aim of the GCC and how it works, share information about bioanalytical regulations and audit findings from different agencies, their policies and procedures and also to discuss some topics of interest and aim to develop ideas and provide recommendations for bioanalytical practices at future GCC meetings in Europe. PMID:22185271

  9. Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, 33rd, Dresden, Federal Republic of Germany, Oct. 6-12, 1990, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The present conference on the law of outer space encompasses the legal implications of space commercialization, recent developments in space law, space debris, international cooperation in space, the legality of military space observations, and the legal dimensions of East-West satellite communications. Specific issues addressed include the concepts related to insurance for space activities conducted jointly by governments and the private sector, the international liability ramifications of the U.S. Navstar GPS system, legal and political measures to deal with CFCs and stratospheric ozone, and the convergence of telecommunication technologies. Also addressed are the recent activities on the Space Station, equity and international space law, the legal aspects of verification in and from outer space, satellite verification and European arms control, the regulation of space debris, and the 'right' of passage into outer space.

  10. Bilinguisme et biculturalisme: Theories et pratiques professionnelles. Actes du 2eme colloque d'orthophomie/logopedie (Neuchatel, 17-18 septembre, 1992). (Bilingualism and Biculturalism: Theories and Professional Practices. Colloquium on Orthophony/Logopedy (2nd, Neuchatel, Switzerland, September 17-18, 1992)).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Py, Bernard, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The conference papers from a colloquium on issues in bilingualism and biculturalism include: "Le bilinguisme et biculturalisme: essai de definition" ("Bilingualism and Biculturalism: Attempt at Definition") (Francois Grosjean); "La variation individuelle dans l'acquisition d'une langue seconde" ("Individual Variation in Second Language…

  11. International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  12. New dimensions in nonproliferation -- An International Atomic Energy Agency view

    SciTech Connect

    Pelland, B. )

    1994-10-01

    Four years ago, Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait with the intention of annexing it as Iraq's 19th state. The disclosure of the Iraqi nuclear weapons program in the aftermath of the Gulf War--through the IAEA inspections--signaled the end of one proliferation era and the start of the next. In the author's remarks here, he has found it useful to identify four distinct proliferation eras, each with different features, each calling for different emphasis in international nonproliferation efforts. They provide a convenient way to look at the history of nonproliferation, and to look into the future and to the new dimensions in nonproliferation that are slowly emerging. Since the Gulf War, the nuclear world experienced a series of events of fundamental significance that changed the nature of nonproliferation, forcing changes in the mission of the IAEA and its methods. Certainly some of these events came in the form of unpleasant surprises, such as in Iraq, but very positive progress was also made on other fronts. He would like to share some perceptions of the events creating the present situation, and some views anticipating the requirements most likely to emerge in the coming years.

  13. International Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  14. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  15. International Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  16. Joseph Henry and John Henry Lefroy A common 19th century vision of auroral research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, S. M.

    Research on solar-terrestrial relationships today relies primarily on in situ space data. These data, however, cover only a short period of about 30 years. Many solar and related phenomena vary on much longer time scales. For the study of these, parameters such as sunspots, magnetic activity, auroral occurrence, or other proxy data are required. Historical records of aurora are particularly useful in this connection.

  17. Properties of sunspot cycles and hemispheric wings since the 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leussu, Raisa; Usoskin, Ilya G.; Arlt, Rainer; Mursula, Kalevi

    2016-08-01

    Aims: The latitudinal evolution of sunspot emergence over the course of the solar cycle, the so-called butterfly diagram, is a fundamental property of the solar dynamo. Here we present a study of the butterfly diagram of sunspot group occurrence for cycles 7-10 and 11-23 using data from a recently digitized sunspot drawings by Samuel Heinrich Schwabe in 1825-1867, and from RGO/USAF/NOAA(SOON) compilation of sunspot groups in 1874-2015. Methods: We developed a new, robust method of hemispheric wing separation based on an analysis of long gaps in sunspot group occurrence in different latitude bands. The method makes it possible to ascribe each sunspot group to a certain wing (solar cycle and hemisphere), and separate the old and new cycle during their overlap. This allows for an improved study of solar cycles compared to the common way of separating the cycles. Results: We separated each hemispheric wing of the butterfly diagram and analysed them with respect to the number of groups appearing in each wing, their lengths, hemispheric differences, and overlaps. Conclusions: The overlaps of successive wings were found to be systematically longer in the northern hemisphere for cycles 7-10, but in the southern hemisphere for cycles 16-22. The occurrence of sunspot groups depicts a systematic long-term variation between the two hemispheres. During Schwabe time, the hemispheric asymmetry was north-dominated during cycle 9 and south-dominated during cycle 10.

  18. Simulation of the 19th and 20th century climate with ECHAM5-HAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichet, A.; Schär, C.; Wild, M.; Folini, D.

    2009-04-01

    Climate simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model driven with natural and anthropogenic forcings have been carried out from 1870 to 2000. The atmospheric GCM ECHAM5 is interactively coupled to the atmospheric aerosol module HAM, while the SSTs are based on data from the Hadley Center dataset. Aerosol emissions are taken from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), and include SO2 and black carbon from fossil fuel combustion as well as black carbon from biomass burning. Other forcings included in the simulations are changes in greenhouse gases, DMS, solar output and volcanic activities. Global simulations will give a general overview of the climate evolution since the mid-nineteenth century, and will allow the definition of limits to further regional simulations. Sensitivity experiments are carried out, in order to understand better the impact of the the different forcings on the climate since the mid-nineteenth century. Results are discussed with particular emphasis on the hydrological and radiation conditions under different forcings.

  19. [The neuron theory: one of the main scientific achievements of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Probst, A; Langui, D

    1994-04-19

    The cell theory, enunciated by Theodor Schwann in 1839, stated that all tissues in the body are composed of individual cells. The theory gained immediate acceptance for all organs except for the nervous system where some basic problems were encountered, among them the difficulties in establishing the relation between nerve cells, nerve fibers and terminal branches. Deiters observations (1865) had provided evidence that the basic structure of a nerve cell was made up of a cell body, protoplasmic prolongations (dendrites), and a single long axon. This helped to define the nerve cell as the basic unit of the nervous tissue but it remained then to understand how the nerve cells are connected since they do not make direct contact through their cell bodies and are separated by the 'neuroglia'. Two fundamentally different views of the organization of neurons arose, one holding that neurons are individual and contiguous units, connected in chains to form specific pathways (His, Forel, Nansen, Ramón y Cajal), the other that thin nerve cell branches from continuous diffuse networks through which the neuronal activity propagates (Gerlach, Golgi). The key technological advance that led to the resolution of most of these uncertainties came in 1873 with the introduction by Camillo Golgi of a new method of staining individual nerve cells. In 1887, Santiago Ramón y Cajal stumbled on the Golgi stain and began an intense study of neuronal morphology throughout the nervous system. As far back as 1887 it was shown that the nervous system is not a mass of fused cells showing a common cytoplasm, but a highly intricate network of discrete cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8191186

  20. Occult Genres and the Certification of Madness in a 19th-Century Lunatic Asylum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkenkotter, Carol; Hanganu-Bresch, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Using archival admissions records and case histories of patients at a British asylum from the 1860s to the 1870s, the authors examine the medical certification process leading to the asylum confinement of individuals judged to be "of unsound mind." These institutional texts are, the authors suggest, "occult genres" that function as complex acts of…

  1. State Profiles: Financing Public Higher Education. 1996 Rankings. 19th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Kent

    This annual report presents comparative trend data covering enrollment, appropriations, tuition, and other factors for fiscal year 1996 for the 50 states and the District of Columbia. A 12-element data set covers all aspects of state education financing: accessibility and attractiveness; tax utilization; legislative budgeting; role of tuition; and…

  2. [Three female physicians of the Montpellier faculty at the turn of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Jacqueline; Gilgenkrantz, Simone

    2015-01-01

    As a part of a study on the census of female students listed in medicine at the faculty of Montpellier since it opened to women in 1868 until the end of the Third Republic, we selected three women who passed their thesis respectively in 1899, 1905 and 1911. Thanks to the documents found in the archives, and the testimony of their descendants, we were able to trace their biography. In obstetrics, surgery and orthopaedics, they were exceptional pioneers and set an example for new vocations. PMID:27029136

  3. The state, Rajput identity and women's agency in 19th and 20th century Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Unnithan-kumar, M

    2000-01-01

    Drawing on historical and ethnographic material on lower-class Rajput women, this paper evaluates the their impact in transforming gender roles and relationships in rural Rajasthan. It focuses on the individual and collective agency of Rajput women and the role of the state in the promotion of gender-specific identities in Rajasthan, India. Overall, it is noted that the Rajputs have had a tremendous influence on the culture, customs and traditions of the people of the state. In terms of the impact of Rajput women, however, it is suggested that they would be in a stronger position to initiate decisions if the community structures that generate prestige and value were more in their favor. Nevertheless, a change in the prestige structure could result in gender conflict, hence, it is complicated with skepticism and reluctance by both sexes. Although the Women's Development Programme has raised an awareness of women's rights, it still remains constrained by state sponsorship. Moreover, while women's agencies are seen to be enhanced by state-level initiatives, middle- and upper-class Rajput women remain constrained by the nature of state and national politics. PMID:12322597

  4. Linking buildings, archives and museums of the 19th century Turin's Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamborrino, R.; Rinaudo, F.

    2015-08-01

    The documentation of Cultural Heritage asset is the basis for all the interventions and policies on Cultural heritage conservation and management. The documentation is mainly based on historic knowledge and metric survey. As far as historic knowledge is concerned many information are still recorded and preserved inside written documents that are usually not easy to reach and correctly understandable by all the experts that have specific responsibilities on Cultural Heritage. The digitalization of documents (hardly faced in the last years) is not sufficient to guarantee the effective access to the historical information useful inside a documentation process. The documentation always needs an historical interpretation based on a critical reading produced by linking heterogeneous materials. Iconography also is an important source when it is correctly interpreted and linked to other sources. IT development and digital technology diffusion allowed offering new way to record, organize and share historical information: GIS and 3D modeling can be used as standard approaches to transfer the historical knowledge in a proper way to specialists involved in Cultural Heritage conservation and management. They have been generally used as tool to represent information for different targets, the ones mostly for specialized users, the others for edutainment. GIS are largely diffused yet in the Cultural Heritage management, and 3D modeling is wide spread used in museums communication. Nevertheless, both of them have more potential. They could be integrated in order to manage different data set related with the same matter. They could be used to make new research by surveying and improving interpretation in a way ready to transmit the outcomes. To produce a new generation of affordable digital historical products is necessary that the GIS and 3D modeling design and realization would be developed in a multidisciplinary approach that must be explained and demonstrated to the people that in the future will offer to the community this expertise. The paper describes a teaching and research training experience started two years ago at the Politecnico di Torino in the master course on Architecture (Conservation).

  5. 19th Century Roots of Modern Interpretation Theory: Dickens as a Platform Performer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, John Samuel

    Charles Dickens was not only a master novelist but was also a master in the art of performance. His distinctive reading style was in marked contrast to the standard practices of mid-nineteenth century elocution, but his unique readings and performance philosophy closely resemble the text-centered approach of modern oral interpretation. Considered…

  6. Lithographic image simulation for the 21st century with 19th-century tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Ronald L.; Rosenbluth, Alan E.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation of lithographic processes in semiconductor manufacturing has gone from a crude learning tool 20 years ago to a critical part of yield enhancement strategy today. Although many disparate models, championed by equally disparate communities, exist to describe various photoresist development phenomena, these communities would all agree that the one piece of the simulation picture that can, and must, be computed accurately is the image intensity in the photoresist. The imaging of a photomask onto a thin-film stack is one of the only phenomena in the lithographic process that is described fully by well-known, definitive physical laws. Although many approximations are made in the derivation of the Fourier transform relations between the mask object, the pupil, and the image, these and their impacts are well-understood and need little further investigation. The imaging process in optical lithography is modeled as a partially-coherent, Kohler illumination system. As Hopkins has shown, we can separate the computation into 2 pieces: one that takes information about the illumination source, the projection lens pupil, the resist stack, and the mask size or pitch, and the other that only needs the details of the mask structure. As the latter piece of the calculation can be expressed as a fast Fourier transform, it is the first piece that dominates. This piece involves computation of a potentially large number of numbers called Transmission Cross-Coefficients (TCCs), which are correlations of the pupil function weighted with the illumination intensity distribution. The advantage of performing the image calculations this way is that the computation of these TCCs represents an up-front cost, not to be repeated if one is only interested in changing the mask features, which is the case in Model-Based Optical Proximity Correction (MBOPC). The down side, however, is that the number of these expensive double integrals that must be performed increases as the square of the mask unit cell area; this number can cause even the fastest computers to balk if one needs to study medium- or long-range effects. One can reduce this computational burden by approximating with a smaller area, but accuracy is usually a concern, especially when building a model that will purportedly represent a manufacturing process. This work will review the current methodologies used to simulate the intensity distribution in air above the resist and address the above problems. More to the point, a methodology has been developed to eliminate the expensive numerical integrations in the TCC calculations, as the resulting integrals in many cases of interest can be either evaluated analytically, or replaced by analytical functions accurate to within machine precision. With the burden of computing these numbers lightened, more accurate representations of the image field can be realized, and better overall models are then possible.

  7. Building a 19th Century climate chronology for the Karoo: 1840-1870

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupini, Athanasia

    2016-04-01

    The need to increase knowledge of global climate change has led to a drive to create long term climatic data sets for countries and smaller regions. With these data sets it is possible to identify patterns in past recent climate and use these to model future climate. The science of historical climatology allows this without having to rely on instrumental data, which may not be available or reliable. Documentary sources usually provide exact dates in which climatic events occur, which can then be utilized to compare to climatic events in neighbouring regions. This study provides the first reconstruction and extended chronology for climate and precipitation for the Albany region in the Eastern Karoo, for 1840-1870, using historical documentary sources. Methodologies were adopted from similar investigations, where any references to the climate were extracted, digitized and categorized according to an index for both rainfall and temperature (Grab and Nash 2010; Nash and Grab, 2010). The data was categorized into an October to September year due to the study site receiving year long rainfall, and final indexes were created for the warm and dry seasons. Droughts that were recorded in this investigation occurred during 1848-1849, 1861-1862, 1862-1863. Floods were identified in 1847-1848, and in 1867-1868. The study site was found to experience significantly drier than wet periods, and the damage described in the accounts from drought was far more severe than that described during periods of flooding. The findings of this study were also compared to several similar studies conducted in neighbouring regions, and a general consistency was found (Grab and Nash 2010; Nash and Grab, 2010; Nash and Endfield, 2002; Vogel, 1989). Further work examining the socio-economic impacts, patterns of locust visitations and comparing modern day to past recent rainfall is also identified.

  8. [The opiate pharmacopeia in France from its origins to the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2010-04-01

    For thousands of years, opium was the main remedy against pain. Its analgesic properties have been known since antiquity, as well as its stupefacient, narcotic and addictive effects. A countless number of opiate galenical preparations had already been formulated by the beginning of our era. The best-known were electuaries, complex drugs combining multiple active substances, essentially plant-based, used to obtain beneficial effects for different aliments. These universal remedies were panaceas. Sonne opium--or opiate--based electuaries were recommended as antidotes to poison or snake venom. The best-known, Mithridate and Theriac Andromache (Venice Treacle), the latter also containing viper flesh, combined up to a hundred or so ingredients. However, this polypharmacy was criticized and it was an English doctor, Thomas Sydenham, to whom we owe the preparation of a liquid laudanum which was easier to administer than an electuary. Sydenham's laudanum (1683) was adopted by ail the pharmacopeias. Later, based on a traditional research approach, pharmacists attempted to isolate the active principles of opium. Seguin, but above ail the German pharmacist Sertürner (in 1805 and 1817) isolated morphine. Organic chemists took over from the analysts, and morphine derivatives were obtained by hemi-synthesis (heroin), and then central analgesics, or opioids, by total synthesis. Opium is no longer seen as the only supreme remedy for painful disorders, and its galenic forms have gradually disappeared from pharmacopeias. PMID:20533811

  9. Struck by lightning: Lichtenberg figures on a 19th-century wax model.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Lang, Johanna; Klemm, Eckart; Wollina, Karin; Nowak, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Wax models in dermatology were used to a large extent until the 1930s as three-dimensional models to illustrate various pathologic conditions and in particular cutaneous signs of disease. As an example, a young woman who was struck by lightning and developed Lichtenberg figures is presented. Lichtenberg figures are a fernlike pattern on skin, characteristic of lightning. Such a wax model housed in the German Hygiene Museum Dresden, Germany, illustrates the significance of wax models and how, even today, they can play an important role in medical education. PMID:25432817

  10. The Diary of Frances Jacobs: Astronomical Observations by a 19th-century Oregon Woman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGown, R. D.

    2002-12-01

    This abstract summarizes my research, transcription and editing of Francis Jacob's 170-page handwritten astronomical diary. This diary is a unique example of a time in early Portland history, illustrating the mind of a young woman who was interested in science and astronomy. Reflected in her diary are the discoveries and mention of leading astronomers of the day like Emerson Bernard and Edward Pickering. Francis Jacobs lived in an era of the great refractors For example, ``The Leviathan," built by Lord Rosse in Ireland was completed in 1847. In this 72-inch telescope, stars of 18th magnitude could be seen. The first spiral nebulae to be revealed was M51 - known today as the Whirlpool Galaxy. The Earl was the first to suggest that these spirals could actually be rotating masses of stars. At the turn of the century, study of observational astronomy was rooted in naked eye observing, study of binary stars and nebula. This was a time when women were becoming interested in the sciences and had begun to play an important role in science and astronomy. It was an incredible inspiration for other women across the country to hear what was happening on the astronomical frontiers at Harvard. Some constellation asterisms used in Francis Jacob's diary were different than they are today. One asterism in particular, the Egyptian Cross, is relatively unknown now. The summer triangle and winter circle asterisms were used in her notes and obviously popular in her era, as today. Her written comments included some Messier catalogue numbers and in some case written on her sketches and diagrams nicknames, such as the 'Dumbbell' nebula. She also referred to M99 as `St. Katherine's Wheel', a nickname that is not in common use today.

  11. Long 19th Century? Long 20th? Retooling that Last Chunk of World History Periodization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Peter N.

    2009-01-01

    As in any historical endeavor, periodization is an attempt to manage change, and present it coherently, by noting points where key breaks in framework occur. In world history, periodization has come to convey, particularly, shifts in the pattern of interactions and contacts among many, though not always all, major societies. In this article, the…

  12. The law of February 19th 2004, No. 40: procreation and punishment.

    PubMed

    Canestrari, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    The Parliament of the Italian Republic, on 19 February 2004, has approved Law no. 40 on Medically Assisted Procreation. This law was adopted by the majority of the members of the Chamber, including both catholic as well as non-catholic members. The main opposition comes from the Church, which is against any form of artificial procreation. In spite of this, we must not forget that this law sets numerous limitations to Medically Assisted Procreation, which makes it unique in the matter. Examples are the prohibition to conceive a human being using in vitro fertilisation with sperm that is not from the parents, or the prohibitions of having parents of an advanced age or using the sperm once the donor is dead. Therefore, this article is based on the idea that every regulation on Assisted Procreation must be done from a rational perspective. The article analyses section by section the law emphasizing the importance that the legislator has. Stating that the legislator must take into account the constitutional personal rights (human dignity) and must likewise include punitive sanctions within the framework of the modern penal law. PMID:16385790

  13. Flipping Their Fins for a Place to Stand: 19th- and 20th-Century Mermaids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Wilson, Gloria Lodato

    1993-01-01

    Juxtaposition of Hans Christian Andersen's "The Little Sea Maid" (1837) and Disney's home video "The Little Mermaid" (1989) illustrates how the adolescent princesses have evolved with changing views of women's roles. The mermaid of the twentieth century, part of the world of men, is still in a subservient role. (SLD)

  14. [Naturalism, novel and society in 19th-20th century transition in Spain.].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The second half of the nineteenth century in Spain was a period characterized by a strong presence of social science, which even came to permeate the masses. Evolutionary theories and some figures such as Charles Darwin himself were present in areas far from the scientific activity proper. The use of concepts and laws of biological origin for the diagnosis and political practice against certain problematic social realities, such as crime or poverty, gave rise to theories and intellectual schools that asserted the value of evolutionary principles for the analysis of complex realities of socio-cultural inequality. The attraction for difference and the scientific method, with the possibility of observation of poverty and social inequality that industrial development and modernity put forward to the writers, added to the naturalist and biological interest a literary curiosity for the degeneration, both physical and cultural, of that unfortunate part of humanity. PMID:21305794

  15. George William Hill, the Great but Unknown 19th Century Celestial Mechanician

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Brenda G.

    2012-01-01

    George William Hill (1838-1914) has long been considered one of the most famous and talented celestial mechanicians of the past century and a half. However, many people have never heard of him and his work. Simon Newcomb said he "will easily rank as the greatest master of mathematical astronomy during the last quarter of the nineteenth century.” After receiving a B.A. at Rutgers in 1859, Hill began work in 1861 at the office of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac in Cambridge, MA. He moved to Washington with the group in 1882 which then became part of the U. S. Naval Observatory. Newcomb, beginning his work on planetary motion, assigned the theory of Jupiter and Saturn to him, calling it about the most difficult topic. Hill's work was published by the USNO in 1890 as A New Theory of Jupiter and Saturn. From 1898 to 1901, Hill lectured on the subject of celestial mechanics at Columbia University in a position created just for him. After 1892 and until his death, he lived at the family homestead in West Nyack, NY. He never married, was something of a recluse, and spent most of his time with his books and research. Hill was an amateur botanist and enjoyed exploring on long walks in the countryside. Many honors and awards came to him during his lifetime, both from the U.S. and abroad, including serving as president of the American Mathematical Society. All of Hill's mathematical and astronomical research was incorporated in The Collected Mathematical Works of George William Hill. This work, containing a preface in French by Poincare, was published in 4 large volumes by the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1905.

  16. National Online Meeting Proceedings (19th, New York, New York, May 12-14, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Martha E., Ed.

    This volume contains 52 of the 70 papers that were reviewed and selected for presentation at the 1998 National Online Meeting. While the balance of the papers are not included in this Proceedings, their titles, together with author names and author affiliations, are listed at the end of the volume and they are included in the index. The volume…

  17. Gentian Violet: A 19th Century Drug Re-Emerges in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Maley, Alexander M.; Arbiser, Jack L.

    2013-01-01

    Gentian violet (GV) has a long and varied history as a medicinal agent. Historically used as an anti-bacterial and anti-fungal, recent reports have shown its utility as an anti-typranosomal, anti-viral and anti-angiogenic agent. The objective of this paper is to summarize evidence regarding the efficacy, and safety of GV use in dermatology. Recent discoveries have found novel targets of GV, namely NADPH oxidase in mammalian cells and thioredoxin reductase 2 in bacterial, fungal, and parasitic cells. These discoveries have expanded the use of GV in the 21st century. Given that GV is well tolerated, effective and inexpensive, its use in dermatology is predicted to increase. PMID:24118276

  18. Zach, Gotha and the Venus transits of the 18th and 19th centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    Zach was a child and a secondary school boy when the Venus transits of the 18th century occurred, and we try to elucidate the somewhat garbled note given in Lalande' Bibliographie (1803). Zach - like many others - was interested in seeing a definitive result emerge from the observations. Encke, one of the first serious analysts of the observations, was supplied with information by Zach. We will briefly describe the attempts of Euler, du Séjour, Encke, Powalky and Newcomb to determine a reliable value of the solar parallax (the last one being finished only after the next pair of Venus transits had occurred!), and outline Zach's role in this field.

  19. Then and Now: Fundraising during a Fiscal Crisis--Lessons from the 19th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muscatelli, Anton; Mackay, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    A housing and municipal construction bubble popped and generated a lending crisis in which interbank lending rates became impossibly high. The banking crisis, which spread across Europe and the United States, eventually impacted other industries, leading to a stock market crash and an economic contraction lasting several years. This was not in…

  20. 19th Century Canals and the Growth of New York and New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This publication opens with a statement by the 2001-2002 National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) President Adrian Davis on the horrific events of September 11, 2001. Davis said that social studies educators need to reinforce the ideals of tolerance, equity, and social justice against a backlash of antidemocratic sentiments and hostile…