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Sample records for 1a 2a 3a

  1. Combination treatment with hepatitis C virus protease and NS5A inhibitors is effective against recombinant genotype 1a, 2a, and 3a viruses.

    PubMed

    Gottwein, Judith M; Jensen, Sanne B; Li, Yi-Ping; Ghanem, Lubna; Scheel, Troels K H; Serre, Stéphanie B N; Mikkelsen, Lotte; Bukh, Jens

    2013-03-01

    With the development of directly acting antivirals, hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy entered a new era. However, rapid selection of resistance mutations necessitates combination therapy. To study combination therapy in infectious culture systems, we aimed at developing HCV semi-full-length (semi-FL) recombinants relying only on the JFH1 NS3 helicase, NS5B, and the 3' untranslated region. With identified adaptive mutations, semi-FL recombinants of genotypes(isolates) 1a(TN) and 3a(S52) produced supernatant infectivity titers of ~4 log(10) focus-forming units/ml in Huh7.5 cells. Genotype 1a(TN) adaptive mutations allowed generation of 1a(H77) semi-FL virus. Concentration-response profiles revealed the higher efficacy of the NS3 protease inhibitor asunaprevir (BMS-650032) and the NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir (BMS-790052) against 1a(TN and H77) than 3a(S52) viruses. Asunaprevir had intermediate efficacy against previously developed 2a recombinants J6/JFH1 and J6cc. Daclatasvir had intermediate efficacy against J6/JFH1, while low sensitivity was confirmed against J6cc. Using a cross-titration scheme, infected cultures were treated until viral escape or on-treatment virologic suppression occurred. Compared to single-drug treatment, combination treatment with relatively low concentrations of asunaprevir and daclatasvir suppressed infection with all five recombinants. Escaped viruses primarily had substitutions at amino acids in the NS3 protease and NS5A domain I reported to be genotype 1 resistance mutations. Inhibitors showed synergism at drug concentrations reported in vivo. In summary, semi-FL HCV recombinants, including the most advanced reported genotype 3a infectious culture system, permitted genotype-specific analysis of combination treatment in the context of the complete viral life cycle. Despite differential sensitivity to lead compound NS3 protease and NS5A inhibitors, genotype 1a, 2a, and 3a viruses were suppressed by combination treatment with relatively low

  2. Rapid detection of HCV genotyping 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b and 6a in a single reaction using two-melting temperature codes by a real-time PCR-based assay.

    PubMed

    Athar, Muhammad Ammar; Xu, Ye; Xie, Xiaoting; Xu, Zhenxing; Ahmad, Vakil; Hayder, Zulfiqar; Hussain, Syed Sajid; Liao, Yiqun; Li, Qingge

    2015-09-15

    The genotype of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important indicator for antiviral therapeutic response. We hereby described development of a rapid HCV genotyping approach that enabled the identification of the six most common HCV subtypes of Asia, i.e., 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 3b, and 6a, in a single reaction. Using two dual-labeled, self-quenched probes that target the core region of the HCV genome, the exact subtype could be accurately identified by two-melting temperature codes determined from the two respective probes in a real-time PCR assay. Analytical sensitivity studies using armored RNA samples representing each of the six HCV subtypes showed that 5 copies/reaction of HCV RNA could be detected. The assay was evaluated using 244 HCV-positive serum samples and the results were compared with sequencing analysis. Of the 224 samples, subtype 3a (127, 52.3%) was the dominant, followed by 1b (51, 20.9%), 3b (47, 19.3%), 2a (8, 3.3%), 6a (4, 1.6%) and the least was subtype 1a (1, 0.4%). Moreover, 6 (2.5%) mixed infection samples were also detected. These results were fully concordant with sequencing analysis. We concluded that this real-time PCR-based assay could provide a rapid and reliable tool for routine HCV genotyping in most Asian countries.

  3. A new sodium channel alpha-subunit gene (Scn9a) from Schwann cells maps to the Scn1a, Scn2a, Scn3a cluster of mouse chromosome 2.

    PubMed

    Beckers, M C; Ernst, E; Belcher, S; Howe, J; Levenson, R; Gros, P

    1996-08-15

    We have used a total of 27 AXB/BXA recombinant inbred mouse strains to determine the chromosomal location of a newly identified gene encoding an alpha-subunit isoform of the sodium channel from Schwann cells, Scn9a. Linkage analysis established that Scn9a mapped to the proximal segment of mouse chromosome 2. The segregation of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in 145 progeny from a Mus spretus x C57BL/6J backcross indicates that Scn9a is very tightly linked to Scn1a (gene encoding the type I sodium channel alpha-subunit of the brain) and forms part of a cluster of four Scna genes located on mouse chromosome 2.

  4. Dnmt3a2: a hub for enhancing cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A M M; Hemstedt, T J; Freitag, H E; Bading, H

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for fear memory formation and extinction are far from being understood. Uncovering the molecules and mechanisms regulating these processes is vital for identifying molecular targets for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for anxiety and fear disorders. Cognitive abilities require the activation of gene expression necessary to the consolidation of lasting changes in neuronal function. In this study we established a key role for an epigenetic factor, the de novo DNA methyltransferase, Dnmt3a2, in memory formation and extinction. We found that Dnmt3a2 overexpression in the hippocampus of young adult mice induced memory enhancements in a variety of situations; it converted a weak learning experience into long-term memory, enhanced fear memory formation and facilitated fear memory extinction. Dnmt3a2 overexpression was also associated with the increased expression of plasticity-related genes. Furthermore, the knockdown of Dnmt3a2 expression impaired the animals' ability to extinguish memories, identifying Dnmt3a2 as a key player in extinction. Thus, Dnmt3a2 is at the core of memory processes and represents a novel target for cognition-enhancing therapies to ameliorate anxiety and fear disorders and boost memory consolidation.

  5. Possible Observation of the ^3A' - ^1A' Electronic Transition of the Methylene Peroxy Criegee Intermediate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Neal D.; Miller, Terry A.; Coons, Marc; Herbert, John

    2013-06-01

    It is possible that we have observed for the first time the transition from the ground ^1A' state to the low lying ^3A' state of the methylene peroxy Criegee intermediate, CH_2O_2, which is otherwise known as carbonyl or formaldehyde oxide. Criegee intermediates are reactive intermediates that are formed in the ozonolysis of olefins in both liquid and gaseous phases with the methylene peroxy intermediate being formed specifically from the ozonolysis of ethene. In the atmosphere Criegee intermediates are formed in reactions that lead to secondary organic aerosols and participate in reactions with SO_2 and NO_2. A peroxy-like spectrum was observed in the near-IR using cavity ringdown spectroscopy after photolysis of a diiodomethane precursor at 248 nm followed by a reaction with O_2. Possible assignment of the spectrum to CH_2O_2 is based on a strong analogy between the electronic structure of methylene peroxy and ozone. However experiments and electronic structure calculations are continuing to positively attribute the spectrum to either CH_2O_2 or CH_2IO_2 which could also be formed by this chemistry.

  6. Shiga Toxin (Stx) Type 1a Reduces the Oral Toxicity of Stx Type 2a

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Lisa M.; Melton-Celsa, Angela R.; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Shiga toxin (Stx) is the primary virulence factor of Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). STEC can produce Stx1a and/or Stx2a, which are antigenically distinct. However, Stx2a-producing STEC are associated with more severe disease than strains producing both Stx1a and Stx2a. Methods and Results. To address the hypothesis that the reason for the association of Stx2a with more severe disease is because Stx2a crosses the intestinal barrier with greater efficiency that Stx1a, we covalently labeled Stx1a and Stx2a with Alexa Fluor 750 and determined the ex vivo fluorescent intensity of murine systemic organs after oral intoxication. Surprisingly, both Stxs exhibited similar dissemination patterns and accumulated in the kidneys. We next cointoxicated mice to determine whether Stx1a could impede Stx2a. Cointoxication resulted in increased survival and an extended mean time to death, compared with intoxication with Stx2a only. The survival benefit was dose dependent, with the greatest effect observed when 5 times more Stx1a than Stx2a was delivered, and was amplified when Stx1a was delivered 3 hours prior to Stx2a. Cointoxication with an Stx1a active site toxoid also reduced Stx2a toxicity. Conclusions. These studies suggest that Stx1a reduces Stx2a-mediated toxicity, a finding that may explain why STEC that produce only Stx2a are associated with more severe disease than strains producing Stx1a and Stx2a. PMID:26743841

  7. Methamphetamine regulation of sulfotransferase 1A1 and 2A1 expression in rat brain sections.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tianyan; Huang, Chaoqun; Chen, Yue; Xu, Jiaojiao; Shanbhag, Preeti Devaraya; Chen, Guangping

    2013-01-01

    Sulfotransferase catalyzed sulfation regulates the biological activities of various neurotransmitters/hormones and detoxifies xenobiotics. Rat sulfotransferase rSULT1A1 catalyzes the sulfation of neurotransmitters and xenobiotic phenolic compounds. rSULT2A1 catalyzes the sulfation of hydroxysteroids and xenobiotic alcoholic compounds. In this work, Western blot and real-time RT-PCR were used to investigate the effect of methamphetamine on rSULT1A1 and rSULT2A1 protein and mRNA expression in rat cerebellum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. After 1-day treatment, significant induction of rSULT1A1 was observed only in the cerebellum; rSULT2A1 was induced significantly in the cerebellum, frontal cortex, and hippocampus. After 7 days of exposure, rSULT1A1 was induced in the cerebellum, frontal cortex, and hippocampus, while rSULT2A1 was induced significantly in all four regions. Western blot results agreed with the real-time RT-PCR results, suggesting that the induction occurred at the gene transcriptional level. Results indicate that rSULT1A1 and rSULT2A1 are expressed in rat frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus. rSULT1A1 and rSULT2A1are inducible by methamphetamine in rat brain sections in a time dependable manner. rSULT2A1 is more inducible than rSULT1A1 by methamphetamine in rat brain sections. Induction activity of methamphetamine is in the order of cerebellum>frontal cortex, hippocampus>striatum. These results suggest that the physiological functions of rSULT1A1 and rSULT2A1 in different brain regions can be affected by methamphetamine.

  8. Phase III Randomized Study of 4 Weeks of High-Dose Interferon-α-2b in Stage T2bNO, T3a-bNO, T4a-bNO, and T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic) Melanoma: A Trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-American College of Radiology Imaging Network Cancer Research Group (E1697).

    PubMed

    Agarwala, Sanjiv S; Lee, Sandra J; Yip, Waiki; Rao, Uma N; Tarhini, Ahmad A; Cohen, Gary I; Reintgen, Douglas S; Evans, Terry L; Brell, Joanna M; Albertini, Mark R; Atkins, Michael B; Dakhil, Shaker R; Conry, Robert M; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Flaherty, Lawrence E; Sondak, Vernon K; Carson, William E; Smylie, Michael G; Pappo, Alberto S; Kefford, Richard F; Kirkwood, John M

    2017-03-10

    Purpose To test the efficacy of 4 weeks of intravenous (IV) induction with high-dose interferon (IFN) as part of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group regimen compared with observation (OBS) in patients with surgically resected intermediate-risk melanoma. Patients and Methods In this intergroup international trial, eligible patients had surgically resected cutaneous melanoma in the following categories: (1) T2bN0, (2) T3a-bN0, (3) T4a-bN0, and (4) T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic). Patients were randomly assigned to receive IFN α-2b at 20 MU/m(2)/d IV for 5 days (Monday to Friday) every week for 4 weeks (IFN) or OBS. Stratification factors were pathologic lymph node status, lymph node staging procedure, Breslow depth, ulceration of the primary lesion, and disease stage. The primary end point was relapse-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, toxicity, and quality of life. Results A total of 1,150 patients were randomly assigned. At a median follow-up of 7 years, the 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.74) for OBS and 0.70, (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.74) for IFN ( P = .964). The 5-year overall survival rate was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.86) for OBS and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80 to 0.86) for IFN ( P = .558). Treatment-related grade 3 and higher toxicity was 4.6% versus 57.9% for OBS and IFN, respectively ( P < .001). Quality of life was worse for the treated group. Conclusion Four weeks of IV induction as part of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group high-dose IFN regimen is not better than OBS alone for patients with intermediate-risk melanoma as defined in this trial.

  9. Triple-Singlet Mixing in Si_3: the 1^3A_{1}^{''} - {a}{^3}A{^{'}_2} Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruohan; Steimle, Timothy C.

    2013-06-01

    The electronic spectrum of the triplet states of the D_{3h} isomer of Si_3 recorded using both mass selected REMPI and LIF spectroscopy was recently reported. In that same study the dispersed laser induced fluorescence (DLIF) spectra resulting from excitation of various bands in the visible range were recorded. The DLIF spectra exhibited a progression with a 505 cm^{-1} spacing, which was assign to the breathing mode of the D_{3h}, equilateral triangle, Si_{3} molecule. In addition, and quite unexpectedly, the DLIF spectra exhibited a progression having a spacing of 173 cm^{-1}. This progression was tentatively assigned to transition involving the bending mode of the ^1A_1 state of the C_{2v} isomer. A possible explanation for the observation of transitions in the singlet manifold is that upon laser excitation in the D_{3h} triplet manifold there is rapid intersystem crossing to the singlet manifold followed by fluorescence to the ground state of C_{2v} isomer. Here we address the issue of possible intersystem crossing by recording the excitation on DLIF spectra in the present of a static magnetic field. Magnetic fields are known to enhance the singlet-triple mixing. Si_{3} was produced using a supersonic pulsed discharge source (900 V, 20 μs, 6kΩ) with a 1% SiH_{4} in argon mixture. Magnetic fields of approximately 500 and 950 Gauss were applied. We will report the interpretation of the magnetic field induced changes to the LIF and DLIF spectra and the implications for the singlet-triple mixing process. N. J. Reilly, X. Zhuang, V. Gupta, R. Nagarajan, R. C. Fortenberry, J. P. Maier, T. C. Steimle, J. F. Stanton, M. C. McCarthy; {J. Chem. Phys., {136(19)}, 194307, (2004). V. I. Makarov, I. V. Khmelinskii; {Advances in Chemical Phisics, {Volume 118}, 45-98, (2001). thanks

  10. Enhanced FCGR2A and FCGR3A signaling by HIV viremic controller IgG

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Raymond A.; Maestre, Ana M.; Durham, Natasha D.; Barria, Maria Ines; Ishii-Watabe, Akiko; Tada, Minoru; Hotta, Mathew T.; Rodriguez-Caprio, Gabriela; Fierer, Daniel S.; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana; Simon, Viviana; Chen, Benjamin K.

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 viremic controllers (VC) spontaneously control infection without antiretroviral treatment. Several studies indicate that IgG Abs from VCs induce enhanced responses from immune effector cells. Since signaling through Fc-γ receptors (FCGRs) modulate these Ab-driven responses, here we examine if enhanced FCGR activation is a common feature of IgG from VCs. Using an infected cell–based system, we observed that VC IgG stimulated greater FCGR2A and FCGR3A activation as compared with noncontrollers, independent of the magnitude of HIV-specific Ab binding or virus neutralization activities. Multivariate regression analysis showed that enhanced FCGR signaling was a significant predictor of VC status as compared with chronically infected patients (CIP) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of patient IgG functions primarily grouped VC IgG profiles by enhanced FCGR2A, FCGR3A, or dual signaling activity. Our findings demonstrate that enhanced FCGR signaling is a common and significant predictive feature of VC IgG, with VCs displaying a distinct spectrum of FCGR activation profiles. Thus, profiling FCGR activation may provide a useful method for screening and distinguishing protective anti-HIV IgG responses in HIV-infected patients and in monitoring HIV vaccination regimens. PMID:28239647

  11. SERCA1a can functionally substitute for SERCA2a in the heart.

    PubMed

    Ji, Y; Loukianov, E; Loukianova, T; Jones, L R; Periasamy, M

    1999-01-01

    We recently generated a transgenic (TG) mouse model in which the fast-twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1a) is overexpressed in the heart. Ectopic overexpression of SERCA1a results in remodeling of the cardiac SR containing 80% SERCA1a and 20% endogenous SERCA2a with an approximately 2.5-fold increase in the total amount of SERCA protein (E. Loukianov et al. Circ. Res. 83: 889-897, 1998). We have analyzed the Ca2+ transport properties of membranes from SERCA1a TG hearts in comparison to control hearts. Our data show that the maximal velocity of SR Ca2+ transport was significantly increased ( approximately 1.9-fold) in TG hearts, whereas the apparent affinity of the SERCA pump for Ca2+ was not changed. Addition of phospholamban antibody in the Ca2+ uptake assays increased the apparent affinity for Ca2+ to the same extent in TG and non-TG (NTG) hearts, suggesting that phospholamban regulates the SERCA1a pump in TG hearts. Analysis of SERCA enzymatic properties in TG hearts revealed that the SERCA pump affinity for ATP, the Hill coefficient, the pH dependence of Ca2+ uptake, and the effect of acidic pH on Ca2+ transport were similar to those of NTG hearts. Interestingly, the rate constant of phosphoenzyme decay (turnover rate of SERCA enzyme) was also very similar between TG and NTG hearts. Together these findings suggest that 1) the SERCA1a pump can functionally substitute for SERCA2a and is regulated by endogenous phospholamban in the heart and 2) SERCA1a exhibits several enzymatic properties similar to those of SERCA2a when expressed in a cardiac setting.

  12. Genomic organization of SLC3A1, a transporter gene mutated in cystinuria

    SciTech Connect

    Pras, E.; Sood, R.; Raben, N.

    1996-08-15

    The SLC3A1 gene encodes a transport protein for cystine and the dibasic amino acids. Recently mutations in this gene have been shown to cause cystinuria. We report the genomic structure and organization of SLC3A1, which is composed of 10 exons and spans nearly 45 kb. Until now screening for mutations in SLC3A1 has been based on RT-PCR amplification of illegitimate mRNA transcripts from white blood cells. In this report we provide primers for amplification of exons from genomic DNA, thus simplifying the process of screening for SLC3A1 mutations in cystinuria. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Effects of serotonin 2A/1A receptor stimulation on social exclusion processing.

    PubMed

    Preller, Katrin H; Pokorny, Thomas; Hock, Andreas; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Stämpfli, Philipp; Seifritz, Erich; Scheidegger, Milan; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2016-05-03

    Social ties are crucial for physical and mental health. However, psychiatric patients frequently encounter social rejection. Moreover, an increased reactivity to social exclusion influences the development, progression, and treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the neuromodulatory substrates of rejection experiences are largely unknown. The preferential serotonin (5-HT) 2A/1A receptor agonist, psilocybin (Psi), reduces the processing of negative stimuli, but whether 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation modulates the processing of negative social interactions remains unclear. Therefore, this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study assessed the neural response to social exclusion after the acute administration of Psi (0.215 mg/kg) or placebo (Pla) in 21 healthy volunteers by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Participants reported a reduced feeling of social exclusion after Psi vs. Pla administration, and the neural response to social exclusion was decreased in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the middle frontal gyrus, key regions for social pain processing. The reduced neural response in the dACC was significantly correlated with Psi-induced changes in self-processing and decreased aspartate (Asp) content. In conclusion, 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation with psilocybin seems to reduce social pain processing in association with changes in self-experience. These findings may be relevant to the normalization of negative social interaction processing in psychiatric disorders characterized by increased rejection sensitivity. The current results also emphasize the importance of 5-HT2A/1A receptor subtypes and the Asp system in the control of social functioning, and as prospective targets in the treatment of sociocognitive impairments in psychiatric illnesses.

  14. Effects of serotonin 2A/1A receptor stimulation on social exclusion processing

    PubMed Central

    Preller, Katrin H.; Pokorny, Thomas; Hock, Andreas; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Stämpfli, Philipp; Seifritz, Erich; Scheidegger, Milan; Vollenweider, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    Social ties are crucial for physical and mental health. However, psychiatric patients frequently encounter social rejection. Moreover, an increased reactivity to social exclusion influences the development, progression, and treatment of various psychiatric disorders. Nevertheless, the neuromodulatory substrates of rejection experiences are largely unknown. The preferential serotonin (5-HT) 2A/1A receptor agonist, psilocybin (Psi), reduces the processing of negative stimuli, but whether 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation modulates the processing of negative social interactions remains unclear. Therefore, this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over study assessed the neural response to social exclusion after the acute administration of Psi (0.215 mg/kg) or placebo (Pla) in 21 healthy volunteers by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Participants reported a reduced feeling of social exclusion after Psi vs. Pla administration, and the neural response to social exclusion was decreased in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the middle frontal gyrus, key regions for social pain processing. The reduced neural response in the dACC was significantly correlated with Psi-induced changes in self-processing and decreased aspartate (Asp) content. In conclusion, 5-HT2A/1A receptor stimulation with psilocybin seems to reduce social pain processing in association with changes in self-experience. These findings may be relevant to the normalization of negative social interaction processing in psychiatric disorders characterized by increased rejection sensitivity. The current results also emphasize the importance of 5-HT2A/1A receptor subtypes and the Asp system in the control of social functioning, and as prospective targets in the treatment of sociocognitive impairments in psychiatric illnesses. PMID:27091970

  15. Protein Phosphatase 2A Reactivates FOXO3a through a Dynamic Interplay with 14-3-3 and AKT

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amrik; Ye, Min; Bucur, Octavian; Zhu, Shudong; Tanya Santos, Maria; Rabinovitz, Isaac; Wei, Wenyi; Gao, Daming; Hahn, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Forkhead box transcription factor FOXO3a, a key regulator of cell survival, is regulated by reversible phosphorylation and subcellular localization. Although the kinases regulating FOXO3a activity have been characterized, the role of protein phosphatases (PP) in the control of FOXO3a subcellular localization and function is unknown. In this study, we detected a robust interaction between FOXO3a and PP2A. We further demonstrate that 14-3-3, while not impeding the interaction between PP2A and FOXO3a, restrains its activity toward AKT phosphorylation sites T32/S253. Disruption of PP2A function revealed that after AKT inhibition, PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of T32/S253 is required for dissociation of 14-3-3, nuclear translocation, and transcriptional activation of FOXO3a. Our findings reveal that distinct phosphatases dephosphorylate conserved AKT motifs within the FOXO family and that PP2A is entwined in a dynamic interplay with AKT and 14-3-3 to directly regulate FOXO3a subcellular localization and transcriptional activation. PMID:20110348

  16. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 2A: Advanced Conceptual Design Report. Volume 3A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Objective of this document is to provide descriptions of all WRAP 2A feed streams, including physical and chemical attributes, and describe the pathway that was used to select data for volume estimates. WRAP 2A is being designed for nonthermal treatment of contact-handled mixed low-level waste Category 1 and 3. It is based on immobilization and encapsulation treatment using grout or polymer.

  17. P120-catenin isoforms 1A and 3A differently affect invasion and proliferation of lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yang; Dong Qianze; Zhao Yue; Dong Xinjun; Miao Yuan; Dai Shundong; Yang Zhiqiang; Zhang Di; Wang Yan; Li Qingchang; Zhao Chen; Wang Enhua

    2009-03-10

    Different isoforms of p120-catenin (p120ctn), a member of the Armadillo gene family, are variably expressed in different tissues as a result of alternative splicing and the use of multiple translation initiation codons. When expressed in cancer cells, these isoforms may confer different properties with respect to cell adhesion and invasion. We have previously reported that the p120ctn isoforms 1 and 3 were the most highly expressed isoforms in normal lung tissues, and their expression level was reduced in lung tumor cells. To precisely define their biological roles, we transfected p120ctn isoforms 1A and 3A into the lung cancer cell lines A549 and NCI-H460. Enhanced expression of p120ctn isoform 1A not only upregulated E-cadherin and {beta}-catenin, but also downregulated the Rac1 activity, and as a result, inhibited the ability of cells to invade. In contrast, overexpression of p120ctn isoform 3A led to the inactivation of Cdc42 and the activation of RhoA, and had a smaller influence on invasion. However, we found that isoform 3A had a greater ability than isoform 1A in both inhibiting the cell cycle and reducing tumor cell proliferation. The present study revealed that p120ctn isoforms 1A and 3A differently regulated the adhesive, proliferative, and invasive properties of lung cancer cells through distinct mechanisms.

  18. Clast Selection and Metallographic Cooling Rates: Initial Results on Type 1A and 2A Mesosiderites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baecker, B.; Cohen, B. A.; Rubin, A. E.; Frasl, B.; Corrigan, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    We initiated a comprehensive study on selected clasts and metal of mesosiderites using SEM, electron microprobe and the complete suite of noble gases. Here we report initial results on the petrography of selected clasts and metallographic cooling rates using the central Ni method used in sev-eral publications. We focus on the approach of selecting grains in least recrystallized mesosiderites. Hence, especially (lithic) clasts in type 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B are the first choice. They provide highest primitive-ness and least annealing/metamorphism. All grains selected should be in close proximity to each other. Lithic clasts in mesosiderites are of high interest be-cause of their igneous texture and similarity to eucrites and howardite petrography. We find pyrox-enes (px) and plagioclase (plag) attached to each other which implies a common formation history. It will be interesting to see differences and similarities in their noble gas inventory (CRE ages, trapped components and closure temperature). In addition, we will investi-gate variations of the lithic clasts toward similar grains in the thick sections which are not igneous. Plag grains are the best bases for noble gas measurements con-cerning He to Ar and Ar-Ar dating since it delivers im-portant target elements. We focus on plag grains in close contact to olivine (olv) / px grains to assess weth-er both grains show noble gas patterns being similar or different. Phosphate grains are suitable for Kr and Xe measurements since they yield REE abundances (tar-get elements).

  19. Comparison of HCV NS3 protease and NS5B polymerase inhibitor activity in 1a, 1b and 2a replicons and 2a infectious virus.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Matthew S; Yang, Huiling; Shih, I-hung; Feng, Joy Y; Mabery, Eric M; Robinson, Margaret F; Zhong, Weidong; Delaney, William E

    2009-08-01

    The hepatitis C virus infection system represents an important new tool for drug discovery. In this study, we compared the in vitro antiviral efficacy of several NS3 and NS5B inhibitors in genotype 1a, 1b, and 2a replicons and in the 2a infectious virus system. The nucleoside inhibitor 2'-C-methyl adenosine showed similar efficacy in each system tested. Three non-nucleoside inhibitors had small differences in potency between genotype 1a and 1b. In contrast, there was a dramatic loss of potency for these non-nucleoside inhibitors in the genotype 2a replicon, 2a infectious virus, and 2a NS5B biochemical assays. The protease inhibitor BILN-2061 had similar efficacy against 1a and 1b replicons but was 61-109-fold less potent against the 2a replicon and virus, respectively. VX-950, a covalent protease inhibitor, had similar efficacy (<3-fold changes in EC(50)) regardless of genotype or subtype. Importantly, we observed a significant correlation (p<0.0001) in antiviral potency between the 2a replicon and 2a infectious virus for all classes of compounds tested.

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of Candida glabrata Isolates 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A, and 3B

    PubMed Central

    Håvelsrud, Othilde Elise

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the draft genome sequences of six Candida glabrata isolates. The isolates were taken from blood samples from patients after recurrent C. glabrata infection. Two isolates were taken from each of three patients a minimum 3 months apart. PMID:28280017

  1. Fc gamma receptor 3A and 2A polymorphisms do not predict response to rituximab in follicular lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kenkre, Vaishalee P.; Hong, Fangxin; Cerhan, James R.; Lewis, Marcia; Sullivan, Leslie; Williams, Michael E.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Horning, Sandra J.; Kahl, Brad S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pre-clinical studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Fcγ receptor (FCGR) genes influence response to rituximab, but the clinical relevance of this is uncertain. Experimental Design We prospectively obtained specimens for genotyping in the RESORT study, where 408 previously untreated, low tumor burden follicular lymphoma (FL) patients were treated with single agent rituximab. Patients received rituximab in 4 weekly doses and responders were randomized to rituximab re-treatment (RR) upon progression versus maintenance rituximab (MR). SNP genotyping was performed in 321 consenting patients. Results Response rates to initial therapy and response duration were correlated with the FCGR3A SNP at position 158 (rs396991) and the FCGR2A SNP at position 131 (rs1801274). The response rate to initial rituximab was 71%. No FCGR genotypes or grouping of genotypes were predictive of initial response. 289 patients were randomized to RR (n = 143) or to MR (n = 146). With a median follow up of 5.5 years, the 3-yr response duration in the RR arm and the MR arm was 50% and 78%, respectively. Genotyping was available in 235 of 289 randomized patients. In patients receiving RR (n = 115) or MR (n =120), response duration was not associated with any FCGR genotypes or genotype combinations. Conclusions Based on this analysis of treatment-naïve, low tumor burden FL, we conclude that the FCGR3A and FCGR2A SNPs do not confer differential responsiveness to rituximab. PMID:26510856

  2. Structure and variation of three canine genes involved in serotonin binding and transport: the serotonin receptor 1A gene (htr1A), serotonin receptor 2A gene (htr2A), and serotonin transporter gene (slc6A4).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, L; Kwant, L; Hestand, M S; van Oost, B A; Leegwater, P A J

    2005-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is the most frequently encountered behavioral problem in dogs. Abnormalities in brain serotonin metabolism have been described in aggressive dogs. We studied canine serotonergic genes to investigate genetic factors underlying canine aggression. Here, we describe the characterization of three genes of the canine serotonergic system: the serotonin receptor 1A and 2A gene (htr1A and htr2A) and the serotonin transporter gene (slc6A4). We isolated canine bacterial artificial chromosome clones containing these genes and designed oligonucleotides for genomic sequencing of coding regions and intron-exon boundaries. Golden retrievers were analyzed for DNA sequence variations. We found two nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding sequence of htr1A; one SNP close to a splice site in htr2A; and two SNPs in slc6A4, one in the coding sequence and one close to a splice site. In addition, we identified a polymorphic microsatellite marker for each gene. Htr1A is a strong candidate for involvement in the domestication of the dog. We genotyped the htr1A SNPs in 41 dogs of seven breeds with diverse behavioral characteristics. At least three SNP haplotypes were found. Our results do not support involvement of the gene in domestication.

  3. Natural products isolated from Mexican medicinal plants: novel inhibitors of sulfotransferases, SULT1A1 and SULT2A1.

    PubMed

    Mesía-Vela, S; Sańchez, R I; Estrada-Muñiz, E; Alavez-Solano, D; Torres-Sosa, C; Jiménez, M; Estrada; Reyes-Chilpa, R; Kauffman, F C

    2001-11-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense, Lonchocarpus oaxacensis, and Lonchocarpus guatemalensis are used in Latin American folk medicine. Four natural xanthones, an acetylated derivative, and two coumarins were obtained from C. brasiliense. Two flavanones were extracted from L. oaxacensis and one chalcone from L guatemalensis. These compounds were tested as substrates and inhibitors for two recombinant sulfotransferases (SULTs) involved in the metabolism of many endogenous compounds and foreign chemicals. Assays were performed using recombinant phenolsulfotransferase (SULT1A1) and hydroxysteroidsulfotransferase (SULT2A1). Three of the five xanthones, one of the flavonoids and the coumarins tested were substrates for SULT1A1. None of the xanthones or the flavonoids were sulfonated by SULT2A1, whereas the coumarin mammea A/BA was a substrate for this enzyme. The natural xanthones reversibly inhibited SULT1A1 with IC50 values ranging from 1.6 to 7 microM whereas much higher amounts of these compounds were required to inhibit SULT2A1 (IC50 values of 26-204 microM). The flavonoids inhibited SULT1A1 with IC50 values ranging from 9.5 to 101 microM, which compared with amounts needed to inhibit SULT2A1 (IC50 values of 11 to 101 microM). Both coumarins inhibited SULT1A1 with IC50 values of 47 and 185 pM, and SULT2A1 with IC50 values of 16 and 31 microM. The acetylated xanthone did not inhibit either SULT1AI or SULT2A1 activity. Rotenone from a commercial source had potency comparable to that of the flavonoids isolated from Lonchocarpus for inhibiting both SULTs. The potency of this inhibition depends on the position and number of hydroxyls. The results indicate that SULT1A1, but not SULT2A1, is highly sensitive to inhibition by xanthones. Conversely, SULT2A1 is 3-6 times more sensitive to coumarins than SULT1A1. The flavonoids are non-specific inhibitors of the two SULTs. Collectively, the results suggest that these types of natural products have the potential for important

  4. 47 CFR 80.1093 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and A4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and... AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1093 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1,...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1093 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and A4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and... AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1093 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1,...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1093 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and A4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and... AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1093 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1,...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1093 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and A4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and... AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1093 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1,...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1093 - Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and A4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship radio equipment-Sea areas A1, A2, A3, and... AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) Equipment Requirements for Ship Stations § 80.1093 Ship radio equipment—Sea areas A1,...

  9. Serotonin 2a Receptor and Serotonin 1a Receptor Interact Within the Medial Prefrontal Cortex During Recognition Memory in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morici, Juan F.; Ciccia, Lucia; Malleret, Gaël; Gingrich, Jay A.; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Weisstaub, Noelia V.

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory, can be defined as the memory for unique events. The serotonergic system one of the main neuromodulatory systems in the brain appears to play a role in it. The serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2aR) one of the principal post-synaptic receptors for 5-HT in the brain, is involved in neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders associated with memory deficits. Recognition memory can be defined as the ability to recognize if a particular event or item was previously encountered and is thus considered, under certain conditions, a form of episodic memory. As human data suggest that a constitutively decrease of 5-HT2A signaling might affect episodic memory performance we decided to compare the performance of mice with disrupted 5-HT2aR signaling (htr2a−/−) with wild type (htr2a+/+) littermates in different recognition memory and working memory tasks that differed in the level of proactive interference. We found that ablation of 5-HT2aR signaling throughout development produces a deficit in tasks that cannot be solved by single item strategy suggesting that 5-HT2aR signaling is involved in interference resolution. We also found that in the absence of 5-HT2aR signaling serotonin has a deleterious effect on recognition memory retrieval through the activation of 5-HT1aR in the medial prefrontal cortex. PMID:26779016

  10. Molecular dynamics of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A serotonin receptors with methylated buspirone analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronowska, Agnieszka; Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Leś, Andrzej; Edvardsen, Øyvind; Østensen, Roy; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2001-11-01

    In the present study experimentally determined ligand selectivity of three methylated buspirone analogues (denoted as MM2, MM5 and P55) towards 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A serotonin receptors was theoretically investigated on a molecular level. The relationships between the ligand structure and 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor affinities were studied and the results were found to be in agreement with the available site-directed mutagenesis and binding affinity data. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of ligand-receptor complexes were performed for each investigated analogue, docked twice into the central cavity of 5-HT1A/5-HT2A, each time in a different orientation. Present results were compared with our previous theoretical results, obtained for buspirone and its non-methylated analogues. It was found that due to the presence of the methyl group in the piperazine ring the ligand position alters and the structure of the ligand-receptor complex is modified. Further, the positions of derivatives with pyrimidinyl aromatic moiety and quinolinyl moiety are significantly different at the 5-HT2A receptor. Thus, methylation of such derivatives alters the 3D structures of ligand-receptor complexes in different ways. The ligand-induced changes of the receptor structures were also analysed. The obtained results suggest, that helical domains of both receptors have different dynamical behaviour. Moreover, both location and topography of putative binding sites for buspirone analogues are different at 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

  11. Activation of A1, A2A, or A3 adenosine receptors attenuates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Gazoni, Leo M.; Walters, Dustin M.; Unger, Eric B.; Linden, Joel; Kron, Irving L.; Laubach, Victor E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Adenosine and the activation of specific adenosine receptors are implicated in the attenuation of inflammation and organ ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. We hypothesized that activation of A1, A2A, or A3 adenosine receptors would provide protection against lung IR injury. Methods Using an isolated, ventilated, blood-perfused rabbit lung model, lungs underwent 18 hours cold ischemia followed by 2 hours reperfusion. Lungs were administered either vehicle, adenosine, or selective A1, A2A, or A3 receptor agonists (CCPA, ATL-313, or IB-MECA, respectively) alone or with their respective antagonists (DPCPX, ZM241385, or MRS1191) during reperfusion. Results Compared to the vehicle-treated control group, treatment with A1, A2A, or A3 agonists significantly improved function (increased lung compliance and oxygenation and decreased pulmonary artery pressure), decreased neutrophil infiltration by myeloperoxidase activity, decreased edema, and reduced TNF-α production. Adenosine treatment was also protective but not to the level of the agonists. When each agonist was paired with its respective antagonist, all protective effects were blocked. The A2A agonist reduced pulmonary artery pressure and myeloperoxidase activity and increased oxygenation to a greater degree than the A1 or A3 agonists. Conclusions Selective activation of A1, A2A, or A3 adenosine receptors provides significant protection against lung IR injury. The decreased elaboration of the potent proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, and decreased neutrophil sequestration likely contribute to the overall improvement in pulmonary function. These results provide evidence for the therapeutic potential of specific adenosine receptor agonists in lung transplant recipients. PMID:20398911

  12. The Functions of the A1A2A3 Domains in Von Willebrand Factor Include Multimerin 1 Binding

    PubMed Central

    Parker, D’Andra N.; Tasneem, Subia; Farndale, Richard W.; Bihan, Dominique; Sadler, J. Evan; Sebastian, Silvie; De Groot, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Multimerin 1 (MMRN1) is a massive, homopolymeric protein that is stored in platelets and endothelial cells for activation-induced release. In vitro, MMRN1 binds to the outer surfaces of activated platelets and endothelial cells, the extracellular matrix (including collagen) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) to support platelet adhesive functions. VWF associates with MMRN1 at high shear, not static conditions, suggesting that shear exposes cryptic sites within VWF that support MMRN1 binding. Modified ELISA and surface plasmon resonance were used to study the structural features of VWF that support MMRN1 binding, and determine the affinities for VWF-MMRN1 binding. High shear microfluidic platelet adhesion assays determined the functional consequences for VWF-MMRN1 binding. VWF binding to MMRN1 was enhanced by shear exposure and ristocetin, and required VWF A1A2A3 region, specifically the A1 and A3 domains. VWF A1A2A3 bound to MMRN1 with a physiologically relevant binding affinity (KD: 2.0 ± 0.4 nM), whereas the individual VWF A1 (KD: 39.3 ± 7.7 nM) and A3 domains (KD: 229 ± 114 nM) bound to MMRN1 with lower affinities. VWF A1A2A3 was also sufficient to support the adhesion of resting platelets to MMRN1 at high shear, by a mechanism dependent on VWF-GPIbα binding. Our study provides new information on the molecular basis of MMRN1 binding to VWF, and its role in supporting platelet adhesion at high shear. We propose that at sites of vessel injury, MMRN1 that is released following activation of platelets and endothelial cells, binds to VWF A1A2A3 region to support platelet adhesion at arterial shear rates. PMID:27052467

  13. Albumin Stimulates the Activity of the Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases 1A7, 1A8, 1A10, 2A1 and 2B15, but the Effects Are Enzyme and Substrate Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Svaluto-Moreolo, Paolo; Dziedzic, Klaudyna; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Finel, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are important enzymes in metabolic elimination of endo- and xenobiotics. It was recently shown that addition of fatty acid free bovine serum albumin (BSA) significantly enhances in vitro activities of UGTs, a limiting factor in in vitro–in vivo extrapolation. Nevertheless, since only few human UGT enzymes were tested for this phenomenon, we have now performed detailed enzyme kinetic analysis on the BSA effects in six previously untested UGTs, using 2–4 suitable substrates for each enzyme. We also examined some of the previously tested UGTs, but using additional substrates and a lower BSA concentration, only 0.1%. The latter concentration allows the use of important but more lipophilic substrates, such as estradiol and 17-epiestradiol. In five newly tested UGTs, 1A7, 1A8, 1A10, 2A1, and 2B15, the addition of BSA enhanced, to a different degree, the in vitro activity by either decreasing reaction’s Km, increasing its Vmax, or both. In contrast, the activities of UGT2B17, another previously untested enzyme, were almost unaffected. The results of the assays with the previously tested UGTs, 1A1, 1A6, 2B4, and 2B7, were similar to the published BSA only as far as the BSA effects on the reactions’ Km are concerned. In the cases of Vmax values, however, our results differ significantly from the previously published ones, at least with some of the substrates. Hence, the magnitude of the BSA effects appears to be substrate dependent, especially with respect to Vmax increases. Additionally, the BSA effects may be UGT subfamily dependent since Km decreases were observed in members of subfamilies 1A, 2A and 2B, whereas large Vmax increases were only found in several UGT1A members. The results shed new light on the complexity of the BSA effects on the activity and enzyme kinetics of the human UGTs. PMID:23372764

  14. In Silico Docking of Ligands to Drug Oxidation Enzymes Cytochrome P450 3A4 and Cytochrome P450 1A2.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David; Guglielmon, Jonathan; Glenn, Marsch; Peter, Guengerich F.

    2009-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) oxidize most drugs in humans. Protein modeling toolkits from OpenEye Scientific Software were used to examine the interaction of drug substrates with CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. Conformers and partial atomic charges were generated for each drug molecule. User-defined volumes were defined around CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 active sites. Ligands were docked assuming protein and substrates as rigid bodies. To assess rigid docking accuracy, x-ray diffraction coordinates of CYP3A4-erythromycin and CYP3A4-metyrapone complexes were obtained. Rigid re-docking of erythromycin and metyrapone into CYP3A4 yielded poses similar to the crystal structures. Rigid docking revealed two other energetically-favorable CYP3A4-metyrapone poses. The best poses were obtained by using all the Open Eye scoring functions. Optimization of protein-ligand interactions within 5-10 Angstroms of the docked ligand was then performed using the Merck Molecular Force Field in which the protein was assumed to be flexible and the ligand to be rigid. Nearby protein residues pulled slightly closer to the substrate, reducing the volume of the active site.

  15. Using psilocybin to investigate the relationship between attention, working memory, and the serotonin 1A and 2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Carter, Olivia L; Burr, David C; Pettigrew, John D; Wallis, Guy M; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2005-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a link between attention, working memory, serotonin (5-HT), and prefrontal cortex activity. In an attempt to tease out the relationship between these elements, this study tested the effects of the hallucinogenic mixed 5-HT1A/2A receptor agonist psilocybin alone and after pretreatment with the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. Eight healthy human volunteers were tested on a multiple-object tracking task and spatial working memory task under the four conditions: placebo, psilocybin (215 microg/kg), ketanserin (50 mg), and psilocybin and ketanserin. Psilocybin significantly reduced attentional tracking ability, but had no significant effect on spatial working memory, suggesting a functional dissociation between the two tasks. Pretreatment with ketanserin did not attenuate the effect of psilocybin on attentional performance, suggesting a primary involvement of the 5-HT1A receptor in the observed deficit. Based on physiological and pharmacological data, we speculate that this impaired attentional performance may reflect a reduced ability to suppress or ignore distracting stimuli rather than reduced attentional capacity. The clinical relevance of these results is also discussed.

  16. Over-expression of CHAF1A promotes cell proliferation and apoptosis resistance in glioblastoma cells via AKT/FOXO3a/Bim pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, Honghai; Du, Bin; Jiang, Huili; Gao, Jun

    2016-01-22

    Chromatinassembly factor 1 subunit A (CHAF1A) has been reported to be involved in several human diseases including cancer. However, the biological and clinical significance of CHAF1A in glioblastoma progression remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that up-regulation of CHAF1A happens frequently in glioblastoma tissues and is associated with glioblastoma prognosis. Knockout of CHAF1A by CRISPR/CAS9 technology induce G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in glioblastoma cell U251 and U87. In addition, inhibition of CHAF1A influenced the signal transduction of the AKT/FOXO3a/Bim axis, which is required for glioblastoma cell proliferation. Taken together, these results show that CHAF1A contributes to the proliferation of glioblastoma cells and may be developed as a de novo drug target and prognosis biomarker of glioblastoma.

  17. Genetic evidence that mutations in the COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1, or COL5A2 collagen genes are not responsible for mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed Central

    Henney, A M; Tsipouras, P; Schwartz, R C; Child, A H; Devereux, R B; Leech, G J

    1989-01-01

    DNA markers were used to assess the segregation of genes encoding the collagen types that predominate in the mitral valve (types I, III, and V) in two family pedigrees that are phenotypically different but showed dominantly inherited mitral valve prolapse. The inheritance of these markers was compared with the segregation of the phenotype for mitral valve prolapse in both families. In one family it was shown that the COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1, and COL5A2 genes segregated independently of the phenotype; in the other family the results for COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL5A2 were similar but analysis at the COL3A1 locus was not possible. These data indicate that in these families mitral valve prolapse does not arise from a defect in one of these collagen genes. PMID:2930668

  18. Metabolism of aflatoxin B{sub 1} in Turkey liver microsomes: The relative roles of cytochromes P450 1A5 and 3A37

    SciTech Connect

    Rawal, Sumit; Coulombe, Roger A.

    2011-08-01

    The extreme sensitivity of turkeys to aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is associated with efficient epoxidation by hepatic cytochromes P450 (P450) 1A5 and 3A37 to exo-aflatoxin B{sub 1}-8,9-epoxide (exo-AFBO). The combined presence of 1A5 and 3A37, which obey different kinetic models, both of which metabolize AFB{sub 1} to the exo-AFBO and to detoxification products aflatoxin M{sub 1} (AFM{sub 1}) and aflatoxin Q{sub 1} (AFQ{sub 1}), respectively, complicates the kinetic analysis of AFB{sub 1} in turkey liver microsomes (TLMs). Antisera directed against 1A5 and 3A37, thereby individually removing the catalytic contribution of these enzymes, were used to identify the P450 responsible for epoxidating AFB{sub 1} in TLMs. In control TLMs, AFB{sub 1} was converted to exo-AFBO in addition to AFM{sub 1} and AFQ{sub 1} confirming the presence of functional 1A5 and 3A37. Pretreatment with anti-1A5 inhibited exo-AFBO formation, especially at low, submicromolar ({approx} 0.1 {mu}M), while anti-3A37, resulted in inhibition of exo-AFBO formation, but at higher (> 50 {mu}M) AFB{sub 1} concentrations. Metabolism in immunoinhibited TLMs resembled that of individual enzymes: 1A5 produced exo-AFBO and AFM{sub 1}, conforming to Michaelis-Menten, while 3A37 produced exo-AFBO and AFQ{sub 1} following the kinetic Hill equation. At 0.1 {mu}M AFB{sub 1}, close to concentrations in livers of exposed animals, 1A5 contributed to 98% of the total exo-AFBO formation. At this concentration, 1A5 accounted for a higher activation:detoxification (50:1, exo-AFBO: AFM{sub 1}) compared to 3A37 (0.15: 1, exo-AFBO: AFQ{sub 1}), suggesting that 1A5 is high, while 3A4 is the low affinity enzyme in turkey liver. The data support the conclusion that P450 1A5 is the dominant enzyme responsible for AFB{sub 1} bioactivation and metabolism at environmentally-relevant AFB{sub 1} concentrations in turkey liver. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Efficient bioactivation by P450s 1A5 and 3A4

  19. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K.; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Walker, Larry A.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb–drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation. PMID:25377539

  20. The Munc18-1 domain 3a hinge-loop controls syntaxin-1A nanodomain assembly and engagement with the SNARE complex during secretory vesicle priming

    PubMed Central

    Kasula, Ravikiran; Bademosi, Adekunle T.; Harper, Callista B.; Morrow, Isabel C.; Hosy, Eric; Collins, Brett M.; Choquet, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Munc18-1 and syntaxin-1A control SNARE-dependent neuroexocytosis and are organized in nanodomains on the plasma membrane of neurons and neurosecretory cells. Deciphering the intra- and intermolecular steps via which they prepare secretory vesicles (SVs) for fusion is key to understanding neuronal and hormonal communication. Here, we demonstrate that expression of a priming-deficient mutant lacking 17 residues of the domain 3a hinge-loop (Munc18-1Δ317-333) in PC12 cells engineered to knockdown Munc18-1/2 markedly prolonged SV docking. Single-molecule analysis revealed nonhomogeneous diffusion of Munc18-1 and syntaxin-1A in and out of partially overlapping nanodomains. Whereas Munc18-1WT mobility increased in response to stimulation, syntaxin-1A became less mobile. These Munc18-1 and syntaxin-1A diffusional switches were blocked by the expression of Munc18-1Δ317-333, suggesting that a conformational change in the Munc18-1 hinge-loop controls syntaxin-1A and subsequent SNARE complex assembly. Accordingly, syntaxin-1A confinement was prevented by expression of botulinum neurotoxin type E. The Munc18-1 domain 3a hinge-loop therefore controls syntaxin-1A engagement into SNARE complex formation during priming. PMID:27646276

  1. Spatiotemporal brain dynamics of emotional face processing modulations induced by the serotonin 1A/2A receptor agonist psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Fosco; Schmidt, André; Pokorny, Thomas; Kometer, Michael; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2014-12-01

    Emotional face processing is critically modulated by the serotonergic system. For instance, emotional face processing is impaired by acute psilocybin administration, a serotonin (5-HT) 1A and 2A receptor agonist. However, the spatiotemporal brain mechanisms underlying these modulations are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the spatiotemporal brain dynamics underlying psilocybin-induced modulations during emotional face processing. Electrical neuroimaging analyses were applied to visual evoked potentials in response to emotional faces, following psilocybin and placebo administration. Our results indicate a first time period of strength (i.e., Global Field Power) modulation over the 168-189 ms poststimulus interval, induced by psilocybin. A second time period of strength modulation was identified over the 211-242 ms poststimulus interval. Source estimations over these 2 time periods further revealed decreased activity in response to both neutral and fearful faces within limbic areas, including amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus, and the right temporal cortex over the 168-189 ms interval, and reduced activity in response to happy faces within limbic and right temporo-occipital brain areas over the 211-242 ms interval. Our results indicate a selective and temporally dissociable effect of psilocybin on the neuronal correlates of emotional face processing, consistent with a modulation of the top-down control.

  2. CRL4B interacts with and coordinates the SIN3A-HDAC complex to repress CDKN1A and drive cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qinghong; Hu, Huili; Yang, Fan; Yuan, Jupeng; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Liangqian; Qian, Yanyan; Jiang, Baichun; Zou, Yongxin; Wang, Yan; Shao, Changshun; Gong, Yaoqin

    2014-11-01

    CUL4B, a scaffold protein that assembles the CRL4B ubiquitin ligase complex, participates in the regulation of a broad spectrum of biological processes. Here, we demonstrate a crucial role of CUL4B in driving cell cycle progression. We show that loss of CUL4B results in a significant reduction in cell proliferation and causes G1 cell cycle arrest, accompanied by the upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CKIs) p21 and p57 (encoded by CDKN1A and CDKN1C, respectively). Strikingly, CUL4B was found to negatively regulate the function of p21 through transcriptional repression, but not through proteolysis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CRL4B and SIN3A-HDAC complexes interact with each other and co-occupy the CDKN1A and CDKN1C promoters. Lack of CUL4B led to a decreased retention of SIN3A-HDAC components and increased levels of acetylated H3 and H4. Interestingly, the ubiquitylation function of CRL4B is not required for the stable retention of SIN3A-HDAC on the promoters of target genes. Thus, in addition to directly contributing to epigenetic silencing by catalyzing H2AK119 monoubiquitylation, CRL4B also facilitates the deacetylation function of SIN3A-HDAC. Our findings reveal a coordinated action between CRL4B and SIN3A-HDAC complexes in transcriptional repression.

  3. Cartography of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A Receptor Subtypes in Prefrontal Cortex and Its Projections.

    PubMed

    Mengod, Guadalupe; Palacios, José M; Cortés, Roser

    2015-07-15

    Since the development of chemical neuroanatomical tools in the 1960s, a tremendous wealth of information has been generated on the anatomical components of the serotonergic system, at the microscopic level in the brain including the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC receives a widespread distribution of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) terminals from the median and dorsal raphe nuclei. 5-HT receptors were first visualized using radioligand autoradiography in the late 1980s and early 1990s and showed, in contrast to 5-HT innervation, a differential distribution of binding sites associated with different 5-HT receptor subtypes. Due to the cloning of the different 5-HT receptor subtype genes in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it was possible, using in situ hybridization histochemistry, to localize cells expressing mRNA for these receptors. Double in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry allowed for the chemical characterization of the phenotype of cells expressing 5-HT receptors. Tract tracing technology allowed a detailed cartography of the neuronal connections of PFC and other brain areas. Based on these data, maps have been constructed that reflect our current understanding of the different circuits where 5-HT receptors can modulate the electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral functions of the PFC. We will review current knowledge regarding the cellular localization of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in mammalian PFC and their possible functions in the neuronal circuits of the PFC. We will discuss data generated in our laboratory as well as in others, focusing on localization in the pyramidal and GABAergic neuronal cell populations in different mammalian species using molecular neuroanatomy and on the connections with other brain regions.

  4. Identification of high-risk Listeria monocytogenes serotypes in lineage I (serotype 1/2a, 1/2c, 3a and 3c) using multiplex PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: Using molecular subtyping techniques, Listeria monocytogenes is divided into three major phylogenetic lineages, and a multiplex PCR method can differentiate five L. monocytogenes subgroups: 1/2a-3a, 1/2c-3c, 1/2b-3b-7, 4b-4d-4e, and 4a-4c. In the current study, we conducted genome comparison...

  5. Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 genes CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Bethke, Lara; Webb, Emily; Sellick, Gabrielle; Rudd, Matthew; Penegar, Stephen; Withey, Laura; Qureshi, Mobshra; Houlston, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes have the potential to affect colorectal cancer (CRC) risk by determining the genotoxic impact of exogenous carcinogens and levels of sex hormones. Methods To investigate if common variants of CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP11A1, CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 influence CRC risk we genotyped 2,575 CRC cases and 2,707 controls for 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have not previously been shown to have functional consequence within these genes. Results There was a suggestion of increased risk, albeit insignificant after correction for multiple testing, of CRC for individuals homozygous for CYP1B1 rs162558 and heterozygous for CYP1A2 rs2069522 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.80 and OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.00–1.79 respectively). Conclusion This study provides some support for polymorphic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 playing a role in CRC susceptibility. PMID:17615053

  6. Functional and pharmacological characterization of two different ASIC1a/2a heteromers reveals their sensitivity to the spider toxin PcTx1

    PubMed Central

    Joeres, Niko; Augustinowski, Katrin; Neuhof, Andreas; Assmann, Marc; Gründer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Acid Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) detect extracellular proton signals and are involved in synaptic transmission and pain sensation. ASIC subunits assemble into homo- and heteromeric channels composed of three subunits. Single molecule imaging revealed that heteromers composed of ASIC1a and ASIC2a, which are widely expressed in the central nervous system, have a flexible 2:1/1:2 stoichiometry. It was hitherto not possible, however, to functionally differentiate these two heteromers. To have a homogenous population of ASIC1a/2a heteromers with either 2:1 or 1:2 stoichiometry, we covalently linked subunits in the desired configuration and characterized their functional properties in Xenopus oocytes. We show that the two heteromers have slightly different proton affinity, with an additional ASIC1a subunit increasing apparent affinity. Moreover, we found that zinc, which potentiates ASIC2a-containing ASICs but not homomeric ASIC1a, potentiates both heteromers. Finally, we show that PcTx1, which binds at subunit-subunit interfaces of homomeric ASIC1a, inhibits both heteromers suggesting that ASIC2a can also contribute to a PcTx1 binding site. Using this functional fingerprint, we show that rat cortical neurons predominantly express the ASIC1a/2a heteromer with a 2:1 stoichiometry. Collectively, our results reveal the contribution of individual subunits to the functional properties of ASIC1a/2a heteromers. PMID:27277303

  7. Inhibition of human CYP3A4, UGT1A6, and P-glycoprotein with halogenated xanthene food dyes and prevention by superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Furumiya, Kenji; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic food dyes are xenobiotics, and, after ingestion, portions of these dyes may be absorbed and metabolized by phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, and excreted by transporters of phase III enzymes. In the previous report, it was shown that inhibition of UDP-glucuronosyltrasnferase 1A6 occurred following ingestion of phloxine, erythrosine, and rose bengal present in 12 permitted synthetic food dyes. In this report, the influence of dyes was examined on CYP3A4, a major phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme, and P-glycoprotein, a major transporter by synthetic food dyes. Human cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4 and P-glycoprotein were inhibited by xanthene food dyes. The IC(50) values of these dyes to inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein were the same as the level of inhibition of UGT1A6 produced by three haloganated xanthene food dyes in the previous report, except acid red, which inhibited only CYP3A4. Data suggest that inhibition by dyes is not enzyme specific but may be in a membrane-specific or protein-specific manner, such as conformational changes in protein. In the previous study, it was suggested that inhibition by dyes depended upon light irradiation due to generation of (1)O2 from these dyes. In this study, the influence of superoxide dismutase and catalase on inhibition by dyes was examined. Superoxide dismutase but not catalase was effective in preventing the inhibition of UGT1A6 by the dyes. Data suggest that superoxide anions, originating from dyes via light irradiation, may attack drug-metabolizing enzymes. It is possible that red cosmetics containing phloxine, erythrosine, or rose bengal react with proteins in skin and may lead to skin damage.

  8. Structure-function relationships of inhibition of human cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by 33 flavonoid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Murayama, Norie; Martin, Martha V; Foroozesh, Maryam K; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Guengerich, F Peter; Komori, Masayuki

    2010-12-20

    Structure-function relationships for the inhibition of human cytochrome P450s (P450s) 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by 33 flavonoid derivatives were studied. Thirty-two of the 33 flavonoids tested produced reverse type I binding spectra with P450 1B1, and the potencies of binding were correlated with the abilities to inhibit 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity. The presence of a hydroxyl group in flavones, for example, 3-, 5-, and 7-monohydroxy- and 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, decreased the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of P450 1B1 from 0.6 μM to 0.09, 0.21, 0.25, and 0.27 μM, respectively, and 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone (galangin) was the most potent, with an IC50 of 0.003 μM. The introduction of a 4'-methoxy- or 3',4'-dimethoxy group into 5,7-dihydroxyflavone yielded other active inhibitors of P450 1B1 with IC50 values of 0.014 and 0.019 μM, respectively. The above hydroxyl and/or methoxy groups in flavone molecules also increased the inhibition activity with P450 1A1 but not always toward P450 1A2, where 3-, 5-, or 7-hydroxyflavone and 4'-methoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone were less inhibitory than flavone itself. P450 2C9 was more inhibited by 7-hydroxy-, 5,7-dihydroxy-, and 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavones than by flavone but was weakly inhibited by 3- and 5-hydroxyflavone. Flavone and several other flavonoids produced type I binding spectra with P450 3A4, but such binding was not always related to the inhibitiory activities toward P450 3A4. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms of inhibition for P450s 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by various flavonoid derivatives and that the number and position of hydroxyl and/or methoxy groups highly influence the inhibitory actions of flavonoids toward these enzymes. Molecular docking studies suggest that there are different mechanisms involved in the interaction of various flavonoids with the active site of P450s, thus causing differences in inhibition of these P450 catalytic activities by flavonoids.

  9. Structure-Function Relationships of Inhibition of Human Cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by 33 Flavonoid Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Murayama, Norie; Martin, Martha V.; Foroozesh, Maryam K.; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Guengerich, F. Peter; Komori, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    Structure-function relationships for inhibition of human cytochrome P450s (P450s) 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by 33 flavonoid derivatives were studied. Thirty-two of the 33 flavonoids tested produced Reverse Type I binding spectra with P450 1B1, and the potencies of binding were correlated with the abilities to inhibit 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity. The presence of a hydroxyl group in flavones, e.g. 3-, 5-, and 7-monohydroxy- and 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, decreased the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of P450 1B1 from 0.6 µM to 0.09, 0.21, 0.25, and 0.27 µM, respectively, and 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone (galangin) was the most potent, with an IC50 of 0.003 µM. The introduction of a 4’-methoxy- or 3’,4’-dimethoxy group into 5,7-dihydroxyflavone yielded other active inhibitors of P450 1B1 with IC50 values of 0.014 and 0.019 µM, respectively. The above hydroxyl- and/or methoxy-groups in flavone molecules also increased the inhibition activity with P450 1A1 but not always towards P450 1A2, where 3-, 5-, or 7-hydroxyflavone, and 4’-methoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone were less inhibitory than flavone itself. P450 2C9 was more inhibited by 7-hydroxy-,5,7-dihydroxy-, and 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavones than by flavone but was weakly inhibited by 3-and 5-hydroxyflavone. Flavone and several other flavonoids produced Type I binding spectra with P450 3A4, but such binding was not always related to the inhibitiory activities towards P450 3A4. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms of inhibition for P450s 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by various flavonoid derivatives and that the number and position of hydroxyl and/or methoxy groups highly influence the inhibitory actions of flavonoids towards these enzymes. Molecular docking studies suggest that there are different mechanisms involved in the interaction of various flavonoids with the active site of P450s, thus causing differences in inhibition of these P450 catalytic activities by flavonoids. PMID

  10. Role of HCV Core gene of genotype 1a and 3a and host gene Cox-2 in HCV-induced pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Core protein is thought to trigger activation of multiple signaling pathways and play a significant role in the alteration of cellular gene expression responsible for HCV pathogenesis leading to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the exact molecular mechanism of HCV genome specific pathogenesis remains unclear. We examined the in vitro effects of HCV Core protein of HCV genotype 3a and 1a on the cellular genes involved in oxidative stress and angiogenesis. We also studied the ability of HCV Core and Cox-2 siRNA either alone or in combination to inhibit viral replication and cell proliferation in HCV serum infected Huh-7 cells. Results Over expression of Core gene of HCV 3a genotype showed stronger effect in regulating RNA and protein levels of Cox-2, iNOS, VEGF, p-Akt as compared to HCV-1a Core in hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Huh-7 accompanied by enhanced PGE2 release and cell proliferation. We also observed higher expression levels of above genes in HCV 3a patient's blood and biopsy samples. Interestingly, the Core and Cox-2-specific siRNAs down regulated the Core 3a-enhanced expression of Cox-2, iNOS, VEGF, p-Akt. Furthermore, the combined siRNA treatment also showed a dramatic reduction in viral titer and expression of these genes in HCV serum-infected Huh-7 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated a differential response by HCV 3a genotype in HCV-induced pathogenesis, which may be due to Core and host factor Cox-2 individually or in combination. Conclusions Collectively, these studies not only suggest a genotype-specific interaction between key players of HCV pathogenesis but also may represent combined viral and host gene silencing as a potential therapeutic strategy. PMID:21457561

  11. Test design description for the Fusion Materials Open Test Assembly (Fusion MOTA-2A): Volume 1A, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, R.E.

    1988-11-01

    This document encompasses the test requirements, hardware design, fabrication, and safety analysis for the Fusion Materials Open Test Assembly experiment for irradiation in FFTF Cycle 11 (Fusion MOTA-2A). Fusion MOTA is equally shared by the US Fusion Material (DOE), Japanese Fusion Materials (MONBUSHO), and BEATRIX-II (IEA) programs. In the interest of providing optimum use of the irradiation space in the Fusion MOTA-2A and LMR MOTA-1G, eight of the Fusion MOTA canisters will be placed in MOTA-1G and an equal number of LMR canisters placed in Fusion MOTA-2A (Powell/Doran 1988). This eliminates the need to process Fusion MOTA-2A through the IEM cell prior to insertion for FFTF Cycle 11A. The LMR MOTA design and safety analysis (Greenslade 1984) is the basis for much of this design and safety analysis report. This design description and safety analysis for the Fusion MOTA-2A is presented per the outline given in Chapter IV of the FTR User`s Guide (Taylor 1978). 35 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Isolation, sequence identification and expression profile of three novel genes Rab2A, Rab3A and Rab7A from Black-boned sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    He, Y D; Liu, D D; Xi, D M; Yang, L Y; Tan, Y W; Liu, Q; Mao, H M; Deng, W D

    2010-01-01

    Complete coding sequences of three Black-boned sheep (Ovis aries) genes Rab2A, Rab3A and Rab7A were amplified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on the conserved sequence information of cattle or other mammals known to be highly homologous to sheep ESTs. The Black-boned sheep Rab2A gene encodes a protein of 226 amino acids which contains the conserved putative RabL2 domain and is highly homologous to the Rab2A proteins of seven other species--cattle (96%), human (83%), Sumatran orangutan (82%), rat (81%), mouse (80%), African clawed frog (72%) and zebrafish (71%). The Black-boned sheep Rab3A gene encodes a protein of 220 amino acids that contains the conserved putative Rab3 domain and is very similar to the Rab3A proteins of four species--cattle (99%), African clawed frog (99%), Western clawed frog (98%) and zebrafish (95%). And the Black-boned sheep Rab7A gene encodes a protein of 207 amino acids that contains the conserved putative Rab7 domain and has high homology with the Rab7A proteins of six other species--human (99%), dog (99%), Sumatran orangutan (99%), zebrafish (97%), rabbit (97%) and African clawed frog (96%). Analysis of the phylogenetic tree has demonstrated that the Black-boned sheep Rab2A, Rab3A and Rab7A proteins share a common ancestor and the tissue expression analysis has shown that the corresponding genes are expressed in a range of tissues including leg muscle, kidney, skin, longissimus dorsi muscle, spleen, heart and liver. Our experiment is the first to provide the primary foundation for a further insight into these three sheep genes.

  13. Occupational Survey Report, AFSC 2A3X1, A-10/F-15/U-2 Avonics Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    specific data – Did not evaluate electronics principles section of STS • STS is generally supported by survey data – Seven STS items were unsupported... electronics principles section of STS for possible references 27 2A3X1 Percent Members Performing Unit Learning Objective Prof Code

  14. The 3A2, 1A2, 3B2, and 1B2 electronic states of CH2: Small bond angle states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Yukio; Schaefer, Henry F., III

    1997-02-01

    Molecular structures with very small bond angles are a curiosity in chemistry. The two triplet (3A2 and 3B2) and two singlet (1A2 and 1B2) excited states of CH2 have been investigated systematically using ab initio electronic structure theory. For these four states total energies and physical properties including geometries, dipole moments, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and associated infrared intensities were determined with the single and double excitation configuration interaction (CISD) method using four different basis sets. It is confirmed in this study that the four states of CH2 all have bent structures with longer CH bond lengths and smaller bond angles than the four lower-lying (X˜, ã, b˜, and c˜) states of CH2. At the CISD optimized geometries single point energies were determined with complete active space self-consistent-field (CASSCF) and CASSCF second-order configuration interaction (SOCI) levels of theory. For the triplet excited states single point energies were also determined employing coupled cluster with single and double excitations (CCSD) and CCSD with perturbative triple excitations methods. At the CISD level with the largest basis set, the triple zeta plus triple polarizations with two sets of higher angular momentum and two sets of diffuse functions basis set [TZ3P(2 f,2d)+2diff], the bond angles were predicted to be 40.6° (3A2), 46.1° (1A2), 76.3° (3B2), and 81.3° (1B2), while the dipole moments were determined to be 2.35 (3A2), 2.26 (1A2), 1.69 (3B2), and 1.60 debye (1B2), respectively. With the most accurate method in this study, the CASSCF-SOCI level with the TZ3P(2 f,2d)+2diff basis set, the energy separations (Te value) between the ground state (X˜ 3B1) and the four excited states were predicted to be 73.7 kcal/mol (3.20 eV, 25 800 cm-1) for the 3A2 state, 96.8 kcal/mol (4.20 eV, 33 800 cm-1) for the 1A2 state, 151.0 kcal/mol (6.55 eV, 52 800 cm-1) for the 3B2 state, and 182.5 kcal/mol (7.91 eV, 63 800 cm-1) for the 1B2

  15. Modulatory effect of the 5-HT1A agonist buspirone and the mixed non-hallucinogenic 5-HT1A/2A agonist ergotamine on psilocybin-induced psychedelic experience.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Thomas; Preller, Katrin H; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2016-04-01

    The mixed serotonin (5-HT) 1A/2A/2B/2C/6/7 receptor agonist psilocybin dose-dependently induces an altered state of consciousness (ASC) that is characterized by changes in sensory perception, mood, thought, and the sense of self. The psychological effects of psilocybin are primarily mediated by 5-HT2A receptor activation. However, accumulating evidence suggests that 5-HT1A or an interaction between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors may contribute to the overall effects of psilocybin. Therefore, we used a double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subject design to investigate the modulatory effects of the partial 5-HT1A agonist buspirone (20mg p.o.) and the non-hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/1A agonist ergotamine (3mg p.o.) on psilocybin-induced (170 µg/kg p.o.) psychological effects in two groups (n=19, n=17) of healthy human subjects. Psychological effects were assessed using the Altered State of Consciousness (5D-ASC) rating scale. Buspirone significantly reduced the 5D-ASC main scale score for Visionary Restructuralization (VR) (p<0.001), which was mostly driven by a reduction of the VR item cluster scores for elementary and complex visual hallucinations. Further, buspirone also reduced the main scale score for Oceanic Boundlessness (OB) including derealisation and depersonalisation phenomena at a trend level (p=0.062), whereas ergotamine did not show any effects on the psilocybin-induced 5D-ASC main scale scores. The present finding demonstrates that buspirone exerts inhibitory effects on psilocybin-induced effects, presumably via 5-HT1A receptor activation, an interaction between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, or both. The data suggest that the modulation of 5-HT1A receptor activity may be a useful target in the treatment of visual hallucinations in different psychiatric and neurological diseases.

  16. Impact of Tetrahydropalmatine on the Pharmacokinetics of Probe Drugs for CYP1A2, 2D6 and 3A Isoenzymes in Beagle Dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Liang, Aihua; Zhang, Yushi; Li, Chunying; Yi, Yan; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2016-06-01

    Tetrahydropalmatine (Tet) exhibit multiple pharmacological activities and is used frequently by clinical practitioners. In this study, we evaluate the in vivo effects of single and repeated oral Tet administrations on CYP1A2, 2D6 and 3A activities in six beagle dogs in a randomized, controlled, open-label, crossover study. A cocktail approach, with dosages of the probe drugs caffeine (3.0 mg/kg), metoprolol (2.33 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.45 mg/kg), was used to measure cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic activities. The cocktail was administered orally as a single dose (12 mg/kg) 1 day prior to and 4 days after repeated oral Tet administrations (12 mg/kg three times daily). The probe drugs and their metabolites in plasma were quantified simultaneously by a validated HPLC technique, and non-compartmental parameters were used to evaluate metabolic variables for assessment of CYP inhibition or induction. Tet had no or minor impact on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the probe drugs caffeine and metoprolol, CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 substrates, respectively. However, Tet increased AUC0-24 h and decreased AUCratio(0-24 h) (1-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam ratio) for midazolam statistically significant, both in single or multiple dosing of Tet, with up to 39 or 57% increase for AUC0-24 h and 29% or 22 decrease for AUCratio(0-24 h), respectively, in line with previous in vitro findings for its CYP3A4 inhibition. The extensive use of Tet and herbal medicines containing Tet makes Tet a candidate for further evaluation of CYP3A-mediated herb-drug interactions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Inhibition of AKT/FoxO3a signaling induced PUMA expression in response to p53-independent cytotoxic effects of H1: A derivative of tetrandrine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin-Xu; Liu, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Jing; Li, Jun; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Hua; Yu, Xue-Wen; Wei, Ning

    2015-01-01

    PUMA (p53 unregulated modulator of apoptosis), a BH3-only Bcl-2 family member, can be induced by p53-dependent and p53-independent manners. It plays an important role as regulator of cellular apoptosis. Herein, we evaluate the effects of H1 (a derivative of tetrandrine) on induction of PUMA and underlie its potential mechanism in p53-independent cytotoxic response. Anti-proliferative activity and evidently cytotoxic activity of H1 were observed in wild-type and p53 null cells. Further studies demonstrated that H1 resulted in an increase of cleaved PARP, decease of survivin and elevation of p-H2AX. What is more, H1 significantly induced PUMA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and caused an increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in p53 null cells. Of note, knockdown of PUMA attenuated cytotoxic activity of H1. Further studies demonstrated that inhibition of AKT/FoxO3a signaling contributed to H1-mediated PUMA induction. Targeted suppression of AKT/FoxO3a signaling by siRNA could overcome H1-mediated PUMA induction. In addition, H1 significantly suppressed NF-κB activity and caused an increase of early apoptotic and late apoptotic cells, and elevated caspase-3 activity. Taken together, we found that inhibition of AKT/FoxO3a signaling may contribute to H1-mediated PUMA induction, suggesting that inhibition of AKT/FoxO3a signaling result in PUMA expression in response to p53-independent cytotoxic effects of H1.

  18. Analysis of the dilepton invariant mass spectrum in C + C collisions at 2A and 1A GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Thomere, M.; Hartnack, C.; Aichelin, J.

    2007-06-15

    Recently the HADES Collaboration has published the invariant mass spectrum of e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs, dN/dM{sub e{sup +}}{sub e{sup -}}, produced in C + C collisions at 2A GeV. Using electromagnetic probes, one hopes to get information from this experiment on hadron properties at high density and temperature. Simulations show that firm conclusions on possible in-medium modifications of meson properties will only be possible when the elementary meson production cross sections, especially in the pn channel, as well as production cross sections of baryonic resonances are better known. Presently one can conclude that (i) simulations overpredict by far the cross section at M{sub e{sup +}}{sub e{sup -}}{approx_equal}M{sub {omega}}{sup 0} if free production cross sections are used and that (ii) the upper limit of the {eta} decay into e{sup +}e{sup -} is smaller than the present upper limit of the Particle Data Group. This is the result of simulations using the isospin quantum molecular dynamics approach.

  19. EO4Urban: First-Year Results on Sentinel-1A SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI Data for Global Urban Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yifang; Gamba, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    The overall objective of this research is to evaluate multitemporal Sentinel-1A SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI data for global urban services using innovative methods and algorithms, namely KTH-Pavia Urban Extractor, a robust algorithm for urban extent extraction and KTH- SEG, a novel object-based classification method for detailed urban land cover mapping. Ten cities around the world in different geographical and environmental conditions were selected as study areas. Large volume of Sentinel-1A SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI data were acquired during vegetation season in 2015 and 2016. The preliminary urban extraction results showed that urban areas and small towns could be well extracted using multitemporal Sentinel-1A SAR data with the KTH-Pavia Urban Extractor. For urban land cover mapping, multitemporal Sentinel-1A SAR data alone yielded an overall classification accuracy of 60% for Stockholm. Sentinel-2A MSI data as well as the fusion of Sentinel-1A SAR and Sentinel-2A MSI data, however, produced much higher classification accuracies, both reached 80%.

  20. In Vitro Inhibition of Human CYP450s 1A2, 2C9, 3A4/5, 2D6 and 2E1 by Grandisin.

    PubMed

    Habenschus, Maísa Daniela; Moreira, Fernanda de Lima; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Oliveira, Anderson R M

    2017-01-10

    Grandisin, a lignan isolated from many species of plants, such as Virola surinamensis, is a potential drug candidate due to its biological properties, highlighted by its antitumor and trypanocidal activities. In this study, the inhibitory effects of grandisin on the activities of human cytochrome P450 enzymes were investigated by using human liver microsomes. Results showed that grandisin is a competitive inhibitor of CYP2C9 and a competitive and mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP3A4/5. The apparent Ki value for CYP2C9 was 50.60 µM and those for CYP3A4/5 were 48.71 µM and 31.25 µM using two different probe substrates, nifedipine and midazolam, respectively. The apparent KI, kinact, and kinact/KI ratio for the mechanism-based inhibition of CYP3A4/5 were 6.40 µM, 0.037 min(-1), and 5.78 mL · min(-1) µmol(-1), respectively, by examining nifedipine oxidation, and 31.53 µM, 0.049 min(-1), and 1.55 mL · min(-1) µmol(-1), respectively, by examining midazolam 1'-hydroxylation. These apparent kinact/KI values were comparable to or even higher than those for several therapeutic drugs that act as mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP3A4/5. CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 activities, in turn, were not substantially inhibited by grandisin (IC50 > 200 µM and 100 µM, respectively). In contrast, from a concentration of 4 µM, grandisin significantly stimulated CYP2E1 activity. These results improve the prediction of grandisin-drug interactions, suggesting that the risk of interactions with drugs metabolized by CYP3A4/5 and CYP2E1 cannot be overlooked.

  1. Detection and significance of human papillomavirus, CDKN2A(p16) and CDKN1A(p21) expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx.

    PubMed

    Chernock, Rebecca D; Wang, Xiaowei; Gao, Ge; Lewis, James S; Zhang, Qin; Thorstad, Wade L; El-Mofty, Samir K

    2013-02-01

    Although a strong etiologic relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and a majority of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas has been established, the role of HPV in non-oropharyngeal head and neck carcinomas is much less clear. Here, we investigated the prevalence and clinicopathologic significance of HPV and its reported biomarkers, CDKN2A(p16) and CDKN1A(p21), in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas in patients treated either with primary surgery and postoperative radiation or with definitive radiation-based therapy. Nearly all of 76 tumors were keratinizing and none displayed the nonkeratinizing morphology that is typically associated with HPV infection in the oropharynx. However, CDKN2A(p16) immunohistochemistry was positive in 21 cases (28%) and CDKN1A(p21) in 34 (45%). CDKN2A(p16) and CDKN1A(p21) status strongly correlated with each other (P=0.0038). Yet, only four cases were HPV positive by DNA in situ hybridization or by reverse transcriptase PCR E6/E7 mRNA (all four were CDKN2A(p16) and CDKN1A(p21) positive). Unexpectedly, 9 additional tumors out of 20 CDKN2A(p16) positive cases harbored high-risk HPV DNA by PCR. For further investigation of this unexpected result, in situ hybridization for E6/E7 mRNA was performed on these nine cases and all were negative, confirming the absence of transcriptionally active virus. Patients with CDKN1A(p21)-positive tumors did have better overall survival (69% at 3 years) than those with CDKN1A(p21)-negative tumors (51% at 3 years) (P=0.045). There was also a strong trend towards better overall survival in the CDKN2A(p16)-positive group (P=0.058). Thus, it appears that the role of HPV is more complex in the larynx than in the oropharynx, and that CDKN2A(p16) and CDKN1A(p21) expression may not reflect HPV-driven tumors in most cases. Because of this, CDKN2A(p16) should not be used as a definitive surrogate marker of HPV-driven tumors in the larynx.

  2. Polymorphisms in CYP1B1, CYP3A5, GSTT1, and SULT1A1 Are Associated with Early Age Acute Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Bruno Almeida; Emerenciano, Mariana; Gonçalves, Bruno Alves Aguiar; Vieira, Tállita Meciany; Rossini, Ana; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2015-01-01

    Based on observational studies, early age leukemia (EAL) was associated with maternal hormone exposure during pregnancy. We studied the association between genetic polymorphisms of estrogen metabolism and EAL. Using data from the Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia (2000-2012), 350 cases and 404 age-matched controls and 134 mothers of cases and controls were genotyped to explore polymorphisms in genes of the estrogen metabolism pathway: CYP1B1 (c.1294C>G, rs1056836), CYP3A4 (c.-392A>G, rs2740574), CYP3A5 (c.219-237G>A, rs776746), GSTM1/GSTT1 deletions, and SULT1A1 (c.638G>A, rs9282861; and c.667A>G, rs1801030). Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) by ethnicity. Because of multiple testing, p values < 0.01 were significant after Bonferroni correction. SULT1A1 (c.638G>A) was associated to infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) risk in males (additive model: aOR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29-0.95, p = 0.03; dominant model: aOR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.17-4.05, p = 0.01, respectively). CYP1B1 polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk of AML either for non-white or female children (additive model: OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08-0.76, p < 0.01; additive model: aOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.89, p = 0.03, respectively). Since polymorphisms of Cytochrome P450 genes presented gender-specific risk associations, we also investigated their expression. CYP1B1 was not expressed in 57.1% of EAL cases, and its expression varied by genotype, gender, and leukemia subtype. Maternal-fetal GSTT1 null genotype was associated with risk of EAL. This study shows that polymorphisms in genes of estrogen metabolism confer genetic susceptibility to EAL, mainly in males, and maternal susceptibility genes modify the risk for developing EAL in newborns.

  3. Polymorphisms in CYP1B1, CYP3A5, GSTT1, and SULT1A1 Are Associated with Early Age Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Bruno Almeida; Emerenciano, Mariana; Gonçalves, Bruno Alves Aguiar; Vieira, Tállita Meciany; Rossini, Ana; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on observational studies, early age leukemia (EAL) was associated with maternal hormone exposure during pregnancy. We studied the association between genetic polymorphisms of estrogen metabolism and EAL. Using data from the Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia (2000–2012), 350 cases and 404 age-matched controls and 134 mothers of cases and controls were genotyped to explore polymorphisms in genes of the estrogen metabolism pathway: CYP1B1 (c.1294C>G, rs1056836), CYP3A4 (c.-392A>G, rs2740574), CYP3A5 (c.219-237G>A, rs776746), GSTM1/GSTT1 deletions, and SULT1A1 (c.638G>A, rs9282861; and c.667A>G, rs1801030). Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) by ethnicity. Because of multiple testing, p values < 0.01 were significant after Bonferroni correction. SULT1A1 (c.638G>A) was associated to infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) risk in males (additive model: aOR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29–0.95, p = 0.03; dominant model: aOR = 2.18; 95% CI: 1.17–4.05, p = 0.01, respectively). CYP1B1 polymorphism was associated with a decreased risk of AML either for non-white or female children (additive model: OR = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08–0.76, p < 0.01; additive model: aOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08–0.89, p = 0.03, respectively). Since polymorphisms of Cytochrome P450 genes presented gender-specific risk associations, we also investigated their expression. CYP1B1 was not expressed in 57.1% of EAL cases, and its expression varied by genotype, gender, and leukemia subtype. Maternal-fetal GSTT1 null genotype was associated with risk of EAL. This study shows that polymorphisms in genes of estrogen metabolism confer genetic susceptibility to EAL, mainly in males, and maternal susceptibility genes modify the risk for developing EAL in newborns. PMID:25992585

  4. Capable Reader Program: Lesson Plan Guide. Units A1; A2; A3; A4; [and] A5. Pilot Year 1979-1980, Final Edition 1980-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Donna; And Others

    Part of a curriculum series for academically gifted elementary students in the area of reading, the five lesson plan guides are intended to provide teachers with suggested activities stressing high levels of reading comprehension as well as encouraging teachers to use their own ideas. Each guide focuses on one of the following major objectives:…

  5. Neonatal seizures alter NMDA glutamate receptor GluN2A and 3A subunit expression and function in hippocampal CA1 neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chengwen; Sun, Hongyu; Klein, Peter M.; Jensen, Frances E.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal seizures are commonly caused by hypoxic and/or ischemic injury during birth and can lead to long-term epilepsy and cognitive deficits. In a rodent hypoxic seizure (HS) model, we have previously demonstrated a critical role for seizure-induced enhancement of the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptor (GluA) in epileptogenesis and cognitive consequences, in part due to GluA maturational upregulation of expression. Similarly, as the expression and function of the N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor (GluN) is also developmentally controlled, we examined how early life seizures during the critical period of synaptogenesis could modify GluN development and function. In a postnatal day (P)10 rat model of neonatal seizures, we found that seizures could alter GluN2/3 subunit composition of GluNs and physiological function of synaptic GluNs. In hippocampal slices removed from rats within 48–96 h following seizures, the amplitudes of synaptic GluN-mediated evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) were elevated in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Moreover, GluN eEPSCs showed a decreased sensitivity to GluN2B selective antagonists and decreased Mg2+ sensitivity at negative holding potentials, indicating a higher proportion of GluN2A and GluN3A subunit function, respectively. These physiological findings were accompanied by a concurrent increase in GluN2A phosphorylation and GluN3A protein. These results suggest that altered GluN function and expression could potentially contribute to future epileptogenesis following neonatal seizures, and may represent potential therapeutic targets for the blockade of future epileptogenesis in the developing brain. PMID:26441533

  6. Novel class of arylpiperazines containing N-acylated amino acids: their synthesis, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A receptor affinity, and in vivo pharmacological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Paweł; Subra, Gilles; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Duszyńska, Beata; Tatarczyńska, Ewa; Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Chojnacka-Wójcik, Ewa; Pawłowski, Maciej; Martinez, Jean

    2007-04-15

    Novel arylpiperazines with N-acylated amino acids, selected on the basis of a preliminary screening of two libraries previously synthesized on SynPhase Lanterns, were prepared in solution and their affinity for 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), and D(2) receptors was evaluated. The compounds bearing (3-acylamino)pyrrolidine-2,5-dione (19-26) and N-acylprolinamide (29-34) moieties showed high affinity for 5-HT(1A) (K(i)=3-47 nM), high-to-low for 5-HT(2A) (K(i)=4.2-990 nM), and low for D(2) receptors (K(i)=0.77-21.19 microM). All the new o-methoxy derivatives of (3-acylamino)pyrrolidine-2,5-diones tested in vivo revealed agonistic activity at postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors, while m-chloro derivatives were classified as antagonists of these sites; similar relations were observed for o-methoxy (29) and m-chlorophenylpiperazine derivatives of N-acylprolinamides. The reported results show that the amino acid-derived terminal fragment modified the in vivo functional profile. Finally, the selected compounds 19 and 20, a 5-HT(1A) partial agonist and a full agonist, respectively, and 26, a mixed 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(2A) antagonist, were evaluated in preclinical animal models of depression and anxiety. The project allowed selecting the lead compound 20 which exhibited an anxiolytic-like effect in the four-plate test in mice and revealed distinct antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests in mice.

  7. Influence of synthetic and natural food dyes on activities of CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Nayumi; Mizutani, Takaharu

    2005-08-27

    Synthetic or natural food dyes are typical xenobiotics, as are drugs and pollutants. After ingestion, part of these dyes may be absorbed and metabolized by phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes and excreted by transporters of phase III enzymes. However, there is little information regarding the metabolism of these dyes. It was investigated whether these dyes are substrates for CYP2A6 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). The in vitro inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes by these dyes was also examined. The synthetic food dyes studied were amaranth (food red no. 2), erythrosine B (food red no. 3), allura red (food red no. 40), new coccine (food red no. 102), acid red (food red no. 106), tartrazine (food Yellow no. 4), sunset yellow FCF (food yellow no. 5), brilliant blue FCF (food blue no. 1), and indigo carmine (food blue no. 2). The natural additive dyes studied were extracts from purple sweet potato, purple corn, cochineal, monascus, grape skin, elderberry, red beet, gardenia, and curthamus. Data confirmed that these dyes were not substrates for CYP2A6, UGT1A6, and UGT2B7. Only indigo carmine inhibited CYP2A6 in a noncompetitive manner, while erythrosine B inhibited UGT1A6 (glucuronidation of p-nitrophenol) and UGT2B7 (glucuronidation of androsterone). In the natural additive dyes just listed, only monascus inhibited UGT1A6 and UGT2B7.

  8. A pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic (p-PBPK) model for disposition of drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Gaohua, Lu; Abduljalil, Khaled; Jamei, Masoud; Johnson, Trevor N; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2012-01-01

    Aims Pregnant women are usually not part of the traditional drug development programme. Pregnancy is associated with major biological and physiological changes that alter the pharmacokinetics (PK) of drugs. Prediction of the changes to drug exposure in this group of patients may help to prevent under- or overtreatment. We have used a pregnancy physiologically based pharmacokinetic (p-PBPK) model to assess the likely impact of pregnancy on three model compounds, namely caffeine, metoprolol and midazolam, based on the knowledge of their disposition in nonpregnant women and information from in vitro studies. Methods A perfusion-limited form of a 13-compartment full-PBPK model (Simcyp® Simulator) was used for the nonpregnant women, and this was extended to the pregnant state by applying known changes to all model components (including the gestational related activity of specific cytochrome P450 enzymes) and through the addition of an extra compartment to represent the fetoplacental unit. The uterus and the mammary glands were grouped into the muscle compartment. The model was implemented in Matlab Simulink and validated using clinical observations. Results The p-PBPK model predicted the PK changes of three model compounds (namely caffeine, metoprolol and midazolam) for CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 during pregnancy within twofold of observed values. The changes during the third trimester were predicted to be a 100% increase, a 30% decrease and a 35% decrease in the exposure of caffeine, metoprolol and midazolam, respectively, compared with the nonpregnant women. Conclusions In the absence of clinical data, the in silico prediction of PK behaviour during pregnancy can provide a valuable aid to dose adjustment in pregnant women. The performance of the model for drugs metabolized by a single enzyme to different degrees (high and low extraction) and for drugs that are eliminated by several different routes warrants further study. PMID:22725721

  9. Refinement of the HIVAN1 Susceptibility Locus on Chr. 3A1-A3 via Generation of Sub-Congenic Strains.

    PubMed

    Papeta, Natalia; Patel, Ami; D'Agati, Vivette D; Gharavi, Ali G

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 transgenic mice on the FVB/NJ background (TgFVB) represent a validated model of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). A major susceptibility locus, HIVAN1, was previously mapped to chromosome 3A1-A3 in a cross between TgFVB and CAST/EiJ (CAST) strains, and introgression of a 51.9 Mb segment encompassing HIVAN1 from CAST into TgFVB resulted in accelerated development of nephropathy. We generated three sub-congenic strains carrying CAST alleles in the proximal or distal regions of the HIVAN1 locus (Sub-II, 3.02-38.93 Mb; Sub-III, 38.45-55.1 Mb and Sub-IV, 47.7-55.1 Mb, build 38). At 5-10 weeks of age, histologic injury and proteinuria did not differ between HIV-1 transgenic Sub-II and TgFVB mice. In contrast, HIV-1 transgenic Sub-III and Sub-IV mice displayed up to 4.4 fold more histopathologic injury and 6-fold more albuminuria compared to TgFVB mice, similar in severity to the full-length congenic mice. The Sub-IV segment defines a maximal 7.4 Mb interval for HIVAN1, and encodes 31 protein coding genes: 15 genes have missense variants differentiating CAST from FVB, and 14 genes show differential renal expression. Of these, Frem1, Foxo1, and Setd7 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of nephropathy. HIVAN1 congenic kidneys are histologically normal without the HIV-1 transgene, yet their global transcriptome is enriched for molecular signatures of apoptosis, adenoviral infection, as well as genes repressed by histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation, a histone modification associated with HIV-1 life cycle. These data refine HIVAN1to 7.4 Mb and identify latent molecular derangements that may predispose to nephropathy upon exposure to HIV-1.

  10. Refinement of the HIVAN1 Susceptibility Locus on Chr. 3A1-A3 via Generation of Sub-Congenic Strains

    PubMed Central

    Papeta, Natalia; Patel, Ami; D’Agati, Vivette D.; Gharavi, Ali G.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 transgenic mice on the FVB/NJ background (TgFVB) represent a validated model of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). A major susceptibility locus, HIVAN1, was previously mapped to chromosome 3A1-A3 in a cross between TgFVB and CAST/EiJ (CAST) strains, and introgression of a 51.9 Mb segment encompassing HIVAN1 from CAST into TgFVB resulted in accelerated development of nephropathy. We generated three sub-congenic strains carrying CAST alleles in the proximal or distal regions of the HIVAN1 locus (Sub-II, 3.02–38.93 Mb; Sub-III, 38.45–55.1 Mb and Sub-IV, 47.7–55.1 Mb, build 38). At 5–10 weeks of age, histologic injury and proteinuria did not differ between HIV-1 transgenic Sub-II and TgFVB mice. In contrast, HIV-1 transgenic Sub-III and Sub-IV mice displayed up to 4.4 fold more histopathologic injury and 6-fold more albuminuria compared to TgFVB mice, similar in severity to the full-length congenic mice. The Sub-IV segment defines a maximal 7.4 Mb interval for HIVAN1, and encodes 31 protein coding genes: 15 genes have missense variants differentiating CAST from FVB, and 14 genes show differential renal expression. Of these, Frem1, Foxo1, and Setd7 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of nephropathy. HIVAN1 congenic kidneys are histologically normal without the HIV-1 transgene, yet their global transcriptome is enriched for molecular signatures of apoptosis, adenoviral infection, as well as genes repressed by histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation, a histone modification associated with HIV-1 life cycle. These data refine HIVAN1to 7.4 Mb and identify latent molecular derangements that may predispose to nephropathy upon exposure to HIV-1. PMID:27736906

  11. The role of peripheral 5HT2A and 5HT1A receptors on the orofacial formalin test in rats with persistent temporomandibular joint inflammation.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, K; Imbe, H; Tashiro, A; Kimura, A; Donishi, T; Tamai, Y; Senba, E

    2005-01-01

    The role of peripheral serotonin (5HT) 2A and 5HT1A receptors on the orofacial nocifensive behavioral activities evoked by the injection of formalin into the masseter muscle was evaluated in the rats with persistent temporomandibular joint (TMJ) inflammation evoked by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA). The orofacial nocifensive behavioral activities evoked by the injection of formalin into masseter muscle were significantly enhanced at 1 day (CFA day 1 group) or 7 days (CFA day 7 group) during TMJ inflammation. Pretreatment with local administration of 5HT2A receptor antagonist, ketanserin (0.01, 0.1 mg/rat) into the masseter muscle or systemic administration of ketanserin via i.p. injection (1 mg/kg) reduced the orofacial nocifensive behavioral activities of the late phase evoked by formalin injection into masseter muscle on the side of TMJ inflammation (CFA day 7 group). However, local (0.001-0.1 mg/rat) or systemic (1 mg/kg) administration of 5HT1A receptor antagonist, propranolol, into masseter muscle did not produce the antinociceptive effect in CFA day 7 group. Moreover, local administration of ketanserin (0.1 mg) or propranolol (0.1 mg) into masseter muscle did not inhibit nocifensive orofacial behavior in rats without TMJ inflammation. These data suggest that persistent TMJ inflammation causes the elevation of the orofacial nocifensive behavior, and peripheral 5HT2A receptors play an important role in mediating the deep craniofacial tissue nociception in rats with TMJ inflammation.

  12. Polycomb RING1A- and RING1B-dependent histone H2A monoubiquitylation at pericentromeric regions promotes S-phase progression.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Mónica; Nicolini, Fabio; Starowicz, Katarzyna; Barroso, Sonia; Calés, Carmela; Aguilera, Andrés; Vidal, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    The functions of polycomb products extend beyond their well-known activity as transcriptional regulators to include genome duplication processes. Polycomb activities during DNA replication and DNA damage repair are unclear, particularly without induced replicative stress. We have used a cellular model of conditionally inactive polycomb E3 ligases (RING1A and RING1B), which monoubiquitylate lysine 119 of histone H2A (H2AK119Ub), to examine DNA replication in unperturbed cells. We identify slow elongation and fork stalling during DNA replication that is associated with the accumulation of mid and late S-phase cells. Signs of replicative stress and colocalisation of double-strand breaks with chromocenters, the sites of coalesced pericentromeric heterocromatic (PCH) domains, were enriched in cells at mid S-phase, the stage at which PCH is replicated. Altered replication was rescued by targeted monoubiquitylation of PCH through methyl-CpG binding domain protein 1. The acute senescence associated with the depletion of RING1 proteins, which is mediated by p21 (also known as CDKN1A) upregulation, could be uncoupled from a response to DNA damage. These findings link cell proliferation and the polycomb proteins RING1A and RING1B to S-phase progression through a specific function in PCH replication.

  13. Water pipe (Shisha, Hookah, Arghile) Smoking and Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Effects on CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 Phenotypes as Measured by Caffeine Urine Test.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Şenay Görücü; Llerena, Adrián; De Andrés, Fernando; Karakaş, Ümit; Gündoğar, Hasan; Erciyas, Kamile; Kimyon, Sabit; Mete, Alper; Güngör, Kıvanç; Özdemir, Vural

    2017-03-01

    Public policies to stop or reduce cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke and associated diseases have yielded successful results over the past decade. Yet, the growing worldwide popularity of another form of tobacco consumption, water pipe smoking, has received relatively less attention. To the best of our knowledge, no study to date has evaluated the effects of water pipe smoking on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) activities and drug interaction potential in humans, whereas only limited information is available on the impact of secondhand smoke on drug metabolism. In a sample of 99 healthy volunteers (28 water pipe smokers, 30 secondhand tobacco smoke exposed persons, and 41 controls), we systematically compared CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 enzyme activities in vivo using caffeine urine test. The median self-reported duration of water pipe smoking was 7.5 h/week and 3 years of exposure in total. The secondhand smoke group had a median of 14 h of self-reported weekly exposure to tobacco smoke indoor where a minimum of five cigarettes were smoked/hour for a total of 3.5 years (median). Analysis of variance did not find a significant difference in CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 activities among the three study groups (p > 0.05). Nor was there a significant association between the extent of water pipe or secondhand smoke exposure and the CYP1A2 and CYP2A6 activities (p > 0.05). Further analysis in a subsample with smoke exposure more than the median values also did not reveal a significant difference from the controls. Although we do not rule out an appreciable possible impact of water pipe smoke and secondhand smoke on in vivo activities of these two drug metabolism pathways, variability in smoke constituents from different tobacco consumption methods (e.g., water pipe) might affect drug metabolism in ways that might differ from that of cigarette smoke. Further studies in larger prospective samples are recommended to evaluate water pipe and secondhand tobacco smoke effects

  14. Targeting dopamine D3 and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors for developing effective antipsychotics: synthesis, biological characterization, and behavioral studies.

    PubMed

    Brindisi, Margherita; Butini, Stefania; Franceschini, Silvia; Brogi, Simone; Trotta, Francesco; Ros, Sindu; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Salmona, Mario; Casagni, Alice; Andreassi, Marco; Saponara, Simona; Gorelli, Beatrice; Weikop, Pia; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Scheel-Kruger, Jorgen; Sandager-Nielsen, Karin; Novellino, Ettore; Campiani, Giuseppe; Gemma, Sandra

    2014-11-26

    Combination of dopamine D3 antagonism, serotonin 5-HT1A partial agonism, and antagonism at 5-HT2A leads to a novel approach to potent atypical antipsychotics. Exploitation of the original structure-activity relationships resulted in the identification of safe and effective antipsychotics devoid of extrapyramidal symptoms liability, sedation, and catalepsy. The potential atypical antipsychotic 5bb was selected for further pharmacological investigation. The distribution of c-fos positive cells in the ventral striatum confirmed the atypical antipsychotic profile of 5bb in agreement with behavioral rodent studies. 5bb administered orally demonstrated a biphasic effect on the MK801-induced hyperactivity at dose levels not able to induce sedation, catalepsy, or learning impairment in passive avoidance. In microdialysis studies, 5bb increased the dopamine efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, 5bb represents a valuable lead for the development of atypical antipsychotics endowed with a unique pharmacological profile for addressing negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

  15. Hallucinogen-like effects of N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT): possible mediation by serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Fantegrossi, William E.; Reissig, Chad J.; Katz, Elyse B.; Yarosh, Haley L.; Rice, Kenner C.; Winter, Jerrold C.

    2008-01-01

    N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT) is a synthetic tryptamine hallucinogen which has been used psychotherapeutically in humans, but has been studied preclinically only rarely. In the present studies, DPT was tested in a drug-elicited head twitch assay in mice, and in rats trained to discriminate lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), N,N-dimethyl-4-phosphoryloxytryptamine (psilocybin), or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). A separate group of rats was also trained to recognize DPT itself as a discriminative stimulus, and in all cases, the behavioral effects of DPT were challenged with the selective serotonin (5-HT)2A antagonist M100907, the 5-HT1A selective antagonist WAY-100635, or their combination. In the head twitch assay, DPT elicited dose-dependent effects, producing a biphasic dose-effect curve. WAY-100635 produced a parallel rightward shift in the dose-effect curve for head twitches, indicative of surmountable antagonism, but the antagonist effects of M100907 were functionally insurmountable. DPT produced partial to full substitution when tested in rats trained to discriminate LSD, psilocybin or MDMA, and served as a discriminative stimulus. In all cases, the antagonist effects of M100907 were more profound than were those of WAY-100635. DPT is thus active in two rodent models relevant to 5-HT2 agonist activity. The effectiveness with which M100907 antagonizes the behavioral actions of this compound strongly suggests that the 5-HT2A receptor is an important site of action for DPT, but the modulatory actions of WAY-100635 also imply a 5-HT1A-mediated component to the actions of this compound. PMID:17905422

  16. Altered regulation of the Spry2/Dyrk1A/PP2A triad by homocysteine impairs neural progenitor cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Rabaneda, Luis G; Geribaldi-Doldán, Noelia; Murillo-Carretero, Maribel; Carrasco, Manuel; Martínez-Salas, José M; Verástegui, Cristina; Castro, Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia reduces neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain. Homocysteine (Hcy) inhibits postnatal neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation by specifically impairing the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-Erk1/2-cyclin E signaling pathway. We demonstrate herein that the inhibition of FGFR-dependent NPC proliferation induced by Hcy is mediated by its capacity to alter the cellular methylation potential. Our results show that this alteration modified the expression pattern and activity of Sprouty2 (Spry2), a negative regulator of the above mentioned pathway. Both elevated concentrations of Hcy and methyltransferase activity inhibition induced Spry2 promoter demethylation in NPC cultures leading to a sustained upregulation of the expression of Spry2 mRNA and protein. In addition, protein levels of two kinases responsible for Spry2 activation/deactivation were altered by Hcy: Spry2 kinase Dyrk1A levels diminished while Spry2 phosphatase PP2A increased, leading to changes in the phosphorylation pattern, activity and stability of Spry2. In conclusion, Hcy inhibits NPC proliferation by indirect mechanisms involving alterations in DNA methylation, gene expression, and Spry2 function, causing FGFR signaling impairment.

  17. Ethanol up-regulates phenol sulfotransferase (SULT1A1) and hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (SULT2A1) in rat liver and intestine.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Smarajit; Chen, Guangping

    2015-05-01

    Ethanol-consumption impairs physiological-efficiency/endurance, expedites senescence. Impaired-regulations of steroids/biomolecules link these processes. Steroids are catabolized by cytosolic-sulfotransferases (SULTs). Ethanol-induction of eukaryotic-SULTs-expression is scanty. Plant (Brassica-napus) steroid-sulfotransferase; BNST3/BNST4 (gene/BNST) is highly ethanol-inducible (protein/mRNA). Resembling mammalian-SULTs catalytic-mechanism BNSTs show broad substrate-specificities (mammalian-steroids; estradiol/dehydroepiandrosterone/pregnanolone). Recently, ethanol-regulation of SULTs-expression is verified in rat liver/intestine/cultured human-hepatocarcinoma (Hep-G2) cells at enzyme-activity/protein-expression (Western-blot) level. Here, two week's ethanol ingestion by male rat significantly increased SULT2A1 in their liver/intestine (p < 0.05-p < 0.001) and phenol-sulfotransferase (SULT1A1) in intestine (p < 0.001) at enzyme-activity/protein levels. In human cells, ethanol significantly (2-fold) increased hSULT1A1/hSULT1E (2-3 fold) protein expressions paralleling their enzymatic-activities (p < 0.05-p < 0.01). The earlier finding of alcohol-association to the physiological impairment may be corroborated by our present findings. Inductions of SULT-expressions by ethanol have significant physiological/pharmacological consequences.

  18. Crossed beam reactions of the phenyl (C6H5; X(2)A1) and phenyl-d5 radical (C6D5; X(2)A1) with 1,2-butadiene (H2CCCHCH3; X(1)A').

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Parker, Dorian S N; Dangi, Beni B; Kaiser, Ralf I; Kislov, Vadim V; Mebel, Alexander M

    2014-06-26

    We explored the reactions on the phenyl (C6H5; X(2)A1) and phenyl-d5 (C6D5; X(2)A1) radical with 1,2-butadiene (C4H6; X(1)A') at a collision energy of about 52 ± 3 kJ mol(-1) in a crossed molecular beam apparatus. The reaction of phenyl with 1,2-butadiene is initiated by adding the phenyl radical with its radical center to the π electron density at the C1/C3 carbon atom of 1,2-butadiene. Later, the initial collision complexes isomerize via phenyl group migration from the C1/C3 carbon atoms to the C2 carbon atom of the allene moiety of 1,2-butadiene. The resulting intermediate undergoes unimolecular decomposition through hydrogen atom emission from the methyl group of the 1,2-butadiene moiety via a rather loose exit transition state leading to 2-phenyl-1,3-butadiene in an overall exoergic reaction (ΔRG = -72 ± 10 kJ mol(-1)). This finding reveals the strong collision-energy dependence of this system when the data are compared with those of the phenyl radical with 1,2-butadiene previously recorded at collision energies up to 160 kJ mol(-1), with the previous study exhibiting the thermodynamically less stable 1-phenyl-3-methylallene (ΔRG = -33 ± 10 kJ mol(-1)) and 1-phenyl-2-butyne (ΔRG = -24 ± 10 kJ mol(-1)) to be the dominant products.

  19. Potentiation of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced hyperthermia by harmaline and the involvement of activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xi-Ling; Shen, Hong-Wu; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and harmaline are serotonin (5-HT) analogs often abused together, which alters thermoregulation that may indicate the severity of serotonin toxicity. Our recent studies have revealed that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor harmaline leads to greater and prolonged exposure to 5-HT agonist 5-MeO-DMT that might be influenced by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) status. This study was to define the effects of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT on thermoregulation in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, as well as the involvement of 5-HT receptors. Animal core body temperatures were monitored noninvasively in the home cages after implantation of telemetry transmitters and administration of drugs. Harmaline (5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) alone was shown to induce hypothermia that was significantly affected by CYP2D6 status. In contrast, higher doses of 5-MeO-DMT (10 and 20 mg/kg) alone caused hyperthermia. Co-administration of harmaline (2, 5 or 15 mg/kg) remarkably potentiated the hyperthermia elicited by 5-MeO-DMT (2 or 10 mg/kg), which might be influenced by CYP2D6 status at certain dose combination. Interestingly, harmaline-induced hypothermia was only attenuated by 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, whereas 5-MeO-DMT- and harmaline-5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia could be suppressed by either WAY-100635 or 5-HT2A receptor antagonists (MDL-100907 and ketanserin). Moreover, stress-induced hyperthermia under home cage conditions was not affected by WAY-100635 but surprisingly attenuated by MDL-100907 and ketanserin. Our results indicate that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor largely potentiates 5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia that involves the activation of both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. These findings shall provide insights into development of anxiolytic drugs and new strategies to relieve the lethal hyperthermia in serotonin toxicity. PMID:25446678

  20. Potentiation of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced hyperthermia by harmaline and the involvement of activation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xi-Ling; Shen, Hong-Wu; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2015-02-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) and harmaline are serotonin (5-HT) analogs often abused together, which alters thermoregulation that may indicate the severity of serotonin toxicity. Our recent studies have revealed that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor harmaline leads to greater and prolonged exposure to 5-HT agonist 5-MeO-DMT that might be influenced by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) status. This study was to define the effects of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT on thermoregulation in wild-type and CYP2D6-humanized (Tg-CYP2D6) mice, as well as the involvement of 5-HT receptors. Animal core body temperatures were monitored noninvasively in the home cages after implantation of telemetry transmitters and administration of drugs. Harmaline (5 and 15 mg/kg, i.p.) alone was shown to induce hypothermia that was significantly affected by CYP2D6 status. In contrast, higher doses of 5-MeO-DMT (10 and 20 mg/kg) alone caused hyperthermia. Co-administration of harmaline (2, 5 or 15 mg/kg) remarkably potentiated the hyperthermia elicited by 5-MeO-DMT (2 or 10 mg/kg), which might be influenced by CYP2D6 status at certain dose combination. Interestingly, harmaline-induced hypothermia was only attenuated by 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, whereas 5-MeO-DMT- and harmaline-5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia could be suppressed by either WAY-100635 or 5-HT2A receptor antagonists (MDL-100907 and ketanserin). Moreover, stress-induced hyperthermia under home cage conditions was not affected by WAY-100635 but surprisingly attenuated by MDL-100907 and ketanserin. Our results indicate that co-administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitor largely potentiates 5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia that involves the activation of both 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors. These findings shall provide insights into development of anxiolytic drugs and new strategies to relieve the lethal hyperthermia in serotonin toxicity.

  1. Antidepressant-like activity of Tagetes lucida Cav. is mediated by 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Jaime, H; Guadarrama-Cruz, G; Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Limón-Morales, O; Vazquez-Palacios, G

    2015-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that the aqueous extract of Tagetes lucida Cav. shows an antidepressant-like effect on the forced swimming test (FST) in rats. The aim of this study was to analyze the participation of the serotoninergic system in the antidepressant-like effect of the aqueous extract of T. lucida. Different doses of the extract of T. lucida were administered at 72, 48, 24, 18 and 1 h before FST. The animals were pretreated with a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (WAY-100635, 0.5 mg/kg), a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist (ketanserin, 5 mg/kg), a β-noradrenergic receptor antagonist (propranolol, 200 mg/kg), and with a α2-noradrenergic receptor antagonist (yohimbine, 1 mg/kg) alone or combined with the extract and pretreated with a serotonin synthesis inhibitor (PCPA) before treatment with 8-OH-DPAT + the extract of T. lucida. In addition, suboptimal doses of the 5-HT1A agonist (8-OH-DPAT) + non-effective dose of extract was analyzed in the FST. To determine the presence of flavonoids, the aqueous extract of T. lucida (20 µl, 4 mg/ml) was injected in HPLC; however, a quercetin concentration of 7.72 mg/g of extract weight was detected. A suboptimal dose of 8-OH-DPAT + extract of T. lucida decreased immobility and increased swimming and climbing. An antidepressant-like effect with the aqueous extract of T. lucida at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg was observed on the FST with decreased immobility behavior and increased swimming; however, this effect was blocked by WAY-100635, ketanserin and PCPA but not by yohimbine and propranolol, suggesting that the extract of T. lucida could be modulating the release/reuptake of serotonin.

  2. Optical Isomers of Atorvastatin, Rosuvastatin and Fluvastatin Enantiospecifically Activate Pregnane X Receptor PXR and Induce CYP2A6, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 in Human Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Korhonova, Martina; Doricakova, Aneta; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    Atorvastatin, fluvastatin and rosuvastatin are drugs used for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. They cause numerous drug-drug interactions by inhibiting and inducing drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450. These three statins exist in four optical forms, but they are currently used as enantiopure drugs, i.e., only one single enantiomer. There are numerous evidences that efficacy, adverse effects and toxicity of drugs may be enantiospecific. Therefore, we investigated the effects of optical isomers of atorvastatin, fluvastatin and rosuvastatin on the expression of drug-metabolizing P450s in primary human hepatocytes, using western blots and RT-PCR for measurement of proteins and mRNAs, respectively. The activity of P450 transcriptional regulators, including pregnane X receptor (PXR), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), was assessed by gene reporter assays and EMSA. Transcriptional activity of AhR was not influenced by any statin tested. Basal transcriptional activity of GR was not affected by tested statins, but dexamethasone-inducible activity of GR was dose-dependently and enantioselectively inhibited by fluvastatin. Basal and ligand-inducible transcriptional activity of PXR was dose-dependently influenced by all tested statins, and the potency and efficacy between individual optical isomers varied depending on statin and optical isomer. The expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in human hepatocytes was not influenced by tested statins. All statins induced CYP2A6, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, and the effects on CYP2C9 were rather modulatory. The effects varied between statins and enantiomers and induction potency decreased in order: atorvastatin (RR>RS = SR>SS) > fluvastatin (SR>RS = SS>RR) > rosuvastatin (only RS active). The data presented here might be of toxicological and clinical importance.

  3. Modulating the rate and rhythmicity of perceptual rivalry alternations with the mixed 5-HT2A and 5-HT1A agonist psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Carter, Olivia L; Pettigrew, John D; Hasler, Felix; Wallis, Guy M; Liu, Guang B; Hell, Daniel; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2005-06-01

    Binocular rivalry occurs when different images are presented simultaneously to corresponding points within the left and right eyes. Under these conditions, the observer's perception will alternate between the two perceptual alternatives. Motivated by the reported link between the rate of perceptual alternations, symptoms of psychosis and an incidental observation that the rhythmicity of perceptual alternations during binocular rivalry was greatly increased 10 h after the consumption of LSD, this study aimed to investigate the pharmacology underlying binocular rivalry and to explore the connection between the timing of perceptual switching and psychosis. Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine, PY) was chosen for the study because, like LSD, it is known to act as an agonist at serotonin (5-HT)1A and 5-HT2A receptors and to produce an altered state sometimes marked by psychosis-like symptoms. A total of 12 healthy human volunteers were tested under placebo, low-dose (115 microg/kg) and high-dose (250 microg/kg) PY conditions. In line with predictions, under both low- and high-dose conditions, the results show that at 90 min postadministration (the peak of drug action), rate and rhythmicity of perceptual alternations were significantly reduced from placebo levels. Following the 90 min testing period, the perceptual switch rate successively increased, with some individuals showing increases well beyond pretest levels at the final testing, 360 min postadministration. However, as some subjects had still not returned to pretest levels by this time, the mean phase duration at 360 min was not found to differ significantly from placebo. Reflecting the drug-induced changes in rivalry phase durations, subjects showed clear changes in psychological state as indexed by the 5D-ASC (altered states of consciousness) rating scales. This study suggests the involvement of serotonergic pathways in binocular rivalry and supports the previously proposed role of a brainstem

  4. Evaluation of the Serotonergic Genes htr1A, htr1B, htr2A, and slc6A4 in Aggressive Behavior of Golden Retriever Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Vos-Loohuis, M.; Schilder, M. B. H.; van Oost, B. A.; Hazewinkel, H. A. W.; Wade, C. M.; Karlsson, E. K.; Lindblad-Toh, K.; Liinamo, A. E.; Leegwater, P. A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Aggressive behavior displays a high heritability in our study group of Golden Retriever dogs. Alterations in brain serotonin metabolism have been described in aggressive dogs before. Here, we evaluate whether four genes of the canine serotonergic system, coding for the serotonin receptors 1A, 1B, and 2A, and the serotonin transporter, could play a major role in aggression in Golden Retrievers. We performed mutation screens, linkage analysis, an association study, and a quantitative genetic analysis. There was no systematic difference between the coding DNA sequence of the candidate genes in aggressive and non-aggressive Golden Retrievers. An affecteds-only parametric linkage analysis revealed no strong major locus effect on human-directed aggression related to the candidate genes. An analysis of 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 1 Mb regions flanking the genes in 49 unrelated human-directed aggressive and 49 unrelated non-aggressive dogs did not show association of SNP alleles, genotypes, or haplotypes with aggression at the candidate loci. We completed our analyses with a study of the effect of variation in the candidate genes on a collection of aggression-related phenotypic measures. The effects of the candidate gene haplotypes were estimated using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood method, with the haplotypes included as fixed effects in a linear animal model. We observed no effect of the candidate gene haplotypes on a range of aggression-related phenotypes, thus extending our conclusions to several types of aggressive behavior. We conclude that it is unlikely that these genes play a major role in the variation in aggression in the Golden Retrievers that we studied. Smaller phenotypic effects of these loci could not be ruled out with our sample size. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10519-007-9179-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18066658

  5. 75 FR 8461 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-1A11 (CL-600), CL-600-2A12 (CL-601), and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... TR 600-1/19, dated August 16, 2006, to the Canadair Challenger Model CL-600-1A11 AFM (Winglets...-1A11 AFM (Winglets). We agreed and proposed to revise Table 2 of AD 2009-06-05 accordingly in the NPRM..., 2006.. Canadair Challenger Model CL-600-1A11 AFM (Winglets). (iii) 601/14 August 16, 2006.....

  6. Evaluation of 309 molecules as inducers of CYP3A4, CYP2B6, CYP1A2, OATP1B1, OCT1, MDR1, MRP2, MRP3 and BCRP in cryopreserved human hepatocytes in sandwich culture.

    PubMed

    Badolo, Lassina; Jensen, Bente; Säll, Carolina; Norinder, Ulf; Kallunki, Pekka; Montanari, Dino

    2015-02-01

    1. Regulation of hepatic metabolism or transport may lead to increase in drug clearance and compromise efficacy or safety. In this study, cryopreserved human hepatocytes were used to assess the effect of 309 compounds on the activity and mRNA expression (using qPCR techniques) of CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4, as well as mRNA expression of six hepatic transport proteins: OATP1B1 (SCLO1B1), OCT1 (SLC22A1), MDR1 (ABCB1), MRP2 (ABCC2), MRP3 (ABCC3) and BCRP (ABCG2). 2. The results showed that 6% of compounds induced CYP1A2 activity (1.5-fold increase); 30% induced CYP2B6 while 23% induced CYP3A4. qPCR data identified 16, 33 or 32% inducers of CYP1A2, CYP2B6 or CYP3A4, respectively. MRP2 was induced by 27 compounds followed by MDR1 (16)>BCRP (9)>OCT1 (8)>OATP1B1 (5)>MRP3 (2). 3. CYP3A4 appeared to be down-regulated (≥2-fold decrease in mRNA expression) by 53 compounds, 10 for CYP2B6, 6 for OCT1, 4 for BCRP, 2 for CYP1A2 and OATP1B1 and 1 for MDR1 and MRP2. 4. Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 inducers are bulky lipophilic molecules with a higher number of heavy atoms and a lower number of hydrogen bond donors. Finally, a strategy for testing CYP inducers in drug discovery is proposed.

  7. Identification of high-risk Listeria monocytogenes serotypes in lineage I(serotype 1/2a, 1/2c,3a, and 3c) using multiplex PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using molecular subtyping techniques, Listeria monocytogenes is divided into three major phylogenetic lineages, and a multiplex PCR method can differentiate five L. monocytogenes subgroups: 1/2a-3a, 1/2c-3c, 1/2b-3b-7, 4b-4d-4e, and 4a-4c. In the current study, we conducted genome comparisons and e...

  8. Effects of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins on the expression and catalytic activities of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4 in primary human hepatocytes and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Srovnalova, Alzbeta; Svecarova, Michaela; Zapletalova, Michaela Kopecna; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Bachleda, Petr; Anzenbacherova, Eva; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2014-01-22

    Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins are pharmacologically active constituents of various berry fruits, such as blueberry and cranberry. These compounds are also contained in massively used nutritional supplements based on extracts or dry matter from berry fruits. The current study evaluated the effects of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins on the expression and catalytic activity of major drug-metabolizing enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and human liver microsomes. Expression of mRNA was quantified by qRT-PCR. Expression of proteins was evaluated by Western blotting and immunochemiluminescence. The catalytic activity of CYP enzymes was measured by HPLC using specific enzyme substrates. Tested anthocyanidins (6) and anthocyanins (21) did not induce the expression of mRNA and protein of CYP2C9, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 genes in human hepatocytes. Catalytic activities of CYP2C9, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 enzymes were inhibited by all anthocyanidins to different extents (e.g., delphinidin inhibits CYP3A4 by >90% at 100 μM with IC50 = 32 μM). Of 21 anthocyanins tested, only cyanidin-3-O-rhamnoside (CYP3A4 by >75% at 100 μM with IC50 = 44 μM) and two glycosides of delphinidin significantly inhibited examined cytochromes P450. It may be concluded that in the ranges of common ingestion of either food or dietary supplement an induction or significant inhibition of CYP2C9, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 activity is most probably not expected.

  9. Secretion of albumin and induction of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in novel three-dimensional culture system for human hepatocytes using micro-space plate.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Masuhiro; Hagi, Mieko; Ejiri, Yoko; Kishimoto, Sanae; Horie, Toru; Narimatsu, Shizuo; Naito, Shinsaku

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated a novel primary three-dimensional culture system for human hepatocytes using micro-space plates. The functional activity of human hepatocytes in primary culture was determined by measuring albumin secretion from hepatocytes to medium and measuring expression levels of albumin, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA. Albumin secretion was higher in micro-space plates compared with traditional plates after 72 h of culture; the levels of albumin secretion from hepatocytes to medium in culture using micro-space plates after 96 h of culture were 2.7-fold higher than those in culture using traditional plates, and secretion of albumin in micro-space plate culture subsequently remained constant. Expression levels of albumin, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA in the culture of hepatocytes were significantly higher using micro-space plates than using traditional plates. The inducibility of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA after exposure to inducers in hepatocyte culture on micro-space plates was comparable to that in culture on traditional plates, while expression of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA after exposure to inducers was higher on micro-space plates than on traditional plates. The present study demonstrates that a novel primary three-dimensional culture system of cryopreserved human hepatocytes using micro-space plates could be used for evaluating the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in humans. This in vitro method may thus be useful for screening the induction potency of new drug candidates.

  10. A clinical study to assess CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 induction by AZD7325, a selective GABAA receptor modulator – an in vitro and in vivo comparison

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Diansong; Sunzel, Maria; Ribadeneira, Maria D; Smith, Mark A; Desai, Dhaval; Lin, Jianrong; Grimm, Scott W

    2012-01-01

    AIM(S) To investigate the potential of AZD7325 to induce CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities. METHODS Induction of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 by AZD7325 was first evaluated using cultured human hepatocytes. The effect of multiple doses of 10 mg AZD7325 on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and caffeine was then examined in healthy subjects. RESULTS The highest CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 induction responses were observed in human hepatocytes treated with 1 or 10 µm of AZD7325, in the range of 17.9%–54.9% and 76.9%–85.7% of the positive control responses, respectively. The results triggered the further clinical evaluation of AZD7325 induction potential. AZD7325 reached a plasma Cmax of 0.2 µm after 10 mg daily dosing to steady-state. AZD7325 decreased midazolam geometric mean AUC by 19% (0.81-fold, 90% CI 0.77, 0.87), but had no effect on midazolam Cmax (90% CI 0.82, 0.97). The mean CL/F of midazolam increased from 62 l h−1 (midazolam alone) to 76 l h−1 when co-administered with AZD7325. The AUC and Cmax of caffeine were not changed after co-administration of AZD7325, with geometric mean ratios (90% CI) of 1.17 (1.12, 1.23) and 0.99 (0.95, 1.03), respectively. CONCLUSIONS While AZD7325 appeared to be a potent CYP3A4 inducer and a moderate CYP1A2 inducer from in vitro studies, the expected efficacious dose of AZD7325 had no effect on CYP1A2 activity and only a weak inducing effect on CYP3A4 activity. This comparison of in vitro and in vivo results demonstrates the critical role that clinical exposure plays in evaluating the CYP induction risk of a drug candidate. PMID:22122233

  11. Studies on the induction of rat hepatic CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A and CYP4A subfamily form mRNAs in vivo and in vitro using precision-cut rat liver slices.

    PubMed

    Meredith, C; Scott, M P; Renwick, A B; Price, R J; Lake, B G

    2003-05-01

    1. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methodology (TaqMan(R)) was used to examine the induction of some selected rat hepatic cyto-chrome P450 (CYP) forms in vivo and in vitro using cultured precision-cut liver slices. 2. TaqMan primers and probe sets were developed for rat CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2B1/2, CYP3A1, CYP3A2 and CYP4A1 mRNAs. 3. To characterize the responsiveness of the rat CYP mRNA TaqMan primers and probe sets, rats were treated in vivo with a single intraperitoneal dose of 500 mg kg(-1) Aroclor 1254 (ARO) and with four daily oral doses of either 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1) dexamethasone (DEX) or 75 mg kg(-1) day(-1) methylclofenapate (MCP). Treatment with ARO produced 22 600-, 5480-, 648-, 52-, 47- and 9-fold increases in levels of CYP1A1, CYP2B1, CYP2B1/2, CYP1A2, CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 mRNA, respectively. DEX treatment produced 97-, 24-, 8- and 4-fold increases, respectively, in CYP3A1, CYP2B1, CYP2B1/2 and CYP3A2 mRNA levels, and MCP produced 339-, 126- and 25-fold increases, respectively, in CYP4A1, CYP2B1 and CYP2B1/2 mRNA levels. All three CYP inducers also increased microsomal CYP content and produced corresponding increases in CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A and CYP4A form marker enzyme activities. 4. Rat liver slices were cultured for 6 and 24 h in medium containing 0.1 micro M insulin and 0.1 micro M DEX, and also for 24 h in medium containing only 0.1 micro M insulin (DEX-free medium). Liver slices were cultured in control medium or in medium containing either 10 micro M beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), 10 micro g ml(-1) ARO, 500 micro M sodium phenobarbitone (NaPB), 20 micro M pregnenolone-16alpha -carbonitrile (PCN), 50 micro M Wy-14,643 (WY) or 50 micro M MCP. 5. With the exception of the effect of BNF on CYP1A1 mRNA levels, the induction of all the CYP mRNAs studied was greater after 24- than after 6-h treatment. Generally, the magnitude of induction of CYP mRNA levels was greater after 24 h in liver slices cultured in DEX

  12. Selected C8 two-chain linkers enhance the adenosine A1/A2A receptor affinity and selectivity of caffeine.

    PubMed

    van der Walt, M M; Terre'Blanche, G

    2017-01-05

    Recent research exploring C8 substitution on the caffeine core identified 8-(2-phenylethyl)-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine as a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist. To elaborate further, we included various C8 two-chain-length linkers to enhance adenosine receptor affinity. The results indicated that the unsubstituted benzyloxy linker (1e A1Ki = 1.52 μM) displayed the highest affinity for the A1 adenosine receptor and the para-chloro-substituted phenoxymethyl (1d A2AKi = 1.33 μM) linker the best A2A adenosine receptor affinity. The position of the oxygen revealed that the phenoxymethyl linker favoured A1 adenosine receptor selectivity over the benzyloxy linker and, by introducing a para-chloro substituent, A2A adenosine receptor selectivity was obtained. Selected compounds (1c, 1e) behaved as A1 adenosine receptor antagonists in GTP shift assays and therefore represent selective and non-selective A1 and A2A adenosine receptor antagonists that may have potential for treating neurological disorders.

  13. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. Ai1a-2; a microsymbiont of Andira inermis discovered in Costa Rica

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Rui; Parker, Matthew; Seshadri, Rekha; ...

    2015-06-14

    Bradyrhizobium sp. Ai1a-2 is is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen fixing root nodule of Andira inermis collected from Tres Piedras in Costa Rica. In this report we describe, for the first time, the genome sequence information and annotation of this legume microsymbiont. The 9,029,266 bp genome has a GC content of 62.56% with 247 contigs arranged into 246 scaffolds. The assembled genome contains 8,482 protein-coding genes and 102 RNA-only encoding genes. Lastly, this rhizobial genome was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Rootmore » Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project proposal.« less

  14. High-quality permanent draft genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. Ai1a-2; a microsymbiont of Andira inermis discovered in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Rui; Parker, Matthew; Seshadri, Rekha; Reddy, T. B. K.; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Baeshen, Mohammed; Baeshen, Nabih; Kyrpides, Nikos; Reeve, Wayne

    2015-06-14

    Bradyrhizobium sp. Ai1a-2 is is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that was isolated from an effective nitrogen fixing root nodule of Andira inermis collected from Tres Piedras in Costa Rica. In this report we describe, for the first time, the genome sequence information and annotation of this legume microsymbiont. The 9,029,266 bp genome has a GC content of 62.56% with 247 contigs arranged into 246 scaffolds. The assembled genome contains 8,482 protein-coding genes and 102 RNA-only encoding genes. Lastly, this rhizobial genome was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project proposal.

  15. Distinct effect of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the medial nucleus of the amygdala on tonic immobility behavior.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Bruna Balbino; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade

    2016-07-15

    The tonic immobility (TI) response is an innate fear behavior associated with intensely dangerous situations, exhibited by many species of invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In humans, it is possible that TI predicts the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. This behavioral response is initiated and sustained by the stimulation of various groups of neurons distributed in the telencephalon, diencephalon and brainstem. Previous research has found the highest Fos-IR in the posteroventral part of the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MEA) during TI behavior; however, the neurotransmission of this amygdaloid region involved in the modulation of this innate fear behavior still needs to be clarified. Considering that a major drug class used for the treatment of psychopathology is based on serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission, we investigated the effects of serotonergic receptor activation in the MEA on the duration of TI. The results indicate that the activation of the 5HT1A receptors or the blocking of the 5HT2 receptors of the MEA can promote a reduction in fear and/or anxiety, consequently decreasing TI duration in guinea pigs. In contrast, blocking the 5HT1A receptors or activating the 5HT2 receptors in this amygdalar region increased the TI duration, suggesting an increase in fear and/or anxiety. These alterations do not appear to be due to a modification of spontaneous motor activity, which might non-specifically affect TI duration. Thus, these results suggest a distinct role of the 5HT receptors in the MEA in innate fear modulation.

  16. The comparative effects of diethyldithiocarbamate-copper complex with established proteasome inhibitors on expression levels of CYP1A2/3A4 and their master regulators, aryl hydrocarbon and pregnane X receptor in primary cultures of human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Vrzal, Radim; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2016-12-01

    In the recent years, a therapeutic potential of disulfiram (Antabuse) complex with copper, as an anticancer drug, was recognized towards several cancer cell lines. The proteasome was suggested as one of the cellular targets for this compound. As the therapeutic use of diethyldithiocarbamate-copper complex (CuET) is expected to increase, it is of great interest to know whether this compound may be the source of drug-drug interactions via the induction of biotransformation enzymes, especially cytochromes P450 (CYPs). To this purpose, we examined the effect of CuET and compared it with typical inducers (rifampicin and dioxin) of CYPs and with well-established proteasome inhibitors (MG132 and bortezomib). Diethyldithiocarbamate-copper complex revealed inconsistent and rather modulatory effect on the expression of CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in several cultures of human hepatocytes. Moreover, it was able to cause neither ubiquitin accumulation nor significant and dose-dependent inhibition of proteasome activity. It had no effect on essential transcription factors involved in regulation of selected CYPs, aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) nor pregnane X receptor (PXR). However, the AhR protein was increased in majority of examined hepatocyte cultures. The main finding of this study is that: (i) disulfiram-copper complex is not the cause of drug-drug interactions via CYP1A2/3A4 induction; (ii) proteasome inhibitors may have different impact on studied parameters in given in vitro system.

  17. Alteration in the Expression of Cytochrome P450s (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, and CYP3A11) in the Liver of Mouse Induced by Microcystin-LR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bangjun; Liu, Yang; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are cyclic heptapeptide toxins and can accumulate in the liver. Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play an important role in the biotransformation of endogenous substances and xenobiotics in animals. It is unclear if the CYPs are affected by MCs exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of microcystin-LR (MCLR) on cytochrome P450 isozymes (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, and CYP3A11) at mRNA level, protein content, and enzyme activity in the liver of mice the received daily, intraperitoneally, 2, 4, and 8 µg/kg body weight of MCLR for seven days. The result showed that MCLR significantly decreased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) (CYP1A1) and erythromycin N-demthylase (ERND) (CYP3A11) activities and increased aniline hydroxylase (ANH) activity (CYP2E1) in the liver of mice during the period of exposure. Our findings suggest that MCLR exposure may disrupt the function of CYPs in liver, which may be partly attributed to the toxicity of MCLR in mice. PMID:25831226

  18. No dose adjustment on coadministration of the PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast with a weak CYP3A, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19 inhibitor: an investigation using cimetidine.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, Gabriele M; Gleiter, Christoph H; Mörike, Klaus; Nassr, Nassr; Walz, Antje; Lahu, Gezim

    2011-04-01

    This nonrandomized, fixed-sequence, 2-period crossover study investigated potential pharmacokinetic interactions between the phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor roflumilast, currently in clinical development for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the histamine 2 agonist cimetidine. Participants received roflumilast, 500 µg once daily, on days 1 and 13. Cimetidine, 400 mg twice daily, was administered from days 6 to 16. Pharmacokinetic analysis of roflumilast and its active metabolite roflumilast N-oxide was performed, and the ratio of geometric means for roflumilast alone and concomitantly with steady-state cimetidine was calculated. The effect of cimetidine on the total PDE4 inhibitory activity (tPDE4i; total exposure to roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide) was also calculated. Coadministration of steady-state cimetidine increased mean tPDE4i of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide by about 47%. The maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) of roflumilast increased by about 46%, with no effect on C(max) of roflumilast N-oxide. The increase in tPDE4i of roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide following coadministration with cimetidine was mainly due to the inhibitory effect of cimetidine on cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes CYP1A2, CYP3A, and CYP2C19. These moderate changes indicate that dose adjustment of roflumilast is not required when coadministered with a weak inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP3A, and CYP2C19, such as cimetidine.

  19. In vivo effects of goldenseal, kava kava, black cohosh, and valerian on human cytochrome P450 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Stephanie F.; Hubbard, Martha A.; Williams, D. Keith; Gentry, W. Brooks; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Shah., Amit

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P-450 activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single time-point, phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), kava kava (Piper methysticum), or valerian (Valeriana officinalis) extracts affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4/5 activity. Methods Twelve healthy volunteers (6 females) were randomly assigned to receive goldenseal, black cohosh, kava kava, or valerian for 28 days. For each subject, a 30-day washout period was interposed between each supplementation phase. Probe drug cocktails of midazolam and caffeine, followed 24 hours later by chlorzoxazone and debrisoquine were administered before (baseline) and at the end of supplementation. Pre- and post-supplementation phenotypic trait measurements were determined for CYP3A4/5, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP2D6 using 1-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam serum ratios (1-hour sample), paraxanthine/caffeine serum ratios (6-hour sample), 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone/chlorzoxazone serum ratios (2-hour sample), and debrisoquine urinary recovery ratios (8-hour collection), respectively. The content of purported “active” phytochemicals was determined for each supplement. Results Comparisons of pre- and post-supplementation phenotypic ratio means revealed significant inhibition (~40%) of CYP2D6 (difference = −0.228; 95% CI = −0.268 to −0.188) and CYP3A4/5 (difference = −1.501; 95% CI = −1.840 to −1.163) activity for goldenseal. Kava produced significant reductions (~40%) in CYP2E1 only (difference = −0.192; 95% CI = −0.325 to −0.060). Black cohosh also exhibited statistically significant inhibition of CYP2D6 (difference = −0.046; 95% CI = −0.085 to −0.007), but the magnitude of the effect (~7%) did not appear clinically relevant. No significant changes in phenotypic ratios were observed for valerian. Conclusions Botanical

  20. A new class of arylpiperazine derivatives: the library synthesis on SynPhase lanterns and biological evaluation on serotonin 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Paweł; Subra, Gilles; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Duszyńska, Beata; Pawłowski, Maciej; Martinez, Jean

    2004-01-01

    An efficient solid-supported method for the synthesis of a new class of arylpiperazine derivatives containing amino acid residues has been developed. A 72-membered library was synthesized on SynPhase Lanterns functionalized by a BAL linker. A one-pot cleavage/cyclization step of aspartic and glutamic acid derivatives yielded succinimide- and pyroglutamyl-containing ligands (chemsets 9 and 10). The library representatives under study showed different levels of affinity for 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors (estimated K(i) = 24-4000 and 1-2130 nM, respectively). Several dual 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(2A) ligands were found, of which two (9(3,3) and 9(3,5)) displayed high 5-HT(2A) affinity comparable to that of the reference drug ritanserin. A set of individual fragment contributions for the prediction of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) affinity of all the library members were defined on the basis of the Free-Wilson analysis of 26 compounds. An alkylarylpiperazine fragment had essentially the same impact on the affinity for both receptors, whereas different terminal amide fragments were preferred by 5-HT(1A) (chemset 17, R(2) = adamantyl) and 5-HT(2A) (chemset 9, R(2) = norborn-2-ylmethyl) binding sites.

  1. The serotonergic hallucinogen 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine disrupts cortical activity in a regionally-selective manner via 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Riga, Maurizio S; Bortolozzi, Analia; Campa, Letizia; Artigas, Francesc; Celada, Pau

    2016-02-01

    5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a natural hallucinogen, acting as a non-selective serotonin 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(2A)-R agonist. Psychotomimetic agents such as the non-competitive NMDA-R antagonist phencyclidine and serotonergic hallucinogens (DOI and 5-MeO-DMT) disrupt cortical synchrony in the low frequency range (<4 Hz) in rat prefrontal cortex (PFC), an effect reversed by antipsychotic drugs. Here we extend these observations by examining the effect of 5-MeO-DMT on low frequency cortical oscillations (LFCO, <4 Hz) in PFC, visual (V1), somatosensory (S1) and auditory (Au1) cortices, as well as the dependence of these effects on 5-HT(1A)-R and 5-HT(2A)-R, using wild type (WT) and 5-HT(2A)-R knockout (KO2A) anesthetized mice. 5-MeO-DMT reduced LFCO in the PFC of WT and KO2A mice. The effect in KO2A mice was fully prevented by the 5-HT(1A)-R antagonist WAY-100635. Systemic and local 5-MeO-DMT reduced 5-HT release in PFC mainly via 5-HT(1A)-R. Moreover, 5-MeO-DMT reduced LFCO in S1, Au1 and V1 of WT mice and only in V1 of KO2A mice, suggesting the involvement of 5-HT(1A)-R activation in the 5-MeO-DMT-induced disruption of V1 activity. In addition, antipsychotic drugs reversed 5-MeO-DMT effects in WT mice. The present results suggest that the hallucinogen action of 5-MeO-DMT is mediated by simultaneous alterations of the activity of sensory (S1, Au1, V1) and associative (PFC) cortical areas, also supporting a role of 5-HT(1A)-R stimulation in V1 and PFC, in addition to the well-known action on 5-HT(2A)-R. Moreover, the reversal by antipsychotic drugs of 5-MeO-DMT effects adds to previous literature supporting the usefulness of the present model in antipsychotic drug development.

  2. Anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody-stimulated cytokines released from blood suppress CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Czerwiński, Maciej; Kazmi, Faraz; Parkinson, Andrew; Buckley, David B

    2015-01-01

    Like most infections and certain inflammatory diseases, some therapeutic proteins cause a cytokine-mediated suppression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes, which may lead to pharmacokinetic interactions with small-molecule drugs. We propose a new in vitro method to evaluate the whole blood-mediated effects of therapeutic proteins on drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes cocultured with Kupffer cells. The traditional method involves treating hepatocyte cocultures with the therapeutic protein, which detects hepatocyte- and macrophage-mediated suppression of cytochrome P450 (P450). The new method involves treating whole human blood with a therapeutic protein to stimulate the release of cytokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), after which plasma is prepared and added to the hepatocyte coculture to evaluate P450 enzyme expression. In this study, human blood was treated for 24 hours at 37°C with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or ANC28.1, an antibody against human T-cell receptor CD28. Cytokines were measured in plasma by sandwich immunoassay with electrochemiluminescense detection. Treatment of human hepatocyte cocultures with LPS or with plasma from LPS-treated blood markedly reduced the expression of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4. However, treatment of hepatocyte cocultures with ANC28.1 did not suppress P450 expression, but treatment with plasma from ANC28.1-treated blood suppressed CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 activity and mRNA levels. The results demonstrated that applying plasma from human blood treated with a therapeutic protein to hepatocytes cocultured with Kupffer cells is a suitable method to identify those therapeutic proteins that suppress P450 expression by an indirect mechanism-namely, the release of cytokines from PBMCs.

  3. First principles DFT study of ferromagnetism in SnO{sub 2} induced by doped group 1A and 2A non-magnetic elements X (X=Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca)

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Brahmananda Ramaniah, Lavanya M.

    2014-04-24

    Transition metal - free - ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) is of much current interest in the search for more efficient DMS materials for spintronic applications. Here, we report the results of our first principles density functional theory (DFT) study on impurity - induced ferromagnetism in non-magnetic SnO{sub 2} by a non-magnetic impurity. The impurities considered are sp-type of group 1A and 2A elements X (X = Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca). Even a single atom of the group 1A elements makes the system magnetic, whereas for the group 2A elements Ca and Mg, a higher doping is required to induce ferromagnetism. For all the elements studied, the magnetic moment appears to increase with the doping concentration, at least at certain impurity separations, which is a positive indicator for practical applications.

  4. Role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Vashisht, Kapil; Singh, Priyanka; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticide-exposed workers. The present study was designed to determine the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 284 subjects including 150 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and 134 normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the PONase activity toward paraoxonase and AChE activity was found significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to control subjects (14.37 {+-} 2.15 vs. 6.24 {+-} 1.37 tail% DNA, p < 0.001). Further, the workers with CYP2D6*3 PM and PON1 (QQ and MM) genotypes were found to have significantly higher DNA damage when compared to other genotypes (p < 0.05). In addition, significant increase in DNA damage was also observed in workers with concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes which need further extensive studies. In conclusion, the results indicate that the PON1 and CYP2D6 genotypes can modulate DNA damage elicited by some OPs possibly through gene-environment interactions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C, CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes on DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Workers exposed to some OPs demonstrated increased DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYP2D6 *3 PM and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes are associated with DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes can increase DNA damage.

  5. Preliminary investigation of the contribution of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and UGT1A9 polymorphisms on artesunate-mefloquine treatment response in Burmese patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Phompradit, Papichaya; Muhamad, Poonuch; Cheoymang, Anurak; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-08-01

    CYP2A6, CYP2B6, and UGT1A9 genetic polymorphisms and treatment response after a three-day course of artesunate-mefloquine was investigated in 71 Burmese patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Results provide evidence for the possible link between CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 polymorphisms and plasma concentrations of artesunate/dihydroartemisinin and treatment response. In one patient who had the CYP2A6*1A/*4C genotype (decreased enzyme activity), plasma concentration of artesunate at one hour appeared to be higher, and the concentration of dihydroartemisinin was lower than for those carrying other genotypes (415 versus 320 ng/mL). The proportion of patients with adequate clinical and parasitologic response who had the CYP2B6*9/*9 genotype (mutant genotype) was significantly lower compared with those with late parasitologic failure (14.0% versus 19.0%). Confirmation through a larger study in various malaria-endemic areas is required before a definite conclusion on the role of genetic polymorphisms of these drug-metabolizing enzymes on treatment response after artesunate-based combination therapy can be made.

  6. Effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on catalepsy and the immune response in mice with a genetic predisposition to freezing reactions: the roles of types 1A and 2A serotonin receptors and the tph2 and SERT genes.

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, M A; Alperina, E L; Tolstikova, T G; Bazovkina, D V; Di, V Y; Idova, G V; Kulikov, A V; Popova, N K

    2010-06-01

    ASC (Antidepressant-Sensitive Catalepsy) mice, bred for a high predisposition to catalepsy, are characterized by depression-like behavior and decreased immune responses. Chronic administration of fluoxetine, which is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant widely used in clinical practice, to mice of this strain weakened catalepsy and normalized the number of rosette-forming cells in the spleen. In mice of the parental cataleptic strain CBA/Lac, fluoxetine had no effect on the level of catalepsy or the immune response. Analysis of the effects of fluoxetine on the functional activity of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors, and the expression of 5-HT(1A) receptor genes in the frontal cortex and midbrain and 5-HT(2A) receptors in the frontal cortex, as well as the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 and the serotonin transporter genes in the midbrain showed that the antidepressant had no effect on these parameters in ASC mice, but decreased the functional activity of 5-HT(2A) receptors in CBA/Lac mice. The possibility that the actions of fluoxetine on catalepsy and the immune response in mice with depression-like states are mediated via other serotoninergic mechanisms is discussed.

  7. Identity of M2A (D2-40) antigen and gp36 (Aggrus, T1A-2, podoplanin) in human developing testis, testicular carcinoma in situ and germ-cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Si Brask; Herlihy, Amy S; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Nielsen, John E; Almstrup, Kristian; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Marks, Alexander; Leffers, Henrik; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2006-08-01

    Testicular germ-cell tumours of young adults are derived from a pre-invasive intratubular lesion, carcinoma in situ (CIS). In a recent genome-wide gene expression screening using cDNA microarrays, we found PDPN over-expressed in CIS compared to normal adult testis. PDPN encodes podoplanin (Aggrus, human gp36, T1A-2), a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed in lymphatic endothelium and various solid tumours. To examine a potential role for PDPN in testicular neoplasms and during testicular development, we investigated its expression pattern during the development of human testis and in a series of testicular CIS, gonadoblastoma and overt germ-cell tumours. We established by RT-PCR and by immunohistochemistry with a gp36 antibody that PDPN mRNA and the protein product were expressed in testes with germ-cell neoplasms but not in the normal adult testis. We also found gp36 expression in early foetal gonocytes and immature Sertoli cells, similar to the expression pattern of M2A antigen, a previously identified marker for CIS and seminoma. This reinforced our previous proposal that M2A (D2-40) antigen was identical to gp36 (podoplanin, Aggrus, T1A-2). Our findings also suggest that podoplanin has a function in developing testis, most likely at the level of cell-cell interactions among pre-meiotic germ cells and immature Sertoli cells.

  8. PROCEEDINGS: 1991 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 1. SESSIONS P, 0, 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 6A, 6B, 9C, AND 10B

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three-volumes document 82 presentations by authors from 15 countries at the Second International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC) in Tampa, Florida, April 16-19, 1991. The Conference fostered the exchange of current information on research concerning MWC, ash di...

  9. Dual role of serotonin in the acquisition and extinction of reward-driven learning: involvement of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Frick, Luciana Romina; Bernardez-Vidal, Micaela; Hocht, Christian; Zanutto, Bonifacio Silvano; Rapanelli, Maximiliano

    2015-01-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been proposed as a possible encoder of reward. Nevertheless, the role of this neurotransmitter in reward-based tasks is not well understood. Given that the major serotonergic circuit in the rat brain comprises the dorsal raphe nuclei and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and because the latter structure is involved in the control of complex behaviors and expresses 1A (5-HT1A), 2A (5-HT2A), and 3 (5-HT3) receptors, the aim was to study the role of 5-HT and of these receptors in the acquisition and extinction of a reward-dependent operant conditioning task. Long Evans rats were trained in an operant conditioning task while receiving fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake inhibitor, 10mg/kg), tianeptine (serotonin reuptake enhancer, 10mg/kg), buspirone (5-HT1A partial agonist, 10mg/kg), risperidone (5-HT2A antagonist, 1mg/kg), ondansetron (5-HT3 antagonist, 2mg/kg) or vehicle. Then, animals that acquired the operant conditioning without any treatment were trained to extinct the task in the presence of the pharmacological agents. Fluoxetine impaired acquisition but improved extinction. Tianeptine administration induced the opposite effects. Buspirone induced a mild deficit in acquisition and had no effects during the extinction phase. Risperidone administration resulted in learning deficits during the acquisition phase, although it promoted improved extinction. Ondansetron treatment showed a deleterious effect in the acquisition phase and an overall improvement in the extinction phase. These data showed a differential role of 5-HT in the acquisition and extinction of an operant conditioning task, suggesting that it may have a dual function in reward encoding.

  10. Involvement of serotoninergic 5-HT1A/2A, alpha-adrenergic and dopaminergic D1 receptors in St. John's wort-induced prepulse inhibition deficit: a possible role of hyperforin.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Mariane G; Mohamed, Mohamed R; Youssef, Amal M; Sabry, Gilane M; Sabry, Nagwa A; Khalifa, Amani E

    2009-05-16

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle response is a valuable paradigm for sensorimotor gating processes. Previous research showed that acute administration of St. John's wort extract (500 mg/kg, p.o.) to rats caused significant disruption of PPI while elevating monoamines levels in some brain areas. The cause-effect relationship between extract-induced PPI disruption and augmented monoaminergic transmission was studied using different serotoninergic, adrenergic and dopaminergic antagonists. The effects of hypericin and hyperforin, as the main active constituents of the extract, on PPI response were also tested. PPI disruption was prevented after blocking the serotoninergic 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A, alpha-adrenergic and dopaminergic D1 receptors. Results also demonstrated a significant PPI deficit after acute treatment of rats with hyperforin, and not hypericin. In some conditions manifesting disrupted PPI response, apoptosis coexists. Electrophoresis of DNA isolated from brains of hyperforin-treated animals revealed absence of any abnormal DNA fragmentation patterns. It is concluded that serotoninergic 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A, alpha-adrenergic and dopaminergic D1 receptors are involved in the disruptive effect of St. John's wort extract on PPI response in rats. We can also conclude that hyperforin, and not hypericin, is one of the active ingredients responsible for St. John's wort-induced PPI disruption with no relation to apoptotic processes.

  11. The antidepressant-like activity of 6-methoxy-2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-9H-xanthen-9-one involves serotonergic 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A/C) receptors activation.

    PubMed

    Pytka, Karolina; Walczak, Maria; Kij, Agnieszka; Rapacz, Anna; Siwek, Agata; Kazek, Grzegorz; Olczyk, Adrian; Gałuszka, Adam; Waszkielewicz, Anna; Marona, Henryk; Sapa, Jacek; Filipek, Barbara

    2015-10-05

    Xanthone derivatives have been shown to posses many biological properties. Some of them act within the central nervous system and show neuroprotective or antidepressant-like properties. Taking this into account we investigated antidepressant-like activity in mice and the possible mechanism of action of 6-methoxy-2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]-9H-xanthen-9-one (HBK-11) - a new xanthone derivative. We demonstrated that HBK-11 produced antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, comparable to that of venlafaxine. The combined treatment with sub-effective doses of HBK-11 and fluoxetine (but not reboxetine or bupropion) significantly reduced the immobility in the forced swim test. Moreover, the antidepressant-like activity of HBK-11 in the aforementioned test was blocked by p-chlorophenylalanine, and significantly reduced by serotonergic 5HT1A receptor antagonist - WAY-1006335 and 5HT2A/C receptor antagonist - ritanserin. As none of the above treatments influenced the spontaneous locomotor activity, it can be concluded that HBK-11 mediates its activity through a serotonergic system, and its antidepressant-like effect involves 5HT1A and 5HT2A/C receptor activation. Furthermore, at antidepressant-like doses HBK-11 did not cause the mice to display locomotor deficits in rotarod or chimney tests. Considering the pharmacokinetic profile, HBK-11 demonstrated rapid absorption after i.p. administration, high clearance value, short terminal half-life, very high volume of distribution and incomplete bioavailability. The compound studied had good penetration into the brain tissue of mice. Since studied xanthone derivative seems to present interesting, untypical mechanism of antidepressant-like action i.e. 5HT2A/C receptor activation, it may have a potential in the treatment of depressive disorders, and surely requires further studies.

  12. A novel D2-A-D1-A-D2-type donor-acceptor conjugated small molecule based on a benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene core for solution processed organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Junting; Zhu, Weiguo; Tan, Hua; Peng, Qing

    2017-01-01

    A novel D2-A-D1-A-D2-type donor-acceptor conjugated small molecule (DTPA-Q-BDT-Q-DTPA) with a benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene (BDT) core and two D2-A arms has been synthesized and employed as electron donor for organic solar cells. Solution-processed organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices were fabricated with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/DTPA-Q-BDT-Q-DTPA:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM)/LiF/Al. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.22% with an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.64 V, a short-circuit current (JSC) of 6.10 mA cm-2, and a fill factor (FF) of 31.0% was achieved. The PCE is 2.9 times higher than that in the other devices using D2-A-type small molecule TPA-Q-TPA as donor.

  13. ERK/PP1a/PLB/SERCA2a and JNK Pathways Are Involved in Luteolin-Mediated Protection of Rat Hearts and Cardiomyocytes following Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongye; Zhu, Shasha; Chen, Qiuping; Hu, Wenjing; Pan, Defeng; Zhu, Hong; Sun, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Luteolin has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of various diseases. Recent studies have suggested that administration of luteolin yields cardioprotective effects during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in rats. However, the precise mechanisms of this action remain unclear. The aim of this study is to confirm that luteolin-mediated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways are responsible for their cardioprotective effects during I/R. Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: (i) DMSO group (DMSO); (ii) I/R group (I/R); (iii) luteolin+I/R group (Lut+I/R); (iv) ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059+I/R group (PD+I/R); (v) PD98059+luteolin+I/R group (PD+Lut+I/R); and (vi) JNK inhibitor SP600125+I/R group (SP+I/R). The following properties were measured: contractile function of isolated heart and cardiomyocytes; infarct size; the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); the percentage of apoptotic cells; the expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax; and phosphorylation status of ERK1/2, JNK, type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1a), phospholamban (PLB) and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a). Our data showed that pretreatment with luteolin or SP600125 significantly improved the contraction of the isolated heart and cardiomyocytes, reduced infarct size and LDH activity, decreased the rate of apoptosis and increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. However, pretreatment with PD98059 alone before I/R had no effect on the above indexes. Further, these consequences of luteolin pretreatment were abrogated by co-administration of PD98059. We also found that pretreatment with PD98059 caused a significant increase in JNK expression, and SP600125 could cause ERK1/2 activation during I/R. In addition, we are the first to demonstrate that luteolin affects PP1a expression, which results in the up-regulation of the PLB, thereby relieving its inhibition of SERCA2a. These results showed that luteolin improves cardiomyocyte contractile

  14. Effects of co-treatment with sulforaphane and autophagy modulators on uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A isoforms and cytochrome P450 3A4 expression in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, MIN; ZHU, JING-YU; CHEN, SHUO; QING, YING; WU, DONG; LIN, YING-MIN; LUO, JI-ZHUANG; HAN, WEI; LI, YAN-QING

    2014-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN), which is highly enriched in cruciferous vegetables, has been investigated for its cancer chemopreventive properties and ability to induce autophagy. Uridine 5′-diphospho (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A induction is one of the mechanisms that is responsible for the cancer chemopreventive activity of SFN. The current study demonstrates that rapamycin may enhance the chemopreventive effects of SFN on Caco-2 cells; this may be partially attributed to nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)- and human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)-mediated UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A10 induction. These results indicate that targeting autophagy modulation may be a promising strategy for increasing the chemopreventive effects of SFN in cases of colon cancer. PMID:25364403

  15. Association of serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) & receptor (5HTR1A, 5HTR2A) polymorphisms with response to treatment with escitalopram in patients with major depressive disorder: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Aniruddha; Chadda, R.K.; Sood, Mamta; Kaur, Harpreet; Kukreti, Ritushree

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Genetic factors have potential of predicting response to antidepressants in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, an attempt was made to find an association between response to escitalopram in patients with MDD, and serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) and receptor (5HTR1A, 5HTR2A) polymorphisms. Methods: Fifty five patients diagnosed as suffering from MDD, were selected for the study. The patients were treated with escitalopram over a period of 6-8 wk. Severity of depression, response to treatment and side effects were assessed using standardised instruments. Genetic variations from HTR1A (rs6295), HTR2A (rs6311 and rs6313) and SLC6A4 (44 base-pair insertion/deletion at 5-HTTLPR) were genotyped. The genetic data of the responders and non-responders were compared to assess the role of genetic variants in therapeutic outcome. Results: Thirty six (65.5%) patients responded to treatment, and 19 (34.5%) had complete remission. No association was observed for genotype and allelic frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among remitter/non-remitter and responder/non-responder groups, and six most common side-effects, except memory loss which was significantly associated with rs6311 (P =0.03). Interpretation & conclusions: No significant association was found between the SNPs analysed and response to escitalopram in patients with MDD though a significant association was seen between the side effect of memory loss and rs6311. Studies with larger sample are required to find out genetic basis of antidepressant response in Indian patients. PMID:26261165

  16. Unraveling the formation of HCPH(X2A') molecules in extraterrestrial environments: crossed molecular beam study of the reaction of carbon atoms, C(3Pj), with phosphine, PH3(X1A1).

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Gu, X; Zhang, F; Sun, B J; Tsai, M F; Chang, A H H; Kaiser, R I

    2007-05-03

    The reaction between ground state carbon atoms, C(3P(j)), and phosphine, PH3(X(1)A1), was investigated at two collision energies of 21.1 and 42.5 kJ mol(-1) using the crossed molecular beam technique. The chemical dynamics extracted from the time-of-flight spectra and laboratory angular distributions combined with ab initio calculations propose that the reaction proceeds on the triplet surface via an addition of atomic carbon to the phosphorus atom. This leads to a triplet CPH3 complex. A successive hydrogen shift forms an HCPH2 intermediate. The latter was found to decompose through atomic hydrogen emission leading to the cis/trans-HCPH(X(2)A') reaction products. The identification of cis/trans-HCPH(X(2)A') molecules under single collision conditions presents a potential pathway to form the very first carbon-phosphorus bond in extraterrestrial environments like molecular clouds and circumstellar envelopes, and even in the postplume chemistry of the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter.

  17. Binding sites for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae toxin on heliothine brush border membrane vesicles are not shared with Cry1A, Cry1F, or Vip3A toxin.

    PubMed

    Gouffon, C; Van Vliet, A; Van Rie, J; Jansens, S; Jurat-Fuentes, J L

    2011-05-01

    The use of combinations of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins with diverse modes of action for insect pest control has been proposed as the most efficient strategy to increase target range and delay the onset of insect resistance. Considering that most cases of cross-resistance to Bt toxins in laboratory-selected insect colonies are due to alteration of common toxin binding sites, independent modes of action can be defined as toxins sharing limited or no binding sites in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) prepared from the target insect larvae. In this paper, we report on the specific binding of Cry2Ae toxin to binding sites on BBMV from larvae of the three most commercially relevant heliothine species, Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa zea, and Helicoverpa armigera. Using chromatographic purification under reducing conditions before labeling, we detected specific binding of radiolabeled Cry2Ae, which allowed us to perform competition assays using Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa, Vip3A, Cry2Ae, and Cry2Ab toxins as competitors. In these assays, Cry2Ae binding sites were shared with Cry2Ab but not with the tested Cry1 or Vip3A toxins. Our data support the use of Cry2Ae toxin in combination with Cry1 or Vip3A toxins in strategies to increase target range and delay the onset of heliothine resistance.

  18. Binding Sites for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae Toxin on Heliothine Brush Border Membrane Vesicles Are Not Shared with Cry1A, Cry1F, or Vip3A Toxin ▿

    PubMed Central

    Gouffon, C.; Van Vliet, A.; Van Rie, J.; Jansens, S.; Jurat-Fuentes, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    The use of combinations of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins with diverse modes of action for insect pest control has been proposed as the most efficient strategy to increase target range and delay the onset of insect resistance. Considering that most cases of cross-resistance to Bt toxins in laboratory-selected insect colonies are due to alteration of common toxin binding sites, independent modes of action can be defined as toxins sharing limited or no binding sites in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) prepared from the target insect larvae. In this paper, we report on the specific binding of Cry2Ae toxin to binding sites on BBMV from larvae of the three most commercially relevant heliothine species, Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa zea, and Helicoverpa armigera. Using chromatographic purification under reducing conditions before labeling, we detected specific binding of radiolabeled Cry2Ae, which allowed us to perform competition assays using Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa, Vip3A, Cry2Ae, and Cry2Ab toxins as competitors. In these assays, Cry2Ae binding sites were shared with Cry2Ab but not with the tested Cry1 or Vip3A toxins. Our data support the use of Cry2Ae toxin in combination with Cry1 or Vip3A toxins in strategies to increase target range and delay the onset of heliothine resistance. PMID:21441333

  19. Dynamics of the reaction of C{sub 3}(a{sup 3}Π{sub u}) radicals with C{sub 2}H{sub 2}: A new source for the formation of C{sub 5}H

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Wen-Jian; Sun, Yi-Lun; Chin, Chih-Hao; Lee, Shih-Huang

    2014-09-28

    The reaction C{sub 3}(a{sup 3}Π{sub u}) + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} → C{sub 5}H + H was investigated at collision energy 10.9 kcal mol{sup −1} that is less than the enthalpy of ground-state reaction C{sub 3}(X{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}) + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} → C{sub 5}H + H. C{sub 3}(a{sup 3}Π{sub u}) radicals were synthesized from 1% C{sub 4}F{sub 6}/He by pulsed high-voltage discharge. The title reaction was conducted in a crossed molecular-beam apparatus equipped with a quadrupole-mass filter. Product C{sub 5}H was interrogated with time-of-flight spectroscopy and synchrotron vacuum-ultraviolet ionization. Reactant C{sub 3}(a{sup 3}Π{sub u}) and product C{sub 5}H were identified using photoionization spectroscopy. The ionization thresholds of C{sub 3}(X{sup 1}Σ{sub g}{sup +}) and C{sub 3}(a{sup 3}Π{sub u}) are determined as 11.6 ± 0.2 eV and 10.0 ± 0.2 eV, respectively. The C{sub 5}H product is identified as linear pentynylidyne that has an ionization energy 8.4 ± 0.2 eV. The title reaction releases translational energy 10.6 kcal mol{sup −1} in average and has an isotropic product angular distribution. The quantum-chemical calculation indicates that the C{sub 3}(a{sup 3}Π{sub u}) radical attacks one of the carbon atoms of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and subsequently a hydrogen atom is ejected to form C{sub 5}H + H, in good agreement with the experimental observation. As far as we are aware, the C{sub 3}(a{sup 3}Π{sub u}) + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} reaction is investigated for the first time. This work gives an implication for the formation of C{sub 5}H from the C{sub 3}(a{sup 3}Π{sub u}) + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} reaction occurring in a combustion or discharge process of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficient Male Rats Exhibit Abnormal Behavioral Activation in the Forced Swim Test Following Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment: Association with Altered 5-HT1A and Alpha2A Adrenergic Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Able, Jessica A.; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; McNamara, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during development leads to enduing alterations in central monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain. Here we investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Male rats were fed diets with (CON, n=34) or without (DEF, n=30) the omega-3 fatty acid precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90). A subset of CON (n=14) and DEF (n=12) rats were administered FLX (10 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water for 30 d beginning on P60. The forced swimming test (FST) was initiated on P90, and regional brain mRNA markers of serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission were determined. Dietary ALA depletion led to significant reductions in frontal cortex docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (−26%, p=0.0001) and DEF+FLX (−32%, p=0.0001) rats. Plasma FLX and norfluoxetine concentrations did not different between FLX-treated DEF and CON rats. During the 15-min FST pretest, DEF+FLX rats exhibited significantly greater climbing behavior compared with CON+FLX rats. During the 5-min test trial, FLX treatment reduced immobility and increased swimming in CON and DEF rats, and only DEF+FLX rats exhibited significant elevations in climbing behavior. DEF+FLX rats exhibited greater midbrain, and lower frontal cortex, 5-HT1A mRNA expression compared with all groups including CON+FLX rats. DEF+FLX rats also exhibited greater midbrain alpha2A adrenergic receptor mRNA expression which was positively correlated with climbing behavior in the FST. These preclinical data demonstrate that low omega-3 fatty acid status leads to abnormal behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic FLX treatment in male rats. PMID:24360505

  1. Stimulation of 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors or 5-HT uptake inhibition: short- and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2007-11-22

    In order to determine whether short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) function in serial or parallel manner, serotonin (5-hydroxtryptamine, 5-HT) receptor agonists were tested in autoshaping task. Results show that control-vehicle animals were modestly but significantly mastering the autoshaping task as illustrated by memory scores between STM and LTM. Thus, post-training administration of 8-OHDPAT (agonist for 5-HT(1A/7) receptors) only at 0.250 and 0.500 mg/kg impaired both STM and LTM. CGS12066 (agonist for 5-HT(1B)) produced biphasic affects, at 5.0 mg/kg impaired STM but at 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg, respectively, improved or impaired LTM. DOI (agonist for 5-HT(2A/2C) receptors) dose-dependently impaired STM and, at 10.0 mg/kg only impaired LTM. Both, STM and LTM were impaired by either mCPP (mainly agonist for 5-HT(2C) receptors) or mesulergine (mainly antagonist for 5-HT(2C) receptors) lower dose. The 5-HT(3) agonist mCPBG at 1.0 impaired STM and its higher dose impaired both STM and LTM. RS67333 (partial agonist for 5-HT(4) receptors), at 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg facilitated both STM and LTM. The higher dose of fluoxetine (a 5-HT uptake inhibitor) improved both STM and LTM. Using as head-pokes during CS as an indirect measure of food-intake showed that of 30 memory changes, 21 of these were unrelated to the former. While some STM or LTM impairments can be attributed to decrements in food-intake, but not memory changes (either increase or decreases) produced by 8-OHDPAT, CGS12066, RS67333 or fluoxetine. Except for animals treated with DOI, mCPBG or fluoxetine, other groups treated with 5-HT agonists 6 h following autoshaping training showed similar LTM and unmodified CS-head-pokes scores.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acid deficient male rats exhibit abnormal behavioral activation in the forced swim test following chronic fluoxetine treatment: association with altered 5-HT1A and alpha2A adrenergic receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Able, Jessica A; Liu, Yanhong; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; McNamara, Robert K

    2014-03-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during development leads to enduing alterations in central monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain. Here we investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Male rats were fed diets with (CON, n = 34) or without (DEF, n = 30) the omega-3 fatty acid precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90). A subset of CON (n = 14) and DEF (n = 12) rats were administered FLX (10 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water for 30 d beginning on P60. The forced swimming test (FST) was initiated on P90, and regional brain mRNA markers of serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission were determined. Dietary ALA depletion led to significant reductions in frontal cortex docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (-26%, p = 0.0001) and DEF + FLX (-32%, p = 0.0001) rats. Plasma FLX and norfluoxetine concentrations did not different between FLX-treated DEF and CON rats. During the 15-min FST pretest, DEF + FLX rats exhibited significantly greater climbing behavior compared with CON + FLX rats. During the 5-min test trial, FLX treatment reduced immobility and increased swimming in CON and DEF rats, and only DEF + FLX rats exhibited significant elevations in climbing behavior. DEF + FLX rats exhibited greater midbrain, and lower frontal cortex, 5-HT1A mRNA expression compared with all groups including CON + FLX rats. DEF + FLX rats also exhibited greater midbrain alpha2A adrenergic receptor mRNA expression which was positively correlated with climbing behavior in the FST. These preclinical data demonstrate that low omega-3 fatty acid status leads to abnormal behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic FLX treatment in male rats.

  3. SILEN-C3, a Phase 2 Randomized Trial with Faldaprevir plus Pegylated Interferon α-2a and Ribavirin in Treatment-Naive Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Asselah, Tarik; Guyader, Dominique; Berg, Thomas; Schuchmann, Marcus; Mauss, Stefan; Ratziu, Vlad; Ferenci, Peter; Larrey, Dominique; Maieron, Andreas; Stern, Jerry O.; Ozan, Melek; Datsenko, Yakov; Böcher, Wulf Otto; Steinmann, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Faldaprevir is an investigational hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor which, when administered for 24 weeks in combination with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) in treatment-naive patients in a prior study (SILEN-C1; M. S. Sulkowski et al., Hepatology 57:2143–2154, 2013, doi:10.1002/hep.26276), achieved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates of 72 to 84%. The current randomized, open-label, parallel-group study compared the efficacy and safety of 12 versus 24 weeks of 120 mg faldaprevir administered once daily, combined with 24 or 48 weeks of PegIFN/RBV, in 160 treatment-naive HCV genotype 1 patients. Patients with maintained rapid virologic response (HCV RNA of <25 IU/ml at week 4 and undetectable at weeks 8 and 12) stopped all treatment at week 24, otherwise they continued PegIFN/RBV to week 48. SVR was achieved by 67% and 74% of patients in the 12-week and 24-week groups, respectively. Virologic response rates were lower in the 12-week group from weeks 2 to 12, during which both groups received identical treatment. SVR rates were similar in both groups for patients achieving undetectable HCV RNA. Most adverse events were mild or moderate, and 6% of patients in each treatment group discontinued treatment due to adverse events. Once-daily faldaprevir at 120 mg for 12 or 24 weeks with PegIFN/RBV resulted in high SVR rates, and the regimen was well tolerated. Differences in the overall SVR rates between the 12-week and 24-week groups were not statistically significant and possibly were due to IL28B genotype imbalances; IL28B genotype was not tested, as its significance was not known at the time of the study. These results supported phase 3 evaluation. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00984620). PMID:24709256

  4. New arylpiperazinylalkyl derivatives of 8-alkoxy-purine-2,6-dione and dihydro[1,3]oxazolo[2,3-f]purinedione targeting the serotonin 5-HT1A /5-HT2A /5-HT7 and dopamine D2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Chłoń-Rzepa, Grażyna; Zagórska, Agnieszka; Bucki, Adam; Kołaczkowski, Marcin; Pawłowski, Maciej; Satała, Grzegorz; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Partyka, Anna; Wesołowska, Anna; Pękala, Elżbieta; Słoczyńska, Karolina

    2015-04-01

    To obtain potential antidepressants and/or antipsychotics, a series of new long-chain arylpiperazine derivatives of 8-alkoxy-purine-2,6-dione (10-24) and dihydro[1,3]oxazolo[2,3-f]purinedione (30-34) were synthesized and their serotonin (5-HT1A , 5-HT2A , 5-HT6 , 5-HT7 ) and dopamine (D2 ) receptor affinities were determined. The study allowed the identification of some potent 5-HT1A /5-HT7 /D2 ligands with moderate affinity for 5-HT2A sites. The binding mode of representative compounds from both chemical classes (11 and 31) in the site of 5-HT1A receptor was analyzed in computational studies. In functional in vitro studies, the selected compounds 15 and 16 showed antagonistic properties for the evaluated receptors. 8-Methoxy-7-{4-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-butyl}-1,3-dimethyl-purine-2,6-dione (15) showed a lack of activity in terms and under the conditions of the forced swim, four plate and amphetamine-induced hyperactivity tests in mice, probably as a result of its high first pass effect in the liver.

  5. T24 HRAS transformed NIH/3T3 mouse cells (GhrasT-NIH/3T3) in serial tumorigenic in vitro/in vivo passages give rise to increasingly aggressive tumorigenic cell lines T1-A and T2-A and metastatic cell lines T3-HA and T4-PA.

    PubMed

    Ray, Durwood B; Merrill, Gerald A; Brenner, Frederic J; Lytle, Laurie S; Lam, Tan; McElhinney, Aaron; Anders, Joel; Rock, Tara Tauber; Lyker, Jennifer Kier; Barcus, Scott; Leslie, Kara Hust; Kramer, Jill M; Rubenstein, Eric M; Pryor Schanz, Karen; Parkhurst, Amy J; Peck, Michelle; Good, Kimberly; Granath, Kristi Lemke; Cifra, Nicole; Detweiler, Jessalee Wantz; Stevens, Laura; Albertson, Richard; Deir, Rachael; Stewart, Elisabeth; Wingard, Katherine; Richardson, Micah Rose; Blizard, Sarah B; Gillespie, Lauren E; Kriley, Charles E; Rzewnicki, Daniel I; Jones, David H

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells often arise progressively from "normal" to "pre-cancer" to "transformed" to "local metastasis" to "metastatic disease" to "aggressive metastatic disease". Recent whole genome sequencing (WGS) and spectral karyotyping (SKY) of cancer cells and tumorigenic models have shown this progression involves three major types of genome rearrangements: ordered small step-wise changes, more dramatic "punctuated evolution" (chromoplexy), and large catastrophic steps (chromothripsis) which all occur in random combinations to generate near infinite numbers of stochastically rearranged metastatic cancer cell genomes. This paper describes a series of mouse cell lines developed sequentially to mimic this type of progression. This starts with the new GhrasT-NIH/Swiss cell line that was produced from the NIH/3T3 cell line that had been transformed by transfection with HRAS oncogene DNA from the T24 human bladder carcinoma. These GhrasT-NIH/Swiss cells were injected s.c. into NIH/Swiss mice to produce primary tumors from which one was used to establish the T1-A cell line. T1-A cells injected i.v. into the tail vein of a NIH/Swiss mouse produced a local metastatic tumor near the base of the tail from which the T2-A cell line was established. T2-A cells injected i.v. into the tail vein of a nude NIH/Swiss mouse produced metastases in the liver and one lung from which the T3-HA (H=hepatic) and T3-PA (P=pulmonary) cell lines were developed, respectively. T3-HA cells injected i.v. into a nude mouse produced a metastasis in the lung from which the T4-PA cell line was established. PCR analysis indicated the human T24 HRAS oncogene was carried along with each in vitro/in vivo transfer step and found in the T2-A and T4-PA cell lines. Light photomicrographs indicate that all transformed cells are morphologically similar. GhrasT-NIH/Swiss cells injected s.c. produced tumors in 4% of NIH/Swiss mice in 6-10 weeks; T1-A cells injected s.c. produced tumors in 100% of NIH/Swiss mice in 7

  6. Synthesis and structural investigation of some pyrimido[5,4-c]quinolin-4(3H)-one derivatives with a long-chain arylpiperazine moiety as potent 5-HT(1A/2A) and 5-HT(7) receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Lewgowd, Wieslawa; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Szczesio, Malgorzata; Olczak, Andrzej; Glowka, Marek L; Mordalski, Stefan; Stanczak, Andrzej

    2011-08-01

    A series of new pyrimido[5,4-c]quinolin-4(3H)-ones with variable length of the spacer between amide and 4-arylpiperazine moiety were prepared to further explore the role of a terminal portion in the serotonergic activity. The majority of compounds demonstrated high in vitro affinity for 5-HT(1A) receptor, and moderate-to-low affinity for 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(7) receptors. X-ray analysis, two-dimensional NMR, conformational studies and docking into the 5-HT(1A) receptor model were conducted to investigate conformational preferences of selected 5-HT(1A) receptor ligands in different environments. The extended conformation of tetramethylene derivatives was found in a solid state, in DMSO (for a protonated form) and as a global energy minimum during conformational analysis in simulated water environment. Ligand geometry in top-scored complexes, obtained by docking to a set of 100 receptor models, were either fully extended or with central spacer torsion in synclinal conformation.

  7. Telecom 2-A (TC2A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulac, J.; Latour, J.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Telecom 2-A (TC2A) are summarized. The Telecom 2-A will provide high-speed data link applications, telephone, and television service between France and overseas territories. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  8. Equal Educational Opportunity: Hearings Before the Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity of the United States Senate, Ninety-First Congress, Second Session on Equal Educational Opportunity. Parts 1A, 1B, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C, and 3D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity.

    These hearings before the Senate Select Committee on Equal Educational Opportunity are organized in three parts, the contents of which are as follows: Part 1A and Part 2 comprise the "Introduction," with opening statements by a number of Senators, followed by the presentations of other witnesses. The focus of these two parts is on such…

  9. 75 FR 910 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF34-1A, -3A, -3A1, -3A2, -3B, and -3B1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... -3B1 turbofan engines. That AD currently requires a onetime visual and tactile inspection of certain..., removing from service fan disks with electrical arc-out indications, performing tactile and enhanced visual...-A0233, Revision 04, dated October 27, 2008, do the following: Tactile and Enhanced Visual...

  10. 75 FR 28188 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF34-1A, -3A, -3A1, -3A2, -3B, and -3B1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ...) numbers CF34-AL S/B 72 A0212, CF34-AL S/B 72 A0234, and CF34-AL S/B 72 A0235 in the regulatory section are... and eighth lines, ``CF34-AL'' is corrected to read ``CF34- BJ''. 2. On page 914, in the second column, in paragraph (k)(2)(iii), in the fifth line, ``CF34-AL'' is corrected to read ``CF34-BJ''. 3. On...

  11. U1A Complex

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-28

    Some of the most sophisticated experiments in the stockpile stewardship program are conducted in an environmentally safe manner, nearly 1000 feet below the ground at the site. The U1a complex a sprawling underground laboratory and tunnel complex is home to a number of unique capabilities.

  12. U1A Complex

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Some of the most sophisticated experiments in the stockpile stewardship program are conducted in an environmentally safe manner, nearly 1000 feet below the ground at the site. The U1a complex a sprawling underground laboratory and tunnel complex is home to a number of unique capabilities.

  13. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of KOMPSAT-3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, H. Y.; Shin, D. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, D. C.; Choi, C. U.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a vicarious radiometric calibration of the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3A (KOMPSAT-3A) performed by the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) and the Pukyong National University Remote Sensing Group (PKNU RSG) in 2015.The primary stages of this study are summarized as follows: (1) A field campaign to determine radiometric calibrated target fields was undertaken in Mongolia and South Korea. Surface reflectance data obtained in the campaign were input to a radiative transfer code that predicted at-sensor radiance. Through this process, equations and parameters were derived for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor to enable the conversion of calibrated DN to physical units, such as at-sensor radiance or TOA reflectance. (2) To validate the absolute calibration coefficients for the KOMPSAT-3A sensor, we performed a radiometric validation with a comparison of KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 TOA reflectance using one of the six PICS (Libya 4). Correlations between top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances and the spectral band responses of the KOMPSAT-3A sensors at the Zuunmod, Mongolia and Goheung, South Korea sites were significant for multispectral bands. The average difference in TOA reflectance between KOMPSAT-3A and Landsat-8 image over the Libya 4, Libya site in the red-green-blue (RGB) region was under 3%, whereas in the NIR band, the TOA reflectance of KOMPSAT-3A was lower than the that of Landsat-8 due to the difference in the band passes of two sensors. The KOMPSAT-3Aensor includes a band pass near 940 nm that can be strongly absorbed by water vapor and therefore displayed low reflectance. Toovercome this, we need to undertake a detailed analysis using rescale methods, such as the spectral bandwidth adjustment factor.

  14. EE-3A Logging Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David W.

    1993-12-15

    Two logs of EE-3A were performed during the last couple of weeks. The first of which, was a Temperature/Casing-Collar Locator (CCL) log, which took place on Friday, December 10th., 1993. The second log was a Caliper log which was done in cooperation with the Dia-Log Company, of Odessa, TX. on Monday, December, 13th., 1993.

  15. SCN2A encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Katherine B.; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Carvill, Gemma L.; Tambunan, Dimira; Mackay, Mark T.; Rodriguez-Casero, Victoria; Webster, Richard; Clark, Damian; Freeman, Jeremy L.; Calvert, Sophie; Olson, Heather E.; Mandelstam, Simone; Poduri, Annapurna; Mefford, Heather C.; Harvey, A. Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objective: De novo SCN2A mutations have recently been associated with severe infantile-onset epilepsies. Herein, we define the phenotypic spectrum of SCN2A encephalopathy. Methods: Twelve patients with an SCN2A epileptic encephalopathy underwent electroclinical phenotyping. Results: Patients were aged 0.7 to 22 years; 3 were deceased. Seizures commenced on day 1–4 in 8, week 2–6 in 2, and after 1 year in 2. Characteristic features included clusters of brief focal seizures with multiple hourly (9 patients), multiple daily (2), or multiple weekly (1) seizures, peaking at maximal frequency within 3 months of onset. Multifocal interictal epileptiform discharges were seen in all. Three of 12 patients had infantile spasms. The epileptic syndrome at presentation was epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) in 7 and Ohtahara syndrome in 2. Nine patients had improved seizure control with sodium channel blockers including supratherapeutic or high therapeutic phenytoin levels in 5. Eight had severe to profound developmental impairment. Other features included movement disorders (10), axial hypotonia (11) with intermittent or persistent appendicular spasticity, early handedness, and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. Mutations arose de novo in 11 patients; paternal DNA was unavailable in one. Conclusions: Review of our 12 and 34 other reported cases of SCN2A encephalopathy suggests 3 phenotypes: neonatal-infantile–onset groups with severe and intermediate outcomes, and a childhood-onset group. Here, we show that SCN2A is the second most common cause of EIMFS and, importantly, does not always have a poor developmental outcome. Sodium channel blockers, particularly phenytoin, may improve seizure control. PMID:26291284

  16. 17 CFR 270.3a-8 - Certain research and development companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... development companies. 270.3a-8 Section 270.3a-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-8 Certain research and development companies. (a) Notwithstanding sections 3(a)(1)(A) and 3(a)(1)(C) of the Act (15 U.S.C....

  17. 17 CFR 270.3a-8 - Certain research and development companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... development companies. 270.3a-8 Section 270.3a-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-8 Certain research and development companies. (a) Notwithstanding sections 3(a)(1)(A) and 3(a)(1)(C) of the Act (15 U.S.C....

  18. 17 CFR 270.3a-8 - Certain research and development companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... development companies. 270.3a-8 Section 270.3a-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-8 Certain research and development companies. (a) Notwithstanding sections 3(a)(1)(A) and 3(a)(1)(C) of the Act (15 U.S.C....

  19. 17 CFR 270.3a-8 - Certain research and development companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... development companies. 270.3a-8 Section 270.3a-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-8 Certain research and development companies. (a) Notwithstanding sections 3(a)(1)(A) and 3(a)(1)(C) of the Act (15 U.S.C....

  20. 17 CFR 270.3a-8 - Certain research and development companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... development companies. 270.3a-8 Section 270.3a-8 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-8 Certain research and development companies. (a) Notwithstanding sections 3(a)(1)(A) and 3(a)(1)(C) of the Act (15 U.S.C....

  1. The relative contributions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 to the metabolism of vinorelbine.

    PubMed

    Topletz, Ariel R; Dennison, Jennifer B; Barbuch, Robert J; Hadden, Chad E; Hall, Stephen D; Renbarger, Jamie L

    2013-09-01

    Vinorelbine is a semisynthetic vinca alkaloid used in the treatment of advanced breast and non-small cell lung cancers. Vincristine, a related vinca alkaloid, is 9-fold more efficiently metabolized by CYP3A5 than by CYP3A4 in vitro. This study quantified the relative contribution of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 to the metabolism of vinorelbine in vitro using cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450s (P450s) and human liver microsomes (HLMs). CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 were identified as the P450s capable of oxidizing vinorelbine using a panel of human enzymes and selective P450 inhibitors in HLMs. For CYP3A4 coexpressed with cytochrome b5 (CYP3A4+b5) and CYP3A5+b5, the Michaelis-Menten constants for vinorelbine were 2.6 and 3.6 μM, respectively, but the Vmax of 1.4 pmol/min/pmol was common to both enzymes. In HLMs, the intrinsic clearance of vinorelbine metabolism was highly correlated with CYP3A4 activity, and there was no significant difference in intrinsic clearance between CYP3A5 high and low expressers. When radiolabeled vinorelbine substrate was used, there were clear qualitative differences in metabolite formation fingerprints between CYP3A4+b5 and CYP3A5+b5 as determined by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. One major metabolite (M2), a didehydro-vinorelbine, was present in both recombinant and microsomal systems but was more abundant in CYP3A4+b5 incubations. We conclude that despite the equivalent efficiency of recombinant CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in vinorelbine metabolism the polymorphic expression of CYP3A5, as shown by the kinetics with HLMs, may have a minimal effect on systemic clearance of vinorelbine.

  2. MISR Level 1A Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... MISR Level 1A Products Level 1A Engineering Data File Type 1 and Level 1A Navigation Data Processing ... Product Specification Rev K  (PDF). Transparent software rebuild with Irix 6.5.2 OS. F01_0007 (FM_ENG), ...

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 associates with prostate tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, J; De Melo, J; Cutz, J-C; Aziz, T; Tang, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence demonstrates high levels of aldehyde dehydrogense (ALDH) activity in human cancer types, in part, because of its association with cancer stem cells. Whereas ALDH1A1 and ALDH7A1 isoforms were reported to associate with prostate tumorigenesis, whether other ALDH isoforms are associated with prostate cancer (PC) remains unclear. Methods: ALDH3A1 expression was analysed in various PC cell lines. Xenograft tumours and 54 primary and metastatic PC tumours were stained using immunohistochemistry for ALDH3A1 expression. Results: In comparison with the non-stem counterparts, a robust upregulation of ALDH3A1 was observed in DU145-derived PC stem cells (PCSCs). As DU145 PCSCs produced xenograft tumours with more advanced features compared with those derived from DU145 cells, higher levels of ALDH3A1 were detected in the former; a dramatic elevation of ALDH3A1 occurred in DU145 cell-derived lung metastasis compared with local xenograft tumours. Furthermore, while ALDH3A1 was not observed in prostate glands, ALDH3A1 was clearly present in PIN, and further increased in carcinomas. In comparison with the paired local carcinomas, ALDH3A1 was upregulated in lymph node metastatic tumours; the presence of ALDH3A1 in bone metastatic PC was also demonstrated. Conclusions: We report here the association of ALDH3A1 with PC progression. PMID:24762960

  4. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes...

  5. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes...

  6. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes...

  7. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes...

  8. 18 CFR 3a.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose. 3a.1 Section 3a.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.1 Purpose. This part 3a describes...

  9. Cysteine transporter SLC3A1 promotes breast cancer tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Wang, Yongbin; Li, Wei; Liu, Xinyi; Lv, Yixuan; Li, Xiaoling; Mi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Cysteine is an essential amino acid for infants, aged people as well as patients with metabolic disorders. Although the thiol group of cysteine side chain is active in oxidative reactions, the role of cysteine in cancer remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the expression level of the solute carrier family 3, member 1 (SLC3A1), the cysteine carrier, tightly correlated with clinical stages and patients' survival. Elevated SLC3A1 expression accelerated the cysteine uptake and the accumulation of reductive glutathione (GSH), leading to reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS increased the stability and activity of PP2Ac, resulting in decreased AKT activity. Hence, SLC3A1 activated the AKT signaling through inhibiting PP2A phosphatase activity. Consistently, overexpression of SLC3A1 enhanced tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells, whereas blocking SLC3A1 either with specific siRNA or SLC3A1 specific inhibitor sulfasalazine suppressed tumor growth and also abolished dietary NAC-promoted tumor growth. Collectively, our data demonstrate that SLC3A1 promotes cysteine uptake and determines cellular response to antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, suggesting SLC3A1 is a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer. PMID:28382174

  10. X-1A impact site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    A photo taken on 8 August 1955, showing the remains of the Bell X-1A The Bell X-1A (Serial # 48-1384) was designed for aerodynamic stability and air load research. It was delivered to Edwards Air Force Base on 7 January 1953. The aircraft made its first glide flight on 14 February with Bell test pilot Jean 'Skip' Ziegler at the controls. Ziegler also flew the first powered flight in the X-1A on 21 February. Contractor flights in the aircraft continued through April, at which time the X-1A was temporarily grounded for modifications. Flight operations were resumed on 21 November 1953 with Maj. Charles 'Chuck' Yeager at the controls. During a flight on 12 December, Yeager took the X-1A to a record-breaking speed of Mach 2.44 at an altitude of 75,000 feet. He then encountered the unpleasant phenomemon of inertia coupling. The X-1A tumbled out of control, knocking Yeager unconscious briefly before entering an inverted spin. Fortunately Yeager regained his senses and control of the aircraft 60 miles from Edwards at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Shaken, but unharmed, he brought the rocket plane in for a safe landing on Rogers Dry Lake. Next, the X-1A was used for a series of high-altitude missions piloted by Maj. Arthur 'Kit' Murray. Fourteen flights proved necessary to meet the program requirements, with only four being successful. During the test series, Murray set several unofficial world altitude records. The highest (90,440 feet) was set on 26 August 1954. Following completion of the altitude program, the aircraft was turned over to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1A underwent more modifications and was returned to flight status in July 1955. The first NACA-sponsored flight, piloted by Joseph A. Walker, took place on 20 July. The second NACA mission was to be the 25th flight of the X-1A. The flight began normally on 8 August 1955, with the X-1A shackled to the underside of a JTB-29A (45-21800) piloted by Stanley Butchart and John 'Jack' Mc

  11. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... peginterferon beta-1a injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  12. X-1A on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1A (48-1384) is photographed in July 1955 sitting on Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base, California. This view of the left side of the aircraft shows the change to the X-1A canopy from the X-1s (see photo E49-0039 under XS-1) The nose boom carries an angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip vane, along with a pitot tube for measuring static and impact pressures. The fuselage length is 35 feet 8 inches, with a wing span of 28 feet. The X-1A was created to explore stability and control characteristics at speeds in excess of Mach 2 and altitudes greater than 90,000 feet. Bell test pilot Jean 'Skip' Ziegler made six test flights in the X-1A between 14 February and 25 April 1953. Air Force test pilots Maj. Charles 'Chuck' Yeager and Maj. Arthur 'Kit' Murray made 18 flights between 21 November 1953 and 26 August 1954. NACA test pilot Joseph Walker made one successful flight on 20 July 1955. During a second flight attempt, on 8 August 1955, an explosion damaged the X-1A shortly before launch. Walker, unhurt, climbed up into the JTB-29A mothership, and the X-1A was jettisoned over the Edwards AFB bombing range.

  13. Inhibitory effect of salvianolate on human cytochrome P450 3A4 in vitro involving a noncompetitive manner

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Chong-Zhen; Ren, Xian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2015-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), which is purified from Danshen, is a popular herb extract. Sal B has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypoxic, anti-arteriosclerotic and anti-apoptotic properties. This substance can also ameliorate brain injury or neurodegenerative diseases. The listed drug Salvianolate, which contains a substantial amount of Sal B, has been used for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Our present work aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of salvianolate on seven cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP450), namely, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant enzymes through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. Salvianolate have a potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 1.438 (HLMs) and 3.582 (recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP3A4) mg/L, respectively. Salvianolate strongly dose, but not time-dependently decreased CYP3A4 activity in HLMs. The typical Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that Salvianolate inhibited CYP3A4 activity noncompetitively, with a Ki value of 2.27 mg/L in HLMs. Other CYP450 isoforms are not markedly affected by Salvianolate. These findings indicate that salvianolate may be involved in potential drug interactions when co-administrated with CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:26629047

  14. Inhibitory effect of salvianolate on human cytochrome P450 3A4 in vitro involving a noncompetitive manner.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chong-Zhen; Ren, Xian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2015-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), which is purified from Danshen, is a popular herb extract. Sal B has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypoxic, anti-arteriosclerotic and anti-apoptotic properties. This substance can also ameliorate brain injury or neurodegenerative diseases. The listed drug Salvianolate, which contains a substantial amount of Sal B, has been used for the treatment of coronary heart disease. Our present work aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of salvianolate on seven cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYP450), namely, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant enzymes through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. Salvianolate have a potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 1.438 (HLMs) and 3.582 (recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP3A4) mg/L, respectively. Salvianolate strongly dose, but not time-dependently decreased CYP3A4 activity in HLMs. The typical Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that Salvianolate inhibited CYP3A4 activity noncompetitively, with a Ki value of 2.27 mg/L in HLMs. Other CYP450 isoforms are not markedly affected by Salvianolate. These findings indicate that salvianolate may be involved in potential drug interactions when co-administrated with CYP3A4 substrates.

  15. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information...

  16. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information...

  17. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information...

  18. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information...

  19. 18 CFR 3a.2 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority. 3a.2 Section 3a.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION General § 3a.2 Authority. Official information...

  20. FNDC3A — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Fndc3a is a member of a three-gene family in mice. Mouse Fndc3a is composed of a proline-rich amino-terminus, nine fibronectin type-III domains, and a hydrophobic carboxy-terminus. By similarity, human FNDC3A is thought to mediate spermatid-Sertoli adhesion during spermatogenesis.

  1. Novel SCN3A Variants Associated with Focal Epilepsy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Vanoye, Carlos G.; Gurnett, Christina A.; Holland, Katherine D.; George, Alfred L.; Kearney, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels are essential for initiating and propagating action potentials in the brain. More than 800 mutations in genes encoding neuronal NaV channels including SCN1A and SCN2A have been associated with human epilepsy. Only one epilepsy-associated mutation has been identified in SCN3A encoding the NaV1.3 neuronal sodium channel. We performed a genetic screen of pediatric patients with focal epilepsy of unknown cause and identified four novel SCN3A missense variants: R357Q, D766N, E1111K and M1323V. We determined the functional consequences of these variants along with the previously reported K354Q mutation using heterologously expressed human NaV1.3. Functional defects were heterogeneous among the variants. The most severely affected was R357Q, which had significantly smaller current density and slower activation than the wild-type (WT) channel as well as depolarized voltage dependences of activation and inactivation. Also notable was E1111K, which evoked a significantly greater level of persistent sodium current than WT channels. Interestingly, a common feature shared by all variant channels was increased current activation in response to depolarizing voltage ramps revealing a functional property consistent with conferring neuronal hyper-excitability. Discovery of a common biophysical defect among variants identified in unrelated pediatric epilepsy patients suggests that SCN3A may contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability and epilepsy. PMID:24157691

  2. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  3. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  4. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  5. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... FOR PACKAGINGS Specifications for Cylinders § 178.36 Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water...

  6. Cloning and characterization of a novel CYP3A1 allelic variant: analysis of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 sex-hormone-dependent expression reveals that the CYP3A2 gene is regulated by testosterone.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, V; Lechner, M C

    1992-02-14

    A clone was isolated from a cDNA library constructed from phenobarbital-treated Wistar rat liver and proven to correspond to the full-length mRNA of a polymorphic variant of Sprague-Dawley CYP3A1. Eight nucleotide differences were detected in a single 76-nucleotide stretch and confirmed to be present in the genomic clone. They are seated in a region implicated in the definition of a substrate binding domain of the native P450. Three out of the eight nucleotide changes are nonconservative, implicating the replacement of Thr/Ala 207, Phe/Ile 213, and Ile/Val 232. This is the first report of an allelic variant of CYP3A1, a new example of interstrain P450 variability. The CYP3A subfamily is composed of several genes coding for active testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylases which are expressed in the liver. CYP3A genes are under strong and distinct developmental regulation. Conversely to CYP3A1, transiently expressed in immature animals, CYP3A2 is constitutively expressed in the liver early after birth and characterized by an extinction in the adult females. Castration of 90-day-old male rats causes a drastic reduction (80%) of CYP3A2 mRNA relative abundance. Administration of testosterone propionate restores the physiological levels of CYP3A2 mRNA characteristic of the male rat liver. Our results demonstrate the existence of a direct relationship between the male hormonal status and the constitutive expression of rat liver CYP3A2.

  7. Flowability of JSC-1a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rame, Enrique; Wilkinson, Allen; Elliot, Alan; Young, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    We have done a complete flowability characterization of the lunar soil simulant, JSC-1a, following closely the ASTM-6773 standard for the Schulze ring shear test. The measurements, which involve pre-shearing the material before each yield point, show JSC-1a to be cohesionless, with an angle of internal friction near 40 deg. We also measured yield loci after consolidating the material in a vibration table which show it to have significant cohesion (approximately equal to 1 kPa) and an angle of internal friction of about 60 deg. Hopper designs based on each type of flowability test differ significantly. These differences highlight the need to discern the condition of the lunar soil in the specific process where flowability is an issue. We close with a list not necessarily comprehensive of engineering rules of thumb that apply to powder flow in hoppers.

  8. 18 CFR 3a.41 - Access requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Access requirements. 3a.41 Section 3a.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Access to Classified Materials §...

  9. 18 CFR 3a.41 - Access requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Access requirements. 3a.41 Section 3a.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Access to Classified Materials §...

  10. 18 CFR 3a.41 - Access requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Access requirements. 3a.41 Section 3a.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Access to Classified Materials §...

  11. 18 CFR 3a.41 - Access requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Access requirements. 3a.41 Section 3a.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Access to Classified Materials §...

  12. 18 CFR 3a.41 - Access requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Access requirements. 3a.41 Section 3a.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Access to Classified Materials §...

  13. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2A Description: Stage IIA pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and duodenum. The bile duct and pancreatic duct are also shown. Stage IIA pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby tissue and organs ...

  14. Inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 b Aegle marmelos and its constituents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aegle marmelos (bael) is a popular tree in India and other Southeast Asian countries. The fruit is usually consumed as dried, fresh or juice and is reported to have a high nutritional value and many perceived health benefits. Despite of the edible nature and therapeutic properties of A. marmelos, no...

  15. YO-3A parked on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA's YO-3A parked on the Dryden ramp. The YO-3A aircraft was originally a Schweizer SGS-2-23 sailplane. During the late 1960s Lockheed modified over a dozen of these sailplanes to create ultra-quiet observation aircraft for use over South Vietnam during the conflict there. This particular YO-3A flew combat missions and was later sold to an airframe and powerplant mechanics school. NASA's Ames Research Center at Mountain Veiw, California, acquired the aircraft from the school in 1978. It restored the YO-3A to flight status and fitted it with wing- and tail-mounted microphones as an accoustic research aircraft. Ames operated it at Edwards Air Force Base for noise measurements of helicopters and tilt rotor aircraft. One set of tests in December 1995 obtained free-flight noise data on the XV-15 tilt rotor. NASA also used the YO-3A for sonic boom measurements of a NASA SR-71 assigned to the Dryden Flight Research Center. NASA transferred the YO-3A to Dryden in December 1997, and as of April 2001 it was in flyable storage there. The designation YO-3A indicates that this aircraft was a pre-production (Y) observation (O) aircraft. Even though the YO-3A saw operational use, the Y designation was never removed. Its 210-horsepower Continental V-6 was modified to reduce noise. The engine was connected to a propeller through a belt-driven reduction system. This reduced the propeller's rotation speed. The propeller blades themselves were made of birch plywood and were wider than standard propellers. The result of these modifications was an aircraft so quiet that its noise was drowned out by the background sounds.

  16. Endosomal sorting of VAMP3 is regulated by PI4K2A.

    PubMed

    Jović, Marko; Kean, Michelle J; Dubankova, Anna; Boura, Evzen; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Brill, Julie A; Balla, Tamas

    2014-09-01

    Specificity of membrane fusion in vesicular trafficking is dependent on proper subcellular distribution of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs). Although SNARE complexes are fairly promiscuous in vitro, substantial specificity is achieved in cells owing to the spatial segregation and shielding of SNARE motifs prior to association with cognate Q-SNAREs. In this study, we identified phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIα (PI4K2A) as a binding partner of vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP3), a small R-SNARE involved in recycling and retrograde transport, and found that the two proteins co-reside on tubulo-vesicular endosomes. PI4K2A knockdown inhibited VAMP3 trafficking to perinuclear membranes and impaired the rate of VAMP3-mediated recycling of the transferrin receptor. Moreover, depletion of PI4K2A significantly decreased association of VAMP3 with its cognate Q-SNARE Vti1a. Although binding of VAMP3 to PI4K2A did not require kinase activity, acute depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) on endosomes significantly delayed VAMP3 trafficking. Modulation of SNARE function by phospholipids had previously been proposed based on in vitro studies, and our study provides mechanistic evidence in support of these claims by identifying PI4K2A and PtdIns4P as regulators of an R-SNARE in intact cells.

  17. [Prognostic implications of GP3a glucoprotein gene PLA1/PLA2 allele in prostatic cancer: pilot results of the study].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Itkes, A V; Seregin, A A; Miandina, G I

    2005-01-01

    We studied the role of integrins, primarily, the role of allele distribution of GP3a gene in development of prostatic cancer (PC) and assessment of its prognostic significance. From November 2003 to May 2004 we examined 32 patients with PC: 11 patients with local PC T1-2N0M0; 14 patients with locally advanced cancer T3N0M0 and 7 patients with invasive and/or metastatic cancer T3-4N10-1 or T3-4N0-1M1. The blood from all the patients we studied with PCR for alleles of GP3a gene, PSA. Seventeen patients were found to have alleles PLA1A1, 14(44%)--alleles PLA1A2, 1(3%)--alleles PLA2A2. Alleles PLA1A2 occurred significantly more often than in the population (p < 0.005). The group analysis has found that 8 patients with local PC had alleles PLA1A1, 3 patients--alleles PLA1A2 (27%). We discovered alleles PLA2A2, PLA1A1 and PLA1A2 in 1(7%), 5(36%) and 8(57%) patients with locally advanced PC, respectively. Among patients with metastatic and/or invasive prostatic cancer, there were 4 (57%) and 3 (43%) cases of alleles PLA1A1 and PLA1A2, respectively. Our study demonstrated influence of carriage of PLA2 allele on occurrence of PC risk (5-fold higher) and its invasive forms (10-fold higher and more). Probability to develop local invasion among patients with prostatic cancer--carriers allele PLA1A2 is 6 times higher than among carriers of alleles PLA1A1. A PC course in carriers of alleles PLA1A2 may be characterized by faster development of local invasion and metastasizing vs carriers of alleles PLA1A1. These findings can be used in design of nomograms for prognostication of invasion of clinically small tumors in verification of significance on greater number of the patients.

  18. Induction of human sulfotransferase 1A3 (SULT1A3) by glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Bian, Hao Sheng; Ngo, Sherry Yan Yan; Tan, Weiqi; Wong, Chang Hua; Boelsterli, Urs A; Tan, Theresa May Chin

    2007-12-14

    Sulfotransferases (SULTs) play an important role in the detoxification and bioactivation of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Studies on rat sulfotransferases had shown that SULT genes, like cytochrome P450 genes, can be regulated by ligands that bind nuclear receptors. For human SULT genes, the regulation of human SULT2A1 expression is currently the best characterized. In this study, we systematically examined the regulation of human SULT1A genes by glucocorticoids. Treatment of the human hepatocellular carcinoma derived HepG2 cells with 10(-7) M dexamethasone did not affect the SULT1A1 activity toward p-nitrophenol. In contrast, SULT1A3 activity toward dopamine was significantly induced. Transient transfection of the SULT1A3 5'-flanking region/luciferase reporter construct showed that SULT1A3 was responsive to dexamethasone and prednisolone in a concentration-dependent manner with maximal induction at 10(-7) M dexamethasone or 1 microM prednisolone. In addition, induction by dexamethasone was dependent on the level of expression of the glucocorticoid receptor. Analysis of the 5'-flanking region led to the identification of a putative glucocorticoid response element at position (-1211 to -1193) upstream of the transcription start site and deletion or mutation of this element resulted in a loss of response. In summary, the data from this study shows that the human SULT1A3 gene is inducible by glucocorticoids through a glucocorticoid receptor-mediated mechanism and the glucocorticoid response element at position (-1211 to -1193) is necessary for this induction.

  19. P3a from white noise.

    PubMed

    Frank, David W; Yee, Ryan B; Polich, John

    2012-08-01

    P3a and P3b event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited with an auditory three-stimulus (target, distracter, and standard) discrimination task in which subjects responded only to the target. Distracter stimuli consisted of white noise or novel sounds with stimulus characteristics perceptually matched. Target/standard discrimination difficulty was manipulated by varying target/standard pitch differences to produce relatively easy, medium, and hard tasks. Error rate and response time increased with increases in task difficulty. P3a was larger for the white noise compared to novel sounds, maximum over the central/parietal recording sites, and did not differ in size across difficulty levels. P3b was unaffected by distracter type, decreased as task difficulty increased, and maximum over the parietal recording sites. The findings indicate that P3a from white noise is robust and should be useful for applied studies as it removes stimulus novelty variability. Theoretical perspectives are discussed.

  20. MB3a Infrasound Sensor Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion J.; McDowell, Kyle D.

    2014-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated a new infrasound sensor, the MB3a, manufactured by Seismo Wave. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by researchers at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the technology was recently licensed to Seismo Wave for production and sales. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, dynamic range, seismic sensitivity, and self- calibration ability. The MB3a infrasound sensors are being evaluated for potential use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

  1. WRAP 2A product specification

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, K.E.

    1993-08-26

    WRAP-2A will process mixed and low-level waste (MLLW) for disposal. The final treatment processes selected for use in WRAP-2A consist of stabilization using cementitious materials and immobilization using thermosetting polymers. Modifications or additions to these processes may be made as technology improvements become known. Knowledge of the diverse waste forms that must be processed will be important to the effective exploration of process technologies that may be available. This document is a compilation of the current knowledge of the waste and process methods specified for each type of waste. As the uncertainties associated with the waste and methods of processing are addressed and resolved, revisions to this document will be made. This document is broken down by feed stream, source of the waste, waste codes, radiological characterization and recommended final forms of the waste for each stream.

  2. Epilepsy phenotype associated with a chromosome 2q24.3 deletion involving SCN1A: Migrating partial seizures of infancy or atypical Dravet syndrome?

    PubMed

    Lim, Byung Chan; Hwang, Hee; Kim, Hunmin; Chae, Jong-Hee; Choi, Jieun; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Yong Seung; Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2015-01-01

    The deletion of a sodium channel gene cluster located on chromosome 2q24.3 is associated with variable epilepsy phenotypes, including Dravet syndrome and migrating partial seizures of infancy. Although SCN1A is considered as the major contributor to the epilepsy phenotype, the role of other sodium channel genes that map within this cluster has not been delineated. We presented five new cases with a chromosome 2q24.3 deletion involving SCN1A and investigated their epilepsy phenotype in relation to the extent of the deletion. Three cases with deletion of the whole sodium channel gene cluster (SCN3A, SCN2A, SCN1A, SCN9A, and SCN7A) exhibited a complex epilepsy phenotype that was atypical for Dravet syndrome and suggestive of migrating partial seizures of infancy: early seizure onset (before 2 months of age), severe developmental delay from seizure onset, multifocal interictal spikes, polymorphous focal seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Two cases with partial deletion of SCN1A and SCN9A and whole SCN1A deletion had an epilepsy phenotype of Dravet syndrome. A literature review of cases with chromosome 2q24.3 deletion revealed that, in most Dravet syndrome cases, it does not involve SCN2A and SCN3A, whereas a complex epilepsy phenotype that is shared with migrating partial seizures of infancy was associated with cases of deletion of the whole sodium channel gene cluster.

  3. 22 CFR 3a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... UNIFORMED SERVICES § 3a.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part— (a) Applicant means any person who requests approval under this part to accept any civil employment (and compensation therefor) from a foreign... part to continue such employment. (b) Uniformed services means the Armed Forces, the...

  4. Internal Magnus effects in superfluid 3A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmelin, R. H.; Salomaa, M. M.; Mineev, V. P.

    1989-08-01

    Orbital angular momentum of the coherently aligned Cooper pairs in superfluid 3A is encountered by an object immersed in the condensate. We evaluate the associated quasiparticle-scattering asymmetry experienced by a negative ion; this leads to a measureable, purely quantum-mechanical reactive force deflecting the ion's trajectory. Possible hydrodynamic Magnus effects are also discussed.

  5. EFR3A — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    EFR3A (KIAA0143) is a membrane protein. Little is known about its function, although studies on the mouse homolog have suggested a role in hearing. It has been shown in mice that it is differentially expressed in the auditory brainstem neurons of mice with hearing deficit, compared to mice with normal hearing ability.

  6. Main contribution of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) to N-demethylation and 5-sulfoxidation of the phenothiazine neuroleptic chlorpromazine in human liver--A comparison with other phenothiazines.

    PubMed

    Wójcikowski, Jacek; Boksa, Jan; Daniel, Władysława A

    2010-10-15

    The aim of the present study was to identify cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved in the 5-sulfoxidation, mono-N-demethylation and di-N-demethylation of the aliphatic-type phenothiazine neuroleptic chlorpromazine in human liver. Experiments were performed in vitro using cDNA-expressed human CYP isoforms (Supersomes 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4), liver microsomes from different donors and CYP-selective inhibitors. The obtained results indicate that CYP1A2 is the only CYP isoform that catalyzes the mono-N-demethylation and di-N-demethylation of chlorpromazine (100%) and is the main isoform responsible for chlorpromazine 5-sulfoxidation (64%) at a therapeutic concentration of the drug (10 microM). CYP3A4 contributes to a lesser degree to chlorpromazine 5-sulfoxidation (34%). The role of CYP2B6, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in catalyzing of the latter reaction is negligible (0.1-2%). Similar results were obtained at a higher, non-therapeutic concentration of the drug (100 microM); however, the contribution of CYP1A2 to chlorpromazine mono-N-demethylation was noticeably lower (75%), mostly in favour of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 (about 12% each). The obtained results indicate that the catalysis of chlorpromazine N-demethylation and 5-sulfoxidation in humans exhibits a stricter CYP1A2 preference compared to the previously tested phenothiazines (promazine, perazine, and thioridazine). Hence pharmacokinetic interactions involving chlorpromazine and CYP1A2 substrates and inhibitors are likely to occur. Considering strong dopaminergic D(2), noradrenergic alpha(1) and cholinergic M(1) receptor blocking properties of chlorpromazine and some of its metabolites, as well as their serious side effects, the obtained results may be of pharmacological and clinical importance.

  7. Facility 3A/3B, oblique view of 3B with 3A behind from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 3A/3B, oblique view of 3B with 3A behind from Facility 1456. view facing east - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Instrument Shop & Electrical Shop Lean-to, Avenue E, between Sixth & Seventh Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. Potent inhibition by star fruit of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Muneaki; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Ogikubo, Tetsuya; Yamasaki, Keishi; Iwakiri, Tomomi; Okumura, Manabu; Kodama, Hirofumi; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-01

    There has been very limited information on the capacities of tropical fruits to inhibit human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Thus, the inhibitory effects of tropical fruits on midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity of CYP3A in human liver microsomes were evaluated. Eight tropical fruits such as common papaw, dragon fruit, kiwi fruit, mango, passion fruit, pomegranate, rambutan, and star fruit were tested. We also examined the inhibition of CYP3A activity by grapefruit (white) and Valencia orange as controls. The juice of star fruit showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A. The addition of a star fruit juice (5.0%, v/v) resulted in the almost complete inhibition of midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity (residual activity of 0.1%). In the case of grape-fruit, the residual activity was 14.7%. The inhibition depended on the amount of fruit juice added to the incubation mixture (0.2-6.0%, v/v). The elongation of the preincubation period of a juice from star fruit (1.25 or 2.5%, v/v) with the microsomal fraction did not alter the CYP3A inhibition, suggesting that the star fruit did not contain a mechanism-based inhibitor. Thus, we discovered filtered extracts of star fruit juice to be inhibitors of human CYP3A activity in vitro.

  9. SCN2A-Related Early-Onset Epileptic Encephalopathy Responsive to Phenobarbital

    PubMed Central

    Baumer, Fiona M.; Peters, Jurriaan M.; El Achkar, Christelle M.; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav) are critical regulators of neuronal excitability. Genes for the α-subunits of three sodium channel subtypes—SCN1A, SCN2A, and SCN3A—are all located on chromosome 2q24. A full-term boy with an unremarkable birth history presented at 1 month of age with unusual movements that had started on day of life 2. Exam was notable for lack of visual attention, hypotonia, and hyperreflexia. Electroencephalogram (EEG) showed an invariant burst suppression with multifocal spikes, ictal episodes with bicycling movements associated with buildups of rhythmic activity, and epileptic spasms. Work-up revealed a 1.77-Mb duplication at locus 2q24.3, encompassing the entirety of SCN2A and SCN3A, but not SCN1A. Phenobarbital led to rapid resolution of the clinical seizures and EEG background normalized other than rare sharp waves. Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EOEE), with neonatal seizures, burst suppression, and reversibility with phenobarbital, is part of the enlarging spectrum of Nav channelopathies. The delayed diagnosis provided an unusual opportunity to view the early natural history of this disorder and its remarkable responsiveness to barbiturate therapy. The clinical and EEG response to phenobarbital implicates seizures as the cause of the encephalopathy. PMID:27595042

  10. 9 CFR 73.1a - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 73.1a Section 73.1a Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1a...

  11. 9 CFR 73.1a - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 73.1a Section 73.1a Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1a...

  12. 9 CFR 73.1a - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 73.1a Section 73.1a Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1a...

  13. 9 CFR 73.1a - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 73.1a Section 73.1a Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1a...

  14. 9 CFR 73.1a - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 73.1a Section 73.1a Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1a...

  15. Semaphorin3A elevates vascular permeability and contributes to cerebral ischemia-induced brain damage.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sheng Tao; Nilchi, Ladan; Li, Xuesheng; Gangaraju, Sandhya; Jiang, Susan X; Aylsworth, Amy; Monette, Robert; Slinn, Jacqueline

    2015-01-20

    Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) increased significantly in mouse brain following cerebral ischemia. However, the role of Sema3A in stroke brain remains unknown. Our aim was to determine wether Sema3A functions as a vascular permeability factor and contributes to ischemic brain damage. Recombinant Sema3A injected intradermally to mouse skin, or stereotactically into the cerebral cortex, caused dose- and time-dependent increases in vascular permeability, with a degree comparable to that caused by injection of a known vascular permeability factor vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGF). Application of Sema3A to cultured endothelial cells caused disorganization of F-actin stress fibre bundles and increased endothelial monolayer permeability, confirming Sema3A as a permeability factor. Sema3A-mediated F-actin changes in endothelial cells were through binding to the neuropilin2/VEGFR1 receptor complex, which in turn directly activates Mical2, a F-actin modulator. Down-regulation of Mical2, using specific siRNA, alleviated Sema3A-induced F-actin disorganization, cellular morphology changes and endothelial permeability. Importantly, ablation of Sema3A expression, cerebrovascular permeability and brain damage were significantly reduced in response to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia/haemorrhagic transformation. Together, these studies demonstrated that Sema3A is a key mediator of cerebrovascular permeability and contributes to brain damage caused by cerebral ischemia.

  16. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I. B.; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways. PMID:26348328

  17. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I B; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M E; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways.

  18. Computational discovery of stable M2A X phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashton, Michael; Hennig, Richard G.; Broderick, Scott R.; Rajan, Krishna; Sinnott, Susan B.

    2016-08-01

    The family of layered Mn +1A Xn compounds provides a large class of materials with applications ranging from magnets to high-temperature coatings to nuclear cladding. In this work, we employ a density-functional-theory-based discovery approach to identify a large number of thermodynamically stable Mn +1A Xn compounds, where n =1 , M =Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Hf, Ta; A =Al, Si, P, S, Ga, Ge, As, Cd, In, Sn, Tl, Pb; and X =C, N. We calculate the formation energy for 216 pure M2A X compounds and 10 314 solid solutions, (MM') 2(A A') (X X') , relative to their competing phases. We find that the 49 experimentally known M2A X phases exhibit formation energies of less than 30 meV/atom. Among the 10 530 compositions considered, 3140 exhibit formation energies below 30 meV/atom, most of which have yet to be experimentally synthesized. A significant subset of 301 compositions exhibits strong exothermic stability in excess of 100 meV/atom, indicating favorable synthesis conditions. We identify empirical design rules for stable M2A X compounds. Among the metastable M2A X compounds are two Cr-based compounds with ferromagnetic ordering and expected Curie temperatures around 75 K. These results can serve as a map for the experimental design and synthesis of different M2A X compounds.

  19. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectroscopy of the X(1)A' --> A(1)A'' system of CHI and CDI.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chong; Ebben, Carlena; Reid, Scott A

    2009-11-26

    We report on the first detailed studies of the spectroscopy of an iodocarbene, measuring fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the X1A' --> A1A'' system of :CHI and the deuterated isotopomer :CDI. Due to similar bending and C-I stretching frequencies in the upper state, fluorescence excitation spectra of :CHI show polyads composed of members of the 2(0)(n-x)3(0)x progressions with x = 0-3. For :CDI, only progressions with x = 0, 1 are observed. Extrapolation of the 20n term energies for both isotopomers to a common origin places the electronic origin of the X1A' --> A1A'' system near 10500 cm-1, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Rotational analysis of the 16 observed bands for CHI and 13 observed bands for :CDI yields rotational constants for the upper and lower states that are also in good agreement with theory. To investigate the controversial issue of the ground state multiplicity of :CHI, we measured single vibronic level emission spectra from many A1A'' levels. These spectra show conclusively that the ground state is a singlet, as for both isotopomers the ã3A'' origin is observed, lying well above the origin of the X1A' state. At energies above the ã3A'' origin, the spin-orbit mixing is so severe that few vibrational assignments can be made. Analysis of the emission spectra provides a lower limit on the singlet-triplet gap of 4.1 kcal mol-1, in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions.

  20. Association of axon guidance factor semaphorin 3A with poor outcome in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Müller, Michael W; Giese, Nathalia A; Swiercz, Jakub M; Ceyhan, Güralp O; Esposito, Irene; Hinz, Ulf; Büchler, Peter; Giese, Thomas; Büchler, Markus W; Offermanns, Stefan; Friess, Helmut

    2007-12-01

    Neural alterations and aberrantly expressed nerve-specific factors promoting tumor progression are known to contribute to pancreatic cancer's extremely poor prognosis. Despite hints that axon guidance factor semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) may function as a tumor inhibitor, its clinical importance and therapeutic potential have not yet been explored. The present study investigated the role of SEMA3A and its receptors-plexins A1-A4 (PLXNA1-A4) and neuropilin-1 (NRP1)-in pancreatic cancer. QRT-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses revealed overexpression of SEMA3A, NRP1 and PLXNA1 in metaplastic ducts, malignant cells and nerves of cancerous specimens, and showed that elevated levels of corresponding mRNA (6.8-fold, 2.0-fold and 1.5-fold, respectively) clearly correlated with negative clinicopathological manifestations such as shorter survival (SEMA3A and PLXNA1) and a lesser degree of tumor differentiation (NRP1) in Stages I-III patients. High SEMA3A expression in pancreata of Stage IV M1 patients and in peritoneal metastases, and consequent functional studies indicated that poor clinical outcome might be related to the ability of SEMA3A to promote dissemination and invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through activation of multiple pathways involving Rac1, GSK3b or p42/p44 MAPK, but not E- to N-cadherin switch, MMP-9 or VEGF induction. Thus, this study is the first to quantify expression of the SEMA3A system in human malignancy and to show that overexpression of SEMA3A by nerves and transformed cells leads to a SEMA3A-rich environment which may favor malignant activities of tumor cells. Furthermore, negative clinicopathological correlations suggest that SEMA3A might represent a novel intervention target but not a treatment option for pancreatic cancer patients.

  1. Food-drug interactions via human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A).

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ken-ichi

    2004-01-01

    Food-drug interactions have been reported to occur in various systems in the body. The causes of these interactions are mainly divided into pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic processes. Among these processes, drug metabolism plays a crucial role in drug interactions. Metabolic food-drug interactions occur when a certain food alters the activity of a drug-metabolizing enzyme, leading to a modulation of the pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized by the enzyme. A variety of interactions have been documented so far. Foods consisting of complex chemical mixtures, such as fruits, alcoholic beverages, teas, and herbs, possess the ability to inhibit or induce the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. According to results obtained thus far, cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) appears to be a key enzyme in food-drug interactions. For example, interactions of grapefruit juice with felodipine and cyclosporine, red wine with cyclosporine, and St John's wort with various medicines including cyclosporine, have been demonstrated. The results indicate the requirement of dosage adjustment to maintain drug concentrations within their therapeutic windows. The CYP3A4-related interaction by food components may be related to the high level of expression of CYP3A4 in the small intestine, as well as its broad substrate specificity, as CYP3A4 is responsible for the metabolism of more than 50% of clinical pharmaceuticals. This review article summarizes the findings obtained to date concerning food-drug interactions and their clinical implications. It seems likely that more information regarding such interactions will accumulate in the future, and awareness is necessary for achieving optimal drug therapy.

  2. CD1A — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    CD1A is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is structurally related to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins and forms heterodimers with beta-2-microglobulin. CD1A functions as an antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self lipid and glycolipid antigens and presents them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells.

  3. DSCOVR_EPIC_L1A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-04

    DSCOVR_EPIC_L1A Full sun-light Earth images calibrated with ... 551NM 680NM 688NM 764NM 780NM DSCOVR EPIC IMAGERY L1B LAGRANGE Order Data:  Earthdata ... Guide Documents:  DSCOVR Overview EPIC Data Format Control Book DSCOVR EPIC L0L1a Processor V01 ...

  4. In vivo effects of chronic contamination with depleted uranium on CYP3A and associated nuclear receptors PXR and CAR in the rat.

    PubMed

    Souidi, M; Gueguen, Y; Linard, C; Dudoignon, N; Grison, S; Baudelin, C; Marquette, C; Gourmelon, P; Aigueperse, J; Dublineau, I

    2005-10-15

    In addition to its natural presence at high concentrations in some areas, uranium has several civilian and military applications that could cause contamination of human populations, mainly through chronic ingestion. Reports describe the accumulation of this radionuclide in some organs (including the bone, kidney, and liver) after acute or chronic contamination and show that it produces chemical or radiological toxicity or both. The literature is essentially devoid of information about uranium-related cellular and molecular effects on metabolic functions such as xenobiotic detoxification. The present study thus evaluated rats chronically exposed to depleted uranium in their drinking water (1mg/(ratday)) for 9 months. Our specific aim was to evaluate the hepatic and extrahepatic mRNA expression of CYP3A1/A2, CYP2B1, and CYP1A1 as well as of the nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, and RXR in these rats. CYP3A1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in the brain (200%), liver (300%), and kidneys (900%) of exposed rats compared with control rats, while CYP3A2 mRNA levels were higher in the lungs (300%) and liver (200%), and CYP2B1 mRNA expression in the kidneys (300%). Expression of CYP1A1 mRNA did not change significantly during this study. PXR mRNA levels increased in the brain (200%), liver (150%), and kidneys (200%). Uranium caused CAR mRNA expression in the lungs to double. Expression of RXR mRNA did not change significantly in the course of this study, nor did the hepatic activity of CYP2C, CYP3A, CYP2A, or CYP2B. Uranium probably affects the expression of drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes through the PXR and CAR nuclear receptors. These results suggest that the stimulating effect of uranium on these enzymes might lead to hepatic or extrahepatic toxicity (or both) during drug treatment and then affect the entire organism.

  5. SCNN1A — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    SCNN1A, a multi-pass membrane protein belonging to the amiloride-sensitive sodium channel family, is a sodium permeable non-voltage-sensitive ion channel inhibited by the diuretic amiloride. These channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of 3 subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma; the SCNN1A gene encodes the alpha subunit. SCNN1A mediates the electrodiffusion of the luminal sodium (and water, which follows osmotically) through the apical membrane of epithelial cells. It controls the reabsorption of sodium in kidney, colon, lung and sweat glands. Also plays a role in taste perception. It is highly expressed in kidney and lung, detected at intermediate levels in pancreas and liver, and at low levels in heart and placenta. Defects in SCNN1A are a cause of autosomal recessive pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1, a rare salt wasting disease resulting from target organ unresponsiveness to mineralocorticoids.

  6. TNFRSF1A — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    TNFRSF1A, one of the major receptors for the TNF-alpha, is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This protein activates NF-kappaB, mediates apoptosis, and functions as a regulator of inflammation. TNFRSF1A has been shown to interact with adaptor proteins TRADD and TRAF2 and antiapoptotic protein BCL2-associated athanogene 4 (BAG4/SODD). TNFRSF1A is involved in activating at least two distinct signaling cascades, apoptosis and NF-kappa-B signaling.

  7. In Silico Prediction of Cytochrome P450-Drug Interaction: QSARs for CYP3A4 and CYP2C9

    PubMed Central

    Nembri, Serena; Grisoni, Francesca; Consonni, Viviana; Todeschini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYP) are the main actors in the oxidation of xenobiotics and play a crucial role in drug safety, persistence, bioactivation, and drug-drug/food-drug interaction. This work aims to develop Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models to predict the drug interaction with two of the most important CYP isoforms, namely 2C9 and 3A4. The presented models are calibrated on 9122 drug-like compounds, using three different modelling approaches and two types of molecular description (classical molecular descriptors and binary fingerprints). For each isoform, three classification models are presented, based on a different approach and with different advantages: (1) a very simple and interpretable classification tree; (2) a local (k-Nearest Neighbor) model based classical descriptors and; (3) a model based on a recently proposed local classifier (N-Nearest Neighbor) on binary fingerprints. The salient features of the work are (1) the thorough model validation and the applicability domain assessment; (2) the descriptor interpretation, which highlighted the crucial aspects of P450-drug interaction; and (3) the consensus aggregation of models, which largely increased the prediction accuracy. PMID:27294921

  8. 42 CFR 2a.8 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Termination. 2a.8 Section 2a.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.8 Termination. (a) A Confidentiality Certificate is in effect from the date of...

  9. 42 CFR 2a.8 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination. 2a.8 Section 2a.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.8 Termination. (a) A Confidentiality Certificate is in effect from the date of...

  10. 42 CFR 2a.8 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Termination. 2a.8 Section 2a.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.8 Termination. (a) A Confidentiality Certificate is in effect from the date of...

  11. 42 CFR 2a.8 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Termination. 2a.8 Section 2a.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.8 Termination. (a) A Confidentiality Certificate is in effect from the date of...

  12. 42 CFR 2a.8 - Termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination. 2a.8 Section 2a.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.8 Termination. (a) A Confidentiality Certificate is in effect from the date of...

  13. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1a intramuscular at around the same time of day on your injection days. Follow the ...

  14. The phenotype range of achondrogenesis 1A.

    PubMed

    Grigelioniene, Giedre; Geiberger, Stefan; Papadogiannakis, Nikos; Mäkitie, Outi; Nishimura, Gen; Nordgren, Ann; Conner, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Achondrogenesis 1A (ACG1A; OMIM 200600) is an autosomal recessive perinatally lethal skeletal dysplasia comprising intrauterine growth failure, micromelia, minor facial anomalies, deficient ossification of the skull, absent or extremely defective spinal ossification, short beaded ribs, and short deformed long bones with a stellate appearance. ACG1A is caused by mutations in the TRIP11 gene, resulting in deficiency of the Golgi microtubule associated protein 210. In this study we describe dizygotic twins with a clinical and radiological phenotype of ACG1A who were homozygous for a novel nonsense mutation in the TRIP11 gene. In addition, another patient with a milder manifestation, not readily distinguishable from those of other lethal skeletal dysplasias, was found to be a compound heterozygote for a nonsense mutation and a deletion of the 3' end of the TRIP11 gene. We conclude that mutations of the TRIP11 gene may encompass a wider phenotypic range than previously recognized.

  15. Ras Regulates Rb via NORE1A.

    PubMed

    Barnoud, Thibaut; Donninger, Howard; Clark, Geoffrey J

    2016-02-05

    Mutations in the Ras oncogene are one of the most frequent events in human cancer. Although Ras regulates numerous growth-promoting pathways to drive transformation, it can paradoxically promote an irreversible cell cycle arrest known as oncogene-induced senescence. Although senescence has clearly been implicated as a major defense mechanism against tumorigenesis, the mechanisms by which Ras can promote such a senescent phenotype remain poorly defined. We have shown recently that the Ras death effector NORE1A plays a critical role in promoting Ras-induced senescence and connects Ras to the regulation of the p53 tumor suppressor. We now show that NORE1A also connects Ras to the regulation of a second major prosenescent tumor suppressor, the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. We show that Ras induces the formation of a complex between NORE1A and the phosphatase PP1A, promoting the activation of the Rb tumor suppressor by dephosphorylation. Furthermore, suppression of Rb reduces NORE1A senescence activity. These results, together with our previous findings, suggest that NORE1A acts as a critical tumor suppressor node, linking Ras to both the p53 and the Rb pathways to drive senescence.

  16. B-1a Lymphocytes Attenuate Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lei; Chng, MH; Alonso, Michael N.; Yuan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance, a common precursor of type 2 diabetes, is characterized by chronic inflammation of tissues, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Here we show that B-1a cells, a subpopulation of B lymphocytes, are novel and important regulators of this process. B-1a cells are reduced in frequency in obese high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, and EGFP interleukin-10 (IL-10) reporter mice show marked reductions in anti-inflammatory IL-10 production by B cells in vivo during obesity. In VAT, B-1a cells are the dominant producers of B cell–derived IL-10, contributing nearly half of the expressed IL-10 in vivo. Adoptive transfer of B-1a cells into HFD-fed B cell–deficient mice rapidly improves insulin resistance and glucose tolerance through IL-10 and polyclonal IgM-dependent mechanisms, whereas transfer of B-2 cells worsens metabolic disease. Genetic knockdown of B cell–activating factor (BAFF) in HFD-fed mice or treatment with a B-2 cell–depleting, B-1a cell–sparing anti-BAFF antibody attenuates insulin resistance. These findings establish B-1a cells as a new class of immune regulators that maintain metabolic homeostasis and suggest manipulation of these cells as a potential therapy for insulin resistance. PMID:25249575

  17. Broadcasting Satellite-3A and -3B (BS-3A and 3B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horii, M.; Funakawa, K.

    1991-01-01

    The BS-3A and -3B will provide direct color TV broadcasting to the Japanese mainland and remote islands. The satellites will be launched from Tanegashima Space Center by a type H-1 launch vehicle. The coverage will consist of the 26-m antenna and the 34-m antenna as a backup support for the transfer and drift orbits. Maximum support will consist of one 8-hour track per station for a seven day period, plus 23 days of contingency support from all complexes. Information is given in tabular form for Deep Space Network support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  18. 49 CFR 178.36 - Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conform to the following: (1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity... steel cylinder with a water capacity not less than 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 500... per unit of length of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water and compressed to...

  19. In vitro metabolism of testosterone in the horse liver and involvement of equine CYPs 3A89, 3A94 and 3A95.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, A; Zielinski, J; Dick, B; Mevissen, M

    2014-08-01

    Testosterone (TES) 6-β-hydroxylation is a significant metabolic step in the biotransformation of TES in human liver microsomes and reflects cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4/5 specific metabolic activity. Several CYP3A enzymes have been annotated in the horse genome, but functional characterization is missing. This descriptive study investigates TES metabolism in the horse liver in vitro and the qualitative contribution of three CYP3A isoforms of the horse. Metabolism of TES was investigated by using equine hepatocyte primary cultures and liver microsomes. Chemical inhibitors were used to determine the CYPs involved in TES biotransformation in equine microsomes. Single CYPs 3A89, 3A94, and 3A95, recombinantly expressed in V79 hamster lung fibroblasts, were incubated with TES and the fluorescent metabolite 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin (BFC). The effect of ketoconazole and troleandomycin was evaluated on single CYPs. Testosterone metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and confirmed by GC/MS. In hepatocyte primary cultures, the most abundant metabolite was androstenedione (AS), whereas in liver microsomes, 6-β-hydroxytestosterone showed the largest peak. Formation of 6-β-hydroxytestosterone and 11-β-hydroxytestosterone in liver microsomes was inhibited by ketoconazole, troleandomycin, and quercetin. Equine recombinant CYP3A95 catalyzed 11-β-hydroxylation of testosterone (TES). Metabolism of BFC was significantly inhibited by ketoconazole in CYP3A95, whereas troleandomycin affected the activities of CYP3A94 and CYP3A95. Both inhibitors had no significant effect on CYP3A89. Metabolic reactions and effects of inhibitors differed between the equine CYP3A isoforms investigated. This has to be considered in future in vitro studies.

  20. Therapeutic relevance of the protein phosphatase 2A in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhanumathy, Kalpana Kalyanasundaram; Lee, Joo Sang; Parameswaran, Sreejit; Furber, Levi; Abuhussein, Omar; Paul, James M.; McDonald, Megan; Templeton, Shaina D.; Shukla, Hersh; El Zawily, Amr M.; Boyd, Frederick; Alli, Nezeka; Mousseau, Darrell D.; Geyer, Ron; Bonham, Keith; Anderson, Deborah H.; Yan, Jiong; Yu-Lee, Li-Yuan; Weaver, Beth A.; Uppalapati, Maruti; Ruppin, Eytan; Sablina, Anna; Freywald, Andrew; Vizeacoumar, Franco J.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal Instability (CIN) is regarded as a unifying feature of heterogeneous tumor populations, driving intratumoral heterogeneity. Polo-Like Kinase 1 (PLK1), a serine-threonine kinase that is often overexpressed across multiple tumor types, is one of the key regulators of CIN and is considered as a potential therapeutic target. However, targeting PLK1 has remained a challenge due to the off-target effects caused by the inhibition of other members of the polo-like family. Here we use synthetic dosage lethality (SDL), where the overexpression of PLK1 is lethal only when another, normally non-lethal, mutation or deletion is present. Rather than directly inhibiting PLK1, we found that inhibition of PP2A causes selective lethality to PLK1-overexpressing breast, pancreatic, ovarian, glioblastoma, and prostate cancer cells. As PP2A is widely regarded as a tumor suppressor, we resorted to gene expression datasets from cancer patients to functionally dissect its therapeutic relevance. We identified two major classes of PP2A subunits that negatively correlated with each other. Interestingly, most mitotic regulators, including PLK1, exhibited SDL interactions with only one class of PP2A subunits (PPP2R1A, PPP2R2D, PPP2R3B, PPP2R5B and PPP2R5D). Validation studies and other functional cell-based assays showed that inhibition of PPP2R5D affects both levels of phospho-Rb as well as sister chromatid cohesion in PLK1-overexpressing cells. Finally, analysis of clinical data revealed that patients with high expression of mitotic regulators and low expression of Class I subunits of PP2A improved survival. Overall, these observations point to a context-dependent role of PP2A that warrants further exploration for therapeutic benefits. PMID:27557495

  1. Interplay between invertebrate C3a with vertebrate macrophages: functional characterization of immune activities of amphioxus C3a.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhan; Li, Mengyang; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Shicui

    2013-10-01

    Our current knowledge of the structure and function of C3a comes from the study of vertebrate C3a anaphylatoxins, virtually nothing is known about the structure and function of C3a molecules in invertebrates. Here we demonstrated that C3a from the invertebrate chordate Branchiostoma japonicum, BjC3a, was similar to vertebrate C3a possessing potential antibacterial activity, as revealed by sequence analysis and computational modeling. The antibacterial activity of BjC3a was definitely confirmed by both antibacterial assay and TEM observation showing that recombinant BjC3a was directly bactericidal. Additionally, recombinant BjC3a, like vertebrate C3a, was capable of inducing sea bass macrophage migration and enhancing macrophage phagocytosis and respiratory burst response. Moreover, recombinant BjC3a-desArg (generated by removal of the C-terminal arginine), like mammalian C3a-desArg, retained the immunological activities of BjC3a such as antibacterial and respiratory burst-stimulating activities, indicating that the immunological functions of C3a-desArg were conserved throughout chordate evolution. Altogether, our findings show that invertebrate (amphioxus) BjC3a is able to interact with vertebrate (sea bass) macrophages and mediate immune activities, suggesting the emergence of the inflammatory pathway of the complement system similar to that of vertebrates in the basal chordate amphioxus.

  2. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A6 and 1A10 catalyze reduced menadione glucuronidation

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Takahito; Ohnuma, Tomokazu; Inoue, Yuu; Kishi, Takehiko; Ogura, Kenichiro; Hiratsuka, Akira

    2008-06-27

    Menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquine), also known as vitamin K3, has been widely used as a model compound in the field of oxidative stress-related research. The metabolism of menadione has been studied, and it is known that menadione undergoes a two-electron reduction by NAD(P)H:Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) after which the reduced form of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthalenediol, menadiol) is glucuronidated and excreted in urine. To investigate which human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms participate in the glucuronidation of menadiol reduced by NQO1 from menadione, we first constructed heterologously expressed NQO1 in Sf9 cells and tested the menadiol glucuronidating activity of 16 human recombinant UGT isoforms. Of the 16 UGT isoforms, UGTs 1A6, 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, and 1A10 catalyzed menadiol glucuronidation, and, of these, UGTs 1A6 and 1A10 catalyzed menadiol glucuronidation at much higher rates than the other UGTs. Menadiol was regioselectively glucuronidated in the manner of 4-position > 1-position by UGTs 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, and 1A10. In contrast to these UGTs, only UGT1A6 exhibited 1-menadiol-preferential glucuronidating activity. The results suggest possible detoxification pathways for quinones via NQO1 reduction followed by UGT glucuronidation.

  3. Mammalian Metallothionein-2A and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Xue-Bin; Wei, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jun; Kong, Yue-Qiong; Wu, Yu-You; Guo, Jun-Li; Li, Tian-Fa; Li, Ji-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian metallothionein-2A (MT2A) has received considerable attention in recent years due to its crucial pathophysiological role in anti-oxidant, anti-apoptosis, detoxification and anti-inflammation. For many years, most studies evaluating the effects of MT2A have focused on reactive oxygen species (ROS), as second messengers that lead to oxidative stress injury of cells and tissues. Recent studies have highlighted that oxidative stress could activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and MT2A, as a mediator of MAPKs, to regulate the pathogenesis of various diseases. However, the molecule mechanism of MT2A remains elusive. A deeper understanding of the functional, biochemical and molecular characteristics of MT2A would be identified, in order to bring new opportunities for oxidative stress therapy. PMID:27608012

  4. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics with GRAPE-1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umemura, Masayuki; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Daiichiro; Turner, Edwin L.; Loeb, Abraham

    1993-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) scheme using GRAPE-1A, a special-purpose processor used for gravitational N-body simulations. The GRAPE-1A calculates the gravitational force exerted on a particle from all other particles in a system, while simultaneously making a list of the nearest neighbors of the particle. It is found that GRAPE-1A accelerates SPH calculations by direct summation by about two orders of magnitudes for a ten thousand-particle simulation. The effective speed is 80 Mflops, which is about 30 percent of the peak speed of GRAPE-1A. Also, in order to investigate the accuracy of GRAPE-SPH, some test simulations were executed. We found that the force and position errors are smaller than those due to representing a fluid by a finite number of particles. The total energy and momentum were conserved within 0.2-0.4 percent and 2-5 x 10 exp -5, respectively, in simulations with several thousand particles. We conclude that GRAPE-SPH is quite effective and sufficiently accurate for self-gravitating hydrodynamics.

  5. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and characterisation of the second identified CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A78 from koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Crittenden, Tamara A; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2011-11-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. Previously, we cloned and characterised the CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4B gene subfamilies from marsupials and demonstrated important species-differences in both activity and tissue expression of these CYP enzymes. Recently, we isolated the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. Here we have cloned and characterised the second identified member of marsupial CYP3A gene subfamily, CYP3A78 from the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). In addition, we have examined the gender-differences in microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity (a CYP3A marker) and CYP3A protein expression across test marsupial species. Significant differences in hepatic erythromycin N-demethylation activity were observed between male and female koalas, with the activity detected in female koalas being 2.5-fold higher compared to that in male koalas (p<0.01). No gender-differences were observed in tammar wallaby or Eastern grey kangaroo. Immunoblot analysis utilising anti-human CYP3A4 antibody detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test male and female marsupials including the koala, tammar wallaby, and Eastern grey kangaroo, with no gender-differences detected across test marsupials. A 1610 bp koala hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A78, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches. It displays 64% nucleotide and 57% amino acid sequence identity to the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. The CYP3A78 cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acids, shares approximately 68% nucleotide and 56% amino acid sequence identity to human CYP3A4, and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding koala hepatic CYP3A78 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP

  6. Crystal structures of SULT1A2 and SULT1A1 *3: insights into the substrate inhibition and the role of Tyr149 in SULT1A2.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinghua; Li, Haitao; Zhang, Jiping; Li, Mei; Liu, Ming-Yih; An, Xiaomin; Liu, Ming-Cheh; Chang, Wenrui

    2010-05-28

    The cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) in vertebrates catalyze the sulfonation of endogenous thyroid/steroid hormones and catecholamine neurotransmitters, as well as a variety of xenobiotics, using 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) as the sulfonate donor. In this study, we determined the structures of SULT1A2 and an allozyme of SULT1A1, SULT1A1 *3, bound with 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate (PAP), at 2.4 and 2.3A resolution, respectively. The conformational differences between the two structures revealed a plastic substrate-binding pocket with two channels and a switch-like substrate selectivity residue Phe247, providing clearly a structural basis for the substrate inhibition. In SULT1A2, Tyr149 extends approximately 2.1A further to the inside of the substrate-binding pocket, compared with the corresponding His149 residue in SULT1A1 *3. Site-directed mutagenesis study showed that, compared with the wild-type SULT1A2, mutant Tyr149Phe SULT1A2 exhibited a 40 times higher K(m) and two times lower V(max) with p-nitrophenol as substrate. These latter data imply a significant role of Tyr149 in the catalytic mechanism of SULT1A2.

  7. 18 CFR 3a.91 - Data index system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Data index system. 3a.91 Section 3a.91 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Data Index System § 3a.91 Data index...

  8. 18 CFR 3a.91 - Data index system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Data index system. 3a.91 Section 3a.91 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Data Index System § 3a.91 Data index...

  9. 18 CFR 3a.91 - Data index system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Data index system. 3a.91 Section 3a.91 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Data Index System § 3a.91 Data index...

  10. 17 CFR 270.3a-2 - Transient investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transient investment companies. 270.3a-2 Section 270.3a-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-2 Transient investment...

  11. 17 CFR 270.3a-2 - Transient investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transient investment companies. 270.3a-2 Section 270.3a-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-2 Transient investment...

  12. 17 CFR 270.3a-2 - Transient investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transient investment companies. 270.3a-2 Section 270.3a-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-2 Transient investment...

  13. 17 CFR 270.3a-2 - Transient investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transient investment companies. 270.3a-2 Section 270.3a-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-2 Transient investment...

  14. 17 CFR 270.3a-2 - Transient investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transient investment companies. 270.3a-2 Section 270.3a-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-2 Transient investment...

  15. 42 CFR 2a.3 - Application; coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application; coordination. 2a.3 Section 2a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF... Institute on Drug Abuse, the Office of the Director, National Institute of Mental Health, or the Office...

  16. 42 CFR 2a.3 - Application; coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application; coordination. 2a.3 Section 2a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF... Institute on Drug Abuse, the Office of the Director, National Institute of Mental Health, or the Office...

  17. 42 CFR 2a.3 - Application; coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application; coordination. 2a.3 Section 2a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF... Institute on Drug Abuse, the Office of the Director, National Institute of Mental Health, or the Office...

  18. 42 CFR 2a.3 - Application; coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application; coordination. 2a.3 Section 2a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF... Institute on Drug Abuse, the Office of the Director, National Institute of Mental Health, or the Office...

  19. 42 CFR 2a.3 - Application; coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application; coordination. 2a.3 Section 2a.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF... Institute on Drug Abuse, the Office of the Director, National Institute of Mental Health, or the Office...

  20. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...(a)) provides that “ he Secretary may authorize persons engaged in research on mental health... regulations in this part establish procedures under which any person engaged in research on mental health... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public...

  1. Colorectal cancer and genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1: a case-control study in the Grampian region of Scotland.

    PubMed

    Little, Julian; Sharp, Linda; Masson, Lindsey F; Brockton, Nigel T; Cotton, Seonaidh C; Haites, Neva E; Cassidy, Jim

    2006-11-01

    Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 is involved in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are derived from meat intake and tobacco smoking. Expression of the CYP1A1 gene is induced by compounds present in cruciferous vegetables. The glutathione S-transferases play a central role in the detoxification of carcinogens, including PAHs. We investigated the association between colorectal cancer and three variants (CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2C, CYP1A1*4) of the CYP1A1 gene, and homozygosity for the null deletion of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes, and the joint effects of these genotypes and smoking, meat intake and intake of green leafy vegetables in a population-based study of 264 cases and 408 controls in Northeast Scotland. There was an inverse association with the CYP1A1*4 (m4) variant (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.13-0.70). The OR for the CYP1A1*2C (m2) variant was 1.3 (95% CI 0.59-2.91), which is similar to a combined estimate for previous studies (OR 1.2, 95% CI 0.95-1.41). We observed no association with the CYP1A1*2A (m1) variant, or the GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms. Significant interactions between all 3 CYP1A1 variants and meat intake, and between the m1 and m2 variants and intake of green leafy vegetables, were observed. There was no evidence of interaction between CYP1A1 and smoking, and no evidence of interaction between the GSTM1 or GSTT1 polymorphisms and smoking, meat intake, green leafy vegetable intake, CYP1A1 variants or each other.

  2. Deregulation of FOXO3A During Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Sanjeev; Shukla, Meenakshi; MacLennan, Gregory T; Fu, Pingfu; Gupta, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Forkhead box transcription factor FOXO3A is an important regulator of cellular function, is thought to act as a tumor suppressor. We studied whether alterations in FOXO3A activity occur in prostate tumorigenesis. Our studies demonstrate that FOXO3A activity is negatively regulated by Akt/PKB through posttranslational modifications. In prostate cancer cells, Akt activation causes increased accumulation of FOXO3A and its binding chaperone protein 14-3-3 in the cytosol. Higher levels of FOXO3A in the cytosol correlated with phosphorylation at Ser253, which accounted for its nuclear exclusion. Dominant negative Akt approach in PC-3 cells increased FOXO3A accumulation in the nucleus, causing upregulation of the downstream target, MnSOD. Conversely, stable DU145-Akt over-expressing cells exhibited decreased FOXO3A levels in the nucleus. Similar findings were noted in prostate tumor specimens, in which marked cytoplasmic accumulation of FOXO3A and 14-3-3 in prostate tumors was observed with increasing Gleason grade, in contrast to exclusively nuclear accumulation in benign prostate cells. These findings correlate with decreased FOXO3A DNA binding activity along with down modulation of FOXO3A transcriptional activity with increasing tumor grade. Our findings demonstrate that tumor associated alterations and redistribution of FOXO3A are frequent events in the etiology of prostate cancer. PMID:19424579

  3. Acid-sensing ion channels 1a (ASIC1a) inhibit neuromuscular transmission in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Lino, Noelia G.; González-Inchauspe, Carlota M. F.; González, Laura E.; Colettis, Natalia; Vattino, Lucas G.; Wunsch, Amanda M.; Wemmie, John A.; Uchitel, Osvaldo D.

    2013-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) open in response to extracellular acidosis. ASIC1a, a particular subtype of these channels, has been described to have a postsynaptic distribution in the brain, being involved not only in ischemia and epilepsy, but also in fear and psychiatric pathologies. High-frequency stimulation of skeletal motor nerve terminals (MNTs) can induce presynaptic pH changes in combination with an acidification of the synaptic cleft, known to contribute to muscle fatigue. Here, we studied the role of ASIC1a channels on neuromuscular transmission. We combined a behavioral wire hanging test with electrophysiology, pharmacological, and immunofluorescence techniques to compare wild-type and ASIC1a lacking mice (ASIC1a −/− knockout). Our results showed that 1) ASIC1a −/− female mice were weaker than wild type, presenting shorter times during the wire hanging test; 2) spontaneous neurotransmitter release was reduced by ASIC1a activation, suggesting a presynaptic location of these channels at individual MNTs; 3) ASIC1a-mediated effects were emulated by extracellular local application of acid saline solutions (pH = 6.0; HEPES/MES-based solution); and 4) immunofluorescence techniques revealed the presence of ASIC1a antigens on MNTs. These results suggest that ASIC1a channels might be involved in controlling neuromuscular transmission, muscle contraction and fatigue in female mice. PMID:24336653

  4. Acid-sensing ion channels 1a (ASIC1a) inhibit neuromuscular transmission in female mice.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Francisco J; Lino, Noelia G; González-Inchauspe, Carlota M F; González, Laura E; Colettis, Natalia; Vattino, Lucas G; Wunsch, Amanda M; Wemmie, John A; Uchitel, Osvaldo D

    2014-02-15

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) open in response to extracellular acidosis. ASIC1a, a particular subtype of these channels, has been described to have a postsynaptic distribution in the brain, being involved not only in ischemia and epilepsy, but also in fear and psychiatric pathologies. High-frequency stimulation of skeletal motor nerve terminals (MNTs) can induce presynaptic pH changes in combination with an acidification of the synaptic cleft, known to contribute to muscle fatigue. Here, we studied the role of ASIC1a channels on neuromuscular transmission. We combined a behavioral wire hanging test with electrophysiology, pharmacological, and immunofluorescence techniques to compare wild-type and ASIC1a lacking mice (ASIC1a (-/-) knockout). Our results showed that 1) ASIC1a (-/-) female mice were weaker than wild type, presenting shorter times during the wire hanging test; 2) spontaneous neurotransmitter release was reduced by ASIC1a activation, suggesting a presynaptic location of these channels at individual MNTs; 3) ASIC1a-mediated effects were emulated by extracellular local application of acid saline solutions (pH = 6.0; HEPES/MES-based solution); and 4) immunofluorescence techniques revealed the presence of ASIC1a antigens on MNTs. These results suggest that ASIC1a channels might be involved in controlling neuromuscular transmission, muscle contraction and fatigue in female mice.

  5. Anaphylatoxin C3a induced mediator release from mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Herrscher, R.; Hugli, T.E.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1986-03-01

    The authors investigated the biochemical and functional consequences of the binding of highly purified human C3a to isolated rat serosal mast cells. C3a caused a dose-dependent (1-30 ..mu..M), noncytotoxic release of up to 64% (+/- 7 SEM) of the mast cell histamine content. C3a (10..mu..M) increased /sup 45/Ca/sup + +/ uptake 8.2- fold (+/- 2.2 SEM) above unstimulated control values within 10 minutes. Arachidonyl-diacylglycerol and arachidonyl-monoacylglycerol levels increased significantly within 2 minutes after C3a (10 ..mu..M) stimulation. Turnover of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylcholine were increased within 15 minutes. In contrast to antigen, C3a stimulation (10 ..mu..M) was not enhanced by exogenous phosphatidylserine, and was not inhibited by ethanol (100 ..mu..mM). C3a suppressed arachidonic acid (AA) release to 38% (+/- 9 SEM) below baseline, and did not cause PGD/sub 2/ formation. C3a and the desarginine form of C3a caused identical responses in all experiments. These studies indicate that C3a stimulation activates mast cell preformed mediator release in a manner very similar to antigen-IgE stimulation, but C3a suppresses free AA levels and does not stimulate PGD/sub 2/ synthesis.

  6. Grapefruit juice increases felodipine oral availability in humans by decreasing intestinal CYP3A protein expression.

    PubMed Central

    Lown, K S; Bailey, D G; Fontana, R J; Janardan, S K; Adair, C H; Fortlage, L A; Brown, M B; Guo, W; Watkins, P B

    1997-01-01

    The increase in oral availability of felodipine and other commonly used medications when taken with grapefruit juice has been assumed to be due to inhibition of CYP3A4, a cytochrome P450 that is present in liver and intestine. To evaluate the effect of repeated grapefruit juice ingestion on CYP3A4 expression, 10 healthy men were given 8 oz of grapefruit juice three times a day for 6 d. Before and after receiving grapefruit juice, small bowel and colon mucosal biopsies were obtained endoscopically, oral felodipine kinetics were determined, and liver CYP3A4 activity was measured with the [14C N-methyl] erythromycin breath test in each subject. Grapefruit juice did not alter liver CYP3A4 activity, colon levels of CYP3A5, or small bowel concentrations of P-glycoprotein, villin, CYP1A1, and CYP2D6. In contrast, the concentration of CYP3A4 in small bowel epithelia (enterocytes) fell 62% (P = 0.0006) with no corresponding change in CYP3A4 mRNA levels. In addition, enterocyte concentrations of CYP3A4 measured before grapefruit juice consumption correlated with the increase in Cmax when felodipine was taken with either the 1st or the 16th glass of grapefruit juice relative to water (r = 0. 67, P = 0.043, and r = 0.71, P = 0.022, respectively). We conclude that a mechanism for the effect of grapefruit juice on oral felodipine kinetics is its selective downregulation of CYP3A4 in the small intestine. PMID:9153299

  7. Mouse SGLT3a generates proton-activated currents but does not transport sugar.

    PubMed

    Barcelona, Stephanie; Menegaz, Danusa; Díez-Sampedro, Ana

    2012-04-15

    Sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) are secondary active transporters belonging to the SLC5 gene family. SGLT1, a well-characterized member of this family, electrogenically transports glucose and galactose. Human SGLT3 (hSGLT3), despite sharing a high amino acid identity with human SGLT1 (hSGLT1), does not transport sugar, although functions as a sugar sensor. In contrast to humans, two different genes in mice and rats code for two different SGLT3 proteins, SGLT3a and SGLT3b. We previously cloned and characterized mouse SGLT3b (mSGLT3b) and showed that, while it does transport sugar like SGLT1, it likely functions as a physiological sugar sensor like hSGLT3. In this study, we cloned mouse SGLT3a (mSGLT3a) and characterized it by expressing it in Xenopus laevis oocytes and performing electrophysiology and sugar transport assays. mSGLT3a did not transport sugar, and sugars did not induce currents at pH 7.4, though acidic pH induced inward currents that increased in the presence of sugar. Moreover, mutation of residue 457 from glutamate to glutamine resulted in a Na(+)-dependent transport of sugar that was inhibited by phlorizin. To corroborate our results in oocytes, we expressed and characterized mSGLT3a in mammalian cells and confirmed our findings. In addition, we cloned, expressed, and characterized rat SGLT3a in oocytes and found characteristics similar to mSGLT3a. In summary, acidic pH induces currents in mSGLT3a, and sugar-induced currents are increased at acidic pH, but wild-type SGLT3a does not transport sugar.

  8. Wnt-3a is critical for caudal embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Camper, S.A.; Greco, T.L.; Newhouse, M.M.

    1994-09-01

    Skeletal and neural tube defects represent an important class of birth defects. The majority of mouse mutants with neural tube defects also have malformations of the tail. Vestigial tail (vt) is an autosomal recessive mouse mutation characterized by reduction or absence of the tail, vertebral abnormalities, and reduced fertility. The phenotype has been described as the result of failure of cell migration through the primitive streak, causing abnormalities in the development of the neural tube and a reduction in the ventral ectodermal ridge. Wnt3a is an excellent candidate gene for vt because Wnt3a is expressed in the primitive streak and in the embryonic mesoderm, and it is thought to be involved in cell-to-cell communication and formation of the dorsal-ventral axis in the CNS. A lack of Wnt3a might be expected to result in overdorsalization of the neural tube and reduction of the ventral ectodermal ridge characteristic of vt/vt embryos. In a high resolution backcross segregating vt, we observed no recombination between vt and Wnt3a in 363 individuals analyzed. In vt/vt mice, Southern blot analysis revealed no abnormalities in the Wnt3a gene, and the Wnt3a cDNA sequence does not encode any amino acid changes. Whole mount in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that Wnt3a expression is severely reduced in the developing tailbud of day 9.5 vt/vt embryos, suggestive of a lesion in the regulation on Wnt3a expression. An alleleism test, carried out by mating vt/vt males with Wnt3a +/Wnt3a- females, demonstrated that vt and Wnt3a are noncomplementing alleles. All of the compound heterozygotes exhibited severe tail defects, including occasional examples of hind limb parlaysis and spina bifida. The vertebral defects are intermediate between those of vt and Wnt3a homozygotes, suggesting that the concentration of Wnt3a correlates with the severity of the defect.

  9. Joint Precision Approach and Landing System Increment 1A (JPALS Inc 1A)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-238 Joint Precision Approach and Landing System Increment 1A (JPALS Inc 1A) As of FY 2017...PM - Program Manager POE - Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service

  10. Heightened aggressive behavior in mice deficient in aldo-keto reductase 1a (Akr1a).

    PubMed

    Homma, Takujiro; Akihara, Ryusuke; Okano, Satoshi; Shichiri, Mototada; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Miyata, Satoshi; Nakajima, Osamu; Fujii, Junichi

    2017-02-15

    Aldehyde reductase (Akr1a) is involved in the synthesis of ascorbic acid (AsA) which may play a role in social behavior. In the current study, we performed analyses on Akr1a-deficient (Akr1a(-/-)) mice that synthesize about 10% as much AsA as wild-type mice from the viewpoint of intermale aggression. The use of the resident-intruder test revealed that the Akr1a(-/-) mice exhibited more aggressive phenotypes than wild-type control mice. Unexpectedly, however, the oral administration of additional AsA failed to reduce the aggressive behavior of Akr1a(-/-) mice, suggesting that the heightened aggression was independent of AsA biosynthesis. The findings also show that the plasma levels of corticosterone, but not serotonin and testosterone, were increased in the absence of Akr1a in mice, suggesting that the mice were highly stressed. These results suggest that Akr1a might be involved in the metabolism of steroids and other carbonyl-containing compounds and, hence, the absence of Akr1a results in heightened aggression via a malfunction in a metabolic pathway.

  11. 5-HT(1A) receptors and memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo; Perez-Garcia, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    The study of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) systems has benefited from the identification, classification and cloning of multiple 5-HT receptors (5-HT(1)-5-HT(7)). Increasing evidence suggests that 5-HT pathways, reuptake site/transporter complex and 5-HT receptors represent a strategic distribution for learning and memory. A key question still remaining is whether 5-HT markers (e.g., receptors) are directly or indirectly contributing to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis or, rather, if they represent protective or adaptable mechanisms (at least in initial stages). In the current paper, the major aim is to revise recent advances regarding mammalian 5-HT(1A) receptors in light of their physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic implications in memory. An attempt is made to identify and discuss sources of discrepancies by employing an analytic approach to examine the nature and degree of difficulty of behavioral tasks used, as well as implicating other factors (for example, brain areas, training time or duration, and drug administration) which might offer new insights into the understanding and interpretation of these data. In this context, 8-OH-DPAT deserves special attention since for many years it has been the more selective 5-HT drug and, hence, more frequently used. As 5-HT(1A) receptors are key components of serotonergic signaling, investigation of their memory mechanisms and action sites and the conditions under which they might operate, could yield valuable insights. Moreover, selective drugs with agonists, neutral antagonists or inverse agonist properties for 5-HT(1A) (and 5-HT(7)) receptors may constitute a new therapeutic opportunity for learning and memory disorders.

  12. Importance of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 2A2 and 2A3 in tobacco carcinogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bushey, Ryan T; Dluzen, Douglas F; Lazarus, Philip

    2013-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase A1 (UGT2A1) is expressed in the lung and exhibits activity against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), suggesting UGT2A1 involvement in the local metabolism of PAH tobacco carcinogens. The goal of the present study was to investigate the importance of two additional UGT2A enzymes, UGT2A2 and UGT2A3, in tobacco carcinogen metabolism. Real-time polymerase chain reaction suggested that wild-type UGT2A2 had the highest expression in the breast, followed by trachea > larynx > kidney. A novel splice variant of UGT2A2 lacking exon 3 (termed UGT2A2Δexon3) was investigated, with UGT2A2Δexon3 expression determined to be 25-50% that of wild-type UGT2A2 in all tissues examined. UGT2A3 was determined to be well expressed in the liver and colon, followed by pancreas > kidney > lung > tonsil > trachea > larynx. Cell homogenates prepared from human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells overexpressing wild-type UGT2A2 (termed UGT2A2_i1) exhibited glucuronidation activity, as observed by reverse-phase ultra-pressure liquid chromatography, against 1-hydroxy-(OH)-pyrene, 1-naphthol, and hydroxylated benzo(a)pyrene metabolites, whereas homogenates prepared from HEK293 cells overexpressing UGT2A3 only showed activity against simple PAHs like 1-OH-pyrene and 1-naphthol. Activity assays showed the UGT2A2Δexon3 protein (termed UGT2A2_i2) exhibited no detectable glucuronidation activity against all substrates examined; however, coexpression studies suggested that UGT2A2_i2 negatively modulates UGT2A2_i1 activity. Both UGT2A2 and UGT2A3 exhibited no detectable activity against complex PAH proximate carcinogens, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, or heterocyclic amines. These data suggest that, although UGT2A1 is the only UGT2A enzyme active against PAH proximate carcinogens (including PAH diols), both UGTs 2A1 and 2A2 play an important role in the local detoxification of procarcinogenic monohydroxylated PAH metabolites.

  13. Protein Phosphatase 2A Signaling in Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    immunoblot and malachite green based assay, respectively. We observe that LNCaP- shPPP2CA cells have low PP2ACα expression (Figure 1A) and activity...regulated family of serine/threonine phosphatases implicated in cell growth and signalling. Biochem J 2001;353:417-39. (6) Jennbacken K, Gustavsson H...cancer cells - - - shPPP2CA. Expression and activity of catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2ACα) was determined by immunoblot and melachite green - based

  14. Testosterone metabolism of equine single CYPs of the 3A subfamily compared to the human CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, S; Büchi, M; Zielinski, J; Peduto, N; Mevissen, M

    2017-02-24

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are responsible for the phase I metabolism of drugs, xenobiotics and endogenous substances. Knowledge of single CYPs and their substrates is important for drug metabolism, helps to predict adverse effects and may prevent reduced drug efficacy in polypharmacy. In this study, three equine isoenzymes of the 3A subfamily, the equine flavoprotein NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase (POR), and the cytochrome b5 (CYB5) were cloned, sequenced and heterologously expressed in a baculovirus expression system. Testosterone, the standard compound for characterization of the human CYP3A4, was used to characterize the newly expressed equine CYPs. The metabolite pattern was similar in equine and the human CYPs, but the amounts of metabolites were isoform-dependent. All equine CYPs produced 2-hydroxytestosterone (2-OH-TES), a metabolite never described in equines. The main metabolite of CYP3A4 6β-hydroxytestosterone (6β-OH-TES) was measured in CYPs 3A95 and 3A97 with levels close to the detection limit. Ketoconazole inhibited 2-OH-TES in the human CYP3A4 and the equine CYP3A94 and CYP3A97 completely, whereas a 70% inhibition was found in CYP3A95. Testosterone 6β- and 2-hydroxylation was significantly different in the equine CYPs compared to CYP3A4. The expression of single equine CYPs allows characterizing drug metabolism and may allow prevention of drug-drug interactions.

  15. CYP3A4 intronic SNP rs35599367 (CYP3A4*22) alters RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danxin; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolizes 30-50% of clinically used drugs. Large interperson variability in CYP3A4 activity affects response to CYP3A4 substrate drugs. We had demonstrated that an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism rs35599367 (CYP3A4*22, located in intron 6) reduces mRNA/protein expression; however, the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Here we show that CYP3A4*22 is associated with a two-fold or greater increase in formation of a nonfunctional CYP3A4 alternative splice variant with partial intron 6 retention in human liver (P=0.006), but not in small intestines. Consistent with this observation, in-vitro transfection experiments with a CYP3A4 minigene (spanning from intron 5 to intron 7) demonstrated that plasmids carrying the rs35599367 minor T allele caused significantly greater intron 6 retention than the C allele in liver derived HepG2 cells, but not in intestine-derived LS-174T cells. These results indicate that tissue-specific increased formation of nonfunctional alternative splice variant causes reduced CYP3A4 mRNA/protein expression in CYP3A4*22 carriers.

  16. (1) (1)A' ← X (1)A' Electronic Transition of Protonated Coronene at 15 K.

    PubMed

    Rice, C A; Hardy, F-X; Gause, O; Maier, J P

    2014-03-20

    The electronic spectrum of protonated coronene in the gas phase was measured at vibrational and rotational temperatures of ∼15 K in a 22-pole ion trap. The (1) (1)A' ← X (1)A' electronic transition of this larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cation has an origin band maximum at 14 383.8 ± 0.2 cm(-1) and shows distinct vibrational structure in the (1) (1)A' state. Neither the origin nor the strongest absorptions to the blue coincide with known diffuse interstellar bands, implying that protonated coronene is not a carrier.

  17. MUC1: A Novel Metabolic Master Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Mehla, Kamiya; Singh, Pankaj K.

    2014-01-01

    MUC1, a type I transmembrane protein, is significantly overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in tumors of epithelial origin. By virtue of its aberrant signaling due to loss of apical-basal polarity in cancer, MUC1 regulates the metabolite flux at multiple levels. Serving as a transcriptional co-activator, MUC1 directly regulates expression of metabolic genes. By regulating receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, MUC1 facilitates production of biosynthetic intermediates required for cell growth. Also, via direct interactions, MUC1 modulates the activity/stability of enzymes and transcription factors that directly regulate metabolic functions. Additionally, by modulation of autophagy, levels of reactive oxygen species, and metabolite flux, MUC1 facilitates cancer cell survival under hypoxic and nutrient-deprived conditions. This article provides a comprehensive review of recent literature on novel metabolic functions of MUC1. PMID:24418575

  18. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  19. SIN3A, generally regarded as a transcriptional repressor, is required for induction of gene transcription by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    PubMed

    Solaimani, Parrisa; Wang, Feng; Hankinson, Oliver

    2014-11-28

    CYP1A1 bioactivates several procarcinogens and detoxifies several xenobiotic compounds. Transcription of CYP1A1 is highly induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. We recently described an RNAi high throughput screening performed in the Hepa-1 mouse hepatoma cell line, which revealed that SIN3A is necessary for the induction of CYP1A1-dependent ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) enzymatic activity by TCDD. In the current studies, we sought to provide insight into the role of SIN3A in this process, particularly because studies on SIN3A have usually focused on its repressive activity on transcription. We report that ectopic expression of human SIN3A in Hepa-1 cells enhanced EROD induction by TCDD and efficiently rescued TCDD induction of EROD activity in cells treated with an siRNA to mouse SIN3A, thus validating a role for SIN3A in CYP1A1 induction. We demonstrate that SIN3A is required for TCDD induction of the CYP1A1 protein in Hepa-1 cells but not for expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor protein. In addition, siRNAs for SIN3A decreased TCDD-mediated induction of CYP1A1 mRNA and EROD activity in human hepatoma cell line Hep3B. We establish that TCDD treatment of Hepa-1 cells rapidly increases the degree of SIN3A binding to both the proximal promoter and enhancer of the Cyp1a1 gene and demonstrate that increased binding to the promoter also occurs in human Hep3B, HepG2, and MCF-7 cells. These studies establish that SIN3A physically interacts with the CYP1A1 gene and extends the transcriptional role of SIN3A to a gene that is very rapidly and dramatically induced.

  20. SIN3A, Generally Regarded as a Transcriptional Repressor, Is Required for Induction of Gene Transcription by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Solaimani, Parrisa; Wang, Feng; Hankinson, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    CYP1A1 bioactivates several procarcinogens and detoxifies several xenobiotic compounds. Transcription of CYP1A1 is highly induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. We recently described an RNAi high throughput screening performed in the Hepa-1 mouse hepatoma cell line, which revealed that SIN3A is necessary for the induction of CYP1A1-dependent ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) enzymatic activity by TCDD. In the current studies, we sought to provide insight into the role of SIN3A in this process, particularly because studies on SIN3A have usually focused on its repressive activity on transcription. We report that ectopic expression of human SIN3A in Hepa-1 cells enhanced EROD induction by TCDD and efficiently rescued TCDD induction of EROD activity in cells treated with an siRNA to mouse SIN3A, thus validating a role for SIN3A in CYP1A1 induction. We demonstrate that SIN3A is required for TCDD induction of the CYP1A1 protein in Hepa-1 cells but not for expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor protein. In addition, siRNAs for SIN3A decreased TCDD-mediated induction of CYP1A1 mRNA and EROD activity in human hepatoma cell line Hep3B. We establish that TCDD treatment of Hepa-1 cells rapidly increases the degree of SIN3A binding to both the proximal promoter and enhancer of the Cyp1a1 gene and demonstrate that increased binding to the promoter also occurs in human Hep3B, HepG2, and MCF-7 cells. These studies establish that SIN3A physically interacts with the CYP1A1 gene and extends the transcriptional role of SIN3A to a gene that is very rapidly and dramatically induced. PMID:25305016

  1. Dnmt3a Regulates Proliferation of Muscle Satellite Cells via p57Kip2

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Masashi; Mori, Masaki; Inagawa, Masayo; Miyata, Kohei; Hashimoto, Naohiro; Tanaka, Sakae; Asahara, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Cell differentiation status is defined by the gene expression profile, which is coordinately controlled by epigenetic mechanisms. Cell type-specific DNA methylation patterns are established by chromatin modifiers including de novo DNA methyltransferases, such as Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. Since the discovery of the myogenic master gene MyoD, myogenic differentiation has been utilized as a model system to study tissue differentiation. Although knowledge about myogenic gene networks is accumulating, there is only a limited understanding of how DNA methylation controls the myogenic gene program. With an aim to elucidate the role of DNA methylation in muscle development and regeneration, we investigate the consequences of mutating Dnmt3a in muscle precursor cells in mice. Pax3 promoter-driven Dnmt3a-conditional knockout (cKO) mice exhibit decreased organ mass in the skeletal muscles, and attenuated regeneration after cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury. In addition, Dnmt3a-null satellite cells (SCs) exhibit a striking loss of proliferation in culture. Transcriptome analysis reveals dysregulated expression of p57Kip2, a member of the Cip/Kip family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs), in the Dnmt3a-KO SCs. Moreover, RNAi-mediated depletion of p57Kip2 replenishes the proliferation activity of the SCs, thus establishing a role for the Dnmt3a-p57Kip2 axis in the regulation of SC proliferation. Consistent with these findings, Dnmt3a-cKO muscles exhibit fewer Pax7+ SCs, which show increased expression of p57Kip2 protein. Thus, Dnmt3a is found to maintain muscle homeostasis by epigenetically regulating the proliferation of SCs through p57Kip2. PMID:27415617

  2. Stabilization/solidification on chromium (III) wastes by C(3)A and C(3)A hydrated matrix.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangguo; He, Chao; Bai, Yun; Ma, Baoguo; Wang, Guandong; Tan, Hongbo

    2014-03-15

    Hazardous wastes are usually used in the Portland cement production in order to save energy, costs and/or stabilize toxic substances and heavy metals inside the clinker. This work focus on the stabilization/solidification on chromium (III) wastes by C(3)A and C(3)A hydrated matrix. The immobilization rate of chromium in C(3)A and the leaching characteristics of the C(3)A hydrated matrixes containing chromium were investigated by ICP-AES. The results indicated that C(3)A had a good solidifying effect on chromium using the clinkering process, however, the Cr leaching content of Cr-doped C(3)A was higher than that of hydrated C(3)A matrix in Cr(NO(3))3 solution and was lower than that of the hydrated C(3)A matrix in K(2)CrO(4) solution, no matter the leachant was sulphuric acid & nitric acid or water. To explain this, C(3)A formation, chemical valence states of chromium in C(3)A, hydration products and Cr distribution in the C(3)A-gypsum hydrated matrixes were studied by XRD, XPS and FESEM-EDS. The investigation showed that part of Cr(3+) was oxidized to Cr(6+) in the clinkering process and identified as the chromium compounds Ca(4)Al(6)O(12)CrO(4) (3CaO·Al(20O(3)·CaCrO(4)), which resulted in the higher leaching of hydrated matrix of Cr-doped C(3)A.

  3. GM2A — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    GM2A, a small glycolipid transport protein, acts as a substrate specific co-factor for the lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase A. Beta-hexosaminidase A, together with GM2 ganglioside activator, catalyzes the degradation of the ganglioside GM2, and other molecules containing terminal N-acetyl hexosamines. Mutations in this gene result in GM2-gangliosidosis type AB or the AB variant of Tay-Sachs disease. Alternative splicing of the GM2A gene results in multiple transcript variants. In post-translational modification the serines in positions 32 and 33 are absent in 80% of the sequenced protein.

  4. SF3A1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    From NCBI Gene: This gene encodes a subunit of the splicing factor 3a protein complex. The splicing factor 3a heterotrimer is a component of the mature U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP). U2 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins play a critical role in spliceosome assembly and pre-mRNA splicing. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014

  5. 18 CFR 3a.91 - Data index system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Data index system. 3a..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Data Index System § 3a.91 Data index system. A data index system shall be established for Top Secret, Secret, and Confidential information...

  6. 18 CFR 3a.91 - Data index system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Data index system. 3a..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Data Index System § 3a.91 Data index system. A data index system shall be established for Top Secret, Secret, and Confidential information...

  7. 18 CFR 3a.51 - Designation of security officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Designation of security officers. 3a.51 Section 3a.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Security Officers §...

  8. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for...

  9. 18 CFR 3a.21 - Authority to downgrade and declassify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority to downgrade and declassify. 3a.21 Section 3a.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification...

  10. 18 CFR 3a.21 - Authority to downgrade and declassify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authority to downgrade and declassify. 3a.21 Section 3a.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification...

  11. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for...

  12. 18 CFR 3a.51 - Designation of security officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Designation of security officers. 3a.51 Section 3a.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Security Officers §...

  13. 18 CFR 3a.13 - Classification responsibility and procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Classification responsibility and procedure. 3a.13 Section 3a.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification §...

  14. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for...

  15. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for...

  16. 18 CFR 3a.51 - Designation of security officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designation of security officers. 3a.51 Section 3a.51 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Security Officers §...

  17. 18 CFR 3a.22 - Declassification and downgrading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Declassification and downgrading. 3a.22 Section 3a.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification and...

  18. 18 CFR 3a.13 - Classification responsibility and procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classification responsibility and procedure. 3a.13 Section 3a.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification §...

  19. 18 CFR 3a.22 - Declassification and downgrading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Declassification and downgrading. 3a.22 Section 3a.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification and...

  20. 18 CFR 3a.71 - Accountability for classified material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accountability for classified material. 3a.71 Section 3a.71 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Accountability for...

  1. 18 CFR 3a.11 - Classification of official information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classification of official information. 3a.11 Section 3a.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification §...

  2. 18 CFR 3a.22 - Declassification and downgrading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Declassification and downgrading. 3a.22 Section 3a.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification and...

  3. 18 CFR 3a.12 - Authority to classify official information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Authority to classify official information. 3a.12 Section 3a.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification §...

  4. 18 CFR 3a.22 - Declassification and downgrading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Declassification and downgrading. 3a.22 Section 3a.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... protection. (f) All information or material classified prior to June 1, 1972, other than that described...

  5. 18 CFR 3a.21 - Authority to downgrade and declassify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Authority to downgrade and declassify. 3a.21 Section 3a.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification...

  6. 18 CFR 3a.13 - Classification responsibility and procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classification responsibility and procedure. 3a.13 Section 3a.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... shall be reflected thereon together with the identity of the classifier. (f) As a holder of...

  7. 18 CFR 3a.11 - Classification of official information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classification of official information. 3a.11 Section 3a.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification §...

  8. 18 CFR 3a.11 - Classification of official information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classification of official information. 3a.11 Section 3a.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification §...

  9. 18 CFR 3a.11 - Classification of official information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification of official information. 3a.11 Section 3a.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification §...

  10. 18 CFR 3a.12 - Authority to classify official information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority to classify official information. 3a.12 Section 3a.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification §...

  11. 18 CFR 3a.21 - Authority to downgrade and declassify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority to downgrade and declassify. 3a.21 Section 3a.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification...

  12. 18 CFR 3a.13 - Classification responsibility and procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classification responsibility and procedure. 3a.13 Section 3a.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... shall be reflected thereon together with the identity of the classifier. (f) As a holder of...

  13. 18 CFR 3a.13 - Classification responsibility and procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification responsibility and procedure. 3a.13 Section 3a.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... shall be reflected thereon together with the identity of the classifier. (f) As a holder of...

  14. 18 CFR 3a.21 - Authority to downgrade and declassify.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority to downgrade and declassify. 3a.21 Section 3a.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Declassification...

  15. 18 CFR 3a.22 - Declassification and downgrading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Declassification and downgrading. 3a.22 Section 3a.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... protection. (f) All information or material classified prior to June 1, 1972, other than that described...

  16. 17 CFR 202.3a - Instructions for filing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Instructions for filing fees. 202.3a Section 202.3a Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION INFORMAL... Services Branch in the Office of Financial Management at (202) 551-8989 for additional information if...

  17. 18 CFR 3a.31 - Classification markings and special notations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classification markings and special notations. 3a.31 Section 3a.31 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... Confidential will be stamped in red ink, printed, or written in letters considerably larger than those used...

  18. 19 CFR 201.3a - Missing children information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Missing children information. 201.3a Section 201... Miscellaneous § 201.3a Missing children information. (a) Pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3220, penalty mail sent by the Commission may be used to assist in the location and recovery of missing children. This section...

  19. 19 CFR 201.3a - Missing children information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Missing children information. 201.3a Section 201... Miscellaneous § 201.3a Missing children information. (a) Pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3220, penalty mail sent by the Commission may be used to assist in the location and recovery of missing children. This section...

  20. 19 CFR 201.3a - Missing children information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Missing children information. 201.3a Section 201... Miscellaneous § 201.3a Missing children information. (a) Pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3220, penalty mail sent by the Commission may be used to assist in the location and recovery of missing children. This section...

  1. 19 CFR 201.3a - Missing children information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Missing children information. 201.3a Section 201... Miscellaneous § 201.3a Missing children information. (a) Pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3220, penalty mail sent by the Commission may be used to assist in the location and recovery of missing children. This section...

  2. 19 CFR 201.3a - Missing children information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Missing children information. 201.3a Section 201... Miscellaneous § 201.3a Missing children information. (a) Pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3220, penalty mail sent by the Commission may be used to assist in the location and recovery of missing children. This section...

  3. Total syntheses of disulphated glycosphingolipid SB1a and the related monosulphated SM1a

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Haruka; Tamai, Hideki; Gao, Chao; Imamura, Akihiro; Ando, Hiromune; Ishida, Hideharu; Feizi, Ten; Kiso, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Total syntheses of two natural sulphoglycolipids, disulphated glycosphingolipid SB1a and the structurally related monosulphated SM1a, are described. They have common glycan sequences and ceramide moiety and are associated with human epithelial carcinomas. The syntheses featured efficient glycan assembly and the glucosyl ceramide cassette as a versatile building block. The binding of the synthetic sulphoglycolipids by the carcinoma-specific monoclonal antibody AE3 was investigated using carbohydrate microarray technology. PMID:26399908

  4. Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 3a (eIF3a) Promotes Cell Proliferation and Motility in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Identifying a target molecule that is crucially involved in pancreatic tumor growth and metastasis is necessary in developing an effective treatment. The study aimed to investigate the role of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3a (eIF3a) in the cell proliferation and motility in pancreatic cancer. Our data showed that the expression of eIF3a was upregulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma as compared with its expression in normal pancreatic tissues. Knockdown of eIF3a by a specific shRNA caused significant decreases in cell proliferation and clonogenic abilities in pancreatic cancer SW1990 and Capan-1 cells. Consistently, the pancreatic cancer cell growth rates were also impaired in xenotransplanted mice. Moreover, wound-healing assay showed that depletion of eIF3a significantly slowed down the wound recovery processes in SW1990 and Capan-1 cells. Transwell migration and invasion assays further showed that cell migration and invasion abilities were significantly inhibited by knockdown of eIF3a in SW1990 and Capan-1 cells. Statistical analysis of eIF3a expression in 140 cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma samples revealed that eIF3a expression was significantly associated with tumor metastasis and TNM staging. These analyses suggest that eIF3a contributes to cell proliferation and motility in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:27550487

  5. The Role Of Semaphorin 3A In The Skeletal System.

    PubMed

    Tang, Peifu; Yin, Pengbin; Lv, Houchen; Zhang, Licheng; Zhang, Lihai

    2015-01-01

    Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), characterized by a conserved N-terminal "Sema" domain, was originally described as an axon guidance molecule. Recent research indicates that it performs a critical function in the skeletal system. This review highlights recent advances in understanding of the role of Sema3A in the skeletal system as a regulator of bone metabolism and as a potential drug target for bone disease therapy. We summarize Sema3A functions in osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, as well as in innervation, and we discuss its multifunctional role in various bone diseases such as osteoporosis and low back pain. Despite limited research in this field, our aim is to promote further understanding of the function of Sema3A in the skeletal system.

  6. Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) regulates kindling epileptogenesis via GABAergic neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Tokudome, Kentaro; Okumura, Takahiro; Shimizu, Saki; Mashimo, Tomoji; Takizawa, Akiko; Serikawa, Tadao; Terada, Ryo; Ishihara, Shizuka; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Sasa, Masashi; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) is a prototype synaptic vesicle protein regulating action potential-dependent neurotransmitters release. SV2A also serves as a specific binding site for certain antiepileptics and is implicated in the treatment of epilepsy. Here, to elucidate the role of SV2A in modulating epileptogenesis, we generated a novel rat model (Sv2aL174Q rat) carrying a Sv2a-targeted missense mutation (L174Q) and analyzed its susceptibilities to kindling development. Although animals homozygous for the Sv2aL174Q mutation exhibited normal appearance and development, they are susceptible to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizures. In addition, development of kindling associated with repeated PTZ treatments or focal stimulation of the amygdala was markedly facilitated by the Sv2aL174Q mutation. Neurochemical studies revealed that the Sv2aL174Q mutation specifically reduced depolarization-induced GABA, but not glutamate, release in the hippocampus without affecting basal release or the SV2A expression level in GABAergic neurons. In addition, the Sv2aL174Q mutation selectively reduced the synaptotagmin1 (Syt1) level among the exocytosis-related proteins examined. The present results demonstrate that dysfunction of SV2A due to the Sv2aL174Q mutation impairs the synaptic GABA release by reducing the Syt1 level and facilitates the kindling development, illustrating the crucial role of SV2A-GABA system in modulating kindling epileptogenesis. PMID:27265781

  7. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and any other officer or employee of the Department of Health and Human Services to whom the...

  8. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and any other officer or employee of the Department of Health and Human Services to whom the...

  9. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and any other officer or employee of the Department of Health and Human Services to whom the...

  10. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and any other officer or employee of the Department of Health and Human Services to whom the...

  11. AMY2A — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    AMY2A, a secreted protein, is an amylase isoenzyme produced by the pancreas. Amylases hydrolyze 1,4-alpha-glucoside bonds in oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, and thus catalyze the first step in digestion of dietary starch and glycogen. The human genome has a cluster of several amylase genes that are expressed at high levels in either salivary gland or pancreas.

  12. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 3A1 expression by the human keratocyte and its repair phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Pei, Ying; Reins, Rose Y; McDermott, Alison M

    2006-11-01

    Transparency is essential for normal corneal function. Recent studies suggest that corneal cells express high levels of so-called corneal crystallins, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and transketolase (TKT) that contribute to maintaining cellular transparency. Stromal injury leads to the appearance of repair phenotype keratocytes, the corneal fibroblast and myofibroblast. Previous studies on keratocytes from species such as bovine and rabbit indicate that the transformation from the normal to repair phenotype is accompanied by a loss of corneal crystallin expression, which may be associated with loss of cellular transparency. Here we investigated if a similar loss occurs with human keratocyte repair phenotypes. Human corneal epithelial cells were collected by scraping and keratocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion from cadaveric corneas. The cells were either processed immediately (freshly isolated keratocytes) or were cultured in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum or transforming growth factor-beta to induce transformation to the corneal fibroblast and myofibroblast phenotypes, respectively. RT-PCR, western blotting and immunolabeling were used to detect mRNA and protein expression of ALDH isozymes and TKT. ALDH enzyme activity was also quantitated and immunolabeling was performed to determine the expression of ALDH3A1 in human corneal tissue sections from normal and diseased corneas. Human corneal keratocytes isolated from three donors expressed ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 mRNA, and one donor also expressed ALDH2 and TKT. Corneal epithelial cells expressed ALDH1A1, ALDH2, ALDH3A1 and TKT. Compared to normal keratocytes, corneal fibroblast expression of ALDH3A1 mRNA was reduced by 27% (n=5). ALDH3A1 protein expression as detected by western blotting was markedly reduced in passage zero fibroblasts and undetectable in higher passages (n=3). TKT protein expression was reduced in fibroblasts compared to keratocytes (n=2). ALDH3A1 enzyme activity was not

  13. 75 FR 22693 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF34-1A, CF34-3A, and CF34-3B Series...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... engines. The docket number is incorrect in all three of its locations. This document corrects those..., and CF34-3B Series Turbofan Engines; Correction AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Frost, Aerospace Engineer, Engine Certification Office,...

  14. 75 FR 1017 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF34-1A, CF34-3A, and CF34-3B Series...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... number (P/N) and serial number (S/N) fan blades within compliance times specified in the AD, inspecting the fan blade abradable rub strip on certain engines for wear, inspecting the fan blades on certain... certain fan blades requiring corrective actions and changes the effective date of the current AD. This...

  15. Quantum chemical characterization of the X((1)A'), a((3)A'') and A((1)A'') states of CHBr and CHI and computed heats of formation for CHI and CI.

    PubMed

    Bacskay, George B

    2010-08-26

    The relative energies of the X, a, and A states of CHBr and CHI and their atomization and dissociation energies in the complete basis limit were determined by extrapolating (R/U)CCSD(T) and Davidson corrected MRCI energies calculated with the aug-cc-pVxZ (x = T,Q,5) basis sets, which were corrected for core-valence correlation, spin-orbit coupling, and zero point energies. The all-electron calculations on the bromine containing molecules were explicitly corrected for scalar relativity, while in the iodo systems they are implicit in the ECP28MDF pseudopotential of iodine. The geometries and vibrational frequencies were calculated at the CASPT2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The computed singlet-triplet splittings (5.7 and 3.7 kcal mol(-1) for CHBr and CHI respectively) are in close agreement with the recent experimental values, while the predicted A <-- X excitation energies are within approximately 1 kcal mol(-1) of experiment. The barriers to linearity and dissociation on the A surface were also characterized. For CHI and CI, the predicted heats of formation at 298 K are 134.5 +/- 1.0 and 103.9 +/- 1.0 kcal mol(-1), respectively. The spin-orbit splitting in iodomethylidyne (CI) is computed to be 746 cm(-1), although that value may be an underestimate by approximately 20%.

  16. More potent inhibition of human CYP2A6 than mouse CYP2A5 enzyme activities by derivatives of phenylethylamine and benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Rahnasto, M; Raunio, H; Poso, A; Juvonen, R O

    2003-05-01

    1. A rapid 96-well plate assay method was developed and validated to measure liver microsomal coumarin 7-hydroxylation in vitro. 2. The method was used to test inhibition of human and mouse CYP2A enzymes by three phenylethylamine derivatives 2-(p-tolyl)-ethylamine, amphetamine, 2-phenylethylamine and benzaldehyde, and two of its derivatives, 4-methylbenzaldehyde and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde. 3. The benzaldehyde derivatives were more potent inhibitors of CYP2A5 than the phenylethylamines. The K(ic) value of 4-methylbenzaldehyde was 3.4 micro M and for 4-methoxybenzaldehyde it was 0.86 micro M for CYP2A5. 4. Amphetamine is a weak inhibitor of CYP2A6, whereas benzaldehyde is a suicide inhibitor with K(inact) = 0.16 min(-1) and K(I) = 18 micro M. The K(ic) values of 2-phenylethylamine, 2-(p-tolyl)-ethylamine, 4-methylbenzaldehyde and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde were 1.13, 0.23, 0.36 and 0.73 micro M for CYP2A6, respectively. 5. Novel potent inhibitors were found for CYP2A6 and, except for 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, all the compounds inhibited CYP2A5 and CYP2A6 enzymes differentially. These data add to the refinement of CYP2A enzyme active sites and provide chemical leads for developing novel chemical inhibitors of the CYP2A6 enzyme.

  17. Proteins Associated with SF3a60 in T. brucei

    PubMed Central

    Nyambega, Benson; Helbig, Claudia; Masiga, Daniel K.; Clayton, Christine; Levin, Mariano J.

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei relies on Spliced leader trans splicing to generate functional messenger RNAs. Trans splicing joins the specialized SL exon from the SL RNA to pre-mRNAs and is mediated by the trans-spliceosome, which is made up of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles and non-snRNP factors. Although the trans spliceosome is essential for trypanosomatid gene expression, not all spliceosomal protein factors are known and of these, only a few are completely characterized. In this study, we have characterized the trypanosome Splicing Factor, SF3a60, the only currently annotated SF3a component. As expected, epitope-tagged SF3a60 localizes in the trypanosome nucleus. SF3a60 is essential for cell viability but its depletion seem to have no detectable effect on trans-splicing. In addition, we used SF3a60 as bait in a Yeast-2-hybrid system screen and identified its interacting protein factors. The interactions with SF3a120, SF3a66 and SAP130 were confirmed by tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry. PMID:24651488

  18. Homotropic cooperativity of monomeric cytochrome P450 3A4

    SciTech Connect

    Baas, Bradley J.; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2010-11-16

    Mechanistic studies of mammalian cytochrome P450s are often obscured by the phase heterogeneity of solubilized preparations of membrane enzymes. The various protein-protein aggregation states of microsomes, detergent solubilized cytochrome or a family of aqueous multimeric complexes can effect measured substrate binding events as well as subsequent steps in the reaction cycle. In addition, these P450 monooxygenases are normally found in a membrane environment and the bilayer composition and dynamics can also effect these catalytic steps. Here, we describe the structural and functional characterization of a homogeneous monomeric population of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) in a soluble nanoscale membrane bilayer, or Nanodisc [Nano Lett. 2 (2002) 853]. Cytochrome P450 3A4:Nanodisc assemblies were formed and purified to yield a 1:1 ratio of CYP 3A4 to Nanodisc. Solution small angle X-ray scattering was used to structurally characterize this monomeric CYP 3A4 in the membrane bilayer. The purified CYP 3A4:Nanodiscs showed a heretofore undescribed high level of homotropic cooperativity in the binding of testosterone. Soluble CYP 3A4:Nanodisc retains its known function and shows prototypic hydroxylation of testosterone when driven by hydrogen peroxide. This represents the first functional characterization of a true monomeric preparation of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in a phospholipid bilayer and elucidates new properties of the monomeric form.

  19. Association between endometriosis and the interleukin 1A (IL1A) locus

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Yadav; Low, Siew-Kee; Attia, John; Gordon, Scott D.; Henders, Anjali K.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; MacGregor, Stuart; Martin, Nicholas G.; McEvoy, Mark; Morris, Andrew P.; Takahashi, Atsushi; Scott, Rodney J.; Kubo, Michiaki; Zondervan, Krina T.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nyholt, Dale R.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the interleukin 1A (IL1A) gene locus associated with endometriosis risk? SUMMARY ANSWER We found evidence for strong association between IL1A SNPs and endometriosis risk. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Genetic factors contribute substantially to the complex aetiology of endometriosis and the disease has an estimated heritability of ∼51%. We, and others, have conducted genome-wide association (GWA) studies for endometriosis, which identified a total of nine independent risk loci. Recently, two small Japanese studies reported eight SNPs (rs6542095, rs11677416, rs3783550, rs3783525, rs3783553, rs2856836, rs1304037 and rs17561) at the IL1A gene locus as suggestively associated with endometriosis risk. There is also evidence of a link between inflammation and endometriosis. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION We sought to further investigate the eight IL1A SNPs for association with endometriosis using an independent sample of 3908 endometriosis cases and 8568 controls of European and Japanese ancestry. The study was conducted between October 2013 and July 2014. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS By leveraging GWA data from our previous multi-ethnic GWA meta-analysis for endometriosis, we imputed variants in the IL1A region, using a recent 1000 Genomes reference panel. After combining summary statistics for the eight SNPs from our European and Japanese imputed data with the published results, a fixed-effect meta-analysis was performed. An additional meta-analysis restricted to endometriosis cases with moderate-to-severe (revised American Fertility Society stage 3 or 4) disease versus controls was also performed. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE All eight IL1A SNPs successfully replicated at P < 0.014 in the European imputed data with concordant direction and similar size to the effects reported in the original Japanese studies. Of these, three SNPs (rs6542095, rs3783550 and rs3783525) also showed association with

  20. Degradation of C3a anaphylatoxins by rat mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuoka, Y.; Hugli, T.E.

    1986-05-01

    Incubation of /sup 125/I-human C3a with rat peritoneal mast cells (RMC) causes extensive degradation of the ligand. Both cell-bound and free /sup 125/I-C3a (hu) was degraded by RMC, even at 0/sup 0/C, based on SDS-PAGE analysis. The authors examined several protease inhibitors for their ability to prevent degradation of /sup 125/I-C3a (hu). Degradation of /sup 125/I-C3a (hu) by RMC was not inhibited by leupeptin, antipain, elastatinal, pepstatin, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin or EDTA. TPCK and TLCK were only partially effective. PMSF, chymostatin and SBTI were most effective in preventing /sup 125/I-C3a (hu) degradation. These latter compounds are effective inhibitors of the chymotrypsin-like enzyme chymase extracted from RMC, as is TPCK, based on hydrolysis of the substrate BTEE. Degradation of cell-bound ligand is totally prevented only by PMSF (or DFP). Therefore, /sup 125/I-C3a (hu) bound to the RMC appears to be degraded predominantly by chymase; however the cell-bound ligand is attacked by other surface proteases. Degradation of rat C3a by RMC was examined. After incubation with RMC, cell-bound and free /sup 125/I-C3a (rat) showed no evidence of degradation with or without inhibitors present. From these results, the authors conclude that chymase may not play a significant role in regulating anaphylatoxin activity. Furthermore, the authors propose that rat C3a is a preferred ligand for identifying receptors on mast cells because of its resistance to proteolysis.

  1. Nutlin-3a selects for cells harbouring TP53 mutations.

    PubMed

    Kucab, Jill E; Hollstein, Monica; Arlt, Volker M; Phillips, David H

    2017-02-15

    TP53 mutations occur in half of all human tumours. Mutagen-induced or spontaneous TP53 mutagenesis can be studied in vitro using the human TP53 knock-in (Hupki) mouse embryo fibroblast (HUF) immortalisation assay (HIMA). TP53 mutations arise in up to 30% of mutagen-treated, immortalised HUFs; however, mutants are not identified until TP53 sequence analysis following immortalisation (2-5 months) and much effort is expended maintaining TP53-WT cultures. In order to improve the selectivity of the HIMA for HUFs harbouring TP53 mutations, we explored the use of Nutlin-3a, an MDM2 inhibitor that leads to stabilisation and activation of wild-type (WT) p53. First, we treated previously established immortal HUF lines carrying WT or mutated TP53 with Nutlin-3a to examine the effect on cell growth and p53 activation. Nutlin-3a induced the p53 pathway in TP53-WT HUFs and inhibited cell growth, whereas most TP53-mutated HUFs were resistant to Nutlin-3a. We then assessed whether Nutlin-3a treatment could discriminate between TP53-WT and TP53-mutated cells during the HIMA (n = 72 cultures). As immortal clones emerged from senescent cultures, each was treated with 10 µM Nutlin-3a for 5 days and observed for sensitivity or resistance. TP53 was subsequently sequenced from all immortalised clones. We found that all Nutlin-3a-resistant clones harboured TP53 mutations, which were diverse in position and functional impact, while all but one of the Nutlin-3a-sensitive clones were TP53-WT. These data suggest that including a Nutlin-3a counter-screen significantly improves the specificity and efficiency of the HIMA, whereby TP53-mutated clones are selected prior to sequencing and TP53-WT clones can be discarded.

  2. Association of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A) haplotypes with listening to music.

    PubMed

    Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa; Oikkonen, Jaana; Onkamo, Päivi; Karma, Kai; Raijas, Pirre; Järvelä, Irma

    2011-04-01

    Music is listened in all cultures. We hypothesize that willingness to produce and perceive sound and music is social communication that needs musical aptitude. Here, listening to music was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire and musical aptitude using the auditory structuring ability test (Karma Music test) and Carl Seashores tests for pitch and for time. Three highly polymorphic microsatellite markers (RS3, RS1 and AVR) of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A) gene, previously associated with social communication and attachment, were genotyped and analyzed in 31 Finnish families (n=437 members) using family-based association analysis. A positive association between the AVPR1A haplotype (RS1 and AVR) and active current listening to music (permuted P=0.0019) was observed. Other AVPR1A haplotype (RS3 and AVR) showed association with lifelong active listening to music (permuted P=0.0022). In addition to AVPR1A, two polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and variable number of tandem repeat) of human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), a candidate gene for many neuropsychiatric disorders and previously associated with emotional processing, were analyzed. No association between listening to music and the polymorphisms of SLC6A4 were detected. The results suggest that willingness to listen to music is related to neurobiological pathways affecting social affiliation and communication.

  3. Autism gene Ube3a and seizures impair sociability by repressing VTA Cbln1.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Vaishnav; Stoppel, David C; Nong, Yi; Johnson, Mark A; Nadler, Monica J S; Ozkaynak, Ekim; Teng, Brian L; Nagakura, Ikue; Mohammad, Fahim; Silva, Michael A; Peterson, Sally; Cruz, Tristan J; Kasper, Ekkehard M; Arnaout, Ramy; Anderson, Matthew P

    2017-03-15

    Maternally inherited 15q11-13 chromosomal triplications cause a frequent and highly penetrant type of autism linked to increased gene dosages of UBE3A, which encodes a ubiquitin ligase with transcriptional co-regulatory functions. Here, using in vivo mouse genetics, we show that increasing UBE3A in the nucleus downregulates the glutamatergic synapse organizer Cbln1, which is needed for sociability in mice. Epileptic seizures also repress Cbln1 and are found to expose sociability impairments in mice with asymptomatic increases in UBE3A. This Ube3a-seizure synergy maps to glutamate neurons of the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA), where Cbln1 deletions impair sociability and weaken glutamatergic transmission. We provide preclinical evidence that viral-vector-based chemogenetic activation of, or restoration of Cbln1 in, VTA glutamatergic neurons reverses the sociability deficits induced by Ube3a and/or seizures. Our results suggest that gene and seizure interactions in VTA glutamatergic neurons impair sociability by downregulating Cbln1, a key node in the expanding protein interaction network of autism genes.

  4. New diagnostic systems on HL-2A

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, X. T.; Zhou, Y.; Deng, Z. C.; Xiao, W. W.; Liu, Z. T.; Shi, Z. B.; Yan, L. W.; Hong, W. Y.; Yang, Q. W.

    2006-10-15

    Three new diagnostic systems have been presented in this article: (1) the pulse molecular beam injection as a modulated particle source and microwave reflectometry for investigation of the particle transport, (2) a new three-step electrostatic probe array for zonal flow studying, and (3) eight-channel laser interferometer with 6 m HCN laser for electron density profile measurement with good spatial resolution. The main experimental results have also been shown briefly.

  5. Human aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1): biochemical characterization and immunohistochemical localization in the cornea.

    PubMed Central

    Pappa, Aglaia; Estey, Tia; Manzer, Rizwan; Brown, Donald; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2003-01-01

    ALDH3A1 (aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1) is expressed at high concentrations in the mammalian cornea and it is believed that it protects this vital tissue and the rest of the eye against UV-light-induced damage. The precise biological function(s) and cellular distribution of ALDH3A1 in the corneal tissue remain to be elucidated. Among the hypotheses proposed for ALDH3A1 function in cornea is detoxification of aldehydes formed during UV-induced lipid peroxidation. To investigate in detail the biochemical properties and distribution of this protein in the human cornea, we expressed human ALDH3A1 in Sf9 insect cells using a baculovirus vector and raised monoclonal antibodies against ALDH3A1. Recombinant ALDH3A1 protein was purified to homogeneity with a single-step affinity chromatography method using 5'-AMP-Sepharose 4B. Human ALDH3A1 demonstrated high substrate specificity for medium-chain (6 carbons and more) saturated and unsaturated aldehydes, including 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, which are generated by the peroxidation of cellular lipids. Short-chain aliphatic aldehydes, such as acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and malondialdehyde, were found to be very poor substrates for human ALDH3A1. In addition, ALDH3A1 metabolized glyceraldehyde poorly and did not metabolize glucose 6-phosphate, 6-phosphoglucono-delta-lactone and 6-phosphogluconate at all, suggesting that this enzyme is not involved in either glycolysis or the pentose phosphate pathway. Immunohistochemistry in human corneas, using the monoclonal antibodies described herein, revealed ALDH3A1 expression in epithelial cells and stromal keratocytes, but not in endothelial cells. Overall, these cumulative findings support the metabolic function of ALDH3A1 as a part of a corneal cellular defence mechanism against oxidative damage caused by aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation. Both recombinant human ALDH3A1 and the highly specific monoclonal antibodies described in the present paper may prove to be useful in probing

  6. WRAP 2A Waste Form Qualification Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, D.A. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    WRAP Module 2A is a facility that will serve to treat retrieved, stored, and newly generated contact-handled mixed low level waste (MLLW) at the Department of Energy`s Hanford site near Richland, Washington. The treatment processes to be used are limited to non-thermal processes, defined as processes operating at a temperature less than 500{degree}F. In addition to waste pretreatment and conditioning processes including sorting, size reduction, and homogenization, the final treatment technologies will consist of immobilization, stabilization, and encapsulation to produce final waste forms that are suitable for disposal in compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements. The wide variety of chemical and physical characteristics exhibited by the WRAP 2A feed streams will necessitate the performance of a comprehensive waste form qualification (WFQ) testing program. The WFQ program will provide the technical basis supporting the process selection and will demonstrate that the selected treatment processes produce final waste forms that will meet all applicable regulatory requirements and performance specifications. This document describes the overall WRAP 2A WFQ program.

  7. 3. A general elevation view looking west highlights the Elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. A general elevation view looking west highlights the Elevator and Silo Complex C, commonly known as the 'Landmark' (1940). - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  8. The Role of Semaphorin 3A in Bone Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenxia; Hao, Jin; Duan, Xin; Wu, Nan; Zhou, Zongke; Yang, Fan; Li, Juan; Zhao, Zhihe; Huang, Shishu

    2017-01-01

    Bone remodeling occurs at the bone surface throughout adult life and associates bony quantity and quality. This process is a balance between the osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption, which cross-talks together. Semaphorin 3A is a membrane-associated secreted protein and regarded as a diffusible axonal chemorepellent, which has been identified in the involvement of bone resorption and formation synchronously. However, the role of Semaphorin 3A in bone homeostasis and diseases remains elusive, in particular the association to osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In this review article, we summarize recent progress of Semaphorin 3A in the bone mass, homeostasis, and diseases and discuss the novel application of nerve-based bone regeneration. This will facilitate the understanding of Semaphorin 3A in skeletal biology and shed new light on the modulation and potential treatment in the bone disorders. PMID:28293171

  9. Subcellular organization of UBE3A in neurons.

    PubMed

    Burette, Alain C; Judson, Matthew C; Burette, Susan; Phend, Kristen D; Philpot, Benjamin D; Weinberg, Richard J

    2017-02-01

    Ubiquitination regulates a broad array of cellular processes, and defective ubiquitination is implicated in several neurological disorders. Loss of the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase UBE3A causes Angelman syndrome. Despite its clinical importance, the normal role of UBE3A in neurons is still unclear. As a step toward deciphering its possible functions, we performed high-resolution light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry. We report a broad distribution of UBE3A in neurons, highlighted by concentrations in axon terminals and euchromatin-rich nuclear domains. Our findings suggest that UBE3A may act locally to regulate individual synapses while also mediating global, neuronwide influences through the regulation of gene transcription. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:233-251, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Fc Gamma Receptor 3A Polymorphism and Risk for HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rohatgi, Soma; Gohil, Shruti; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Schultz, Hannah; Dufaud, Chad; Armour, Kathryn L.; Badri, Sheila; Mailliard, Robbie B.; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the most common causes of fungal disease in HIV-infected persons, but not all of those who are infected develop cryptococcal disease (CD). Although CD4+ T cell deficiency is a risk factor for HIV-associated CD, polymorphisms of phagocytic Fc gamma receptors (FCGRs) have been linked to CD risk in HIV-uninfected persons. To investigate associations between FCGR2A 131 H/R and FCGR3A 158 F/V polymorphisms and CD risk in HIV-infected persons, we performed PCR-based genotyping on banked samples from 164 men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS): 55 who were HIV infected and developed CD and a matched control group of 54 who were HIV infected and 55 who were HIV uninfected. Using additive and allelic statistical models for analysis, the high-affinity FCGR3A 158V allele was significantly associated with CD status after adjusting for race/ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; P = 0.005), as was the FCGR3A 158 VV homozygous genotype after adjusting for race/ethnicity, rate of CD4+ T cell decline, and nadir CD4+ T cell count (OR, 21; P = 0.005). No associations between CD and FCGR2A 131 H/R polymorphism were identified. In binding studies, human IgG (hIgG)-C. neoformans complexes exhibited more binding to CHO-K1 cells expressing FCGR3A 158V than to those expressing FCGR3A 158F, and in cytotoxicity assays, natural killer (NK) cells expressing FCGR3A 158V induced more C. neoformans-infected monocyte cytotoxicity than those expressing FCGR3A 158F. Together, these results show an association between the FCGR3A 158V allele and risk for HIV-associated CD and suggest that this polymorphism could promote C. neoformans pathogenesis via increased binding of C. neoformans immune complexes, resulting in increased phagocyte cargo and/or immune activation. PMID:23982074

  11. Metabolic activation of benzodiazepines by CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Katsuhiko; Katoh, Miki; Okumura, Hirotoshi; Nakagawa, Nao; Negishi, Toru; Hashizume, Takanori; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2009-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 is the predominant isoform in liver, and it metabolizes more than 50% of the clinical drugs commonly used. However, CYP3A4 is also responsible for metabolic activation of drugs, leading to liver injury. Benzodiazepines are widely used as hypnotics and sedatives for anxiety, but some of them induce liver injury in humans. To clarify whether benzodiazepines are metabolically activated, 14 benzodiazepines were investigated for their cytotoxic effects on HepG2 cells treated with recombinant CYP3A4. By exposure to 100 microM flunitrazepam, nimetazepam, or nitrazepam, the cell viability in the presence of CYP3A4 decreased more than 25% compared with that of the control. In contrast, in the case of other benzodiazepines, the changes in the cell viability between CYP3A4 and control Supersomes were less than 10%. These results suggested that nitrobenzodiazepines such as flunitrazepam, nimetazepam, and nitrazepam were metabolically activated by CYP3A4, which resulted in cytotoxicity. To identify the reactive metabolite, the glutathione adducts of flunitrazepam and nimetazepam were investigated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The structural analysis for the glutathione adducts of flunitrazepam indicated that a nitrogen atom in the side chain of flunitrazepam was conjugated with the thiol of glutathione. Therefore, the presence of a nitro group in the side chain of benzodiazepines may play a crucial role in the metabolic activation by CYP3A4. The present study suggested that metabolic activation by CYP3A4 was one of the mechanisms of liver injury by nitrobenzodiazepines.

  12. Interactions between CYP3A4 and Dietary Polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Basheer, Loai; Kerem, Zohar

    2015-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) catalyze oxidative reactions of a broad spectrum of substrates and play a critical role in the metabolism of xenobiotics, such as drugs and dietary compounds. CYP3A4 is known to be the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of drugs and most other xenobiotics. Dietary compounds, of which polyphenolics are the most studied, have been shown to interact with CYP3A4 and alter its expression and activity. Traditionally, the liver was considered the prime site of CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolic extraction, but in vitro and in vivo studies now suggest that the small intestine can be of equal or even greater importance for the metabolism of polyphenolics and drugs. Recent studies have pointed to the role of gut microbiota in the metabolic fate of polyphenolics in human, suggesting their involvement in the complex interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4. Last but not least, all the above suggests that coadministration of drugs and foods that are rich in polyphenols is expected to stimulate undesirable clinical consequences. This review focuses on interactions between dietary polyphenols and CYP3A4 as they relate to structural considerations, food-drug interactions, and potential negative consequences of interactions between CYP3A4 and polyphenols. PMID:26180597

  13. Mutation Update for UBE3A variants in Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sadikovic, Bekim; Fernandes, Priscilla; Zhang, Victor Wei; Ward, Patricia A; Miloslavskaya, Irene; Rhead, William; Rosenbaum, Richard; Gin, Robert; Roa, Benjamin; Fang, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Angelman syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a deficiency of the imprinted and maternally expressed UBE3A gene. Although de novo genetic and epigenetic imprinting defects of UBE3A genomic locus account for majority of Angelman diagnoses, approximately 10% of individuals affected with Angelman syndrome are a result of UBE3A loss-of-function mutations occurring on the expressed maternal chromosome. The variants described in this manuscript represent the analysis of 2,515 patients referred for UBE3A gene sequencing at our institution, along with a comprehensive review of the UBE3A mutation literature. Of these, 267 (10.62%) patients had a report issued for detection of a UBE3A gene nucleotide variant, which in many cases involved family studies resulting in reclassification of variants of unknown clinical significance (VUS). Overall, 111 (4.41%) probands had a nucleotide change classified as pathogenic or strongly favored to be pathogenic, 29 (1.15%) had a VUS, and 126 (5.0%) had a nucleotide change classified as benign or strongly favored to be benign. All variants and their clinical interpretations are submitted to NCBI ClinVar, a freely accessible human variation and phenotype database.

  14. Selective role for DNMT3a in learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael J; Adachi, Megumi; Na, Elisa S; Monteggia, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of cytosine nucleotides is governed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) that establish de novo DNA methylation patterns in early embryonic development (e.g., DNMT3a and DNMT3b) or maintain those patterns on hemimethylated DNA in dividing cells (e.g., DNMT1). DNMTs continue to be expressed at high levels in mature neurons, however their impact on neuronal function and behavior are unclear. To address this issue we examined DNMT1 and DNMT3a expression following associative learning. We also generated forebrain specific conditional Dnmt1 or Dnmt3a knockout mice and characterized them in learning and memory paradigms as well as for alterations in long-term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic plasticity. Here, we report that experience in an associative learning task impacts expression of Dnmt3a, but not Dnmt1, in brain areas that mediate learning of this task. We also found that Dnmt3a knockout mice, and not Dnmt1 knockouts have synaptic alterations as well as learning deficits on several associative and episodic memory tasks. These findings indicate that the de novo DNA methylating enzyme DNMT3a in postmitotic neurons is necessary for normal memory formation and its function cannot be substituted by the maintenance DNA methylating enzyme DNMT1. PMID:24937014

  15. APOBEC3A damages the cellular genome during DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Green, Abby M.; Landry, Sébastien; Budagyan, Konstantin; Avgousti, Daphne C.; Shalhout, Sophia; Bhagwat, Ashok S.; Weitzman, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human APOBEC3 family of DNA-cytosine deaminases comprises 7 members (A3A-A3H) that act on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The APOBEC3 proteins function within the innate immune system by mutating DNA of viral genomes and retroelements to restrict infection and retrotransposition. Recent evidence suggests that APOBEC3 enzymes can also cause damage to the cellular genome. Mutational patterns consistent with APOBEC3 activity have been identified by bioinformatic analysis of tumor genome sequences. These mutational signatures include clusters of base substitutions that are proposed to occur due to APOBEC3 deamination. It has been suggested that transiently exposed ssDNA segments provide substrate for APOBEC3 deamination leading to mutation signatures within the genome. However, the mechanisms that produce single-stranded substrates for APOBEC3 deamination in mammalian cells have not been demonstrated. We investigated ssDNA at replication forks as a substrate for APOBEC3 deamination. We found that APOBEC3A (A3A) expression leads to DNA damage in replicating cells but this is reduced in quiescent cells. Upon A3A expression, cycling cells activate the DNA replication checkpoint and undergo cell cycle arrest. Additionally, we find that replication stress leaves cells vulnerable to A3A-induced DNA damage. We propose a model to explain A3A-induced damage to the cellular genome in which cytosine deamination at replication forks and other ssDNA substrates results in mutations and DNA breaks. This model highlights the risk of mutagenesis by A3A expression in replicating progenitor cells, and supports the emerging hypothesis that APOBEC3 enzymes contribute to genome instability in human tumors. PMID:26918916

  16. DNMT3A Mutations in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Timothy J.; Ding, Li; Walter, Matthew J.; McLellan, Michael D.; Lamprecht, Tamara; Larson, David E.; Kandoth, Cyriac; Payton, Jacqueline E.; Baty, Jack; Welch, John; Harris, Christopher C.; Lichti, Cheryl F.; Townsend, R. Reid; Fulton, Robert S.; Dooling, David J.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Schmidt, Heather; Zhang, Qunyuan; Osborne, John R.; Lin, Ling; O’Laughlin, Michelle; McMichael, Joshua F.; Delehaunty, Kim D.; McGrath, Sean D.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Magrini, Vincent J.; Vickery, Tammi L.; Hundal, Jasreet; Cook, Lisa L.; Conyers, Joshua J.; Swift, Gary W.; Reed, Jerry P.; Alldredge, Patricia A.; Wylie, Todd; Walker, Jason; Kalicki, Joelle; Watson, Mark A.; Heath, Sharon; Shannon, William D.; Varghese, Nobish; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Westervelt, Peter; Tomasson, Michael H.; Link, Daniel C.; Graubert, Timothy A.; DiPersio, John F.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The genetic alterations responsible for an adverse outcome in most patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are unknown. METHODS Using massively parallel DNA sequencing, we identified a somatic mutation in DNMT3A, encoding a DNA methyltransferase, in the genome of cells from a patient with AML with a normal karyotype. We sequenced the exons of DNMT3A in 280 additional patients with de novo AML to define recurring mutations. RESULTS A total of 62 of 281 patients (22.1%) had mutations in DNMT3A that were predicted to affect translation. We identified 18 different missense mutations, the most common of which was predicted to affect amino acid R882 (in 37 patients). We also identified six frameshift, six nonsense, and three splice-site mutations and a 1.5-Mbp deletion encompassing DNMT3A. These mutations were highly enriched in the group of patients with an intermediate-risk cytogenetic profile (56 of 166 patients, or 33.7%) but were absent in all 79 patients with a favorable-risk cytogenetic profile (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The median overall survival among patients with DNMT3A mutations was significantly shorter than that among patients without such mutations (12.3 months vs. 41.1 months, P<0.001). DNMT3A mutations were associated with adverse outcomes among patients with an intermediate-risk cytogenetic profile or FLT3 mutations, regardless of age, and were independently associated with a poor outcome in Cox proportional-hazards analysis. CONCLUSIONS DNMT3A mutations are highly recurrent in patients with de novo AML with an intermediate-risk cytogenetic profile and are independently associated with a poor outcome. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.) PMID:21067377

  17. APOBEC3A damages the cellular genome during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Green, Abby M; Landry, Sébastien; Budagyan, Konstantin; Avgousti, Daphne C; Shalhout, Sophia; Bhagwat, Ashok S; Weitzman, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    The human APOBEC3 family of DNA-cytosine deaminases comprises 7 members (A3A-A3H) that act on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The APOBEC3 proteins function within the innate immune system by mutating DNA of viral genomes and retroelements to restrict infection and retrotransposition. Recent evidence suggests that APOBEC3 enzymes can also cause damage to the cellular genome. Mutational patterns consistent with APOBEC3 activity have been identified by bioinformatic analysis of tumor genome sequences. These mutational signatures include clusters of base substitutions that are proposed to occur due to APOBEC3 deamination. It has been suggested that transiently exposed ssDNA segments provide substrate for APOBEC3 deamination leading to mutation signatures within the genome. However, the mechanisms that produce single-stranded substrates for APOBEC3 deamination in mammalian cells have not been demonstrated. We investigated ssDNA at replication forks as a substrate for APOBEC3 deamination. We found that APOBEC3A (A3A) expression leads to DNA damage in replicating cells but this is reduced in quiescent cells. Upon A3A expression, cycling cells activate the DNA replication checkpoint and undergo cell cycle arrest. Additionally, we find that replication stress leaves cells vulnerable to A3A-induced DNA damage. We propose a model to explain A3A-induced damage to the cellular genome in which cytosine deamination at replication forks and other ssDNA substrates results in mutations and DNA breaks. This model highlights the risk of mutagenesis by A3A expression in replicating progenitor cells, and supports the emerging hypothesis that APOBEC3 enzymes contribute to genome instability in human tumors.

  18. 76 FR 477 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2A12 (CL-601) and CL-600-2B16 (CL-601-3A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ...: Ice and Rain Protection and Pneumatic, respectively. Reason (e) The mandatory continuing airworthiness... applicable Time Limits/ Maintenance Checks manual, whichever occurs first. CL-600-2B16 (CL-604 Variants)...

  19. 76 FR 41653 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2A12 (CL-601) and CL-600-2B16 (CL-601-3A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... condition as: During flight-testing of a wing anti-ice piccolo tube containing a deliberate small breach, it was determined that the wing leading edge thermal switches were not detecting the consequent bleed leak at the design threshold. As a result, new ] Airworthiness Limitation tasks, consisting of...

  20. 76 FR 46597 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-2A12 (CL-601) and CL-600-2B16 (CL-601-3A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... accumulation of 6,400 after the effective through 5665 inclusive. Anti-Ice Duct Piccolo- total flight hours... the Wing accumulation of 6,400 after the effective and subsequent. Anti-Ice Duct Piccolo- total...

  1. Assessment Methodology for Process Validation Lifecycle Stage 3A.

    PubMed

    Sayeed-Desta, Naheed; Pazhayattil, Ajay Babu; Collins, Jordan; Chen, Shu; Ingram, Marzena; Spes, Jana

    2016-10-06

    The paper introduces evaluation methodologies and associated statistical approaches for process validation lifecycle Stage 3A. The assessment tools proposed can be applied to newly developed and launched small molecule as well as bio-pharma products, where substantial process and product knowledge has been gathered. The following elements may be included in Stage 3A: number of 3A batch determination; evaluation of critical material attributes, critical process parameters, critical quality attributes; in vivo in vitro correlation; estimation of inherent process variability (IPV) and PaCS index; process capability and quality dashboard (PCQd); and enhanced control strategy. US FDA guidance on Process Validation: General Principles and Practices, January 2011 encourages applying previous credible experience with suitably similar products and processes. A complete Stage 3A evaluation is a valuable resource for product development and future risk mitigation of similar products and processes. Elements of 3A assessment were developed to address industry and regulatory guidance requirements. The conclusions made provide sufficient information to make a scientific and risk-based decision on product robustness.

  2. Hydration of C{sub 3}A-gypsum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Quennoz, Alexandra Scrivener, Karen L.

    2012-07-15

    Hydration of C{sub 3}A-gypsum systems with different gypsum additions was investigated in terms of the phase assemblage, kinetics and microstructural development. The second stage of the reaction, which begins after the depletion of gypsum, was of particular interest. From in-situ X-ray diffraction results, it was seen that the dissolution of ettringite and C{sub 3}A to form monosulfoaluminate and/or hydroxy-AFm phases is a rapid reaction that occurs right after the depletion of gypsum. The observation of the calorimetric curves obtained for the different gypsum additions leads us to the conclusion that the mechanism controlling the hydration rate during this period is the nucleation and growth of the AFm phases. The microstructural study showed that the formation of AFm phases occurs in the space between the C{sub 3}A grains but also within the boundaries of the original C{sub 3}A grains. Hydrogarnet was observed growing as a shell around the C{sub 3}A grains.

  3. Triad3A Regulates Synaptic Strength by Ubiquitination of Arc

    PubMed Central

    Mabb, Angela M.; Je, H. Shawn; Wall, Mark J.; Robinson, Camenzind G.; Larsen, Rylan S.; Qiang, Yuan; Corrêa, Sonia A.L.; Ehlers, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Activity-dependent gene transcription and protein synthesis underlie many forms of learning-related synaptic plasticity. At excitatory glutamatergic synapses, the immediate early gene product Arc/Arg3.1 couples synaptic activity to postsynaptic endocytosis of AMPA-type glutamate receptors. Although the mechanisms for Arc induction have been described, little is known regarding the molecular machinery that terminates Arc function. Here we demonstrate that the RING domain ubiquitin ligase Triad3A/RNF216 ubiquitinates Arc, resulting in its rapid proteasomal degradation. Triad3A associates with Arc, localizes to clathrin-coated pits, and is associated with endocytic sites in dendrites and spines. In the absence of Triad3A, Arc accumulates, leading to the loss of surface AMPA receptors. Furthermore, loss of Triad3A mimics and occludes Arc-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity. Thus, degradation of Arc by clathrin-localized Triad3A regulates the availability of synaptic AMPA receptors and temporally tunes Arc-mediated plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. PMID:24945773

  4. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2A.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Eduard; Saenz, Amets; Illa, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is caused by mutations in the gene CAPN3 located in the chromosome region 15q15.1-q21.1. To date more than 300 mutations have been described. This gene encodes for a 94-kDa nonlysosomal calcium-dependent cysteine protease and its function in skeletal muscle is not fully understood. It seems that calpain-3 has an unusual zymogenic activation that involves, among other substrates, cytoskeletal proteins. Calpain-3 is thought to interact with titin and dysferlin. Calpain-3 deficiency produces abnormal sarcomeres that lead eventually to muscle fiber death. Hip adductors and gluteus maximus are the earliest clinically affected muscles. No clinical differences have been reported depending on the type of mutation in the CAPN3 gene. The muscle biopsy shows variability of fiber size, interstitial fibrosis, internal nuclei, lobulated fibers, and, in some cases, presence of eosinophils. Recent gene expression profiling studies have shown upregulation of interleukin-32 and immunoglobulin genes, which may explain the eosinophilic infiltration. Two mouse knockout models of CAPN3 have been characterized. There are no curative treatments for this disease. However, experimental therapeutics using mouse models conclude that adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors seem to be one of the best approaches because of their efficiency and persistency of gene transfer.

  5. Preferential increase in the hippocampal synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) by pentylenetetrazole kindling.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yukihiro; Ishihara, Shizuka; Terada, Ryo; Kikuta, Miki; Sofue, Nobumasa; Kawai, Yoshiko; Serikawa, Tadao; Sasa, Masashi

    2009-12-18

    The present study evaluated the expressional levels of synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A) and other secretary machinery proteins (i.e., soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes, Munc18-1, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP)) in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model. Repeated administration of sub-convulsive PTZ (40 mg/kg, i.p.) progressively increased seizure susceptibility in mice and consistently induced clonic seizures in most animals tested at 15 days after the treatment. Western blot analysis revealed that, among the secretary machinery proteins examined, hippocampal SV2A was selectively elevated by PTZ kindling. PTZ kindling-induced SV2A expression appeared region-specific and the SV2A levels in the cerebral cortex or cerebellum were unaltered. In addition, SV2A expression by PTZ kindling was prominent in the hilar region of the dentate gyrus (DG) where GABAergic interneurons are located, but not in other hippocampal regions (e.g., the stratum lucidum of the CA3 and synaptic layers surrounding CA1 or CA3 pyramidal neurons). These findings suggest that PTZ kindling preferentially elevates SV2A expression in the hippocampus probably as a compensatory mechanism to activate the inhibitory neurotransmission.

  6. ATR inhibitors as a synthetic lethal therapy for tumours deficient in ARID1A

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Chris T.; Miller, Rowan; Pemberton, Helen N.; Jones, Samuel E.; Campbell, James; Konde, Asha; Badham, Nicholas; Rafiq, Rumana; Brough, Rachel; Gulati, Aditi; Ryan, Colm J.; Francis, Jeff; Vermulen, Peter B.; Reynolds, Andrew R.; Reaper, Philip M.; Pollard, John R.; Ashworth, Alan; Lord, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying genetic biomarkers of synthetic lethal drug sensitivity effects provides one approach to the development of targeted cancer therapies. Mutations in ARID1A represent one of the most common molecular alterations in human cancer, but therapeutic approaches that target these defects are not yet clinically available. We demonstrate that defects in ARID1A sensitize tumour cells to clinical inhibitors of the DNA damage checkpoint kinase, ATR, both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, ARID1A deficiency results in topoisomerase 2A and cell cycle defects, which cause an increased reliance on ATR checkpoint activity. In ARID1A mutant tumour cells, inhibition of ATR triggers premature mitotic entry, genomic instability and apoptosis. The data presented here provide the pre-clinical and mechanistic rationale for assessing ARID1A defects as a biomarker of single-agent ATR inhibitor response and represents a novel synthetic lethal approach to targeting tumour cells. PMID:27958275

  7. Combined Deletion of Vhl and Kif3a Accelerates Renal Cyst Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Holger; Vicari, Daniele; Wild, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    A subset of familial and sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) is believed to develop from cystic precursor lesions. Loss of function of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene (VHL) predisposes renal epithelial cells to loss of the primary cilium in response to specific signals. Because the primary cilium suppresses renal cyst formation, loss of the cilium may be an initiating event in the formation of ccRCC. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the consequences of inducible renal epithelium–specific deletion of Vhl together with ablation of the primary cilium via deletion of the kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a) gene. We developed a microcomputed tomography–based imaging approach to allow quantitative longitudinal monitoring of cystic burden, revealing that combined loss of Vhl and Kif3a shortened the latency of cyst initiation, increased the number of cysts per kidney, and increased the total cystic burden. In contrast with findings in other cystic models, cysts in Kif3a mutant mice did not display accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF1α), and deletion of both Hif1a and Kif3a did not affect cyst development or progression. Vhl/Kif3a double mutation also increased the frequency of cysts that displayed multilayered epithelial growth, which correlated with an increased frequency of misoriented cystic epithelial cell divisions. These results argue against the involvement of HIF1α in promoting renal cyst growth and suggest that the formation of simple and atypical renal cysts that resemble ccRCC precursor lesions is greatly accelerated by the combined loss of Vhl and the primary cilium. PMID:25788526

  8. Combined Deletion of Vhl and Kif3a Accelerates Renal Cyst Formation.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Holger; Vicari, Daniele; Wild, Peter J; Frew, Ian J

    2015-11-01

    A subset of familial and sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) is believed to develop from cystic precursor lesions. Loss of function of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene (VHL) predisposes renal epithelial cells to loss of the primary cilium in response to specific signals. Because the primary cilium suppresses renal cyst formation, loss of the cilium may be an initiating event in the formation of ccRCC. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the consequences of inducible renal epithelium-specific deletion of Vhl together with ablation of the primary cilium via deletion of the kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a) gene. We developed a microcomputed tomography-based imaging approach to allow quantitative longitudinal monitoring of cystic burden, revealing that combined loss of Vhl and Kif3a shortened the latency of cyst initiation, increased the number of cysts per kidney, and increased the total cystic burden. In contrast with findings in other cystic models, cysts in Kif3a mutant mice did not display accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF1α), and deletion of both Hif1a and Kif3a did not affect cyst development or progression. Vhl/Kif3a double mutation also increased the frequency of cysts that displayed multilayered epithelial growth, which correlated with an increased frequency of misoriented cystic epithelial cell divisions. These results argue against the involvement of HIF1α in promoting renal cyst growth and suggest that the formation of simple and atypical renal cysts that resemble ccRCC precursor lesions is greatly accelerated by the combined loss of Vhl and the primary cilium.

  9. Immunological study of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type 1a (HMSN1a)

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, C; Gregson, N; Wood, N; Hughes, R

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Fifty three patients were studied to investigate whether autoimmune or inflammatory mechanisms could explain the phenotypic heterogeneity of patients with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type 1a (HMSN1a). Methods: Serum samples were examined for antibodies to peripheral nerve myelin protein 22 (PMP22), ganglioside GM1 and cauda equina homogenate, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF R1) concentrations. Serological results were compared with those from patients with other neuropathies (ONPs, n=30) and with normal subjects (n=51). Results: In the group as a whole, no relation emerged between clinical severity and any immune parameters. Immunohistochemical examination of four sural nerve biopsies did not show significant inflammatory infiltration. In a subset of 12 patients who experienced stepwise progression of disease, there was a trend towards a higher proportion having anti-PMP22 antibodies (33% v 15% of those with gradual disease progression, 3% ONPs, and no normal controls) and complement fixing antibodies to human cauda equina (25% v 5% with gradual progression, 8.6% ONPs, 3.9% normal controls, p=0.07). Conclusions: Patients with HMSN1a and a stepwise disease progression may have an inflammatory, autoimmune component superimposed on the genetic condition. PMID:11796774

  10. Regulation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) tumor suppressor function by PME-1.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Westermarck, Jukka

    2016-12-15

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) plays a major role in maintaining cellular signaling homeostasis by dephosphorylation of a variety of signaling proteins and acts as a tumor suppressor. Protein phosphatase methylesterase-1 (PME-1) negatively regulates PP2A activity by highly complex mechanisms that are reviewed here. Importantly, recent studies have shown that PME-1 promotes oncogenic MAPK/ERK and AKT pathway activities in various cancer types. In human glioma, high PME-1 expression correlates with tumor progression and kinase inhibitor resistance. We discuss the emerging cancer-associated function of PME-1 and its potential clinical relevance.

  11. Anti-apoptotic effect of HCV core gene of genotype 3a in Huh-7 cell line

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Core protein regulates multiple signaling pathways and alters cellular genes expression responsible for HCV induced pathogenesis leading to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Prevalence of HCV genotype 3a associated HCC is higher in Pakistan as compare to the rest of world; however the molecular mechanism behind this is still unclear. This study has been designed to evaluate the effect of HCV core 3a on apoptosis and cell proliferation which are involved in HCC Methodology We examined the in vitro effect of HCV Core protein of genotype 3a and 1a on cellular genes involved in apoptosis by Real time PCR in liver cell line (Huh-7). We analyzed the effect of HCV core of genotype 1a and 3a on cell proliferation by MTT assay and on phosphrylation of Akt by western blotting in Huh-7 cells. Results The HCV 3a Core down regulates the gene expression of Caspases (3, 8, 9 and 10), Cyto C and p53 which are involved in apoptosis. Moreover, HCV 3a Core gene showed stronger effect in regulating protein level of p-Akt as compared to HCV 1a Core accompanied by enhanced cell proliferation in Huh-7 cell line. Conclusion From the current study it has been concluded that reduced expression of cellular genes involved in apoptosis, increased p-Akt (cell survival gene) and enhanced cell proliferation in response to HCV 3a core confirms anti apoptotic effect of HCV 3a Core gene in Huh-7 that may lead to HCC. PMID:22108100

  12. Raloxifene glucuronidation in liver and intestinal microsomes of humans and monkeys: contribution of UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Naoki; Takasuka, Akane; Kokawa, Yuki; Isobe, Takashi; Taguchi, Maho; Shigeyama, Masato; Murata, Mikio; Suno, Manabu; Hanioka, Nobumitsu

    2016-01-01

    1. Raloxifene is an antiestrogen that has been marketed for the treatment of osteoporosis, and is metabolized into 6- and 4'-glucuronides by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. In this study, the in vitro glucuronidation of raloxifene in humans and monkeys was examined using liver and intestinal microsomes and recombinant UGT enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9). 2. Although the K(m) and CL(int) values for the 6-glucuronidation of liver and intestinal microsomes were similar between humans and monkeys, and species differences in Vmax values (liver microsomes, humans > monkeys; intestinal microsomes, humans < monkeys) were observed, no significant differences were noted in the K(m) or S50, Vmax and CL(int) or CLmax values for the 4'-glucuronidation of liver and intestinal microsomes between humans and monkeys. 3. The activities of 6-glucuronidation in recombinant UGT enzymes were UGT1A1 > UGT1A8 >UGT1A9 for humans, and UGT1A8 > UGT1A1 > UGT1A9 for monkeys. The activities of 4'-glucuronidation were UGT1A8 > UGT1A1 > UGT1A9 in humans and monkeys. 4. These results demonstrated that the profiles for the hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene by microsomes were moderately different between humans and monkeys.

  13. [Effects of helper protein P20 from Bacillus thuringiensis on Vip3A expression].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yong-xia; Yuan, Mei-jin; Chen, Jian-wu; Sun, Fan; Pang, Yi

    2006-02-01

    Insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) produced in Bacillus thuringiensis accumulate as crystalline inclusions that represent up to 30% of total dry weight the cell produces. The mechanisms of in vivo crystallization of these insecticidal proteins remain interests, yet unclear. A 20-kDa protein (P20), the product of the third open reading frame of cry11A operon in B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis has been defined to be an important molecular chaperone (helper protein) for forming Cyt1A crystal and enhancing Cry11A expression. The novel vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIPs) are secreted outside the cell of B. thuringiensis during mid-logarithmic growth. VIP3A shows activity against many lepidopteran insect larvae in a different mechanism from that of ICPs. To investigate the influence of helper protein P20 on Vip3A production and its insecticidal activity, P20 was coexpressed with Vip3A protein in B. thuringiensis and the yields and insecticidal toxicity of Vip3A were also analyzed. The recombinant plasmid pHVP20 was constructed by inserting a 5.4kb foreign fragment containing both vip3A gene and p20 gene into the shuttle vector pHT3101. The plasmid pHPT3 only containing vip3A gene was used as control. pHVP20 and pHPT3 were transformed into the B. thuringiensis acrystalliferous strain CryB not containing vip3A gene by electroporation. The obtained B. thuringiensis transformants were CryB(pHVP20) and CryB(pHPT3) respectively. Western blot showed that Vip3A protein reached its maximum yield after 48h of CryB (pHVP20) growth and remained high expression level during the sporulation. The maximum yield of Vip3A protein in CryB (pHVP20) was about 1.5 fold as compared with that in CryB(pHPT3) by the mean of ImageMaster VDS software. It is considered that P20 might combine with the native Vip3A protein during the sporulation, stabilize Vip3A and protect Vip3A from unspecific full proteolysis. Bioassay showed that the cell pellets of CryB (pHVP20) and CryB(pHPT3

  14. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Salehi, Iraj A.; Havens, Jerry; Spicer, Tom

    2006-12-22

    The initial scope of work for this project included: 1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, 2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and 3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL’s FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI’s technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

  15. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-09-30

    The initial scope of work for this project included: (1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, (2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and (3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL's FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI's technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

  16. ALDH3A1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    ALDH3A1 is a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase family. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation. They are also involved in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. The ALDH3A1 protein is an enzyme that forms a cytoplasmic homodimer that oxidizes aromatic and medium-chain (6 carbons or more) saturated and unsaturated aldehyde substrates. It is thought to promote resistance to UV and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-induced oxidative damage in the cornea. There are several splice variants that encode the same protein.

  17. Molecular modeling of cytochrome P450 3A4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szklarz, Grazyna D.; Halpert, James R.

    1997-05-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human cytochrome P450 3A4 was modeled based on crystallographic coordinates of four bacterial P450s: P450 BM-3, P450cam, P450terp, and P450eryF. The P450 3A4 sequence was aligned to those of the known proteins using a structure-based alignment of P450 BM-3, P450cam, P450terp, and P450eryF. The coordinates of the model were then calculated using a consensus strategy, and the final structure was optimized in the presence of water. The P450 3A4 model resembles P450 BM-3 the most, but the B' helix is similar to that of P450eryF, which leads to an enlarged active site when compared with P450 BM-3, P450cam, and P450terp. The 3A4 residues equivalent to known substrate contact residues of the bacterial proteins and key residues of rat P450 2B1 are located in the active site or the substrate access channel. Docking of progesterone into the P450 3A4 model demonstrated that the substrate bound in a 6β-orientation can interact with a number of active site residues, such as 114, 119, 301, 304, 305, 309, 370, 373, and 479, through hydrophobic interactions. The active site of the enzyme can also accommodate erythromycin, which, in addition to the residues listed for progesterone, also contacts residues 101, 104, 105, 214, 215, 217, 218, 374, and 478. The majority of 3A4 residues which interact with progesterone and/or erythromycin possess their equivalents in key residues of P450 2B enzymes, except for residues 297, 480 and 482, which do not contact either substrate in P450 3A4. The results from docking of progesterone and erythromycin into the enzyme model make it possible to pinpoint residues which may be important for 3A4 function and to target them for site-directed mutagenesis.

  18. In vitro and in vivo small intestinal metabolism of CYP3A and UGT substrates in preclinical animals species and humans: species differences.

    PubMed

    Komura, Hiroshi; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2011-11-01

    Intestinal first-pass metabolism has a great impact on the bioavailability of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A) and/or uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-glucoronosyltranferase (UGT) substrates in humans. In vitro and in vivo intestinal metabolism studies are essential for clarifying pharmacokinetics in animal species and for predicting the effects of human intestinal metabolism. We review species differences in intestinal metabolism both in vitro and in vivo. Based on mRNA expression levels, the major intestinal CYP3A isoform is CYP3A4 for humans, CYP3A4 (3A8) for monkeys, CYP3A9 for rats, cyp3a13 for mice, and CYP3A12 for dogs. Additionally, the intestinal-specific UGT would be UGT1A10 for humans, UGT1A8 for monkeys, and UGT1A7 for rats. In vitro and in vivo intestinal metabolism of CYP3A substrates were larger in monkeys than in humans, although a correlation in intestinal availability between monkeys and humans has been reported. Little information is available regarding species differences in in vitro and in vivo UGT activities; however, UGT-mediated in vivo intestinal metabolism has been demonstrated for raloxifene in humans and for baicalein in rats. Further assessment of intestinal metabolism, particularly for UGT substrates, is required to clarify the entire picture of species differences.

  19. Deliberate and Crisis Action Planning and Execution Segments Increment 2A (DCAPES Inc 2A)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) UNCLASSIFIED DCAPES Inc 2A 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 2 Table of Contents Common...M - Millions of Dollars MAIS - Major Automated Information System MAIS OE - MAIS Original Estimate MAR – MAIS Annual Report MDA - Milestone...Logistics DCAPES Inc 2A 2016 MAR UNCLASSIFIED 3 Lt Col Christopher Thrower 201 East Moore Drive Bldg 856, Room 154 Maxwell Air Force Base-Gunter AFB, AL

  20. Btn2a2, a T cell immunomodulatory molecule coregulated with MHC class II genes

    PubMed Central

    Sarter, Kerstin; Leimgruber, Elisa; Gobet, Florian; Agrawal, Vishal; Dunand-Sauthier, Isabelle; Barras, Emmanuèle; Mastelic-Gavillet, Béatris; Kamath, Arun; Fontannaz, Paola; Guéry, Leslie; Duraes, Fernanda do Valle; Lippens, Carla; Ravn, Ulla; Santiago-Raber, Marie-Laure; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Fischer, Nicolas; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Hugues, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has recently emerged that butyrophilins, which are members of the extended B7 family of co-stimulatory molecules, have diverse functions in the immune system. We found that the human and mouse genes encoding butyrophilin-2A2 (BTN2A2) are regulated by the class II trans-activator and regulatory factor X, two transcription factors dedicated to major histocompatibility complex class II expression, suggesting a role in T cell immunity. To address this, we generated Btn2a2-deficient mice. Btn2a2−/− mice exhibited enhanced effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses, impaired CD4+ regulatory T cell induction, potentiated antitumor responses, and exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Altered immune responses were attributed to Btn2a2 deficiency in antigen-presenting cells rather than T cells or nonhematopoietic cells. These results provide the first genetic evidence that BTN2A2 is a co-inhibitory molecule that modulates T cell–mediated immunity. PMID:26809444

  1. YO-3A acoustics research aircraft systems manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The flight testing techniques, equipment, and procedures employed during air-to-air acoustic testing of helicopters using the NASA YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft are discussed. The research aircraft instrumentation system is described as well as hardware installation on the test aircraft and techniques used during the tests. Emphasis is placed on formation flying, position locations, test matrices, and test procedures.

  2. 3. A VIEW TAKEN FROM THE SIDEWALK ON THE SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. A VIEW TAKEN FROM THE SIDEWALK ON THE SOUTH APPROACH TO THE BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING THE TRUCK BODY WORKS AND A PORTION OF DOWNTOWN DELPHI. - Delphi Bridge on U.S. Route 421, Spanning Deer Creek at U.S. Route 421, Delphi, Carroll County, IN

  3. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi

    2004-09-30

    This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from July 1, 2004 to September 30, 2004. Activity during this period included preparation of a CD containing the FEM3a FORTRAN code for distribution and organization of an LNG safety workshop. Contract negotiation between GTI and University of Arkansas continued.

  4. 29. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) AT SYSTEM LAYOUT GRID 17. GENERAL OBLIQUE VIEW OF "A" FACE INTERIOR SHOWING RADAR EMITTER/ANTENNA INTERFACE ELECTRONICS. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  5. Nutlin‐3a selects for cells harbouring TP 53 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Hollstein, Monica; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.

    2016-01-01

    TP53 mutations occur in half of all human tumours. Mutagen‐induced or spontaneous TP53 mutagenesis can be studied in vitro using the human TP53 knock‐in (Hupki) mouse embryo fibroblast (HUF) immortalisation assay (HIMA). TP53 mutations arise in up to 30% of mutagen‐treated, immortalised HUFs; however, mutants are not identified until TP53 sequence analysis following immortalisation (2–5 months) and much effort is expended maintaining TP53‐WT cultures. In order to improve the selectivity of the HIMA for HUFs harbouring TP53 mutations, we explored the use of Nutlin‐3a, an MDM2 inhibitor that leads to stabilisation and activation of wild‐type (WT) p53. First, we treated previously established immortal HUF lines carrying WT or mutated TP53 with Nutlin‐3a to examine the effect on cell growth and p53 activation. Nutlin‐3a induced the p53 pathway in TP53‐WT HUFs and inhibited cell growth, whereas most TP53‐mutated HUFs were resistant to Nutlin‐3a. We then assessed whether Nutlin‐3a treatment could discriminate between TP53‐WT and TP53‐mutated cells during the HIMA (n = 72 cultures). As immortal clones emerged from senescent cultures, each was treated with 10 µM Nutlin‐3a for 5 days and observed for sensitivity or resistance. TP53 was subsequently sequenced from all immortalised clones. We found that all Nutlin‐3a‐resistant clones harboured TP53 mutations, which were diverse in position and functional impact, while all but one of the Nutlin‐3a‐sensitive clones were TP53‐WT. These data suggest that including a Nutlin‐3a counter‐screen significantly improves the specificity and efficiency of the HIMA, whereby TP53‐mutated clones are selected prior to sequencing and TP53‐WT clones can be discarded. PMID:27813088

  6. Joint Precision Approach and Landing System Increment 1A (JPALS Inc 1A)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense Switched Network Econ...March 19, 2014. JPALS Inc 1A December 2013 SAR April 16, 2014 17:17:18 UNCLASSIFIED 7 Schedule Milestones SAR Baseline Dev Est... IOT &E JAN 2014 JAN 2014 JUL 2014 TBD 1 (Ch-2) IOC DEC 2014 DEC 2014 JUN 2015 TBD 1 (Ch-2) FRP JUN 2015 JUN 2015 DEC 2015 TBD 1 (Ch-2) 1APB Breach Change

  7. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Liese Dallbauman

    2004-06-30

    During this reporting period, kickoff and planning meetings were held. Subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were defined. Efforts to address the numerical stability problems that hamper FEM3A's applicability to low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions were initiated. A detailed review of FEM3A code and its execution, required for development of an accessible user interface, was also begun. A one-day workshop on LNG safety models has been scheduled for September 2004. The goals of this project are to develop a national focal point for LNG safety research and technical dissemination and to develop the FEM3A dispersion model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacle and terrain features of realistic complexity. During this reporting period, the objectives and scope of the project and its constituent tasks were discussed at a project kickoff meeting in Morgantown. Details of the subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were further defined at a separate meeting at the University of Arkansas. Researchers at the university have begun to modify the turbulence closure model used in FEM3A to insure numerical stability during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable atmospheric conditions. The university's wind tunnel is being prepared for upcoming experimental studies. GTI has begun a detailed review of the FEM3A code and its execution that will provide guidance during development of an accessible user interface. Plans were made for a one day workshop on LNG safety models that will be held at the end of September and will provide an introduction to currently available and pending software tools.

  8. The Mid-Barremian Event (MBE): the Prelude to the OAE1a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccioni, R.; Galeotti, S.; Sprovieri, M.

    2003-12-01

    Detailed litho-, bio- and chemostratigraphic investigations of the Hauterivian-lowermost Aptian Maiolica pelagic limestones in the Umbria-Marche sequence, allowed to identify that the Selli Level, which is the regional sedimentary expression of the OAE 1a, represents the climax of a ca. 5 myr-long cycle of black shale deposition starting at the lower/upper Barremian boundary within polarity Chronozone M3 and H. similis-H. kutznetsovae planktonic foraminiferal Zone, that is in the lowermost part of the calcareous nannofossil Zone NC 5D. This long-term cycle starts with a prominent short-term event, here named mid-Barremian Event (MBE), which is associated with several changes in the biotic and abiotic records. In particular, a comparison of the available chemo- litho-, and biostratigraphic data from the Umbria-Marche Basin, allows to recognise that the MBE is defined by: 1) a 0.5 per mil positive shift in the carbon isotope values (Hadji, 1993; unpublished data); 2) a major step in the initial evolutive radiation of planktonic foraminifera (unpublished data); 3) a major turnover in the radiolarian assemblages (Jud, 1994; O'Dogherty, 1994). The above mentioned change in carbon isotope values can be confidently correlated over the Mediterranean Tethys which is the sole area where a detailed isotopic record is available for the entire Barremian (Erba et al., 1999; Wissler et al., 2002). These lines of evidence concur to define the MBE as an outstanding event associated with large scale changes in the ocean-climate system likely related to the rapid oceanic Ontong-Java Plateau formation, which eventually led to OAE1a. Remarkably, the MBE largely predates the well known series of biotic and geochemical events occurring prior to the OAE1a and may be considered as the real turning point in the Barremian-Aptian long-term cycle of black-shale deposition and evolutionary turnovers in several fossil groups. References Erba, E., Channell, J.E.T., Claps, M., Jones, C., Larson, R

  9. Polyamine and methionine adenosyltransferase 2A crosstalk in human colon and liver cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, Maria Lauda; Ryoo, Minjung; Skay, Anna; Tomasi, Ivan; Giordano, Pasquale; Mato, José M.; Lu, Shelly C.

    2013-07-15

    Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme that is responsible for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal methyl donor and precursor of polyamines. MAT1A is expressed in normal liver and MAT2A is expressed in all extrahepatic tissues. MAT2A expression is increased in human colon cancer and in colon cancer cells treated with mitogens, whereas silencing MAT2A resulted in apoptosis. The aim of the current work was to examine the mechanism responsible for MAT2A-dependent growth and apoptosis. We found that in RKO (human adenocarcinoma cell line) cells, MAT2A siRNA treatment lowered cellular SAMe and putrescine levels by 70–75%, increased apoptosis and inhibited growth. Putrescine supplementation blunted significantly MAT2A siRNA-induced apoptosis and growth suppression. Putrescine treatment (100 pmol/L) raised MAT2A mRNA level to 4.3-fold of control, increased the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos and binding to an AP-1 site in the human MAT2A promoter and the promoter activity. In human colon cancer specimens, the expression levels of MAT2A, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), c-Jun and c-Fos are all elevated as compared to adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Overexpression of ODC in RKO cells also raised MAT2A mRNA level and MAT2A promoter activity. ODC and MAT2A are also overexpressed in liver cancer and consistently, similar MAT2A-ODC-putrescine interactions and effects on growth and apoptosis were observed in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, there is a crosstalk between polyamines and MAT2A. Increased MAT2A expression provides more SAMe for polyamines biosynthesis; increased polyamine (putrescine in this case) can activate MAT2A at the transcriptional level. This along with increased ODC expression in cancer all feed forward to further enhance the proliferative capacity of the cancer cell. -- Highlights: • MAT2A knockdown depletes putrescine and leads to apoptosis. • Putrescine attenuates MAT2A knockdown-induced apoptosis and growth

  10. Optical Stark Spectroscopy of the B1A^"-X1A' of CuOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Steimle, Timothy C.

    2010-06-01

    Copper hydroxide, CuOH, is one of the most thoroughly studied transition metal containing polyatomic molecules with the most recent investigation being the dispersed fluorescence and radiative lifetime study. The pure rotational spectrum was recorded and analyzed by Saito^'s group some time ago. Recently a high level {ab initio} calculation predicted ground state permanent electric dipole moments, μel, ranging in value from 5.52D to 3.98D depending upon methodology used to treat electron correlation. Here we report on the first molecular beam study of the B1A^"-X1A' band. The spectrum was recorded field-free and in the presence of a static electric field of up to 4000 V/cm. The hyperfine splitting is observed and analyzed for the first time. The determined μel values are used to evaluate the computational methodologies and are compared with those of other copper containing molecules. C. N. Jarman, W. T. M. L Fernando, and P. F. Bernath J.Mol.Spectrosc.. 144 286, 1990. C. Tao, C. Mukarakate, and S. A. Reid Chem.Phys.Lett.. 449 282, 2007. C. J. Whitham, H. Ozeki, and S. Saito J.Chem.Phys. 112 641, 2000.

  11. Lin28b promotes fetal B lymphopoiesis through the transcription factor Arid3a.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Li, Yue-Sheng; Bandi, Srinivasa Rao; Tang, Lingjuan; Shinton, Susan A; Hayakawa, Kyoko; Hardy, Richard R

    2015-04-06

    Mouse B cell precursors from fetal liver and adult bone marrow (BM) generate distinctive B cell progeny when transplanted into immunodeficient recipients, supporting a two-pathway model for B lymphopoiesis, fetal "B-1" and adult "B-2." Recently, Lin28b was shown to be important for the switch between fetal and adult pathways; however, neither the mechanism of Lin28b action nor the importance of B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling in this process was addressed. Here, we report key advances in our understanding of the regulation of B-1/B-2 development. First, modulation of Let-7 in fetal pro-B cells is sufficient to alter fetal B-1 development to produce B cells resembling the progeny of adult B-2 development. Second, intact BCR signaling is required for the generation of B1a B cells from Lin28b-transduced BM progenitors, supporting a requirement for ligand-dependent selection, as is the case for normal B1a B cells. Third, the VH repertoire of Lin28b-induced BM B1a B cells differs from that of normal B1a, suggesting persisting differences from fetal progenitors. Finally, we identify the Arid3a transcription factor as a key target of Let-7, whose ectopic expression is sufficient to induce B-1 development in adult pro-B cells and whose silencing by knockdown blocks B-1 development in fetal pro-B cells.

  12. Detection of the virulent form of AVR3a from Phytophthora infestans following artificial evolution of potato resistance gene R3a.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sean; Stevens, Laura J; Boevink, Petra C; Engelhardt, Stefan; Alexander, Colin J; Harrower, Brian; Champouret, Nicolas; McGeachy, Kara; Van Weymers, Pauline S M; Chen, Xinwei; Birch, Paul R J; Hein, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Engineering resistance genes to gain effector recognition is emerging as an important step in attaining broad, durable resistance. We engineered potato resistance gene R3a to gain recognition of the virulent AVR3aEM effector form of Phytophthora infestans. Random mutagenesis, gene shuffling and site-directed mutagenesis of R3a were conducted to produce R3a* variants with gain of recognition towards AVR3aEM. Programmed cell death following gain of recognition was enhanced in iterative rounds of artificial evolution and neared levels observed for recognition of AVR3aKI by R3a. We demonstrated that R3a*-mediated recognition responses, like for R3a, are dependent on SGT1 and HSP90. In addition, this gain of response is associated with re-localisation of R3a* variants from the cytoplasm to late endosomes when co-expressed with either AVR3aKI or AVR3aEM a mechanism that was previously only seen for R3a upon co-infiltration with AVR3aKI. Similarly, AVR3aEM specifically re-localised to the same vesicles upon recognition by R3a* variants, but not with R3a. R3a and R3a* provide resistance to P. infestans isolates expressing AVR3aKI but not those homozygous for AVR3aEM.

  13. Evidences for CYP3A4 autoactivation in the desulfuration of dimethoate by the human liver.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Franca M; Testai, Emanuela

    2007-11-20

    Dimethoate (DIM) is an organophosphorothionate (OPT) pesticide used worldwide as a systemic insecticide and acaricide. It is characterized by low-to-moderate acute mammalian toxicity; similarly to the other OPT pesticides, its mode of action is mediated by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), exerted by its toxic metabolite dimethoate-oxon or omethoate (OME), which is also used as a direct acting pesticide. Human hepatic DIM bioactivation to the toxic metabolite OME has been characterized by using c-DNA expressed human CYPs and human liver microsomes (HLM) also in the presence of CYP-specific chemical inhibitors, with a method based on AChE inhibition. The obtained kinetic parameters and AChE IC(50) have been compared with those previously obtained with other OPTs, indicating a lower efficiency in DIM desulfuration reaction and a lower potency in inhibiting AChE. Results showed that, similarly to the other OPTs tested so far, at low DIM concentration OME formation is mainly catalysed by CYP1A2, while the role of 3A4 is relevant at high DIM levels. Differently from the other OPTs, DIM desulfuration reaction showed an atypical kinetic profile, likely due to CYP3A4 autoactivation. The sigmoidicity degree of the activity curve increased with the level of CYP3A4 in HLM or disappeared in the presence of a CYP3A4 chemical inhibitor. This atypical kinetic behaviour can be considered one of the possible explanations for the recent findings that among patients hospitalized following OPT intoxication, DIM ingestion gave different symptoms and more severe poisoning (23.1% of fatal cases versus total) than chlorpyrifos (8% of deaths), which has a lower LD(50) value. Since DIM-poisoned patients poorly responded to pralidoxime, the possibility to use CYP3A4 inhibitors could be considered as a complementary treatment.

  14. EE-3A Logging Report for Feb. 28th., 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David W.

    1994-03-14

    A Temperature/Casing-Collar Locator (CCL) log of EE-3A was performed on Monday, February 28th, 1994. This log was the first of two, (the other to be run on March 31st.), in an attempt to investigate a temperature anomaly occurring between 10,000 to 11,435 ft. The thermal recovery of this zone is slower than expected, which is believed to be caused by either; flow through the cemented zone of the 5 1/2" liner, or an upward flow through the reservoir itself. Now that the first log is over, the annulus of EE-3A will be shut-in for a period of approximately one month, at which time the log will be repeated. If the temperature of this zone shows signs of recovery after the shut-in period, the integrity of the cement will be in question. No sign of recovery will point to upward reservoir flow theory.

  15. Localization of steroidogenic enzymes and Foxl2a in the gonads of mature zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Caulier, Morgane; Brion, François; Chadili, Edith; Turies, Cyril; Piccini, Benjamin; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Guiguen, Yann; Hinfray, Nathalie

    2015-10-01

    In zebrafish, the identification of the cells expressing steroidogenic enzymes and their regulators is far from completely fulfilled though it could provide crucial information on the elucidation of the role of these enzymes. The aim of this study was to better characterize the expression pattern of steroidogenic enzymes involved in estrogen and androgen production (Cyp17-I, Cyp11c1, Cyp19a1a and Cyp19a1b) and one of their regulators (Foxl2a) in zebrafish gonads. By using immunohistochemistry, we localized the steroid-producing cells in mature zebrafish gonads and determined different expression patterns between males and females. All these steroidogenic enzymes and Foxl2a were detected both in the testis and ovary. In the testis, they were all localized both in Leydig and germ cells except Cyp19a1b which was only detected in germ cells. In the ovary, Cyp17-I, Cyp19a1a and Foxl2a were immunolocalized in both somatic and germ cells while Cyp19a1b was only detected in germ cells and Cyp11c1 in somatic cells. Moreover, Cyp19a1a and Foxl2a did not display exactly the same patterns of spatial localization but their expressions were correlated suggesting a possible regulation of cyp19a1a gene by Foxl2a in zebrafish. Comparative analysis revealed a dimorphic expression of Cyp11c1, Cyp19a1a, Cyp19a1b and Foxl2a between males and females. Overall, our study provides a detailed description of the expression of proteins involved in the biosynthesis of steroidal hormones at the cellular scale within gonads, which is critical to further elucidating the intimate roles of the enzymes and the use of the zebrafish as a model in the field of endocrinology.

  16. Positive association between a DNA sequence variant in the serotonin 2A receptor gene and schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Inayama, Y.; Yoneda, H.; Sakai, T.

    1996-02-16

    Sixty-two patients with schizophrenia and 96 normal controls were investigated for genetic association with restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the serotonin receptor genes. A positive association between the serotonin 2A receptor gene (HTR2A) and schizophrenia was found, but not between schizophrenia and the serotonin 1A receptor gene. The positive association we report here would suggest that the DNA region with susceptibility to schizophrenia lies in the HTR2A on the long arm of chromosome 13. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Wnt3a-stimulated LRP6 phosphorylation is dependent upon arginine methylation of G3BP2

    PubMed Central

    Bikkavilli, Rama Kamesh; Malbon, Craig C.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt signaling is initiated upon binding of Wnt proteins to Frizzled proteins and their co-receptors LRP5 and 6. The signal is then propagated to several downstream effectors, mediated by the phosphoprotein scaffold, dishevelled. We report a novel role for arginine methylation in regulating Wnt3a-stimulated LRP6 phosphorylation. G3BP2, a dishevelled-associated protein, is methylated in response to Wnt3a. The Wnt3a-induced LRP6 phosphorylation is attenuated by G3BP2 knockdown, chemical inhibition of methyl transferase activity or expression of methylation-deficient mutants of G3BP2. Arginine methylation of G3BP2 appears to be a Wnt3a-sensitive ‘switch’ regulating LRP6 phosphorylation and canonical Wnt–β-catenin signaling. PMID:22357953

  18. SEMREC3A, Volume I - User’s Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    This document is intended to provide users of the SEMREC3A version of the Soviet postattack economic recovery model with the informlation required to...design, run and to some extent interpret model simulations. DD I JAN 73 1473 EDITION OF INOV 65IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF... model with the information required to design, run and to some extent interpret model simulations. For further details on applications of the model and

  19. LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

    2005-05-10

    The objective of this report is to develop the FEM3A model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacles and terrain features of realistic complexity, and for very low wind speed, stable weather conditions as required for LNG vapor dispersion application specified in 49 CFR 193. The dispersion model DEGADIS specified in 49 CFR 193 is limited to application for dispersion over smooth, level terrain free of obstacles (such as buildings, tanks, or dikes). There is a need for a dispersion model that allows consideration of the effects of terrain features and obstacles on the dispersion of LNG vapor clouds. Project milestones are: (1) Simulation of Low-Wind-Speed Stable Atmospheric Milestones Conditions; (2) Verification for Dispersion over Rough Surfaces, With And Without Obstacles; and (3) Adapting the FEM3A Model for General Application. Results for this quarter are work continues to underway to address numerical problems during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, we have been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A. The present effort is directed to describing the ground surface temperature decrease as a function of time.

  20. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.505 Section 174.505... thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement...

  1. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.505 Section 174.505... thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement...

  2. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.505 Section 174.505... thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement...

  3. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.505 Section 174.505... thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement...

  4. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-05-01

    Work continued to address numerical problems experienced with simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 through 8 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report have been completed successfully for the FEM3A model utilizing the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) turbulence closure model. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have solved the problems related to stability of the simulations at regulatory conditions of low wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions with FEM3A using the PBL model, and are continuing our program to verify the operation of the model using an updated, verified, version of the k-epsilon turbulence closure model which has been modified to handle dense gas dispersion effects. This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2006. GTI's activities during the report quarter were limited to administrative work. The work at the University of Arkansas continued in line with the initial scope of work and the identified questions regarding surface to cloud heat transfer as being largely responsible for the instability problems previously encountered. A brief summary of results is discussed in this section and the complete report from University of Arkansas is attached.

  5. A subset of RAB proteins modulates PP2A phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Francesca; Mattioni, Anna; Boldt, Karsten; Panni, Simona; Santonico, Elena; Castagnoli, Luisa; Ueffing, Marius; Cesareni, Gianni

    2016-09-09

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is one of the most abundant serine-threonine phosphatases in mammalian cells. PP2A is a hetero-trimeric holoenzyme participating in a variety of physiological processes whose deregulation is often associated to cancer. The specificity and activity of this phosphatase is tightly modulated by a family of regulatory B subunits that dock the catalytic subunit to the substrates. Here we characterize a novel and unconventional molecular mechanism controlling the activity of the tumor suppressor PP2A. By applying a mass spectrometry-based interactomics approach, we identified novel PP2A interacting proteins. Unexpectedly we found that a significant number of RAB proteins associate with the PP2A scaffold subunit (PPP2R1A), but not with the catalytic subunit (PPP2CA). Such interactions occur in vitro and in vivo in specific subcellular compartments. Notably we demonstrated that one of these RAB proteins, RAB9, competes with the catalytic subunit PPP2CA in binding to PPP2R1A. This competitive association has an important role in controlling the PP2A catalytic activity, which is compromised in several solid tumors and leukemias.

  6. Pharmacological profile of lurasidone, a novel antipsychotic agent with potent 5-hydroxytryptamine 7 (5-HT7) and 5-HT1A receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Tadashi; Horisawa, Tomoko; Tokuda, Kumiko; Ishiyama, Takeo; Ogasa, Masaaki; Tagashira, Rie; Matsumoto, Kenji; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Yoko; Toma, Satoko; Oki, Hitomi; Tanno, Norihiko; Saji, Ikutaro; Ito, Akira; Ohno, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Mitsutaka

    2010-07-01

    Lurasidone [(3aR,4S,7R,7aS)-2-[(1R,2R)-2-[4-(1,2-benzisothiazol-3-yl)piperazin-1-ylmethyl]cyclohexylmethyl]hexahydro-4,7-methano-2H-isoindole-1,3-dione hydrochloride; SM-13496] is an azapirone derivative and a novel antipsychotic candidate. The objective of the current studies was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties of lurasidone. Receptor binding affinities of lurasidone and several antipsychotic drugs were tested under comparable assay conditions using cloned human receptors or membrane fractions prepared from animal tissue. Lurasidone was found to have potent binding affinity for dopamine D(2), 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT(2A)), 5-HT(7), 5-HT(1A), and noradrenaline alpha(2C) receptors. Affinity for noradrenaline alpha(1), alpha(2A), and 5-HT(2C) receptors was weak, whereas affinity for histamine H(1) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors was negligible. In vitro functional assays demonstrated that lurasidone acts as an antagonist at D(2) and 5-HT(7) receptors and as a partial agonist at the 5-HT(1A) receptor subtype. Lurasidone showed potent effects predictive of antipsychotic activity, such as inhibition of methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and apomorphine-induced stereotyped behavior in rats, similar to other antipsychotics. Furthermore, lurasidone had only weak extrapyramidal effects in rodent models. In animal models of anxiety disorders and depression, treatment with lurasidone was associated with significant improvement. Lurasidone showed a preferential effect on the frontal cortex (versus striatum) in increasing dopamine turnover. Anti-alpha(1)-noradrenergic, anticholinergic, and central nervous system (CNS) depressant actions of lurasidone were also very weak. These results demonstrate that lurasidone possesses antipsychotic activity and antidepressant- or anxiolytic-like effects with potentially reduced liability for extrapyramidal and CNS depressant side effects.

  7. Overview of recent HL-2A experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M.; Duan, X. R.; Dong, J. Q.; Ding, X. T.; Yan, L. W.; Liu, Yi; Song, X. M.; Huang, Y.; Zou, X. L.; Yang, Q. W.; Liu, D. Q.; Rao, J.; Xuan, W. M.; Chen, L. Y.; Mao, W. C.; Wang, Q. M.; Li, Q.; Cao, Z.; Cao, J. Y.; Lei, G. J.; Zhang, J. H.; Li, X. D.; Xu, Y.; Ji, X. Q.; Cheng, J.; Chen, W.; Yu, L. M.; Zhong, W. L.; Yu, D. L.; Zhang, Y. P.; Shi, Z. B.; Chen, C. Y.; Isobe, M.; Morita, S.; Cui, Z. Y.; Dong, Y. B.; Feng, B. B.; Cui, C. H.; Huang, M.; Li, G. S.; Li, H. J.; Li, Qing; Peng, J. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, B.; Yao, L. H.; Yao, L. Y.; Yuan, B. S.; Zhou, J.; Zhou, Y.; Itoh, K.; Liu, Yong; HL-2A Team

    2015-10-01

    Since the last Fusion Energy Conference, the HL-2A experiment has made significant progress in the following areas: (i) physics on low-intermediate-high (L-I-H) transition and pedestal dynamics; (ii) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and energetic-particle (EP) physics; (iii) interaction between neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and non-local transport; (iv) and edge localized mode (ELM) mitigation by supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI). Two types of limit-cycle-oscillations (LCOs) were observed in the intermediate phase (I-phase), which indicated a second type of predator-prey process between turbulence and pressure gradient in addition to the conventional predator-prey involving zonal flows and turbulence. It was found that a kink-type MHD mode often crashed prior to the I-H transition, which played a crucial role in triggering H-mode by increasing the edge pressure gradient and E  ×  B flow shear and consequently suppressing turbulent transport. It was also found that impurity concentration played an important role in the multi-transitions between ELM-free H-mode and I-phase. Besides, a quasi-coherent mode around 50-100 kHz was found to be associated with pedestal density gradient saturation in ELM-free H-mode. For the first time, two types of magnetic activities with n  =  0 were observed in the presence of strong tearing modes. Fourier bicoherence analysis suggested that these modes were generated by the nonlinear coupling between Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and low-frequency MHD modes. Up- and down-sweeping reverse shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAEs) were identified experimentally. The transitions between fishbone and long-lived mode (LLM) were also investigated. The results showed that fishbone could transit from/to LLM and even trigger tearing modes (TMs). For non-local transport, key characteristics of enhanced avalanches in the theory of self-organized criticality (SOC) were identified, including high Hurst exponents and large-scale radial

  8. Cytochrome P450 2A5 and bilirubin: Mechanisms of gene regulation and cytoprotection

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sangsoo Daniel; Antenos, Monica; Squires, E. James; Kirby, Gordon M.

    2013-07-15

    Bilirubin (BR) has recently been identified as the first endogenous substrate for cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) and it has been suggested that CYP2A5 plays a major role in BR clearance as an alternative mechanism to BR conjugation by uridine-diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 1A1. This study investigated the mechanisms of Cyp2a5 gene regulation by BR and the cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 in BR hepatotoxicity. BR induced CYP2A5 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner in primary mouse hepatocytes. BR treatment also caused nuclear translocation of Nuclear factor-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in hepatocytes. In reporter assays, BR treatment of primary hepatocytes transfected with a Cyp2a5 promoter-luciferase reporter construct resulted in a 2-fold induction of Cyp2a5 reporter activity. Furthermore, cotransfection of the hepatocytes with a Nrf2 expression vector without BR treatment resulted in an increase in Cyp2a5 reporter activity of approximately 2-fold and BR treatment of Nrf2 cotransfectants further increased reporter activity by 4-fold. In addition, site-directed mutation of the ARE in the reporter construct completely abolished both the BR- and Nrf2-mediated increases in reporter activity. The cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 against BR-mediated apoptosis was also examined in Hepa 1–6 cells that lack endogenous CYP2A5. Transient overexpression of CYP2A5 partially blocked BR-induced caspase-3 cleavage in Hepa 1–6 cells. Furthermore, in vitro degradation of BR was increased by microsomes from Hepa 1–6 cells overexpressing CYP2A5 compared to control cells transfected with an empty vector. Collectively, these results suggest that Nrf2-mediated CYP2A5 transactivation in response to BR may provide an additional mechanism for adaptive cytoprotection against BR hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • The mechanism of Cyp2a5 gene regulation by BR was investigated. • The cytoprotective role of CYP2A5 in BR hepatotoxicity was determined. • BR

  9. CYP3A5 mediates basal and acquired therapy resistance in different subtypes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Elisa M.; Eisen, Christian; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Espinet, Elisa; Muckenhuber, Alexander; Klein, Corinna; Vogel, Vanessa; Klaus, Bernd; Nadler, Wiebke; Rösli, Christoph; Lutz, Christian; Kulke, Michael; Engelhardt, Jan; Zickgraf, Franziska M.; Espinosa, Octavio; Schlesner, Matthias; Jiang, Xiaoqi; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Neuhaus, Peter; Bahra, Marcus; Sinn, Bruno V.; Eils, Roland; Giese, Nathalia A.; Hackert, Thilo; Strobel, Oliver; Werner, Jens; Büchler, Markus W.; Weichert, Wilko; Trumpp, Andreas; Sprick, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Although subtypes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) were described, this malignancy is clinically still treated as a single disease. Here, we present patient-derived models representing the full spectrum of previously identified quasi-mesenchymal (QM-PDA), classical and exocrine-like PDAC subtypes, and identify two markers—HNF1A and KRT81—that enable stratification of tumors into different subtypes by immunohistochemistry. Individuals bearing tumors of these subtypes show significant differences in overall survival and their tumors differ in drug sensitivity, with the exocrine-like subtype being resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors and paclitaxel. Cytochrome P450 3A5 (CYP3A5) metabolizes these compounds in tumors of the exocrine-like subtype, and pharmacological or shRNA-mediated CYP3A5 inhibition sensitizes tumor cells to these drugs. Whereas hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A) controls basal expression of CYP3A5, drug-induced CYP3A5 upregulation is mediated by the nuclear receptor NR1I2. CYP3A5 also contributes to acquired drug resistance in QM-PDA and classical PDAC, and is highly expressed in several additional malignancies. These findings designate CYP3A5 as predictor of therapy response and as a tumor cell-autonomous detoxification mechanism that must be overcome to prevent drug resistance. PMID:26855150

  10. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 null mice are sensitive to cholestatic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youcai; Csanaky, Iván L; Cheng, Xingguo; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2012-06-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in livers of mice and is thought to transport bile acids (BAs) from blood into liver. Because Oatp1a1 expression is markedly decreased in mice after bile duct ligation (BDL). We hypothesized that Oatp1a1-null mice would be protected against liver injury during BDL-induced cholestasis due largely to reduced hepatic uptake of BAs. To evaluate this hypothesis, BDL surgeries were performed in both male wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice. At 24 h after BDL, Oatp1a1-null mice showed higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels and more severe liver injury than WT mice, and all Oatp1a1-null mice died within 4 days after BDL, whereas all WT mice survived. At 24 h after BDL, surprisingly Oatp1a1-null mice had higher total BA concentrations in livers than WT mice, suggesting that loss of Oatp1a1 did not prevent BA accumulation in the liver. In addition, secondary BAs dramatically increased in serum of Oatp1a1-null BDL mice but not in WT BDL mice. Oatp1a1-null BDL mice had similar basolateral BA uptake (Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and Oatp1b2) and BA-efflux (multidrug resistance-associated protein [Mrp]-3, Mrp4, and organic solute transporter α/β) transporters, as well as BA-synthetic enzyme (Cyp7a1) in livers as WT BDL mice. Hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner Cyp3a11, Cyp4a14, and Nqo1, which are target genes of farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and NF-E2-related factor 2, respectively, were increased in WT BDL mice but not in Oatp1a1-null BDL mice. These results demonstrate that loss of Oatp1a1 function exacerbates cholestatic liver injury in mice and suggest that Oatp1a1 plays a unique role in liver adaptive responses to obstructive cholestasis.

  11. Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1a1 Null Mice Are Sensitive to Cholestatic Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youcai; Csanaky, Iván L.; Cheng, Xingguo; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in livers of mice and is thought to transport bile acids (BAs) from blood into liver. Because Oatp1a1 expression is markedly decreased in mice after bile duct ligation (BDL). We hypothesized that Oatp1a1-null mice would be protected against liver injury during BDL-induced cholestasis due largely to reduced hepatic uptake of BAs. To evaluate this hypothesis, BDL surgeries were performed in both male wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice. At 24 h after BDL, Oatp1a1-null mice showed higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels and more severe liver injury than WT mice, and all Oatp1a1-null mice died within 4 days after BDL, whereas all WT mice survived. At 24 h after BDL, surprisingly Oatp1a1-null mice had higher total BA concentrations in livers than WT mice, suggesting that loss of Oatp1a1 did not prevent BA accumulation in the liver. In addition, secondary BAs dramatically increased in serum of Oatp1a1-null BDL mice but not in WT BDL mice. Oatp1a1-null BDL mice had similar basolateral BA uptake (Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and Oatp1b2) and BA-efflux (multidrug resistance–associated protein [Mrp]-3, Mrp4, and organic solute transporter α/β) transporters, as well as BA-synthetic enzyme (Cyp7a1) in livers as WT BDL mice. Hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner Cyp3a11, Cyp4a14, and Nqo1, which are target genes of farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and NF-E2-related factor 2, respectively, were increased in WT BDL mice but not in Oatp1a1-null BDL mice. These results demonstrate that loss of Oatp1a1 function exacerbates cholestatic liver injury in mice and suggest that Oatp1a1 plays a unique role in liver adaptive responses to obstructive cholestasis. PMID:22461449

  12. LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

    2005-02-21

    This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from October 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004. On December 9, 2004 a meeting was held in Morgantown to rescope the LNG safety modeling project such that the work would complement the DOE's efforts relative to the development of the intended LNG-Fluent model. It was noted and discussed at the December 9th meeting that the fundamental research being performed on surface to cloud heat transfer and low wind speed issues will be relevant to the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent Model. In general, it was decided that all research to be performed from December 9th through the remainder of the contract is to be focused on the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent model. In addition, all GTI activities for dissemination and transfer of FEM3A will cease and dissemination activities will focus on the new DOE LNG/Fluent model. The proposed new scope of work is presented in section 4 of this report. The work reported in the present document relates to the original scope of work which was in effect during the reporting period. The future work will be re-scoped to meet the requirements of the new scope of work. During the report period work was underway to address numerical problems present during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, the University of Arkansas has been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A.

  13. Functional Selectivity and Antidepressant Activity of Serotonin 1A Receptor Ligands.

    PubMed

    Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Bojarski, Andrzej Jacek; Pilc, Andrzej; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2015-08-07

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays an important role in physiological functions. 5-HT has been implicated in sleep, feeding, sexual behavior, temperature regulation, pain, and cognition as well as in pathological states including disorders connected to mood, anxiety, psychosis and pain. 5-HT1A receptors have for a long time been considered as an interesting target for the action of antidepressant drugs. It was postulated that postsynaptic 5-HT1A agonists could form a new class of antidepressant drugs, and mixed 5-HT1A receptor ligands/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors seem to possess an interesting pharmacological profile. It should, however, be noted that 5-HT1A receptors can activate several different biochemical pathways and signal through both G protein-dependent and G protein-independent pathways. The variables that affect the multiplicity of 5-HT1A receptor signaling pathways would thus result from the summation of effects specific to the host cell milieu. Moreover, receptor trafficking appears different at pre- and postsynaptic sites. It should also be noted that the 5-HT1A receptor cooperates with other signal transduction systems (like the 5-HT1B or 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptors, the GABAergic and the glutaminergic systems), which also contribute to its antidepressant and/or anxiolytic activity. Thus identifying brain specific molecular targets for 5-HT1A receptor ligands may result in a better targeting, raising a hope for more effective medicines for various pathologies.

  14. Functional Selectivity and Antidepressant Activity of Serotonin 1A Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Chilmonczyk, Zdzisław; Bojarski, Andrzej Jacek; Pilc, Andrzej; Sylte, Ingebrigt

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays an important role in physiological functions. 5-HT has been implicated in sleep, feeding, sexual behavior, temperature regulation, pain, and cognition as well as in pathological states including disorders connected to mood, anxiety, psychosis and pain. 5-HT1A receptors have for a long time been considered as an interesting target for the action of antidepressant drugs. It was postulated that postsynaptic 5-HT1A agonists could form a new class of antidepressant drugs, and mixed 5-HT1A receptor ligands/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors seem to possess an interesting pharmacological profile. It should, however, be noted that 5-HT1A receptors can activate several different biochemical pathways and signal through both G protein-dependent and G protein-independent pathways. The variables that affect the multiplicity of 5-HT1A receptor signaling pathways would thus result from the summation of effects specific to the host cell milieu. Moreover, receptor trafficking appears different at pre- and postsynaptic sites. It should also be noted that the 5-HT1A receptor cooperates with other signal transduction systems (like the 5-HT1B or 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptors, the GABAergic and the glutaminergic systems), which also contribute to its antidepressant and/or anxiolytic activity. Thus identifying brain specific molecular targets for 5-HT1A receptor ligands may result in a better targeting, raising a hope for more effective medicines for various pathologies. PMID:26262615

  15. Catalytic function of avian cytochrome P450 1A4 and 1A5 (CYP1A4 and CYP1A5) enzymes heterologously expressed using in vitro yeast system.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Akira; Iwata, Hisato; Kim, Eun-Young

    2008-07-01

    The present study clarifies the enzymatic properties of two avian cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) paralogs, CYP1A4 and 1A5, using a yeast-based vector system. Recombinant CYP1A4 and 1A5 proteins from common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) were expressed in yeast cells, and showed typical reduced CO-difference spectra with a peak at 446 nm. Kinetic analysis of O-dealkylase of methoxy-, ethoxy-, pentoxy- and benzyloxyresorufin catalyzed by the CYP1A enzymes revealed that Vmax value for ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was much higher than that for the other three O-dealkylase activities for both isozymes. Interestingly, remarkable substrate specificity of the CYP1As was observed for O-dealkylation of benzyloxyresorufin and methoxyresorufin; CYP1A4 was highly specific for catalyzing benzyloxyresorufin-O-debenzylase activity, whereas CYP1A5 was more efficient in catalyzing methoxyresorufin-O-demethylase activity. The present study also measured CYP1A-dependent EROD activity in the presence of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) to evaluate the ability of this dioxin-like congener to inhibit the EROD activity. One hundred nanomolar TCDF noncompetitively inhibited CYP1A5-dependent EROD activity, although no inhibitory effect was detected for CYP1A4-dependent EROD activity. These results indicate that the avian CYP1A paralogs have different affinities for substrate and inhibitor, thus suggesting their distinct physiological and toxicological roles.

  16. 26 CFR 1.148-1A - Definitions and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions and elections. 1.148-1A Section 1.148-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX....148-1A Definitions and elections. (a) . For guidance see § 1.148-1. (b) Certain...

  17. 30. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FLOOR 3A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FLOOR 3A ("A" FACE) INTERIOR BETWEEN GRIDS 17-A1 AND 18-A1, SHOWING REAR OF RADAR EMITTER ELECTRONIC INTERFACE TERMINAL NO. 3147-20, "RECEIVER TRANSMITTER RADAR" MODULE. VIEW IS ALSO SHOWING BUILDING FIRE STOP MATERIAL AT BOTTOM OF FLOOR. NOTE: WALL SLOPES BOTTOM TO TOP INWARD; STRUCTURAL ELEMENT IN FOREGROUND. VIEW ALSO SHOWS PIPING GRID OF CHILLED WATER LINES FOR ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS COOLING. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  18. Characterization of mussel H2A.Z.2: a new H2A.Z variant preferentially expressed in germinal tissues from Mytilus.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Casas, Ciro; González-Romero, Rodrigo; Vizoso-Vazquez, Ángel; Cheema, Manjinder S; Cerdán, M Esperanza; Méndez, Josefina; Ausió, Juan; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2016-10-01

    Histones are the fundamental constituents of the eukaryotic chromatin, facilitating the physical organization of DNA in chromosomes and participating in the regulation of its metabolism. The H2A family displays the largest number of variants among core histones, including the renowned H2A.X, macroH2A, H2A.B (Bbd), and H2A.Z. This latter variant is especially interesting because of its regulatory role and its differentiation into 2 functionally divergent variants (H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2), further specializing the structure and function of vertebrate chromatin. In the present work we describe, for the first time, the presence of a second H2A.Z variant (H2A.Z.2) in the genome of a non-vertebrate animal, the mussel Mytilus. The molecular and evolutionary characterization of mussel H2A.Z.1 and H2A.Z.2 histones is consistent with their functional specialization, supported on sequence divergence at promoter and coding regions as well as on varying gene expression patterns. More precisely, the expression of H2A.Z.2 transcripts in gonadal tissue and its potential upregulation in response to genotoxic stress might be mirroring the specialization of this variant in DNA repair. Overall, the findings presented in this work complement recent reports describing the widespread presence of other histone variants across eukaryotes, supporting an ancestral origin and conserved role for histone variants in chromatin.

  19. Role of Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger (PLZF) in Cell Proliferation and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21WAF/CDKN1A) Gene Repression*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Il; Kim, Min-Young; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Koh, Dong-In; Yun, Chae-Ok; Li, Yan; Lee, Choong-Eun; Oh, Jiyoung; Kim, Kunhong; Hur, Man-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) is a transcription repressor that was initially isolated as a fusion protein with retinoic acid receptor α. PLZF is aberrantly overexpressed in various human solid tumors, such as clear cell renal carcinoma, glioblastoma, and seminoma. PLZF causes cellular transformation of NIH3T3 cells and increases cell proliferation in several cell types. PLZF also increases tumor growth in the mouse xenograft tumor model. PLZF may stimulate cell proliferation by controlling expression of the genes of the p53 pathway (ARF, TP53, and CDKN1A). We found that PLZF can directly repress transcription of CDKN1A encoding p21, a negative regulator of cell cycle progression. PLZF binds to the proximal Sp1-binding GC-box 5/6 and the distal p53-responsive elements of the CDKN1A promoter to repress transcription. Interestingly, PLZF interacts with Sp1 or p53 and competes with Sp1 or p53. PLZF interacts with corepressors, such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylates Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 histones at the CDKN1A promoter, which indicated the involvement of the corepressor·HDACs complex in transcription repression by PLZF. Also, PLZF represses transcription of TP53 and also decreases p53 protein stability by ubiquitination. PLZF may act as a potential proto-oncoprotein in various cell types. PMID:24821727

  20. Recent upgrades and enhancements of the FEM3A model

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.T.

    1994-12-01

    In 1984, the US Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center began to fund Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to further develop FEM3, a fully three-dimensional heavy-gas dispersion model, as a research tool for studying the atmospheric transport and diffusion of certain chemical systems. As a result, a significantly improved version of the model, called FEM3A, was delivered to ERDEC in 1988. During the past few years, two more major improvements have been developed and tested. They are: improved mass conservation for treating dispersion scenarios with large density variations, and the addition of an advanced turbulence submodel based on the k-{var_epsilon} transport equations. These enhancements have resulted in substantial improvements in the dispersion simulations of heavy-gases and can greatly extend the range of applicability of the model, including the ability to treat problems with large density variations and dispersion scenarios of much greater complexities. Documented in this report are the new features and some of the improvements obtained with the new model.

  1. 75 FR 28471 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-1A11 (CL-600), CL-600-2A12 (CL-601), and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... installed, any pressure, including residual pressure, in the No. 3 hydraulic system can result in an... installed, any pressure, including residual pressure, in the No. 3 hydraulic system can result in an... NLG safety pin is installed, any pressure, including residual pressure, in the No. 3 hydraulic...

  2. 75 FR 37994 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-1A11 (CL-600), CL-600-2A12 (CL-601), CL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ..., resulting in loss of the associated hydraulic system and high-energy impact damage to adjacent systems and..., resulting in impact damage causing loss of both hydraulic systems No. 2 and No. 3, with consequent loss of... on CL-600-2B19 (CRJ) aircraft, resulting in loss of the associated hydraulic system and...

  3. 75 FR 8559 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-1A11 (CL-600), CL-600-2A12 (CL-601), and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... the No. 3 hydraulic system can result in an uncommanded NLG retraction. The proposed AD would require... safety pin is installed, any pressure, including residual pressure, in the No. 3 hydraulic system can... NLG safety pin is installed, any pressure, including residual pressure, in the No. 3 hydraulic...

  4. 75 FR 6862 - Airworthiness Directives; Bombardier, Inc. Model CL-600-1A11 (CL-600), CL-600-2A12 (CL-601), CL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-12

    ..., resulting in loss of the associated hydraulic system and high-energy impact damage to adjacent systems and..., resulting in impact damage causing loss of both hydraulic systems No. 2 and No. 3, with consequent loss of... loss of the associated hydraulic system and high-energy impact damage to adjacent systems and...

  5. Mixing, Combustion, and Other Interface Dominated Flows; Paragraphs 3.2.1 A, B, C and 3.2.2 A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-09

    position, policy or decision, unless so designated by other documentation . 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research...surface geometry, turbulence, turbulent combustion REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S...honour Professor E.F. Toro. 04-JUL-11, . : , R. Kaufman, T. Kaman, Y. Yu, J. Glimm. wstar Documentation , Proceeding Book of International Conference to

  6. SIRT1-FOXO3a regulate cocaine actions in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Deveroux; Shao, Ningyi; Heller, Elizabeth; Feng, Jian; Neve, Rachael; Kim, Hee-Dae; Call, Tanessa; Magazu, Samantha; Shen, Li; Nestler, Eric J

    2015-02-18

    Previous studies have shown that chronic cocaine administration induces SIRT1, a Class III histone deacetylase, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a key brain reward region, and that such induction influences the gene regulation and place conditioning effects of cocaine. To determine the mechanisms by which SIRT1 mediates cocaine-induced plasticity in NAc, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq), 1 d after 7 daily cocaine (20 mg/kg) or saline injections, to map SIRT1 binding genome-wide in mouse NAc. Our unbiased results revealed two modes of SIRT1 action. First, despite its induction in NAc, chronic cocaine causes depletion of SIRT1 from most affected gene promoters in concert with enrichment of H4K16ac (itself a deacetylation target of SIRT1), which is associated with increased expression of these genes. Second, we deduced the forkhead transcription factor (FOXO) family to be a downstream mechanism through which SIRT1 regulates cocaine action. We proceeded to demonstrate that SIRT1 induction causes the deacetylation and activation of FOXO3a in NAc, which leads to the induction of several known FOXO3a gene targets in other systems. Finally, we directly establish a role for FOXO3a in promoting cocaine-elicited behavioral responses by use of viral-mediated gene transfer: we show that overexpressing FOXO3a in NAc enhances cocaine place conditioning. The discovery of these two actions of SIRT1 in NAc in the context of behavioral adaptations to cocaine represents an important step forward in advancing our understanding of the molecular adaptations underlying cocaine action.

  7. Lower Aptian Sequence at Madoz (SE Spain) in Relation to Cretaceous Anoxic Event-1a (OAE- 1a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona-Narvaez, T.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Lamolda, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The Aptian stage at Madoz in the Sierra de Aralar, NE Spain, shows contrasting lithological succession of intercalated clastic-rich intervals and rudist-rich limestone beds varying between Medium Olive Gray (5Y 5/1) and Olive Gray (5Y 4/1). They are subdivided into different sub-units (Duvernois et al., 1972; Cherchi & Schroeder, 1998) with unit 1, as well as subunits 2a and 2b of "Madoz Limestone" are placed within the Lower Aptian Palorbitolina lenticularis Zone. Their stratigraphic level corresponds at least to the Deshayesites deshayesi ammonite zone, based on the presence of the nominate taxon in clastic Unit 1. Sub-unit 2b includes a distinct 180-cm thick black (Medium to Dark Gray, -N4 to N3) shale layer toward the close of the upper Lower Aptian. Detailed microfacies analysis was carried out on the Lower Aptian interval in order to characterize the different lithofacies and their possible relationship to Cretaceous OAE-1a. Subunit 2a is 20m thick and its microfacies consists of sparse and packed biomicrites, moderate to poorly sorted fine calcirudites and calcarenites composed of 40 - 50% remains of corals, predominantly non-rudist bivalves, echinoids, bryozoans, benthic foraminifera and calcareous algae indicative of well oxygenated conditions. Matrix and bioclasts are highly affected by neomorphism and growing of micritic envelopes is frequent. Superjacent subunit 2b is also 20m thick, but is lithologically very variable and consists of interbeds of indurated biomicrite with 30 - 50 % fossil fragments dominated by orbitolinids, and echinoids, non-rudist bivalves, benthic foraminifers, and algae as secondary components. These beds also contain 15 - 25 % mostly silt-size quartz grains, and clays. Other indurated biomicrite beds within subunit 2b contain 1 - 20 % fragments of non-rudist bivalves, echinoids, other benthic foraminifers, and algae, but orbitolinids are scarce. Terrigenous components make up 10 - 25 % of the matrix. Subunit 2b also includes soft

  8. Mapping of the gene for the Mel{sub 1a}-melatonin receptor to human chromosome 4 (MTNR1A) and mouse chromosome 8 (Mtnr1a)

    SciTech Connect

    Slaugenhaupt, S.A. |; Liebert, C.B.; Altherr, M.R.

    1995-05-20

    The pineal hormone melatonin elicits potent circadian and reproductive effects in mammals. The authors report the chromosomal location of the gene for the Mel{sub 1a}-melatonin receptor that likely mediates these circadian and reproductive actions. PCR analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids showed that the receptor gene (MTNR1A) maps to human chromosome 4q35.1. An interspecific backcross analysis revealed that the mouse gene (Mtnr1a) maps to the proximal portion of chromosome 8. These loci may be involved in genetically based circadian and neuroendocrine disorders. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Subunit regulation of the neuronal alpha 1A Ca2+ channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    De Waard, M; Campbell, K P

    1995-01-01

    1. Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are multi-protein complexes composed of at least three subunits: alpha 1, alpha 2 delta and beta. Ba2+ currents were recorded in Xenopus oocytes expressing the neuronal alpha 1A Ca2+ channel, using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Various subunit combinations were studied: alpha 1A, alpha 1A alpha 2 delta b, alpha 1A beta or alpha 1A alpha 2 delta b beta. 2. The alpha 1A subunit alone directs the expression of functional Ca2+ channels. It carries all the properties of the channel: gating, permeability, voltage dependence of activation and inactivation, and pharmacology. The alpha 1A channel is activated by low voltages when physiological concentrations of the permeant cation are used. Both ancillary subunits alpha 2 delta and beta induced considerable changes in the biophysical properties of the alpha 1A current. The subunit specificity of the changes in current properties was analysed for all four beta gene products by coexpressing beta 1b, beta 2a, beta 3 and beta 4. 3. All beta subunits induce a stimulation in the current amplitude, a change in inactivation kinetics, and two hyperpolarizing shifts--one in the voltage dependence of activation and a second in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation. The most significant difference in regulation among beta subunits is the induction of variable rate constants of current inactivation. Rates of inactivation were induced in the following order (fastest to slowest): beta 3 > beta 1b = beta 4 > beta 2a. 4. The alpha 2 delta b subunit does not modify the properties of alpha 1A Ca2+ channels in the absence of beta subunits. However, this subunit increases the beta-induced stimulation in current amplitude and also regulates the beta-induced change in inactivation kinetics. 5. Of all the subunit combinations tested, Ca2+ channels that included a beta subunit were the most prone to decrease in activity. It is concluded that beta subunits are the primary target for the

  10. Strong synergistic induction of CYP1A1 expression by andrographolide plus typical CYP1A inducers in mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan Sirisangtrakul, Wanna; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Kawasaki, Yuki; Nemoto, Nobuo

    2007-10-15

    The effects of andrographolide, the major diterpenoid constituent of Andrographis paniculata, on the expression of cytochrome P450 superfamily 1 members, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, as well as on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes were investigated in comparison with the effects of typical CYP1A inducers, including benz[a]anthracene, {beta}-naphthoflavone, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Andrographolide significantly induced the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs in a concentration-dependent manner, as did the typical CYP1A inducers, but did not induce that of CYP1B1 or AhR. Interestingly, andrographolide plus the typical CYP1A inducers synergistically induced CYP1A1 expression, and the synergism was blocked by an AhR antagonist, resveratrol. The CYP1A1 enzyme activity showed a similar pattern of induction. This is the first report that shows that andrographolide has a potency to induce CYP1A1 enzyme and indicates that andrographolide could be a very useful compound for investigating the regulatory mechanism of the CYP1A1 induction pathway. In addition, our findings suggest preparing advice for rational administration of A. paniculata, according to its ability to induce CYP1A1 expression.

  11. Multiple sclerosis lymphocytes upregulate A2A adenosine receptors that are antiinflammatory when stimulated.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Corciulo, Carmen; Targa, Martina; Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Casetta, Ilaria; Gentile, Mauro; Granieri, Enrico; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2013-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disease characterized by multifocal areas of demyelination. Experimental evidence indicates that A2A adenosine receptors (ARs) play a pivotal role in the inhibition of inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of A2A ARs in the inhibition of key pro-inflammatory mediators for the pathogenesis of MS. In lymphocytes from MS patients, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 ARs were analyzed by using RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and binding assays. Moreover the effect of A2A AR stimulation on proinflammatory cytokine release such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-17, and on lymphocyte proliferation was evaluated. The capability of an A2A AR agonist on the modulation of very late antigen (VLA)-4 expression and NF-κB was also explored. A2A AR upregulation was observed in lymphocytes from MS patients in comparison with healthy subjects. The stimulation of these receptors mediated a significant inhibition of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-17, and cell proliferation as well as VLA-4 expression and NF-κB activation. This new evidence highlights that A2A AR agonists could represent a novel therapeutic tool for MS treatment as suggested by the antiinflammatory role of A2A ARs in lymphocytes from MS patients.

  12. Cannabinoid 2 receptor- and beta Arrestin 2-dependent upregulation of serotonin 2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Franklin, J M; Vasiljevik, T; Prisinzano, T E; Carrasco, G A

    2013-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that cannabinoid receptor agonists may regulate serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor neurotransmission in the brain, although no molecular mechanism has been identified. Here, we present experimental evidence that sustained treatment with a non-selective cannabinoid agonist (CP55,940) or selective CB2 receptor agonists (JWH133 or GP1a) upregulate 5-HT(2A) receptors in a neuronal cell line. Furthermore, this cannabinoid receptor agonist-induced upregulation of 5-HT(2A) receptors was prevented in cells stably transfected with either CB2 or β-Arrestin 2 shRNA lentiviral particles. Additionally, inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis also prevented the cannabinoid receptor-induced upregulation of 5-HT(2A) receptors. Our results indicate that cannabinoid agonists might upregulate 5-HT(2A) receptors by a mechanism that requires CB2 receptors and β-Arrestin 2 in cells that express both CB2 and 5-HT(2A) receptors. 5-HT(2A) receptors have been associated with several physiological functions and neuropsychiatric disorders such as stress response, anxiety and depression, and schizophrenia. Therefore, these results might provide a molecular mechanism by which activation of cannabinoid receptors might be relevant to some cognitive and mood disorders in humans.

  13. Dynamic Expression of Serotonin Receptor 5-HT3A in Developing Sensory Innervation of the Lower Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, K. Elaine; Southard-Smith, E. Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Sensory afferent signaling is required for normal function of the lower urinary tract (LUT). Despite the wide prevalence of bladder dysfunction and pelvic pain syndromes, few effective treatment options are available. Serotonin receptor 5-HT3A is a known mediator of visceral afferent signaling and has been implicated in bladder function. However, basic expression patterns for this gene and others among developing bladder sensory afferents that could be used to inform regenerative efforts aimed at treating deficiencies in pelvic innervation are lacking. To gain greater insight into the molecular characteristics of bladder sensory innervation, we conducted a thorough characterization of Htr3a expression in developing and adult bladder-projecting lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Using a transgenic Htr3a-EGFP reporter mouse line, we identified 5-HT3A expression at 10 days post coitus (dpc) in neural crest derivatives and in 12 dpc lumbosacral DRG. Using immunohistochemical co-localization we observed Htr3a-EGFP expression in developing lumbosacral DRG that partially coincides with neuropeptides CGRP and Substance P and capsaicin receptor TRPV1. A majority of Htr3a-EGFP+ DRG neurons also express a marker of myelinated Aδ neurons, NF200. There was no co-localization of 5-HT3A with the TRPV4 receptor. We employed retrograde tracing in adult Htr3a-EGFP mice to quantify the contribution of 5-HT3A+ DRG neurons to bladder afferent innervation. We found that 5-HT3A is expressed in a substantial proportion of retrograde traced DRG neurons in both rostral (L1, L2) and caudal (L6, S1) axial levels that supply bladder innervation. Most bladder-projecting Htr3a-EGFP+ neurons that co-express CGRP, Substance P, or TRPV1 are found in L1, L2 DRG, whereas Htr3a-EGFP+, NF200+ bladder-projecting neurons are from the L6, S1 axial levels. Our findings contribute much needed information regarding the development of LUT innervation and highlight the 5-HT3A serotonin receptor as

  14. Adenovirus E1A protein activates transcription of the E1A gene subsequent to transcription complex formation.

    PubMed Central

    Schaack, J; Logan, J; Vakalopoulou, E; Shenk, T

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of transcriptional activation of the adenovirus E1A and E3 genes by E1A protein during infection was examined by using transcription-competition assays. Infection of HeLa cells with one virus led to inhibition of mRNA accumulation from a superinfecting virus. Synthesis of the E1A 289R protein by the first virus to infect reduced inhibition of transcription of the superinfecting virus, indicating that the E1A 289R protein was limiting for E1A-activated transcription. Infection with an E1A- virus, followed 6 h later by superinfection with a wild-type virus, led to preferential transcriptional activation of the E1A gene of the first virus, suggesting that a host transcription component(s) stably associated with the E1A promoter in the absence of E1A protein and that this complex was the substrate for transcriptional activation by E1A protein. The limiting host transcription component(s) bound to the E1A promoter to form a complex with a half-life greater than 24 h in the absence of E1A 289R protein, as demonstrated in a challenge assay with a large excess of superinfecting virus. In the presence of the E1A 289R protein, the E1A gene of the superinfecting virus was gradually activated with a reduction in E1A mRNA accumulation from the first virus. The kinetics of the activation suggest that this was due to an indirect effect rather than to destabilization of stable transcription complexes by the 289R protein. Images PMID:1825853

  15. Analysis of the CMT1A-REP repeat: mapping crossover breakpoints in CMT1A and HNPP.

    PubMed

    Kiyosawa, H; Lensch, M W; Chance, P F

    1995-12-01

    The CMT1A-REP repeat sequence flanks a 1.5 megabase pair (Mb) segment of chromosome 17p11.2-12 which is duplicated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1A (CMT1A) and deleted in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). The CMT1A-REP repeat is proposed to mediate misalignment and unequal crossover resulting in reciprocal chromosomal rearrangements in CMT1A and HNPP. We have constructed a physical map of the proximal and distal CMT1A-REP repeats. Cloned fragments from CMT1A-REP repeat regions are used to determine the size of the repeats and assess regions of homology. The crossover breakpoints were mapped in series of 30 unrelated CMT1A patients and 22 unrelated HNPP patients. The CMT1A-REP repeat spans approximately 27 kilobase pairs and appears to be continuous. Locations of restriction enzyme sites are highly conserved for the proximal and distal CMT1A-REP repeats. All crossovers mapped within the CMT1A-REP repeat sequence and heterogeneity for breakpoint location demonstrated. Seventy-seven percent (40 to 52) of CMT1A and HNPP chromosomes contained breakpoints which mapped within a 7.9 kb interval, suggesting the presence of a possible 'hotspot'for recombination in CMT1A-REP. DNA sequence analysis for 4 kb of the interval containing the majority of crossovers revealed over 98% sequence identity between proximal and distal CMT1A-REP repeat sequences. Probes useful for molecular-based diagnosis of CMT1A and HNPP are described.

  16. Oncoprotein CIP2A is stabilized via interaction with tumor suppressor PP2A/B56.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiao; Okkeri, Juha; Pavic, Karolina; Wang, Zhizhi; Kauko, Otto; Halonen, Tuuli; Sarek, Grzegorz; Ojala, Päivi M; Rao, Zihe; Xu, Wenqing; Westermarck, Jukka

    2017-03-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a critical human tumor suppressor. Cancerous inhibitor of PP2A (CIP2A) supports the activity of several critical cancer drivers (Akt, MYC, E2F1) and promotes malignancy in most cancer types via PP2A inhibition. However, the 3D structure of CIP2A has not been solved, and it remains enigmatic how it interacts with PP2A. Here, we show by yeast two-hybrid assays, and subsequent validation experiments, that CIP2A forms homodimers. The homodimerization of CIP2A is confirmed by solving the crystal structure of an N-terminal CIP2A fragment (amino acids 1-560) at 3.0 Å resolution, and by subsequent structure-based mutational analyses of the dimerization interface. We further describe that the CIP2A dimer interacts with the PP2A subunits B56α and B56γ. CIP2A binds to the B56 proteins via a conserved N-terminal region, and dimerization promotes B56 binding. Intriguingly, inhibition of either CIP2A dimerization or B56α/γ expression destabilizes CIP2A, indicating opportunities for controlled degradation. These results provide the first structure-function analysis of the interaction of CIP2A with PP2A/B56 and have direct implications for its targeting in cancer therapy.

  17. Experiment 2059: Second Packer Stimulation of EE-3A

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Donald W.

    1985-05-09

    By late Thursday, 5-9-85, EE-3A should be at a depth of about 12,200 feet. We plan to stop drilling at this point and pressurize the bottom 600 to 700 feet of the open hole using a Lynes packer. The Lynes packer would be set somewhere in the interval of very competent, slow-drilling, and only slightly altered biotite granodiorite from 11,460 ft to 11,590 ft. This would place the packer below the two fractures (at 10,880 ft and 11,000 ft) stimulated during Expt. 2057, and also below the producing fracture at 11,440 ft as reported on 5-2-85.

  18. Reaction sintering of alumina{endash}aluminide alloys (3A)

    SciTech Connect

    Claussen, N.; Garcia, D.E.; Janssen, R.

    1996-11-01

    A novel pressureless reaction sintering process is presented for the fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{endash}aluminide alloys (3A). Compacts of intensively milled metal oxide{endash}aluminum mixtures are heat-treated in vacuum or inert atmosphere such that the exothermic reactions take place in a controlled manner essentially at temperatures below the melting point of Al. Dense, homogeneous microstructures were obtained with a variety of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-matrix systems with interpenetrating networks of aluminides of Ti, Fe, Nb, Mo, Zr, Ni, etc. By adding modifiers in the form of oxides or metals, volume and phase composition as well as properties can be tailored in a wide range. {copyright} {ital 1996 Materials Research Society.}

  19. Sentinel-3A: first commissioning results of its optical payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieke, J.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Berruti, B.

    2016-10-01

    The Sentinel-3A satellite, the first of a series of four satellites from the European Commission's Copernicus Programme, was launched on the 16th of February 2016. Sentinel-3 is a multi-instrument mission to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature, ocean colour and land colour to support ocean forecasting systems, as well as environmental and climate monitoring. The presentation will focus on Sentinel-3 optical instruments, namely the Ocean Land Colour Imager (OLCI) and the Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR). The results of the five-month commissioning phase (concluded in July 2016) are presented. The Level-1 product quality is presented as well as preliminary verification and validation results of the Level-2 ocean products.

  20. Interplanetary medium data book: Supplement 3A, 1977-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couzens, David A.; King, Joseph H.

    1986-01-01

    Supplement 3 of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book contains a detailed discussion of a data set compilation of hourly averaged interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters. The discussion addresses data sources, systematic and random differences, time shifting of ISEE 3 data, and plasma normalizations. Supplement 3 also contains solar rotation plots of field and plasma parameters. Supplement 3A contains computer-generated listings of selected parameters from the composite data set. These parameters are bulk speed (km/sec), density (per cu cm), temperature (in units of 1000 K) and the IMF parameters: average magnitude, latitude and longitude angles of the vector made up of the average GSE components, GSM Cartesian components, and the vector standard deviation. The units of field magnitude, components, and standard deviation are gammas, while the units of field direction angles and degrees.

  1. ARID1A gene knockdown promotes neuroblastoma migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Xu, Z; Zhao, Z; An, Q; Wang, L; Yu, Y; Piao, D

    2017-03-03

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood which often acquires drug resistance and becomes aggressive phenotypes. The high-risk patients suffer from high mortality due to the limitation of the treatment strategies. ARID1A (AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A), a subunit of SWI/SNF complexes, is considered as a tumor suppressor in many cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ARID1A on migration and invasion in neuroblastoma cells. The shRNA targeting ARID1A was designed and delivered into SK-N-SH cells to knock down ARID1A expression. Knockdown of ARID1A by shRNA significantly increased the viability and invasion ability, and caused G1 arrest inhibition and DNA synthesis increase in SK-N-SH cells. Moreover, Knockdown of ARID1A increased the activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in SK-N-SH cells. Furthermore, ARID1A knockdown caused diminished expression of E-cadherin, enhanced expression of N-cadherin and β-catenin nuclear translocation in SK-N-SH cells. These results suggest that loss of ARID1A may associate with the promotion of invasion and metastasis of neuroblastoma. Our findings indicate ARID1A is a tumor suppressor in neuroblastoma.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 3A Rendezvous Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Connor, C.; Moy, E.; Smith, D.; Myslinski, M.; Markley, L.; Vernacchio, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) hardware complement includes six gas bearing, pulse rebalanced rate integrating gyros, any three of which are sufficient to conduct the science mission. After the loss of three gyros between April 1997 and April 1999 due to a known corrosion mechanism, NASA decided to split the third HST servicing mission into SM3A, accelerated to October 1999, and SM3B, scheduled for November 2001. SM3A was developed as a quick turnaround 'Launch on Need' mission to replace all six gyros. Loss of a fourth gyro in November 1999 caused HST to enter Zero Gyro Sunpoint (ZGSP) safemode, which uses sun sensors and magnetometers for attitude determination and momentum bias to maintain attitude stability during orbit night. Several instances of large attitude excursions during orbit night were observed, but ZGSP performance was adequate to provide power-positive sun pointing and to support low gain antenna communications. Body rates in ZGSP were estimated to exceed the nominal 0.1 deg/sec rendezvous limit, so rendezvous operations were restructured to utilize coarse, limited life, Retrieval Mode Gyros (RMGs) under Hardware Sunpoint (HWSP) safemode. Contingency procedures were developed to conduct the rendezvous in ZGSP in the event of RMGA or HWSP computer failure. Space Shuttle Mission STS-103 launched on December 19, 1999 after a series of weather and Shuttle-related delays. After successful rendezvous and grapple under HWSP/RMGA, the crew changed out all six gyros. Following deploy and systems checkout, HST returned to full science operations.

  3. Calpain 3: a key regulator of the sarcomere?

    PubMed

    Duguez, Stéphanie; Bartoli, Marc; Richard, Isabelle

    2006-08-01

    Calpain 3 is a 94-kDa calcium-dependent cysteine protease mainly expressed in skeletal muscle. In this tissue, it localizes at several regions of the sarcomere through binding to the giant protein, titin. Loss-of-function mutations in the calpain 3 gene have been associated with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), a common form of muscular dystrophy found world wide. Recently, significant progress has been made in understanding the mode of regulation and the possible function of calpain 3 in muscle. It is now well accepted that it has an unusual zymogenic activation and that cytoskeletal proteins are one class of its substrates. Through the absence of cleavage of these substrates, calpain 3 deficiency leads to abnormal sarcomeres, impairment of muscle contractile capacity, and death of the muscle fibers. These data indicate a role for calpain 3 as a chef d'orchestre in sarcomere remodeling and suggest a new category of LGMD2 pathological mechanisms.

  4. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is associated with a novel G984R COL3A1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yao; Wei, Shijie; Hu, Shijun; Chen, Jinlan; Tan, Zhiping; Yang, Yifeng

    2015-07-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disease. Mutations in COL3A1 have been identified to underlie this disease; however, to the best of our knowledge, no COL3A1 mutations have been reported in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV patients with an ascending aortic aneurysm. In order to develop further understanding of COL3A1 mutations, an Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV patient diagnosed with an ascending aortic aneurysm and a familial history of sudden mortality was analyzed. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood of the patient and his family members. All coding exons of eight aneurysm-related genes (FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR 2, MYH11, ACTA2, SLC2A10, NOTCH1 and COL3A1) were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were sequenced with the ABI 3100 Genetic Analyzer, and a mutation was predicted and identified using Polyphen-2, SIFT and Mutation Taster. The novel mutation was identified as c.2950G>A in COL3A1, which results in p.G984R. All three programs predicted this mutation to be deleterous to the protein function. The novel mutation identified in this study is potentially responsible for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV in this patient, and expands the spectrum of COL3A1 mutations.

  5. Analysis of the 5-HT1A receptor involvement in passive avoidance in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Misane, Ilga; Johansson, Christina; Ove Ögren, Sven

    1998-01-01

    The effects of the 5-HT2A/2C agonist DOB, the selective 5-HT1A agonist NDO 008 (3-dipropylamino-5-hydroxychroman), and the two enantiomers of the selective 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT (R(+)-8-OH-DPAT and S(−)-8-OH-DPAT) were studied in a step-through passive avoidance (PA) test in the male rat.The 5-HT1A agonists injected prior to training (conditioning) produced a dose-dependent impairment of PA retention when examined 24 h later. R(+)-8-OH-DPAT was four times more effective than S(−)-8-OH-DPAT to cause an impairment of PA retention. Both NDO 008 and the two enantiomers of 8-OH-DPAT induced the serotonin syndrome at the dose range that produced inhibition of the PA response, thus, indicating activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors.Neither NDO 008 nor R(+)-8-OH-DPAT induced head-twitches, a behavioural response attributed to stimulation of postsynaptic 5-HT2A receptors. In contrast, DOB induced head-twitches at the 0.01 mg kg−1 dose while a 200 times higher dose was required to produce a significant impairment of PA retention.The impairment of PA retention induced by both NDO 008 and R(+)-8-OH-DPAT was fully blocked by the active S(+)- enantiomer of the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY 100135 and the mixed 5-HT1A/β-adrenoceptor antagonist L(−)-alprenolol. In contrast, the mixed 5-HT2A/2C antagonists ketanserin and pirenperone were found to be ineffective. Moreover, the β2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118551, the β1-antagonist metoprolol as well as the mixed β-adrenoceptor blocker D(+)-alprenolol all failed to modify the deficit of PA retention by NDO 008 and R(+)-8-OH-DPAT. None of the 5-HT1A or 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonists tested or the β-blockers altered PA retention by themselves.A 3 day pretreatment procedure (200+100+100 mg kg−1) with the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) did not alter PA retention and did not prevent the inhibitory action of the 5-HT1A agonists, indicating that their effects on PA do not

  6. Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1A (KDM1A/LSD1): Product Recognition and Kinetic Analysis of Full-Length Histones.

    PubMed

    Burg, Jonathan M; Gonzalez, Julie J; Maksimchuk, Kenneth R; McCafferty, Dewey G

    2016-03-22

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1A (KDM1A/LSD1) is a FAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of histone H3K4me1/2 and H3K9me1/2 repressing and activating transcription, respectively. Although the active site is expanded compared to that of members of the greater amine oxidase superfamily, it is too sterically restricted to encompass the minimal 21-mer peptide substrate footprint. The remainder of the substrate/product is therefore expected to extend along the surface of KDM1A. We show that full-length histone H3, which lacks any posttranslational modifications, is a tight-binding, competitive inhibitor of KDM1A demethylation activity with a Ki of 18.9 ± 1.2 nM, a value that is approximately 100-fold higher than that of the 21-mer peptide product. The relative H3 affinity is independent of preincubation time, suggesting that H3 rapidly reaches equilibrium with KDM1A. Jump dilution experiments confirmed the increased binding affinity of full-length H3 was at least partially due to a slow off rate (koff) of 1.2 × 10(-3) s(-1), corresponding to a half-life (t1/2) of 9.63 min, and a residence time (τ) of 13.9 min. Independent affinity capture surface plasmon resonance experiments confirmed the tight-binding nature of the H3/KDM1A interaction, revealing a Kd of 9.02 ± 2.3 nM, a kon of (9.3 ± 1.5) × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1), and a koff of (8.4 ± 0.3) × 10(-4) s(-1). Additionally, no other core histones exhibited inhibition of KDM1A demethylation activity, which is consistent with H3 being the preferred histone substrate of KDM1A versus H2A, H2B, and H4. Together, these data suggest that KDM1A likely contains a histone H3 secondary specificity element on the enzyme surface that contributes significantly to its recognition of substrates and products.

  7. Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1A (KDM1A/LSD1): Product Recognition and Kinetic Analysis of Full-Length Histones

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Jonathan M.; Gonzalez, Julie J.; Maksimchuk, Kenneth R.; McCafferty, Dewey G.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1A (KDM1A/LSD1) is a FAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of histone H3K4me1/2 and H3K9me1/2 repressing and activating transcription, respectively. Although the active site is expanded compared to that of members of the greater amine oxidase superfamily, it is too sterically restricted to encompass the minimal 21-mer peptide substrate footprint. The remainder of the substrate/product is therefore expected to extend along the surface of KDM1A. We show that full-length histone H3, which lacks any posttranslational modifications, is a tight-binding, competitive inhibitor of KDM1A demethylation activity with a Ki of 18.9 ± 1.2 nM, a value that is approximately 100-fold higher than that of the 21-mer peptide product. The relative H3 affinity is independent of preincubation time, suggesting that H3 rapidly reaches equilibrium with KDM1A. Jump dilution experiments confirmed the increased binding affinity of full-length H3 was at least partially due to a slow off rate (koff) of 1.2 × 10−3 s−1, corresponding to a half-life (t1/2) of 9.63 min, and a residence time (τ) of 13.9 min. Independent affinity capture surface plasmon resonance experiments confirmed the tight-binding nature of the H3/KDM1A interaction, revealing a Kd of 9.02 ± 2.3 nM, a kon of (9.3 ± 1.5) × 104 M−1 s−1, and a koff of (8.4 ± 0.3) × 10−4 s−1. Additionally, no other core histones exhibited inhibition of KDM1A demethylation activity, which is consistent with H3 being the preferred histone substrate of KDM1A versus H2A, H2B, and H4. Together, these data suggest that KDM1A likely contains a histone H3 secondary specificity element on the enzyme surface that contributes significantly to its recognition of substrates and products. PMID:26673564

  8. 50 CFR 300.63 - Catch sharing plan and domestic management measures in Area 2A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...′ N. lat., 124°32.41′ W. long.; (123) 43°30.92′ N. lat., 124°34.43′ W. long.; (124) 43°20.83′ N. lat... measures. (3) A portion of the Area 2A Washington recreational TAC is allocated as incidental catch in the...) Modification of subarea quotas. (3) Notice procedures. (i) Actions taken under this section will be...

  9. Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) is important for secondary bile acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youcai; Csanaky, Iván L.; Selwyn, Felcy Pavithra; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2013-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (human: OATPs; rodent: Oatps) were thought to have important functions in bile acid (BA) transport. Oatp1a1, 1a4, and 1b2 are the three major Oatp1 family members in rodent liver. Our previous studies have characterized the BA homeostasis in Oatp1a1-null and Oatp1b2-null mice. The present study investigated the physiological role of Oatp1a4 in BA homeostasis by using Oatp1a4-null mice. Oatp1a4 expression is female-predominant in livers of mice, and thereby it was expected that female Oatp1a4-null mice will have more prominent changes than males. Interestingly, the present study demonstrated that female Oatp1a4-null mice had no significant alterations in BA concentrations in serum or liver, though they had increased mRNA of hepatic BA efflux transporters (Mrp4 and Ostα/β) and ileal BA transporters (Asbt and Ostα/β). In contrast, male Oatp1a4-null mice showed significantly altered BA homeostasis, including increased concentrations of deoxycholic acid (DCA) in serum, liver and intestinal contents. After feeding a DCA-supplemented diet, male but not female Oatp1a4-null mice had higher concentrations of DCA in serum and livers than their WT controls. This suggested that Oatp1a4 is important for intestinal absorption of secondary BAs in male mice. Furthermore, loss of Oatp1a4 function did not decrease BA accumulation in serum or livers of bile-ductligated mice, suggesting that Oatp1a4 is not likely a BA uptake transporter. In summary, the present study for the first time demonstrates that Oatp1a4 does not appear to mediate the hepatic uptake of BAs, but plays an important male-predominant role in secondary BA metabolism in mice. PMID:23747753

  10. Pyranoflavones: A Group of Small-molecule Probes for Exploring the Active Site Cavities of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiawang; Taylor, Shannon F.; Dupart, Patrick S.; Arnold, Corey L.; Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Jiang, Quan; Wang, Yuji; Skripnikova, Elena V.; Zhao, Ming; Foroozesh, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Selective inhibition of P450 enzymes is the key to block the conversion of environmental procarcinogens to their carcinogenic metabolites in both animals and humans. To discover highly potent and selective inhibitors of P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1, as well as to investigate active site cavities of these enzymes, 14 novel flavone derivatives were prepared as chemical probes. Fluorimetric enzyme inhibition assays were used to determine the inhibitory activities of these probes towards P450s 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, and 2B1. A highly selective P450 1B1 inhibitor, 5-hydroxy-4′-propargyloxyflavone (5H4′FPE) was discovered. Some tested compounds also showed selectivity between P450s 1A1 and 1A2. Alpha-naphthoflavone-like and 5-hydroxyflavone derivatives preferentially inhibited P450 1A2, while beta-naphthoflavone-like flavone derivatives showed selective inhibition of P450 1A1. On the basis of structural analysis, the active site cavity models of P450 enzymes 1A1 and 1A2 were generated, demonstrating a planar long strip cavity and a planar triangular cavity, respectively. PMID:23600958

  11. FOXO1A differentially regulates genes of decidualization.

    PubMed

    Buzzio, Oscar L; Lu, Zhenxiao; Miller, Curt D; Unterman, Terry G; Kim, J Julie

    2006-08-01

    The forkhead box O1A (FOXO1A) has been identified as one gene that is up-regulated early in the decidualization process. To further investigate the role of FOXO1A during this process, six genes, IGFBP1, PRL, TIMP3, LAMB1, CNR1, and DCN, shown to be up-regulated during decidualization, were chosen as potential targets of FOXO1A action. Treatment of human endometrial stromal cells with hormones (estradiol and medroxyprogesterone acetate) plus dibutyryl cAMP (H+dbcAMP) for 48 h increased expression of IGFBP1, PRL, TIMP3, CNR1, and DCN but not LAMB1, as measured by real-time PCR. Silencing of FOXO1A using small interfering RNA oligonucleotides decreased IGFBP1 and DCN levels and increased CNR1, TIMP3, and PRL levels. LAMB1 was not affected. When FOXO1A was overexpressed in human endometrial stromal cells, expression of IGFBP1, DCN, and PRL increased, whereas levels of TIMP3 and CNR1 decreased. Addition of H+dbcAMP caused an increased expression of IGFBP1, PRL, and DCN beyond that of FOXO1A alone. TIMP3 and CNR1 levels decreased even further in response to H+dbcAMP compared with FOXO1A alone. LAMB1, which was unresponsive to FOXO1A, decreased when H+dbcAMP was added. Overexpressing FOXO1A also caused a change in cell shape, in that the stromal fibroblasts acquired a rounded, epithelioid appearance. Finally, reporter studies showed that cotransfection of FOXO1A significantly increased PRL promoter activity but not TIMP3 promoter activity. Addition of H+dbcAMP resulted in a significant increase in PRL promoter activity and a significant decrease in TIMP3 promoter activity. In summary, this study demonstrates the versatile nature of FOXO1A in the regulation of a number of decidualization-specific genes.

  12. Physical and transcriptional map in the CMT 1A region

    SciTech Connect

    Chevillard, C.; Passage, E.; Cudrey, C.

    1994-09-01

    The Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) has been mapped to the proximal short arm of chromosome 17. CMT1A is the most frequent of the motor and sensory peripheral neuropathies and is associated with a duplication of a 1.5 Mb fragment in proximal 17p12. Several groups have proposed that the gene coding for peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP-22) as the candidate gene for CMT1A. We have recently published a {open_quote}MegaYAC{close_quote} contig of 6 Mb which covers the CMT1A critical region. In order to isolate new genes localized in this region, we used a {open_quote}physical trapping {close_quote} strategy derived from the direct cDNA selection technique developed by Parimoo et al. This approach has allowed us to construct cDNA {open_quotes}minilibraries{close_quotes} using YAC DNA from the CMT1A region. One of the clones in these minilibraries has been mapped back to the CMT1A duplication. Other potentially interesting clones are in the process of further characterization. Furthermore, we have mapped several Genethon microsatellites in the 6 Mb YAC contig and some are located in the CMT1A duplicated region. These highly polymorphic markers should prove useful for diagnostic testing in CMT1A.

  13. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 in stem cells and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kaori; Tanaka, Takuji; Hara, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The human genome contains 19 putatively functional aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes, which encode enzymes critical for detoxification of endogenous and exogenous aldehyde substrates through NAD(P)+-dependent oxidation. ALDH1 has three main isotypes, ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, and ALDH1A3, and is a marker of normal tissue stem cells (SC) and cancer stem cells (CSC), where it is involved in self-renewal, differentiation and self-protection. Experiments with murine and human cells indicate that ALDH1 activity, predominantly attributed to isotype ALDH1A1, is tissue- and cancer-specific. High ALDH1 activity and ALDH1A1 overexpression are associated with poor cancer prognosis, though high ALDH1 and ALDH1A1 levels do not always correlate with highly malignant phenotypes and poor clinical outcome. In cancer therapy, ALDH1A1 provides a useful therapeutic CSC target in tissue types that normally do not express high levels of ALDH1A1, including breast, lung, esophagus, colon and stomach. Here we review the functions and mechanisms of ALDH1A1, the key ALDH isozyme linked to SC populations and an important contributor to CSC function in cancers, and we outline its potential in future anticancer strategies. PMID:26783961

  14. The histone H2A deubiquitinase Usp16 regulates hematopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cell function

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yue; Jones, Amanda E.; Yang, Wei; Liu, Shanrun; Dai, Qian; Liu, Yudong; Swindle, C. Scott; Zhou, Dewang; Zhang, Zhuo; Ryan, Thomas M.; Townes, Tim M.; Klug, Christopher A.; Chen, Dongquan; Wang, Hengbin

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms play important regulatory roles in hematopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. Subunits of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), the major histone H2A ubiquitin ligase, are critical for both normal and pathological hematopoiesis; however, it is unclear which of the several counteracting H2A deubiquitinases functions along with PRC1 to control H2A ubiquitination (ubH2A) level and regulates hematopoiesis in vivo. Here we investigated the function of Usp16 in mouse hematopoiesis. Conditional deletion of Usp16 in bone marrow resulted in a significant increase of global ubH2A level and lethality. Usp16 deletion did not change HSC number but was associated with a dramatic reduction of mature and progenitor cell populations, revealing a role in governing HSC lineage commitment. ChIP- and RNA-sequencing studies in HSC and progenitor cells revealed that Usp16 bound to many important hematopoietic regulators and that Usp16 deletion altered the expression of genes in transcription/chromosome organization, immune response, hematopoietic/lymphoid organ development, and myeloid/leukocyte differentiation. The altered gene expression was partly rescued by knockdown of PRC1 subunits, suggesting that Usp16 and PRC1 counterbalance each other to regulate cellular ubH2A level and gene expression in the hematopoietic system. We further discovered that knocking down Cdkn1a (p21cip1), a Usp16 target and regulated gene, rescued the altered cell cycle profile and differentiation defect of Usp16-deleted HSCs. Collectively, these studies identified Usp16 as one of the histone H2A deubiquitinases, which coordinates with the H2A ubiquitin ligase PRC1 to regulate hematopoiesis, and revealed cell cycle regulation by Usp16 as key for HSC differentiation. PMID:26699484

  15. Regulation of PP2A by Sphingolipid Metabolism and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Oaks, Joshua; Ogretmen, Besim

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine phosphatase that is a primary regulator of cellular proliferation through targeting of proliferative kinases, cell cycle regulators, and apoptosis inhibitors. It is through the regulation of these regulatory elements that gives PP2A tumor suppressor functions. In addition to mutations on the regulatory subunits, the phosphatase/tumor suppressing activity of PP2A is also inhibited in several cancer types due to overexpression or modification of the endogenous PP2A inhibitors such as SET/I2PP2A. This review focuses on the current literature regarding the interactions between the lipid signaling molecules, selectively sphingolipids, and the PP2A inhibitor SET for the regulation of PP2A, and the therapeutic potential of sphingolipids as PP2A activators for tumor suppression via targeting SET oncoprotein. PMID:25642418

  16. Franck-Condon Simulations including Anharmonicity of the Ã(1)A''-X̃(1)A' Absorption and Single Vibronic Level Emission Spectra of HSiCl and DSiCl.

    PubMed

    Mok, Daniel W K; Lee, Edmond P F; Chau, Foo-Tim; Dyke, John M

    2009-03-10

    RCCSD(T) and/or CASSCF/MRCI calculations have been carried out on the X̃(1)A' and Ã(1)A'' states of HSiCl employing basis sets of up to the aug-cc-pV5Z quality. Contributions from core correlation and extrapolation to the complete basis set limit were included in determining the computed equilibrium geometrical parameters and relative electronic energy of these two states of HSiCl. Franck-Condon factors which include allowance for anharmonicity and Duschinsky rotation between these two states of HSiCl and DSiCl were calculated employing RCCSD(T) and CASSCF/MRCI potential energy functions, and were used to simulate the Ã(1)A'' ← X̃(1)A' absorption and Ã(1)A'' → X̃(1)A' single vibronic level (SVL) emission spectra of HSiCl and DSiCl. Simulated absorption and experimental LIF spectra, and simulated and observed Ã(1)A''(0,0,0) → X̃(1)A' SVL emission spectra, of HSiCl and DSiCl are in very good agreement. However, agreement between simulated and observed Ã(1)A''(0,1,0) → X̃(1)A' and Ã(1)A''(0,2,1) → X̃(1)A' SVL emission spectra of DSiCl is not as good. Preliminary calculations on low-lying excited states of HSiCl suggest that vibronic interaction between low-lying vibrational levels of the Ã(1)A'' state and highly excited vibrational levels of the ã(3)A'' is possible. Such vibronic interaction may change the character of the low-lying vibrational levels of the Ã(1)A'' state, which would lead to perturbation in the SVL emission spectra from these vibrational levels.

  17. Screening of CACNA1A and ATP1A2 genes in hemiplegic migraine: clinical, genetic, and functional studies

    PubMed Central

    Carreño, Oriel; Corominas, Roser; Serra, Selma Angèlica; Sintas, Cèlia; Fernández-Castillo, Noèlia; Vila-Pueyo, Marta; Toma, Claudio; Gené, Gemma G; Pons, Roser; Llaneza, Miguel; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Grinberg, Daniel; Valverde, Miguel Ángel; Fernández-Fernández, José Manuel; Macaya, Alfons; Cormand, Bru

    2013-01-01

    Hemiplegic migraine (HM) is a rare and severe subtype of autosomal dominant migraine, characterized by a complex aura including some degree of motor weakness. Mutations in four genes (CACNA1A, ATP1A2, SCN1A and PRRT2) have been detected in familial and in sporadic cases. This genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder is often accompanied by permanent ataxia, epileptic seizures, mental retardation, and chronic progressive cerebellar atrophy. Here we report a mutation screening in the CACNA1A and ATP1A2 genes in 18 patients with HM. Furthermore, intragenic copy number variant (CNV) analysis was performed in CACNA1A using quantitative approaches. We identified four previously described missense CACNA1A mutations (p.Ser218Leu, p.Thr501Met, p.Arg583Gln, and p.Thr666Met) and two missense changes in the ATP1A2 gene, the previously described p.Ala606Thr and the novel variant p.Glu825Lys. No structural variants were found. This genetic screening allowed the identification of more than 30% of the disease alleles, all present in a heterozygous state. Functional consequences of the CACNA1A-p.Thr501Met mutation, previously described only in association with episodic ataxia, and ATP1A2-p.Glu825Lys, were investigated by means of electrophysiological studies, cell viability assays or Western blot analysis. Our data suggest that both these variants are disease-causing. PMID:24498617

  18. Modulation of anxiety by cortical serotonin 1A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Piszczek, Lukasz; Piszczek, Agnieszka; Kuczmanska, Joanna; Audero, Enrica; Gross, Cornelius T.

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in the modulation of behavior across animal species. The serotonin 1A receptor (Htr1a) is an inhibitory G-protein coupled receptor that is expressed both on serotonin and non-serotonin neurons in mammals. Mice lacking Htr1a show increased anxiety behavior suggesting that its activation by serotonin has an anxiolytic effect. This outcome can be mediated by either Htr1a population present on serotonin (auto-receptor) or non-serotonin neurons (hetero-receptor), or both. In addition, both transgenic and pharmacological studies have shown that serotonin acts on Htr1a during development to modulate anxiety in adulthood, demonstrating a function for this receptor in the maturation of anxiety circuits in the brain. However, previous studies have been equivocal about which Htr1a population modulates anxiety behavior, with some studies showing a role of Htr1a hetero-receptor and others implicating the auto-receptor. In particular, cell-type specific rescue and suppression of Htr1a expression in either forebrain principal neurons or brainstem serotonin neurons reached opposite conclusions about the role of the two populations in the anxiety phenotype of the knockout. One interpretation of these apparently contradictory findings is that the modulating role of these two populations depends on each other. Here we use a novel Cre-dependent inducible allele of Htr1a in mice to show that expression of Htr1a in cortical principal neurons is sufficient to modulate anxiety. Together with previous findings, these results support a hetero/auto-receptor interaction model for Htr1a function in anxiety. PMID:25759645

  19. Schlafen-3: A novel regulator of intestinal differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Vaishali B.; Yu, Yingjie; Das, Jayanta K.; Patel, Bhaumik B.; Majumdar, Adhip P.N.

    2009-10-30

    Schlafen-3 (Slfn-3), a novel gene, has been shown to be a negative regulator of proliferation. The current investigation was undertaken to determine whether Slfn-3 might play a role in regulating cellular differentiation. Butyric acid, a short chain fatty acid, which induced differentiation of intestinal cells as evidenced by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the rat small intestinal IEC-6 cells, also produced a marked increase in Slfn-3 expression. Furthermore, overexpression of Slfn-3 caused stimulation of ALP activity in IEC-6 cells, which was exacerbated by butyrate. On the other hand, downregulation of Slfn-3 by slfn-3-si-RNA greatly attenuated the butyrate-mediated induction of differentiation of IEC-6 cells. Additionally, we observed that increased expression of Slfn-3 in colon cancer HCT-116 cells stimulated TGF-{beta} expression and modulated expression of its downstream effectors as evidenced by increased expression of p27kip1 and downregulation of CDK-2. In addition, Slfn-3 increases E-cadherin expression but downregulates {beta}-catenin. In conclusion, our data show that Slfn-3 plays a critical role in regulating intestinal mucosal differentiation. Furthermore our data also show that TGF-{beta} signaling pathway plays an important role in mediating slfn-3 induced differentiation.

  20. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2005-10-01

    Work has continued to address numerical problems experienced with simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 through 8 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report have been satisfied. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have all indications that the important problems related to stability of the simulations at regulatory conditions of low wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions have been resolved. This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from July 1, 2005 to September 31, 2005. GTI's activities during the report quarter were limited to administrative work. The work at the University of Arkansas continued in line with the initial scope of work and identified the questions regarding surface to cloud heat transfer as being largely responsible for the instability problems previously encountered. A brief summary of results is included in this section and the complete report from University of Arkansas is attached as Appendix A.

  1. Galectin-3: a novel substrate for c-Abl kinase

    PubMed Central

    Balan, Vitaly; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Jung, Young Suk; Wang, Yi; Raz, Avraham

    2010-01-01

    Galectin-3, a ß-galactoside-binding lectin, is found in cellular and extracellular location of the cell and has pleiotropic biological functions such as cell growth, cell adhesion and cell-cell interaction. It may exhibit anti or pro-apoptotic activity depending on its localization and post-translational modifications. Two important post-translational modifications of galectin-3 have been reported: its cleavage and phosphorylation. Cleavage of galectin-3 was reported to be involved with angiogenic potential and apoptotic resistance. Phosphorylation of galectin-3 regulates its sugar-binding ability. In this report we have identified novel tyrosine phosphorylation sites in galectin-3 as well as the kinase responsible for its phosphorylation. Our results demonstrate that tyrosines at position 79, 107 and 118 can be phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by c-Abl kinase. Tyrosine 107 is the main target of c-Abl. Expression of galectin-3 Y107F mutant in galectin-3 null SK-Br-3 cells leads to morphological changes and increased motility compared to wild type galectin-3. Further investigation is needed to better understand the functional significance of the novel tyrosine phosphorylated sites of galectin-3. PMID:20600357

  2. Exposing the Symbiosis of 3A 1954+319

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, D. M.; Hell, N.; Fuerst, F.; Miškoviča, I.; Müller, S.; Grinberg, V.; Corbet, R. H.; Wilms, J.

    2013-04-01

    Symbiotic X-ray Binaries (SyXB) are a rare class 8 known members) of Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXB), in which a compact object accretes material from an evolved M-type giant. The SyXB and accreting pulsar 3A 1954+319 is further exceptional since it has the longest pulse period known for an X-ray binary. It undergoes rapid changes, which we found span a range of 5.0-5.8 hours over the interval 2005-2012 monitored with Swift-BAT, probably an indication of the expected strong interaction with the dense M-giant wind. We present an analysis of a Chandra observation performed on 2010, December 26, and an RXTE observation performed on 2011, January 10-11, both spanning two pulse cycles. The Swift-BAT context shows that during both observations the source was in a state of comparatively stable and low hard X-ray flux (at about 15 mCrab, with a pulse period around 5.6 h and overall slowing down). We discuss the broad band ``baseline'' spectrum and compare it to the two earlier X-ray broad band studies described in the literature. Strong flaring activity on timescales of hundreds to thousands of seconds is observed and studied in the light of a possible accretion shock interpretation.

  3. Serotonin receptor 3A controls interneuron migration into the neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Sahana; Niquille, Mathieu; Hurni, Nicolas; Limoni, Greta; Frazer, Sarah; Chameau, Pascal; van Hooft, Johannes A.; Vitalis, Tania; Dayer, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal excitability has been shown to control the migration and cortical integration of reelin-expressing cortical interneurons (INs) arising from the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE), supporting the possibility that neurotransmitters could regulate this process. Here we show that the ionotropic serotonin receptor 3A (5-HT3AR) is specifically expressed in CGE-derived migrating interneurons and upregulated while they invade the developing cortex. Functional investigations using calcium imaging, electrophysiological recordings and migration assays indicate that CGE-derived INs increase their response to 5-HT3AR activation during the late phase of cortical plate invasion. Using genetic loss-of-function approaches and in vivo grafts, we further demonstrate that the 5-HT3AR is cell autonomously required for the migration and proper positioning of reelin-expressing CGE-derived INs in the neocortex. Our findings reveal a requirement for a serotonin receptor in controlling the migration and laminar positioning of a specific subtype of cortical IN. PMID:25409778

  4. Role of CYP1A1 haplotypes in modulating susceptibility to coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Sana Venkata Vijaya; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Saumya, Kankanala; Rao, Damera Seshagiri; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the role of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) haplotypes in modulating susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD), a case-control study was conducted by enrolling 352 CAD cases and 282 healthy controls. PCR-RFLP, multiplex PCR, competitive ELISA techniques were employed for the analysis of CYP1A1 [ml (T-->C), m2 (A-->G) and m4 (C-->A)] haplotypes, glutathione-S-transferase (GST)T1/GSTM1 null variants and plasma 8-oxo-2'deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) respectively. Two CYP1A1 haplotypes, i.e. CAC and TGC showed independent association with CAD risk, while all-wild CYP1A1 haplotype i.e. TAC showed reduced risk for CAD. All the three variants showed mild linkage disequilibrium (D': 0.05 to 0.17). GSTT1 null variant also exerted independent association with CAD risk (OR: 2.53, 95% CI 1.55-4.12). Among the conventional risk factors, smoking showed synergetic interaction with CAC haplotype of CYP1A1 and GSTT1 null genotype in inflating CAD risk. High risk alleles of this pathway showed dose-dependent association with percentage of stenosis and number of vessels affected. Elevated 8-oxodG levels were observed in subjects with CYP1A1 CAC haplotype and GSTT1 null variant. Multiple linear regression model of these xenobiotic variants explained 36% variability in 8-oxodG levels. This study demonstrated the association of CYP1A1 haplotypes and GSTT1 null variant with CAD risk and this association was attributed to increased oxidative DNA damage.

  5. Characterization of a Novel Mutation in SLC1A1 Associated with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Parisa; Myles-Worsley, Marina; Cohen, Ori S.; Tiobech, Josepha; Faraone, Stephen V.; Byerley, William; Middleton, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    We have recently described a hemi-deletion on chromosome 9p24.2 at the SLC1A1 gene locus and its co-segregation with schizophrenia in an extended Palauan pedigree. This finding represents a point of convergence for several pathophysiological models of schizophrenia. The present report sought to characterize the biological consequences of this hemi-deletion. Dual luciferase assays demonstrated that the partially deleted allele (lacking exon 1 and the native promoter) can drive expression of a 5′-truncated SLC1A1 using sequence upstream of exon 2 as a surrogate promoter. However, confocal microscopy and electrophysiological recordings demonstrate that the 5′-truncated SLC1A1 lacks normal membrane localization and glutamate transport ability. To identify downstream consequences of the hemi-deletion, we first used a themed qRT-PCR array to compare expression of 84 GABA and glutamate genes in RNA from peripheral blood leukocytes in deletion carriers (n = 11) versus noncarriers (n = 8) as well as deletion carriers with psychosis (n = 5) versus those without (n = 3). Then, targeted RNA-Seq (TREx) was used to quantify expression of 375 genes associated with neuropsychiatric disorders in HEK293 cells subjected to either knockdown of SLC1A1 or overexpression of full-length or 5′-truncated SLC1A1. Expression changes of several genes strongly implicated in schizophrenia pathophysiology were detected (e.g. SLC1A2, SLC1A3, SLC1A6, SLC7A11, GRIN2A, GRIA1 and DLX1). PMID:26380821

  6. Histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) Variants in Molluscs: Molecular Characterization and Potential Implications For Chromatin Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    González-Romero, Rodrigo; Rivera-Casas, Ciro; Frehlick, Lindsay J.; Méndez, Josefina; Ausió, Juan; Eirín-López, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Histone variants are used by the cell to build specialized nucleosomes, replacing canonical histones and generating functionally specialized chromatin domains. Among many other processes, the specialization imparted by histone H2A (H2A.X and H2A.Z) variants to the nucleosome core particle constitutes the earliest response to DNA damage in the cell. Consequently, chromatin-based genotoxicity tests have been developed in those cases where enough information pertaining chromatin structure and dynamics is available (i.e., human and mouse). However, detailed chromatin knowledge is almost absent in most organisms, specially protostome animals. Molluscs (which represent sentinel organisms for the study of pollution) are not an exception to this lack of knowledge. In the present work we first identified the existence of functionally differentiated histone H2A.X and H2A.Z variants in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (MgH2A.X and MgH2A.Z), a marine organism widely used in biomonitoring programs. Our results support the functional specialization of these variants based on: a) their active expression in different tissues, as revealed by the isolation of native MgH2A.X and MgH2A.Z proteins in gonad and hepatopancreas; b) the evolutionary conservation of different residues encompassing functional relevance; and c) their ability to confer specialization to nucleosomes, as revealed by nucleosome reconstitution experiments using recombinant MgH2A.X and MgH2A.Z histones. Given the seminal role of these variants in maintaining genomic integrity and regulating gene expression, their preliminary characterization opens up new potential applications for the future development of chromatin-based genotoxicity tests in pollution biomonitoring programs. PMID:22253857

  7. Monoclonal antibodies specific for adenovirus early region 1A proteins: extensive heterogeneity in early region 1A products.

    PubMed Central

    Harlow, E; Franza, B R; Schley, C

    1985-01-01

    Hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies specific for the adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) proteins were prepared from BALB/c mice immunized with a bacterial trpE-E1A fusion protein. This protein is encoded by a hybrid gene that joins a portion of the Escherichia coli trpE gene and a cDNA copy of the E1A 13S mRNA (Spindler et al., J. Virol. 49:132-141, 1984). Eighty-three hybridomas that secrete antibodies which recognize the immunogen were isolated and single cell cloned. Twenty-nine of these antibodies are specific for the E1A portion of the fusion protein. Only 12 of the monoclonal antibodies can efficiently immunoprecipitate E1A polypeptides from detergent lysates of infected cells. E1A polypeptides were analyzed on one-dimensional, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels and two-dimensional, isoelectric focusing polyacrylamide gels. The E1A proteins that are specifically immunoprecipitated by the monoclonal antibodies are heterogeneous in size and charge and can be resolved into approximately 60 polypeptide species. This heterogeneity is due not only to synthesis from multiple E1A mRNAs, but also at least in part to post-translational modification. Several of the monoclonal antibodies divide the E1A polypeptides into immunological subclasses based on the ability of the antibodies to bind to the antigen. In particular, two of the monoclonal antibodies bind to the polypeptides synthesized from the 13S E1A mRNA, but not to other E1A proteins. Images PMID:3894685

  8. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates axon guidance by stabilizing CRMP2A selectively in distal axons

    PubMed Central

    Balastik, Martin; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell; Weissova, Romana; Žiak, Jakub; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F.; Cosker, Katharina E; Machonova, Olga; Kozmikova, Iryna; Chen, Chun-Hau; Pastorino, Lucia; Asara, John M.; Cole, Adam; Sutherland, Calum; Segal, Rosalind A.; Lu, Kun Ping

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Axon guidance relies on precise translation of the gradients of the extracellular signals into local changes of cytoskeletal dynamics, but the molecular mechanisms regulating dose-dependent responses of growth cones are still poorly understood. Here we show that during embryonic development in growing axons low level of Semaphorin3A stimulation is buffered by the prolyl isomerase Pin1. We demonstrate, that Pin1 stabilizes CDK5-phosphorylated CRMP2A, the major isoform of CRMP2 in distal axons. Consequently, Pin1 knockdown or knockout reduces CRMP2A level specifically in distal axons and inhibits axon growth, which can be fully rescued by Pin1 or CRMP2A expression. Moreover, Pin1 knockdown or knockout increases sensitivity to Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse in vitro and in vivo leading to developmental abnormalities in axon guidance. These results identify an important isoform-specific function and regulation of CRMP2A in controlling axon growth, and uncover Pin1-catalyzed prolyl isomerization as a regulatory mechanism in axon guidance. PMID:26489457

  9. 26 CFR 1.665(b)-1A - Accumulation distributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accumulation distributions. 1.665(b)-1A Section... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Treatment of Excess Distributions of Trusts Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning on Or After January 1, 1969 § 1.665(b)-1A Accumulation distributions. (a) In general. (1) For...

  10. Microarray analysis of Xenopus endoderm expressing Ptf1a

    PubMed Central

    Bilogan, Cassandra K.; Horb, Marko E.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreas specific transcription factor 1a (Ptf1a), a bHLH transcription factor, has two temporally distinct functions during pancreas development; initially it is required for early specification of the entire pancreas, while later it is required for proper differentiation and maintenance of only acinar cells. The importance of Ptf1a function was revealed by the fact that loss of Ptf1a leads to pancreas agenesis in humans. While Ptf1a is one of the most important pancreatic transcription factors, little is known about the differences between the regulatory networks it controls during initial specification of the pancreas as opposed to acinar cell development, and to date no comprehensive analysis of its downstream targets has been published. In this paper, we use Xenopus embryos to identify putative downstream targets of Ptf1a. We isolated anterior endoderm tissue overexpressing Ptf1a at two early stages, NF32 and NF36, and compared their gene expression profiles using microarrays. Our results revealed that Ptf1a regulates genes with a wide variety of functions, providing insight into the complexity of the regulatory network required for pancreas specification. PMID:22815262

  11. Glucuronidation of OTS167 in Humans Is Catalyzed by UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Jacqueline; Mirkov, Snezana; House, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    OTS167 is a potent maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase inhibitor undergoing clinical testing as antineoplastic agent. We aimed to identify the UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) involved in OTS167 metabolism, study the relationship between UGT genetic polymorphisms and hepatic OTS167 glucuronidation, and investigate the inhibitory potential of OTS167 on UGTs. Formation of a single OTS167-glucuronide (OTS167-G) was observed in pooled human liver (HLM) (Km = 3.4 ± 0.2 µM), intestinal microsomes (HIM) (Km = 1.7 ± 0.1 µM), and UGTs. UGT1A1 (64 µl/min/mg) and UGT1A8 (72 µl/min/mg) exhibited the highest intrinsic clearances (CLint) for OTS167, followed by UGT1A3 (51 µl/min/mg) and UGT1A10 (47 µl/min/mg); UGT1A9 was a minor contributor. OTS167 glucuronidation in HLM was highly correlated with thyroxine glucuronidation (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001), SN-38 glucuronidation (r = 0.79, P < 0.0001), and UGT1A1 mRNA (r = 0.72, P < 0.0001). Nilotinib (UGT1A1 inhibitor) and emodin (UGT1A8 and UGT1A10 inhibitor) exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on OTS167-G formation in HLM (68%) and HIM (47%). We hypothesize that OTS167-G is an N-glucuronide according to mass spectrometry. A significant association was found between rs6706232 and reduced OTS167-G formation (P = 0.03). No or weak UGT inhibition (range: 0–21%) was observed using clinically relevant OTS167 concentrations (0.4–2 µM). We conclude that UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 are the main UGTs responsible for hepatic formation of OTS167-G. Intestinal UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10 may contribute to first-pass OTS167 metabolism after oral administration. PMID:25870101

  12. A Family Harboring CMT1A Duplication and HNPP Deletion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwa; Kang, Hee Jin; Song, Hyunseok; Hwang, Su Jin; Cho, Sun-Young; Kim, Sang-Beom; Kim, Joonki; Chung, Ki Wha; Choi, Byung-Ok

    2007-06-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is associated with duplication of chromosome 17p11.2-p12, whereas hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), which is an autosomal dominant neuropathy showing characteristics of recurrent pressure palsies, is associated with 17p11.2-p12 deletion. An altered gene dosage of PMP22 is believed to the main cause underlying the CMT1A and HNPP phenotypes. Although CMT1A and HNPP are associated with the same locus, there has been no report of these two mutations within a single family. We report a rare family harboring CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion.

  13. ASIC3, a sensor of acidic and primary inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Deval, Emmanuel; Noël, Jacques; Lay, Nadège; Alloui, Abdelkrim; Diochot, Sylvie; Friend, Valérie; Jodar, Martine; Lazdunski, Michel; Lingueglia, Eric

    2008-11-19

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are cationic channels activated by extracellular acidosis that are expressed in both central and peripheral nervous systems. Although peripheral ASICs seem to be natural sensors of acidic pain (e.g., in inflammation, ischaemia, lesions or tumours), a direct demonstration is still lacking. We show that approximately 60% of rat cutaneous sensory neurons express ASIC3-like currents. Native as well as recombinant ASIC3 respond synergistically to three different inflammatory signals that are slight acidifications (approximately pH 7.0), hypertonicity and arachidonic acid (AA). Moderate pH, alone or in combination with hypertonicity and AA, increases nociceptors excitability and produces pain suppressed by the toxin APETx2, a specific blocker of ASIC3. Both APETx2 and the in vivo knockdown of ASIC3 with a specific siRNA also have potent analgesic effects against primary inflammation-induced hyperalgesia in rat. Peripheral ASIC3 channels are thus essential sensors of acidic pain and integrators of molecular signals produced during inflammation where they contribute to primary hyperalgesia.

  14. 17 CFR 270.3a-1 - Certain prima facie investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... companies. 270.3a-1 Section 270.3a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-1 Certain prima facie investment companies. Notwithstanding section 3(a)(1)(C) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80a-3(a)(1)(c)), an issuer will...

  15. 17 CFR 270.3a-1 - Certain prima facie investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... companies. 270.3a-1 Section 270.3a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-1 Certain prima facie investment companies. Notwithstanding section 3(a)(1)(C) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80a-3(a)(1)(c)), an issuer will...

  16. 17 CFR 270.3a-1 - Certain prima facie investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... companies. 270.3a-1 Section 270.3a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-1 Certain prima facie investment companies. Notwithstanding section 3(a)(1)(C) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80a-3(a)(1)(c)), an issuer will...

  17. 17 CFR 270.3a-1 - Certain prima facie investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... companies. 270.3a-1 Section 270.3a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-1 Certain prima facie investment companies. Notwithstanding section 3(a)(1)(C) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80a-3(a)(1)(c)), an issuer will...

  18. 17 CFR 270.3a-1 - Certain prima facie investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... companies. 270.3a-1 Section 270.3a-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3a-1 Certain prima facie investment companies. Notwithstanding section 3(a)(1)(C) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80a-3(a)(1)(c)), an issuer will...

  19. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents of application; in general. 2a.4 Section 2a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.4 Contents of application; in general. In addition to any...

  20. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents of application; in general. 2a.4 Section 2a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.4 Contents of application; in general. In addition to any...

  1. 42 CFR 2a.7 - Effect of Confidentiality Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of Confidentiality Certificate. 2a.7 Section 2a.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.7 Effect of Confidentiality Certificate. (a) A...

  2. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of application; in general. 2a.4 Section 2a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.4 Contents of application; in general. In addition to any...

  3. 42 CFR 2a.7 - Effect of Confidentiality Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of Confidentiality Certificate. 2a.7 Section 2a.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.7 Effect of Confidentiality Certificate. (a) A...

  4. 42 CFR 2a.7 - Effect of Confidentiality Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of Confidentiality Certificate. 2a.7 Section 2a.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.7 Effect of Confidentiality Certificate. (a) A...

  5. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents of application; in general. 2a.4 Section 2a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.4 Contents of application; in general. In addition to any...

  6. 42 CFR 2a.4 - Contents of application; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of application; in general. 2a.4 Section 2a.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.4 Contents of application; in general. In addition to any...

  7. 42 CFR 2a.7 - Effect of Confidentiality Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effect of Confidentiality Certificate. 2a.7 Section 2a.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.7 Effect of Confidentiality Certificate. (a) A...

  8. 42 CFR 2a.7 - Effect of Confidentiality Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effect of Confidentiality Certificate. 2a.7 Section 2a.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.7 Effect of Confidentiality Certificate. (a) A...

  9. EID3 directly associates with DNMT3A during transdifferentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells to NPC-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Liang; Chen, Wen-Jin; Yin, James Q.; Xu, Ru-Xiang

    2017-01-01

    There has been recently been increased interest in the plasticity of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UMSCs) and their potential in the treatment of neurological disorders. In this study, UMSCs were transdifferentiated into neural stem-like cells (uNSCL), these cells grow in neurosphere-like structures and express high levels of NSCs markers. Epigenetics-related gene screening was here used to assess the relationship between E1A-like inhibitor of differentiation 3 (EID3), a p300 inhibitor, and DNA methyltransferase 3 A (DNMT3A) during the transdifferentiation of UMSCs into uNSCL in vitro. Before transdifferentiation of UMSCs into uNSCLs, high levels of EID3 and low levels of DNMT3A were detected; after transdifferentiation, low levels of EID3 and high levels of DNMT3A were detected. The current work showed that EID3 and DNMT3A co-localized in cell nuclei and EID3 interacted directly with DNMT3A in uNSCL. In summary, these results suggest that DNMT3A is probably directly regulated by EID3 during UMSC transdifferentiation into uNSCLs. These findings indicated a novel mechanism by which EID3, a p300 acetyltransferase inhibitor, could directly affect DNMT3A, this enzyme possesses dual methylation and demethylation abilities. These studies may be helpful for understanding a complex regulation mode of DNMT3A, which is a unique member of the methyltransferase family. PMID:28074931

  10. SIRT1-metabolite binding histone macroH2A1.1 protects hepatocytes against lipid accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Pazienza, Valerio; Borghesan, Michela; Mazza, Tommaso; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Panebianco, Concetta; Williams, Roger; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Andriulli, Angelo; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Vinciguerra, Manlio

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease (NAFLD) encompasses conditions associated to fat deposition in the liver, which are generally deteriorated during the aging process. MacroH2A1, a variant of histone H2A, is a key transcriptional regulator involved in tumorigenic processes and cell senescence, and featuring two alternatively splicing isoforms, macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2. MacroH2A1.1 binds with high affinity O-acetyl ADP ribose, a small metabolite produced by the reaction catalysed by NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1, whereas macroH2A1.2 is unable to do so. The functional significance of this binding is unknown. We previously reported that the hepatic levels of macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2 are differentially expressed in mice models of NAFLD. Here we show that over-expression of macroH2A1.1, but not of macroH2A1.2, is able to protect hepatocytes against lipid accumulation. MacroH2A1.1 over-expressing cells display ameliorated glucose metabolism, reduced expression of lipidogenic genes and fatty acids content. SIRT1/macroH2A1.1-dependent epigenetic regulation of lipid metabolism may be relevant to NAFLD development. PMID:24473773

  11. AhR activation underlies the CYP1A autoinduction by A-998679 in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Michael J.; Lee, Chih-Hung; Liu, Hong; Ciurlionis, Rita; Ditewig, Amy C.; Doktor, Stella; Andracki, Mark E.; Gagne, Gerard D.; Waring, Jeffrey F.; Marsh, Kennan C.; Gopalakrishnan, Murali; Blomme, Eric A. G.; Yang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Xenobiotic-mediated induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) is frequently encountered in drug discovery and can influence disposition, pharmacokinetic, and toxicity profiles. The CYP1A subfamily of DMEs plays a central role in the biotransformation of several drugs and environmental chemicals. Autoinduction of drugs through CYP3A enzymes is a common mechanism for their enhanced clearance. However, autoinduction via CYP1A is encountered less frequently. In this report, an experimental compound, A-998679 [3-(5-pyridin-3-yl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl) benzonitrile], was shown to enhance its own clearance via induction of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2. Rats were dosed for 5 days with 30, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day A-998679. During the dosing period, the compound's plasma AUC decreased at 30 mg/kg (95%) and 100 mg/kg (80%). Gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry of the livers showed a large increase in the mRNA and protein levels of Cyp1a, which was involved in the biotransformation of A-998679. Induction of CYP1A was confirmed in primary rat, human, and dog hepatocytes. The compound also weakly inhibited CYP1A2 in human liver microsomes. A-998679 activated the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in a luciferase gene reporter assay in HepG2 cells, upregulated expression of genes associated with AhR activation in rat liver and enhanced nuclear migration of AhR in HepG2 cells. Collectively these results demonstrate that A-998679 is an AhR activator that induces Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2 expression, resulting in an autoinduction phenomenon. The unique properties of A-998679, along with its novel structure distinct from classical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), may warrant its further evaluation as a tool compound for use in studies involving AhR biology and CYP1A-related mechanisms of drug metabolism and toxicity. PMID:23112805

  12. Fate of avermectin B sub 1a in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, M.S.; Halley, B.A.; Green-Erwin, M.; Alvaro, R.; Gruber, V.F.; Hwang, Shuchen; Bennett, B.W.; Wislocki, P.G. )

    1990-03-01

    Male and female rats were administered ({sup 3}H)avermectin B{sub 1a} or a mixture of ({sup 3}H)- and ({sup 14}C)avermectin B{sub 1a} as a single oral dosage at 1.4 or 0.14 mg/kg. Most of the dose (69-82%) was recovered in the feces, with 1% or less found in the urine. The total residue levels in liver, kidney, muscle, and fat tissues were <5.3 ppm at 1 day after dosing and essentially depleted within 7 days after dosing. For all tissues analyzed, the depletion half-life of the total radioactive residue was approximately 1.2 days, while the half-life of avermectin B{sub 1a} was between 0.6 and 1.0 day. The tissue residue was shown to be qualitatively similar between the tissue type, dose, sex, pretreatment with or without unlabeled avermectin B{sub 1a}, and label ({sup 3}H or {sup 14}C). A major metabolite (3{double prime}-desmethyl) and a minor metabolite (24-hydroxymethyl) isolated and identified from rat liver microsomal incubations of avermectin B{sub 1a} were identified in the rat tissues. These two metabolites and avermectin B{sub 1a} accounted for > 85% of the tissue residue. The fate of ({sup 3}H)avermectin B{sub 1a} was the same as the fate of ({sup 14}C)avermectin B{sub 1a}, demonstrating the stability of the {sup 3}H label on avermectin B{sub 1a} and the validity of its use in animal metabolism studies.

  13. Energy Expenditure in Obese Children with Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1a

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, Ashley H.; Lomenick, Jefferson P.; Saville, Benjamin R.; Wang, Wenli; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Cone, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Context Patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP-1a) develop early-onset obesity. The abnormality in energy expenditure and/or energy intake responsible for this weight gain is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate energy expenditure in children with PHP-1a compared with obese controls. Patients We studied 6 obese females with PHP-1a and 17 obese female controls. Patients were recruited from a single academic center. Measurements Resting energy expenditure and thermogenic effect of a high fat meal were measured using whole room indirect calorimetry. Body composition was assessed using whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Fasting glucose, insulin and hemoglobin A1C were measured. Results Children with PHP-1a had decreased resting energy expenditure compared with obese controls (P <0.01). After adjustment for fat free mass, the PHP-1a group’s resting energy expenditure was 346.4 kcals/day less than obese controls (95% CI [−585.5 to −106.9], P <0.01). The thermogenic effect of food, expressed as percent increase in postprandial energy expenditure over resting energy expenditure, was lower in PHP-1a patients than obese controls but did not reach statistical significance (absolute reduction of 5.9%, 95% CI [−12.2% to 0.3%], P = 0.06). Conclusions Our data indicate that children with PHP-1a have decreased resting energy expenditure compared with obese controls and that may contribute to the development of obesity in these children. These patients may also have abnormal diet-induced thermogenesis in response to a high fat meal. Understanding the causes of obesity in PHP-1a may allow for targeted nutritional or pharmacologic treatments in the future. PMID:23229731

  14. Mouse aminoacylase 3: a metalloenzyme activated by cobalt and nickel

    PubMed Central

    Tsirulnikov, Kirill; Abuladze, Natalia; Newman, Debra; Ryazantsev, Sergey; Wolak, Talya; Magilnick, Nathaniel; Koag, Myong-Chul; Kurtz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    Aminoacylase 3 (AA3) deacetylates N-acetyl-aromatic amino acids and mercapturic acids including N-acetyl-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (Ac-DCVC), a metabolite of a xenobiotic trichloroethylene. Previous studies did not demonstrate metal-dependence of AA3 despite a high homology with a Zn2+-metalloenzyme aminoacylase 2 (AA2). A 3D model of mouse AA3 was created based on homology with AA2. The model showed a putative metal binding site formed by His21, Glu24 and His116, and Arg63, Asp68, Asn70, Arg71, Glu177 and Tyr287 potentially involved in catalysis/substrate binding. The mutation of each of these residues to alanine inactivated AA3 except Asn70 and Arg71, therefore the corrected 3D model of mouse AA3 was created. Wild type (wt) mouse AA3 expressed in E. coli contained ~0.35 zinc atoms per monomer. Incubation with Co2+ and Ni2+ activated wt-AA3. In the cobalt-activated AA3 zinc was replaced with cobalt. Metal removal completely inactivated wt-AA3, whereas addition of Zn2+, Mn2+ or Fe2+ restored initial activity. Co2+ and to a lesser extent Ni2+ increased activity several times in comparison with intact wt-AA3. Co2+ drastically increased the rate of deacetylation of Ac-DCVC and significantly increased the toxicity of Ac-DCVC in the HEK293T cells expressing wt-AA3. The results indicate that AA3 is a metalloenzyme significantly activated by Co2+ and Ni2+. PMID:19362172

  15. Mouse aminoacylase 3: a metalloenzyme activated by cobalt and nickel.

    PubMed

    Tsirulnikov, Kirill; Abuladze, Natalia; Newman, Debra; Ryazantsev, Sergey; Wolak, Talya; Magilnick, Nathaniel; Koag, Myong-Chul; Kurtz, Ira; Pushkin, Alexander

    2009-07-01

    Aminoacylase 3 (AA3) deacetylates N-acetyl-aromatic amino acids and mercapturic acids including N-acetyl-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (Ac-DCVC), a metabolite of a xenobiotic trichloroethylene. Previous studies did not demonstrate metal-dependence of AA3 despite a high homology with a Zn(2+)-metalloenzyme aminoacylase 2 (AA2). A 3D model of mouse AA3 was created based on homology with AA2. The model showed a putative metal binding site formed by His21, Glu24 and His116, and Arg63, Asp68, Asn70, Arg71, Glu177 and Tyr287 potentially involved in catalysis/substrate binding. The mutation of each of these residues to alanine inactivated AA3 except Asn70 and Arg71, therefore the corrected 3D model of mouse AA3 was created. Wild type (wt) mouse AA3 expressed in E. coli contained approximately 0.35 zinc atoms per monomer. Incubation with Co(2+) and Ni(2+) activated wt-AA3. In the cobalt-activated AA3 zinc was replaced with cobalt. Metal removal completely inactivated wt-AA3, whereas addition of Zn(2+), Mn(2+) or Fe(2+) restored initial activity. Co(2+) and to a lesser extent Ni(2+) increased activity several times in comparison with intact wt-AA3. Co(2+) drastically increased the rate of deacetylation of Ac-DCVC and significantly increased the toxicity of Ac-DCVC in the HEK293T cells expressing wt-AA3. The results indicate that AA3 is a metalloenzyme significantly activated by Co(2+) and Ni(2+).

  16. SLC1A2 variant associated with essential tremor but not Parkinson disease in Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eng-King; Foo, Jia-Nee; Tan, Louis; Au, Wing-Lok; Prakash, Kumar M; Ng, Ebonne; Ikram, M Kamran; Wong, Tien-Yin; Liu, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Yi

    2013-04-23

    Essential tremor (ET) is characterized by postural and action tremor.(1-3) A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified a LINGO1 gene variant to be associated with ET.(4) Subsequent GWAS further identified an intronic variant (rs3794087) of the main glial glutamate transporter (SLC1A2) gene to be associated with ET with an odds ratio (OR) of approximately 1.4.(5) We conducted a case-control study to examine the SLC1A2 gene variant in an Asian cohort of ET. In addition, we also investigated the variant in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) because the GWAS LINGO1 variant has been implicated in both ET and PD and etiologic links between the conditions have been suggested.(6.)

  17. Reaction of pyrido(1,2-a)benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrido(1,2-a)benzimidazole with acetylenedicarboxylic ester

    SciTech Connect

    Prostakov, N.S.; Varlamov, A.V.; Shendrik, I.V.; Krapivko, A.P.; Golovtsov, N.I.

    1986-08-01

    Previously unknown polynuclear condensed systems with bridgehead nitrogen atoms have been obtained by treating acetylenedicarboxylic ester with pyrido(1,2-a)benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrido(1,2-a)benzimidazole.

  18. In Vitro and in Vivo Inhibitory Effects of Glycyrrhetinic Acid in Mice and Human Cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qiao-Li; Wang, Gui-Hua; Chen, Shu-Hui; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Xue; Ying, Guo; Qin, Chong-Zhen; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2015-12-25

    Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) has been used clinically in the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis. This study evaluated the effect of GA on the activity of five P450(CYP450) cytochrome enzymes: CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant cDNA-expressed enzyme systems using a HPLC-MS/MS CYP-specific probe substrate assay. With midazolam as the probe substrate, GA greatly decreased CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 8.195 μM in HLMs and 7.498 μM in the recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP3A4 enzyme system, respectively. It significantly decreased CYP3A4 activity in a dose- but not time-dependent manner. Results from Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that GA could inhibit CYP3A4 activity competitively, with a Ki value of 1.57 μM in HLMs. Moreover, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 could also be inhibited significantly by GA with IC50 of 42.89 and 40.26 μM in HLMs, respectively. Other CYP450 isoforms were not markedly affected by GA. The inhibition was also confirmed by an in vivo study of mice. In addition, it was observed that mRNA expressions of the Cyps2c and 3a family decreased significantly in the livers of mice treated with GA. In conclusion, this study indicates that GA may exert herb-drug interactions by competitively inhibiting CYP3A4.

  19. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.505 Bacillus... of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement...

  20. Celery extract inhibits mouse CYP2A5 and human CYP2A6 activities via different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiao; Pu, Qianghong; Wang, Erhao; Yu, Chao

    2016-12-01

    Human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 participates in the metabolism of nicotine and precarcinogens, thus the deliberate inhibition of CYP2A6 may reduce cigarette consumption and therefore reduce the risk of developing the types of cancer associated with smoking. The inhibitory effects and mechanisms of celery (Apium graveolens) extract on mouse CYP2A5 and human CYP2A6 activity remain unclear. These effects were investigated in mouse and human liver microsomes using coumarin 7-hydroxylation in a probe reaction. Celery extract reduced CYP2A5 and CYP2A6 activities in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo experiments also showed that celery extract markedly decreased CYP2A5 activity. The inhibition of celery extract on CYP2A5 was time- and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-independent, and was markedly reduced by ultracentrifugation. Additionally, the inhibition of celery extract on CYP2A6 was time and NADPH-dependent. Levels of inhibition were characterized by a Ki, the measure of the tightness of bonds between the enzyme and its inhibitor, of 266.4 µg/ml for CYP2A5, and a Ki of 1,018 µg/ml and Kinact of 0.3/min for CYP2A6. Kinact is the maximal rate of enzyme inactivation at a saturating concentration of inhibitor. The coumarin derivative 5-methoxypsoralen present in celery extract did not solely to the inhibition of CYP2A5/6 activity. In conclusion, celery extract inhibited the levels of mouse CYP2A5 and human CYP2A6 activity via different mechanisms: Mixed competitive inhibition for CYP2A5 and mechanism-based inhibition for CYP2A6.

  1. Celery extract inhibits mouse CYP2A5 and human CYP2A6 activities via different mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiao; Pu, Qianghong; Wang, Erhao; Yu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 participates in the metabolism of nicotine and precarcinogens, thus the deliberate inhibition of CYP2A6 may reduce cigarette consumption and therefore reduce the risk of developing the types of cancer associated with smoking. The inhibitory effects and mechanisms of celery (Apium graveolens) extract on mouse CYP2A5 and human CYP2A6 activity remain unclear. These effects were investigated in mouse and human liver microsomes using coumarin 7-hydroxylation in a probe reaction. Celery extract reduced CYP2A5 and CYP2A6 activities in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo experiments also showed that celery extract markedly decreased CYP2A5 activity. The inhibition of celery extract on CYP2A5 was time- and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-independent, and was markedly reduced by ultracentrifugation. Additionally, the inhibition of celery extract on CYP2A6 was time and NADPH-dependent. Levels of inhibition were characterized by a Ki, the measure of the tightness of bonds between the enzyme and its inhibitor, of 266.4 µg/ml for CYP2A5, and a Ki of 1,018 µg/ml and Kinact of 0.3/min for CYP2A6. Kinact is the maximal rate of enzyme inactivation at a saturating concentration of inhibitor. The coumarin derivative 5-methoxypsoralen present in celery extract did not solely to the inhibition of CYP2A5/6 activity. In conclusion, celery extract inhibited the levels of mouse CYP2A5 and human CYP2A6 activity via different mechanisms: Mixed competitive inhibition for CYP2A5 and mechanism-based inhibition for CYP2A6. PMID:28101244

  2. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis RCI2A gene contributes to cold tolerance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Sivankalyani, Velu; Geetha, Mahalingam; Subramanyam, Kondeti; Girija, Shanmugam

    2015-04-01

    Cold is a major stress that limits the quality and productivity of economically important crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Generating a cold-stress-tolerant tomato by expressing cold-inducible genes would increase agricultural strategies. Rare cold-inducible 2a (RCI2A) is expressed in Arabidopsis, but its molecular function during cold stress is not fully understood. Here we ectopically expressed Arabidopsis RCI2A in transgenic tomato to evaluate tolerance to cold stress without altering agronomic traits. Biochemical and physiological study demonstrated that expression of RCI2A in transgenic tomato enhanced the activity of peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and reduced the accumulation of H2O2, alleviated lipid peroxidation, increased the accumulation of chlorophyll, reduced chilling-induced membrane damage, retained relative water content and enhanced cold tolerance. A motif search revealed that the motifs of photosystem II (PSII) phosphoproteins PsbJ and PsbH and reaction-center proteins PsbL and PsbK were common to cold-inducible RCI2A and peroxidase proteins RCI3A, tomato peroxidase (TPX1), TPX2, tomato ascorbate peroxidase (APX1), and horseradish peroxidase (HRP-c). In addition to membrane protection, RCI2A may cross talk with PSII-associated proteins or peroxidase family enzymes in response to cold stress. Our findings may strengthen the understanding of the molecular function of RCI2A in cold-stress tolerance. RCI2A could be used to improve abiotic stress tolerance in agronomic crops.

  3. Complement C3a enhances CXCL12 (SDF-1)-mediated chemotaxis of bone marrow hematopoietic cells independently of C3a receptor.

    PubMed

    Honczarenko, Marek; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Nicholson-Weller, Anne; Silberstein, Leslie E

    2005-09-15

    Complement C3a promotes CXCL12-induced migration and engraftment of human and murine hemopoietic progenitor cells, suggesting a cross-influence between anaphylatoxin and chemokine axes. Here we have explored the underlying mechanism(s) of complement anaphylatoxin and chemokine cooperation. In addition to C3a, C3a-desArg and C4a but not C5a,