Science.gov

Sample records for 1a disease cmt1a

  1. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP): reliable detection of the CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion using 8 microsatellite markers in 2 multiplex PCRs.

    PubMed

    Seeman, P; Mazanec, R; Zidar, J; Hrusáková, S; Ctvrtecková, M; Rautenstrauss, B

    2000-10-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are the most frequent inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system. They are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. A submicroscopic tandem duplication of 1. 5 Mb in chromosome 17p11.2-12 comprising the PMP22 gene is found in 70.7% of autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1) patients. A reciprocal deletion is found in 87.6% of HNPP patients. The size of the typical CMT1A duplication is too small for classical cytogenetics and the whole region including the CMT1A-REP elements is sometimes too complex for a single DNA analysis method. We present results of a multiplex PCR of 8 microsatellite markers with multicolour fluorescence primer labelling followed by fragment analysis on an ABI 310 Prism analyzer to simplify the diagnostic procedure. Results for 24 patients can be obtained within 24 h. This method was applied on 92 DNA samples of unrelated patients carrying a typical CMT1A duplication previously confirmed by two colour fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, probe c132G8) and EcoRI/SacI Southern blotting (probe pLR7.8). Three alleles of three different sizes were clearly detected at least once in 88 of them (95.6%). Subsequently this analysis was applied on 312 Czech patients and revealed a CMT1A/HNPP rearrangement in 109 out of them.

  2. Copy number variations are a rare cause of non-CMT1A Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia; Wu, Xingyao; Montenegro, Gladys; Price, Justin; Wang, Gaofeng; Vance, Jeffery M; Shy, Michael E; Züchner, Stephan

    2010-05-01

    Hereditary peripheral neuropathies present a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous entities. All known forms, including the various forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) are characterized as Mendelian traits and over 35 genes have been identified thus far. The mutational mechanism of the most common CMT type, CMT1A, is a 1.5 Mb chromosomal duplication at 17p12 that contains the gene PMP22. Only recently it has been realized that such copy number variants (CNV) are a widespread phenomenon and important for disease. However, it is not known whether CNVs play a wider role in hereditary peripheral neuropathies outside of CMT1A. In a phenotypically heterogeneous sample of 97 patients, we performed the first high-density CNV study of 34 genomic regions harboring known genes for hereditary peripheral neuropathies including the 17p12 duplication region, with comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarrays. We identified three CNVs that affected coding exons. A novel shorter form of a PMP22 duplication was detected in a CMT1A family previously tested negative in a commercial test. Two other CNVs in MTMR2 and ARHGEF10 are likely not disease associated. Our results indicate that CNVs are a rare cause for non-CMT1A CMT. Their potential relevance as disease modifiers remains to be evaluated. The present study design cannot rule out that specific CMT forms exist where CNVs play a larger role.

  3. Physical and transcriptional map in the CMT 1A region

    SciTech Connect

    Chevillard, C.; Passage, E.; Cudrey, C.

    1994-09-01

    The Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) has been mapped to the proximal short arm of chromosome 17. CMT1A is the most frequent of the motor and sensory peripheral neuropathies and is associated with a duplication of a 1.5 Mb fragment in proximal 17p12. Several groups have proposed that the gene coding for peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP-22) as the candidate gene for CMT1A. We have recently published a {open_quote}MegaYAC{close_quote} contig of 6 Mb which covers the CMT1A critical region. In order to isolate new genes localized in this region, we used a {open_quote}physical trapping {close_quote} strategy derived from the direct cDNA selection technique developed by Parimoo et al. This approach has allowed us to construct cDNA {open_quotes}minilibraries{close_quotes} using YAC DNA from the CMT1A region. One of the clones in these minilibraries has been mapped back to the CMT1A duplication. Other potentially interesting clones are in the process of further characterization. Furthermore, we have mapped several Genethon microsatellites in the 6 Mb YAC contig and some are located in the CMT1A duplicated region. These highly polymorphic markers should prove useful for diagnostic testing in CMT1A.

  4. A Family Harboring CMT1A Duplication and HNPP Deletion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwa; Kang, Hee Jin; Song, Hyunseok; Hwang, Su Jin; Cho, Sun-Young; Kim, Sang-Beom; Kim, Joonki; Chung, Ki Wha; Choi, Byung-Ok

    2007-06-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is associated with duplication of chromosome 17p11.2-p12, whereas hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), which is an autosomal dominant neuropathy showing characteristics of recurrent pressure palsies, is associated with 17p11.2-p12 deletion. An altered gene dosage of PMP22 is believed to the main cause underlying the CMT1A and HNPP phenotypes. Although CMT1A and HNPP are associated with the same locus, there has been no report of these two mutations within a single family. We report a rare family harboring CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion.

  5. The LITAF/SIMPLE I92V sequence variant results in an earlier age of onset of CMT1A/HNPP diseases.

    PubMed

    Sinkiewicz-Darol, Elena; Lacerda, Andressa Ferreira; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Sokołowska, Beata; Kabzińska, Dagmara; Brunetti, Craig R; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, Irena; Kochański, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) represent the most common heritable neuromuscular disorders. Molecular diagnostics of CMT1A/HNPP diseases confirm clinical diagnosis, but their value is limited to the clinical course and prognosis. However, no biomarkers of CMT1A/HNPP have been identified. We decided to explore if the LITAF/SIMPLE gene shared a functional link to the PMP22 gene, whose duplication or deletion results in CMT1A and HNPP, respectively. By studying a large cohort of CMT1A/HNPP-affected patients, we found that the LITAF I92V sequence variant predisposes patients to an earlier age of onset of both the CMT1A and HNPP diseases. Using cell transfection experiments, we showed that the LITAF I92V sequence variant partially mislocalizes to the mitochondria in contrast to wild-type LITAF which localizes to the late endosome/lysosomes and is associated with a tendency for PMP22 to accumulate in the cells. Overall, this study shows that the I92V LITAF sequence variant would be a good candidate for a biomarker in the case of the CMT1A/HNPP disorders.

  6. Biochemical characterization of protein quality control mechanisms during disease progression in the C22 mouse model of CMT1A

    PubMed Central

    Chittoor, Vinita G.; Sooyeon, Lee; Rangaraju, Sunitha; Nicks, Jessica R.; Schmidt, Jordan T.; Madorsky, Irina; Narvaez, Diana C.; Notterpek, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is a hereditary demyelinating neuropathy linked with duplication of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. Transgenic C22 mice, a model of CMT1A, display many features of the human disease, including slowed nerve conduction velocity and demyelination of peripheral nerves. How overproduction of PMP22 leads to compromised myelin and axonal pathology is not fully understood, but likely involves subcellular alterations in protein homoeostatic mechanisms within affected Schwann cells. The subcellular response to abnormally localized PMP22 includes the recruitment of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS), autophagosomes and heat-shock proteins (HSPs). Here we assessed biochemical markers of these protein homoeostatic pathways in nerves from PMP22-overexpressing neuropathic mice between the ages of 2 and 12 months to ascertain their potential contribution to disease progression. In nerves of 3-week-old mice, using endoglycosidases and Western blotting, we found altered processing of the exogenous human PMP22, an abnormality that becomes more prevalent with age. Along with the ongoing accrual of misfolded PMP22, the activity of the proteasome becomes compromised and proteins required for autophagy induction and lysosome biogenesis are up-regulated. Moreover, cytosolic chaperones are consistently elevated in nerves from neuropathic mice, with the most prominent change in HSP70. The gradual alterations in protein homoeostatic response are accompanied by Schwann cell de-differentiation and macrophage infiltration. Together, these results show that while subcellular protein quality control mechanisms respond appropriately to the presence of the overproduced PMP22, with aging they are unable to prevent the accrual of misfolded proteins. PMID:24175617

  7. Molecular analyses of unrelated Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease patients suggest a high frequency of the CMT1A duplication

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, C.A.; Davis, S.N.; Heju, Z.; Pentao, L.; Patel, P.I.; Lupski, J.R. ); Garcia, C.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy. One form of CMT, CMT type 1A, is characterized by uniformly decreased nerve conduction velocities, usually shows autosomal dominant inheritance, and is associated with a large submicroscopic duplication of the p11.2-p12 region of chromosome 17. A cohort of 75 unrelated patients diagnosed clinically with CMT and evaluated by electrophysiological methods were analyzed molecularly for the presence of the CMT1A DNA duplication. Three methodologies were used to assess the duplication: Measurement of dosage differences between RFLP alleles, analysis of polymorphic (GT)[sub n] repeats, and detection of a junction fragment by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The CMT1A duplication was found in 68% of the 63 unrelated CMT patients with electrophysiological studies consistent with CMT type 1 (CMT1). The CMT1A duplication was detected as a de novo event in two CMT1 families. Twelve CMT patients who did not have decreased nerve conduction velocities consistent with a diagnosis of CMT type 2 (CMT2) were found not to have the CMT1A duplication. The most informative molecular method was the detection of the CMT1A duplication-specific junction fragment. Given the high frequency of the CMT1A duplication in CMT patients and the high frequency of new mutations, the authors conclude that a molecular test for the CMT1A DNA duplication is very useful in the differential diagnosis of patients with peripheral neuropathies. 61 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Analysis of the CMT1A-REP repeat: mapping crossover breakpoints in CMT1A and HNPP.

    PubMed

    Kiyosawa, H; Lensch, M W; Chance, P F

    1995-12-01

    The CMT1A-REP repeat sequence flanks a 1.5 megabase pair (Mb) segment of chromosome 17p11.2-12 which is duplicated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1A (CMT1A) and deleted in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). The CMT1A-REP repeat is proposed to mediate misalignment and unequal crossover resulting in reciprocal chromosomal rearrangements in CMT1A and HNPP. We have constructed a physical map of the proximal and distal CMT1A-REP repeats. Cloned fragments from CMT1A-REP repeat regions are used to determine the size of the repeats and assess regions of homology. The crossover breakpoints were mapped in series of 30 unrelated CMT1A patients and 22 unrelated HNPP patients. The CMT1A-REP repeat spans approximately 27 kilobase pairs and appears to be continuous. Locations of restriction enzyme sites are highly conserved for the proximal and distal CMT1A-REP repeats. All crossovers mapped within the CMT1A-REP repeat sequence and heterogeneity for breakpoint location demonstrated. Seventy-seven percent (40 to 52) of CMT1A and HNPP chromosomes contained breakpoints which mapped within a 7.9 kb interval, suggesting the presence of a possible 'hotspot'for recombination in CMT1A-REP. DNA sequence analysis for 4 kb of the interval containing the majority of crossovers revealed over 98% sequence identity between proximal and distal CMT1A-REP repeat sequences. Probes useful for molecular-based diagnosis of CMT1A and HNPP are described.

  9. Locations of crossover breakpoints within the CMT1A-REP repeat in Japanese patients with CMT1A and HNPP.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Yasuda, T; Hayasaka, K; Ohnishi, A; Yoshikawa, H; Yanagihara, T; Ikegami, T; Yamamoto, T; Ohashi, H; Nishimura, T; Mitsuma, T; Kiyosawa, H; Chance, P F; Sobue, G

    1997-02-01

    The crossover breakpoints for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are located in the CMT1A-REP repeat flanking a 1.5-Mb region of chromosome 17p11.2-12. The precise locations of the breakpoints are heterogeneous, and we analyzed the relative frequency distribution of breakpoints in 33 unrelated Japanese CMT1A and 3 unrelated HNPP families. The CMT1A-REP repeat region was divided into five regions, A, B, C, D and E, based on restriction site differences between the proximal and distal CMT1A-REP repeats. The frequency distribution of breakpoints within the CMT1A-REP repeat in the Japanese patients was 3% in region A, .78% in B/C and 19% in D, which is similar to that in Caucasian patients. This result also indicates that an 8-kb region defined by region B/C is a recombinational hotspot within the CMT1A-REP repeat in Japanese patients.

  10. Detection of the CMT1A/HNPP recombination hotspot in unrelated patients of European descent.

    PubMed Central

    Timmerman, V; Rautenstrauss, B; Reiter, L T; Koeuth, T; Löfgren, A; Liehr, T; Nelis, E; Bathke, K D; De Jonghe, P; Grehl, H; Martin, J J; Lupski, J R; Van Broeckhoven, C

    1997-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 disease (CMT1) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are common inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system. The majority of CMT1 patients have a 1.5Mb tandem duplication (CMT1A) in chromosome 17p11.2 while most HNPP patients have a deletion of the same 1.5 Mb region. The CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion are the reciprocal products of an unequal crossing over event between misaligned flanking CMT1A-REP elements. We analysed 162 unrelated CMT1A duplication patients and HNPP deletion patients from 11 different countries for the presence of a recombination hotspot in the CMT1A-REP sequences. A hotspot for unequal crossing over between the misaligned flanking CMT1A-REP elements was observed through the detection of novel junction fragments in 76.9% of 130 unrelated CMT1A patients and in 71.9% of 32 unrelated HNPP patients. This recombination hotspot was also detected in eight out of 10 de novo CMT1A duplication and in two de novo HNPP deletion patients. These data indicate that the hotspot of unequal crossing over occurs in several populations independently of ethnic background and is directly involved in the pathogenesis of CMT1A and HNPP. We conclude that the detection of junction fragments from the CMT1A-REP element on Southern blot analysis is a simple and reliable DNA diagnostic tool for the identification of the CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion in most patients. Images PMID:9032649

  11. Detection of the CMT1A/HNPP recombination hotspot in unrelated patients of European descent.

    PubMed

    Timmerman, V; Rautenstrauss, B; Reiter, L T; Koeuth, T; Löfgren, A; Liehr, T; Nelis, E; Bathke, K D; De Jonghe, P; Grehl, H; Martin, J J; Lupski, J R; Van Broeckhoven, C

    1997-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 disease (CMT1) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are common inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system. The majority of CMT1 patients have a 1.5Mb tandem duplication (CMT1A) in chromosome 17p11.2 while most HNPP patients have a deletion of the same 1.5 Mb region. The CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion are the reciprocal products of an unequal crossing over event between misaligned flanking CMT1A-REP elements. We analysed 162 unrelated CMT1A duplication patients and HNPP deletion patients from 11 different countries for the presence of a recombination hotspot in the CMT1A-REP sequences. A hotspot for unequal crossing over between the misaligned flanking CMT1A-REP elements was observed through the detection of novel junction fragments in 76.9% of 130 unrelated CMT1A patients and in 71.9% of 32 unrelated HNPP patients. This recombination hotspot was also detected in eight out of 10 de novo CMT1A duplication and in two de novo HNPP deletion patients. These data indicate that the hotspot of unequal crossing over occurs in several populations independently of ethnic background and is directly involved in the pathogenesis of CMT1A and HNPP. We conclude that the detection of junction fragments from the CMT1A-REP element on Southern blot analysis is a simple and reliable DNA diagnostic tool for the identification of the CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion in most patients.

  12. Transgenic mouse models of CMT1A and HNPP.

    PubMed

    Suter, U; Nave, K A

    1999-09-14

    We have generated several PMP22 animal mutants with altered PMP22 gene dosage. A moderate increase in the number of PMP22 genes led to hypomyelination comparable to CMT1A, whereas high copy numbers of transgenic PMP22 resulted in phenotypes resembling more severe forms of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies. In contrast, eliminating one of the two normal PMP22 genes by gene targeting caused unstable focal hypermyelination (tomacula) similar to the pathology in HNPP. A related but more severe phenotype was observed in mice that lack PMP22 completely. Detailed analysis of the different PMP22 mutants revealed, in addition to the obvious myelinopathy, distal axonopathy as a characteristic feature. We conclude that the maintenance of axons might be a promising target for therapeutic interventions in these demyelinating hereditary neuropathies. Furthermore, our results strongly support the concept that PMP22-related neuropathies (and most likely also other forms of inherited motor and sensory neuropathies) should be viewed as the consequence of impaired neuron-Schwann cell interactions that are likely already to be operative during development. Such considerations should be taken into account in the design of potential novel treatment strategies.

  13. Molecular mechanisms for CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion.

    PubMed

    Boerkoel, C F; Inoue, K; Reiter, L T; Warner, L E; Lupski, J R

    1999-09-14

    As the best characterized human genomic disorders, CMT1A and HNPP illustrate several common mechanistic features of genomic rearrangements. These features include the following: (1) Recombination occurs between homologous sequences flanking the duplicated/deleted genomic segment. (2) The evolution of the mammalian genome may result in an architecture consisting of region-specific low-copy repeats that predispose to rearrangement secondary to providing homologous regions as substrate for recombination. (3) Strand exchange occurs preferentially in a region of perfect sequence identity within the flanking repeat sequences. (4) Double-strand breaks likely initiate recombination between the flanking repeats. (5) The mechanism and rate of homologous recombination resulting in DNA rearrangement may differ for male and female gametogenesis. (6) Homologous recombination resulting in DNA rearrangement occurs with high frequency in the human genome. (7) Genomic disorders result from structural features of the human genome and not population specific alleles or founder effects; therefore, genomic disorders appear to occur with equal frequencies in different world populations.

  14. Rapid diagnosis of CMT1A duplications and HNPP deletions by multiplex microsatellite PCR.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung-Ok; Kim, Joonki; Lee, Kyung Lyong; Yu, Jin Seok; Hwang, Jung Hee; Chung, Ki Wha

    2007-02-28

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are frequent forms of genetically heterogeneous peripheral neuropathies. Reciprocal unequal crossover between flanking CMT1A-REPs on chromosome 17p11.2-p12 is a major cause of CMT type 1A (CMT1A) and HNPP. The importance of a sensitive and rapid method for identifying the CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion is being emphasized. In the present study, we established a molecular diagnostic method for the CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion based on hexaplex PCR of 6 microsatellite markers (D17S921, D17S9B, D17S9A, D17S918, D17S4A and D17S2230). The method is highly time-, cost- and sample-saving because the six markers are amplified by a single PCR reaction and resolved with a single capillary in 3 h. Several statistical and forensic estimates indicated that most of these markers are likely to be useful for diagnosing the peripheral neuropathies. Reproducibility, as determined by concordance between independent tests, was estimated to be 100%. The likelihood that genotypes of all six markers are homozygous in randomly selected individuals was calculated to be 1.6 x 10(-4) which indicates that the statistical error rate for this diagnosis of HNPP deletion is only 0.016%.

  15. Selected items from the Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) Neuropathy Score and secondary clinical outcome measures serve as sensitive clinical markers of disease severity in CMT1A patients.

    PubMed

    Mannil, Manoj; Solari, Alessandra; Leha, Andreas; Pelayo-Negro, Ana L; Berciano, José; Schlotter-Weigel, Beate; Walter, Maggie C; Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Schnizer, Tuuli J; Schenone, Angelo; Seeman, Pavel; Kadian, Chandini; Schreiber, Olivia; Angarita, Natalia G; Fabrizi, Gian Maria; Gemignani, Franco; Padua, Luca; Santoro, Lucio; Quattrone, Aldo; Vita, Giuseppe; Calabrese, Daniela; Young, Peter; Laurà, Matilde; Haberlová, Jana; Mazanec, Radim; Paulus, Walter; Beissbarth, Tim; Shy, Michael E; Reilly, Mary M; Pareyson, Davide; Sereda, Michael W

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates primary and secondary clinical outcome measures in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) with regard to their contribution towards discrimination of disease severity. The nine components of the composite Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Neuropathy Score and six additional secondary clinical outcome measures were assessed in 479 adult patients with genetically proven CMT1A and 126 healthy controls. Using hierarchical clustering, we identified four significant clusters of patients according to clinical severity. We then tested the impact of each of the CMTNS components and of the secondary clinical parameters with regard to their power to differentiate these four clusters. The CMTNS components ulnar sensory nerve action potential (SNAP), pin sensibility, vibration and strength of arms did not increase the discriminant value of the remaining five CMTNS components (Ulnar compound motor action potential [CMAP], leg motor symptoms, arm motor symptoms, leg strength and sensory symptoms). However, three of the six additional clinical outcome measures - the 10m-timed walking test (T10MW), 9 hole-peg test (9HPT), and foot dorsal flexion dynamometry - further improved discrimination between severely and mildly affected patients. From these findings, we identified three different composite measures as score hypotheses and compared their discriminant power with that of the CMTNS. A composite of eight components CMAP, Motor symptoms legs, Motor symptoms arms, Strength of Legs, Sensory symptoms), displayed the strongest power to discriminate between the clusters. As a conclusion, five items from the CMTNS and three secondary clinical outcome measures improve the clinical assessment of patients with CMT1A significantly and are beneficial for upcoming clinical and therapeutic trials.

  16. Detection of mosaicism in a CMT1a patient using FISH

    SciTech Connect

    Sourour, E.; Thompson, P.; MacMillan, J.; Upadhyaya, M.

    1994-09-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1) is the most common hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, and is characterized by peroneal muscular atrophy, pes cavus, loss of deep tendon reflexes and reduced motor nerve conduction velocities. CMT1a segregates as an autosomal dominant condition and shows complete linkage and association with a large submicroscopic duplication on chromosome 17p11.2-p12. We have detected a mosaicism in the father of an affected CMT1a patient. The affected individuals in this family were found to be homozygous with DNA markers YAW409, p132GBRI which are duplicated in CMT1a patients. FISH analysis with YAC clone (Y49H7), carried on 45 interphases from the affected father, revealed that the duplication was only present in 24 of these interphases. However, this duplication was found in all 50 interphases screened from the father`s affected son and, as expected, none of the 50 interphases derived from a non-CMT case had any evidence of this duplication. The affected father had had difficulty with his balance from age 40, with numerous falls. His median and motor nerve conduction velocities were normal. There was no obvious history fo the disorder in the previous generations. The affected boy had foot drop prior to his 10th birthday. He had loss of sensation in his feet and sensorineural deafness from childhood and had a median motor conduction velocity of 33 meters/second. The findings based on FISH analysis suggest that the mosaicism may have occurred early in embryogenesis leading to the disease in the father.

  17. Diagnosis of CMT1A duplications and HNPP deletions by interphase FISH: Implications for testing in the cytogenetics laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, L.G.; Kennedy, G.M.; Spikes, A.S.

    1997-03-31

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 1A is an inherited peripheral neuropathy characterized by slowly progressive distal muscle wasting and weakness, decreased nerve conduction velocities, and genetic linkage to 17p12. Most (>98%) CMT1A cases are caused by a DNA duplication of a 1.5-Mb region in 17p12 containing the PMP22 gene. The reciprocal product of the CMT1A duplication is a 1.5-Mb deletion which causes hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). The most informative current diagnostic testing requires pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to detect DNA rearrangement-specific junction fragments. We investigated the use of interphase FISH for the detection of duplications and deletions for these disorders in the clinical molecular cytogenetics laboratory. Established cell lines or blood specimens from 23 individuals with known molecular diagnoses and 10 controls were obtained and scored using a two-color FISH assay. At least 70%, of CMT1A cells displayed three signals consistent with duplications. Using this minimum expected percentile to make a CMT1A duplication diagnosis, all patients with CMT1A showed a range of 71-92% of cells displaying at least three signals. Of the HNPP cases, 88% of cells displayed only one hybridization signal, consistent with deletions. The PMP22 locus from normal control individuals displayed a duplication pattern in {approximately}9% of cells, interpreted as replication of this locus. The percentage of cells showing replication was significantly lower than in those cells displaying true duplications. We conclude that FISH can be reliably used to diagnose CMT1A and HNPP in the clinical cytogenetics laboratory and to readily distinguish the DNA rearrangements associated with these disorders from individuals without duplication or deletion of the PMP22 locus. 43 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Diagnosis of CMT1A duplications and HNPP deletions by interphase FISH: implications for testing in the cytogenetics laboratory.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, L G; Kennedy, G M; Spikes, A S; Lupski, J R

    1997-03-31

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 1A is an inherited peripheral neuropathy characterized by slowly progressive distal muscle wasting and weakness, decreased nerve conduction velocities, and genetic linkage to 17p12. Most (> 98%) CMT1A cases are caused by a DNA duplication of a 1.5-Mb region in 17p12 containing the PMP22 gene. The reciprocal product of the CMT1A duplication is a 1.5-Mb deletion which causes hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). The most informative current diagnostic testing requires pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to detect DNA rearrangement-specific junction fragments. We investigated the use of interphase FISH for the detection of duplications and deletions for these disorders in the clinical molecular cytogenetics laboratory. Established cell lines or blood specimens from 23 individuals with known molecular diagnoses and 10 controls were obtained and scored using a two-color FISH assay. At least 70% of CMT1A cells displayed three signals consistent with duplications. Using this minimum expected percentile to make a CMT1A duplication diagnosis, all patients with CMT1A showed a range of 71-92% of cells displaying at least three signals. Of the HNPP cases, 88% of cells displayed only one hybridization signal, consistent with deletions. The PMP22 locus from normal control individuals displayed a duplication pattern in approximately 9% of cells, interpreted as replication of this locus. The percentage of cells showing replication was significantly lower than in those cells displaying true duplications. We conclude that FISH can be reliably used to diagnose CMT1A and HNPP in the clinical cytogenetics laboratory and to readily distinguish the DNA rearrangements associated with these disorders from individuals without duplication or deletion of the PMP22 locus.

  19. Isolation of novel genes from the CMT1A duplication/HNPP deletion critical region in 17p11.2-p12.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Sun, Z S; Lee, C C; Lupski, J R

    1997-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is associated with a 1.5-Mb tandem DNA duplication in chromosome 17p11.2-p12, while hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is associated with a 1.5-Mb deletion at this locus. The 1.5-Mb CMT1A monomer unit duplicated in CMT1A and deleted in HNPP is flanked by low-copy repeats termed CMT1A-REPs. Both diseases appear to be caused by an altered copy number of the peripheral myelin protein 22 gene (PMP22), which lies within the critical region. To identify additional genes rapidly, we used a cosmid contig of this region and reciprocal probing of arrayed chromosome 17-specific cosmid and cDNA libraries. Three cDNA clones were identified within the CMT1A duplication/HNPP deletion region and one just proximal to the critical region. The cDNA for human heme A:farnesyltransferase (COX10) mapped 10 kb centromeric to the distal CMT1A-REP. The other two cDNA clones from within the critical interval mapped to cosmid 126D1 at the mfd41 (D17S261) DNA marker, and their conceptual translation showed homology to 60S ribosomal protein L9 (RPL9) and chromosomal protein RMSA-1 (RMSA-1). A gene that is homologous to human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (hPPARA) was identified near the proximal CMT1A-REP.

  20. Application of whole-exome sequencing for detecting copy number variants in CMT1A/HNPP.

    PubMed

    Jo, H-Y; Park, M-H; Woo, H-M; Han, M H; Kim, B-Y; Choi, B-O; Chung, K W; Koo, S K

    2016-08-01

    Large insertions and deletions (indels), including copy number variations (CNVs), are commonly seen in many diseases. Standard approaches for indel detection rely on well-established methods such as qPCR or short tandem repeat (STR) markers. Recently, a number of tools for CNV detection based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data have also been developed; however, use of these methods is limited. Here, we used whole-exome sequencing (WES) in patients previously diagnosed with CMT1A or HNPP using STR markers to evaluate the ability of WES to improve the clinical diagnosis. Patients were evaluated utilizing three CNV detection tools including CONIFER, ExomeCNV and CEQer, and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). We identified a breakpoint region at 17p11.2-p12 in patients with CMT1A and HNPP. CNV detection levels were similar in both 6 Gb (mean read depth = 80×) and 17 Gb (mean read depth = 190×) data. Taken together, these data suggest that 6 Gb WES data are sufficient to reveal the genetic causes of various diseases and can be used to estimate single mutations, indels, and CNVs simultaneously. Furthermore, our data strongly indicate that CNV detection by NGS is a rapid and cost-effective method for clinical diagnosis of genetically heterogeneous disorders such as CMT neuropathy.

  1. Fine mapping of de novo CMT1A and HNPP rearrangements within CMT1A-REPs evidences two distinct sex-dependent mechanisms and candidate sequences involved in recombination.

    PubMed

    Lopes, J; Ravisé, N; Vandenberghe, A; Palau, F; Ionasescu, V; Mayer, M; Lévy, N; Wood, N; Tachi, N; Bouche, P; Latour, P; Ruberg, M; Brice, A; LeGuern, E

    1998-01-01

    The molecular mechanism resulting in the duplication or deletion of a 1.5 Mb region of 17p11.2-p12, associated, respectively, with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), has been proposed to be an unequal crossing-over during meiosis between the two chromosome 17 homologues generated by misalignment of the proximal and distal CMT1A-REP repeats, two homologous sequences flanking the 1.5 Mb CMT1A/HNPP monomer unit. In a recent study of a large series of de novo cases of CMT1A and HNPP, two distinct sex-dependent mechanisms were identified. Rearrangements of paternal origin, essentially duplications, were indeed generated by unequal meiotic crossing-over between the two chromosome 17 homologues, but duplications and deletions of maternal origin resulted from an intrachromosomal process, either unequal sister chromatid exchange or, in the case of deletion, excision of an intrachromatidal loop. In order to determine how these recombinations occur, 24 de novo crossover breakpoints were localized within the 1.7 kb rearrangement hot spot by comparing the sequences of the parental CMT1A-REPs with the chimeric copy in affected offspring. Nineteen out of 21 paternal crossovers were found in a 741 bp hot spot. All the breakpoints of maternal origin (n = 3), however, were located outside this interval, but in closely flanking sequences, supporting the hypothesis that two distinct sex-dependent mechanisms are involved. Several putative recombination promoting sequences in the hot spot, which are rare or absent in the surrounding 7.8 kb, were identified.

  2. Mechanisms for nonrecurrent genomic rearrangements associated with CMT1A or HNPP: rare CNVs as a cause for missing heritability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Seeman, Pavel; Liu, Pengfei; Weterman, Marian A J; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Towne, Charles F; Batish, Sat Dev; De Vriendt, Els; De Jonghe, Peter; Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Krause, Klaus-Henning; Khajavi, Mehrdad; Posadka, Jan; Vandenberghe, Antoon; Palau, Francesc; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Baas, Frank; Timmerman, Vincent; Lupski, James R

    2010-06-11

    Genomic rearrangements involving the peripheral myelin protein gene (PMP22) in human chromosome 17p12 are associated with neuropathy: duplications cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), whereas deletions lead to hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). Our previous studies showed that >99% of these rearrangements are recurrent and mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Rare copy number variations (CNVs) generated by nonrecurrent rearrangements also exist in 17p12, but their underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated 21 subjects with rare CNVs associated with CMT1A or HNPP by oligonucleotide-based comparative genomic hybridization microarrays and breakpoint sequence analyses, and we identified 17 unique CNVs, including two genomic deletions, ten genomic duplications, two complex rearrangements, and three small exonic deletions. Each of these CNVs includes either the entire PMP22 gene, or exon(s) only, or ultraconserved potential regulatory sequences upstream of PMP22, further supporting the contention that PMP22 is the critical gene mediating the neuropathy phenotypes associated with 17p12 rearrangements. Breakpoint sequence analysis reveals that, different from the predominant NAHR mechanism in recurrent rearrangement, various molecular mechanisms, including nonhomologous end joining, Alu-Alu-mediated recombination, and replication-based mechanisms (e.g., FoSTeS and/or MMBIR), can generate nonrecurrent 17p12 rearrangements associated with neuropathy. We document a multitude of ways in which gene function can be altered by CNVs. Given the characteristics, including small size, structural complexity, and location outside of coding regions, of selected rare CNVs, their identification remains a challenge for genome analysis. Rare CNVs may potentially represent an important portion of "missing heritability" for human diseases.

  3. Fate of Schwann cells in CMT1A and HNPP: evidence for apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Erdem, S; Mendell, J R; Sahenk, Z

    1998-06-01

    The fate of Schwann cells in Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathies was addressed in this study of nerve biopsies from patients with proven PMP22 duplications and deletions. In frozen sections, apoptotic nuclei were detected using the TUNEL method. In adjacent sections, anti-neurofilament 68kD antibody was used as an axonal marker, while the antibodies to NKH-1 and low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor P75NTR were used as Schwann cell markers. In addition, plastic sections were used to determine the densities of myelinated fibers and Schwann cell nuclei. In all biopsies from CMT1A, TUNEL-positive nuclei appeared in clusters. In adjacent sections, areas of TUNEL-positive nuclei matched with areas devoid of neurofilaments and NKH-1-positive Schwann cell silhouettes, suggesting that the apoptotic nuclei belonged to nonmyelinating Schwann cells. In addition, quantitative studies on plastic-embedded sections showed a significantly reduced number of total Schwann cells compared with controls, strongly favoring a loss of Schwann cell by apoptosis. In HNPP, the number of total Schwann cells was increased and a significant Schwann cell apoptosis was observed in only 2 patients. Examination of plastic sections and teased nerve preparations from these cases suggested that the Schwann cell apoptosis might be related to the regenerative state of the nerve resulting from the process of sprout pruning. No strict correlation between p75NTR expression and apoptosis was found. These studies indicate that factors regulating Schwann cell number in early postnatal development continue to be important for Schwann cell survival throughout life.

  4. A 1.5-Mb cosmid contig of the CMT1A duplication/HNPP deletion critical region in 17p11.2-p12

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Tatsufumi; Lupski, J.R.

    1996-05-15

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is associated with a 1.5-Mb tandem duplication in chromosome 17p11.2-p12, and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is associated with a 1.5-Mb deletion at this locus. Both diseases appear to result from an altered copy number of the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene, PMP22, which maps within the critical region. To identify additional genes and characterize chromosomal elements, a 1.5-Mb cosmid contig of the CMT1A duplication/HNPP deletion critical region was assembled using a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)-based isolation and binning strategy. Whole YAC probes were used for screening a high-density arrayed chromosome 17-specific cosmid library. Selected cosmids were spotted on dot blots and assigned to bins defined by YACs. This binning of cosmids facilitated the subsequent fingerprint analysis. The 1.5-Mb region was covered by 137 cosmids with a minimum overlap set of 52 cosmids assigned to 17 bins and 9 contigs. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  5. A 1.5-Mb cosmid contig of the CMT1A duplication/HNPP deletion critical region in 17p11.2-p12.

    PubMed

    Murakami, T; Lupski, J R

    1996-05-15

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is associated with a 1. 5-Mb tandem duplication in chromosome 17p11.2-p12, and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is associated with a 1.5-Mb deletion at this locus. Both diseases appear to result from an altered copy number of the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene, PMP22, which maps within the critical region. To identify additional genes and characterize chromosomal elements, a 1.5-Mb cosmid contig of the CMT1A duplication/HNPP deletion critical region was assembled using a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)-based isolation and binning strategy. Whole YAC probes were used for screening a high-density arrayed chromosome 17-specific cosmid library. Selected cosmids were spotted on dot blots and assigned to bins defined by YACs. This binning of cosmids facilitated the subsequent fingerprint analysis. The 1.5-Mb region was covered by 137 cosmids with a minimum overlap set of 52 cosmids assigned to 17 bins and 9 contigs.

  6. Improved testing for CMT1A and HNPP using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) with rapid DNA preparations: comparison with the interphase FISH method.

    PubMed

    Slater, Howard; Bruno, Damien; Ren, Hua; La, Phung; Burgess, Trent; Hills, Louise; Nouri, Sara; Schouten, Jan; Choo, K H Andy

    2004-08-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are the two most common peripheral neuropathies, with incidences of about 1 in 2,500. Several techniques can be used to detect the typical 1.5-Mb duplication or deletion associated with these respective conditions, but none combines simplicity with high sensitivity. MLPA is a new technique for measuring sequence dosage. We have assessed its performance for the detection of the specific 1.5-Mb duplication/deletion by prospectively testing 50 patients referred with differential diagnoses of CMT or HNPP. Probes were designed to evaluate the TEKT3, PMP22, and COX10 genes within the CMT1A/HNPP region. We have compared the results with our existing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, which was performed in parallel. There was concordance of results for 49 patients. Of note, one patient showed an intermediate multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) result with an abnormal FISH result, which is consistent with mosaicism. The assay works equally well with either purified DNA or rapid DNA preparations made by direct cell lysis. The use of the latter significantly reduces the cost of the assay. MLPA is a sensitive, specific, robust, and cost-effective technique suitable for fast, high-throughput testing and offers distinct advantages over other testing methods.

  7. The 1.4-Mb CMT1A duplication/HNPP deletion genomic region reveals unique genome architectural features and provides insights into the recent evolution of new genes.

    PubMed

    Inoue, K; Dewar, K; Katsanis, N; Reiter, L T; Lander, E S; Devon, K L; Wyman, D W; Lupski, J R; Birren, B

    2001-06-01

    Duplication and deletion of the 1.4-Mb region in 17p12 that is delimited by two 24-kb low copy number repeats (CMT1A-REPs) represent frequent genomic rearrangements resulting in two common inherited peripheral neuropathies, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP). CMT1A and HNPP exemplify a paradigm for genomic disorders wherein unique genome architectural features result in susceptibility to DNA rearrangements that cause disease. A gene within the 1.4-Mb region, PMP22, is responsible for these disorders through a gene-dosage effect in the heterozygous duplication or deletion. However, the genomic structure of the 1.4-Mb region, including other genes contained within the rearranged genomic segment, remains essentially uncharacterized. To delineate genomic structural features, investigate higher-order genomic architecture, and identify genes in this region, we constructed PAC and BAC contigs and determined the complete nucleotide sequence. This CMT1A/HNPP genomic segment contains 1,421,129 bp of DNA. A low copy number repeat (LCR) was identified, with one copy inside and two copies outside of the 1.4-Mb region. Comparison between physical and genetic maps revealed a striking difference in recombination rates between the sexes with a lower recombination frequency in males (0.67 cM/Mb) versus females (5.5 cM/Mb). Hypothetically, this low recombination frequency in males may enable a chromosomal misalignment at proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs and promote unequal crossing over, which occurs 10 times more frequently in male meiosis. In addition to three previously described genes, five new genes (TEKT3, HS3ST3B1, NPD008/CGI-148, CDRT1, and CDRT15) and 13 predicted genes were identified. Most of these predicted genes are expressed only in embryonic stages. Analyses of the genomic region adjacent to proximal CMT1A-REP indicated an evolutionary mechanism for the formation of proximal CMT1A-REP and the

  8. Homologous DNA exchanges in humans can be explained by the yeast double-strand break repair model: a study of 17p11.2 rearrangements associated with CMT1A and HNPP.

    PubMed

    Lopes, J; Tardieu, S; Silander, K; Blair, I; Vandenberghe, A; Palau, F; Ruberg, M; Brice, A; LeGuern, E

    1999-11-01

    Rearrangements in 17p11.2, responsible for the 1.5 Mb duplications and deletions associated, respectively, with autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A disease (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are a suitable model for studying human recombination. Rearrangements in 17p11.2 are caused by unequal crossing-over between two homologous 24 kb sequences, the CMT1A-REPs, that flank the disease locus and occur in most cases within a 1.7 kb hotspot. We sequenced this hotspot in 28 de novo patients (25 CMT1A and three HNPP), in order to localize precisely, at the DNA sequence level, the crossing-overs. We show that some chimeric CMT1A-REPs in de novo patients (10/28) present conversion of DNA segments associated with the crossing-over. These rearrangements can be explained by the double-strand break (DSB) repair model described in yeast. Fine mapping of the de novo rearrangements provided evidence that the successive steps of this model, heteroduplex DNA formation, mismatch correction and gene conversion, occurred in patients. Furthermore, the model explains 17p11.2 recombinations between chromosome homologues as well as between sister chromatids. In addition, defective mismatch repair of the heteroduplex DNA, observed in two patients, resulted in two heterozygous chimeric CMT1A-REPs which can be explained, as in yeast, by post-meiotic segregation. This work supports the hypothesis that the DSB repair model of DNA exchange may apply universally from yeasts to humans.

  9. Polytherapy with a combination of three repurposed drugs (PXT3003) down-regulates Pmp22 over-expression and improves myelination, axonal and functional parameters in models of CMT1A neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chumakov, Ilya; Milet, Aude; Cholet, Nathalie; Primas, Gwenaël; Boucard, Aurélie; Pereira, Yannick; Graudens, Esther; Mandel, Jonas; Laffaire, Julien; Foucquier, Julie; Glibert, Fabrice; Bertrand, Viviane; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Sereda, Michael W; Vial, Emmanuel; Guedj, Mickaël; Hajj, Rodolphe; Nabirotchkin, Serguei; Cohen, Daniel

    2014-12-10

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is the most common inherited sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy. It is caused by PMP22 overexpression which leads to defects of peripheral myelination, loss of long axons, and progressive impairment then disability. There is no treatment available despite observations that monotherapeutic interventions slow progression in rodent models. We thus hypothesized that a polytherapeutic approach using several drugs, previously approved for other diseases, could be beneficial by simultaneously targeting PMP22 and pathways important for myelination and axonal integrity. A combination of drugs for CMT1A polytherapy was chosen from a group of authorised drugs for unrelated diseases using a systems biology approach, followed by pharmacological safety considerations. Testing and proof of synergism of these drugs were performed in a co-culture model of DRG neurons and Schwann cells derived from a Pmp22 transgenic rat model of CMT1A. Their ability to lower Pmp22 mRNA in Schwann cells relative to house-keeping genes or to a second myelin transcript (Mpz) was assessed in a clonal cell line expressing these genes. Finally in vivo efficacy of the combination was tested in two models: CMT1A transgenic rats, and mice that recover from a nerve crush injury, a model to assess neuroprotection and regeneration. Combination of (RS)-baclofen, naltrexone hydrochloride and D-sorbitol, termed PXT3003, improved myelination in the Pmp22 transgenic co-culture cellular model, and moderately down-regulated Pmp22 mRNA expression in Schwannoma cells. In both in vitro systems, the combination of drugs was revealed to possess synergistic effects, which provided the rationale for in vivo clinical testing of rodent models. In Pmp22 transgenic CMT1A rats, PXT3003 down-regulated the Pmp22 to Mpz mRNA ratio, improved myelination of small fibres, increased nerve conduction and ameliorated the clinical phenotype. PXT3003 also improved axonal regeneration and

  10. The Evolutionary Chromosome Translocation 4;19 in Gorilla gorilla is Associated with Microduplication of the Chromosome Fragment Syntenic to Sequences Surrounding the Human Proximal CMT1A-REP

    PubMed Central

    Stankiewicz, Pawel; Park, Sung-Sup; Inoue, Ken; Lupski, James R.

    2001-01-01

    Many genomic disorders occur as a result of chromosome rearrangements involving low-copy repeats (LCRs). To better understand the molecular basis of chromosome rearrangements, including translocations, we have investigated the mechanism of evolutionary rearrangements. In contrast to several intrachromosomal rearrangements, only two evolutionary translocations have been identified by cytogenetic analyses of humans and greater apes. Human chromosome 2 arose as a result of a telomeric fusion between acrocentric chromosomes, whereas chromosomes 4 and 19 in Gorilla gorilla are the products of a reciprocal translocation between ancestral chromosomes, syntenic to human chromosomes 5 and 17, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to characterize the breakpoints of the latter translocation at the molecular level. We identified three BAC clones that span translocation breakpoints. One breakpoint occurred in the region syntenic to human chromosome 5q13.3, between the HMG-CoA reductase gene (HMGCR) and RAS p21 protein activator 1 gene (RASA1). The second breakpoint was in a region syntenic to human chromosome 17p12 containing the 24 kb region-specific low-copy repeat-proximal CMT1A-REP. Moreover, we found that the t(4;19) is associated with a submicroscopic chromosome duplication involving a 19p chromosome fragment homologous to the human chromosome region surrounding the proximal CMT1A-REP. These observations further indicate that higher order genomic architecture involving low-copy repeats resulting from genomic duplication plays a significant role in karyotypic evolution. PMID:11435402

  11. Oral high dose ascorbic acid treatment for one year in young CMT1A patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background High dose oral ascorbic acid substantially improved myelination and locomotor function in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A mouse model. A phase II study was warranted to investigate whether high dose ascorbic acid also has such a substantial effect on myelination in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A patients and whether this treatment is safe. Methods Patients below age 25 years were randomly assigned to receive placebo or ascorbic acid (one gram twice daily) in a double-blind fashion during one year. The primary outcome measure was the change over time in motor nerve conduction velocity of the median nerve. Secondary outcome measures included changes in minimal F response latencies, compound muscle action potential amplitude, muscle strength, sensory function, Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy score, and disability. Results There were no significant differences between the six placebo-treated (median age 16 years, range 13 to 24) and the five ascorbic acid-treated (19, 14 to 24) patients in change in motor nerve conduction velocity of the median nerve (mean difference ascorbic acid as opposed to placebo treatment of 1.3 m/s, confidence interval -0.3 to 3.0 m/s, P = 0.11) or in change of any of the secondary outcome measures over time. One patient in the ascorbic acid group developed a skin rash, which led to discontinuation of the study medication. Conclusion Oral high dose ascorbic acid for one year did not improve myelination of the median nerve in young Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A patients. Treatment was relatively safe. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN56968278, ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00271635. PMID:19909499

  12. Conformational changes associated with L16P and T118M mutations in the membrane-embedded PMP22 protein, consequential in CMT-1A.

    PubMed

    Bello, Martiniano; Torres, Mixtli J; Méndez-Tenorio, Alfonso; Correa-Basurto, José

    2016-10-05

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) resides in the plasma membrane and is required for myelin formation in the peripheral nervous system. Excess PMP22 mutants accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resulting in the inherited neuropathies of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. However, there was no evidence of the structure of PMP22 or how mutations affect its folding. Therefore, in this study, we combined bioinformatics and homology modeling approaches to obtain three-dimensional native and mutated PMP22 models and its anchoring to a POPC membrane, submitted to .5-μs MD simulations, to determine how the L16P and T118M mutations affect the conformational behavior of PMP22. In addition, we investigated the ability of the native and mutated species to accumulate in the ER, via interaction with RER1, by combining protein-protein docking and MD simulations, taking the conformations that were most representative of the native and mutated PMP22 systems and RER1 conformations. Principal component analysis over MD simulations revealed that L16P and T118M mutations resulted in increased structural instability compared to the native form, which is consistent with previous experimental findings of increased structural fluctuations along a loop connecting transmembrane α-helix1 and α-helix2. Docking and MD simulations coupled with the MMGBSA approach allowed the identification that the binding interface for the PMP22-RER1 complex takes place through transmembrane α-helix1 and α-helix2, with higher effective binding free energy values between the mutated PMP22 systems and RER1 than for the native PMP22, mainly through van der Waals interactions.

  13. De novo mutation of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A.

    PubMed

    Tachi, N; Kozuka, N; Ohya, K; Chiba, S

    1997-07-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT 1A) is an autosomal dominant demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with a 1.5-Mb duplication of the p11.2-p12 region of chromosome 17, including the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP-22) gene (CMT 1A duplication). We report a male patient with a de novo CMT 1A diagnosed on clinical, electrophysiologic, and molecular grounds. Motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) of the patient was 10.9 m/s in the ulnar nerve. The MCV of both his parents was within the normal range. Southern blot analysis of BamHI digestion showed reduced intensity rate of SF85/PMP-22, indicating CMT 1A duplication. Haplotype analysis with pVAW4093a, demonstrated that the de novo CMT 1A duplication was of paternal origin.

  14. An essential role of MAG in mediating axon-myelin attachment in Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A disease

    PubMed Central

    Kinter, Jochen; Lazzati, Thomas; Schmid, Daniela; Zeis, Thomas; Erne, Beat; Lützelschwab, Roland; Steck, Andreas J.; Pareyson, Davide; Peles, Elior; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is a hereditary demyelinating peripheral neuropathy caused by the duplication of the PMP22 gene. Demyelination precedes the occurrence of clinical symptoms that correlate with axonal degeneration. It was postulated that a disturbed axon-glia interface contribute to altered myelination consequently leading to axonal degeneration. In this study, we examined the expression of MAG and Necl4, two critical adhesion molecules that are present at the axon-glia interface, in sural nerve biopsies of CMT1A patients and in peripheral nerves of mice overexpressing human PMP22, an animal model for CMT1A. We show an increase in the expression of MAG and a strong decrease of Necl4 in biopsies of CMT1A patients as well as in CMT1A mice. Expression analysis revealed that MAG is strongly upregulated during peripheral nerve maturation, whereas Necl4 expression remains very low. Ablating MAG in CMT1A mice results in separation of axons from their myelin sheath. Our data show that MAG is important for axon-glia contact in a model for CMT1A, and suggest that its increased expression in CMT1A disease has a compensatory role in the pathology of the disease. Thus, we demonstrate that MAG together with other adhesion molecules such as Necl4 is important in sustaining axonal integrity. PMID:22940629

  15. Atypical presentation of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shilpa D; Sayed, Rafat; Garg, Meenal; Patil, Varsha A

    2015-11-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) 1A is the most common form of CMT disease and is characterized by duplication of Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. We report a boy with genetically confirmed CMT1A disease having clinical involvement of hypoglossal and glossopharyngeal nerves, as well as asymmetrical and primarily upper limb involvement. These atypical features widen the clinical spectrum of CMT1A, leading to interesting observations about PMP22 gene related disorders and varied clinical expression of similar genetic mutations.

  16. Soluble neuregulin-1 modulates disease pathogenesis in rodent models of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A.

    PubMed

    Fledrich, Robert; Stassart, Ruth M; Klink, Axel; Rasch, Lennart M; Prukop, Thomas; Haag, Lauren; Czesnik, Dirk; Kungl, Theresa; Abdelaal, Tamer A M; Keric, Naureen; Stadelmann, Christine; Brück, Wolfgang; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Sereda, Michael W

    2014-09-01

    Duplication of the gene encoding the peripheral myelin protein of 22 kDa (PMP22) underlies the most common inherited neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A), a disease without a known cure. Although demyelination represents a characteristic feature, the clinical phenotype of CMT1A is determined by the degree of axonal loss, and patients suffer from progressive muscle weakness and impaired sensation. CMT1A disease manifests within the first two decades of life, and walking disabilities, foot deformities and electrophysiological abnormalities are already present in childhood. Here, we show in Pmp22-transgenic rodent models of CMT1A that Schwann cells acquire a persistent differentiation defect during early postnatal development, caused by imbalanced activity of the PI3K-Akt and the Mek-Erk signaling pathways. We demonstrate that enhanced PI3K-Akt signaling by axonally overexpressed neuregulin-1 (NRG1) type I drives diseased Schwann cells toward differentiation and preserves peripheral nerve axons. Notably, in a preclinical experimental therapy using a CMT1A rat model, when treatment is restricted to early postnatal development, soluble NRG1 effectively overcomes impaired peripheral nerve development and restores axon survival into adulthood. Our findings suggest a model in which Schwann cell differentiation within a limited time window is crucial for the long-term maintenance of axonal support.

  17. Nerve Excitability Properties in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 1A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodera, Hiroyuki; Bostock, Hugh; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Takashi; Asanuma, Kotaro; Jia-Ying, Sung; Ogawara, Kazue; Hattori, Naoki; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kaji, Ryuji

    2004-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is commonly considered a prototype of a hereditary demyelinating polyneuropathy. Apart from the myelin involvement, there has been little information on axonal membrane properties in this condition. Taking advantage of the uniform nature of the disease process, we undertook the "in vivo" assessment of…

  18. New insights into the pathophysiology of pes cavus in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A duplication.

    PubMed

    Berciano, José; Gallardo, Elena; García, Antonio; Pelayo-Negro, Ana L; Infante, Jon; Combarros, Onofre

    2011-09-01

    Forefoot pes cavus is a cardinal sign of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). This review is focused on the pathophysiology of pes cavus in CMT1A duplication, which is the most common subtype of the disease. Assessment of foot deformities in CMT1A, their prevalence and proposed mechanisms, and recent contributions of magnetic resonance imaging studies of lower-leg and foot musculature are revised. Special attention is given to papers on foot deformities at initial stages of the disease. We conclude that pes cavus is an early and age-dependent manifestation of CMT1A duplication. Selective denervation of intrinsic foot musculature, particularly of the lumbricals, and not imbalance of lower-leg muscles, seems to be the initial mechanism causing reduced ankle flexibility and forefoot cavus deformity.

  19. Recombination hot spot in 3.2-kb region of the Charcot-Marie Tooth type 1A repeat sequences: New tools for molecular diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, J.; LeGuern, E.; Gouider, R.; Tardieu, S.; Abbas, N.

    1996-06-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) disease and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are autosomal dominant neuropathies, associated, respectively, with duplications and deletions of the same 1.5-Mb region on 17p11.2-p12. These two rearrangements are the reciprocal products of an unequal meiotic crossover between the two chromosome 17 homologues, caused by the misalignment of the CMT1A repeat sequences (CMT1A-REPs), the homologous sequences flanking the 1.5-Mb CMT1A/HNPP monomer unit. In order to map recombination breakpoints within the CMT1A-REPs, a 12.9-kb restriction map was constructed from cloned EcoRI fragments of the proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs. Only 3 of the 17 tested restriction sites were present in the proximal CMT1A-REP but absent in the distal CMT1A-REP, indicating a high degree of homology between these sequences. The rearrangements were mapped in four regions of the CMT1A-REPs by analysis of 76 CMT1A index cases and 38 HNPP patients, who were unrelated. A hot spot of crossover breakpoints located in a 3.2-kb region accounted for three-quarters of the rearrangements, detected after EcoRI/SacI digestion, by the presence of 3.2-kb and 7.8-kb junction fragments in CMT1A and HNPP patients, respectively. These junction fragments, which can be detected on classical Southern blots, permit molecular diagnosis. Other rearrangements can also be detected by gene dosage on the same Southern blots. 25 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Peripheral myelin protein 22 gene duplication with atypical presentations: a new example of the wide spectrum of Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A disease.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Stéphane; Corcia, Philippe; Tazir, Meriem; Camu, William; Magdelaine, Corinne; Latour, Philippe; Biberon, Julien; Guennoc, Anne-Marie; Richard, Laurence; Magy, Laurent; Funalot, Benoît; Vallat, Jean-Michel

    2014-06-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are both autosomal-dominant disorders linked to peripheral myelin anomalies. CMT1A is associated with a Peripheral Myelin Protein 22 (PMP22) duplication, whereas HNPP is due to a PMP22 deletion on chromosome 17. In spite of this crucial difference, we report three observations of patients with the 1.4 megabase CMT1A duplication and atypical presentation (electrophysiological, clinical or pathological): a 10 year-old girl with tomaculous lesions on nerve biopsy; a 26 year-old woman with recurrent paresthesiae and block conduction on the electrophysiological study; a 46 year-old woman with transient recurrent nerve palsies mimicking HNPP. These observations highlight the wide spectrum of CMT1A and the overlap between CMT1A and HNPP (both linked to the PMP22 gene), and finally illustrate the complexity of the genotype-phenotype correlations in Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases.

  1. Prevalence and origin of de novo duplications in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A: first report of a de novo duplication with a maternal origin.

    PubMed Central

    Blair, I. P.; Nash, J.; Gordon, M. J.; Nicholson, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy. Sporadic cases of CMT have been described since the earliest reports of the disease. The most frequent form of the disorder, CMT1A, is associated with a 1.5-Mb DNA duplication on chromosome 17p11.2, which segregates with the disease. In order to investigate the prevalence of de novo CMT1A duplications, this study examined 118 duplication-positive CMT1A families. In 10 of these families it was demonstrated that the disease had arisen as the result of a de novo mutation. By taking into account the ascertainment of families, it can be estimated that > or = 10% of autosomal dominant CMT1 families are due to de novo duplications. The CMT1A duplication is thought to be the product of unequal crossing over between parental chromosome 17 homologues during meiosis. Polymorphic markers from within the duplicated region were used to determine the parental origin of these de novo duplications in eight informative families. Seven were of paternal and one of maternal origin. This study represents the first report of a de novo duplication with a maternal origin and indicates that it is not a phenomenon associated solely with male meioses. Recombination fractions for the region duplicated in CMT1A are larger in females than in males. That suggests that oogenesis may be afforded greater protection from misalignment during synapsis, and/or that there may be lower activity of those factors or mechanisms that lead to unequal crossing over at the CMT1A locus. Images Figure 2 PMID:8644705

  2. Prevalence and origin of De Novo duplications in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A: First report of a De Novo duplication with a maternal origin

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, I.P.; Nash, J.; Gordon, M.J.; Nicholson, G.A.

    1996-03-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy. Sporadic cases of CMT have been described since the earliest reports of the disease. The most frequent form of the disorder, CMT1A, is associated with a 1.5-Mb DNA duplication on chromosome 17p11.2, which segregates with the disease. In order to investigate the prevalence of de novo CMT1A duplications, this study examined 118 duplication-positive CMT1A families. In 10 of these families it was demonstrated that the disease had arisen as the result of a de novo mutation. By taking into account the ascertainment of families, it can be estimated that {>=}10% of autosomal dominant CMT1 families are due to de novo duplications. The CMT1A duplication is thought to be the product of unequal crossing over between parental chromosome 17 homologues during meiosis. Polymorphic markers from within the duplicated region were used to determine the parental origin of these de novo duplications in eight informative families. Seven were of paternal and one of maternal origin. This study represents the first report of a de novo duplication with a maternal origin and indicates that it is not a phenomenon associated solely with male meioses. Recombination fractions for the region duplicated in CMT1A are larger in females than in males. That suggests that oogenesis may be afforded greater protection from misalignment during synapsis, and/or that there may be lower activity of those factors or mechanisms that lead to unequal crossing over at the CMT1A locus. 41 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Unequal exchange at the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A recombination hot-spot is not elevated above the genome average rate.

    PubMed

    Han, L L; Keller, M P; Navidi, W; Chance, P F; Arnheim, N

    2000-07-22

    An increasing number of human diseases and syndromes are being found to result from micro-duplications or microdeletions arising from meiotic recombination between homologous repeats on the same chromosome. The first microduplication syndrome delineated, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), results from unequal crossing over between two >98% identical 24 kb repeats (CMT1A-REPs) on chromosome 17. In addition to its medical significance, the CMT1A region has features that make it a unique resource for detailed analysis of human unequal recombination. Previous studies of CMT1A patients showed that the majority of unequal crossovers occurred within a small region (<1 kb) of the REPs suggesting the presence of a recombination hot-spot. We directly measured the frequency of unequal recombination in the hot-spot region using sperm from four normal individuals. Surprisingly, unequal recombination between the REPs occurs at a rate no greater than the average rate for the male genome (approximately 1 cM/Mb) and is the same as that expected for equally aligned REPs. This conclusion extends to humans the findings in yeast that recombination between repeated sequences far apart on the same chromosome may occur at similar frequencies to allelic recombination. Finally, the CMT1A hot-spot stands in sharp contrast to the human MS32 mini-satellite-associated hot-spot that exhibits highly enhanced recombination initiation in addition to positional specificity. One possibility is that the CMT1A hot-spot may consist of a region with genome average recombination potential embedded within a recombination cold-spot.

  4. PMP22 messenger RNA levels in skin biopsies: testing the effectiveness of a Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A biomarker.

    PubMed

    Nobbio, Lucilla; Visigalli, Davide; Radice, Davide; Fiorina, Elisabetta; Solari, Alessandra; Lauria, Giuseppe; Reilly, Mary M; Santoro, Lucio; Schenone, Angelo; Pareyson, Davide

    2014-06-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is associated with increased gene dosage for PMP22. Therapeutic approaches are currently aiming at correcting PMP22 over-expression. It is unknown whether PMP22 can be used as a biological marker of disease progression and therapy efficacy. We performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on skin biopsies of 45 patients with CMT1A, obtained at study entry and after 24-months of treatment either with ascorbic acid or placebo. Data of a subgroup of patients were also compared with matched healthy subjects. Finally, we analysed PMP22 messenger RNA levels in sural nerve biopsies. We did not find significant differences in the levels of any known PMP22 transcripts in treated or untreated patients with CMT1A, thus confirming that ascorbic acid does not impact on the molecular features of CMT1A. Most importantly, we did not observe any correlation between PMP22 messenger RNA levels and the different clinical and electrophysiological outcome measures, underscoring the weakness of PMP22 to mirror the phenotypic variability of patients with CMT1A. We did not find increased PMP22 messenger RNA levels in skin and sural nerve biopsies of patients with CMT1A compared with relative controls. In conclusion, this study shows that ascorbic acid does not impact on PMP22 transcriptional regulation and PMP22 is not a suitable biomarker for CMT1A.

  5. Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A disease from patient to laboratory.

    PubMed

    Perveen, Shazia; Mannan, Shazia; Hussain, Abrar; Kanwal, Sumaira

    2015-02-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a well-known neural or spinal type of muscular atrophy. It is the most familiar disease within a group of conditions called Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathies (HMSN). The disease was discovered by three scientists several years ago. Several genes are involved as the causative agents for the disease. Hundreds of causative mutations have been found and research work for the identification of a novel locus and for the treatment of CMT1A is going on. This review article was planned to gather information on CMT disease and updates on its treatment.National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and PubMed were searched for data retrieval. Molgen database, which is the exclusive site for CMT mutation, was the other source of articles. Different aspects of the CMT disease were compared.Advancements in the finding of the causative gene, discovery of the novel Loci are the current issues in this regard.CMT disease is incurable, but researchers are trying to get some benefits from different natural compounds and several therapeutic agents.Various groups are working on the treatment projects of CMT1A. Major step forward in CMT research was taken in 2004 when ascorbic acid was used for transgenic mice treatment. Gene therapy for constant neurotrophin-3 (NT- 3) delivery by secretion by muscle cells for the CMT1A is also one of the possible treatments under trial.

  6. [Ascorbic Acid and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease].

    PubMed

    Noto, Yu-ichi

    2015-10-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is a disease for which no drug treatments are available. Passage et al. reported that ascorbic acid reduced the mRNA level of PMP22, improved motor function and increased the numbers of myelinated peripheral nerve axons in a mouse model of CMT1A. Based on these results, five clinical trials were undertaken at different centers worldwide. However, none of them demonstrated significant effectiveness. Although these outcomes were disappointing, these studies have provided many useful insights for conducting the next randomised controlled trial for CMT1A.

  7. Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A Concurrent with Schwannomas of the Spinal Cord and Median Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Joo Young; Chung, Ki Wha; Park, Eun Kyung; Park, Sun Wha

    2009-01-01

    We identified Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) in a family with schwannomas in the spinal cord and median nerve. The CMT1A in this family showed an autosomal dominant pattern, like other CMT patients with PMP22 duplication, and the family also indicated a possible genetic predisposition to schwannomas by 'mother-to-son' transmission. CMT1A is mainly caused by duplication of chromosome 17p11.2-p12 (PMP22 gene duplication). A schwannoma is a benign encapsulated tumor originating from a Schwann cell. A case of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) concurrent with schwannoma has been previously reported. Although it seems that the co-occurrence of CMT1A and schwannomas in a family would be the result of independent events, we could not completely ignore the possibility that the coincidence of two diseases might be due to a shared genetic background. PMID:19654968

  8. Analysis of the benefits of vitamin cocktails in treating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ferdinand; Belin, Sophie; Micallef, Joelle; Blin, Olivier; Fontés, Michel

    2008-08-01

    We recently proposed that the use of high doses of ascorbic acid (AA) could constitute the first potential treatment for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A).4 We investigated the potential benefits of using cocktails of vitamins for CMT1A therapy. We used transient transfection of Schwann cells with a construction placing the expression of a reporter gene under the control of the Schwann cell-specific promoter of PMP22. Transfected cells were cultured with or without addition of ascorbic acid, vitamin A, vitamin E, or a cocktail of these vitamins. Adding vitamin A or E counteracts the effect of ascorbic acid in inhibiting PMP22 expression. We thus recommend that vitamins A and E should not be included in combination with AA in clinical trials.

  9. Lower limb manual muscle testing in the early stages of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A.

    PubMed

    Vinci, Paolo; Serrao, Mariano; Pierelli, Francesco; Sandrini, Giorgio; Santilli, Valter

    2006-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder that affects approximately one in 2,500 individuals. CMT 1A, which is due to a duplication in the area containing the PMP-22 gene on chromosome 17, is the most frequent CMT subtype. To date, there is no consensus among authors about which muscles are weakened in the early stages of CMT, even though this knowledge would be crucial for deciding the most appropriate interventions to restore balance between muscles and prevent the development of deformities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the strength of several lower limb muscles in the early stages of CMT 1A. In a series of 45 patients (age 10-72 years; 21 males, 24 females) affected by CMT 1A, we evaluated 83 non-operated lower limbs that corresponded to the two milder stages of a five-level functional classification. The strength of two foot muscles, seven leg muscles, two thigh muscles, and three pelvic girdle muscles was graded using the manual muscle testing techniques of Daniels and Worthingham; the power of the triceps surae was graded, in the prone position, using a 4-level scale of ability to raise the heel from the floor. Muscle strength was determined on the basis of interobserver agreement estimated by kappa statistics between two observers. The flexor hallucis brevis and lumbricals were very weak in all the limbs; the leg muscles were strong in more than 90% of limbs, except the peronei (strong in 83.13%); all the triceps surae were strong in the prone test, but 16.87% were weak in the standing test; all the proximal muscles were strong. In the large majority of patients in the early stages of CMT 1A, the intrinsic foot muscles are very weak and the leg and proximal muscles are strong.

  10. Evolution of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A duplication: a 2-year clinico-electrophysiological and lower-limb muscle MRI longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pelayo-Negro, Ana L; Gallardo, Elena; García, Antonio; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Infante, Jon; Berciano, José

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) evolution. We conducted a 2-year longitudinal study in 14 CMT1A patients and 14 age- and sex-matched controls. In the patients, we performed neurological examination with hand-held dynamometry, electrophysiology, and lower-limb muscle MRI, both at baseline and 2 years later, while controls were examined at baseline only. Patients' ages ranged from 12 to 51 years. Outstanding manifestations on initial evaluation included pes cavus, areflexia, lower-limb weakness, and foot hypopallesthesia. In evaluating muscle power, good correlation was observed between manual testing and dynamometry. Compared to controls, Lunge, 10-Meter-Walking, and 9-Hole-Peg tests were impaired. Their CMT neuropathy score and functional disability scale showed that patients exhibited mild phenotype and at most slight walking difficulty. Electrophysiology revealed marked nerve conduction slowing and variable compound muscle action potential amplitude reduction. On lower-limb muscle MRI, there was distally accentuated fatty infiltration accompanied by edema in calf muscles. All these clinico-electrophysiological and imaging findings remained almost unaltered during monitoring. Using multivariate analysis, no significant predictors of progression associated to the disease were obtained. We conclude that in the 2-year period of study, CMT1A patients showed mild progression with good concordance between clinico-electrophysiological and imaging findings.

  11. [Autopsy case of a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and suspected chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, which was later diagnosed as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Yujiro; Sakiyama, Yusuke; Nishihira, Yasushi; Endo, Kazuhiro; Suwazono, Shugo; Suehara, Masahito

    2012-01-01

    We report an autopsy case of a 74-year-old man with late onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) diagnosed by genetic screening, later associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). At the age of 70 years, the patient was admitted to our hospital because of progressive weakness and dysesthesia in the right upper limb. In the early stages of the illness, he was diagnosed with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and transient improvement was achieved with intravenous immunoglobulin. However, the symptoms progressively worsened and became refractory. Gene analysis revealed PMP22 gene duplication, which confirmed CMT1A. On sural nerve biopsy, severe demyelinating neuropathy and abundant onion-bulb formations with endoneurial infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed. Thereafter, pseudo-bulbar palsy and respiratory muscle weakness developed insidiously and progressed rapidly along with muscle weakness in the limbs and trunk. The patient died about four years after the onset of this disease. Postmortem examination showed moderate neuronal cell loss, Bunina bodies, and TDP-43-positive inclusions in the anterior horn cells. The spinal cord revealed axonal loss and extensive macrophage permeation in the corticospinal tracts. On the basis of these findings, the final neuropathological diagnosis was ALS. This is the first report of an autopsy case of CMT1A complicated with ALS. We here discuss the significant clinical and neuropathological findings of this case.

  12. A Rasch Analysis of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy Score (CMTNS) in a Cohort of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1A Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guedj, Mickaël; Bertrand, Viviane; Foucquier, Julie; Jouve, Elisabeth; Commenges, Daniel; Proust-Lima, Cécile; Murphy, Niall P.; Blin, Olivier; Magy, Laurent; Cohen, Daniel; Attarian, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    The Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy Score (CMTNS) was developed as a main efficacy endpoint for application in clinical trials of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). However, the sensitivity of the CMTNS for measuring disease severity and progression in CMT1A patients has been questioned. Here, we applied a Rasch analysis in a French cohort of patients to evaluate the psychometrical properties of the CMTNS. Overall, our analysis supports the validity of the CMTNS for application to CMT1A patients though with some limitations such as certain items of the CMTNS being more suitable for moderate to severe forms of the disease, and some items being disordered. We suggest that additional items and/or categories be considered to better assess mild-to-moderate patients. PMID:28095456

  13. Coexistence of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and anti-MAG neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Salsano, Ettore; Ciano, Claudia; Palamara, Luisa; Morbin, Michela; Pareyson, Davide

    2013-06-01

    At age 35, a man with a genetic diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) but no family history of neuropathy and no clinical symptoms developed rapidly progressive loss of balance, distal limb numbness, loss of manual dexterity, and hand tremor. Five years later, he walked with support and had mild pes cavus, marked sensory ataxia, severe leg and hand weakness, absent deep tendon reflexes (DTRs), severe sensory loss, and hand tremor. He had dramatically reduced motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), strikingly prolonged motor distal latencies, absent sensory action potentials and lower limb compound muscle action potentials. CMT1A duplication was reconfirmed but the dramatic change in his clinical course suggested a superimposed acquired neuropathy. An IgM-kappa monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) with high titer anti-myelin associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) activity was found. Nerve biopsy showed severe loss of myelinated fibers with onion bulbs, no evidence of uncompacted myelin, and few IgM deposits. Rituximab was given and he improved. It is very likely that this is a chance association of two rare and slowly progressive neuropathies; rapidly worsening course may have been due to a "double hit". Interestingly, there are reports of possible superimposition of dysimmune neuropathies on hereditary ones, and the influence of the immune system on inherited neuropathies is matter for debate.

  14. PMP22 related neuropathies: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and Hereditary Neuropathy with liability to Pressure Palsies.

    PubMed

    van Paassen, Barbara W; van der Kooi, Anneke J; van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y; Verhamme, Camiel; Baas, Frank; de Visser, Marianne

    2014-03-19

    PMP22 related neuropathies comprise (1) PMP22 duplications leading to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), (2) PMP22 deletions, leading to Hereditary Neuropathy with liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP), and (3) PMP22 point mutations, causing both phenotypes. Overall prevalence of CMT is usually reported as 1:2,500, epidemiological studies show that 20-64% of CMT patients carry the PMP22 duplication. The prevalence of HNPP is not well known. CMT1A usually presents in the first two decades with difficulty walking or running. Distal symmetrical muscle weakness and wasting and sensory loss is present, legs more frequently and more severely affected than arms. HNPP typically leads to episodic, painless, recurrent, focal motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy, preceded by minor compression on the affected nerve. Electrophysiological evaluation is needed to determine whether the polyneuropathy is demyelinating. Sonography of the nerves can be useful. Diagnosis is confirmed by finding respectively a PMP22 duplication, deletion or point mutation. Differential diagnosis includes other inherited neuropathies, and acquired polyneuropathies. The mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant and de novo mutations occur. Offspring of patients have a chance of 50% to inherit the mutation from their affected parent. Prenatal testing is possible; requests for prenatal testing are not common. Treatment is currently symptomatic and may include management by a rehabilitation physician, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and orthopaedic surgeon. Adult CMT1A patients show slow clinical progression of disease, which seems to reflect a process of normal ageing. Life expectancy is normal.

  15. PMP22 related neuropathies: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and Hereditary Neuropathy with liability to Pressure Palsies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    PMP22 related neuropathies comprise (1) PMP22 duplications leading to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), (2) PMP22 deletions, leading to Hereditary Neuropathy with liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP), and (3) PMP22 point mutations, causing both phenotypes. Overall prevalence of CMT is usually reported as 1:2,500, epidemiological studies show that 20-64% of CMT patients carry the PMP22 duplication. The prevalence of HNPP is not well known. CMT1A usually presents in the first two decades with difficulty walking or running. Distal symmetrical muscle weakness and wasting and sensory loss is present, legs more frequently and more severely affected than arms. HNPP typically leads to episodic, painless, recurrent, focal motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy, preceded by minor compression on the affected nerve. Electrophysiological evaluation is needed to determine whether the polyneuropathy is demyelinating. Sonography of the nerves can be useful. Diagnosis is confirmed by finding respectively a PMP22 duplication, deletion or point mutation. Differential diagnosis includes other inherited neuropathies, and acquired polyneuropathies. The mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant and de novo mutations occur. Offspring of patients have a chance of 50% to inherit the mutation from their affected parent. Prenatal testing is possible; requests for prenatal testing are not common. Treatment is currently symptomatic and may include management by a rehabilitation physician, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and orthopaedic surgeon. Adult CMT1A patients show slow clinical progression of disease, which seems to reflect a process of normal ageing. Life expectancy is normal. PMID:24646194

  16. Clinical progression in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A duplication: clinico-electrophysiological and MRI longitudinal study of a family.

    PubMed

    Berciano, José; Gallardo, Elena; García, Antonio; Ramón, César; Infante, Jon; Combarros, Onofre

    2010-10-01

    Long-term follow-up studies in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 duplication (CMT1A) are scanty. Here we describe a longitudinal study in a CMT1A pedigree. Our CMT1A pedigree comprised 11 examined patients, ages between 13 and 83 (median, 36) years, serially evaluated for up to 26 years. In all 11 patients we carried out electrophysiological evaluation, and in three of them magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lower-limb musculature. The 54-year-old proband patient, yearly examined as of age 28, developed at age 48 gradual and progressive distal lower-leg weakness ascending to thigh musculature. His serial electrophysiological studies showed diffuse slowing of motor conduction velocity, absence or severe attenuation of distal compound muscle action potentials, and spontaneous muscle activity in the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris. Two MRI studies of lower limbs, at ages 51 and 54, showed extensive fatty atrophy of lower-leg musculature, and progressive and distally accentuated fatty atrophy of anterior and posterior femoral muscles. An outstanding finding in the first MRI was the presence of marked edema of anterior femoral musculature, which to a great degree was replaced by fatty atrophy in the second study. Muscle edema was also noted in lower-leg and posterior femoral musculature. There was minimal fatty atrophy of the gluteus maximus, the remaining pelvic muscles being preserved. The other ten patients showed mild or moderate phenotype, which remained quiescent over the period of observation. Electrophysiological studies disclosed diffuse and uniform slowing of nerve conduction velocities; in no case was spontaneous muscle activity recorded. MRI showed the CMT1A characteristic pattern of distally accentuated fatty atrophy involving foot and lower-leg musculature with preservation of thigh musculature. We conclude that a small proportion of patients with CMT1A develop a late progression of disease manifested with accentuated distal leg weakness ascending

  17. Efficacy of focal mechanic vibration treatment on balance in Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pazzaglia, Costanza; Camerota, F; Germanotta, M; Di Sipio, E; Celletti, C; Padua, L

    2016-07-01

    Patients affected by Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease experience an impaired balance. Although the causes of the postural instability are not fully understood, somatosensory system seems to play a key role. Mechanical vibration seems to act on the somatosensory system and to improve its function. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of focal mechanical vibration (fMV) on the balance of CMT 1A patients. We enrolled 14 genetically confirmed CMT 1A patients (8 female and 6 male, mean age 492 years, range 32-74, mean duration of disease: 13 years, range 1-30). Patients underwent a 3-day fMV treatment on quadriceps and triceps surae and were evaluated before the treatment as well as 1 week and 1 month after the end of the treatment. The primary outcome measure was the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the secondary were the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI), the 6 Min Walking Test (6MWT), the muscular strength of lower limbs, the Quality of Life (QoL) questionnaire and the stabilometric variables. The statistical analysis showed a significant modification of the BBS due to the effect of treatment (p < 0.05). A significant modification was also found in the DGI (p < 0.05). Concerning the stabilometric variables we found significant changes only for the eyes closed condition; in particular, a significant decrease was found in VelocityML (p < 0.05) and Sway path length (p < 0.05). The fMV treatment applied on lower limbs of CMT 1A patients determined an improvement of balance as detected by the BBS. The concurrent improvement of stabilometric variables in the eyes closed condition only suggests that fMV acts mostly on somatosensory afferences. Further studies are needed to confirm these data on a larger sample of CMT patients.

  18. Respiratory dysfunction in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Alcântara, Mônica; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H; Fernandes, Regina Maria França; da Silva, Geruza Alves; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Sander, Heide H; Marques Junior, Wilson

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between neurological compromise, respiratory parameters in wakefulness and in sleep, physiology, and morphology of phrenic nerves in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). Sixteen patients with CMT1A were evaluated by spirometry, maximal expiratory and maximal inspiratory pressures (MEP, MIP), polysomnography, phrenic nerve compound muscle action potential (CMAP), and ultrasonography (roots C3,C4,C5 and phrenic nerves). Clinical disability was measured with Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy score (CMT-NS; range 0-36). Two control groups, comprising 30 individuals matched for age, sex, and body mass index, were used for comparison. Ten patients were female (62%), mean age was 37.88 years (range 24-76); and CMT-NS range was 7-34. MIP was reduced in five (31%) and MEP in 12 patients (75%), although only one had restrictive respiratory dysfunction in spirometry. Apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) was significantly higher in patients (12.01 ± 11.57/h × 5.89 ± 8.36/h; p value = 0.05) and increased in REM sleep compared with NREM (9.94 ± 10.96/h × 19.13 ± 19.93/h; p value = 0.01). There were significant correlations between CMT-NS and AHI (Pearson = 0.69; p value = 0.03); CMT-NS and MIP (Pearson = -0.691, p value = 0.003); and CMT-NS and MEP (Pearson = -0.603, p value = 0.013). Also, AHI showed negative correlation with MIP (Pearson = -0.52, p value = 0.036) and MEP (Pearson = -0.55, p value = 0.026). Phrenic nerves were enlarged in ultrasonography in all patients and presented significant correlations with CMAPs (right: Pearson = -0.554, p value = 0.026; left: Pearson = -0.558, p value = 0.025). We suggest that axonal degeneration of nerves directed to muscles of respiration might explain the high prevalence of respiratory weakness in patients with CMT1A. Clinical manifestations are frequent during sleep, where the diaphragm alone can only partially surpass the overload in breathing apparatus.

  19. Changes of gait pattern in children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A: a 18 months follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a previous study we identified 3 different gait patterns in a group of children with CMT1A disease: Normal-like (NL), Foot-drop (FD), Foot-drop and Push-off Deficit (FD&POD). Goal of the present study was to perform a follow-up evaluation of the same group of patients to analyze possible changes of gait features in relation to disease progression or specific therapy. Methods Nineteen children with CMT1A were evaluated clinically (CMT-Examination Score and Overall Neuropathy Limitation Scale) and through gait analysis 18.2±1.5 months after a baseline evaluation. Meanwhile, 3 of them had foot surgery. Results Fifteen out of the 16 non-operated patients significantly changed at least one of the two parameters associated to primary signs (FD and/or POD). Eleven participants worsened at least one parameter and 9 improved one parameter. CMTES significantly worsened for the group of non-operated patients. However, there was no change in CMTES score in 4 patients and in ONLS score in 11. At subgroup level, participants originally belonging to NL group showed a trend towards a foot-drop deficit (−15%, ns); FD and FD&POD subgroups did not change their primary signs, although significant changes were identified individually. All 3 patients operated have improved push-off and proximal joint patterns during walking. Clinical scores did not change within any sub-group. Conclusions Subtle changes occurring in 1.5 year in gait features of CMT1A children can be instrumentally identified. Such changes show a large inter-subject variability, with some patients even improving their walking pattern. There is anecdotal evidence that foot surgery may improve the push-off phase of gait. PMID:23819439

  20. Quality of life in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Juliana B; Elui, Valéria M C; Osório, Flávia L; Hallak, Jaime E C; Crippa, José A S; Machado-de-Sousa, João P; Kebbe, Leonardo M; Lourenço, Charles M; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel M; Marques, Wilson

    2013-06-01

    We assessed the functional impairment in Charcot-Marie-Tooth resulting from 17p11.2-p12 duplication (CMT1A) patients using the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), which is a quality of life questionnaire. Twenty-five patients of both genders aged ≥10 years with a positive molecular diagnosis of CMT1A were selected. Age- and gender-matched Control Group (without family history of neuropathy), and the sociodemographic and professional conditions similar to the patients' group were selected to compare the SF-36 results between them. The results showed that the majority quality of life impairments in CMT1A patients occurred in the social and emotional domains. Functional capacity also tended to be significantly affected; other indicators of physical impairment were preserved. In conclusion, social and emotional aspects are mostly neglected in the assistance provided to CMT1A Brazilian patients, and they should be better understood in order to offer global health assistance with adequate quality of life as a result.

  1. Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A duplication with severe paresis of the proximal lower limb muscles: a long‐term follow‐up study

    PubMed Central

    Berciano, J; Gallardo, E; García, A; Infante, J; Mateo, I; Combarros, O

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe a large pedigree with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) duplication in which severe pelvic and thigh musculature weakness occurred in two patients, detected by analysing the leg muscle atrophy pattern on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods The pedigree comprised 18 patients, aged between 15 and 85 (median 46) years, who were serially evaluated for up to three decades. All 18 patients and 13 non‐affected at‐risk people underwent electrophysiological examination. An MRI study of lower limb musculature was carried out in four patients. Three patients underwent sural‐nerve biopsy. Genetic testing was carried out in 17 patients and in all 13 at‐risk normal people. Results Fourteen patients were asymptomatic or slightly disabled. The two oldest patients, aged 84 and 80, showed a moderate phenotype. Two other patients, aged 70 and 53, showed late‐onset and gradually progressive peroneal paresis extending up to the thigh and pelvic musculature, resulting in waddling gait. MRI scans of all three patients with a mild phenotype showed subtle and subclinical fatty infiltration of calf anterolateral muscle compartments, with thigh muscle involvement in one patient, and extensive atrophy of intrinsic foot muscles. In the youngest patient with proximal leg weakness, the MRI scan showed massive fatty atrophy of all the calf muscles, posteromedial thigh muscle compartments, and internal and external hip rotator muscles. Sural‐nerve biopsy specimens showed hypertrophic neuropathy with no superimposed inflammation. Good correlation was seen between electrophysiological and genetic testing. Conclusions Late in the clinical course, a small proportion of patients with CMT1A develop severe proximal leg weakness, and long‐term follow‐up is essential for its detection. MRI scans may show subclinical involvement of the thigh musculature. PMID:16788010

  2. De Novo duplication in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1A

    SciTech Connect

    Mandich, P.; Bellone, E.; Ajmar, F.

    1996-09-01

    We read with interest the paper on {open_quotes}Prevalence and Origin of De Novo Duplications in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 1A: First Report of a De Novo Duplication with a Maternal Origin,{close_quotes}. They reported their experience with 10 sporadic cases of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) in which it was demonstrated that the disease had arisen as the result of a de novo duplication. They analyzed the de novo-duplication families by using microsatellite markers and identified the parental origin of the duplication in eight cases. In one family the duplication was of maternal origin, whereas in the remaining seven cases it was of paternal origin. The authors concluded that their report was the first evidence of a de novo duplication of maternal origin, suggesting that this is not a phenomenon associated solely with male meiosis. 7 refs.

  3. [Pathology of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease].

    PubMed

    Oka, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Although genetic testing is available, nerve biopsy is useful in selected patients for the diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). These are sporadic cases of hereditary neuropathy, or familial cases in which genetic testing is negative. CMT is caused by mutations of various genes. The pathological features of CMT have mostly been investigated using nerve biopsy, which may shed light on the presumed functions of mutated gene products. PMP22 duplication in CMT1A induces numerous large onion bulb lesions (OB). Compared to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, the differential features of CMT1A are patchy distribution of OB and non-inflammatory lesions. CMT1B also manifests as OB, but presents abnormal compaction of myelin sheaths caused by uncompacted myelin or excessive myelin folding. CMT2 includes axonal neuropathies and many causative genes have been found. CMT2A (MFN2 mutation) shows abnormal mitochondria with a spherical morphology instead of tubular in the longitudinal direction. CMT4 consists of autosomal recessive forms with demyelinating pathology. Most subtypes have mutations of genes relating to myelin maintenance, and pathologically, they show abnormal folding of the myelin structure.

  4. Mutation analysis of PMP22 in Slovak patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies.

    PubMed

    Resko, Peter; Radvansky, Jan; Odnogova, Zuzana; Baldovic, Marian; Minarik, Gabriel; Polakova, Helena; Palffy, Roland; Kadasi, Ludevit

    2011-12-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and related peripheral neuropathies are the most commonly inherited neurological disorders in humans, characterized by clinical and genetic heterogeneity. The most prevalent clinical entities belonging to this group of disorders are CMT type 1A (CMT1A) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). CMT1A and HNPP are predominantly caused by a 1.5 Mb duplication and deletion in the chromosomal region 17p11.2, respectively, and less frequently by other mutations in the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. Despite being relatively common diseases, they haven't been previously studied in the Slovak population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the spectrum and frequency of PMP22 mutations in the Slovak population by screening 119 families with CMT and 2 families with HNPP for causative mutations in this gene. The copy number determination of PMP22 resulted in the detection of CMT1A duplication in 40 families and the detection of HNPP deletion in 7 families, 6 of which were originally diagnosed as CMT. Consequent mutation screening of families without duplication or deletion using dHPLC and sequencing identified 6 single base changes (3 unpublished to date), from which only c.327C>A (Cys109X) present in one family was provably causative. These results confirm the leading role of PMP22 mutation analysis in the differential diagnosis of CMT and show that the spectrum and frequency of PMP22 mutations in the Slovak population is comparable to that seen in the global population.

  5. Sirtuin 1: A Target for Kidney Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lili; Wu, Hao; Zhou, Wenhua; Luo, Manyu; Tan, Yi; Miao, Lining; Cai, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is an evolutionarily conserved NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase that is necessary for caloric restriction–related lifespan extension. SIRT1, as an intracellular energy sensor, detects the concentration of intracellular NAD+ and uses this information to adapt cellular energy output to cellular energy requirements. Previous studies on SIRT1 have confirmed its beneficial effects on cellular immunity to oxidative stress, reduction of fibrosis, suppression of inflammation, inhibition of apoptosis, regulation of metabolism, induction of autophagy and regulation of blood pressure. All of the above biological processes are involved in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. Therefore, the activation of SIRT1 may become a therapeutic target to improve the clinical outcome of kidney diseases. In this review, we give an overview of SIRT1 and its molecular targets as well as SIRT1-modulated biological processes, with a particular focus on the role of SIRT1 in kidney diseases. PMID:25587857

  6. Sirtuin 1: A Target for Kidney Diseases.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lili; Wu, Hao; Zhou, Wenhua; Luo, Manyu; Tan, Yi; Miao, Lining; Cai, Lu

    2015-01-12

    Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is an evolutionarily conserved NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase that is necessary for caloric restriction-related lifespan extension. SIRT1, as an intracellular energy sensor, detects the concentration of intracellular NAD(+) and uses this information to adapt cellular energy output to cellular energy requirements. Previous studies on SIRT1 have confirmed its beneficial effects on cellular immunity to oxidative stress, reduction of fibrosis, suppression of inflammation, inhibition of apoptosis, regulation of metabolism, induction of autophagy and regulation of blood pressure. All of the above biological processes are involved in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. Therefore, the activation of SIRT1 may become a therapeutic target to improve the clinical outcome of kidney diseases. In this review, we give an overview of SIRT1 and its molecular targets as well as SIRT1-modulated biological processes, with a particular focus on the role of SIRT1 in kidney diseases.

  7. Screening of the 17p11.2--p12 region in a large cohort of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease or hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP).

    PubMed

    Kabzinska, D; Pierscinska, J; Kochanski, A

    2009-01-01

    Within the last decade, numerous methods have been applied to detect the most common mutation in patients affected with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, i.e. submicroscopic duplication in the 17p11.2--p12 region. In 1993, another neuropathy - known as hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) - has been shown to be caused by a 17p11.2--p12 deletion. Historically, Southern blot analysis was the first approach to identify CMT1A duplication or HNPP deletion. This time- and labor-consuming method requires prior selection of DNA samples. In fact, only CMT patients affected with the demyelinating form of CMT1 have been screened for CMT1A duplication. After the 17p11.2--p12 duplication was identified in the CMT1 families, subsequent studies revealed additional axonal features in the patients harboring the 17p11.2--p12 duplication. Thus it seems reasonable to test all patients affected with CMT for the presence of the 17p11.2--p12 duplication. To evaluate the utility of real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR (RFLP-PCR), we screened a large group of 179 families with the diagnosis of CMT/HNPP for the presence of the 17p11.2--p12 duplication/deletion. Due to a high frequency of CMT1A duplication in familial cases of CMT, we propose (in contrast to the previous studies) to perform Q-PCR analysis in all patients diagnosed with CMT.

  8. Copy number variation upstream of PMP22 in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease

    PubMed Central

    Weterman, Marian AJ; van Ruissen, Fred; de Wissel, Marit; Bordewijk, Lou; Samijn, Johnny PA; van der Pol, W Ludo; Meggouh, Farid; Baas, Frank

    2010-01-01

    In several individuals with a Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) phenotype, we found a copy number variation (CNV) on chromosome 17p12 in the direct vicinity of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. The exact borders and size of this CNV were determined by Southern blot analysis, MLPA, vectorette PCR, and microarray hybridization analyses. All patients from six apparently unrelated families carried an identical 186-kb duplication different from the commonly reported 1.5-Mb duplication associated with CMT1A. This ancestral mutation that was not reported in the human structural variation database was only detected in affected individuals and family members. It was absent in 2124 control chromosomes and 40 patients with a chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and therefore should be regarded as causative for the disease. This variant escapes most routine diagnostic screens for CMT1A, because copy numbers of PMP22 probes were all normal. No indications were found for the involvement of the genes that are located within this duplication. A possible association of this duplication with a mutation in the PMP22 coding regions was also excluded. We suggest that this CNV proximal of the PMP22 gene leads to CMT through an unknown mechanism affecting PMP22 expression. PMID:19888301

  9. Reliability of the CMT neuropathy score (second version) in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sinéad M; Herrmann, David N; McDermott, Michael P; Scherer, Steven S; Shy, Michael E; Reilly, Mary M; Pareyson, Davide

    2011-09-01

    The Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy score (CMTNS) is a reliable and valid composite score comprising symptoms, signs, and neurophysiological tests, which has been used in natural history studies of CMT1A and CMT1X and as an outcome measure in treatment trials of CMT1A. Following an international workshop on outcome measures in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), the CMTNS was modified to attempt to reduce floor and ceiling effects and to standardize patient assessment, aiming to improve its sensitivity for detecting change over time and the effect of an intervention. After agreeing on the modifications made to the CMTNS (CMTNS2), three examiners evaluated 16 patients to determine inter-rater reliability; one examiner evaluated 18 patients twice within 8 weeks to determine intra-rater reliability. Three examiners evaluated 63 patients using the CMTNS and the CMTNS2 to determine how the modifications altered scoring. For inter- and intra-rater reliability, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were ≥0.96 for the CMT symptom score and the CMT examination score. There were small but significant differences in some of the individual components of the CMTNS compared with the CMTNS2, mainly in the components that had been modified the most. A longitudinal study is in progress to determine whether the CMTNS2 is more sensitive than the CMTNS for detecting change over time.

  10. Long-term Analyses of Innervation and Neuromuscular Integrity in the Trembler J Mouse Model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nicks, Jessica R.; Lee, Sooyeon; Kostamo, Kathryne A.; Harris, Andrew B.; Sookdeo, Amanda M.; Notterpek, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    A large fraction of hereditary demyelinating neuropathies, classified as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type IA (CMT 1A), is associated with misexpression of peripheral myelin protein 22. In this study we characterized morphological and biochemical changes that occur with disease progression in neuromuscular tissue of Trembler J mice, a spontaneous rodent model of CMT 1A. Using age-matched, 2- and 10-month-old wild type and Trembler J mice, we observed neuromuscular deficits that progress from distal to proximal regions. The impairments in motor performance are underlined by degenerative events at distal nerve segments and structural alterations at nerve-muscle synapses. Furthermore, skeletal muscle of affected mice showed reduced myofiber diameter, increased expression of the muscle atrophy marker muscle ring-finger protein 1 and fiber type switching. A dietary intervention of intermittent fasting attenuated these progressive changes and supported distal nerve myelination and neuromuscular junction integrity. In addition to the well-characterized demyelination aspects of this model, our investigations identified distinct degenerative events in distal nerves and muscle of affected neuropathic mice. Therefore, therapeutic studies aimed at slowing or reversing the neuropathic features of these disorders should include the examination of muscle tissue, as well as neuromuscular contact sites. PMID:24042197

  11. Effectiveness of real-time quantitative PCR compare to repeat PCR for the diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1A and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jong Rak; Lee, Woon Hyoung; Sunwoo, Il Nam; Lee, Eun Kyung; Lee, Chang Hoon; Lim, Jong Baeck

    2005-06-30

    The majority of cases of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) and of hereditary neuropathy with a liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are the result of heterozygosity for the duplication or deletion of peripheral myelin protein 22 gene (PMP22) on 17p11.2. Southern blots, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymorphic marker analysis are currently used diagnostic methods. But they are time-consuming, labor-intensive and have some significant limitations. We describe a rapid real- time quantitative PCR method for determining gene copy number for the identification of DNA duplication or deletion occurring in CMT1A or HNPP and compare the results obtained with REP-PCR. Six patients with CMT1A and 14 patients with HNPP [confirmed by Repeat (REP)-PCR], and 16 patients with suspicious CMT1A and 13 patients with suspicious HNPP [negative REP-PCR], and 15 normal controls were studied. We performed REP-PCR, which amplified a 3.6 Kb region (including a 1.7Kb recombination hotspot), using specific CMT1A-REP and real-time quantitative PCR on the LightCycler system. Using a comparative threshold cycle (Ct) method and beta -globin as a reference gene, the gene copy number of the PMP22 gene was quantified. The PMP22 duplication ratio ranged from 1.35 to 1.74, and the PMP22 deletion ratio from 0.41 to 0.53. The PMP22 ratio in normal controls ranged from 0.81 to 1.12. All 6 patients with CMT1A and 14 patients with HNPP confirmed by REP-PCR were positive by real-time quantitative PCR. Among the 16 suspicious CMT1A and 13 suspicious HNPP with negative REP-PCR, 2 and 4 samples, respectively, were positive by real-time quantitative PCR. Real-time quantitative PCR is a more sensitive and more accurate method than REP-PCR for the detection of PMP22 duplications or deletions, and it is also faster and easier than currently available methods. Therefore, we believe that the real-time quantitative method is useful for diagnosing CMT1A and

  12. Mutation analysis of the nerve specific promoter of the peripheral myelin protein 22 gene in CMT1 disease and HNPP.

    PubMed

    Nelis, E; De Jonghe, P; De Vriendt, E; Patel, P I; Martin, J J; Van Broeckhoven, C

    1998-07-01

    We analysed the nerve specific promoter of the peripheral myelin protein 22 gene (PMP22) in a set of 15 unrelated patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 disease (CMT1) and 16 unrelated patients with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). In these patients no duplication/deletion nor a mutation in the coding region of the CMT1/ HNPP genes was detected. In one autosomal dominant CMT1 patient, we identified a base change in the non-coding exon 1A of PMP22 which, however, did not cosegregate with the disease in the family. This study indicates that mutations in the nerve specific PMP22 promoter and 5' untranslated exon will not be a common genetic cause of CMT1A and HNPP.

  13. Current Therapy for Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

    PubMed

    Grandis, Marina; Shy, Michael E

    2005-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT), or heritable peripheral neuropathies, is among the most frequent genetic neuromuscular disorders, with a prevalence of approximately 1:2500. Since 1991, remarkable advances have occurred in determining the precise genetic cause of many forms of CMT and in generating animal models of many of these disorders. However, these advances have not yet resulted in cures for CMT. Recently, potential treatments for the most common form of CMT, CMT-1A, have been shown in rodent models of the disorder. Treatment with onapristone, a progesterone antagonist, has improved the neuropathy of the CMT-1A rat. Treatment with large doses of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) has improved the neuropathy of the CMT-1A mouse. Multicentric trials with ascorbic acid are likely to start in the near future to assess if vitamin C supplementation is effective and what is the dosage required in humans to improve neurologic disability. Because of potential side effects with antiprogesterone therapy, particularly in women of child- bearing age, research is actively proceeding with progesterone antagonists to develop safe medications that also can be used in clinical trials of CMT-1A. Although no cures are available for CMT, there are many important treatments available for patients with CMT that can improve their quality of life and help them maintain their independence. Some of these therapies involve physiatry and orthopedic surgery. Others involve pain management. Lastly, there are potential concerns about medications or lifestyle issues that may exacerbate CMT. All of these issues will be discussed.

  14. Japanese neuropathy patients with peripheral myelin protein-22 gene aneuploidy

    SciTech Connect

    Lebo, R.V.; Li, L.Y.; Flandermeyer, R.R.

    1994-09-01

    Peripheral myelin protein (PMP-22) gene aneuploidy results in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 1A (CMT1A) and the Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy (HNPP) in Japanese patients as well as Caucasian Americans. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), the most common genetic neuropathy, results when expression of one of at least seven genes is defective. CMT1A, about half of all CMT mutations, is usually associated with a duplication spanning the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene on distal chromosome band 17p11.2. Autosomal dominant HNPP (hereditary pressure and sensory neuropathy, HPSN) results from a deletion of the CMT1A gene region. Multicolor in situ hybridization with PMP-22 gene region probe characterized HNPP deletion reliably and detected all different size duplications reported previously. In summary, 72% of 28 Japanese CMT1 (HMSNI) patients tested had the CMT1A duplication, while none of the CMT2 (HMSNII) or CMT3 (HMSNIII) patients had a duplication. Three cases of HNPP were identified by deletion of the CMT1A gene region on chromosome 17p. HNPP and CMT1A have been reported to result simultaneously from the same unequal recombination event. The lower frequency of HNPP compared to CMT1A suggests that HNPP patients have a lower reproductive fitness than CMT1A patients. This result, along with a CMT1A duplication found in an Asian Indian family, demonstrates the broad geographic distribution and high frequency of PMP-22 gene aneuploidy.

  15. [Therapy for Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: From the Standpoint of Neurologists].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    To date, there is no approved pharmacologic treatment for any form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). However, some clinical or preclinical trials for CMT1A have been undertaken, for example Neurotrophin-3, PXT3003, and neuregulin-1. Gene therapy for CMT1X, CMT2F and Giant axonal neuropathy using animal model or culture cells have been reported with some interesting results. Stem cell research for example iPS cells derived from patients with CMT2A or CMT2E, is being conducted to clarify the mechanism of CMT and find therapeutic clues. The development of new surrogate markers for clinical trials is also needed. Additionally, steps should be taken to improve the quality of life of patients with CMT, including pain control and life style enhancement.

  16. Myelin protein zero gene sequencing diagnoses Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1B disease

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Y.; Zhang, H.; Madrid, R.

    1994-09-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), the most common genetic neuropathy, affects about 1 in 2600 people in Norway and is found worldwide. CMT Type 1 (CMT1) has slow nerve conduction with demyelinated Schwann cells. Autosomal dominant CMT Type 1B (CMT1B) results from mutations in the myelin protein zero gene which directs the synthesis of more than half of all Schwann cell protein. This gene was mapped to the chromosome 1q22-1q23.1 borderline by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The first 7 of 7 reported CMT1B mutations are unique. Thus the most effective means to identify CMT1B mutations in at-risk family members and fetuses is to sequence the entire coding sequence in dominant or sporadic CMT patients without the CMT1A duplication. Of the 19 primers used in 16 pars to uniquely amplify the entire MPZ coding sequence, 6 primer pairs were used to amplify and sequence the 6 exons. The DyeDeoxy Terminator cycle sequencing method used with four different color fluorescent lables was superior to manual sequencing because it sequences more bases unambiguously from extracted genomic DNA samples within 24 hours. This protocol was used to test 28 CMT and Dejerine-Sottas patients without CMT1A gene duplication. Sequencing MPZ gene-specific amplified fragments identified 9 polymorphic sites within the 6 exons that encode the 248 amino acid MPZ protein. The large number of major CMT1B mutations identified by single strand sequencing are being verified by reverse strand sequencing and when possible, by restriction enzyme analysis. This protocol can be used to distringuish CMT1B patients from othre CMT phenotypes and to determine the CMT1B status of relatives both presymptomatically and prenatally.

  17. Amount and intensity of daily living activities in Charcot–Marie–Tooth 1A patients

    PubMed Central

    Menotti, Federica; Laudani, Luca; Damiani, Antonello; Macaluso, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background Charcot–Marie–Tooth 1A (CMT1A) patients show a reduction of spontaneous activities of daily living measured by means of questionnaires or pedometers, which are quite inaccurate compared to recent measurement techniques. Aim The study aimed at quantifying daily living activities in CMT1A patients by means of inertial sensors, which give information not only on the amount but also on the intensity of these activities. Materials and methods Time and count (amount), and velocity and power (intensity) of 24 h daily living activities were measured in eight patients (20–48 years; Barthel >90; Tinetti >20) and eight healthy individuals, matched for age and gender, by means of a wearable inertial sensor device. Results There were no differences between patients and controls in the 24-h distance covered and count of steps. However, count of step climbing and sit to stand were lower in patients than in controls (139.93 ± 141.66 vs. 341.06 ± 164.07 n and 58.23 ± 7.82 vs. 65.81 ± 4.75 n, respectively; P < 0.05) as well as mean daily step-climbing and walking velocities (1.07 ± 0.17 vs. 1.21 ± 0.10 m/sec and 1.16 ± 0.31 vs. 1.87 ± 0.50 m/sec, respectively; P < 0.05). In CMT1A patients there was a positive correlation between strength of the knee extensor muscles and both count of steps climbed (R = 0.80) and sit to stand (R = 0.79). Discussion and conclusion The reduced ability of CMT1A patients to carry out activities at high intensity, which was correlated with strength, suggests that strength training might be a rehabilitation tool for improving the 1 ability to carry out these activities. PMID:24653950

  18. The TNF-family cytokine TL1A: from lymphocyte costimulator to disease co-conspirator

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Arianne C.; Ferdinand, John R.; Meylan, Françoise; Hayes, Erika T.; Gabay, Odile; Siegel, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Originally described in 2002 as a T cell-costimulatory cytokine, the tumor necrosis factor family member TNF-like factor 1A (TL1A), encoded by the TNFSF15 gene, has since been found to affect multiple cell lineages through its receptor, death receptor 3 (DR3, encoded by TNFRSF25) with distinct cell-type effects. Genetic deficiency or blockade of TL1A-DR3 has defined a number of disease states that depend on this cytokine-receptor pair, whereas excess TL1A leads to allergic gastrointestinal inflammation through stimulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells. Noncoding variants in the TL1A locus are associated with susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease and leprosy, predicting that the level of TL1A expression may influence host defense and the development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26188076

  19. Neuromuscular Hip Dysplasia in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 1A

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, Nigel S.; White, Klane K.; Robinett, Stephanie A.; Otto, Randolph K.; Gospe, Sidney M., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is one of the most common inherited neurological disorders, affecting 36 in 100,000 people. CMT type 1A (hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy) is the most frequent form of this disease, affecting 60 to 80% of the CMT population, but its diagnosis may be delayed because of inconsistent clinical signs and…

  20. A pilot study on the use of interferon beta-1a in early Alzheimer's disease subjects.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Luigi Maria Edoardo; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Iemolo, Francesco; Castellano, Anna Elisa; Ruggieri, Stefano; Bruno, Giuseppe; Paolillo, Andrea

    2014-02-13

    Despite the fact that multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) share common neuroimmunological features, interferon beta 1a (IFNβ1a), the well-established treatment for the prevention of disease progression and cognitive decline in MS patients, has never been used in AD. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of IFNβ1a in subjects affected by mild-to-moderate AD in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter pilot study. Forty-two early Alzheimer's patients were randomized to receive either a 22 mcg subcutaneous injection of IFNβ1a or placebo three times per week. A treatment period of 28 weeks was followed by 24 weeks of observation. IFNβ1a was well tolerated and adverse events were infrequent and mild to moderate. Although not statistically significant, a reduction in disease progression during follow-up was measured in IFNβ1a-treated patients by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale. Interestingly, the treatment group showed significant improvements in the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and Physical Self-maintenance Scale. This study suggests that IFNβ1a is safe and well tolerated in early AD patients, and its possible beneficial role should be further investigated in larger studies.

  1. Cytosolic 5′-Nucleotidase 1A As a Target of Circulating Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    LLOYD, THOMAS E.; CHRISTOPHER-STINE, LISA; PINAL-FERNANDEZ, IAGO; TINIAKOU, ELENI; PETRI, MICHELLE; BAER, ALAN; DANOFF, SONYE K.; PAK, KATHERINE; CASCIOLA-ROSEN, LIVIA A.; MAMMEN, ANDREW L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Prior investigations demonstrated that autoantibodies recognizing cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase 1A (NT5C1A) are found in 33–76% of patients with inclusion body myositis (IBM) but are observed only rarely in patients with polymyositis (PM). Thus, anti-NT5C1A may help distinguish IBM from PM. Although 4–21% of patients with dermatomyositis (DM) were shown to be anti-NT5C1A antibody positive, the clinical features of anti-NT5C1A–positive patients with DM have not been described. Furthermore, the prevalence of anti-NT5C1A antibodies in other rheumatic conditions has not been reported. This study was undertaken to define the prevalence and clinical features of anti-NT5C1A–positive patients with DM, PM, IBM, or other systemic autoimmune diseases. Methods We screened for anti-NT5C1A autoantibodies in patients with IBM, DM, PM, Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and in healthy volunteers. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients who were anti-NT5C1A positive and those who were anti-NT5C1A negative. Results Anti-NT5C1A autoantibodies were detected in 71 (61%) of 117 patients with IBM, 2 (5%) of 42 patients with PM, 2 (5%) of 42 healthy volunteers, 24 (15%) of 159 patients with DM, 10 (23%) of 44 patients with SS, and 13 (14%) of 96 patients with SLE. No anti-NT5C1A antibody–positive patients with SS or SLE had muscle involvement. Anti-NT5C1A–positive patients with IBM had a lower prevalence of rimmed vacuoles (62% versus 83% of antibody-negative patients; P = 0.02). No differences in the clinical characteristics of antibody-positive and antibody-negative patients with DM, SS, or SLE were observed. Conclusion Anti-NT5C1A is a common target of circulating autoantibodies, especially in IBM but also in several different autoimmune diseases. In SLE and SS, anti-NT5C1A autoreactivity is not associated with muscle disease. PMID:25892010

  2. Mutations in the glucose-6-phosphatase gene that cause glycogen storage disease Type 1a

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, K.J.; Shelly, L.L.; Pan, C.J.; Sidbury, J.B.; Chou, J.Y. )

    1993-10-22

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1a is caused by the deficiency of d-glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), the key enzyme in glucose homeostasis. Despite both a high incidence and morbidity, the molecular mechanisms underlying this deficiency have eluded characterization. In the present study, the molecular and biochemical characterization of the human G6Pase complementary DNA, its gene, and the expressed protein, which is indistinguishable from human microsomal G6Pase are reported. Several mutations in the G6Pase gene of affected individuals that completely inactivate the enzyme have been identified. These results establish the molecular basis of this disease and open the way for future gene therapy.

  3. Dkk1: A promising molecule to connect Alzheimer's disease and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xingzhi; Tang, Peng; Liu, Peng; Liu, Yue; Chong, Li; Li, Rui

    2016-03-01

    Osteoporosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the two common diseases mostly affecting persons aged over 60. Epidemiological findings revealed that osteoporosis and AD have a very high comorbidity. However, the mechanisms underlying their association are poorly understood. The Wnt signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the proper development and maintenance of brain and bone structure and function. Dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk1), a vital antagonist of the Wnt signaling, was reported to be closely associated with bone homeostasis and osteoporosis. Interestingly, high level of Dkk1 in the brain increases the risk of AD. It is suggested that Dkk1 may be a common potent risk factor involved in osteoporosis and AD. Therefore, we hypothesize that Dkk1 may play a role in both osteoporosis and AD. Our hypothesis will shed new light on the understanding of the relationship between these two diseases and help to explain some common characters of osteoporosis and AD.

  4. ASIC1a Deficient Mice Show Unaltered Neurodegeneration in the Subacute MPTP Model of Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Komnig, Daniel; Imgrund, Silke; Reich, Arno; Gründer, Stefan; Falkenburger, Björn H.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation contributes to the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease and can be accompanied by acidification of extracellular pH, which may activate acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC). Accordingly, amiloride, a non-selective inhibitor of ASIC, was protective in an acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson disease. To complement these findings we determined MPTP toxicity in mice deficient for ASIC1a, the most common ASIC isoform in neurons. MPTP was applied i.p. in doses of 30 mg per kg on five consecutive days. We determined the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, assayed by stereological counting 14 days after the last MPTP injection, the number of Nissl positive neurons in the substantia nigra, and the concentration of catecholamines in the striatum. There was no difference between ASIC1a-deficient mice and wildtype controls. We are therefore not able to confirm that ASIC1a are involved in MPTP toxicity. The difference might relate to the subacute MPTP model we used, which more closely resembles the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, or to further targets of amiloride. PMID:27820820

  5. PKA regulatory subunit 1A inactivating mutation induces serotonin signaling in primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease

    PubMed Central

    Bram, Zakariae; Louiset, Estelle; Renouf, Sylvie; Duparc, Céline; Boutelet, Isabelle; Rizk-Rabin, Marthe; Libé, Rossella; Young, Jacques; Carson, Dennis; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Szarek, Eva; Martinez, Antoine; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Bertherat, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a rare cause of ACTH-independent hypercortisolism. The disease is primarily caused by germline mutations of the protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit 1A (PRKAR1A) gene, which induces constitutive activation of PKA in adrenocortical cells. Hypercortisolism is thought to result from PKA hyperactivity, but PPNAD tissues exhibit features of neuroendocrine differentiation, which may lead to stimulation of steroidogenesis by abnormally expressed neurotransmitters. We hypothesized that serotonin (5-HT) may participate in the pathophysiology of PPNAD-associated hypercortisolism. We show that PPNAD tissues overexpress the 5-HT synthesizing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase type 2 (Tph2) and the serotonin receptors types 4, 6, and 7, leading to formation of an illicit stimulatory serotonergic loop whose pharmacological inhibition in vitro decreases cortisol production. In the human PPNAD cell line CAR47, the PKA inhibitor H-89 decreases 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptor expression. Moreover, in the human adrenocortical cell line H295R, inhibition of PRKAR1A expression increases the expression of Tph2 and 5-HT4/6/7 receptors, an effect that is blocked by H-89. These findings show that the serotonergic process observed in PPNAD tissues results from PKA activation by PRKAR1A mutations. They also suggest that Tph inhibitors may represent efficient treatments of hypercortisolism in patients with PPNAD. PMID:27699247

  6. PKA regulatory subunit 1A inactivating mutation induces serotonin signaling in primary pigmented nodular adrenal disease.

    PubMed

    Bram, Zakariae; Louiset, Estelle; Ragazzon, Bruno; Renouf, Sylvie; Wils, Julien; Duparc, Céline; Boutelet, Isabelle; Rizk-Rabin, Marthe; Libé, Rossella; Young, Jacques; Carson, Dennis; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Szarek, Eva; Martinez, Antoine; Stratakis, Constantine A; Bertherat, Jérôme; Lefebvre, Hervé

    2016-09-22

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a rare cause of ACTH-independent hypercortisolism. The disease is primarily caused by germline mutations of the protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit 1A (PRKAR1A) gene, which induces constitutive activation of PKA in adrenocortical cells. Hypercortisolism is thought to result from PKA hyperactivity, but PPNAD tissues exhibit features of neuroendocrine differentiation, which may lead to stimulation of steroidogenesis by abnormally expressed neurotransmitters. We hypothesized that serotonin (5-HT) may participate in the pathophysiology of PPNAD-associated hypercortisolism. We show that PPNAD tissues overexpress the 5-HT synthesizing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase type 2 (Tph2) and the serotonin receptors types 4, 6, and 7, leading to formation of an illicit stimulatory serotonergic loop whose pharmacological inhibition in vitro decreases cortisol production. In the human PPNAD cell line CAR47, the PKA inhibitor H-89 decreases 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptor expression. Moreover, in the human adrenocortical cell line H295R, inhibition of PRKAR1A expression increases the expression of Tph2 and 5-HT4/6/7 receptors, an effect that is blocked by H-89. These findings show that the serotonergic process observed in PPNAD tissues results from PKA activation by PRKAR1A mutations. They also suggest that Tph inhibitors may represent efficient treatments of hypercortisolism in patients with PPNAD.

  7. Role of CYP1A1 haplotypes in modulating susceptibility to coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Sana Venkata Vijaya; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Saumya, Kankanala; Rao, Damera Seshagiri; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the role of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) haplotypes in modulating susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD), a case-control study was conducted by enrolling 352 CAD cases and 282 healthy controls. PCR-RFLP, multiplex PCR, competitive ELISA techniques were employed for the analysis of CYP1A1 [ml (T-->C), m2 (A-->G) and m4 (C-->A)] haplotypes, glutathione-S-transferase (GST)T1/GSTM1 null variants and plasma 8-oxo-2'deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) respectively. Two CYP1A1 haplotypes, i.e. CAC and TGC showed independent association with CAD risk, while all-wild CYP1A1 haplotype i.e. TAC showed reduced risk for CAD. All the three variants showed mild linkage disequilibrium (D': 0.05 to 0.17). GSTT1 null variant also exerted independent association with CAD risk (OR: 2.53, 95% CI 1.55-4.12). Among the conventional risk factors, smoking showed synergetic interaction with CAC haplotype of CYP1A1 and GSTT1 null genotype in inflating CAD risk. High risk alleles of this pathway showed dose-dependent association with percentage of stenosis and number of vessels affected. Elevated 8-oxodG levels were observed in subjects with CYP1A1 CAC haplotype and GSTT1 null variant. Multiple linear regression model of these xenobiotic variants explained 36% variability in 8-oxodG levels. This study demonstrated the association of CYP1A1 haplotypes and GSTT1 null variant with CAD risk and this association was attributed to increased oxidative DNA damage.

  8. SLC1A2 variant associated with essential tremor but not Parkinson disease in Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eng-King; Foo, Jia-Nee; Tan, Louis; Au, Wing-Lok; Prakash, Kumar M; Ng, Ebonne; Ikram, M Kamran; Wong, Tien-Yin; Liu, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Yi

    2013-04-23

    Essential tremor (ET) is characterized by postural and action tremor.(1-3) A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified a LINGO1 gene variant to be associated with ET.(4) Subsequent GWAS further identified an intronic variant (rs3794087) of the main glial glutamate transporter (SLC1A2) gene to be associated with ET with an odds ratio (OR) of approximately 1.4.(5) We conducted a case-control study to examine the SLC1A2 gene variant in an Asian cohort of ET. In addition, we also investigated the variant in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) because the GWAS LINGO1 variant has been implicated in both ET and PD and etiologic links between the conditions have been suggested.(6.)

  9. Mutations in the glucose-6-phosphatase gene are associated with glycogen storage disease types 1a and 1aSP but not 1b and 1c.

    PubMed

    Lei, K J; Shelly, L L; Lin, B; Sidbury, J B; Chen, Y T; Nordlie, R C; Chou, J Y

    1995-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1, which is caused by the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), is an autosomal recessive disease with heterogenous symptoms. Two models of G6Pase catalysis have been proposed to explain the observed heterogeneities. The translocase-catalytic unit model proposes that five GSD type 1 subgroups exist which correspond to defects in the G6Pase catalytic unit (1a), a stabilizing protein (1aSP), the glucose-6-P (1b), phosphate/pyrophosphate (1c), and glucose (1d) translocases. Conversely, the conformation-substrate-transport model suggests that G6Pase is a single multifunctional membrane channel protein possessing both catalytic and substrate (or product) transport activities. We have recently demonstrated that mutations in the G6Pase catalytic unit cause GSD type 1a. To elucidate whether mutations in the G6Pase gene are responsible for other GSD type 1 subgroups, we characterized the G6Pase gene of GSD type 1b, 1c, and 1aSP patients. Our results show that the G6Pase gene of GSD type 1b and 1c patients is normal, consistent with the translocase-catalytic unit model of G6Pase catalysis. However, a mutation in exon 2 that converts an Arg at codon 83 to a Cys (R83C) was identified in both G6Pase alleles of the type 1aSP patient. The R83C mutation was also demonstrated in one homozygous and five heterogenous GSD type 1a patients, indicating that type 1aSP is a misclassification of GSD type 1a. We have also analyzed the G6Pase gene of seven additional type 1a patients and uncovered two new mutations that cause GSD type 1a.

  10. The influence of somatosensory and muscular deficits on postural stabilization: Insights from an instrumented analysis of subjects affected by different types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Lencioni, Tiziana; Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Rabuffetti, Marco; Bovi, Gabriele; Calabrese, Daniela; Aiello, Alessia; Di Sipio, Enrica; Padua, Luca; Diverio, Manuela; Pareyson, Davide; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2015-08-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common hereditary neuromuscular disorder. CMT1 is primarily demyelinating, CMT2 is primarily axonal, and CMTX1 is characterized by both axonal and demyelinating abnormalities. We investigated the role of somatosensory and muscular deficits on quiet standing and postural stabilization in patients affected by different forms of CMT, comparing their performances with those of healthy subjects. Seventy-six CMT subjects (CMT1A, CMT2 and CMTX1) and 41 healthy controls were evaluated during a sit-to-stand transition and the subsequent quiet upright posture by means of a dynamometric platform. All CMT patients showed altered balance and postural stabilization compared to controls. Multivariate analysis showed that in CMT patients worsening of postural stabilization was related to vibration sense deficit and to dorsi-flexor's weakness, while quiet standing instability was related to the reduction of pinprick sensibility and to plantar-flexor's weakness. Our results show that specific sensory and muscular deficits play different roles in balance impairment of CMT patients, both during postural stabilization and in static posture. An accurate evaluation of residual sensory and muscular functions is therefore necessary to plan for the appropriate balance rehabilitation treatment for each patient, besides the CMT type.

  11. ALDH1A2 (RALDH2) genetic variation in human congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Signaling by the vitamin A-derived morphogen retinoic acid (RA) is required at multiple steps of cardiac development. Since conversion of retinaldehyde to RA by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type II (ALDH1A2, a.k.a RALDH2) is critical for cardiac development, we screened patients with congenital heart disease (CHDs) for genetic variation at the ALDH1A2 locus. Methods One-hundred and thirty-three CHD patients were screened for genetic variation at the ALDH1A2 locus through bi-directional sequencing. In addition, six SNPs (rs2704188, rs1441815, rs3784259, rs1530293, rs1899430) at the same locus were studied using a TDT-based association approach in 101 CHD trios. Observed mutations were modeled through molecular mechanics (MM) simulations using the AMBER 9 package, Sander and Pmemd programs. Sequence conservation of observed mutations was evaluated through phylogenetic tree construction from ungapped alignments containing ALDH8 s, ALDH1Ls, ALDH1 s and ALDH2 s. Trees were generated by the Neighbor Joining method. Variations potentially affecting splicing mechanisms were cloned and functional assays were designed to test splicing alterations using the pSPL3 splicing assay. Results We describe in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) the mutations Ala151Ser and Ile157Thr that change non-polar to polar residues at exon 4. Exon 4 encodes part of the highly-conserved tetramerization domain, a structural motif required for ALDH oligomerization. Molecular mechanics simulation studies of the two mutations indicate that they hinder tetramerization. We determined that the SNP rs16939660, previously associated with spina bifida and observed in patients with TOF, does not affect splicing. Moreover, association studies performed with classical models and with the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) design using single marker genotype, or haplotype information do not show differences between cases and controls. Conclusion In summary, our screen indicates that ALDH1A2 genetic

  12. Serum bilirubin levels, UGT1A1 polymorphisms and risk for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Lingenhel, Arno; Kollerits, Barbara; Schwaiger, Johannes P; Hunt, Steven C; Gress, Richard; Hopkins, Paul N; Schoenborn, Veit; Heid, Iris M; Kronenberg, Florian

    2008-12-01

    Low levels of the antioxidative serum bilirubin are associated with vascular aging and an increased risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). UGT1A1 is the major gene influencing bilirubin concentrations. Therefore, we investigated an association of bilirubin levels and two polymorphisms in the promoter of UGT1A1 (-53(TA-repeat) polymorphism and T-3279G) in 477 patients with premature, familial CAD and 619 age- and sex-matched controls. Bilirubin concentrations were significantly lower in cases than in controls (0.62+/-0.36 vs. 0.76+/-0.41 mg/dl for men, p=1.2 x 10(-10); and 0.42+/-0.29 vs. 0.55+/-0.23 mg/dl, p=1.9 x 10(-9) for women). Both polymorphisms showed a strong association with bilirubin levels with higher levels for homozygote carriers of the minor allele. These associations were most pronounced in male controls and patients (p=5.9 x 10(-26) and p=3.4 x 10(-16), respectively, for the -53(TA-repeat) polymorphism). Logistic regression analysis revealed low bilirubin levels but not the UGT1A1 polymorphisms to be significantly associated with CAD: OR (95% CI) 0.90 (0.86-0.94), p=2.6 x 10(-6) for men and 0.77 (0.68-0.87), p=3.2 x 10(-5) for women, respectively for each 0.1mg/dl increase of bilirubin. These results indicate that it is rather decreased bilirubin levels in general than the changes in the genetic variation of this gene that increase the risk for CAD.

  13. Evaluation of Presumably Disease Causing SCN1A Variants in a Cohort of Common Epilepsy Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    May, Patrick; Thiele, Holger; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Schwarz, Günter; Riesch, Erik; Ikram, M. Arfan; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofman, Albert; Steinböck, Hannelore; Gruber-Sedlmayr, Ursula; Neophytou, Birgit; Zara, Federico; Hahn, Andreas; Gormley, Padhraig; Becker, Felicitas; Weber, Yvonne G.; Cilio, Maria Roberta; Kunz, Wolfram S.; Krause, Roland; Zimprich, Fritz; Lemke, Johannes R.; Nürnberg, Peter; Sander, Thomas; Lerche, Holger; Neubauer, Bernd A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The SCN1A gene, coding for the voltage-gated Na+ channel alpha subunit NaV1.1, is the clinically most relevant epilepsy gene. With the advent of high-throughput next-generation sequencing, clinical laboratories are generating an ever-increasing catalogue of SCN1A variants. Variants are more likely to be classified as pathogenic if they have already been identified previously in a patient with epilepsy. Here, we critically re-evaluate the pathogenicity of this class of variants in a cohort of patients with common epilepsy syndromes and subsequently ask whether a significant fraction of benign variants have been misclassified as pathogenic. Methods We screened a discovery cohort of 448 patients with a broad range of common genetic epilepsies and 734 controls for previously reported SCN1A mutations that were assumed to be disease causing. We re-evaluated the evidence for pathogenicity of the identified variants using in silico predictions, segregation, original reports, available functional data and assessment of allele frequencies in healthy individuals as well as in a follow up cohort of 777 patients. Results and Interpretation We identified 8 known missense mutations, previously reported as pathogenic, in a total of 17 unrelated epilepsy patients (17/448; 3.80%). Our re-evaluation indicates that 7 out of these 8 variants (p.R27T; p.R28C; p.R542Q; p.R604H; p.T1250M; p.E1308D; p.R1928G; NP_001159435.1) are not pathogenic. Only the p.T1174S mutation may be considered as a genetic risk factor for epilepsy of small effect size based on the enrichment in patients (P = 6.60 x 10−4; OR = 0.32, fishers exact test), previous functional studies but incomplete penetrance. Thus, incorporation of previous studies in genetic counseling of SCN1A sequencing results is challenging and may produce incorrect conclusions. PMID:26990884

  14. X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 6 (CMTX6) patients with a p.R158H mutation in the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 3 gene.

    PubMed

    Kennerson, Marina L; Kim, Eun J; Siddell, Anna; Kidambi, Aditi; Kim, Sung M; Hong, Young B; Hwang, Sun H; Chung, Ki W; Choi, Byung-Ok

    2016-03-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy. Mutations in the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 3 (PDK3) gene have been found to cause X-linked dominant CMT type 6 (CMTX6). This study identified the p.R158H PDK3 mutation after screening 67 probable X-linked CMT families. The mutation fully segregated with the phenotype, and genotyping the family indicated the mutation arose on a different haplotype compared with the original Australian CMTX6 family. Results of bisulphite sequencing suggest that methylated deamination of a CpG dinucleotide may cause the recurrent p.R158H mutation. The frequency of the p.R158H PDK3 mutation in Koreans is very rare. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed fatty infiltration involving distal muscles in the lower extremities. In addition, fatty infiltrations were predominantly observed in the soleus muscles, with a lesser extent in tibialis anterior muscles. This differs from demyelinating CMT1A patients and is similar to axonal CMT2A patients. The clinical, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological findings from a second CMTX6 family with the p.R158H PDK3 mutation were similar to the axonal neuropathy reported in the Australian family.

  15. Shortened internodal length of dermal myelinated nerve fibres in Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A

    PubMed Central

    Saporta, Mario A.; Katona, Istvan; Lewis, Richard A.; Masse, Stacey; Shy, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A is the most common inherited neuropathy and is caused by duplication of chromosome 17p11.2 containing the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene. This disease is characterized by uniform slowing of conduction velocities and secondary axonal loss, which are in contrast with non-uniform slowing of conduction velocities in acquired demyelinating disorders, such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Mechanisms responsible for the slowed conduction velocities and axonal loss in Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A are poorly understood, in part because of the difficulty in obtaining nerve samples from patients, due to the invasive nature of nerve biopsies. We have utilized glabrous skin biopsies, a minimally invasive procedure, to evaluate these issues systematically in patients with Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (n = 32), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n = 4) and healthy controls (n = 12). Morphology and molecular architecture of dermal myelinated nerve fibres were examined using immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Internodal length was uniformly shortened in patients with Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A, compared with those in normal controls (P < 0.0001). Segmental demyelination was absent in the Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A group, but identifiable in all patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Axonal loss was measurable using the density of Meissner corpuscles and associated with an accumulation of intra-axonal mitochondria. Our study demonstrates that skin biopsy can reveal pathological and molecular architectural changes that distinguish inherited from acquired demyelinating neuropathies. Uniformly shortened internodal length in Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease type 1A suggests a potential developmental defect of internodal lengthening. Intra-axonal accumulation of mitochondria provides new insights into the

  16. Human meiotic recombination products revealed by sequencing a hotspot for homologous strand exchange in multiple HNPP deletion patients.

    PubMed

    Reiter, L T; Hastings, P J; Nelis, E; De Jonghe, P; Van Broeckhoven, C; Lupski, J R

    1998-05-01

    The HNPP (hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies) deletion and CMT1A (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A) duplication are the reciprocal products of homologous recombination events between misaligned flanking CMT1A-REP repeats on chromosome 17p11. 2-p12. A 1.7-kb hotspot for homologous recombination was previously identified wherein the relative risk of an exchange event is 50 times higher than in the surrounding 98.7% identical sequence shared by the CMT1A-REPs. To refine the region of exchange further, we designed a PCR strategy to amplify the recombinant CMT1A-REP from HNPP patients as well as the proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs from control individuals. By comparing the sequences across recombinant CMT1A-REPs to that of the proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs, the exchange was mapped to a 557-bp region within the previously identified 1.7-kb hotspot in 21 of 23 unrelated HNPP deletion patients. Two patients had recombined sequences suggesting an exchange event closer to the mariner-like element previously identified near the hotspot. Five individuals also had interspersed patches of proximal or distal repeat specific DNA sequence indicating potential gene conversion during the exchange of genetic material. Our studies provide a direct observation of human meiotic recombination products. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that minimum efficient processing segments, which have been characterized in Escherichia coli, yeast, and cultured mammalian cells, may be required for efficient homologous meiotic recombination in humans.

  17. Multicolor in situ hybridization and linkage analysis order Charcot-Marie-Tooth type I (CMTIA) gene-region markers

    SciTech Connect

    Lebo, R.V.; Lynch, E.D.; Golbus, M.S. ); Bird, T.D. ); Barker, D.F.; O'Connell, P.; Chance, P.F. )

    1992-01-01

    This study demonstrates a clear and current role for multicolor in situ hybridization in expediting positional cloning studies of unknown disease genes. Nine polymorphic DNA cosmids have been mapped to eight ordered locations spanning the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1A) disease gene region in distal band 17p11.2, by multicolor in situ hybridization. When used with linkage analysis, these methods have generated a fine physical map and have firmly assigned the CMT1A gene to distal band 17p11.2. Linkage analysis with four CMT1A pedigrees mapped the CMT1A gene with respect to two flanking markers. Additional loci were physically mapped and ordered by in situ hybridization and analysis of phase-known recombinants in CMT1A pedigrees. These data demonstrate the ability of in situ hybridization to resolve loci within 0.5 Mb on early-metaphase chromosomes. Multicolor in situ hybridization also excluded the possibility of pericentric inversions in two unrelated patients with CMT1 and neurofibromatosis type 1. When used with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multicolor in situ hybridization can establish physical location, order, and distance in closely spaced chromosome loci.

  18. Detection of tandam duplications and implications for linkage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Matise, T.C.; Weeks, D.E. ); Chakravarti, A. ); Patel, P.I.; Lupski, J.R. ); Nelis, E.; Timmerman, V.; Van Broeckhoven, C. )

    1994-06-01

    The first demonstration of an autosomal dominant human disease caused by segmental trisomy came in 1991 for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). For this disorder, the segmental trisomy is due to a large tandem duplication of 1.5 Mb of DNA located on chromosome 17p11.2-p12. The search for the CMT1A disease gene was misdirected and impeded because some chromosome 17 genetic markers that are linked to CMT1A lie within this duplication. To better understand how such a duplication might affect genetic analyses in the context of disease gene mapping, the authors studied the effects of marker duplication on transmission probabilities of marker alleles, on linkage analysis of an autosomal dominant disease, and on tests of linkage homogeneity. They demonstrate that the undetected presence of a duplication distorts transmission ratios, hampers fine localization of the disease gene, and increases false evidence of linkage heterogeneity. In addition, they devised a likelihood-based method for detecting the presence of a tandemly duplicated marker when one is suspected. They tested their methods through computer simulations and on CMT1A pedigrees genotyped at several chromosome 17 markers. On the simulated data, the method detected 96% of duplicated markers (with a false-positive rate of 5%). On the CMT1A data the method successfully identified two of three loci that are duplicated (with no false positives). This method could be used to identify duplicated markers in other regions of the genome and could be used to delineate the extent of duplications similar to that involved in CMT1A. 18 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Detection of tandem duplications and implications for linkage analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Matise, T. C.; Chakravarti, A.; Patel, P. I.; Lupski, J. R.; Nelis, E.; Timmerman, V.; Van Broeckhoven, C.; Weeks, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The first demonstration of an autosomal dominant human disease caused by segmental trisomy came in 1991 for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). For this disorder, the segmental trisomy is due to a large tandem duplication of 1.5 Mb of DNA located on chromosome 17p11.2-p12. The search for the CMT1A disease gene was misdirected and impeded because some chromosome 17 genetic markers that are linked to CMT1A lie within this duplication. To better understand how such a duplication might affect genetic analyses in the context of disease gene mapping, we studied the effects of marker duplication on transmission probabilities of marker alleles, on linkage analysis of an autosomal dominant disease, and on tests of linkage homogeneity. We demonstrate that the undetected presence of a duplication distorts transmission ratios, hampers fine localization of the disease gene, and increases false evidence of linkage heterogeneity. In addition, we devised a likelihood-based method for detecting the presence of a tandemly duplicated marker when one is suspected. We tested our methods through computer simulations and on CMT1A pedigrees genotyped at several chromosome 17 markers. On the simulated data, our method detected 96% of duplicated markers (with a false-positive rate of 5%). On the CMT1A data our method successfully identified two of three loci that are duplicated (with no false positives). This method could be used to identify duplicated markers in other regions of the genome and could be used to delineate the extent of duplications similar to that involved in CMT1A. PMID:8198134

  20. Intermittent fasting alleviates the neuropathic phenotype in a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Madorsky, Irina; Opalach, Katherine; Waber, Amanda; Verrier, Jonathan D; Solmo, Chelsea; Foster, Thomas; Dunn, William A; Notterpek, Lucia

    2009-04-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) neuropathies linked to the misexpression of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) are progressive demyelinating disorders of the peripheral nervous system. In this study we asked whether dietary restriction by intermittent fasting (IF) could alleviate the neuropathic phenotype in the Trembler J (TrJ) mouse model of CMT1A. Our results show that neuropathic mice kept on a five month long IF regimen had improved locomotor performance compared to ad libitum (AL) fed littermates. The functional benefits of this dietary intervention are associated with an increased expression of myelin proteins combined with a thicker myelin sheath, less redundant basal lamina, and a reduction in aberrant Schwann cell proliferation. These morphological improvements are accompanied by a decrease in PMP22 protein aggregates, and enhanced expression of cytosolic chaperones and constituents of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway. These results indicate that dietary restriction is beneficial for peripheral nerve function in TrJ neuropathic mice, as it promotes the maintenance of locomotor performance.

  1. Intermittent fasting alleviates the neuropathic phenotype in a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    PubMed Central

    Madorsky, Irina; Opalach, Katherine; Waber, Amanda; Verrier, Jonathan D.; Solmo, Chelsea; Foster, Thomas; Dunn, William A; Notterpek, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) neuropathies linked to the misexpression of peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) are progressive demyelinating disorders of the peripheral nervous system. In this study we asked whether dietary restriction by intermittent fasting (IF) could alleviate the neuropathic phenotype in the Trembler J (TrJ) mouse model of CMT1A. Our results show that neuropathic mice kept on a five month long IF regimen had improved locomotor performance compared to ad libitum (AL) fed littermates. The functional benefits of this dietary intervention are associated with an increased expression of myelin proteins combined with a thicker myelin sheath, less redundant basal lamina, and a reduction in aberrant Schwann cell proliferation. These morphological improvements are accompanied by a decrease in PMP22 protein aggregates, and enhanced expression of cytosolic chaperones and constituents of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway. These results indicate that dietary restriction is beneficial for peripheral nerve function in TrJ neuropathic mice, as it promotes the maintenance of locomotor performance. PMID:19320048

  2. ATG16L1: A multifunctional susceptibility factor in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Salem, Mohammad; Ammitzboell, Mette; Nys, Kris; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2015-04-03

    Genetic variations in the autophagic pathway influence genetic predispositions to Crohn disease. Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for degrading and recycling cytoplasmic material, constitutes an important homeostatic cellular process. Of interest, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ATG16L1 (autophagy-related 16-like 1 [S. cerevisiae]), a key component in the autophagic response to invading pathogens, have been associated with an increased risk of developing Crohn disease. The most common and well-studied genetic variant of ATG16L1 (rs2241880; leading to a T300A conversion) exhibits a strong association with risk for developing Crohn disease. The rs2241880 variant plays a crucial role in pathogen clearance, resulting in imbalanced cytokine production, and is linked to other biological processes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum stress/unfolded protein response. In this review, we focus on the importance of ATG16L1 and its genetic variant (T300A) within the elementary biological processes linked to Crohn disease.

  3. ATG16L1: A multifunctional susceptibility factor in Crohn disease

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mohammad; Ammitzboell, Mette; Nys, Kris; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations in the autophagic pathway influence genetic predispositions to Crohn disease. Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for degrading and recycling cytoplasmic material, constitutes an important homeostatic cellular process. Of interest, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ATG16L1 (autophagy-related 16-like 1 [S. cerevisiae]), a key component in the autophagic response to invading pathogens, have been associated with an increased risk of developing Crohn disease. The most common and well-studied genetic variant of ATG16L1 (rs2241880; leading to a T300A conversion) exhibits a strong association with risk for developing Crohn disease. The rs2241880 variant plays a crucial role in pathogen clearance, resulting in imbalanced cytokine production, and is linked to other biological processes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum stress/unfolded protein response. In this review, we focus on the importance of ATG16L1 and its genetic variant (T300A) within the elementary biological processes linked to Crohn disease. PMID:25906181

  4. Do Positive Psychosocial Factors Predict Disease Progression in HIV-1? A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ironson, Gail H.; Hayward, H’sien

    2008-01-01

    Adding to a traditional stress perspective, behavioral medicine has been focusing increasingly on investigating the potential impact of positive psychosocial factors on disease course in HIV. Dispositional optimism, active coping, and spirituality show the most evidence for predicting slower disease progression, although the data are not entirely consistent. Findings for the role of social support are mixed, although indications are that it may be particularly helpful at later stages of illness. Many of the other constructs (positive affect, finding meaning, emotional expression/processing, openness, extraversion, conscientiousness, altruism, and self-efficacy) have only been examined in one or two studies; results are preliminary but suggestive of protective effects. Plausible behavioral and biological mechanisms are discussed (including health behaviors, neurohormones, and immune measures) as well as suggestions for clinicians, limitations, future directions, and a discussion of whether these constructs can be changed. In conclusion, investigating the importance and usefulness of positive psychosocial factors in predicting disease progression in HIV is in its beginning scientific stages and shows good initial evidence and future promise. PMID:18541905

  5. Is plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 a physiological bottleneck bridging major depressive disorder and cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Savoy, C; Van Lieshout, R J; Steiner, M

    2016-06-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is estimated to affect one in twenty people worldwide. MDD is highly comorbid with cardiovascular disease (CVD), itself one of the single largest causes of mortality worldwide. A number of pathological changes observed in MDD are believed to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease, although no single mechanism has been identified. There are also no biological markers capable of predicting the future risk of developing heart disease in depressed individuals. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a prothrombotic plasma protein secreted by endothelial tissue and has long been implicated in CVD. An expanding body of literature has recently implicated it in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder as well. In this study, we review candidate pathways implicating MDD in CVD and consider how PAI-1 might act as a mediator by which MDD induces CVD development: chiefly through sleep disruption, adiposity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) metabolism, systemic inflammation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis dysregulation. As both MDD and CVD are more prevalent in women than in men, and incidence of either condition is dramatically increased during reproductive milestones, we also explore hormonal and sex-specific associations between MDD, PAI-1 and CVD. Of special interest is the role PAI-1 plays in perinatal depression and in cardiovascular complications of pregnancy. Finally, we propose a theoretical model whereby PAI-1 might serve as a useful biomarker for CVD risk in those with depression, and as a potential target for future treatments.

  6. Glycogen Storage Disease type 1a – a secondary cause for hyperlipidemia: report of five cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) is a rare metabolic disorder, caused by deficient activity of glucose-6-phosphatase-α. It produces fasting induced hypoglycemia and hepatomegaly, usually manifested in the first semester of life. Besides, it is also associated with growth delay, anemia, platelet dysfunction, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis. Hyperlipidemia and hyperuricemia are almost always present and hepatocellular adenomas and renal dysfunction frequent late complications. Methods The authors present a report of five adult patients with GSD Ia followed in internal medicine appointments and subspecialties. Results Four out of five patients were diagnosed in the first 6 months of life, while the other one was diagnosed in adult life after the discovery of hepatocellular adenomas. In two cases genetic tests were performed, being identified the missense mutation R83C in one, and the mutation IVS4-3C > G in the intron 4 of glucose-6-phosphatase gene, not previously described, in the other. Growth retardation was present in 3 patients, and all of them had anemia, increased bleeding tendency and hepatocellular adenomas; osteopenia/osteoporosis was present in three cases. All but one patient had marked hyperlipidemia and hyperuricemia, with evidence of endothelial dysfunction in one case and of brain damage with refractory epilepsy in another case. Proteinuria was present in two cases and end-stage renal disease in another case. There was a great variability in the dietary measures; in one case, liver transplantation was performed, with correction of the metabolic derangements. Conclusions Hyperlipidemia is almost always present and only partially responds to dietary and drug therapy; liver transplantation is the only definitive solution. Although its association with premature atherosclerosis is rare, there have been reports of endothelial dysfunction, raising the possibility for increased cardiovascular risk in this group of

  7. Haplotype-specific modulation of a SOX10/CREB response element at the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C locus SH3TC2.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Megan Hwa; Ma, Ki Hwan; Beecham, Gary W; Gopinath, Chetna; Baas, Frank; Choi, Byung-Ok; Reilly, Mary M; Shy, Michael E; Züchner, Stephan; Svaren, John; Antonellis, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain and tetratricopeptide repeats 2 (SH3TC2) gene cause autosomal recessive demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. The SH3TC2 protein has been implicated in promyelination signaling through axonal neuregulin-1 and the ERBB2 Schwann cell receptor. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the SH3TC2 gene. We performed computational and functional analyses that revealed two cis-acting regulatory elements at SH3TC2-one at the promoter and one ∼150 kb downstream of the transcription start site. Both elements direct reporter gene expression in Schwann cells and are responsive to the transcription factor SOX10, which is essential for peripheral nervous system myelination. The downstream enhancer harbors a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that causes an ∼80% reduction in enhancer activity. The SNP resides directly within a predicted binding site for the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and we demonstrate that this regulatory element binds to CREB and is activated by CREB expression. Finally, forskolin induces Sh3tc2 expression in rat primary Schwann cells, indicating that SH3TC2 is a CREB target gene. These findings prompted us to determine if SNP genotypes at SH3TC2 are associated with differential phenotypes in the most common demyelinating peripheral neuropathy, CMT1A. Interestingly, this revealed several associations between SNP alleles and disease severity. In summary, our data indicate that SH3TC2 is regulated by the transcription factors CREB and SOX10, define a regulatory SNP at this disease-associated locus and reveal SH3TC2 as a candidate modifier locus of CMT disease phenotypes.

  8. Necroptosis in Niemann–Pick disease, type C1: a potential therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Cougnoux, A; Cluzeau, C; Mitra, S; Li, R; Williams, I; Burkert, K; Xu, X; Wassif, C A; Zheng, W; Porter, F D

    2016-01-01

    Niemann–Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disorder due to mutation of the NPC1 gene. The NPC1 phenotype is characterized by progressive neuronal dysfunction, including cerebellar ataxia and dementia. There is histological evidence of neuroinflammation and progressive neuronal loss, with cerebellar Purkinje cells particularly vulnerable to loss of NPC1 function. Necroptosis was evaluated as a mechanism of neuronal loss. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3 are key components of the necrosomal complex that regulates necroptotic cell death. We report increased expression of RIP1 and RIP3 in NPC1 fibroblasts, NPC1 iPS cell-derived neuronal precursors, and in cerebellar tissue from both NPC1 mice and patients. Our data suggest a positive correlation between NPC1 neurological disease severity and assembly of the necrosome complex. Furthermore, we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of RIP1 decreases cell death both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of Npc1-mutant mice with necrostatin-1, an allosteric inhibitor of RIP1, significantly delayed cerebellar Purkinje cell loss, progression of neurological symptoms, and death. Collectively, our data identified necroptosis as a key component of the molecular network that contributes to neuronal loss in NPC1 and establish that inhibition of necroptosis is a potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:26986514

  9. Serotonin 1A Receptors on Astrocytes as a Potential Target for the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes are the most abundant neuron-supporting glial cells in the central nervous system. The neuroprotective role of astrocytes has been demonstrated in various neurological disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury, stroke and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Astrocyte dysfunction or loss-of-astrocytes increases the susceptibility of neurons to cell death, while astrocyte transplantation in animal studies has therapeutic advantage. We reported recently that stimulation of serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptors on astrocytes promoted astrocyte proliferation and upregulated antioxidative molecules to act as a neuroprotectant in parkinsonian mice. PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with motor symptoms such as tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability, that are based on selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, and with non-motor symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension and constipation based on peripheral neurodegeneration. Although dopaminergic therapy for managing the motor disability associated with PD is being assessed at present, the main challenge remains the development of neuroprotective or disease-modifying treatments. Therefore, it is desirable to find treatments that can reduce the progression of dopaminergic cell death. In this article, we summarize first the neuroprotective properties of astrocytes targeting certain molecules related to PD. Next, we review neuroprotective effects induced by stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors on astrocytes. The review discusses new promising therapeutic strategies based on neuroprotection against oxidative stress and prevention of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. PMID:26795196

  10. Current readings: the most influential and recent studies regarding resection of lung cancer in m1a disease.

    PubMed

    Mordant, Pierre; Rivera, Caroline; Legras, Antoine; Le Pimpec Barthes, Françoise; Riquet, Marc

    2013-01-01

    M1A disease is a recent concept appearing in the 7th TNM classification of lung cancer. M1A encompasses two different entities, malignant pleural or pericardial effusions and separate tumor nodules in the contralateral lung, who constitute very different diseases, with very different management and prognoses. On one hand, patients with pleural dissemination have extremely poor survival, with median and 5-year survivals of 4 months and 3.1%, respectively. Only selected patients whose limited pleural extension has been diagnosed at the time of thoracotomy and completely resected, may experience prolonged survival. On the other hand, recent progress in molecular biology still failed to establish whether a contralateral lesion is a second primary or a metastasis. These contralateral lesions are now gathered as multiple lung cancers in the surgical literature, and misleadingly classified as M1A disease in the TNM classification. Patients with contralateral nodules may experience prolonged survival after the surgical treatment of both localizations. Changing the staging by establishing the diagnosis of metastasis is probably an important issue warranting further biologic research, but according to current results this diagnosis must not in any case preclude surgery.

  11. Genetic basis of glycogen storage disease type 1a: Prevalent mutations at the glucose-6-phosphatase locus

    SciTech Connect

    Ke-Jian Lei; Hungwen Chen; Ji-Lan Liu

    1995-10-01

    Diagnosis of glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1a currently is established by demonstrating the lack of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity in the patient`s biopsied liver specimen. Recent cloning of the G6Pase gene and identification of mutations within the gene that causes GSD type 1a allow for the development of a DNA-based diagnostic method. Using SSCP analysis and DNA sequencing, we characterized the G6Pase gene of 70 unrelated patients with enzymatically confirmed diagnosis of GSD type 1a and detected mutations in all except 17 alleles (88%). Sixteen mutations were uncovered that were shown by expression to abolish or greatly reduce G6Pase activity and that therefore are responsible for the GSD type la disorder. R83C and Q347X are the most prevalent mutations found in Caucasians, 130X and R83C are most prevalent in Hispanics, and R83H is most prevalent in Chinese. The Q347X mutation has thus far been identified only in Caucasian patients, and the 130X mutation has been identified only in Hispanic patients. Our results demonstrate that the DNA-based analysis can accurately, rapidly, and noninvasively detect the majority of mutations in GSD type 1a. This DNA-based diagnosis now permits prenatal diagnosis among at-risk patients and serves as a database in screening and counseling patients clinically suspected of having this disease. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Disrupted nitric oxide signaling due to GUCY1A3 mutations increases risk for moyamoya disease, achalasia and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wallace, S; Guo, D-C; Regalado, E; Mellor-Crummey, L; Bamshad, M; Nickerson, D A; Dauser, R; Hanchard, N; Marom, R; Martin, E; Berka, V; Sharina, I; Ganesan, V; Saunders, D; Morris, S A; Milewicz, D M

    2016-10-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a progressive vasculopathy characterized by occlusion of the terminal portion of the internal carotid arteries and its branches, and the formation of compensatory moyamoya collateral vessels. Homozygous mutations in GUCY1A3 have been reported as a cause of MMD and achalasia. Probands (n = 96) from unrelated families underwent sequencing of GUCY1A3. Functional studies were performed to confirm the pathogenicity of identified GUCY1A3 variants. Two affected individuals from the unrelated families were found to have compound heterozygous mutations in GUCY1A3. MM041 was diagnosed with achalasia at 4 years of age, hypertension and MMD at 18 years of age. MM149 was diagnosed with MMD and hypertension at the age of 20 months. Both individuals carry one allele that is predicted to lead to haploinsufficiency and a second allele that is predicted to produce a mutated protein. Biochemical studies of one of these alleles, GUCY1A3 Cys517Tyr, showed that the mutant protein (a subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase) has a significantly blunted signaling response with exposure to nitric oxide (NO). GUCY1A3 missense and haploinsufficiency mutations disrupt NO signaling leading to MMD and hypertension, with or without achalasia.

  13. Differentiation of monocytes into CD1a- dendritic cells correlates with disease progression in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Alessandra; Cappelli, Giulia; Cairo, Cristiana; Martino, Angelo; Sanarico, Nunzia; D'Offizi, Gianpiero; Pupillo, Leopoldo Paolo; Chenal, Henri; De Libero, Gennaro; Colizzi, Vittorio; Vendetti, Silvia

    2007-12-15

    Monocyte differentiation into dendritic cells (DCs) depends on microenvironmental conditions. In this study, the capacity of human monocytes to differentiate into mature DCs and their ability to induce an antiviral immune response was investigated in HIV-infected patients. In healthy subjects, monocytes differentiate into CD1a+ DCs in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin (IL)-4 and matured in the presence of lipopolysaccharide. Here, we found that in 30% and 45% of HIV-infected white and African subjects, respectively, monocytes gave rise to a homogeneous CD1a* DC population. In the patients who gave rise only to the CD1a* DCs, this population spontaneously produced IL-10 but not IL-12, and induced a T helper 2-like immune response when cultured with human T cells isolated from cord blood mononuclear cells. In patients with monocytes differentiated into CD1a* DCs, a high percentage of HIV-specific CD4 T cells producing IL-4 were seen in the peripheral blood. Furthermore, differentiation of monocytes into DCs with CD1a* phenotype correlated with low CD4 T-cell counts and high viral loads in HIV-infected subjects. These results suggest that the differentiation of monocytes into CD1a* DCs may be a phenotypic marker associated with progression of the disease.

  14. Mitochondrial NHE1: a newly identified target to prevent heart disease.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Bernardo V; Villa-Abrille, María C

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial damage has been associated with early steps of cardiac dysfunction in heart subjected to ischemic stress, oxidative stress and hypertrophy. A common feature for the mitochondrial deterioration is the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m) with the concomitant irreversible opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) which follows the mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload, and the subsequent mitochondrial swelling. We have recently characterized the expression of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (mNHE1) in mitochondrial membranes. This surprising observation provided a unique target for the prevention of the Ca(2+)-induced MPTP opening, based on the inhibition of the NHE1 m. In this line, inhibition of NHE1 m activity and/or reduction of NHE1 m expression decreased the Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling and the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in isolated cardiac mitochondria and preserved the ΔΨ m in isolated cardiomyocytes. Mitochondrial NHE1 thus represents a novel target to prevent cardiac disease, opening new avenues for future research.

  15. Lack of homozygotes for the most frequent disease allele in carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type 1A.

    PubMed

    Matthijs, G; Schollen, E; Van Schaftingen, E; Cassiman, J J; Jaeken, J

    1998-03-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient-glycoprotein syndrome type 1 (CDG1; also known as "Jaeken syndrome") is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by defective glycosylation. Most patients show a deficiency of phosphomannomutase (PMM), the enzyme that converts mannose 6-phosphate to mannose 1-phosphate in the synthesis of GDP-mannose. The disease is linked to chromosome 16p13, and mutations have recently been identified in the PMM2 gene in CDG1 patients with a PMM deficiency (CDG1A). The availability of the genomic sequences of PMM2 allowed us to screen for mutations in 56 CDG1 patients from different geographic origins. By SSCP analysis and by sequencing, we identified 23 different missense mutations and 1 single-base-pair deletion. In total, mutations were found on 99% of the disease chromosomes in CDG1A patients. The R141H substitution is present on 43 of the 112 disease alleles. However, this mutation was never observed in the homozygous state, suggesting that homozygosity for these alterations is incompatible with life. On the other hand, patients were found homozygous for the D65Y and F119L mutations, which must therefore be mild mutations. One particular genotype, R141H/D188G, which is prevalent in Belgium and the Netherlands, is associated with a severe phenotype and a high mortality. Apart from this, there is only a limited relation between the genotype and the clinical phenotype.

  16. Lack of homozygotes for the most frequent disease allele in carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type 1A.

    PubMed Central

    Matthijs, G; Schollen, E; Van Schaftingen, E; Cassiman, J J; Jaeken, J

    1998-01-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient-glycoprotein syndrome type 1 (CDG1; also known as "Jaeken syndrome") is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by defective glycosylation. Most patients show a deficiency of phosphomannomutase (PMM), the enzyme that converts mannose 6-phosphate to mannose 1-phosphate in the synthesis of GDP-mannose. The disease is linked to chromosome 16p13, and mutations have recently been identified in the PMM2 gene in CDG1 patients with a PMM deficiency (CDG1A). The availability of the genomic sequences of PMM2 allowed us to screen for mutations in 56 CDG1 patients from different geographic origins. By SSCP analysis and by sequencing, we identified 23 different missense mutations and 1 single-base-pair deletion. In total, mutations were found on 99% of the disease chromosomes in CDG1A patients. The R141H substitution is present on 43 of the 112 disease alleles. However, this mutation was never observed in the homozygous state, suggesting that homozygosity for these alterations is incompatible with life. On the other hand, patients were found homozygous for the D65Y and F119L mutations, which must therefore be mild mutations. One particular genotype, R141H/D188G, which is prevalent in Belgium and the Netherlands, is associated with a severe phenotype and a high mortality. Apart from this, there is only a limited relation between the genotype and the clinical phenotype. PMID:9497260

  17. Genetic Variants in the PIWI-piRNA Pathway Gene DCP1A Predict Melanoma Disease-specific Survival

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weikang; Liu, Hongliang; Yin, Jieyun; Wu, Wenting; Zhu, Dakai; Amos, Christopher I.; Fang, Shenying; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Li, Yi; Han, Jiali; Wei, Qingyi

    2017-01-01

    The Piwi-piRNA pathway is important for germ cell maintenance, genome integrity, DNA methylation and retrotransposon control and thus may be involved in cancer development. In the present study, we comprehensively analyzed prognostic roles of 3,116 common SNPs in PIWI-piRNA pathway genes in melanoma disease-specific survival. A published genome-wide association study (GWAS) by The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center was used to identify associated SNPs, which were later validated by another GWAS from the Harvard Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. After multiple testing correction, we found that there were 27 common SNPs in two genes (PIWIL4 and DCP1A) with false discovery rate < 0.2 in the discovery dataset. Three tagSNPs (i.e., rs7933369 and rs508485 in PIWIL4; rs11551405 in DCP1A) were replicated. The rs11551405 A allele, located at the 3’ UTR microRNA binding site of DCP1A, was associated with an increased risk of melanoma disease-specific death in both discovery dataset [adjusted Hazards ratio (HR) = 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21–2.27, P =1.50×10−3] and validation dataset (HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.03–2.34, P = 0.038), compared with the C allele, and their meta-analysis showed an HR of 1.62 (95% CI,1.26–2.08, P =1.55×10−4). Using RNA-seq data from the 1000 Genomes Project, we found that DCP1A mRNA expression levels increased significantly with the A allele number of rs11551405. Additional large, prospective studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:27578485

  18. A 1.5-Mb deletion in 17p11.2-p12 is frequently observed in Italian families with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzetti, D.; Pandolfo, M. |; Pareyson, D.; Sghirlanzoni, A.; Di Donato, S.; Roa, B.B.; Abbas, N.E.; Lupski, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent mononeuropathies. A 1.5-Mb deletion in chromosome 17p11.2-p12 has been associated with HNPP. Duplication of the same 1.5-Mb region is known to be associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1A), a more severe peripheral neuropathy characterized by symmetrically slowed nerve conduction velocity (NCV). The CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion appear to be the reciprocal products of a recombination event involving a repeat element (CMT1A-REP) that flanks the 1.5-Mb region involved in the duplication/deletion. Patients from nine unrelated Italian families who were diagnosed with HNPP on the basis of clinical, electrophysiological, and histological evaluations were analyzed by molecular methods for DNA deletion on chromosome 17p. In all nine families, Southern analysis using a CMT1A-REP probe detected a reduced hybridization signal of a 6.0-kb EcoRI fragment mapping within the distal CMT1A-REP, indicating deletion of one copy of CMT1A-REP in these HNPP patients. Families were also typed with a polymorphic (CA){sub n} repeat and with RFLPs corresponding to loci D17S122, D17S125, and D17S61, which all map within the deleted region. Lack of allelic transmission from affected parent to affected offspring was observed in four informative families, providing an independent indication for deletion. Furthermore, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of SacII-digested genomic DNA detected junction fragments specific to the 1.5-Mb HNPP deletion in seven of nine Italian families included in this study. These findings suggest that a 1.5-Mb deletion on 17p11.2-p12 is the most common mutation associated with HNPP. 51 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. A 1.5-Mb deletion in 17p11.2-p12 is frequently observed in Italian families with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzetti, D; Pareyson, D; Sghirlanzoni, A; Roa, B B; Abbas, N E; Pandolfo, M; Di Donato, S; Lupski, J R

    1995-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent mononeuropathies. A 1.5-Mb deletion in chromosome 17p11.2-p12 has been associated with HNPP. Duplication of the same 1.5-Mb region is known to be associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1A), a more severe peripheral neuropathy characterized by symmetrically slowed nerve conduction velocity (NCV). The CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion appear to be the reciprocal products of a recombination event involving a repeat element (CMT1A-REP) that flanks the 1.5-Mb region involved in the duplication/deletion. Patients from nine unrelated Italian families who were diagnosed with HNPP on the basis of clinical, electrophysiological, and histological evaluations were analyzed by molecular methods for DNA deletion on chromosome 17p. In all nine families, Southern analysis using a CMT1A-REP probe detected a reduced hybridization signal of a 6.0-kb EcoRI fragment mapping within the distal CMT1A-REP, indicating deletion of one copy of CMT1A-REP in these HNPP patients. Families were also typed with a polymorphic (CA)n repeat and with RFLPs corresponding to loci D17S122, D17S125, and D17S61, which all map within the deleted region. Lack of allelic transmission from affected parent to affected offspring was observed in four informative families, providing an independent indication for deletion. Furthermore, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of SacII-digested genomic DNA detected junction fragments specific to the 1.5-Mb HNPP deletion in seven of nine Italian families included in this study. These findings suggest that a 1.5-Mb deletion on 17p11.2-p12 is the most common mutation associated with HNPP. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7825607

  20. A Sporadic Parkinson Disease Model via Silencing of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome/E3 Ligase Component SKP1A*

    PubMed Central

    Fishman-Jacob, Tali; Reznichenko, Lydia; Youdim, Moussa B. H.; Mandel, Silvia A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new model of sporadic Parkinson disease (PD) based on silencing of the SKP1A gene, a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome/E3 ligase complex, Skp1, Cullin 1, F-box protein, which was found to be highly decreased in the substantia nigra of sporadic PD patients. Initially, an embryonic mouse substantia nigra-derived cell line (SN4741 cells) was infected with short hairpin RNA lentiviruses encoding the murine transcript of the SKP1A gene or with scrambled vector. SKP1A silencing resulted in increased susceptibility to neuronal damages induced by the parkinsonism-inducing neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion and serum starvation, in parallel with a decline in the expression of the dopaminergic markers, dopamine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter-2. SKP1A-deficient cells presented a delay in completion of the cell cycle and the inability to arrest at the G0/G1 phase when induced to differentiate. Instead, the cells progressed through S phase, developing rounded aggregates with characteristics of aggresomes including immunoreactivity for γ-tubulin, α-synuclein, ubiquitin, tyrosine hydroxylase, Hsc-70 (70-kDa heat shock cognate protein), and proteasome subunit, and culminating in a lethal phenotype. Conversely, stably enforced expression of wild type SKP1A duplicated the survival index of naïve SN4741 cells under proteasomal inhibition injury, suggesting a new structural role of SKP1 in dopaminergic neuronal function, besides its E3 ligase activity. These results link, for the first time, SKP1 to dopamine neuronal function and survival, suggesting an essential role in sporadic PD. In summary, this new model has reproduced to a significant extent the molecular alterations described in sporadic PD at the cellular level, implicating Skp1 as a potential modifier in sporadic PD neurodegeneration. PMID:19748892

  1. A sporadic Parkinson disease model via silencing of the ubiquitin-proteasome/E3 ligase component SKP1A.

    PubMed

    Fishman-Jacob, Tali; Reznichenko, Lydia; Youdim, Moussa B H; Mandel, Silvia A

    2009-11-20

    The aim of this study was to develop a new model of sporadic Parkinson disease (PD) based on silencing of the SKP1A gene, a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome/E3 ligase complex, Skp1, Cullin 1, F-box protein, which was found to be highly decreased in the substantia nigra of sporadic PD patients. Initially, an embryonic mouse substantia nigra-derived cell line (SN4741 cells) was infected with short hairpin RNA lentiviruses encoding the murine transcript of the SKP1A gene or with scrambled vector. SKP1A silencing resulted in increased susceptibility to neuronal damages induced by the parkinsonism-inducing neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion and serum starvation, in parallel with a decline in the expression of the dopaminergic markers, dopamine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter-2. SKP1A-deficient cells presented a delay in completion of the cell cycle and the inability to arrest at the G(0)/G(1) phase when induced to differentiate. Instead, the cells progressed through S phase, developing rounded aggregates with characteristics of aggresomes including immunoreactivity for gamma-tubulin, alpha-synuclein, ubiquitin, tyrosine hydroxylase, Hsc-70 (70-kDa heat shock cognate protein), and proteasome subunit, and culminating in a lethal phenotype. Conversely, stably enforced expression of wild type SKP1A duplicated the survival index of naïve SN4741 cells under proteasomal inhibition injury, suggesting a new structural role of SKP1 in dopaminergic neuronal function, besides its E3 ligase activity. These results link, for the first time, SKP1 to dopamine neuronal function and survival, suggesting an essential role in sporadic PD. In summary, this new model has reproduced to a significant extent the molecular alterations described in sporadic PD at the cellular level, implicating Skp1 as a potential modifier in sporadic PD neurodegeneration.

  2. ATP1A2 Mutations in Migraine: Seeing through the Facets of an Ion Pump onto the Neurobiology of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Thomas; Tavraz, Neslihan N.; Junghans, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in four genes have been identified in familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM), from which CACNA1A (FHM type 1) and SCN1A (FHM type 3) code for neuronal voltage-gated calcium or sodium channels, respectively, while ATP1A2 (FHM type 2) encodes the α2 isoform of the Na+,K+-ATPase's catalytic subunit, thus classifying FHM primarily as an ion channel/ion transporter pathology. FHM type 4 is attributed to mutations in the PRRT2 gene, which encodes a proline-rich transmembrane protein of as yet unknown function. The Na+,K+-ATPase maintains the physiological gradients for Na+ and K+ ions and is, therefore, critical for the activity of ion channels and transporters involved neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter uptake or Ca2+ signaling. Strikingly diverse functional abnormalities have been identified for disease-linked ATP1A2 mutations which frequently lead to changes in the enzyme's voltage-dependent properties, kinetics, or apparent cation affinities, but some mutations are truly deleterious for enzyme function and thus cause full haploinsufficiency. Here, we summarize structural and functional data about the Na+,K+-ATPase available to date and an overview is provided about the particular properties of the α2 isoform that explain its physiological relevance in electrically excitable tissues. In addition, current concepts about the neurobiology of migraine, the correlations between primary brain dysfunction and mechanisms of headache pain generation are described, together with insights gained recently from modeling approaches in computational neuroscience. Then, a survey is given about ATP1A2 mutations implicated in migraine cases as documented in the literature with focus on mutations that were described to completely destroy enzyme function, or lead to misfolded or mistargeted protein in particular model cell lines. We also discuss whether or not there are correlations between these most severe mutational effects and clinical phenotypes. Finally, perspectives

  3. A novel DYRK1A (dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A) inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: effect on Tau and amyloid pathologies in vitro.

    PubMed

    Coutadeur, Séverine; Benyamine, Hélène; Delalonde, Laurence; de Oliveira, Catherine; Leblond, Bertrand; Foucourt, Alicia; Besson, Thierry; Casagrande, Anne-Sophie; Taverne, Thierry; Girard, Angélique; Pando, Matthew P; Désiré, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    The dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) gene is located within the Down Syndrome (DS) critical region on chromosome 21 and is implicated in the generation of Tau and amyloid pathologies that are associated with the early onset Alzheimer's Disease (AD) observed in DS. DYRK1A is also found associated with neurofibrillary tangles in sporadic AD and phosphorylates key AD players (Tau, amyloid precursor, protein, etc). Thus, DYRK1A may be an important therapeutic target to modify the course of Tau and amyloid beta (Aβ) pathologies. Here, we describe EHT 5372 (methyl 9-(2,4-dichlorophenylamino) thiazolo[5,4-f]quinazoline-2-carbimidate), a novel, highly potent (IC50 = 0.22 nM) DYRK1A inhibitor with a high degree of selectivity over 339 kinases. Models in which inhibition of DYRK1A by siRNA reduced and DYRK1A over-expression induced Tau phosphorylation or Aβ production were used. EHT 5372 inhibits DYRK1A-induced Tau phosphorylation at multiple AD-relevant sites in biochemical and cellular assays. EHT 5372 also normalizes both Aβ-induced Tau phosphorylation and DYRK1A-stimulated Aβ production. DYRK1A is thus as a key element of Aβ-mediated Tau hyperphosphorylation, which links Tau and amyloid pathologies. EHT 5372 and other compounds in its class warrant in vivo investigation as a novel, high-potential therapy for AD and other Tau opathies. Inhibition of the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) is a new high-potential therapeutic approach for Alzheimer disease. Here we describe EHT 5372, a novel potent and selective DYRK1A inhibitor. EHT 5372 inhibits DYRK1A-induced Tau phosphorylation, Aβ production and Aβ effects on phospho-Tau, including Tau aggregation.

  4. EEG, activity, and sleep architecture in a transgenic AβPPswe/PSEN1A246E Alzheimer's disease mouse.

    PubMed

    Jyoti, Amar; Plano, Andrea; Riedel, Gernot; Platt, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Since sleep and electroencephalogram (EEG) disturbances are endophenotypes of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients alongside cognitive dysfunction, we here characterized these parameters in transgenic mice carrying transgenes for amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPPswe) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1A246E) at 5 (pre-plaque) and 20 months, relative to PSEN1 and wild-type (WT) mice, using a novel wireless microchip device. While circadian rhythms were not affected, we obtained significantly higher overall activity at 5 months in the AβPP/PSEN1 strain (p < 0.001) compared to both PSEN1 and WT animals. Vigilance staging revealed that AβPP/PSEN1 animals present with an age-independent increase in wakefulness (p < 0.001) and a decrease in non rapid-eye movement (NREM) sleep (p < 0.01). These changes were age- and genotype-dependent only during the light phase, while dark phase activity pattern were equally affected at both ages. In all genotypes, the amount of REM sleep was lower at 20 months indicating a general age-related profile. Spectral power of qEEG changed in AβPP/PSEN1 mice at 5 months during wakefulness and REM sleep; during wakefulness hippocampal delta (0.5-5 Hz) was reduced and theta (5-9 Hz) power enhanced. By contrast, NREM EEG spectra were affected by age and genotype. Interestingly, PSEN1 animals also showed spectral EEG changes, these differed from both WT and AβPP/PSEN1 animals. Our results indicate that AβPP/PSEN1 mice exhibit abnormalities in activity and sleep architecture preceding amyloid plaque deposition as well as age-related changes in cortical EEG power. Though not fully recapitulating the profile of AD patients, this suggests activity and EEG recordings as sensitive and translational biomarkers in murine models.

  5. Recent Advances in the Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Selective DYRK1A Inhibitors: A New Avenue for a Disease Modifying Treatment of Alzheimer’s?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    With 24.3 million people affected in 2005 and an estimated rise to 42.3 million in 2020, dementia is currently a leading unmet medical need and costly burden on public health. Seventy percent of these cases have been attributed to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative pathology whose most evident symptom is a progressive decline in cognitive functions. Dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase-1A (DYRK1A) is important in neuronal development and plays a variety of functional roles within the adult central nervous system. The DYRK1A gene is located within the Down syndrome critical region (DSCR) on human chromosome 21 and current research suggests that overexpression of DYRK1A may be a significant factor leading to cognitive deficits in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS). Currently, treatment options for cognitive deficiencies associated with Down syndrome, as well as Alzheimer’s disease, are extremely limited and represent a major unmet therapeutic need. Small molecule inhibition of DYRK1A activity in the brain may provide an avenue for pharmaceutical intervention of mental impairment associated with AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. We herein review the current state of the art in the development of DYRK1A inhibitors. PMID:23173067

  6. Identification of Genetic Causes of Inherited Peripheral Neuropathies by Targeted Gene Panel Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Nam, Soo Hyun; Hong, Young Bin; Hyun, Young Se; Nam, Da Eun; Kwak, Geon; Hwang, Sun Hee; Choi, Byung-Ok; Chung, Ki Wha

    2016-05-31

    Inherited peripheral neuropathies (IPN), which are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous peripheral nerve disorders including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), exhibit progressive degeneration of muscles in the extremities and loss of sensory function. Over 70 genes have been reported as genetic causatives and the number is still growing. We prepared a targeted gene panel for IPN diagnosis based on next generation sequencing (NGS). The gene panel was designed to detect mutations in 73 genes reported to be genetic causes of IPN or related peripheral neuropathies, and to detect duplication of the chromosome 17p12 region, the major genetic cause of CMT1A. We applied the gene panel to 115 samples from 63 non-CMT1A families, and isolated 15 pathogenic or likely-pathogenic mutations in eight genes from 25 patients (17 families). Of them, eight mutations were unreported variants. Of particular interest, this study revealed several very rare mutations in the SPTLC2, DCTN1, and MARS genes. In addition, the effectiveness of the detection of CMT1A was confirmed by comparing five 17p12-nonduplicated controls and 15 CMT1A cases. In conclusion, we developed a gene panel for one step genetic diagnosis of IPN. It seems that its time- and cost-effectiveness are superior to previous tiered-genetic diagnosis algorithms, and it could be applied as a genetic diagnostic system for inherited peripheral neuropathies.

  7. Identification of Genetic Causes of Inherited Peripheral Neuropathies by Targeted Gene Panel Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Soo Hyun; Hong, Young Bin; Hyun, Young Se; Nam, Da Eun; Kwak, Geon; Hwang, Sun Hee; Choi, Byung-Ok; Chung, Ki Wha

    2016-01-01

    Inherited peripheral neuropathies (IPN), which are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous peripheral nerve disorders including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), exhibit progressive degeneration of muscles in the extremities and loss of sensory function. Over 70 genes have been reported as genetic causatives and the number is still growing. We prepared a targeted gene panel for IPN diagnosis based on next generation sequencing (NGS). The gene panel was designed to detect mutations in 73 genes reported to be genetic causes of IPN or related peripheral neuropathies, and to detect duplication of the chromosome 17p12 region, the major genetic cause of CMT1A. We applied the gene panel to 115 samples from 63 non-CMT1A families, and isolated 15 pathogenic or likely-pathogenic mutations in eight genes from 25 patients (17 families). Of them, eight mutations were unreported variants. Of particular interest, this study revealed several very rare mutations in the SPTLC2, DCTN1, and MARS genes. In addition, the effectiveness of the detection of CMT1A was confirmed by comparing five 17p12-nonduplicated controls and 15 CMT1A cases. In conclusion, we developed a gene panel for one step genetic diagnosis of IPN. It seems that its time- and cost-effectiveness are superior to previous tiered-genetic diagnosis algorithms, and it could be applied as a genetic diagnostic system for inherited peripheral neuropathies. PMID:27025386

  8. Upregulation of a small vault RNA (svtRNA2-1a) is an early event in Parkinson disease and induces neuronal dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Miñones-Moyano, Elena; Friedländer, Marc R.; Pallares, Joan; Kagerbauer, Birgit; Porta, Sílvia; Escaramís, Georgia; Ferrer, Isidre; Estivill, Xavier; Martí, Eulàlia

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, playing key roles in neuronal development, plasticity, and disease. Transcriptome deregulation caused by miRNA dysfunction has been associated to neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease showing deregulation of the coding and small non-coding transcriptome. On profiling sncRNA in PD brain areas differently affected, we found that upregulation of a small vault RNA (svtRNA2-1a) is widespread in PD brains, occurring early in the course of the disease (at pre-motor stages). SvtRNA2-1a biogenesis was dependent on Dicer activity on its precursor (vtRNA2-1) but independent of Drosha endonuclease, unlike the canonical miRNAs. Although endogenous svtRNA2-1a was enriched in Ago-2 immunoprecipitates in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, overexpression of svtRNA2-1a induced subtle transcriptomic changes, suggesting that gene expression regulation may involve other mechanisms than mRNA decay only. Function enrichment analysis of the genes deregulated by svtRNA2-1a overexpression or svtRNA2-1a predicted targets identified pathways related to nervous system development and cell type specification. The expression pattern of svtRNA2-1a during development and aging of the human brain and the detrimental consequences of a svtRNA2-1a mimic overexpression in neuronal cells further indicate that low svtRNA2-1a levels may be important for the maintenance of neurons. Our results suggest that early svtRNA2-1a upregulation in PD may contribute to perturbations of gene expression networks, underlying metabolic impairment and cell dysfunction. A better understanding of the pathways regulated by svtRNA2-a, and also the mechanisms regulating its expression should facilitate the identification of new targets for therapeutic approaches in PD. PMID:23673382

  9. Upregulation of a small vault RNA (svtRNA2-1a) is an early event in Parkinson disease and induces neuronal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Miñones-Moyano, Elena; Friedländer, Marc R; Pallares, Joan; Kagerbauer, Birgit; Porta, Sílvia; Escaramís, Georgia; Ferrer, Isidre; Estivill, Xavier; Martí, Eulàlia

    2013-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and other small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, playing key roles in neuronal development, plasticity, and disease. Transcriptome deregulation caused by miRNA dysfunction has been associated to neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease showing deregulation of the coding and small non-coding transcriptome. On profiling sncRNA in PD brain areas differently affected, we found that upregulation of a small vault RNA (svtRNA2-1a) is widespread in PD brains, occurring early in the course of the disease (at pre-motor stages). SvtRNA2-1a biogenesis was dependent on Dicer activity on its precursor (vtRNA2-1) but independent of Drosha endonuclease, unlike the canonical miRNAs. Although endogenous svtRNA2-1a was enriched in Ago-2 immunoprecipitates in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, overexpression of svtRNA2-1a induced subtle transcriptomic changes, suggesting that gene expression regulation may involve other mechanisms than mRNA decay only. Function enrichment analysis of the genes deregulated by svtRNA2-1a overexpression or svtRNA2-1a predicted targets identified pathways related to nervous system development and cell type specification. The expression pattern of svtRNA2-1a during development and aging of the human brain and the detrimental consequences of a svtRNA2-1a mimic overexpression in neuronal cells further indicate that low svtRNA2-1a levels may be important for the maintenance of neurons. Our results suggest that early svtRNA2-1a upregulation in PD may contribute to perturbations of gene expression networks, underlying metabolic impairment and cell dysfunction. A better understanding of the pathways regulated by svtRNA2-a, and also the mechanisms regulating its expression should facilitate the identification of new targets for therapeutic approaches in PD.

  10. A 1.5 Mb submicroscopic deletion in 17p11.2-p12 is frequently observed in Italian families with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzetti, D.; Roa, B.B.; Abbas, N.E.

    1994-09-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent mononeuropathies that was recently associated with a 1.5 Mb deletion in chromosome 17p11.2-p12. Duplication of the same region is known to be associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), a more severe peripheral neuropathy characterized by symmetrically slowed nerve conduction velocity. The CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion are reciprocal recombination products involving a repeat element (CMT1A-REP) which flanks the 1.5 Mb region involved in the duplication/deletion. Patients from 9 unrelated HNPP Italian families were clinically, electrophysiologically and histologically evaluated. Families were typed with a polymorphic (CA){sub n} repeat and with RFLPs corresponding to loci D17S122, D17S125 and D17S61, which all map within the deleted region. Lack of allelic transmission from affected parent to affected offspring was observed in four informative families, suggesting the presence of deletion. Southern blot analysis of EcoRI digested genomic DNA from HNPP patients and control subjects was performed using a probe mapping within the CMT1A-REP elements. A reduced hybridization signal of a 6.0 kb EcoRI fragment, mapping within the distal CMT1A-REP, was observed in all HNPP patients suggesting the loss of one copy of this fragment in the HNPP-deleted chromosome. PFGE analysis of SacII digested genomic DNA from selected HNPP subjects showed the presence of a junction fragment which has previously been found in association with the 1.5 Mb HNPP deletion. Evidence for deletion could be demonstrated in all 9 families suggesting that the 17p11.2-p12 deletion is commonly associated with HNPP.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Diplodia seriata F98.1, a Fungal Species Involved in Grapevine Trunk Diseases.

    PubMed

    Robert-Siegwald, Guillaume; Vallet, Julie; Abou-Mansour, Eliane; Xu, Jiabao; Rey, Patrice; Bertsch, Christophe; Rego, Cecilia; Larignon, Philippe; Fontaine, Florence; Lebrun, Marc-Henri

    2017-04-06

    The ascomycete Diplodia seriata is a causal agent of grapevine trunk diseases. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of D. seriata isolate F98.1 (37.27 Mb, 512 contigs, 112 scaffolds, and 8,087 predicted protein-coding genes).

  12. Herbal therapeutics that block the oncogenic kinase PAK1: a practical approach towards PAK1-dependent diseases and longevity.

    PubMed

    Maruta, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Over 35 years research on PAKs, RAC/CDC42(p21)-activated kinases, comes of age, and in particular PAK1 has been well known to be responsible for a variety of diseases such as cancer (mainly solid tumors), Alzheimer's disease, acquired immune deficiency syndrome and other viral/bacterial infections, inflammatory diseases (asthma and arthritis), diabetes (type 2), neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, epilepsy, depression, schizophrenia, learning disability, autism, etc. Although several distinct synthetic PAK1-blockers have been recently developed, no FDA-approved PAK1 blockers are available on the market as yet. Thus, patients suffering from these PAK1-dependent diseases have to rely on solely a variety of herbal therapeutics such as propolis and curcumin that block PAK1 without affecting normal cell growth. Furthermore, several recent studies revealed that some of these herbal therapeutics significantly extend the lifespan of nematodes (C. elegans) and fruit flies (Drosophila), and PAK1-deficient worm lives longer than the wild type. Here, I outline mainly pathological phenotypes of hyper-activated PAK1 and a list of herbal therapeutics that block PAK1, but cause no side (harmful) effect on healthy people or animals.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Diplodia seriata F98.1, a Fungal Species Involved in Grapevine Trunk Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Robert-Siegwald, Guillaume; Vallet, Julie; Abou-Mansour, Eliane; Xu, Jiabao; Rey, Patrice; Bertsch, Christophe; Rego, Cecilia; Larignon, Philippe; Fontaine, Florence

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ascomycete Diplodia seriata is a causal agent of grapevine trunk diseases. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of D. seriata isolate F98.1 (37.27 Mb, 512 contigs, 112 scaffolds, and 8,087 predicted protein-coding genes). PMID:28385831

  14. Mmp1a and Mmp1b are not functional orthologs to human MMP1 in cigarette smoke induced lung disease.

    PubMed

    Carver, Phillip I; Anguiano, Vincent; D'Armiento, Jeanine M; Shiomi, Takayuki

    2015-02-01

    Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1, collagenase-1) expression is implicated in a number of diseased states including emphysema and malignant tumors. The cigarette-smoke induced expression of this interstitial collegenase has been studied extensively and its inhibition proposed as a novel therapeutic treatment for tobacco related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. However, a limitation in MMP1 research is the inability to take advantage of natural in vivo studies as most research has been performed in vitro or via animal models expressing human forms of the gene due to the lack of a rodent ortholog of MMP1. The present study examines the function of two possible mouse orthologs of human MMP1 known as Mmp1a and Mmp1b. Using genomic sequence analysis and expression analysis of these enzymes, the data demonstrate that neither MMP1a nor MMP1b behave in the same manner as human MMP1 in the presence of cigarette smoke. These findings establish that the two commonly proposed orthologs of MMP1, Mmp1a and Mmp1b, provide substantial limitations for use in examining MMP1 induced lung disease in mouse models of cigarette smoke emphysema.

  15. Structure of the Trypanosoma cruzi protein tyrosine phosphatase TcPTP1, a potential therapeutic target for Chagas' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lountos, George T.; Tropea, Joseph E.; Waugh, David S.

    2013-06-05

    Chagas’ disease, a neglected tropical affliction transmitted by the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is prevalent in Latin America and affects nearly 18 million people worldwide, yet few approved drugs are available to treat the disease. Moreover, the currently available drugs exhibit severe toxicity or are poorly effective in the chronic phase of the disease. This limitation, along with the large population at risk, underscores the urgent need to discover new molecular targets and novel therapeutic agents. Recently, the T. cruzi protein tyrosine phosphatase TcPTP1 has been implicated in the cellular differentiation and infectivity of the parasite and is therefore a promising target for the design of novel anti-parasitic drugs. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structure of TcPTP1 refined to a resolution of 2.18 Å, which provides structural insights into the active site environment that can be used to initiate structure-based drug design efforts to develop specific TcPTP1 inhibitors. Potential strategies to develop such inhibitors are also discussed.

  16. Hepatic lentiviral gene transfer prevents the long-term onset of hepatic tumours of glycogen storage disease type 1a in mice.

    PubMed

    Clar, Julie; Mutel, Elodie; Gri, Blandine; Creneguy, Alison; Stefanutti, Anne; Gaillard, Sophie; Ferry, Nicolas; Beuf, Olivier; Mithieux, Gilles; Nguyen, Tuan Huy; Rajas, Fabienne

    2015-04-15

    Glycogen storage disease type 1a (GSD1a) is a rare disease due to the deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) catalytic subunit (encoded by G6pc), which is essential for endogenous glucose production. Despite strict diet control to maintain blood glucose, patients with GSD1a develop hepatomegaly, steatosis and then hepatocellular adenomas (HCA), which can undergo malignant transformation. Recently, gene therapy has attracted attention as a potential treatment for GSD1a. In order to maintain long-term transgene expression, we developed an HIV-based vector, which allowed us to specifically express the human G6PC cDNA in the liver. We analysed the efficiency of this lentiviral vector in the prevention of the development of the hepatic disease in an original GSD1a mouse model, which exhibits G6Pase deficiency exclusively in the liver (L-G6pc(-/-) mice). Recombinant lentivirus were injected in B6.G6pc(ex3lox/ex3lox). SA(creERT2/w) neonates and G6pc deletion was induced by tamoxifen treatment at weaning. Magnetic resonance imaging was then performed to follow up the development of hepatic tumours. Lentiviral gene therapy restored glucose-6 phosphatase activity sufficient to correct fasting hypoglycaemia during 9 months. Moreover, lentivirus-treated L-G6pc(-/-) mice presented normal hepatic triglyceride levels, whereas untreated mice developed steatosis. Glycogen stores were also decreased although liver weight remained high. Interestingly, lentivirus-treated L-G6pc(-/-) mice were protected against the development of hepatic tumours after 9 months of gene therapy while most of untreated L-G6pc(-/-) mice developed millimetric HCA. Thus the treatment of newborns by recombinant lentivirus appears as an attractive approach to protect the liver from the development of steatosis and hepatic tumours associated to GSD1a pathology.

  17. Cigarette smoking, dietary habits and genetic polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTM1 and CYP1A1 metabolic genes: A case-control study in oncohematological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cerliani, María Belén; Pavicic, Walter; Gili, Juan Antonio; Klein, Graciela; Saba, Silvia; Richard, Silvina

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze the association between oncohematological diseases and GSTT1/GSTM1/CYP1A1 polymorphisms, dietary habits and smoking, in an argentine hospital-based case-control study. METHODS This hospital-based case-control study involved 125 patients with oncohematological diseases and 310 control subjects. A questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic data and information about habits. Blood samples were collected, and DNA was extracted using salting out methods. Deletions in GSTT1 and GSTM1 (null genotypes) were addressed by PCR. CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism was detected by PCR-RFLP. Odds ratio (OR) and 95%CI were calculated to estimate the association between each variable studied and oncohematological disease. RESULTS Women showed lower risk of disease compared to men (OR 0.52, 95%CI: 0.34-0.82, P = 0.003). Higher levels of education (> 12 years) were significantly associated with an increased risk, compared to complete primary school or less (OR 3.68, 95%CI: 1.82-7.40, P < 0.001 adjusted for age and sex). With respect to tobacco, none of the smoking categories showed association with oncohematological diseases. Regarding dietary habits, consumption of grilled/barbecued meat 3 or more times per month showed significant association with an increased risk of disease (OR 1.72, 95%CI: 1.08-2.75, P = 0.02). Daily consumption of coffee also was associated with an increased risk (OR 1.77, 95%CI: 1.03-3.03, P = 0.03). Results for GSTT1, GSTM1 and CYP1A1 polymorphisms showed no significant association with oncohematological diseases. When analyzing the interaction between polymorphisms and tobacco smoking or dietary habits, no statistically significant associations that modify disease risk were found. CONCLUSION We reported an increased risk of oncohematological diseases associated with meat and coffee intake. We did not find significant associations between genetic polymorphisms and blood cancer. PMID:27777882

  18. Interstitial lung disease caused by TS-1: a case of long-term drug retention as a fatal adverse reaction.

    PubMed

    Park, Joong-Min; Hwang, In Gyu; Suh, Suk-Won; Chi, Kyong-Choun

    2011-12-01

    TS-1 is an oral anti-cancer agent for gastric cancer with a high response rate and low toxicity. We report a case of long-term drug retention of TS-1 causing interstitial lung disease (ILD) as a fatal adverse reaction. A 65-year-old woman underwent a total gastrectomy with pathologic confirmation of gastric adenocarcinoma. She received 6 cycles of TS-1 and low-dose cisplatin for post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy followed by single-agent maintenance therapy with TS-1. After 8 months, the patient complained of a productive cough with sputum and mild dyspnea. A pulmonary evaluation revealed diffuse ILD in the lung fields, bilaterally. In spite of discontinuing chemotherapy and the administration of corticosteroids, the pulmonary symptoms did not improve, and the patient died of pulmonary failure. TS-1-induced ILD can be caused by long-term drug retention that alters the lung parenchyma irreversibly, the outcome of which can be life-threatening. Pulmonary evaluation for early detection of disease is recommended.

  19. Demonstrating freedom from disease using multiple complex data sources 1: a new methodology based on scenario trees.

    PubMed

    Martin, P A J; Cameron, A R; Greiner, M

    2007-05-16

    Current methods to demonstrate zone or country freedom from disease are based on either quantitative analysis of the results of structured representative surveys, or qualitative assessments of multiple sources of evidence (including complex non-representative sources). This paper presents a methodology for objective quantitative analysis of multiple complex data sources to support claims of freedom from disease. Stochastic scenario tree models are used to describe each component of a surveillance system (SSC), and used to estimate the sensitivity of each SSC. The process of building and analysing the models is described, as well as techniques to take into account any lack of independence between units at different levels within a SSC. The combination of sensitivity estimates from multiple SSCs into a single estimate for the entire surveillance system is also considered, again taking into account lack of independence between components. A sensitivity ratio is used to compare different components of a surveillance system. Finally, calculation of the probability of country freedom from the estimated sensitivity of the surveillance system is illustrated, incorporating the use and valuation of historical surveillance evidence.

  20. Pitt-Hopkins syndrome in a boy with Charcot Marie Tooth disease type 1A: a rare co-occurrence of 2 genetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Partha S; Friedman, Neil R; Ghosh, Debabrata

    2012-12-01

    Pitt-Hopkins syndrome is characterized by marked intellectual impairment, hyperventilation episodes, and dysmorphic facial features. This article reports a boy who presented with developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, microcephaly, hypotonia, and areflexia. He was initially diagnosed with Charcot Marie Tooth disease type 1A based on family history and genetic testing. However, severe mental impairment was atypical of Charcot Marie Tooth disease type 1A. Over the next few years he developed characteristic breathing abnormality, hand stereotypies, seizures, and marked constipation. The evolution of these manifestations coupled with the characteristic facial appearance suggested the additional diagnosis of Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, which was confirmed by the genetic defect of the transcription factor 4 on chromosome 18. This case demonstrates the rare co-occurrence of 2 genetic disorders in the same individual.

  1. DJ-1, a causative gene product of a familial form of Parkinson's disease, is secreted through microdomains.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Yumi; Munemoto, Haruko; Ishikawa, Shizuma; Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2008-07-23

    DJ-1 is secreted into the serum and plasma of patients with various diseases. In this study, DJ-1 was found to be secreted into culture media of various cells and the amount of wild-type DJ-1 secreted was two-fold greater than that of mutant DJ-1 of cysteine at 106 (C106). Furthermore, the oxidative status of more than 90% of the DJ-1 secreted from HeLa cells was SOH and SO2H forms of C106. A portion of DJ-1 in cells was localized in microdomains of the membrane. These findings suggest that DJ-1 is secreted through microdomains and that oxidation of DJ-1 at C106 facilitates the secretion.

  2. Loss of Hepatic CEACAM1: A Unifying Mechanism Linking Insulin Resistance to Obesity and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Garrett; Ghadieh, Hilda E.; Ghanem, Simona S.; Muturi, Harrison T.; Rezaei, Khadijeh; Al-Share, Qusai Y.; Bowman, Thomas A.; Zhang, Deqiang; Garofalo, Robert S.; Yin, Lei; Najjar, Sonia M.

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unclear, in particular in the context of its relationship to insulin resistance and visceral obesity. Work on the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in mice has resolved some of the related questions. CEACAM1 promotes insulin clearance by enhancing the rate of uptake of the insulin-receptor complex. It also mediates a negative acute effect of insulin on fatty acid synthase activity. This positions CEACAM1 to coordinate the regulation of insulin and lipid metabolism. Fed a regular chow diet, global null mutation of Ceacam1 manifest hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, obesity, and steatohepatitis. They also develop spontaneous chicken-wire fibrosis, characteristic of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Reduction of hepatic CEACAM1 expression plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of diet-induced metabolic abnormalities, as bolstered by the protective effect of hepatic CEACAM1 gain-of-function against the metabolic response to dietary fat. Together, this emphasizes that loss of hepatic CEACAM1 links NAFLD to insulin resistance and obesity. PMID:28184213

  3. Interferon β-1a for the treatment of Ebola virus disease: A historically controlled, single-arm proof-of-concept trial

    PubMed Central

    Konde, Mandy Kader; Baker, Darren P.; Traore, Fode Amara; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Camara, Alioune; Barry, Alpha Amadou; Mara, Doussou; Barry, Abdoulaye; Cone, Moussa 3; Kaba, Ibrahima; Richard, Amento Ablam; Beavogui, Abdoul Habib; Günther, Stephan; Pintilie, Melania; Fish, Eleanor N.

    2017-01-01

    To date there are no approved antiviral drugs for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Based on our in vitro evidence of antiviral activity of interferon (IFN)-ß activity against Ebola virus, we conducted a single arm clinical study in Guinea to evaluate the safety and therapeutic efficacy of IFN β-1a treatment for EVD. Nine individuals infected with Ebola virus were treated with IFN β-1a and compared retrospectively with a matched cohort of 21 infected patients receiving standardized supportive care only during the same time period at the same treatment unit. Cognizant of the limitations of having treated only 9 individuals with EVD, the data collected are cautiously considered. When compared to supportive care only, IFN β-1a treatment seemed to facilitate viral clearance from the blood and appeared associated with earlier resolution of disease symptoms. Survival, calculated from the date of consent for those in the trial and date of admission from those in the control cohort, to the date of death, was 19% for those receiving supportive care only, compared to 67% for those receiving supportive care plus IFN β-1a. Given the differences in baseline blood viremia between the control cohort and the IFN-treated cohort, an additional 17 controls were included for a subset analysis, from other treatment units in Guinea, matched with the IFN-treated patients based on age and baseline blood viremia. Subset analyses using this expanded control cohort suggests that patients without IFN β-1a treatment were ~ 1.5–1.9 fold more likely to die than those treated. Viewed altogether the results suggest a rationale for further clinical evaluation of IFN β-1a. PMID:28225767

  4. BcGs1, a glycoprotein from Botrytis cinerea, elicits defence response and improves disease resistance in host plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yunhua; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei; Guo, Lihua; Yang, Xiufen

    2015-02-20

    In this study, a necrosis-inducing protein was purified from the culture filtrate of the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea BC-98 strain. Secreted proteins were collected and fractionated by liquid chromatography. The fraction with the highest necrosis-inducing activity was further purified. A glycoprotein named BcGs1 was identified by 2D electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The BcGs1 protein consisted of 672 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 70.487 kDa. Functional domain analysis indicated that BcGs1 was a glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase, a cell wall-degrading enzyme, with a Glyco_hydro_15 domain and a CBM20_glucoamylase domain. The BcGs1 protein caused necrotic lesions that mimicked a typical hypersensitive response and H2O2 production in tomato and tobacco leaves. BcGs1-treated plants exhibited resistance to B. cinerea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and tobacco mosaic virus in systemic leaves. In addition, BcGs1 triggered elevation of the transcript levels of the defence-related genes PR-1a, TPK1b and Prosystemin. This is the first report of a Botrytis glucan 1,4-alpha-glucosidase triggering host plant immunity as an elicitor. These results lay a foundation for further study of the comprehensive interaction between plants and necrotrophic fungi.

  5. Expression pattern in retinal photoreceptors of POMGnT1, a protein involved in muscle-eye-brain disease

    PubMed Central

    Uribe, Mary Luz; Haro, Carmen; Campello, Laura; Cruces, Jesús; Martín-Nieto, José

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The POMGNT1 gene, encoding protein O-linked-mannose β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1, is associated with muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB) and other dystroglycanopathies. This gene’s lack of function or expression causes hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan (α-DG) in the muscle and the central nervous system, including the brain and the retina. The ocular symptoms of patients with MEB include retinal degeneration and detachment, glaucoma, and abnormal electroretinogram. Nevertheless, the POMGnT1 expression pattern in the healthy mammalian retina has not yet been investigated. In this work, we address the expression of the POMGNT1 gene in the healthy retina of a variety of mammals and characterize the distribution pattern of this gene in the adult mouse retina and the 661W photoreceptor cell line. Methods Using reverse transcription (RT)–PCR and immunoblotting, we studied POMGNT1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels in various mammalian species, from rodents to humans. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy analyses were performed to characterize the distribution profile of its protein product in mouse retinal sections and in 661W cultured cells. The intranuclear distribution of POMT1 and POMT2, the two enzymes preceding POMGnT1 in the α-DG O-mannosyl glycosylation pathway, was also analyzed. Results POMGNT1 mRNA and its encoded protein were expressed in the neural retina of all mammals studied. POMGnT1 was located in the cytoplasmic fraction in the mouse retina and concentrated in the myoid portion of the photoreceptor inner segments, where the protein colocalized with GM130, a Golgi complex marker. The presence of POMGnT1 in the Golgi complex was also evident in 661W cells. However, and in contrast to retinal tissue, POMGnT1 additionally accumulated in the nucleus of the 661W photoreceptors. Colocalization was found within this organelle between POMGnT1 and POMT1/2, the latter associated with euchromatic regions of the nucleus. Conclusions

  6. Lessons from new mouse models of glycogen storage disease type 1a in relation to the time course and organ specificity of the disease.

    PubMed

    Rajas, Fabienne; Clar, Julie; Gautier-Stein, Amandine; Mithieux, Gilles

    2015-05-01

    Patients with glycogen storage diseases type 1 (GSD1) suffer from life-threatening hypoglycaemia, when left untreated. Despite an intensive dietary treatment, patients develop severe complications, such as liver tumors and renal failure, with aging. Until now, the animal models available for studying the GSD1 did not survive after weaning. To gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms of the disease and to evaluate potential treatment strategies, we have recently developed novel mouse models in which the catalytic subunit of glucose-6 phosphatase (G6pc) is deleted in each glucose-producing organ specifically. For that, B6.G6pc(ex3lox/ex3lox) mice were crossed with transgenic mice expressing a recombinase under the control of the serum albumin, the kidney androgen protein or the villin promoter, in order to obtain liver, kidney or intestine G6pc(-/-) mice, respectively. As opposed to total G6pc knockout mice, tissue-specific G6pc deficiency allows mice to maintain their blood glucose by inducing glucose production in the other gluconeogenic organs. Even though it is considered that glucose is produced mainly by the liver, liver G6pc(-/-) mice are perfectly viable and exhibit the same hepatic pathological features as GSD1 patients, including the late development of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas. Interestingly, renal G6pc(-/-) mice developed renal symptoms similar to the early human GSD1 nephropathy. This includes glycogen overload that leads to nephromegaly and morphological and functional alterations in the kidneys. Thus, our data suggest that renal G6Pase deficiency per se is sufficient to induce the renal pathology of GSD1. Therefore, these new mouse models should allow us to improve the strategies of treatment on both nutritional and pharmacological points of view.

  7. A novel COL1A1 mutation in infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease) expands the spectrum of collagen-related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gensure, Robert C.; Mäkitie, Outi; Barclay, Catherine; Chan, Catherine; DePalma, Steven R.; Bastepe, Murat; Abuzahra, Hilal; Couper, Richard; Mundlos, Stefan; Sillence, David; Ala Kokko, Leena; Seidman, Jonathan G.; Cole, William G.; Jüppner, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease) is characterized by spontaneous episodes of subperiosteal new bone formation along 1 or more bones commencing within the first 5 months of life. A genome-wide screen for genetic linkage in a large family with an autosomal dominant form of Caffey disease (ADC) revealed a locus on chromosome 17q21 (LOD score, 6.78). Affected individuals and obligate carriers were heterozygous for a missense mutation (3040C↠T) in exon 41 of the gene encoding the α1(I) chain of type I collagen (COL1A1), altering residue 836 (R836C) in the triple-helical domain of this chain. The same mutation was identified in affected members of 2 unrelated, smaller families with ADC, but not in 2 prenatal cases and not in more than 300 chromosomes from healthy individuals. Fibroblast cultures from an affected individual produced abnormal disulfide-bonded dimeric α1(I) chains. Dermal collagen fibrils of the same individual were larger, more variable in shape and size, and less densely packed than those in control samples. Individuals bearing the mutation, whether they had experienced an episode of cortical hyperostosis or not, had joint hyperlaxity, hyperextensible skin, and inguinal hernias resembling symptoms of a mild form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type III. These findings extend the spectrum of COL1A1-related diseases to include a hyperostotic disorder. PMID:15864348

  8. Anti-dyskinetic mechanisms of amantadine and dextromethorphan in the 6-OHDA rat model of Parkinson's disease: role of NMDA vs. 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Melanie A; Martinez, Alex A; Macheda, Teresa; Meshul, Charles K; Johnson, Steven W; Berger, S Paul; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Amantadine and dextromethorphan suppress levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model. These effects have been attributed to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonism. However, amantadine and dextromethorphan are also thought to block serotonin (5-HT) uptake and cause 5-HT overflow, leading to stimulation of 5-HT(1A) receptors, which has been shown to reduce LID. We undertook a study in 6-OHDA rats to determine whether the anti-dyskinetic effects of these two compounds are mediated by NMDA antagonism and/or 5-HT(1A) agonism. In addition, we assessed the sensorimotor effects of these drugs using the Vibrissae-Stimulated Forelimb Placement and Cylinder tests. Our data show that the AIM-suppressing effect of amantadine was not affected by the 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY-100635, but was partially reversed by the NMDA agonist d-cycloserine. Conversely, the AIM-suppressing effect of dextromethorphan was prevented by WAY-100635 but not by d-cycloserine. Neither amantadine nor dextromethorphan affected the therapeutic effects of L-DOPA in sensorimotor tests. We conclude that the anti-dyskinetic effect of amantadine is partially dependent on NMDA antagonism, while dextromethorphan suppresses AIMs via indirect 5-HT(1A) agonism. Combined with previous work from our group, our results support the investigation of 5-HT(1A) agonists as pharmacotherapies for LID in PD patients.

  9. Rab1A over-expression prevents Golgi apparatus fragmentation and partially corrects motor deficits in an alpha-synuclein based rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Coune, P G; Bensadoun, J C; Aebischer, P; Schneider, B L

    2011-01-01

    Although the overabundance of human alpha-synuclein in nigral dopaminergic neurons is considered to play a pathogenic role in Parkinson's disease (PD), it remains unclear how alpha-synuclein leads to neuronal degeneration and motor symptoms. Here, we explored the effect of human alpha-synuclein in the rat substantia nigra following AAV-mediated gene delivery inducing a moderate loss of dopaminergic neurons together with motor impairments. A significant fraction of the surviving nigral neurons were found to express human αSyn and displayed a pathological fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. This observation prompted further investigation on the role of the secretory pathway, in particular at the ER/Golgi level, in alpha-synuclein toxicity. To address this question, we co-expressed human alpha-synuclein with Rab1A, a regulator of ER-to-Golgi vesicular trafficking, and found a significant reduction of Golgi fragmentation. Rab1A did not protect the dopaminergic neurons from the alpha-synuclein-induced degeneration that occurred within several months following vector injection. However, we observed in animals co-expressing Rab1A an improvement of motor behavior that correlates with the rescue of normal Golgi morphology in alpha-synuclein-expressing dopaminergic neurons. The non-prenylable mutant Rab1A-DeltaCC did not produce any of the effects observed with the wild-type form of Rab1A, linking the protective role of Rab1A with its activity in ER-to-Golgi vesicular trafficking. In conclusion, Rab1A can rescue the Golgi fragmentation caused by the overabundance of alpha-synuclein in nigral dopaminergic neurons, improving the ability of the surviving neurons to control motor function in hemiparkinsonian animals.

  10. Molecular approaches to the treatment, prophylaxis, and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: possible involvement of HRD1, a novel molecule related to endoplasmic reticulum stress, in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masayuki; Okuma, Yasunobu; Nomura, Yasuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is a protective mechanism against ER stress in which unfolded proteins accumulated in the ER are selectively transported to the cytosol for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. We cloned the novel ubiquitin ligase HRD1, which is involved in ERAD, and showed that HRD1 promoted amyloid precursor protein (APP) ubiquitination and degradation, resulting in decreased generation of amyloid β (Aβ). In addition, suppression of HRD1 expression caused APP accumulation and promoted Aβ generation associated with ER stress and apoptosis. Interestingly, HRD1 levels were significantly decreased in the cerebral cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the brains of these patients experienced ER stress. Our recent study revealed that this decrease in HRD1 was due to its insolubilization; however, controversy persists about whether the decrease in HRD1 protein promotes Aβ generation or whether Aβ neurotoxicity causes the decrease in HRD1 protein levels. Here, we review current findings on the mechanism of HRD1 protein loss in the AD brain and the involvement of HRD1 in the pathogenesis of AD. Furthermore, we propose that HRD1 may be a target for novel AD therapeutics.

  11. Disease-associated mutations in TUBA1A result in a spectrum of defects in the tubulin folding and heterodimer assembly pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Guoling; Jaglin, Xavier H.; Keays, David A.; Francis, Fiona; Chelly, Jamel; Cowan, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are characteristic of a plethora of diseases that includes polymicrogyria, periventricular and subcortical heterotopia and lissencephaly. Mutations in TUBA1A and TUBB2B, each a member of the multigene families that encode α- and β-tubulins, have recently been implicated in these diseases. Here we examine the defects that result from nine disease-causing mutations (I188L, I238V, P263T, L286F, V303G, L397P, R402C, 402H, S419L) in TUBA1A. We show that the expression of all the mutant proteins in vitro results in the generation of tubulin heterodimers in varying yield and that these can co-polymerize with microtubules in vitro. We identify several kinds of defects that result from these mutations. Among these are various defects in the chaperone-dependent pathway leading to de novo tubulin heterodimer formation. These include a defective interaction with the chaperone prefoldin, a reduced efficiency in the generation of productive folding intermediates as a result of inefficient interaction with the cytosolic chaperonin, CCT, and, in several cases, a failure to stably interact with TBCB, one of five tubulin-specific chaperones that act downstream of CCT in the tubulin heterodimer assembly pathway. Other defects include structural instability in vitro, diminished stability in vivo, a compromised ability to co-assemble with microtubules in vivo and a suppression of microtubule growth rate in the neurites (but not the soma) of cultured neurons. Our data are consistent with the notion that some mutations in TUBA1A result in tubulin deficit, whereas others reflect compromised interactions with one or more MAPs that are essential to proper neuronal migration. PMID:20603323

  12. Interferon beta-1a for the maintenance of remission in patients with Crohn's disease: results of a phase II dose-finding study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Crohn's disease (CD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) share common pathogenic processes. Interferon (IFN) beta-1a is effective and generally well tolerated in patients with MS and has been shown to down-regulate the expression of interleukin-12, a cytokine that is thought to be involved in mucosal degeneration in CD. IFN beta-1a therefore offers promise as a treatment for CD. Methods In this multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II, dose-finding study, patients with steroid-induced clinical remissions of CD were randomized 1:1:1:1 to subcutaneous IFN beta-1a: 66 mcg three times weekly (tiw), 44 mcg tiw, 44 mcg twice weekly (biw), or matching placebo tiw with steroid tapering. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients relapse-free at Week 26. Safety was also assessed. Results This study was terminated early following a planned interim analysis at 26 weeks. Of the planned 192 patients, 67 were randomized to treatment: placebo (n = 16), or IFN beta-1a 44 mcg biw (n = 17), 44 mcg tiw (n = 16) or 66 mcg tiw (n = 18). In total, 20/67 patients (29.9%) completed 26 weeks and 7 patients (10.4%) completed 52 weeks. The proportion of patients who remained relapse-free at Week 26 did not differ significantly between the placebo group (5/16, 31%) and the IFN beta-1a 44 mcg biw (6/17, 35%; p = 0.497), 44 mcg tiw (7/16, 44%; p = 0.280) or 66 mcg tiw (2/18, 11%; p = 0.333) groups. There was little difference between treatment groups in secondary efficacy endpoints. IFN beta-1a was generally well tolerated at all doses. Adverse events (AEs) were generally mild or moderate in IFN beta-1a-treated patients, with the most common AEs (influenza-like symptoms, headache, injection-site reactions) being similar to those reported with IFN beta-1a in MS. Conclusion There was no difference in efficacy between patients with CD receiving IFN beta-1a or placebo. However, these results should be considered in the context of the low patient numbers and high dropout

  13. Molecular characteristics of penicillin-binding protein 2b, 2x and 1a sequences in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates causing invasive diseases among children in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Liu, J; Zhang, Z; Liu, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, Y

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the common pathogens causing severe invasive infections in children. This study aimed to investigate the serotype distribution and variations of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) 2b, 2x and 1a in S. pneumoniae isolates causing invasive diseases in Northeast China. A total of 256 strains were isolated from children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) from January 2000 to October 2014. All strains were serotyped and determined for antibiotic resistance. The amplicons of penicillin-binding domains in pbp1a, pbp2b and pbp2x genes were sequenced for variation identification. The most prevalent serotypes of isolates in IPD children were 19A, 14, 19F, 23F and 6B. 19A and 19F were the most frequent serotypes of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP), which present with high resistance to amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and meropenem. The numbers of amino acid substitutions of penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSP) isolates were higher than those of penicillin-sensitive S. pneumoniae isolates in all the PBP genes (p < 0.01). The patterns of amino acid mutation in PBP2b, PBP2x and PBP1a were unique and different from those of other countries. All of the serotype 19A and 19F PRSP isolates carried 25 amino acid mutations, including Ala618 → Gly between positions 560 and 675 in PBP2b and Thr338 → Ala substitutions in PBP2x. The amino acid alterations in PBP2b, PBP2x and PBP1a from S. pneumoniae were closely associated with resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. This study provides new data for further monitoring of genetic changes related to the emergence and spread of resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in China.

  14. Targeted Proteolysis of Plectin Isoform 1a Accounts for Hemidesmosome Dysfunction in Mice Mimicking the Dominant Skin Blistering Disease EBS-Ogna

    PubMed Central

    Walko, Gernot; Vukasinovic, Nevena; Gross, Karin; Fischer, Irmgard; Sibitz, Sabrina; Fuchs, Peter; Reipert, Siegfried; Jungwirth, Ute; Berger, Walter; Salzer, Ulrich; Carugo, Oliviero; Castañón, Maria J.; Wiche, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Autosomal recessive mutations in the cytolinker protein plectin account for the multisystem disorders epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) associated with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD), pyloric atresia (EBS-PA), and congenital myasthenia (EBS-CMS). In contrast, a dominant missense mutation leads to the disease EBS-Ogna, manifesting exclusively as skin fragility. We have exploited this trait to study the molecular basis of hemidesmosome failure in EBS-Ogna and to reveal the contribution of plectin to hemidesmosome homeostasis. We generated EBS-Ogna knock-in mice mimicking the human phenotype and show that blistering reflects insufficient protein levels of the hemidesmosome-associated plectin isoform 1a. We found that plectin 1a, in contrast to plectin 1c, the major isoform expressed in epidermal keratinocytes, is proteolytically degraded, supporting the notion that degradation of hemidesmosome-anchored plectin is spatially controlled. Using recombinant proteins, we show that the mutation renders plectin's 190-nm-long coiled-coil rod domain more vulnerable to cleavage by calpains and other proteases activated in the epidermis but not in skeletal muscle. Accordingly, treatment of cultured EBS-Ogna keratinocytes as well as of EBS-Ogna mouse skin with calpain inhibitors resulted in increased plectin 1a protein expression levels. Moreover, we report that plectin's rod domain forms dimeric structures that can further associate laterally into remarkably stable (paracrystalline) polymers. We propose focal self-association of plectin molecules as a novel mechanism contributing to hemidesmosome homeostasis and stabilization. PMID:22144912

  15. A new quantitative PCR multiplex assay for rapid analysis of chromosome 17p11.2-12 duplications and deletions leading to HMSN/HNPP.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Christian T; Kraus, Cornelia; Rauch, Anita; Ekici, Arif B; Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Reis, André

    2003-02-01

    A 1.4-Mb tandem duplication, including the gene for peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) in chromosome 17p11.2-12 is responsible for 70% of the cases of the demyelinating type 1 of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease or hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy I (CMT1A/HMSN I). A reciprocal deletion of this CMT1A region causes the hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). The CMT1A duplication increases the PMP22 gene dosage from two to three, the HNPP deletion reduces the gene dosage from two to one. Currently, routine diagnosis of HMSN/HNPP patients is mainly performed with polymorphic markers in-between the repetitive elements flanking the CMT1A region. These show quantitative and/or qualitative changes in case of a CMT1A duplication and a homozygous allele pattern in case of HNPP deletion. In HNPP patients the deletion is usually confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). We now developed a reliable, single tube real-time quantitative PCR assay for rapid determination of PMP22 gene dosage directly. This method involves a multiplex reaction using FAM labelled Taqman-probe with TAMRA quencher derived from PMP22 exon 3 and a VIC labelled probe with non-fluorescent quencher from exon 12 of the albumin gene as internal reference. Copy number of the PMP22 gene was determined by the comparative threshold cycle method (deltadeltaCt). Each sample was run in quadruplicate and analysed at two different threshold levels. The level giving the smallest standard deviation was scored. We evaluated this method through the retrospective analysis of 252 HMSN patients with known genotype and could confirm the previous findings in 99% of cases. Two patients were wrongly diagnosed with microsatellite analysis while quantitative real-time PCR identified the correct genotype, as confirmed by FISH. Thus, this method shows superior sensitivity to microsatellite analysis and has the additional advantage of being a fast and uniform assay for quantitative

  16. Molecular genetic analysis of the 17p11.2 region in patients with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP).

    PubMed

    Timmerman, V; Löfgren, A; Le Guern, E; Liang, P; De Jonghe, P; Martin, J J; Verhalle, D; Robberecht, W; Gouider, R; Brice, A; Van Broeckhoven, C

    1996-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is in most cases associated with an interstitial deletion of the same 1.5-Mb region at 17p11.2 that is duplicated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) patients. Unequal crossing-over following misalignment at flanking repeat sequences (CMT1A-REP), either leads to tandem duplication in CMT1A patients or deletion in HNPP patients. With the use of polymorphic DNA markers located within the CMT1A/HNPP duplication/deletion region we detected the HNPP deletion in 16 unrelated HNPP patients, 11 of Belgian and 5 of French origin. In all cases, the 1.5-Mb size of the HNPP deletion was confirmed by EcoRI dosage analysis using a CMT1A-REP probe. In the 16 HNPP patients, the same 370/320-kb EagI deletion-junction fragments were detected with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), while in CMT1A patients, a 150-kb EagI duplication-junction fragment was seen. Thus, PFGE analysis of EagI-digested DNA with a CMT1A-REP probe allows direct detection of the HNPP deletion or the CMT1A duplication for DNA diagnostic purposes.

  17. The PMP22 Gene and Its Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Parker, Brett; Martyn, Colin; Natarajan, Chandramohan; Guo, Jiasong

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) is primarily expressed in the compact myelin of the peripheral nervous system. Levels of PMP22 have to be tightly regulated since alterations of PMP22 levels by mutations of the PMP22 gene are responsible for >50% of all patients with inherited peripheral neuropathies, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth type-1A (CMT1A) with trisomy of PMP22, hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) with heterozygous deletion of PMP22, and CMT1E with point mutations of PMP22. While over-expression and point-mutations of the PMP22 gene may produce gain-of-function phenotypes, deletion of PMP22 results in a loss-of-function phenotype that reveals the normal physiological functions of the PMP22 protein. In this article, we will review the basic genetics, biochemistry and molecular structure of PMP22, followed by discussion of the current understanding of pathogenic mechanisms involving in the inherited neuropathies with mutations in PMP22 gene. PMID:23224996

  18. Genome-wide haplotype association study identify TNFRSF1A, CASP7, LRP1B, CDH1 and TG genes associated with Alzheimer's disease in Caribbean Hispanic individuals.

    PubMed

    Shang, Zhenwei; Lv, Hongchao; Zhang, Mingming; Duan, Lian; Wang, Situo; Li, Jin; Liu, Guiyou; Ruijie, Zhang; Jiang, Yongshuai

    2015-12-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an acquired disorder of cognitive and behavioral impairment. It is considered to be caused by variety of factors, such as age, environment and genetic factors. In order to identify the genetic affect factors of AD, we carried out a bioinformatic approach which combined genome-wide haplotype-based association study with gene prioritization. The raw SNP genotypes data was downloaded from GEO database (GSE33528). It contains 615 AD patients and 560 controls of Caribbean Hispanic individuals. Firstly, we identified the linkage disequilibrium (LD) haplotype blocks and performed genome-wide haplotype association study to screen significant haplotypes that were associated with AD. Then we mapped these significant haplotypes to genes and obtained candidate genes set for AD. At last, we prioritized AD candidate genes based on their similarity with 36 known AD genes, so as to identify AD related genes. The results showed that 141 haplotypes on 134 LD blocks were significantly associated with AD (P<1E-4), and these significant haplotypes were mapped to 132 AD candidate genes. After prioritizing these candidate genes, we found seven AD related genes: APOE, APOC1, TNFRSF1A, LRP1B, CDH1, TG and CASP7. Among these genes, APOE and APOC1 are known AD risk genes. For the other five genes TNFRSF1A, CDH1, CASP7, LRP1B and TG, this is the first genetic association study which showed the significant association between these five genes and AD susceptibility in Caribbean Hispanic individuals. We believe that our findings can provide a new perspective to understand the genetic affect factors of AD.

  19. Nonrecurrent 17p11.2p12 Rearrangement Events that Result in Two Concomitant Genomic Disorders: The PMP22-RAI1 Contiguous Gene Duplication Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Bo; Harel, Tamar; Gu, Shen; Liu, Pengfei; Burglen, Lydie; Chantot-Bastaraud, Sandra; Gelowani, Violet; Beck, Christine R.; Carvalho, Claudia M.B.; Cheung, Sau Wai; Coe, Andrew; Malan, Valérie; Munnich, Arnold; Magoulas, Pilar L.; Potocki, Lorraine; Lupski, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The genomic duplication associated with Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) maps in close proximity to the duplication associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). PTLS is characterized by hypotonia, failure to thrive, reduced body weight, intellectual disability, and autistic features. CMT1A is a common autosomal dominant distal symmetric peripheral polyneuropathy. The key dosage-sensitive genes RAI1 and PMP22 are respectively associated with PTLS and CMT1A. Recurrent duplications accounting for the majority of subjects with these conditions are mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination between distinct low-copy repeat (LCR) substrates. The LCRs flanking a contiguous genomic interval encompassing both RAI1 and PMP22 do not share extensive homology; thus, duplications encompassing both loci are rare and potentially generated by a different mutational mechanism. We characterized genomic rearrangements that simultaneously duplicate PMP22 and RAI1, including nine potential complex genomic rearrangements, in 23 subjects by high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization and breakpoint junction sequencing. Insertions and microhomologies were found at the breakpoint junctions, suggesting potential replicative mechanisms for rearrangement formation. At the breakpoint junctions of these nonrecurrent rearrangements, enrichment of repetitive DNA sequences was observed, indicating that they might predispose to genomic instability and rearrangement. Clinical evaluation revealed blended PTLS and CMT1A phenotypes with a potential earlier onset of neuropathy. Moreover, additional clinical findings might be observed due to the extra duplicated material included in the rearrangements. Our genomic analysis suggests replicative mechanisms as a predominant mechanism underlying PMP22-RAI1 contiguous gene duplications and provides further evidence supporting the role of complex genomic architecture in genomic instability. PMID:26544804

  20. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... peginterferon beta-1a injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  1. The Effect of Reduced Somatosensation on Standing Balance: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kars, H. J. J. (Cojanne); Hijmans, Juha M.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this review is to identify and review publications describing the impact of reduced somatosensation on balance. Based on knowledge of the association between specific somatosensory loss and deterioration of balance, conclusions can be made about role of somatosensation in standing balance. A systematic literature review is presented in which publications from the years 1993 through 2007 were searched in Medline and Embase. Medical Subject Headings (MESH) terms and free text words (related to balance, somatosensory loss, and lower limb) were used to perform the searches. Fifteen articles were selected for detailed review based on predetermined inclusion criteria, and three of the included articles described the effect of experimentally reduced somatosensation on balance in healthy subjects. Ten of the articles described balance in diabetic neuropathy (DN). The last two included articles described balance in Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 1A (CMT1A) or type 2 (CMT2). The literature indicates that the tactile sensation is reduced in DN, CMT1A, and CMT2 and when the plantar surface of the feet was hypothermically anesthetized. Joint motion sensation seems to be impaired in patients with DN, and passive joint position sensation appears to be reduced in healthy subjects with anesthesia of ankle and foot from prolonged ischemia. This reduced somatosensation seems to have a negative effect on balance in patients with DN and CMT2; however, this appeared not to be the case in patients with CMT1A and in healthy subjects. PMID:20144343

  2. Expression and regulation of pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene (PpACS1a) during fruit ripening, under salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid treatment, and in diseased fruit.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xing

    2014-06-01

    In plants, the level of ethylene is determined by the activity of the key enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). A gene encoding an ACC synthase protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). This gene designated PpACS1a (GenBank accession no. KC632526) was 1488 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 495 amino acids that shared high similarity with other pear ACC synthase proteins. The PpACS1a was grouped into type-1 subfamily of plant ACS based on its conserved domain and phylogenetic status. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PpACS1a was differentially expressed in pear tissues and predominantly expressed in anthers. The expression signal of PpACS1a was also detected in fruit and leaves, but no signal was detected in shoots and petals. Furthermore, the PpACS1a expression was regulated during fruit ripening. In addition, the PpACS1a gene expression was regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in fruit. Moreover, the expression of the PpACS1a was up-regulated in diseased pear fruit. These results indicated that PpACS1a might be involved in fruit ripening and response to SA, IAA and disease.

  3. An immunological renal disease in transgenic mice that overexpress Fli-1, a member of the ets family of transcription factor genes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Liqun; Teng, Yen-Tung; Melet, F.

    1995-12-01

    This report describes how expression of the proto-oncogene Fli-1 is involved in the regulation of lymphopoiesis. Transgenic mice were generated which overexpressed the oncogene, leading to a high incidence of immunological renal diseases and death. The data suggests that overexpression of Fli-1 perturbs normal lymphoid cell function and programmed cell death, making these transgenic mice suitable as a biological model for autoimmune disease in humans. 35 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. The disease-linked Glu-26-Lys mutant version of Coronin 1A exhibits pleiotropic and pathway-specific signaling defects

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Virginia; Robles-Valero, Javier; Barreira, María; Bustelo, Xosé R.

    2015-01-01

    Coronin 1A (Coro1A) is involved in cytoskeletal and signaling events, including the regulation of Rac1 GTPase– and myosin II–dependent pathways. Mutations that generate truncated or unstable Coro1A proteins cause immunodeficiencies in both humans and rodents. However, in the case of the peripheral T-cell–deficient (Ptcd) mouse strain, the immunodeficiency is caused by a Glu-26-Lys mutation that targets a surface-exposed residue unlikely to affect the intramolecular architecture and stability of the protein. Here we report that this mutation induces pleiotropic effects in Coro1A protein, including the exacerbation of Coro1A-dependent actin-binding and -bundling activities; the formation of large meshworks of Coro1AE26K-decorated filaments endowed with unusual organizational, functional, and staining properties; and the elimination of Coro1A functions associated with both Rac1 and myosin II signaling. By contrast, it does not affect the ability of Coro1A to stimulate the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT). Coro1AE26K is not a dominant-negative mutant, indicating that its pathological effects are derived from the inability to rescue the complete loss of the wild-type counterpart in cells. These results indicate that Coro1AE26K behaves as either a recessive gain-of-function or loss-of-function mutant protein, depending on signaling context and presence of the wild-type counterpart in cells. PMID:26108624

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora Strain RR-HG1, a Grapevine Trunk Disease (Esca)-Related Member of the Ascomycota

    PubMed Central

    Antonielli, Livio; Compant, Stéphane; Strauss, Joseph; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The Ascomycota species Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, in concert with other fungi, is a causal agent for grapevine trunk diseases. Here, we present the first draft of the P. chlamydospora genome sequence, which comprises 355 scaffolds, with a total length of 26.59 Mb and 7,279 predicted protein-coding genes. PMID:24723699

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora Strain RR-HG1, a Grapevine Trunk Disease (Esca)-Related Member of the Ascomycota.

    PubMed

    Antonielli, Livio; Compant, Stéphane; Strauss, Joseph; Sessitsch, Angela; Berger, Harald

    2014-04-10

    The Ascomycota species Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, in concert with other fungi, is a causal agent for grapevine trunk diseases. Here, we present the first draft of the P. chlamydospora genome sequence, which comprises 355 scaffolds, with a total length of 26.59 Mb and 7,279 predicted protein-coding genes.

  7. Kv1.3 in Psoriatic Disease: PAP-1, a small molecule inhibitor of Kv1.3 is effective in the SCID mouse psoriasis - xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Kundu-Raychaudhuri, Smriti; Chen, Yi-Je; Wulff, Heike; Raychaudhuri, Siba P

    2015-01-01

    Kv1.3 channels regulate the activation/proliferation of effector memory T cells and thus play a critical role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and electrophysiology methods we observed a significant enrichment of activated Kv1.3+ memory T cells in psoriasis plaques and synovial fluid from patients with psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis (PsA) compared to non-lesional psoriatic skin, normal skin or peripheral blood lympho-mononuclear cells. In in vitro studies performed with lesional mononuclear cells or T cells derived from skin and joints of psoriatic disease, the small molecule Kv1.3 blocker PAP-1 dose-dependently inhibited proliferation and suppressed IL-2 and IFN-γ production. To further substantiate the pathologic role of Kv1.3highTEM cells in psoriatic disease we tested whether PAP-1 is able to improve psoriatic disease pathology in the SCID mouse-psoriasis skin xenograft model. Following four weeks of daily treatment with 2% PAP-1 ointment we noticed about 50% reduction in the epidermal thickness (rete peg length) and the number of CD3+ lymphocytes/mm2 of dermis decreased by 85%. Vehicle treated and untreated plaques in contrast remained unchanged and showed no reduction in epidermis thickness and infiltrating CD3+ T cells and HLA-DR+ T cells. Based on these results we propose the development of Kv1.3 targeted topical immunotherapy for psoriasis and possibly for other inflammatory skin conditions, where effector memory T cells are involved in the pathogenesis. PMID:25175978

  8. FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1: A Multiplexed Flow Cytometry Method for Differential Serological Diagnosis of Chagas Disease and Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Campos, Fernanda Magalhães Freire; Geiger, Stefan Michael; Rocha, Roberta Dias Rodrigues; de Araújo, Fernanda Fortes; Vitelli-Avelar, Danielle Marquete; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Lemos, Elenice Moreira; de Freitas Carneiro Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Caldas, Rafaella Gaiotti; Freitas, Carolina Renata Camargos; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2015-01-01

    Differential serological diagnosis of Chagas disease and leishmaniasis is difficult owing to cross-reactivity resulting from the fact that the parasites that cause these pathologies share antigenic epitopes. Even with optimized serological assays that use parasite-specific recombinant antigens, inconclusive test results continue to be a problem. Therefore, new serological tests with high sensitivity and specificity are needed. In the present work, we developed and evaluated the performance of a new flow cytometric serological method, referred to as FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1, for the all-in-one classification of inconclusive tests. The method uses antigens for the detection of visceral leishmaniasis, localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease and is based on an inverted detuned algorithm for analysis of anti-Trypanosomatidae IgG1 reactivity. First, parasites were label with fluorescein isothiocyanate or Alexa Fluor 647 at various concentrations. Then serum samples were serially diluted, the dilutions were incubated with suspensions of mixed labeled parasites, and flow cytometric measurements were performed to determine percentages of positive fluorescent parasites. Using the new method, we obtained correct results for 76 of 80 analyzed serum samples (95% overall performance), underscoring the outstanding performance of the method. Moreover, we found that the fluorescently labeled parasite suspensions were stable during storage at room temperature, 4°C, and –20°C for 1 year. In addition, two different lots of parasite suspensions showed equivalent antigen recognition; that is, the two lots showed equivalent categorical segregation of anti-Trypanosomatidae IgG1 reactivity at selected serum dilutions. In conclusion, we have developed a sensitive and selective method for differential diagnosis of Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis, and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25875961

  9. FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1: a multiplexed flow cytometry method for differential serological diagnosis of chagas disease and leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Campos, Fernanda Magalhães Freire; Geiger, Stefan Michael; Rocha, Roberta Dias Rodrigues; de Araújo, Fernanda Fortes; Vitelli-Avelar, Danielle Marquete; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Lemos, Elenice Moreira; de Freitas Carneiro Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Caldas, Rafaella Gaiotti; Freitas, Carolina Renata Camargos; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2015-01-01

    Differential serological diagnosis of Chagas disease and leishmaniasis is difficult owing to cross-reactivity resulting from the fact that the parasites that cause these pathologies share antigenic epitopes. Even with optimized serological assays that use parasite-specific recombinant antigens, inconclusive test results continue to be a problem. Therefore, new serological tests with high sensitivity and specificity are needed. In the present work, we developed and evaluated the performance of a new flow cytometric serological method, referred to as FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1, for the all-in-one classification of inconclusive tests. The method uses antigens for the detection of visceral leishmaniasis, localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease and is based on an inverted detuned algorithm for analysis of anti-Trypanosomatidae IgG1 reactivity. First, parasites were label with fluorescein isothiocyanate or Alexa Fluor 647 at various concentrations. Then serum samples were serially diluted, the dilutions were incubated with suspensions of mixed labeled parasites, and flow cytometric measurements were performed to determine percentages of positive fluorescent parasites. Using the new method, we obtained correct results for 76 of 80 analyzed serum samples (95% overall performance), underscoring the outstanding performance of the method. Moreover, we found that the fluorescently labeled parasite suspensions were stable during storage at room temperature, 4 °C, and -20 °C for 1 year. In addition, two different lots of parasite suspensions showed equivalent antigen recognition; that is, the two lots showed equivalent categorical segregation of anti-Trypanosomatidae IgG1 reactivity at selected serum dilutions. In conclusion, we have developed a sensitive and selective method for differential diagnosis of Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis, and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  10. HMGB1, a pathogenic molecule that induces neurite degeneration via TLR4-MARCKS, is a potential therapeutic target for Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Kyota; Motoki, Kazumi; Tagawa, Kazuhiko; Chen, Xigui; Hama, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Kazuyuki; Homma, Hidenori; Tamura, Takuya; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Katsuno, Masahisa; Matsumi, Chiemi; Kajikawa, Masunori; Saito, Takashi; Saido, Takaomi; Sobue, Gen; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, but it remains an intractable condition. Its pathogenesis is predominantly attributed to the aggregation and transmission of two molecules, Aβ and tau; however, other pathological mechanisms are possible. Here, we reveal that phosphorylation of MARCKS, a submembrane protein that regulates the stability of the actin network, occurs at Ser46 prior to aggregation of Aβ and is sustained throughout the course of AD in human and mouse brains. Furthermore, HMGB1 released from necrotic or hyperexcitatory neurons binds to TLR4, triggers the specific phosphorylation of MARCKS via MAP kinases, and induces neurite degeneration, the classical hallmark of AD pathology. Subcutaneous injection of a newly developed monoclonal antibody against HMGB1 strongly inhibits neurite degeneration even in the presence of Aβ plaques and completely recovers cognitive impairment in a mouse model. HMGB1 and Aβ mutually affect polymerization of the other molecule, and the therapeutic effects of the anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody are mediated by Aβ-dependent and Aβ-independent mechanisms. We propose that HMGB1 is a critical pathogenic molecule promoting AD pathology in parallel with Aβ and tau and a new key molecular target of preclinical antibody therapy to delay the onset of AD. PMID:27557632

  11. A lentiviral vector with expression controlled by E2F-1: A potential tool for the study and treatment of proliferative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, Bryan E.; Vieira de Carvalho, Anna Carolina; Bajgelman, Marcio C.

    2006-10-06

    We have constructed a lentiviral vector with expression limited to cells presenting active E2F-1 protein, a potential advantage for gene therapy of proliferative diseases. For the FE2FLW vector, the promoter region of the human E2F-1 gene was utilized to drive expression of luciferase cDNA, included as a reporter of viral expression. Primary, immortalized, and transformed cells were transduced with the FE2FLW vector and cell cycle alterations were induced with serum starvation/replacement, contact inhibition or drug treatment, revealing cell cycle-dependent changes in reporter activity. Forced E2F-1 expression, but not E2F-2 or E2F-3, increased reporter activity, indicating a major role for this factor in controlling expression from the FE2FLW virus. We show the utility of this vector as a reporter of E2F-1 and proliferation-dependent cellular alterations upon cytotoxic/cytostatic treatment, such as the introduction of tumor suppressor genes. We propose that the FE2FLW vector may be a starting point for the development of gene therapy strategies for proliferative diseases, such as cancer or restinosis.

  12. Consensus recommendations from the American Acne & Rosacea Society on the management of rosacea, part 1: a status report on the disease state, general measures, and adjunctive skin care.

    PubMed

    Del Rosso, James Q; Thiboutot, Diane; Gallo, Richard; Webster, Guy; Tanghetti, Emil; Eichenfield, Larry; Stein-Gold, Linda; Berson, Diane; Zaenglein, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    Rosacea is a common clinical diagnosis that encompasses a variety of presentations, predominantly involving the centrofacial skin. Reported to present most commonly in adults of Northern European heritage with fair skin, rosacea can affect males and females of all ethnicities and skin types. Pathophysiologic mechanisms that appear to correlate with the manifestation of rosacea have been the focus of multiple research studies, with outcomes providing a better understanding of why some individuals are affected and how their visible signs and symptoms develop. A better appreciation of the pathophysiologic mechanisms and inflammatory pathways of rosacea has allowed therapeutic strategies to be optimally incorporated. Part 1 of this 5-part series discusses the rosacea disease state with an emphasis on clinical correlation, reviews adjunctive skin care for cutaneous rosacea, and provides management caveats.

  13. A Truncated Variant of ASCC1, a Novel Inhibitor of NF-κB, Is Associated with Disease Severity in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Torices, Silvia; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Lorena; Grande, Lara; Varela, Ignacio; Muñoz, Pedro; Pascual, Dora; Balsa, Alejandro; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Martinez-Taboada, Víctor; Fernández-Luna, Jose L

    2015-12-01

    Loss of the regulatory mechanisms that avoid excessive or constitutive activation of NF-κB may be associated with chronic inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). After massive sequencing of 158 regulators of the NF-κB pathway in RA patients, we focused on a scarcely known gene, ASCC1, and showed that it potently inhibits the expression of NF-κB target genes (TRAIL, TNF-α, cIAP-1, IL8) and blocks activation of a NF-κB-luciferase reporter construct in five different human cell lines. Therefore, ASCC1 may contribute to avoiding a pathologic activation of this transcription factor. A truncated variant of ASCC1 (p.S78*) was found in RA patients and control individuals. Functional in vitro studies revealed that truncation abrogated the NF-κB inhibition capacity of ASCC1. In contrast with full-length protein, truncated ASCC1 did not reduce the transcriptional activation of NF-κB and the secretion of TNF-α in response to inflammatory stimuli. We analyzed the clinical impact of p.S78* variant in 433 patients with RA and found that heterozygous carriers of this variant needed more disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, and more patients with this genotype needed treatment with corticoids and biologic agents. Moreover, the truncated allele-carrier group had lower rates of remission compared with the full-length variant carriers. Overall, our findings show for the first time, to our knowledge, that ASCC1 inhibits NF-κB activation and that a truncated and inactive variant of ASCC1 is associated with a more severe disease, which could have clinical value for assessing the progression and prognosis of RA.

  14. Lysosomal alkalization and dysfunction in human fibroblasts with the Alzheimer's disease-linked presenilin 1 A246E mutation can be reversed with cAMP.

    PubMed

    Coffey, E E; Beckel, J M; Laties, A M; Mitchell, C H

    2014-03-28

    Mutation in presenilin 1 (PS1) is one of the leading causes of familial Alzheimer's disease (fAD). PS1 mutation exacerbates the autophagic and lysosomal pathology in AD patients, leading to accumulation of partially degraded material in bloated lysosomes and autophagosomes - a pathology that bears some resemblance to other diseases characterized by elevated lysosomal pH, like age-related macular degeneration. In this study, we examined the effect of the PS1-fAD mutation A246E on lysosomal pH and lysosomal function, and asked whether restoration of lysosomal pH could reverse some of these changes. Lysosomal pH was elevated by 0.2-0.3 pH units in human fibroblasts with the PS1-fAD mutation. The lysosomal alkalization in PS1-fAD fibroblasts was supported by a reduction in the pH-dependent cleavage of cathepsin D and by a reduction in binding of boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) FL-pepstatin A to the cathepsin D active site. PS1-fAD cells had increased LC3B-II/-I ratios and p62 levels, consistent with impaired lysosomal degradation and analogous to changes induced by lysosomal alkalinization with chloroquine. PS1-fAD fibroblasts had increased expression of ATP6V1B2, ATG5, BECN1 TFEB mRNA, and of ATP6V1B2, ATG5 and beclin at the protein level, consistent with chronic impairment of autophagic and lysosomal functions in the mutant cells. Critically, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) treatment reacidified lysosomal pH in mutant PS1-fAD; cAMP also increased the availability of active cathepsin D and lowered the LC3B-II/-I ratio. These results confirm a small elevation in the lysosomal pH of human PS1-fAD fibroblasts, demonstrate that this lysosomal alkalization is associated with chronic changes in autophagy and degradation, and suggest that treatment to reacidify the lysosomes with cAMP can reverse these changes.

  15. The effect of PN-1, a Traditional Chinese Prescription, on the Learning and Memory in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Ling; Liang, Liang; Liu, Yu; Yang, Ya-Jun; Huang, Lan; Zhu, Hua; Ma, Chun-Mei; Qin, Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a complete medical system that has been practiced for more than 3000 years. Prescription number 1 (PN-1) consists of several Chinese medicines and is designed according to TCM theories to treat patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. The evidence of clinical practice suggests the benefit effects of PN-1 on cognitive deficits of dementia patients. We try to prove and explain this by using contemporary methodology and transgenic animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The behavioral studies were developed to evaluate the memory of transgenic animals after intragastric administration of PN-1 for 3 months. Amyloid beta-protein (Aβ) neuropathology was quantified using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. The western blotting was used to detect the levels of plasticity associated proteins. The safety of PN-1 on mice was also assessed through multiple parameters. Results showed that PN-1 could effectively relieve learning and memory impairment of transgenic animals. Possible mechanisms showed that PN-1 could significantly reduce plaque burden and Aβ levels and boost synaptic plasticity. Our observations showed that PN-1 could improve learning and memory ability through multiple mechanisms without detectable side effects on mice. We propose that PN-1 is a promising alternative treatment for AD in the future. PMID:23476695

  16. Follow-up of gestational trophoblastic disease/neoplasia via quantification of circulating nucleic acids of placental origin using C19MC microRNAs, hypermethylated RASSF1A, and SRY sequences.

    PubMed

    Hromadnikova, Ilona; Kotlabova, Katerina; Krofta, Ladislav; Hron, Filip

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of placental-specific markers, extracellular fetal DNA (sex-determining region Y and hypermethylated RASSF1A sequences) and circulating C19MC microRNAs (miR-516-5p, miR-517-5p, miR-518b, miR-520a-5p, miR-520h, miR-525, and miR-526a) for the diagnosis and consecutive follow-up of gestational trophoblastic disease/neoplasia. Increased levels of extracellular fetal DNA and C19MC microRNAs were detected in patients with active disease when compared with the period when the patients reached remission of the disease. The positive correlation between plasma levels of hypermethylated RASSF1A sequence, C19MC microRNAs, and human chorionic gonadotropin serum levels was found. MiR-520a-5p had the best performance to detect patients with active disease (a positive predictive value of 100% at a null false positive ratio (FPR)). MiR-516-5p and miR-525 were able to diagnose 100% of women with active disease at the FPR 3.9%/7.7%. The overall predictive capacity of single miR-526a (81.8% at null FPR), miR-517-5p (90.9% at 15.4% FPR), miR-518b (100% at 38.5% FPR), and miR-520h (90.9% at 26.9% FPR) biomarkers to detect active disease cases was slightly lower. Transient increase in C19MC microRNA plasma levels after the first cycle of chemotherapy indicated the decay of placental trophoblast residual tissue. The increased levels of extracellular fetal DNA and placental-specific C19MC microRNAs are associated with gestational trophoblastic disease/neoplasia. Screening of extracellular placental-specific biomarkers may represent an additional option to identify a significant proportion of women with active disease and to monitor the therapy response. Non-invasive follow-up of the decomposing residual tissue in the form of extracellular nucleic acids of placental origin packed into apoptotic bodies derived from placental trophoblasts is available.

  17. Hologram QSAR Models of a Series of 6-Arylquinazolin-4-Amine Inhibitors of a New Alzheimer’s Disease Target: Dual Specificity Tyrosine-Phosphorylation-Regulated Kinase-1A Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Felipe Dias; da Silva Lima, Camilo Henrique; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; Castro, Helena Carla; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão

    2015-01-01

    Dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase-1A (DYRK1A) is an enzyme directly involved in Alzheimer’s disease, since its increased expression leads to β-amyloidosis, Tau protein aggregation, and subsequent formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship (HQSAR, 2D fragment-based) models were developed for a series of 6-arylquinazolin-4-amine inhibitors (36 training, 10 test) of DYRK1A. The best HQSAR model (q2 = 0.757; SEcv = 0.493; R2 = 0.937; SE = 0.251; R2pred = 0.659) presents high goodness-of-fit (R2 > 0.9), as well as high internal (q2 > 0.7) and external (R2pred > 0.5) predictive power. The fragments that increase and decrease the biological activity values were addressed using the colored atomic contribution maps provided by the method. The HQSAR contribution map of the best model is an important tool to understand the activity profiles of new derivatives and may provide information for further design of novel DYRK1A inhibitors. PMID:25756379

  18. Immunization with the SDPM1 peptide lowers amyloid plaque burden and improves cognitive function in the APPswePSEN1(A246E) transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chiou-Miin; Devries, Sarah; Camboni, Marybeth; Glass, Matthew; Martin, Paul T

    2010-09-01

    Vaccination has become an important therapeutic approach to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, immunization with Abeta amyloid can have unwanted, potentially lethal, side effects. Here we demonstrate an alternative peptide-mimotope vaccine strategy using the SDPM1 peptide. SDPM1 is a 20 amino acid peptide bounded by cysteines that binds tetramer forms of Abeta(1-40)- and Abeta(1-42)-amyloids and blocks subsequent Abeta amyloid aggregation. Immunization of mice with SDPM1 induced peptide-mimotope antibodies with the same biological activity as the SDPM1 peptide. When done prior to the onset of amyloid plaque formation, SDPM1 vaccination of APPswePSEN1(A246E) transgenic mice reduced amyloid plaque burden and Abeta(1-40) and Abeta(1-42) levels in the brain, improved cognitive performance in Morris water maze tests, and resulted in no increased T cell responses to immunogenic or Abeta peptides or brain inflammation. When done after plaque burden was already significant, SDPM1 immunization still significantly reduced amyloid plaque burden and Abeta(1-40/1-42) peptide levels in APPswePSEN1(A246E) brain without inducing encephalitogenic T cell responses or brain inflammation, but treatment at this stage did not improve cognitive function. These experiments demonstrate the efficacy of a novel vaccine approach for Alzheimer's disease where immunization with an Abeta(1-40/1-42) amyloid-specific binding and blocking peptide is used to inhibit the development of neuropathology and cognitive dysfunction.

  19. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1a intramuscular at around the same time of day on your injection days. Follow the ...

  20. CRISPR/Cas9 facilitates investigation of neural circuit disease using human iPSCs: mechanism of epilepsy caused by an SCN1A loss-of-function mutation.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Gao, C; Chen, W; Ma, W; Li, X; Shi, Y; Zhang, H; Zhang, L; Long, Y; Xu, H; Guo, X; Deng, S; Yan, X; Yu, D; Pan, G; Chen, Y; Lai, L; Liao, W; Li, Z

    2016-01-05

    Mutations in SCN1A, the gene encoding the α subunit of Nav1.1 channel, can cause epilepsies with wide ranges of clinical phenotypes, which are associated with the contrasting effects of channel loss-of-function or gain-of-function. In this project, CRISPR/Cas9- and TALEN-mediated genome-editing techniques were applied to induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based-disease model to explore the mechanism of epilepsy caused by SCN1A loss-of-function mutation. By fluorescently labeling GABAergic subtype in iPSC-derived neurons using CRISPR/Cas9, we for the first time performed electrophysiological studies on SCN1A-expressing neural subtype and monitored the postsynaptic activity of both inhibitory and excitatory types. We found that the mutation c.A5768G, which led to no current of Nav1.1 in exogenously transfected system, influenced the properties of not only Nav current amount, but also Nav activation in Nav1.1-expressing GABAergic neurons. The two alterations in Nav further reduced the amplitudes and enhanced the thresholds of action potential in patient-derived GABAergic neurons, and led to weakened spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in the patient-derived neuronal network. Although the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) did not change significantly, when the frequencies of both sIPSCs and sEPSCs were further analyzed, we found the whole postsynaptic activity transferred from the inhibition-dominated state to excitation in patient-derived neuronal networks, suggesting that changes in sIPSCs alone were sufficient to significantly reverse the excitatory level of spontaneous postsynaptic activity. In summary, our findings fill the gap of our knowledge regarding the relationship between SCN1A mutation effect recorded on exogenously transfected cells and on Nav1.1-expressing neurons, and reveal the physiological basis underlying epileptogenesis caused by SCN1A loss-of-function mutation.

  1. LMM5.1 and LMM5.4, two eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A-like gene family members, negatively affect cell death and disease resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiying; Liu, Pengcheng; Li, Chunrong; Wang, Yanyan; Guo, Lequn; Jiang, Guanghuai; Zhai, Wenxue

    2017-02-20

    Lesion mimic mutant (LMM) genes, stimulating lesion formation in the absence of pathogens, play significant roles in immune response. In this study, we characterized a rice lesion mimic mutant, lmm5, which displayed light-dependent spontaneous lesions. Additionally, lmm5 plants exhibited enhanced resistance to all of the tested races of Magnaporthe oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) by increasing the expression of defense-related genes and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. Genetic analysis showed that the lesion mimic phenotype of lmm5 was controlled by two genes, lmm5.1 and lmm5.4, which were isolated with a map-based cloning strategy. Remarkably, LMM5.1 and LMM5.4 share a 97.4% amino acid sequence identity, and they each encode a eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A)-like protein. Besides, LMM5.1 and LMM5.4 were expressed in a tissue-specific and an indica-specific manner, respectively. In addition, high-throughput mRNA sequencing analysis confirmed that the basal immunity was constitutively activated in the lmm5 mutant. Taken together, these results suggest that the homologous eEF1A-like genes, LMM5.1 and LMM5.4, negatively affect cell death and disease resistance in rice.

  2. The theta-related firing activity of parvalbumin-positive neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex and their response to 5-HT1A receptor stimulation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Bo; Han, Ling-Na; Zhang, Qiao-Jun; Sun, Yi-Na; Wang, Yong; Feng, Jie; Zhang, Li; Wang, Tao; Chen, Li; Liu, Jian

    2014-03-01

    The parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca complex (MS-DB) play an important role in the generation of hippocampal theta rhythm involved in cognitive functions. These neurons in this region express a high density of 5-HT1A receptors which regulate the neuronal activity and consequently affect the theta rhythm. In this study, we examined changes in the theta-related firing activity of PV-positive neurons in the MS-DB, their response to 5-HT1A receptor stimulation and the corresponding hippocampal theta rhythm, and the density of PV-positive neurons and their co-localization with 5-HT1A receptors in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). The lesion of the SNc decreased the rhythmically bursting activity of PV-positive neurons and the peak frequency of hippocampal theta rhythm. Systemic administration of 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.5-128 µg/kg, i.v.) inhibited the firing rate of PV-positive neurons and disrupted rhythmically bursting activity of the neurons and the theta rhythm in sham-operated and the lesioned rats, respectively. The cumulative doses producing inhibition and disruption in the lesioned rats were higher than that of sham-operated rats. Furthermore, local application of 8-OH-DPAT (0.005 μg) in the MS-DB also inhibited the firing rate of PV-positive neurons and disrupted their rhythmically bursting activity in sham-operated rats, while having no effect on PV-positive neurons in the lesioned rats. The lesion of the SNc decreased the density of PV-positive neurons in the MS-DB, and percentage of PV-positive neurons expressing 5-HT1A receptors. These results indicate that the lesion of the SNc leads to suppression of PV-positive neurons in the MS-DB and hippocampal theta rhythm. Furthermore, the lesion decreases the response of these neurons to 5-HT1A receptor stimulation, which attributes to dysfunction and/or down-regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression on these

  3. CRISPR/Cas9 facilitates investigation of neural circuit disease using human iPSCs: mechanism of epilepsy caused by an SCN1A loss-of-function mutation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J; Gao, C; Chen, W; Ma, W; Li, X; Shi, Y; Zhang, H; Zhang, L; Long, Y; Xu, H; Guo, X; Deng, S; Yan, X; Yu, D; Pan, G; Chen, Y; Lai, L; Liao, W; Li, Z

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in SCN1A, the gene encoding the α subunit of Nav1.1 channel, can cause epilepsies with wide ranges of clinical phenotypes, which are associated with the contrasting effects of channel loss-of-function or gain-of-function. In this project, CRISPR/Cas9- and TALEN-mediated genome-editing techniques were applied to induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based-disease model to explore the mechanism of epilepsy caused by SCN1A loss-of-function mutation. By fluorescently labeling GABAergic subtype in iPSC-derived neurons using CRISPR/Cas9, we for the first time performed electrophysiological studies on SCN1A-expressing neural subtype and monitored the postsynaptic activity of both inhibitory and excitatory types. We found that the mutation c.A5768G, which led to no current of Nav1.1 in exogenously transfected system, influenced the properties of not only Nav current amount, but also Nav activation in Nav1.1-expressing GABAergic neurons. The two alterations in Nav further reduced the amplitudes and enhanced the thresholds of action potential in patient-derived GABAergic neurons, and led to weakened spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in the patient-derived neuronal network. Although the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) did not change significantly, when the frequencies of both sIPSCs and sEPSCs were further analyzed, we found the whole postsynaptic activity transferred from the inhibition-dominated state to excitation in patient-derived neuronal networks, suggesting that changes in sIPSCs alone were sufficient to significantly reverse the excitatory level of spontaneous postsynaptic activity. In summary, our findings fill the gap of our knowledge regarding the relationship between SCN1A mutation effect recorded on exogenously transfected cells and on Nav1.1-expressing neurons, and reveal the physiological basis underlying epileptogenesis caused by SCN1A loss-of-function mutation. PMID:26731440

  4. Changes in magnetic resonance imaging disease measures over 3 years in mildly disabled patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis receiving interferon β-1a in the COGnitive Impairment in MUltiple Sclerosis (COGIMUS) study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has improved the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS). In clinical trials, MRI has been found to detect treatment effects with greater sensitivity than clinical measures; however, clinical and MRI outcomes tend to correlate poorly. Methods In this observational study, patients (n = 550; 18-50 years; relapsing-remitting MS [Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤4.0]) receiving interferon (IFN) β-1a therapy (44 or 22 µg subcutaneously [sc] three times weekly [tiw]) underwent standardized MRI, neuropsychological and quality-of-life (QoL) assessments over 3 years. In this post hoc analysis, MRI outcomes and correlations between MRI parameters and clinical and functional outcomes were analysed. Results MRI data over 3 years were available for 164 patients. T2 lesion and T1 gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesion volumes, but not black hole (BH) volumes, decreased significantly from baseline to Year 3 (P < 0.0001). Percentage decreases (baseline to Year 3) were greater with the 44 μg dose than with the 22 μg dose for T2 lesion volume (-10.2% vs -4.5%, P = 0.025) and T1 BH volumes (-7.8% vs +10.3%, P = 0.002). A decrease in T2 lesion volume over 3 years predicted stable QoL over the same time period. Treatment with IFN β-1a, 44 μg sc tiw, predicted an absence of cognitive impairment at Year 3. Conclusion Subcutaneous IFN β-1a significantly decreased MRI measures of disease, with a significant benefit shown for the 44 µg over the 22 µg dose; higher-dose treatment also predicted better cognitive outcomes over 3 years. PMID:21999142

  5. Mitochondrial Genomic Analysis of Late Onset Alzheimer’s Disease Reveals Protective Haplogroups H6A1A/H6A1B: The Cache County Study on Memory in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ridge, Perry G.; Maxwell, Taylor J.; Corcoran, Christopher D.; Norton, Maria C.; Tschanz, JoAnn T.; O’Brien, Elizabeth; Kerber, Richard A.; Cawthon, Richard M.; Munger, Ronald G.; Kauwe, John S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and AD risk clusters within families. Part of the familial aggregation of AD is accounted for by excess maternal vs. paternal inheritance, a pattern consistent with mitochondrial inheritance. The role of specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants and haplogroups in AD risk is uncertain. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 1007 participants in the Cache County Study on Memory in Aging, a population-based prospective cohort study of dementia in northern Utah. AD diagnoses were made with a multi-stage protocol that included clinical examination and review by a panel of clinical experts. We used TreeScanning, a statistically robust approach based on haplotype networks, to analyze the mtDNA sequence data. Participants with major mitochondrial haplotypes H6A1A and H6A1B showed a reduced risk of AD (p = 0.017, corrected for multiple comparisons). The protective haplotypes were defined by three variants: m.3915G>A, m.4727A>G, and m.9380G>A. These three variants characterize two different major haplogroups. Together m.4727A>G and m.9380G>A define H6A1, and it has been suggested m.3915G>A defines H6A. Additional variants differentiate H6A1A and H6A1B; however, none of these variants had a significant relationship with AD case-control status. Conclusions/Significance Our findings provide evidence of a reduced risk of AD for individuals with mtDNA haplotypes H6A1A and H6A1B. These findings are the results of the largest study to date with complete mtDNA genome sequence data, yet the functional significance of the associated haplotypes remains unknown and replication in others studies is necessary. PMID:23028804

  6. Functional and comparative genomics analyses of pmp22 in medaka fish

    PubMed Central

    Itou, Junji; Suyama, Mikita; Imamura, Yukio; Deguchi, Tomonori; Fujimori, Kazuhiro; Yuba, Shunsuke; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Kawasaki, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Background Pmp22, a member of the junction protein family Claudin/EMP/PMP22, plays an important role in myelin formation. Increase of pmp22 transcription causes peripheral neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type1A (CMT1A). The pathophysiological phenotype of CMT1A is aberrant axonal myelination which induces a reduction in nerve conduction velocity (NCV). Several CMT1A model rodents have been established by overexpressing pmp22. Thus, it is thought that pmp22 expression must be tightly regulated for correct myelin formation in mammals. Interestingly, the myelin sheath is also present in other jawed vertebrates. The purpose of this study is to analyze the evolutionary conservation of the association between pmp22 transcription level and vertebrate myelin formation, and to find the conserved non-coding sequences for pmp22 regulation by comparative genomics analyses between jawed fishes and mammals. Results A transgenic pmp22 over-expression medaka fish line was established. The transgenic fish had approximately one fifth the peripheral NCV values of controls, and aberrant myelination of transgenic fish in the peripheral nerve system (PNS) was observed. We successfully confirmed that medaka fish pmp22 has the same exon-intron structure as mammals, and identified some known conserved regulatory motifs. Furthermore, we found novel conserved sequences in the first intron and 3'UTR. Conclusion Medaka fish undergo abnormalities in the PNS when pmp22 transcription increases. This result indicates that an adequate pmp22 transcription level is necessary for correct myelination of jawed vertebrates. Comparison of pmp22 orthologs between distantly related species identifies evolutionary conserved sequences that contribute to precise regulation of pmp22 expression. PMID:19534778

  7. Effects of 5-HT1A receptor stimulation on striatal and cortical M1 pERK induction by L-DOPA and a D1 receptor agonist in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lindenbach, David; Dupre, Kristin B; Eskow Jaunarajs, Karen L; Ostock, Corinne Y; Goldenberg, Adam A; Bishop, Christopher

    2013-11-06

    Motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are commonly treated using l-DOPA although long-term treatment usually causes debilitating motor side effects including dyskinesias. A putative source of dyskinesia is abnormally high levels of phosphorylated extracellular-regulated kinase (pERK) within the striatum. In animal models, the serotonin 1A receptor agonist ±8-OH-DPAT reduces dyskinesia, suggesting it may exhibit efficacy through the pERK pathway. The present study investigated the effects of ±8-OH-DPAT on pERK density in rats treated with l-DOPA or the D1 receptor agonist SKF81297. Rats were given a unilateral dopamine lesion with 6-hydroxydopamine and primed with a chronic regimen of l-DOPA, SKF81297 or their vehicles. On the final test day, rats were given two injections: first with ±8-OH-DPAT, the D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 or their vehicles, and second with l-DOPA, SKF81297 or their vehicles. Rats were then transcardially perfused for immunohistological analysis of pERK expression in the striatum and primary motor cortex. Rats showed greater dyskinesia in response to l-DOPA and SKF81297 after repeated injections. Although striatal pERK induction was similar between acute and chronic l-DOPA, SKF81297 caused the largest increase in striatal pERK after the first exposure. Neither compound alone affected motor cortex pERK. Surprisingly, in the ventromedial striatum, ±8-OH-DPAT potentiated l-DOPA-induced pERK; in the motor cortex, ±8-OH-DPAT potentiated pERK with l-DOPA or SKF81297. Our results support previous work that the striatal pERK pathway is dysregulated after dopamine depletion, but call into question the utility of pERK as a biomarker of dyskinesia expression.

  8. Microsatellite mapping of the deletion in patients with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP): new molecular tools for the study of the region 17p12 --> p11 and for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    LeGuern, E; Ravise, N; Gouider, R; Gugenheim, M; Lopes, J; Bouche, P; Agid, Y; Brice, A

    1996-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy characterized by recurrent episodes of nerve palsies. We have analyzed 11 microsatellite markers from chromosome 17p12 --> p11 in nine French families with HNPP. The three microsatellites D17S839 (afm200yb12), D17S955 (afm317ygl), and D17S921 (afm191xh12) were localized in the deleted region. In allele segregation analyses, the microsatellite D17S793 (afm165zd4) detected two chromosome 17-linked loci, one of which was deleted in HNPP patients. Using these STR markers, we found that the deletion coincided with the CMT1A/HNPP monomer unit in eight of the nine families. In the remaining pedigree, the deletion lay between the centromeric microsatellite D17S805 (afm234tal) and the telomeric marker D17S922 (afm197xh6), which flank the CMT1A monomer unit. Comparison of these data with the available genetic and physical maps of 17p12 --> p11 shows that this region, which is frequently subject to rearrangement-inducing diseases, such as Smith-Magenis syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A, and HNPP, presents recombination hot spots. Finally, this study demonstrates the usefulness of the D17S122 (RM11GT) and D17S921 (afm191xh12) microsatellites as tools for the molecular diagnosis of HNPP.

  9. U1A Complex

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-28

    Some of the most sophisticated experiments in the stockpile stewardship program are conducted in an environmentally safe manner, nearly 1000 feet below the ground at the site. The U1a complex a sprawling underground laboratory and tunnel complex is home to a number of unique capabilities.

  10. U1A Complex

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Some of the most sophisticated experiments in the stockpile stewardship program are conducted in an environmentally safe manner, nearly 1000 feet below the ground at the site. The U1a complex a sprawling underground laboratory and tunnel complex is home to a number of unique capabilities.

  11. The oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1), a cause of polycystic kidney disease and associated malformations, maps to Xp22.2-Xp22.3.

    PubMed

    Feather, S A; Woolf, A S; Donnai, D; Malcolm, S; Winter, R M

    1997-07-01

    Key features of the oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1) include malformations of the face, oral cavity and digits. In addition, the clinical phenotype often includes mental retardation and renal functional impairment. Approximately 75% of cases of OFD1 are sporadic, and the condition occurs almost exclusively in females. In familial cases, the most likely mode of inheritance is considered to be X-linked dominant with prenatal lethality in affected males. Therefore, the OFD1 gene product appears to have widespread importance in organogenesis and is essential for fetal survival. We have studied two kindreds in which the clinical course was dominated by polycystic kidney disease requiring dialysis and transplantation. Using polymorphic chromosome markers spaced at approximately 10 cM intervals along the X chromosome, we mapped the disease to a region on the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp22.2-Xp22.3) spanning 19.8 cM and flanked by crossovers with the markers DXS996 and DX7S105. There was a maximum lod score of 3.32 in an 'affecteds only' analysis using a marker within the KAL gene (theta = 0.0 ), thereby confirming the location of the gene for OFD1 on the X chromosome. The remainder of the X chromosome was excluded by recombinants in affected individuals. The importance of our findings includes the definitive assignment of this male-lethal disease to the X chromosome and the mapping of a further locus for a human polycystic kidney disease. Furthermore, this mapping study suggests a possible mouse model for OFD1 as the X-linked dominant Xpl mutant, in which polydactyly and renal cystic disease occurs, maps to the homologous region of the mouse X chromosome.

  12. The proteolipid protein gene: Double, double, . . . and trouble

    SciTech Connect

    Hodes, M.E.; Dlouhy, S.R.

    1996-07-01

    That more of a good thing may be too much has been apparent at least since the discovery that Down syndrome is caused by three copies of chromosome 21 instead of the normal two. Duplications of myelin genes also lead to trouble. An extra dose of PMP22, the gene for a protein of peripheral nervous system myelin, causes Charcot-Marie Tooth type 1A disease (CMT1A). Increased dosage of the proteolipid protein gene, PLP, which encodes the chief protein of CNS myelin, can cause Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). The work of Inoue et al. is of particular importance because they found the duplication in four of five families with {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} PMD, whereas other changes in PLP, such as missense mutations, are found in no more than one in four or five patients with the disease. 27 refs.

  13. SCNN1A — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    SCNN1A, a multi-pass membrane protein belonging to the amiloride-sensitive sodium channel family, is a sodium permeable non-voltage-sensitive ion channel inhibited by the diuretic amiloride. These channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of 3 subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma; the SCNN1A gene encodes the alpha subunit. SCNN1A mediates the electrodiffusion of the luminal sodium (and water, which follows osmotically) through the apical membrane of epithelial cells. It controls the reabsorption of sodium in kidney, colon, lung and sweat glands. Also plays a role in taste perception. It is highly expressed in kidney and lung, detected at intermediate levels in pancreas and liver, and at low levels in heart and placenta. Defects in SCNN1A are a cause of autosomal recessive pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1, a rare salt wasting disease resulting from target organ unresponsiveness to mineralocorticoids.

  14. RN-1, a potent and selective lysine-specific demethylase 1 inhibitor, increases γ-globin expression, F reticulocytes, and F cells in a sickle cell disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Rivers, Angela; Vaitkus, Kestis; Ruiz, Maria Armila; Ibanez, Vinzon; Jagadeeswaran, Ramasamy; Kouznetsova, Tatiana; DeSimone, Joseph; Lavelle, Donald

    2015-07-01

    Increased levels of fetal hemoglobin are associated with decreased symptoms and increased lifespan in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Hydroxyurea, the only drug currently approved for SCD, is not effective in a large fraction of patients, and therefore, new agents are urgently needed. Recently it was found that lysine demethylase 1, an enzyme that removes monomethyl and dimethyl residues from the lysine 4 residue of histone H3, is a repressor of γ-globin gene expression. In this article, we have compared the ability of tranylcypromine (TCP) and a more potent TCP derivative, RN-1, to increase γ-globin expression in cultured baboon erythroid progenitor cells and in the SCD mouse model. The results indicate that the ability of RN-1 to induce F cells and γ-globin mRNA in SCD mice is similar to that of decitabine, the most powerful fetal hemoglobin-inducing drug known, and greater than that of either TCP or hydroxyurea. We conclude that RN-1 and other lysine demethylase 1 inhibitors may be promising new γ-globin-inducing agents for the treatment of SCD that warrant further studies in other preclinical models, such as nonhuman primates.

  15. (6aR)-11-amino-N-propyl-noraporphine, a new dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A dual agonist, elicits potent antiparkinsonian action and attenuates levodopa-induced dyskinesia in a 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui; Lu, Weijian; Fang, Xing; Guo, Lin; Yang, Zhi; Ye, Na; Zhao, Jiahao; Liu, Zhili; Jia, Jia; Zheng, Longtai; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Ao; Zhen, Xuechu

    2014-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) drug therapy remains a challenge. Dual modulation of dopamine and 5-HT receptors has emerged as a promising approach in anti-PD drug development. Taking advantage of the newly discovered aporphine analogue(s), (6aR)-11-amino-N-propyl-noraporphine (SOMCL-171), which exhibited dual D2/5-HT1A receptor agonistic activity, we studied the effects of the compound on levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in a PD animal model. The results demonstrated that SOMCL-171 elicited a potent anti-PD effect in a 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model. Chronic use of SOMCL-171 reduced LID without compromising the antiparkinsonian efficacy. Furthermore, we found that the antidyskinesia effect of SOMCL-171 is associated with its 5-HT1A agonistic activity and the up-regulation of the striatal 5-HT1A receptor. The present data indicated that chronic SOMCL-171 alone produced potent antiparkinsonian effects with weak dyskinesia, compared with that of levodopa. In addition, chronic SOMCL-171 application attenuated the development of levodopa-induced LID at no expense to the antiparkinsonian efficacy. Taken together, our data suggested that dual modulation of D2/5-HT1A receptors may provide a novel approach for drug development in PD and LID.

  16. MISR Level 1A Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... MISR Level 1A Products Level 1A Engineering Data File Type 1 and Level 1A Navigation Data Processing ... Product Specification Rev K  (PDF). Transparent software rebuild with Irix 6.5.2 OS. F01_0007 (FM_ENG), ...

  17. B-1a Lymphocytes Attenuate Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lei; Chng, MH; Alonso, Michael N.; Yuan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance, a common precursor of type 2 diabetes, is characterized by chronic inflammation of tissues, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Here we show that B-1a cells, a subpopulation of B lymphocytes, are novel and important regulators of this process. B-1a cells are reduced in frequency in obese high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, and EGFP interleukin-10 (IL-10) reporter mice show marked reductions in anti-inflammatory IL-10 production by B cells in vivo during obesity. In VAT, B-1a cells are the dominant producers of B cell–derived IL-10, contributing nearly half of the expressed IL-10 in vivo. Adoptive transfer of B-1a cells into HFD-fed B cell–deficient mice rapidly improves insulin resistance and glucose tolerance through IL-10 and polyclonal IgM-dependent mechanisms, whereas transfer of B-2 cells worsens metabolic disease. Genetic knockdown of B cell–activating factor (BAFF) in HFD-fed mice or treatment with a B-2 cell–depleting, B-1a cell–sparing anti-BAFF antibody attenuates insulin resistance. These findings establish B-1a cells as a new class of immune regulators that maintain metabolic homeostasis and suggest manipulation of these cells as a potential therapy for insulin resistance. PMID:25249575

  18. Distinct neurological disorders with ATP1A3 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Heinzen, Erin L.; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Brashear, Allison; Clapcote, Steven J.; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Goldstein, David B.; Jóhannesson, Sigurður H.; Mikati, Mohamad A.; Neville, Brian; Nicole, Sophie; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Poulsen, Hanne; Schyns, Tsveta; Sweadner, Kathleen J.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn; Vilsen, Bente

    2014-01-01

    Genetic research has shown that mutations that modify the protein-coding sequence of ATP1A3, the gene encoding the α3 subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase, cause both rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism and alternating hemiplegia of childhood. These discoveries link two clinically distinct neurological diseases to the same gene, however, ATP1A3 mutations are, with one exception, disease-specific. Although the exact mechanism of how these mutations lead to disease is still unknown, much knowledge has been gained about functional consequences of ATP1A3 mutations using a range of in vitro and animal model systems, and the role of Na+/K+-ATPases in the brain. Researchers and clinicians are attempting to further characterise neurological manifestations associated with mutations in ATP1A3, and to build on the existing molecular knowledge to understand how specific mutations can lead to different diseases. PMID:24739246

  19. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Meetings & Events Technology Advancement & Transfer Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  20. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Meetings & Events Technology Advancement & Transfer Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  1. X-1A impact site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    A photo taken on 8 August 1955, showing the remains of the Bell X-1A The Bell X-1A (Serial # 48-1384) was designed for aerodynamic stability and air load research. It was delivered to Edwards Air Force Base on 7 January 1953. The aircraft made its first glide flight on 14 February with Bell test pilot Jean 'Skip' Ziegler at the controls. Ziegler also flew the first powered flight in the X-1A on 21 February. Contractor flights in the aircraft continued through April, at which time the X-1A was temporarily grounded for modifications. Flight operations were resumed on 21 November 1953 with Maj. Charles 'Chuck' Yeager at the controls. During a flight on 12 December, Yeager took the X-1A to a record-breaking speed of Mach 2.44 at an altitude of 75,000 feet. He then encountered the unpleasant phenomemon of inertia coupling. The X-1A tumbled out of control, knocking Yeager unconscious briefly before entering an inverted spin. Fortunately Yeager regained his senses and control of the aircraft 60 miles from Edwards at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Shaken, but unharmed, he brought the rocket plane in for a safe landing on Rogers Dry Lake. Next, the X-1A was used for a series of high-altitude missions piloted by Maj. Arthur 'Kit' Murray. Fourteen flights proved necessary to meet the program requirements, with only four being successful. During the test series, Murray set several unofficial world altitude records. The highest (90,440 feet) was set on 26 August 1954. Following completion of the altitude program, the aircraft was turned over to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1A underwent more modifications and was returned to flight status in July 1955. The first NACA-sponsored flight, piloted by Joseph A. Walker, took place on 20 July. The second NACA mission was to be the 25th flight of the X-1A. The flight began normally on 8 August 1955, with the X-1A shackled to the underside of a JTB-29A (45-21800) piloted by Stanley Butchart and John 'Jack' Mc

  2. Ascorbic acid inhibits PMP22 expression by reducing cAMP levels.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ferdinand; Belin, Sophie; Bourgeois, Patrice; Micaleff, Joelle; Blin, Olivier; Fontés, Michel

    2007-03-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth [CMT] syndrome is the most common hereditary peripheral neuropathy. CMT1A, which accounts for 50% of all CMT cases, usually results from triploidy of the PMP22 gene. Preclinical trials using an animal model show that disabled mice force-fed with high doses of ascorbic acid partially recover muscular strength after a few months of treatment, and suggest that high doses of ascorbic acid repress PMP22 expression. In this study, we demonstrated that ascorbic acid represses PMP22 gene expression by acting on intracellular cAMP levels and adenylate cyclase activity. This action is dose dependent and specific to ascorbic acid, since repression is not observed after treatment with other antioxidants. The new properties of ascorbic acid are discussed, along with the implications of these findings for CMT disease treatment.

  3. X-1A on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1A (48-1384) is photographed in July 1955 sitting on Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base, California. This view of the left side of the aircraft shows the change to the X-1A canopy from the X-1s (see photo E49-0039 under XS-1) The nose boom carries an angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip vane, along with a pitot tube for measuring static and impact pressures. The fuselage length is 35 feet 8 inches, with a wing span of 28 feet. The X-1A was created to explore stability and control characteristics at speeds in excess of Mach 2 and altitudes greater than 90,000 feet. Bell test pilot Jean 'Skip' Ziegler made six test flights in the X-1A between 14 February and 25 April 1953. Air Force test pilots Maj. Charles 'Chuck' Yeager and Maj. Arthur 'Kit' Murray made 18 flights between 21 November 1953 and 26 August 1954. NACA test pilot Joseph Walker made one successful flight on 20 July 1955. During a second flight attempt, on 8 August 1955, an explosion damaged the X-1A shortly before launch. Walker, unhurt, climbed up into the JTB-29A mothership, and the X-1A was jettisoned over the Edwards AFB bombing range.

  4. Are electrophysiological criteria useful in distinguishing childhood demyelinating neuropathies?

    PubMed

    Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Ryniewicz, Barbara; Aragon-Gawinska, Karolina; Kabzinska, Dagmara; Seroka, Andrzej; Lipowska, Marta; Kaminska, Anna M; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Childhood chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) needs to be differentiated from hereditary neuropathy. We aimed to validate existing CIDP nerve conduction study (NCS) criteria in a group of children with demyelinating neuropathies of chronic or subacute onset. Retrospective analysis of clinical and NCS results in 18 children with CIDP, 7 with hereditary neuropathy with pressure palsy (HNPP), and 24 with Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1a (CMT1a). AAN and EFNS electrodiagnostic CIDP criteria were fulfilled in 17 of 18 CIDP, 3 of 7 HNPP, and 23 of 24 CMT1a patients. A distal compound muscle action potential (dCMAP) of >9 ms was observed in 14 of 18 CIDP patients but not in any patients with HNPP. Abnormal median/normal sural SNAP (AMNS) and a 10 m/s difference between conduction velocities (CV) of two corresponding nerves were not observed in any CMT1a patients. NCS in CMT1a, HNPP, and CIDP reflect demyelination. dCMAP duration, sensory AMNS, and a 10 m/s CV difference parameter are most useful in the differential diagnosis of pediatric CIDP.

  5. Immunological study of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type 1a (HMSN1a)

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, C; Gregson, N; Wood, N; Hughes, R

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Fifty three patients were studied to investigate whether autoimmune or inflammatory mechanisms could explain the phenotypic heterogeneity of patients with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type 1a (HMSN1a). Methods: Serum samples were examined for antibodies to peripheral nerve myelin protein 22 (PMP22), ganglioside GM1 and cauda equina homogenate, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF R1) concentrations. Serological results were compared with those from patients with other neuropathies (ONPs, n=30) and with normal subjects (n=51). Results: In the group as a whole, no relation emerged between clinical severity and any immune parameters. Immunohistochemical examination of four sural nerve biopsies did not show significant inflammatory infiltration. In a subset of 12 patients who experienced stepwise progression of disease, there was a trend towards a higher proportion having anti-PMP22 antibodies (33% v 15% of those with gradual disease progression, 3% ONPs, and no normal controls) and complement fixing antibodies to human cauda equina (25% v 5% with gradual progression, 8.6% ONPs, 3.9% normal controls, p=0.07). Conclusions: Patients with HMSN1a and a stepwise disease progression may have an inflammatory, autoimmune component superimposed on the genetic condition. PMID:11796774

  6. A de novo case of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) of maternal origin: a new mechanism for deletion in 17p11.2?

    PubMed

    LeGuern, E; Gouider, R; Ravisé, N; Lopes, J; Tardieu, S; Gugenheim, M; Abbas, N; Bouche, P; Agid, Y; Brice, A

    1996-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant neuropathy, most often associated with a deletion of the 17p11.2 region, which is duplicated in 70% of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1A). Most de novo CMT1A and HNPP cases have been of paternal origin. A rare case of de novo HNPP of maternal origin was analysed to determine the underlying mechanism. Affected individuals in the family carried a deletion corresponding to the CMT1A/HNPP monomer unit associated with a rearrangement of the CMT1A-REP sequences. Segregation analysis of 17p11-p12 markers in the family indicated that the deletion was not generated by unequal crossing over between homologous 17 chromosomes, as in de novo cases from paternal origin, but rather by an intrachromosomal rearrangement. Two distinct mechanisms can therefore lead to the same 17p11.2 deletion. This result suggests that intrachromosomal rearrangement may be specific to maternal transmissions.

  7. Association between endometriosis and the interleukin 1A (IL1A) locus

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Yadav; Low, Siew-Kee; Attia, John; Gordon, Scott D.; Henders, Anjali K.; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; MacGregor, Stuart; Martin, Nicholas G.; McEvoy, Mark; Morris, Andrew P.; Takahashi, Atsushi; Scott, Rodney J.; Kubo, Michiaki; Zondervan, Krina T.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Nyholt, Dale R.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the interleukin 1A (IL1A) gene locus associated with endometriosis risk? SUMMARY ANSWER We found evidence for strong association between IL1A SNPs and endometriosis risk. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Genetic factors contribute substantially to the complex aetiology of endometriosis and the disease has an estimated heritability of ∼51%. We, and others, have conducted genome-wide association (GWA) studies for endometriosis, which identified a total of nine independent risk loci. Recently, two small Japanese studies reported eight SNPs (rs6542095, rs11677416, rs3783550, rs3783525, rs3783553, rs2856836, rs1304037 and rs17561) at the IL1A gene locus as suggestively associated with endometriosis risk. There is also evidence of a link between inflammation and endometriosis. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION We sought to further investigate the eight IL1A SNPs for association with endometriosis using an independent sample of 3908 endometriosis cases and 8568 controls of European and Japanese ancestry. The study was conducted between October 2013 and July 2014. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS By leveraging GWA data from our previous multi-ethnic GWA meta-analysis for endometriosis, we imputed variants in the IL1A region, using a recent 1000 Genomes reference panel. After combining summary statistics for the eight SNPs from our European and Japanese imputed data with the published results, a fixed-effect meta-analysis was performed. An additional meta-analysis restricted to endometriosis cases with moderate-to-severe (revised American Fertility Society stage 3 or 4) disease versus controls was also performed. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE All eight IL1A SNPs successfully replicated at P < 0.014 in the European imputed data with concordant direction and similar size to the effects reported in the original Japanese studies. Of these, three SNPs (rs6542095, rs3783550 and rs3783525) also showed association with

  8. Flowability of JSC-1a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rame, Enrique; Wilkinson, Allen; Elliot, Alan; Young, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    We have done a complete flowability characterization of the lunar soil simulant, JSC-1a, following closely the ASTM-6773 standard for the Schulze ring shear test. The measurements, which involve pre-shearing the material before each yield point, show JSC-1a to be cohesionless, with an angle of internal friction near 40 deg. We also measured yield loci after consolidating the material in a vibration table which show it to have significant cohesion (approximately equal to 1 kPa) and an angle of internal friction of about 60 deg. Hopper designs based on each type of flowability test differ significantly. These differences highlight the need to discern the condition of the lunar soil in the specific process where flowability is an issue. We close with a list not necessarily comprehensive of engineering rules of thumb that apply to powder flow in hoppers.

  9. Clinical utility of a DNA probe to 17p11.2 in screening of patients with a peripheral neuropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Blancato, J.; Precht, K.; Meck, J.

    1994-09-01

    We assessed the usefulness of in situ hybridization with a DNA probe to the area of chromosome 17 at p11.2 as a diagnostic tool for screening for Charcot Marte Tooth 1A (CMT 1A). In situ hybridization with a probe to 17p11.2 was performed on fixed lymphocytes from the following groups of individuals: (1) normal controls; (2) patients evoking a strong clinical suspicion of CMT 1A; and (3) 3 families with an apparent autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy of unknown diagnoses. Group 2 patients had evidence of demyelination as defined by nerve conduction of less that 50% of the normal mean or terminal latency greater than 50% of the normal mean in conduction studies. Analysis of interphase cells hybridized with a cosmid DNA probe to 17p11.2 requires inclusion of a normal control with each trial and masked observer. Due to the size of the target DNA and the nature of the centromeric heterochromatin, the scoring of this probe is more subjective than centromere probes. For example, if the two 17 chromosomes are decondensed as in interphase, two tandem signals may be visualized as one. Results from duplication positive patients demonstrate a large proportion of cells with two closely aligned, but separate, signals with an additional single signal. Normal results demonstrate a majority of cells with two separate signals representing both normal homologues. None of the 3 families with questionable diagnosis revealed a duplication at the region, reinforcing our belief that a clinical diagnosis is the most discriminating tool available for diagnosis of CMT 1A. We concur with Boylan that molecular analysis for CMT 1A is useful for establishing a diagnosis of CMT 1A, but is not a primary differential diagnostic test. The yield in screening patients without physiologic evidence of demyelination is likely to be low. We further find that the use of in situ hybridization is a simple method of performing the duplication analysis.

  10. Screening of CACNA1A and ATP1A2 genes in hemiplegic migraine: clinical, genetic, and functional studies

    PubMed Central

    Carreño, Oriel; Corominas, Roser; Serra, Selma Angèlica; Sintas, Cèlia; Fernández-Castillo, Noèlia; Vila-Pueyo, Marta; Toma, Claudio; Gené, Gemma G; Pons, Roser; Llaneza, Miguel; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Grinberg, Daniel; Valverde, Miguel Ángel; Fernández-Fernández, José Manuel; Macaya, Alfons; Cormand, Bru

    2013-01-01

    Hemiplegic migraine (HM) is a rare and severe subtype of autosomal dominant migraine, characterized by a complex aura including some degree of motor weakness. Mutations in four genes (CACNA1A, ATP1A2, SCN1A and PRRT2) have been detected in familial and in sporadic cases. This genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder is often accompanied by permanent ataxia, epileptic seizures, mental retardation, and chronic progressive cerebellar atrophy. Here we report a mutation screening in the CACNA1A and ATP1A2 genes in 18 patients with HM. Furthermore, intragenic copy number variant (CNV) analysis was performed in CACNA1A using quantitative approaches. We identified four previously described missense CACNA1A mutations (p.Ser218Leu, p.Thr501Met, p.Arg583Gln, and p.Thr666Met) and two missense changes in the ATP1A2 gene, the previously described p.Ala606Thr and the novel variant p.Glu825Lys. No structural variants were found. This genetic screening allowed the identification of more than 30% of the disease alleles, all present in a heterozygous state. Functional consequences of the CACNA1A-p.Thr501Met mutation, previously described only in association with episodic ataxia, and ATP1A2-p.Glu825Lys, were investigated by means of electrophysiological studies, cell viability assays or Western blot analysis. Our data suggest that both these variants are disease-causing. PMID:24498617

  11. Molecular analysis of the Smith-Magenis syndrome: a possible contiguous-gene syndrome associated with del(17)(p11.2).

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, F; Guzzetta, V; Montes de Oca-Luna, R; Magenis, R E; Smith, A C; Richter, S F; Kondo, I; Dobyns, W B; Patel, P I; Lupski, J R

    1991-01-01

    We undertook clinical evaluation (32 cases) and molecular evaluation (31 cases) of unrelated patients affected with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) associated with an interstitial deletion of band p11.2 of chromosome 17. Patients were evaluated both clinically and electrophysiologically for peripheral neuropathy, since markers showing close linkage to one form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1A) map to this chromosomal region. The common clinical findings were broad flat midface with brachycephaly, broad nasal bridge, brachydactyly, speech delay, and hoarse, deep voice. Fifty-five percent of the patients showed clinical signs (e.g., decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes, pes planus or pes cavus, decreased sensitivity to pain, and decreased leg muscle mass) suggestive of peripheral neuropathy. However, unlike patients with CMT1A, these patients demonstrated normal nerve conduction velocities. Self-destructive behaviors, primarily onychotillomania and polyembolokoilamania, were observed in 67% of the patients, and significant symptoms of sleep disturbance were observed in 62%. The absence of REM sleep was demonstrated by polysomnography in two patients. Southern analysis indicated that most patients were deleted for five 17p11.2 markers--FG1 (D17S446), 1516 (D17S258), pYNM67-R5 (D17S29), pA10-41 (D17S71), and pS6.1-HB2 (D17S445)--thus defining a region which appears to be critical to SMS. The deletion was determined to be of paternal origin in nine patients and of maternal origin in six patients. The apparent random parental origin of deletion documented in 15 patients suggests that genomic imprinting does not play a role in the expression of the SMS clinical phenotype. Our findings suggest that SMS is likely a contiguous-gene deletion syndrome which comprises characteristic clinical features, developmental delay, clinical signs of peripheral neuropathy, abnormal sleep function, and specific behavioral anomalies. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1746552

  12. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... sheet Hashimoto's disease fact sheet Illnesses and disabilities Lupus fact sheet What is Graves' disease? What are the symptoms of Graves' disease? Who gets Graves' disease? What causes Graves' disease? How do I find out if ...

  13. Periodontal Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Small Text Medium Text Large Text Periodontal Diseases Periodontal diseases are disorders of the gums, or gingiva, and other tissues around the teeth. Periodontal diseases vary in severity, from the reversible, recurring mild ...

  14. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Parkinson's Disease KidsHealth > For Kids > Parkinson's Disease A A ... symptoms of something called Parkinson's disease. What Is Parkinson's Disease? You may have seen the actor Michael ...

  15. Lyme Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Lyme Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Lyme Disease A A A ... Northwest, and the northern midwestern states. What Is Lyme Disease? People get Lyme disease through tick bites. The ...

  16. Sandhoff Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease and improve diagnosis) to effectively evaluate brain biochemistry and disease progression, and expanding the use of ... disease and improve diagnosis) to effectively evaluate brain biochemistry and disease progression, and expanding the use of ...

  17. Gum Disease and Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gum Disease Risk Factors Gum Disease Symptoms Gum Disease Prevention Gum Disease and Other Diseases Gum Disease and ... Gum Disease Risk Factors Gum Disease Symptoms Gum Disease Prevention Gum Disease and Other Diseases Gum Disease and ...

  18. Peri-Implant Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gum Disease Risk Factors Gum Disease Symptoms Gum Disease Prevention Gum Disease and Other Diseases Gum Disease and ... Gum Disease Risk Factors Gum Disease Symptoms Gum Disease Prevention Gum Disease and Other Diseases Gum Disease and ...

  19. Congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A with residual merosin expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Choi, Young-Chul; Park, Hyung Jun; Lee, Young-Mock; Kim, Heung Dong; Lee, Joon Soo; Kang, Hoon-Chul

    2014-03-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypotonia, elevated serum creatine kinase level, delayed motor milestones, white matter changes observed by brain magnetic resonance imaging, and normal intelligence. A mutation in the laminin α2 (LAMA2) gene, located at 6q22-23, is a genetic cause of MDC1A. Patients have merosin (laminin α2)-deficient skeletal muscles. However, the degree of merosin expression ranges from total absence to partial reduction. Patients with residual merosin expression have more variable and milder phenotypes than those with absolute merosin deficiency. We observed a Korean girl with MDC1A with residual merosin expression. Clinical presentation of this patient was typical except for late onset of the disease and external capsule involvement. Immunohistochemical staining of muscle fibers including merosin, is important to evaluate patients with hypotonia, delayed motor development, and abnormal white matter changes.

  20. Interferon Beta-1a Subcutaneous Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... under the skin). It is usually injected three times a week. You should inject this medication on ...

  1. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Crohn's disease causes inflammation of the digestive system. It is one of a group of diseases called inflammatory ... small intestine called the ileum. The cause of Crohn's disease is unknown. It may be due to an ...

  2. Pneumococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Blogs Image Library News Conferences Press Releases Radio Public Service Announcements Real Stories, Real People Share ... National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID) Pneumococcal Disease Radio Public Service Announcement National Foundation for Infectious Diseases ( ...

  3. Alzheimer disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000760.htm Alzheimer disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... of brain function that occurs with certain diseases. Alzheimer disease is one form of dementia. It affects memory, ...

  4. Lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... they can't breathe deeply. Pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis are examples of lung tissue disease. Lung circulation ... tuberculosis Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Simple pulmonary eosinophilia Patient Instructions Chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

  5. Huntington's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes certain nerve cells in the brain to waste away. ... express emotions. If one of your parents has Huntington's disease, you have a 50 percent chance of getting ...

  6. Kawasaki Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Kawasaki Disease? Kawasaki (KAH-wah-SAH-ke) disease is a ... condition involves inflammation of the blood vessels. In Kawasaki disease, the walls of the blood vessels throughout the ...

  7. Bladder Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... frequent, urgent urination Bladder cancer Doctors diagnose bladder diseases using different tests. These include urine tests, x- ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  8. 9 CFR 73.1a - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 73.1a Section 73.1a Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1a...

  9. 9 CFR 73.1a - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 73.1a Section 73.1a Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1a...

  10. 9 CFR 73.1a - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 73.1a Section 73.1a Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1a...

  11. 9 CFR 73.1a - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 73.1a Section 73.1a Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1a...

  12. 9 CFR 73.1a - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 73.1a Section 73.1a Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1a...

  13. Examination of AVPR1a as an autism susceptibility gene.

    PubMed

    Wassink, T H; Piven, J; Vieland, V J; Pietila, J; Goedken, R J; Folstein, S E; Sheffield, V C

    2004-10-01

    Impaired reciprocal social interaction is one of the core features of autism. While its determinants are complex, one biomolecular pathway that clearly influences social behavior is the arginine-vasopressin (AVP) system. The behavioral effects of AVP are mediated through the AVP receptor 1a (AVPR1a), making the AVPR1a gene a reasonable candidate for autism susceptibility. We tested the gene's contribution to autism by screening its exons in 125 independent autistic probands and genotyping two promoter polymorphisms in 65 autism affected sibling pair (ASP) families. While we found no nonconservative coding sequence changes, we did identify evidence of linkage and of linkage disequilibrium. These results were most pronounced in a subset of the ASP families with relatively less severe impairment of language. Thus, though we did not demonstrate a disease-causing variant in the coding sequence, numerous nontraditional disease-causing genetic abnormalities are known to exist that would escape detection by traditional gene screening methods. Given the emerging biological, animal model, and now genetic data, AVPR1a and genes in the AVP system remain strong candidates for involvement in autism susceptibility and deserve continued scrutiny.

  14. PRKAR1A and the evolution of pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Lawrence S

    2010-09-15

    Carney complex (CNC) is an inherited tumor predisposition associated with pituitary tumors, including GH-producing pituitary adenomas and rare reports of prolactinomas. This disease is caused by mutations in PRKAR1A, which encodes the type 1A regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKA. Loss of PRKAR1A causes enhanced PKA signaling, which leads to pituitary tumorigenesis. Mutations in the gene have not been detected in sporadic pituitary tumors, but there is some data to suggest that non-genomic mechanisms may cause loss of protein expression. Unlike CNC patients, mice heterozygous for Prkar1a mutations do not develop pituitary tumors, although complete knockout of the gene in the Pit1 lineage of the pituitary produces GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. These data indicate that complete loss of Prkar1a/PRKAR1A is able to cause pituitary tumors in mice and men. The pattern of tumors is likely related to the signaling pathways employed in specific pituitary cell types.

  15. The 5-HT1A receptor in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Joshua; DeLorenzo, Christine; Choudhury, Sunia; Parsey, Ramin V.

    2016-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric diagnosis that is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. This debilitating disorder is currently one of the leading causes of disability nationwide and is predicted to be the leading cause of disease burden by the year 2030. A large body of previous research has theorized that serotonergic dysfunction, specifically of the serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor, plays a key role in the development of MDD. The purpose of this review is to describe the evolution of our current understanding of the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor and its role in the pathophysiology MDD through the discussion of animal, post-mortem, positron emission tomography (PET), pharmacologic and genetic studies. PMID:26851834

  16. The 5-HT1A receptor in Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joshua; DeLorenzo, Christine; Choudhury, Sunia; Parsey, Ramin V

    2016-03-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric diagnosis that is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. This debilitating disorder is currently one of the leading causes of disability nationwide and is predicted to be the leading cause of disease burden by the year 2030. A large body of previous research has theorized that serotonergic dysfunction, specifically of the serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor, plays a key role in the development of MDD. The purpose of this review is to describe the evolution of our current understanding of the serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor and its role in the pathophysiology MDD through the discussion of animal, post-mortem, positron emission tomography (PET), pharmacologic and genetic studies.

  17. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  18. Columnaris Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columnaris disease is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium, Flavobacterium columnare. The disease was first described in 1917-1919 in the United States and the bacterium was not successfully isolated and grown in the laboratory until 1944. Columnaris disease continues to be a prevalent disease of...

  19. Severe localized lipoatrophy related to therapy with insulin analogs in type 1a diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Peteiro-González, Diego; Fernández-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Cabezas-Agrícola, José Manuel; Araújo-Vilar, David

    2011-03-01

    Insulin analog-related lipoatrophy is a rare complication of this type of treatment. We report a case of severe localized lipoatrophy in different locations in a patient with type 1a diabetes mellitus associated with other autoimmune disease.

  20. Kimura disease

    PubMed Central

    AlGhamdi, Fares E.; Al-Khatib, Talal A.; Marzouki, Hani Z.; AlGarni, Mohammed A

    2016-01-01

    Kimura disease is a chronic inflammatory disease that mainly manifests as a lump in the cervical region. Although the underlying pathophysiology is not clear yet, the diagnosis can be established based on specific histopathological characteristics. The first case of this disease was described in China, as well as the majority of subsequent cases that were also described in the Far East countries made Kimura disease traditionally a disease of adult patients of Asian descent. This report describes the occurrence of Kimura disease in pediatric non-Asian patient with a similar clinicopathologic presentation. PMID:26905356

  1. Insulin as a Primary Autoantigen for Type 1A Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jasinski, J. M.; Eisenbarth, G. S.

    2005-01-01

    Type 1A diabetes mellitus is caused by specific and progressive autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the islets of Langerhans whereas the other cell types in the islet (alpha, delta, and PP) are spared. The autoantigens of Type 1A diabetes may be divided into subgroups based on their tissue distributions: Beta-cell-specific antigens like insulin, insulin derivatives, and IGRP (Islet-specific Glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit Related Peptide); neurendocrine antigens such as carboxypeptidase H, insulinoma-associated antigen (IA-2), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), and carboxypeptidase E; and those expressed ubiquitously like heat shock protein 60 (a putative autoantigen for type 1 diabetes). This review will focus specifically on insulin as a primary autoantigen, an essentia l target for disease, in type 1A diabetes mellitus. In particular, immunization with insulin peptide B:9-23 can be used to induce insulin autoantibodies and diabetes in animal models or used to prevent diabetes. Genetic manipulation of the insulin 1 and 2 genes reciprocally alters development of diabetes in the NOD mouse, and insulin gene polymorphisms are important determinants of childhood diabetes. We are pursuing the hypothesis that insulin is a primary autoantigen for type 1 diabetes, and thus the pathogenesis of the disease relates to specific recognition of one or more peptides. PMID:16295523

  2. CD1A — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    CD1A is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is structurally related to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins and forms heterodimers with beta-2-microglobulin. CD1A functions as an antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self lipid and glycolipid antigens and presents them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells.

  3. DSCOVR_EPIC_L1A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-04

    DSCOVR_EPIC_L1A Full sun-light Earth images calibrated with ... 551NM 680NM 688NM 764NM 780NM DSCOVR EPIC IMAGERY L1B LAGRANGE Order Data:  Earthdata ... Guide Documents:  DSCOVR Overview EPIC Data Format Control Book DSCOVR EPIC L0L1a Processor V01 ...

  4. Wilson Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. You need ... copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, and ...

  5. Raynaud's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Raynaud's disease is a rare disorder of the blood vessels, usually in the fingers and toes. It causes the ... secondary Raynaud's, which is caused by injuries, other diseases, or certain medicines. People in colder climates are ...

  6. Fifth Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Fifth disease is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19. The virus only infects humans; it's not the same parvovirus that dogs and cats can get. Fifth disease mostly affects children. Symptoms can include a low ...

  7. Addison Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure and water and salt balance. Addison disease happens if the adrenal glands don't make ... problem with your immune system usually causes Addison disease. The immune system mistakenly attacks your own tissues, ...

  8. Chagas Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United States. ... nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood ...

  9. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a type of movement disorder. It happens when nerve cells in the brain don't ... coordination As symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple ...

  10. Legionnaires' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Legionnaires' disease is a type of pneumonia caused by bacteria. You usually get it by breathing in mist from ... spread from person to person. Symptoms of Legionnaires' disease include high fever, chills, a cough, and sometimes ...

  11. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond ... In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They are ...

  12. Eye Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  13. Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infections Your doctor can do blood and urine tests to check if you have kidney disease. If your kidneys fail, you will need dialysis or a kidney transplant. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  14. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... small intestine. People with celiac disease cannot eat gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. ... Treatment Doctors treat celiac disease by prescribing a gluten-free diet. Symptoms significantly improve for most people ...

  15. Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... immune disease in which people can't eat gluten because it will damage their small intestine. If you have celiac disease and eat foods with gluten, your immune system responds by damaging the small ...

  16. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Versions PDF Version (198 KB) Additional Links Hyperthyroidism Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Thyroid Tests This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. ...

  17. Hashimoto's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease often leads to reduced thyroid function, or hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism is a disorder that occurs when the thyroid ... Hashimoto’s disease is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States. 1 Read more in ...

  18. Menkes Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... examining the genetic origins of Menkes disease and studying the effectiveness of early copper injections and gene-replacement therapies for treating the disease. Research also includes work on a universal newborn screening test for newborns. ​​​ ...

  19. Tickborne Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... for tickborne diseases ranges from studying the basic biology of the microbes that cause these diseases to ... Nucleotide Polymorphism Phylogenetics & Ontology Proteomics & Protein Analysis Systems Biology Data Portals Software Applications BCBB Mobyle Interface Designer ( ...

  20. Gaucher's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... interfere with your blood's ability to clot. An enzyme that breaks down these fatty substances doesn't ... people who have Gaucher's disease. Treatment often includes enzyme replacement therapy. An inherited disorder, Gaucher's disease is ...

  1. Fifth disease

    MedlinePlus

    Parvovirus B19; Erythema infectiosum; Slapped cheek rash ... Fifth disease is caused by human parvovirus B19. It often affects preschoolers or school-age children during the spring. The disease spreads through the fluids in the nose and ...

  2. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Kidney Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Kidney Disease Print A ... Syndrome Coping With Kidney Conditions What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  3. Lyme disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... up the bacteria when they bite mice or deer that are infected with B burgdorferi . You can ... syndrome Images Lyme disease organism, Borrelia burgdorferi Tick, deer engorged on the skin Lyme disease - Borrelia burgdorferi ...

  4. Refsum Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... night blindness due to degeneration of the retina (retinitis pigmentosa). If the disease progresses, other symptoms may include ... night blindness due to degeneration of the retina (retinitis pigmentosa). If the disease progresses, other symptoms may include ...

  5. Behcet's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... neurological disorders such as Behcet's disease. The National Human Genome Research Institute, another Institute of the National ... neurological disorders such as Behcet's disease. The National Human Genome Research Institute, another Institute of the National ...

  6. Hirschsprung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... approximately one in 5,000 newborns. Children with Down syndrome and other medical problems, such as congenital heart ... For example, about one in 100 children with Down syndrome also has Hirschsprung disease. Hirschsprung disease is congenital, ...

  7. Farber's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... The disease occurs when both parents carry and pass on the defective gene that regulates the protein ... The disease occurs when both parents carry and pass on the defective gene that regulates the protein ...

  8. Canavan disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... if your child has any symptoms of Canavan disease. Prevention Genetic counseling is recommended for people who want to have children and have a family history of Canavan disease. Counseling should be considered if both parents are ...

  9. Kawasaki disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000989.htm Kawasaki disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Kawasaki disease is a rare condition that involves inflammation of ...

  10. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the ...

  11. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Kidney Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Kidney Disease A A ... Syndrome Coping With Kidney Conditions What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  12. Addison disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... amounts of some or all of its hormones ( hypopituitarism ) Autoimmune disorder that affects the nerves and the ... disease) Dermatitis herpetiformis Diabetes Graves disease Hyperthyroidism Hypoparathyroidism Hypopituitarism Immune response Myasthenia gravis Ovarian hypofunction Pernicious anemia ...

  13. Capillary electrophoresis for the detection of PMP22 gene duplication: study in Mexican patients.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Zamora, Edgar; de la Luz Arenas-Sordo, María; Maldonado-Rodríguez, Rogelio

    2008-04-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common inherited disorder of the human peripheral nerve, with an estimated overall prevalence of 17-40/10 000 [1]. The typical phenotype presents peroneal muscular atrophy and pes cavus [2]. CMT is usually divided into two large types, about two-thirds of the patients have CMT type 1 (CMT1), that affects the layer of myelin (demyelination). In type 2 (CMT2) the nerve fibers are affected (axonal). CMT diseases have autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked inheritance [1]. The most frequent subtype is 1A (CMT1A) with autosomal dominant transmission, secondary in most cases to a tandem duplication of a 1.5 Mb DNA fragment on chromosome 17p11.2-p12 [4-7]. In this region, the codification of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) takes place. The severity of the disease varies among patients, even within the same family, from almost no symptoms to severe foot-drop and sensory loss. The PMP22 gene has four exons and is regulated by two promoters located toward the extreme 5'. The origin of the duplication that causes the disease is an uneven exchange of the chromatids during the meiosis. This unequal recombination occurs between two regions that limit the PMP22 gene, described as REP places of 24 kb, proximal and distal [3, 4].

  14. Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Teri; Terzakis, Kristina

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects one million people in the United States. This article reviews the etiology and pathophysiology of PD, risk factors, clinical manifestations, diagnostic criteria, and treatment of this common disease. Implications for home care clinicians are included.

  15. Meniere's Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schessel, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Meniere's disease is characterized by unpredictable spells of severe vertigo and fluctuations in hearing and tinnitus. This article discusses the incidence of Meniere's disease, the present status of our understanding of this disease, controversies in its diagnosis, and the multiple therapeutic modalities recruited in its treatment. (Contains…

  16. Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Tomisaku

    2006-01-01

    Short history of Kawasaki disease, clinical features (principal symptoms and other significant symptoms or findings), diagnosis, cardiovascular involvement, epidemiology. Pathological features (lesion of vessels and lesion of organs exclusive of vessels), comparison between infantile periarteritis nodosa (IPN)/Kawasaki disease and classic periarteritis nodosa (CPN), etiology, treatment and management of Kawasaki disease are described. PMID:25792773

  17. Legionnaires' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease is caused by a bacterium known as legionella. You can't catch legionnaires' disease from person-to-person contact. Instead, most people ... with weakened immune systems are particularly susceptible to legionnaires' disease. The legionella bacterium also causes Pontiac fever, a milder illness ...

  18. Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Tomisaku

    2006-04-01

    Short history of Kawasaki disease, clinical features (principal symptoms and other significant symptoms or findings), diagnosis, cardiovascular involvement, epidemiology. Pathological features (lesion of vessels and lesion of organs exclusive of vessels), comparison between infantile periarteritis nodosa (IPN)/Kawasaki disease and classic periarteritis nodosa (CPN), etiology, treatment and management of Kawasaki disease are described.

  19. Lyme Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, George C.

    1991-01-01

    This overview of the public health significance of Lyme disease includes the microbiological specifics of the infectious spirochete, the entomology and ecology of the ticks which are the primary disease carrier, the clinical aspects and treatment stages, the known epidemiological patterns, and strategies for disease control and for expanded public…

  20. Prion Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article presents an update on the clinical aspects of human prion disease, including the wide spectrum of their presentations. Recent Findings Prion diseases, a group of disorders caused by abnormally shaped proteins called prions, occur in sporadic (Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease), genetic (genetic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia), and acquired (kuru, variant Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, and iatrogenic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease) forms. This article presents updated information on the clinical features and diagnostic methods for human prion diseases. New antemortem potential diagnostic tests based on amplifying prions in order to detect them are showing very high specificity. Understanding of the diversity of possible presentations of human prion diseases continues to evolve, with some genetic forms progressing slowly over decades, beginning with dysautonomia and neuropathy and progressing to a frontal-executive dementia with pathology of combined prionopathy and tauopathy. Unfortunately, to date, all human prion disease clinical trials have failed to show survival benefit. A very rare polymorphism in the prion protein gene recently has been identified that appears to protect against prion disease; this finding, in addition to providing greater understanding of the prionlike mechanisms of neurodegenerative disorders, might lead to potential treatments. Summary Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease is the most common form of human prion disease. Genetic prion diseases, resulting from mutations in the prion-related protein gene (PRNP), are classified based on the mutation, clinical phenotype, and neuropathologic features and can be difficult to diagnose because of their varied presentations. Perhaps most relevant to this Continuum issue on neuroinfectious diseases, acquired prion diseases are caused by accidental transmission to humans, but fortunately, they are the least common form and

  1. TNFRSF1A — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    TNFRSF1A, one of the major receptors for the TNF-alpha, is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This protein activates NF-kappaB, mediates apoptosis, and functions as a regulator of inflammation. TNFRSF1A has been shown to interact with adaptor proteins TRADD and TRAF2 and antiapoptotic protein BCL2-associated athanogene 4 (BAG4/SODD). TNFRSF1A is involved in activating at least two distinct signaling cascades, apoptosis and NF-kappa-B signaling.

  2. Characterization of Two Distinct Structural Classes of Selective Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Cynthia A.; Hurley, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) catalyze the irreversible oxidation of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acid. Alterations in ALDH1A1 activity are associated with such diverse diseases as cancer, Parkinson’s disease, obesity, and cataracts. Inhibitors of ALDH1A1 could aid in illuminating the role of this enzyme in disease processes. However, there are no commercially available selective inhibitors for ALDH1A1. Here we characterize two distinct chemical classes of inhibitors that are selective for human ALDH1A1 compared to eight other ALDH isoenzymes. The prototypical members of each structural class, CM026 and CM037, exhibit sub-micromolar inhibition constants, but have different mechanisms of inhibition. The crystal structures of these compounds bound to ALDH1A1 demonstrate that they bind within the aldehyde binding pocket of ALDH1A1 and exploit the presence of a unique Glycine residue to achieve their selectivity. These two novel and selective ALDH1A1 inhibitors may serve as chemical tools to better understand the contributions of ALDH1A1 to normal biology and to disease states. PMID:25634381

  3. The phenotype range of achondrogenesis 1A.

    PubMed

    Grigelioniene, Giedre; Geiberger, Stefan; Papadogiannakis, Nikos; Mäkitie, Outi; Nishimura, Gen; Nordgren, Ann; Conner, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Achondrogenesis 1A (ACG1A; OMIM 200600) is an autosomal recessive perinatally lethal skeletal dysplasia comprising intrauterine growth failure, micromelia, minor facial anomalies, deficient ossification of the skull, absent or extremely defective spinal ossification, short beaded ribs, and short deformed long bones with a stellate appearance. ACG1A is caused by mutations in the TRIP11 gene, resulting in deficiency of the Golgi microtubule associated protein 210. In this study we describe dizygotic twins with a clinical and radiological phenotype of ACG1A who were homozygous for a novel nonsense mutation in the TRIP11 gene. In addition, another patient with a milder manifestation, not readily distinguishable from those of other lethal skeletal dysplasias, was found to be a compound heterozygote for a nonsense mutation and a deletion of the 3' end of the TRIP11 gene. We conclude that mutations of the TRIP11 gene may encompass a wider phenotypic range than previously recognized.

  4. Ras Regulates Rb via NORE1A.

    PubMed

    Barnoud, Thibaut; Donninger, Howard; Clark, Geoffrey J

    2016-02-05

    Mutations in the Ras oncogene are one of the most frequent events in human cancer. Although Ras regulates numerous growth-promoting pathways to drive transformation, it can paradoxically promote an irreversible cell cycle arrest known as oncogene-induced senescence. Although senescence has clearly been implicated as a major defense mechanism against tumorigenesis, the mechanisms by which Ras can promote such a senescent phenotype remain poorly defined. We have shown recently that the Ras death effector NORE1A plays a critical role in promoting Ras-induced senescence and connects Ras to the regulation of the p53 tumor suppressor. We now show that NORE1A also connects Ras to the regulation of a second major prosenescent tumor suppressor, the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. We show that Ras induces the formation of a complex between NORE1A and the phosphatase PP1A, promoting the activation of the Rb tumor suppressor by dephosphorylation. Furthermore, suppression of Rb reduces NORE1A senescence activity. These results, together with our previous findings, suggest that NORE1A acts as a critical tumor suppressor node, linking Ras to both the p53 and the Rb pathways to drive senescence.

  5. [Detection of the PMP22 gene duplication in peripheral neuropathy patients: a study in Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Cortés, Hernán; Hernández-Hernández, Óscar; Bautista-Tirado, Teresa; Escobar-Cedillo, Rosa Elena; Magaña, Jonathan J; Leyva-García, Norberto

    2014-08-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) es una neuropatia que afecta los nervios motores y sensitivos, y la CMT1A es el subtipo mas frecuente en el mundo. La CMT1A se produce por una duplicacion de 1,5 Mb en el locus 17p11.2-p12, donde se localiza el gen PMP22. Para el diagnostico de CMT1A es importante contar con tecnicas moleculares especificas para la determinacion de esta mutacion. Objetivos. Establecer un metodo de uso rutinario para detectar la duplicacion de PMP22 en la poblacion mexicana y estimar su frecuencia en pacientes con caracteristicas clinicas para la CMT. Pacientes y metodos. Se analizaron 157 pacientes mexicanos no relacionados entre si, diagnosticados de CMT por valoracion clinica. La determinacion de la duplicacion de PMP22 se realizo a traves de reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real mediante el metodo comparativo 2–ΔΔCT. Resultados. El metodo 2–ΔΔCT para detectar la duplicacion del gen PMP22 mostro ser sensible y fiable. Los resultados fueron consistentes con los obtenidos mediante la tecnica de hibridacion in situ fluorescente. Se detecto la duplicacion de PMP22 en 79 pacientes (50,3%), con un comportamiento similar a lo comunicado en Estados Unidos, Australia, Finlandia, Suecia y España. Sin embargo, se observo que existen diferencias con otras poblaciones. Conclusiones. La tecnica de reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa cuantitativa se implemento como un diagnostico molecular de CMT1A eficaz y de bajo coste, por lo que puede utilizarse rutinariamente en Mexico. Esto es esencial para el asesoramiento genetico y el tratamiento oportuno de los pacientes con CMT. La frecuencia de la duplicacion del gen PMP22 varia entre regiones geograficas, por lo que es importante estimarla en diferentes poblaciones.

  6. The Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor in the Rabbit Heart

    PubMed Central

    Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Swigart, Philip M.; Baker, Anthony J.; Simpson, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    The alpha-1A-adrenergic receptor (AR) subtype is associated with cardioprotective signaling in the mouse and human heart. The rabbit is useful for cardiac disease modeling, but data on the alpha-1A in the rabbit heart are limited. Our objective was to test for expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart. By quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) on mRNA from ventricular myocardium of adult male New Zealand White rabbits, the alpha-1B was 99% of total alpha-1-AR mRNA, with <1% alpha-1A and alpha-1D, whereas alpha-1A mRNA was over 50% of total in brain and liver. Saturation radioligand binding identified ~4 fmol total alpha-1-ARs per mg myocardial protein, with 17% alpha-1A by competition with the selective antagonist 5-methylurapidil. The alpha-1D was not detected by competition with BMY-7378, indicating that 83% of alpha-1-ARs were alpha-1B. In isolated left ventricle and right ventricle, the selective alpha-1A agonist A61603 stimulated a negative inotropic effect, versus a positive inotropic effect with the nonselective alpha-1-agonist phenylephrine and the beta-agonist isoproterenol. Blood pressure assay in conscious rabbits using an indwelling aortic telemeter showed that A61603 by bolus intravenous dosing increased mean arterial pressure by 20 mm Hg at 0.14 μg/kg, 10-fold lower than norepinephrine, and chronic A61603 infusion by iPRECIO programmable micro Infusion pump did not increase BP at 22 μg/kg/d. A myocardial slice model useful in human myocardium and an anthracycline cardiotoxicity model useful in mouse were both problematic in rabbit. We conclude that alpha-1A mRNA is very low in rabbit heart, but the receptor is present by binding and mediates a negative inotropic response. Expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart differ from mouse and human, but the vasopressor response is similar to mouse. PMID:27258143

  7. Gaucher Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nagral, Aabha

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher disease is the commonest lysosomal storage disease seen in India and worldwide. It should be considered in any child or adult with an unexplained splenohepatomegaly and cytopenia which are seen in the three types of Gaucher disease. Type 1 is the non-neuronopathic form and type 2 and 3 are the neuronopathic forms. Type 2 is a more severe neuronopathic form leading to mortality by 2 years of age. Definitive diagnosis is made by a blood test–the glucocerebrosidase assay. There is no role for histological examination of the bone marrow, liver or spleen for diagnosis of the disease. Molecular studies for mutations are useful for confirming diagnosis, screening family members and prognosticating the disease. A splenectomy should not be performed except for palliation or when there is no response to enzyme replacement treatment or no possibility of getting any definitive treatment. Splenectomy may worsen skeletal and lung manifestations in Gaucher disease. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has completely revolutionized the prognosis and is now the standard of care for patients with this disease. Best results are seen in type 1 disease with good resolution of splenohepatomegaly, cytopenia and bone symptoms. Neurological symptoms in type 3 disease need supportive care. ERT is of no benefit in type 2 disease. Monitoring of patients on ERT involves evaluation of growth, blood counts, liver and spleen size and biomarkers such as chitotriosidase which reflect the disease burden. Therapy with ERT is very expensive and though patients in India have so far got the drug through a charitable access programme, there is a need for the government to facilitate access to treatment for this potentially curable disease. Bone marrow transplantation is an inferior option but may be considered when access to expensive ERT is not possible. PMID:25755533

  8. Infectious disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on infectious disease. It addresses their major concern over outbreaks of infectious disease that could jeopardize the health, safety and/or performance of crew members engaged in long duration space missions. The Antarctic environment is seen as an analogous location on Earth and a good place to carry out such infectious disease studies and methods for proposed studies as suggested.

  9. Legionnaire disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... have any type of breathing problem. Alternative Names Legionella pneumonia; Pontiac fever; Legionellosis Images Legionnaires' disease organism, legionella References Edelstein PH, Roy CR. Legionnaires' ...

  10. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A6 and 1A10 catalyze reduced menadione glucuronidation

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Takahito; Ohnuma, Tomokazu; Inoue, Yuu; Kishi, Takehiko; Ogura, Kenichiro; Hiratsuka, Akira

    2008-06-27

    Menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquine), also known as vitamin K3, has been widely used as a model compound in the field of oxidative stress-related research. The metabolism of menadione has been studied, and it is known that menadione undergoes a two-electron reduction by NAD(P)H:Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) after which the reduced form of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthalenediol, menadiol) is glucuronidated and excreted in urine. To investigate which human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms participate in the glucuronidation of menadiol reduced by NQO1 from menadione, we first constructed heterologously expressed NQO1 in Sf9 cells and tested the menadiol glucuronidating activity of 16 human recombinant UGT isoforms. Of the 16 UGT isoforms, UGTs 1A6, 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, and 1A10 catalyzed menadiol glucuronidation, and, of these, UGTs 1A6 and 1A10 catalyzed menadiol glucuronidation at much higher rates than the other UGTs. Menadiol was regioselectively glucuronidated in the manner of 4-position > 1-position by UGTs 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, and 1A10. In contrast to these UGTs, only UGT1A6 exhibited 1-menadiol-preferential glucuronidating activity. The results suggest possible detoxification pathways for quinones via NQO1 reduction followed by UGT glucuronidation.

  11. Casein Kinase 2 Is a Novel Regulator of the Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ting; Cheung, Florence Shin Gee; Zheng, Jian; Lu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Ling; Grewal, Thomas; Murray, Michael; Zhou, Fanfan

    2016-01-04

    Human organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) mediate the influx of many important drugs into cells. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a critical protein kinase that phosphorylates >300 protein substrates and is dysregulated in a number of disease states. Among the CK2 substrates are several transporters, although whether this includes human OATPs has not been evaluated. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the regulation of human OATP1A2 by CK2. HEK-239T cells in which OATP1A2 was overexpressed were treated with CK2 specific inhibitors or transfected with CK2 specific siRNA, and the activity, expression, and subcellular trafficking of OATP1A2 was evaluated. CK2 inhibition decreased the uptake of the prototypic OATP1A2 substrate estrone-3-sulfate (E3S). Kinetic studies revealed that this was due to a decrease in the maximum velocity (Vmax) of E3S uptake, while the Michaelis constant was unchanged. The cell surface expression, but not the total cellular expression of OATP1A2, was impaired by CK2 inhibition and knockdown of the catalytic α-subunits of CK2. CK2 inhibition decreased the internalization of OATP1A2 via a clathrin-dependent pathway, decreased OATP1A2 recycling, and likely impaired OATP1A2 targeting to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, CK2 inhibition also disrupted the colocalization of OATP1A2 and Rab GTPase (Rab)4-, Rab8-, and Rab9-positive endosomal and secretory vesicles. Taken together, CK2 has emerged as a novel regulator of the subcellular trafficking and stability of OATP1A2. Because OATP1A2 transports many molecules of physiological and pharmacological importance, the present data may inform drug selection in patients with diseases in which CK2 and OATP1A2 are dysregulated.

  12. Deletion and duplication within the p11.2 region of chromosome 17

    SciTech Connect

    McCorquodale, D.J.; McCorquodale, M.; Bereziouk, O.

    1994-09-01

    A 7 1/2-year-old male patient presented with mild mental retardation, speech delay, hyperactivity, behavioral problems, mild facial hypoplasia, short broad hands, digital anomalies, and self-injurious behavior. Chromosomes obtained from peripheral blood cells revealed a deletion of 17p11.2 in about 40% of the metaphases examined, suggesting that the patient had Smith-Magenis Syndrome. A similar pattern of mosaicism in peripheral blood cells, but not in fibroblasts in which all cells displayed the deletion, has been previously reported. Since some cases of Smith-Magenis Syndrome have a deletion that extends into the region associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) Syndrome, we examined interphase cells with a CMT1A-specific probe by the method of fluorescence in situ hybridization. The CMT1A region was not deleted, but about 40% of the cells gave signals indicating a duplication of the CMT1A region. The patient has not presented neuropathies associated with CMT at this time. Future tracking of the patient should be informative.

  13. Periodontal Disease and Systemic Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gum Disease Risk Factors Gum Disease Symptoms Gum Disease Prevention Gum Disease and Other Diseases Gum Disease and ... Gum Disease Risk Factors Gum Disease Symptoms Gum Disease Prevention Gum Disease and Other Diseases Gum Disease and ...

  14. What Is Vascular Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic Dissection Arteriovenous Malformation Atherosclerosis Buerger's Disease Carotid Artery Disease ...

  15. Vascular Disease Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Vascular Disease What is Vascular Disease? Education and Awareness Vascular Diseases Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Aortic Dissection Arteriovenous Malformation Atherosclerosis Buerger's Disease Carotid Artery Disease ...

  16. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics with GRAPE-1A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umemura, Masayuki; Fukushige, Toshiyuki; Makino, Junichiro; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Sugimoto, Daiichiro; Turner, Edwin L.; Loeb, Abraham

    1993-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) scheme using GRAPE-1A, a special-purpose processor used for gravitational N-body simulations. The GRAPE-1A calculates the gravitational force exerted on a particle from all other particles in a system, while simultaneously making a list of the nearest neighbors of the particle. It is found that GRAPE-1A accelerates SPH calculations by direct summation by about two orders of magnitudes for a ten thousand-particle simulation. The effective speed is 80 Mflops, which is about 30 percent of the peak speed of GRAPE-1A. Also, in order to investigate the accuracy of GRAPE-SPH, some test simulations were executed. We found that the force and position errors are smaller than those due to representing a fluid by a finite number of particles. The total energy and momentum were conserved within 0.2-0.4 percent and 2-5 x 10 exp -5, respectively, in simulations with several thousand particles. We conclude that GRAPE-SPH is quite effective and sufficiently accurate for self-gravitating hydrodynamics.

  17. Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women - particularly African-American, Hispanic-American, and Native-American women - have a higher risk for some autoimmune diseases. There are more than 80 types of autoimmune diseases, and some have similar symptoms. This makes it hard for your health care provider to know if ...

  18. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Kidney Disease What is Kidney Disease? What the Kidneys Do Click for more information You have two ... damaged, wastes can build up in the body. Kidney Function and Aging Kidney function may be reduced ...

  19. Cardiovascular Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly CHD (coronary heart disease) and stroke, remain the leading causes of death of women in America and most developed countries. In recent years the rate of CVD has declined in men but not in women. This is contributed to by an under-recognition of women’s C...

  20. "Aspiration disease".

    PubMed

    Pradhan, D J; Ikins, P M

    1976-03-01

    Aspiration disease, a term used to define both an acute and chronic form of a disease entity, is described. Etiological factors, pathophysiology and therapy are discussed with emphasis on aspiration of gastric juice. A brief mention of a small clinical experience is included.

  1. Prion Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion diseases comprise a set of rare fatal neurological diseases found in humans and other mammals. A prion is a protein capable of converting a normal cellular protein (PrPC) into a prion and thereby propagating an infection. A prion and PrPC differ solely in their conformation. There are differen...

  2. [Fabry disease].

    PubMed

    Stephan, F; Haber, R

    2017-02-01

    Fabry disease, also known as Anderson-Fabry disease or angiokeratoma corporis diffusum universale, is an X-linked recessive form of sphingolipidosis caused by total or partial deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase, alpha-galactosidase A. From the youngest age, it results in a gradual ubiquitous build-up of glycosphingolipids that are not degraded by the missing enzyme. Cutaneous, neurological, nephrologic, cardiac, gastrointestinal, ophthalmological, respiratory, cochleovestibular and haematological involvement are responsible for increased mortality and significant impairment of quality of life in subjects affected by the disease. Angiokeratomas are the most common cutaneous sign of this disease, although they are not specific to it and must be distinguished from angiokeratomas either occurring in isolation or associated with systemic diseases. Other cutaneous signs encountered in this disease include hyperhidrosis, oral lesions, lower limb oedemas, etc. The diagnosis is mainly clinical and should be considered in the presence of a personal and/or familial history; it is confirmed by assay of enzyme activity within leucocytes or by molecular studies. Management is multidisciplinary and involves symptomatic treatment as well as specific treatment, resulting in improved survival and enhanced quality of life for patients presenting the disease. Enzyme replacement therapy with alpha-galactosidase A forms the cornerstone of specific treatment and may be associated with other types of treatments such as galactose and molecular chaperones. Gene therapy is now also used extensively. At present, these marked therapeutic advances, which closely involve dermatologists, could help transform the prognosis for patients presenting Fabry disease.

  3. Chagas disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider if you think you may have Chagas disease. Prevention Insect control with insecticides and houses that are less likely to have high insect populations will help control the spread of the disease. Blood banks in Central and South America screen ...

  4. Krabbe disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Genetic testing MRI of the head Nerve conduction velocity Testing for the GALC gene defect Treatment There is no specific treatment for Krabbe disease. Some people have had a bone marrow transplant in the early stages of the disease, but ...

  5. Gaucher disease

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Tamer M.; Ariganjoye, Rafiu O.; Alsaeed, Gihad I.

    2015-01-01

    We aim to describe an 8-year-old boy with an unusual clinical presentation of Gaucher disease (GD). Gaucher disease is a progressive lysosomal storage disorder due to deficiency of the specific enzyme glucocerebrosidase with varying clinical features, but often involving the monocytes-macrophages systems. This child ran a progressive course with a devastating outcome. Three distinct GD subtypes have been described with varying clinical features based on the presence or absence of neurologic involvement. Gaucher disease diagnosis is obtained via: enzyme activity assay, gene mutation study, bone marrow aspiration in addition to multiple other tests that have been successfully used in diagnosis of cases of GD. Treatment modalities include enzyme replacement treatment, substrate reduction therapy, bone marrow transplantation, blood transfusion, and surgery are available management modalities for GD. Gaucher disease is a chronic disease requiring a multidisciplinary team approach with regular follow up with multiple subspecialties. PMID:26166597

  6. Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Scheltens, Philip; Blennow, Kaj; Breteler, Monique M B; de Strooper, Bart; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Salloway, Stephen; Van der Flier, Wiesje Maria

    2016-07-30

    Although the prevalence of dementia continues to increase worldwide, incidence in the western world might have decreased as a result of better vascular care and improved brain health. Alzheimer's disease, the most prevalent cause of dementia, is still defined by the combined presence of amyloid and tau, but researchers are gradually moving away from the simple assumption of linear causality as proposed in the original amyloid hypothesis. Age-related, protective, and disease-promoting factors probably interact with the core mechanisms of the disease. Amyloid β42, and tau proteins are established core cerebrospinal biomarkers; novel candidate biomarkers include amyloid β oligomers and synaptic markers. MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose PET are established imaging techniques for diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid PET is gaining traction in the clinical arena, but validity and cost-effectiveness remain to be established. Tau PET might offer new insights and be of great help in differential diagnosis and selection of patients for trials. In the search for understanding the disease mechanism and keys to treatment, research is moving increasingly into the earliest phase of disease. Preclinical Alzheimer's disease is defined as biomarker evidence of Alzheimer's pathological changes in cognitively healthy individuals. Patients with subjective cognitive decline have been identified as a useful population in whom to look for preclinical Alzheimer's disease. Moderately positive results for interventions targeting several lifestyle factors in non-demented elderly patients and moderately positive interim results for lowering amyloid in pre-dementia Alzheimer's disease suggest that, ultimately, there will be a future in which specific anti-Alzheimer's therapy will be combined with lifestyle interventions targeting general brain health to jointly combat the disease. In this Seminar, we discuss the main developments in Alzheimer's research.

  7. Transcriptional regulation of the 5-HT1A receptor: implications for mental illness.

    PubMed

    Albert, Paul R

    2012-09-05

    The serotonin-1A (5-HT(1A)) receptor is an abundant post-synaptic 5-HT receptor (heteroreceptor) implicated in regulation of mood, emotion and stress responses and is the major somatodendritic autoreceptor that negatively regulates 5-HT neuronal activity. Based on animal models, an integrated model for opposing roles of pre- and post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors in anxiety and depression phenotypes and response to antidepressants is proposed. Understanding differential transcriptional regulation of pre- versus post-synaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors could provide better tools for their selective regulation. This review examines the transcription factors that regulate brain region-specific basal and stress-induced expression of the 5-HT(1A) receptor gene (Htr1a). A functional polymorphism, rs6295 in the Htr1a promoter region, blocks the function of specific repressors Hes1, Hes5 and Deaf1, resulting in increased 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor expression in animal models and humans. Its association with altered 5-HT(1A) expression, depression, anxiety and antidepressant response are related to genotype frequency in different populations, sample homogeneity, disease outcome measures and severity. Preliminary evidence from gene × environment studies suggests the potential for synergistic interaction of stress-mediated repression of 5-HT(1A) heteroreceptors, and rs6295-induced upregulation of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors. Targeted therapeutics to inhibit 5-HT(1A) autoreceptor expression and induce 5-HT(1A) heteroreceptor expression may ameliorate treatment of anxiety and major depression.

  8. Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Playfer, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a common disabling disease of old age. The diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease is based on clinical signs and has poor sensitivity, with about 25% of patients confidently diagnosed as having the disease actually having other conditions such as multi-system atrophy and other parkinsonism-plus syndromes. Benign essential tremor and arteriosclerotic pseudo-parkinsonism can easily be confused with Parkinson's disease. The cause of Parkinson's disease remains unknown. Speculative research highlights the role of oxidative stress and free radical mediated damage to dopaminergic cells. Parkinson's disease is the one neurodegenerative disorder in which drugs have been demonstrated to be of value. There is now a wide variety of drugs and formulations available, including anticholinergics, amantidine, L-dopa, dopamine agonists including apomorphine, selegiline and soon to be available catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors. Disabling side-effects of treatment, fluctuations, dyskinesias and psychiatric problems require strategic use of the drugs available. There is an increasing potential for neurosurgical intervention. PMID:9196696

  9. Morgellons Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Park, Seon Yong; Moon, Jungyoon; Choe, Yun Seon

    2017-01-01

    Morgellons disease is a rare disease with unknown etiology. Herein, we report the first case of Morgellons disease in Korea. A 30-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of pruritic erythematous patches and erosions on the arms, hands, and chin. She insisted that she had fiber-like materials under her skin, which she had observed through a magnifying device. We performed skin biopsy, and observed a fiber extruding from the dermal side of the specimen. Histopathological examination showed only mild lymphocytic infiltration, and failed to reveal evidence of any microorganism. The polymerase chain reaction for Borrelia burgdorferi was negative in her serum. PMID:28392653

  10. Nekam's disease

    PubMed Central

    Aruna, Chintaginjala; Ramamurthy, D. V. S. B.; Neelima, T.; Bandaru, Haritha

    2016-01-01

    Keratosis lichenoides chronica also known as Nekam's disease is a rare mucocutaneous disorder, characterized clinically by asymptomatic violaceous keratotic papules arranged in linear, reticular, or plaque form usually on the trunk and extremities and histologically by interface dermatitis. The disease is considered rare with only 128 cases being reported in the literature till date and very few from India. We report a case of a 40-year-old man who presented with constellation of features of lichen planus, seborrheic dermatitis, and apthous ulcers, which upon workup was found to be Nekam's disease. PMID:27990390

  11. Kummell disease

    PubMed Central

    Schucany, William G.; Opatowsky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Kummell disease, or avascular necrosis of a vertebral body, presents as vertebral osteonecrosis typically affecting a thoracic vertebra with compression deformity, intravertebral vacuum cleft, and exaggerated kyphosis weeks to months after a minor traumatic injury. This rare disease is increasing in prevalence secondary to an aging population and the associated rise in osteoporosis. Treatment with vertebroplasty or surgical decompression and fusion is often required. We present a classic case of Kummell disease to illustrate the salient features of the condition, with associated imaging findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:23814399

  12. Acid-sensing ion channels 1a (ASIC1a) inhibit neuromuscular transmission in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Lino, Noelia G.; González-Inchauspe, Carlota M. F.; González, Laura E.; Colettis, Natalia; Vattino, Lucas G.; Wunsch, Amanda M.; Wemmie, John A.; Uchitel, Osvaldo D.

    2013-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) open in response to extracellular acidosis. ASIC1a, a particular subtype of these channels, has been described to have a postsynaptic distribution in the brain, being involved not only in ischemia and epilepsy, but also in fear and psychiatric pathologies. High-frequency stimulation of skeletal motor nerve terminals (MNTs) can induce presynaptic pH changes in combination with an acidification of the synaptic cleft, known to contribute to muscle fatigue. Here, we studied the role of ASIC1a channels on neuromuscular transmission. We combined a behavioral wire hanging test with electrophysiology, pharmacological, and immunofluorescence techniques to compare wild-type and ASIC1a lacking mice (ASIC1a −/− knockout). Our results showed that 1) ASIC1a −/− female mice were weaker than wild type, presenting shorter times during the wire hanging test; 2) spontaneous neurotransmitter release was reduced by ASIC1a activation, suggesting a presynaptic location of these channels at individual MNTs; 3) ASIC1a-mediated effects were emulated by extracellular local application of acid saline solutions (pH = 6.0; HEPES/MES-based solution); and 4) immunofluorescence techniques revealed the presence of ASIC1a antigens on MNTs. These results suggest that ASIC1a channels might be involved in controlling neuromuscular transmission, muscle contraction and fatigue in female mice. PMID:24336653

  13. Acid-sensing ion channels 1a (ASIC1a) inhibit neuromuscular transmission in female mice.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Francisco J; Lino, Noelia G; González-Inchauspe, Carlota M F; González, Laura E; Colettis, Natalia; Vattino, Lucas G; Wunsch, Amanda M; Wemmie, John A; Uchitel, Osvaldo D

    2014-02-15

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC) open in response to extracellular acidosis. ASIC1a, a particular subtype of these channels, has been described to have a postsynaptic distribution in the brain, being involved not only in ischemia and epilepsy, but also in fear and psychiatric pathologies. High-frequency stimulation of skeletal motor nerve terminals (MNTs) can induce presynaptic pH changes in combination with an acidification of the synaptic cleft, known to contribute to muscle fatigue. Here, we studied the role of ASIC1a channels on neuromuscular transmission. We combined a behavioral wire hanging test with electrophysiology, pharmacological, and immunofluorescence techniques to compare wild-type and ASIC1a lacking mice (ASIC1a (-/-) knockout). Our results showed that 1) ASIC1a (-/-) female mice were weaker than wild type, presenting shorter times during the wire hanging test; 2) spontaneous neurotransmitter release was reduced by ASIC1a activation, suggesting a presynaptic location of these channels at individual MNTs; 3) ASIC1a-mediated effects were emulated by extracellular local application of acid saline solutions (pH = 6.0; HEPES/MES-based solution); and 4) immunofluorescence techniques revealed the presence of ASIC1a antigens on MNTs. These results suggest that ASIC1a channels might be involved in controlling neuromuscular transmission, muscle contraction and fatigue in female mice.

  14. Meningococcal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blogs Image Library News Conferences Press Releases Radio Public Service Announcements Real Stories, Real People Share Your Story Additional ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) #NoRegrets Public service announcement on the importance of getting vaccinated against both ...

  15. Hashimoto's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... autoimmune thyroid disease. This includes radiation from the atomic bomb in Japan, the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, ... symptoms as normal pregnancy , such as fatigue and weight gain. Yet untreated underactive thyroid during pregnancy may ...

  16. Sever's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... good flexibility while your child is growing. The stretching exercises pictured in the treatment section can lower ... your child has already recovered from Sever's disease, stretching and putting ice on the heel after activity ...

  17. Kawasaki Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... measles, mumps, rubella) and the Varicella (chicken pox) vaccines . Children over 6 months of age should receive the inactivated influenza (flu) vaccine injection. Long-term follow-up: Children treated for Kawasaki Disease who do not develop ...

  18. Digestive Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digestive Diseases in the United States Healthy Moments Radio Listen to health tips from Dr. Rodgers in ... la salud en español Health Statistics Healthy Moments Radio Broadcast Clinical Trials For Health Care Professionals Community ...

  19. Stargardt Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... retina provide vision by conveying information from the visual field to the brain. The macula is responsible ... progression of symptoms in Stargardt disease is variable. Visual acuity (the ability to distinguish details and shape) ...

  20. Graves disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called hyperthyroidism . (An underactive thyroid leads to hypothyroidism .) Graves disease is the most common cause of ... radioactive iodine often will cause an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism). Without getting the correct dosage of thyroid hormone ...

  1. Parkinson's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells make and use a brain chemical called dopamine (say: DOH-puh-meen) to send messages to ... coordinate body movements. When someone has Parkinson's disease, dopamine levels are low. So, the body doesn't ...

  2. Vaginal Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal problems are some of the most common reasons women go to the doctor. They may have ... that affect the vagina include sexually transmitted diseases, vaginal cancer, and vulvar cancer. Treatment of vaginal problems ...

  3. Blount Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... or gained weight very quickly. It's also more common in people of African heritage, kids who started ... worse and can't be traced to an injury — your doctor may consider Blount disease as a ...

  4. Prion Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... nerve cells use for communicating with adjacent cells. Biology & Genetics Scientists are examining how abnormal prion protein ... the abnormal form. Read more about prion diseases biology and genetics Therapeutic Approaches Although there are no ...

  5. Gum Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... away from the teeth. This is known as periodontitis (pronounced: pair-ee-oh-don-TY-tus), a more advanced form of gum disease. With periodontitis, gums become weakened and form pockets around the ...

  6. Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among older people. Dementia is a brain disorder that seriously affects a person's ability to carry out daily activities. AD begins slowly. It first involves the parts of ...

  7. Hirschsprung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... have surgery are fully cured and able to pass bowel movements normally. About Hirschsprung Disease Hirschsprung (HERSH- ... The condition — which prevents bowel movements (stool) to pass through the intestines due to missing nerve cells ...

  8. Huntington disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be associated with this disease: Anxiety, stress, and tension Difficulty swallowing Speech impairment Symptoms in children: Rigidity Slow movements Tremor Exams and Tests The doctor will perform a physical ...

  9. Gaucher disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... with this type may live into adulthood. Symptoms Bleeding because of low platelet count is the most common symptom seen in Gaucher disease. Other symptoms may include: Bone pain and fractures Cognitive impairment (decreased thinking ability) Easy bruising Enlarged ...

  10. Alpers' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rigor & Reproducibility Scientific Resources Animal Models Cell/Tissue/DNA Clinical and Translational Resources Gene Expression Research Reagents ... Definition Alpers' disease is a progressive, neurodevelopmental, mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome characterized by three co-occurring clinical ...

  11. [Lyme disease].

    PubMed

    Portillo, Aránzazu; Santibáñez, Sonia; Oteo, José A

    2014-02-01

    Lyme disease (LD) is a worldwide-distributed multisystemic process caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and transmitted by hard ticks. In fact, it is the most common tick-borne infectious disease in the northern hemisphere. In Spain it is transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks and Borrelia garinii is the genoespecies of B. burgdorferi s.l. mostly involved in our area. LD is known as "the last great imitator" due to the broad clinical spectrum that may cause. Except in the case of erythema migrans (pathognomonic feature of the disease), the remaining clinical manifestations should be confirmed using microbiological tests. This review is intended to provide readers a current vision of the etiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease in our environment. Controversial aspects arising from the use of non-validated microbiological tests that are being used without scientific rigor are highlighted.

  12. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... large bowel ( colon ). Crohn's disease may lead to deep ulcers in the intestinal tract, giving a "cobblestone" ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  13. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis ...

  14. Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... your menstrual period. Your thyroid helps control your menstrual cycle. Too much or too little thyroid hormone can ... Problems getting pregnant. When thyroid disease affects the menstrual cycle, it also affects ovulation. This can make it ...

  15. Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... of CAM are herbal products, chiropractic , acupuncture , and hypnosis . If you have an autoimmune disease, you might ... help you to feel your best. Meditation, self-hypnosis, and guided imagery, are simple relaxation techniques that ...

  16. Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jagdish R; Moots, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic relapsing and remitting vasculitis of unknown aetiology. It has the capacity to affect almost all organ systems because of its potential to involve both arteries and veins of all sizes, resulting in significant organ-threatening morbidity and mortality. Traditionally known as the 'silk road' disease, it has a worldwide occurrence. The aetiopathological mechanisms of disease development in BD remain poorly understood, but genome wide studies show human leukocyte antigen and non-human leukocyte antigen associations. Environmental influences and genetic factors may have a role in the aetiopathogenetic mechanisms that lead to development of the disease, indicating the autoimmune and auto-inflammatory nature of BD. The evidence base for treatment is limited but new knowledge is emerging and current treatment options range from symptomatic treatment, through to non-biological and biological immunosuppressive drugs, to cover the spectrum of clinical manifestations.

  17. Gilbert disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... passed down through families. It affects the way bilirubin is processed by the liver, and causes the ... eat. Exams and Tests A blood test for bilirubin shows changes that occur with Gilbert disease. The ...

  18. [Wilson disease].

    PubMed

    Huster, D; Kühn, H-J; Mössner, J; Caca, K

    2005-07-01

    Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of human copper metabolism that leads to neurological symptoms and hepatic damage of variable degree. The affected gene ATP7B encodes a hepatic copper transport protein, which plays a key role in human copper metabolism. Clinical symptoms are complex with neurologic symptoms such as tremor, dysarthria, psychiatric disorders etc., predominant hepatic disease or mixed forms. Copper deposition in the liver results in acute liver failure, chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Early recognition by means of clinical, biochemical or genetic examination and early initiation of therapy with chelators or zinc-salts are essential for outcome and prognosis. Liver transplantation is an alternative in cases with acute and chronic liver failure and cures the hepatic disease. Frequent monitoring of drug therapy, adverse effects, and compliance is critical for the prognosis of the disease.

  19. Huntington's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... relatively simple tests in the office to judge: Motor symptoms Reflexes Muscle strength Muscle tone Coordination Balance ... drinking utensils adapted for people with limited fine motor skills Managing Huntington's disease is demanding on the ...

  20. Lyme Disease

    PubMed Central

    Burdge, David R.; O'Hanlon, David

    1992-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by the tick-transmitted spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. To date, the only known endemic focus of Lyme disease in Canada is Long Point, Ont. A national case definition for surveillance purposes, consensus statement regarding laboratory diagnosis, and treatment guidelines have recently been developed in an attempt to standardize the approach to surveillance, diagnosis, and management of Lyme borreliosis in Canada. PMID:21221399

  1. [Ledderhose's disease].

    PubMed

    Bardelli, M; D'Arienzo, M; Veneziani, C

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the clinical appearance of Ledderhose disease and emphasize the association with Dupuytren disease. They report on a series of patients treated at the 2nd Orthopedic Unit of University of Florence and describe the operating technique used. They believe that the procedure of removal of nodules must always be performed in association with careful exeresis of normal tissue, employing total aponeurectomy only in revision surgery.

  2. Aberrant expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A (ALDH1A) subfamily genes in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is a common feature of T-lineage tumours.

    PubMed

    Longville, Brooke A C; Anderson, Denise; Welch, Mathew D; Kees, Ursula R; Greene, Wayne K

    2015-01-01

    The class 1A aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1A) subfamily of genes encode enzymes that function at the apex of the retinoic acid (RA) signalling pathway. We detected aberrant expression of ALDH1A genes, particularly ALDH1A2, in a majority (72%) of primary paediatric T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) specimens. ALDH1A expression was almost exclusive to T-lineage, but not B-lineage, ALL. To determine whether ALDH1A expression may have relevance to T-ALL cell growth and survival, the effect of inhibiting ALDH1A function was measured on a panel of human ALL cell lines. This revealed that T-ALL proliferation had a higher sensitivity to modulation of ALDH1A activity and RA signalling as compared to ALL cell lines of B-lineage. Consistent with these findings, the genes most highly correlated with ALDH1A2 expression were involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Evidence that such genes may be targets of regulation via RA signalling initiated by ALDH1A activity was provided by the TNFRSF10B gene, encoding the apoptotic death receptor TNFRSF10B (also termed TRAIL-R2), which negatively correlated with ALDH1A2 and showed elevated transcription following treatment of T-ALL cell lines with the ALDH1A inhibitor citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal). These data indicate that ALDH1A expression is a common event in T-ALL and supports a role for these enzymes in the pathobiology of this disease.

  3. Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Fabry disease, an X-linked disorder of glycosphingolipids that is caused by mutations of the GLA gene that codes for α-galactosidase A, leads to dysfunction of many cell types and includes a systemic vasculopathy. As a result, patients have a markedly increased risk of developing ischemic stroke, small-fiber peripheral neuropathy, cardiac dysfunction and chronic kidney disease. Virtually all complications of Fabry disease are non-specific in nature and clinically indistinguishable from similar abnormalities that occur in the context of more common disorders in the general population. Recent studies suggested a much higher incidence of mutations of the GLA gene, suggesting that this disorder is under-diagnosed. However, some of the gene variants may be benign. Although the etiology of Fabry disease has been known for many years, the mechanism by which the accumulating α-D-galactosyl moieties cause this multi organ disorder has only recently been studied and is yet to be completely elucidated. Specific therapy for Fabry disease has been developed in the last few years but its role in the management of the disorder is still being investigated. Fortunately, standard 'non-specific' medical and surgical therapy is effective in slowing deterioration or compensating for organ failure in patients with Fabry disease.

  4. Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Bates, Gillian P; Dorsey, Ray; Gusella, James F; Hayden, Michael R; Kay, Chris; Leavitt, Blair R; Nance, Martha; Ross, Christopher A; Scahill, Rachael I; Wetzel, Ronald; Wild, Edward J; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2015-04-23

    Huntington disease is devastating to patients and their families - with autosomal dominant inheritance, onset typically in the prime of adult life, progressive course, and a combination of motor, cognitive and behavioural features. The disease is caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat (of variable length) in HTT, the gene that encodes the protein huntingtin. In mutation carriers, huntingtin is produced with abnormally long polyglutamine sequences that confer toxic gains of function and predispose the protein to fragmentation, resulting in neuronal dysfunction and death. In this Primer, we review the epidemiology of Huntington disease, noting that prevalence is higher than previously thought, geographically variable and increasing. We describe the relationship between CAG repeat length and clinical phenotype, as well as the concept of genetic modifiers of the disease. We discuss normal huntingtin protein function, evidence for differential toxicity of mutant huntingtin variants, theories of huntingtin aggregation and the many different mechanisms of Huntington disease pathogenesis. We describe the genetic and clinical diagnosis of the condition, its clinical assessment and the multidisciplinary management of symptoms, given the absence of effective disease-modifying therapies. We review past and present clinical trials and therapeutic strategies under investigation, including impending trials of targeted huntingtin-lowering drugs and the progress in development of biomarkers that will support the next generation of trials. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/hPMENh.

  5. Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Burillo, Almudena; Bouza, Emilio

    2016-01-23

    Since first identified in early 1977, bacteria of the genus Legionella are recognised as a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and a rare cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia. Legionella bacteria multisystem manifestations mainly affect susceptible patients as a result of age, underlying debilitating conditions, or immunosuppression. Water is the major natural reservoir for Legionella, and the pathogen is found in many different natural and artificial aquatic environments such as cooling towers or water systems in buildings, including hospitals. The term given to the severe pneumonia and systemic infection caused by Legionella bacteria is Legionnaires' disease. Over time, the prevalence of legionellosis or Legionnaires' disease has risen, which might indicate a greater awareness and reporting of the disease. Advances in microbiology have led to a better understanding of the ecological niches and pathogenesis of the condition. Legionnaires' disease is not always suspected because of its non-specific symptoms, and the diagnostic tests routinely available do not offer the desired sensitivity. However, effective antibiotics are available. Disease notification systems provide the basis for initiating investigations and limiting the scale and recurrence of outbreaks. This report reviews our current understanding of this disease.

  6. Genomic and proteomic characterization of ARID1A chromatin remodeller in ampullary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nastase, Anca; Teo, Jin Yao; Heng, Hong Lee; Ng, Cedric Chuan Young; Myint, Swe Swe; Rajasegaran, Vikneswari; Loh, Jia Liang; Lee, Ser Yee; Ooi, London Lucien; Chung, Alexander Yaw Fui; Chow, Pierce Kah Hoe; Cheow, Peng Chung; Wan, Wei Keat; Azhar, Rafy; Khoo, Avery; Xiu, Sam Xin; Alkaff, Syed Muhammad Fahmy; Cutcutache, Ioana; Lim, Jing Quan; Ong, Choon Kiat; Herlea, Vlad; Dima, Simona; Duda, Dan G; Teh, Bin Tean; Popescu, Irinel; Lim, Tony Kiat Hon

    2017-01-01

    AT rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) is one of the most commonly mutated genes in a broad variety of tumors. The mechanisms that involve ARID1A in ampullary cancer progression remains elusive. Here, we evaluated the frequency of ARID1A and KRAS mutations in ampullary adenomas and adenocarcinomas and in duodenal adenocarcinomas from two cohorts of patients from Singapore and Romania, correlated with clinical and pathological tumor features, and assessed the functional role of ARID1A. In the ampullary adenocarcinomas, the frequency of KRAS and ARID1A mutations was 34.7% and 8.2% respectively, with a loss or reduction of ARID1A protein in 17.2% of the cases. ARID1A mutational status was significantly correlated with ARID1A protein expression level (P=0.023). There was a significant difference in frequency of ARID1A mutation between Romania and Singapore (2.7% versus 25%, P=0.04), suggestive of different etiologies. One somatic mutation was detected in the ampullary adenoma group. In vitro studies indicated the tumor suppressive role of ARID1A. Our results warrant further investigation of this chromatin remodeller as a potential early biomarker of the disease, as well as identification of therapeutic targets in ARID1A mutated ampullary cancers.

  7. Joint Precision Approach and Landing System Increment 1A (JPALS Inc 1A)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-238 Joint Precision Approach and Landing System Increment 1A (JPALS Inc 1A) As of FY 2017...PM - Program Manager POE - Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service

  8. Heightened aggressive behavior in mice deficient in aldo-keto reductase 1a (Akr1a).

    PubMed

    Homma, Takujiro; Akihara, Ryusuke; Okano, Satoshi; Shichiri, Mototada; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Miyata, Satoshi; Nakajima, Osamu; Fujii, Junichi

    2017-02-15

    Aldehyde reductase (Akr1a) is involved in the synthesis of ascorbic acid (AsA) which may play a role in social behavior. In the current study, we performed analyses on Akr1a-deficient (Akr1a(-/-)) mice that synthesize about 10% as much AsA as wild-type mice from the viewpoint of intermale aggression. The use of the resident-intruder test revealed that the Akr1a(-/-) mice exhibited more aggressive phenotypes than wild-type control mice. Unexpectedly, however, the oral administration of additional AsA failed to reduce the aggressive behavior of Akr1a(-/-) mice, suggesting that the heightened aggression was independent of AsA biosynthesis. The findings also show that the plasma levels of corticosterone, but not serotonin and testosterone, were increased in the absence of Akr1a in mice, suggesting that the mice were highly stressed. These results suggest that Akr1a might be involved in the metabolism of steroids and other carbonyl-containing compounds and, hence, the absence of Akr1a results in heightened aggression via a malfunction in a metabolic pathway.

  9. 5-HT(1A) receptors and memory.

    PubMed

    Meneses, Alfredo; Perez-Garcia, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    The study of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) systems has benefited from the identification, classification and cloning of multiple 5-HT receptors (5-HT(1)-5-HT(7)). Increasing evidence suggests that 5-HT pathways, reuptake site/transporter complex and 5-HT receptors represent a strategic distribution for learning and memory. A key question still remaining is whether 5-HT markers (e.g., receptors) are directly or indirectly contributing to the physiological and pharmacological basis of memory and its pathogenesis or, rather, if they represent protective or adaptable mechanisms (at least in initial stages). In the current paper, the major aim is to revise recent advances regarding mammalian 5-HT(1A) receptors in light of their physiological, pathophysiological and therapeutic implications in memory. An attempt is made to identify and discuss sources of discrepancies by employing an analytic approach to examine the nature and degree of difficulty of behavioral tasks used, as well as implicating other factors (for example, brain areas, training time or duration, and drug administration) which might offer new insights into the understanding and interpretation of these data. In this context, 8-OH-DPAT deserves special attention since for many years it has been the more selective 5-HT drug and, hence, more frequently used. As 5-HT(1A) receptors are key components of serotonergic signaling, investigation of their memory mechanisms and action sites and the conditions under which they might operate, could yield valuable insights. Moreover, selective drugs with agonists, neutral antagonists or inverse agonist properties for 5-HT(1A) (and 5-HT(7)) receptors may constitute a new therapeutic opportunity for learning and memory disorders.

  10. Kidney Injury Molecule-1: A Translational Journey

    PubMed Central

    Bonventre, Joseph V.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, also named TIM-1 and HAVCR-1) was identified as the most highly upregulated protein in the proximal tubule of the kidney after injury. This protein is present with injury in multiple species including man, and also after a large number of acute and chronic insults to the kidney. It is a type-1 membrane protein whose ectodomain is released into the lumen of the tubule. The ectodomain is heavily glycosylated and stable and appears in the urine after injury. It has been qualified by the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for preclinical assessment of nephrotoxicity and on a case-by-case basis for clinical evaluation. As a biomarker in humans, its utility has been demonstrated in acute and chronic injury and in renal cell carcinoma, a condition similar to injury, where there is dedifferentiation of the epithelial cell. KIM-1 is a phosphatidylserine receptor which recognizes apoptotic cells directing them to lysosomes. It also serves as a receptor for oxidized lipoproteins and hence is important for uptake of components of the tubular lumen which may be immunomodulatory and/or toxic to the cell. KIM-1 is unique in being the first molecule, not also present on myeloid cells, that transforms kidney proximal epithelial cells into semi-professional phagocytes. Data suggest that KIM-1 expression is protective during early injury, whereas in chronic disease states, prolonged KIM-1 expression may be maladaptive and may represent a target for therapy of chronic kidney disease. PMID:25125746

  11. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    PubMed

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management.

  12. Inherited focal, episodic neuropathies: hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy.

    PubMed

    Chance, Phillip F

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP; also called tomaculous neuropathy) is an autosomal-dominant disorder that produces a painless episodic, recurrent, focal demyelinating neuropathy. HNPP generally develops during adolescence, and may cause attacks of numbness, muscular weakness, and atrophy. Peroneal palsies, carpal tunnel syndrome, and other entrapment neuropathies may be frequent manifestations of HNPP. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities may be reduced in clinically affected patients, as well as in asymptomatic gene carriers. The histopathological changes observed in peripheral nerves of HNPP patients include segmental demyelination and tomaculous or "sausage-like" formations. Mild overlap of clinical features with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 1 (CMT1) may lead patients with HNPP to be misdiagnosed as having CMT1. HNPP and CMT1 are both demyelinating neuropathies, however, their clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological features are quite distinct. HNPP is most frequently associated with a 1.4-Mb pair deletion on chromosome 17p12. A duplication of the identical region leads to CMT1A. Both HNPP and CMT1A result from a dosage effect of the PMP22 gene, which is contained within the deleted/duplicated region. This is reflected in reduced mRNA and protein levels in sural nerve biopsy samples from HNPP patients. Treatment for HNPP consists of preventative and symptom-easing measures. Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA; also called familial brachial plexus neuropathy) is an autosomal-dominant disorder causing episodes of paralysis and muscle weakness initiated by severe pain. Individuals with HNA may suffer repeated episodes of intense pain, paralysis, and sensory disturbances in an affected limb. The onset of HNA is at birth or later in childhood with prognosis for recovery usually favorable; however, persons with HNA may have permanent residual neurological dysfunction following attack(s). Episodes are often

  13. Human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a peptides do not reliably suppress anti-HPA-1a responses using a humanized severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D J; Eastlake, J L; Kumpel, B M

    2014-04-01

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) occurs most frequently when human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a-positive fetal platelets are destroyed by maternal HPA-1a immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies. Pregnancies at risk are treated by administration of high-dose intravenous Ig (IVIG) to women, but this is expensive and often not well tolerated. Peptide immunotherapy may be effective for ameliorating some allergic and autoimmune diseases. The HPA-1a/1b polymorphism is Leu/Pro33 on β3 integrin (CD61), and the anti-HPA-1a response is restricted to HPA-1b1b and HLA-DRB3*0101-positive pregnant women with an HPA-1a-positive fetus. We investigated whether or not HPA-1a antigen-specific peptides that formed the T cell epitope could reduce IgG anti-HPA-1a responses, using a mouse model we had developed previously. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in blood donations from HPA-1a-immunized women were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with peptides and HPA-1a-positive platelets. Human anti-HPA-1a in murine plasma was quantitated at intervals up to 15 weeks. HPA-1a-specific T cells in PBMC were identified by proliferation assays. Using PBMC of three donors who had little T cell reactivity to HPA-1a peptides in vitro, stimulation of anti-HPA-1a responses by these peptides occurred in vivo. However, with a second donation from one of these women which, uniquely, had high HPA-1a-specific T cell proliferation in vitro, marked suppression of the anti-HPA-1a response by HPA-1a peptides occurred in vivo. HPA-1a peptide immunotherapy in this model depended upon reactivation of HPA-1a T cell responses in the donor. For FNAIT, we suggest that administration of antigen-specific peptides to pregnant women might cause either enhancement or reduction of pathogenic antibodies.

  14. Human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a peptides do not reliably suppress anti-HPA-1a responses using a humanized severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, D J; Eastlake, J L; Kumpel, B M

    2014-01-01

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) occurs most frequently when human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a-positive fetal platelets are destroyed by maternal HPA-1a immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies. Pregnancies at risk are treated by administration of high-dose intravenous Ig (IVIG) to women, but this is expensive and often not well tolerated. Peptide immunotherapy may be effective for ameliorating some allergic and autoimmune diseases. The HPA-1a/1b polymorphism is Leu/Pro33 on β3 integrin (CD61), and the anti-HPA-1a response is restricted to HPA-1b1b and HLA-DRB3*0101-positive pregnant women with an HPA-1a-positive fetus. We investigated whether or not HPA-1a antigen-specific peptides that formed the T cell epitope could reduce IgG anti-HPA-1a responses, using a mouse model we had developed previously. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in blood donations from HPA-1a-immunized women were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with peptides and HPA-1a-positive platelets. Human anti-HPA-1a in murine plasma was quantitated at intervals up to 15 weeks. HPA-1a-specific T cells in PBMC were identified by proliferation assays. Using PBMC of three donors who had little T cell reactivity to HPA-1a peptides in vitro, stimulation of anti-HPA-1a responses by these peptides occurred in vivo. However, with a second donation from one of these women which, uniquely, had high HPA-1a-specific T cell proliferation in vitro, marked suppression of the anti-HPA-1a response by HPA-1a peptides occurred in vivo. HPA-1a peptide immunotherapy in this model depended upon reactivation of HPA-1a T cell responses in the donor. For FNAIT, we suggest that administration of antigen-specific peptides to pregnant women might cause either enhancement or reduction of pathogenic antibodies. PMID:24261689

  15. Angiotensin type 1a receptor deficiency decreases amyloid β-protein generation and ameliorates brain amyloid pathology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junjun; Liu, Shuyu; Matsumoto, Yukino; Murakami, Saki; Sugakawa, Yusuke; Kami, Ayako; Tanabe, Chiaki; Maeda, Tomoji; Michikawa, Makoto; Komano, Hiroto; Zou, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by neuronal loss and cerebral accumulation of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) and lowering the generation of Aβ is a pivotal approach in the strategy of Alzheimer’s disease treatment. Midlife hypertension is a major risk factor for the future onset of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease and the use of some antihypertensive drugs may decrease the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. However, it is largely unknown how the blood pressure regulation system is associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Here we found that the deficiency of angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1a), a key receptor for regulating blood pressure, significantly decreased Aβ generation and amyloid plaque formation in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. The lack of AT1a inhibited the endocleavage of presenilin-1 (PS1), which is essential for γ-secretase complex formation and Aβ generation. Notably, the ligand of AT1a, angiotensin II, enhanced Aβ generation, PS1 endocleavage and γ-secretase complex formation. Our results suggest that AT1a activation is closely associated with Aβ generation and brain amyloid accumulation by regulating γ-secretase complex formation. Thus, removal of life style factors or stresses that stimulate AT1a to elevate blood pressure may decrease Aβ generation and brain amyloid accumulation, thereby preventing the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26154270

  16. Shiga Toxin (Stx) Type 1a Reduces the Oral Toxicity of Stx Type 2a

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Lisa M.; Melton-Celsa, Angela R.; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Shiga toxin (Stx) is the primary virulence factor of Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). STEC can produce Stx1a and/or Stx2a, which are antigenically distinct. However, Stx2a-producing STEC are associated with more severe disease than strains producing both Stx1a and Stx2a. Methods and Results. To address the hypothesis that the reason for the association of Stx2a with more severe disease is because Stx2a crosses the intestinal barrier with greater efficiency that Stx1a, we covalently labeled Stx1a and Stx2a with Alexa Fluor 750 and determined the ex vivo fluorescent intensity of murine systemic organs after oral intoxication. Surprisingly, both Stxs exhibited similar dissemination patterns and accumulated in the kidneys. We next cointoxicated mice to determine whether Stx1a could impede Stx2a. Cointoxication resulted in increased survival and an extended mean time to death, compared with intoxication with Stx2a only. The survival benefit was dose dependent, with the greatest effect observed when 5 times more Stx1a than Stx2a was delivered, and was amplified when Stx1a was delivered 3 hours prior to Stx2a. Cointoxication with an Stx1a active site toxoid also reduced Stx2a toxicity. Conclusions. These studies suggest that Stx1a reduces Stx2a-mediated toxicity, a finding that may explain why STEC that produce only Stx2a are associated with more severe disease than strains producing Stx1a and Stx2a. PMID:26743841

  17. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  18. (1) (1)A' ← X (1)A' Electronic Transition of Protonated Coronene at 15 K.

    PubMed

    Rice, C A; Hardy, F-X; Gause, O; Maier, J P

    2014-03-20

    The electronic spectrum of protonated coronene in the gas phase was measured at vibrational and rotational temperatures of ∼15 K in a 22-pole ion trap. The (1) (1)A' ← X (1)A' electronic transition of this larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cation has an origin band maximum at 14 383.8 ± 0.2 cm(-1) and shows distinct vibrational structure in the (1) (1)A' state. Neither the origin nor the strongest absorptions to the blue coincide with known diffuse interstellar bands, implying that protonated coronene is not a carrier.

  19. MUC1: A Novel Metabolic Master Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Mehla, Kamiya; Singh, Pankaj K.

    2014-01-01

    MUC1, a type I transmembrane protein, is significantly overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in tumors of epithelial origin. By virtue of its aberrant signaling due to loss of apical-basal polarity in cancer, MUC1 regulates the metabolite flux at multiple levels. Serving as a transcriptional co-activator, MUC1 directly regulates expression of metabolic genes. By regulating receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, MUC1 facilitates production of biosynthetic intermediates required for cell growth. Also, via direct interactions, MUC1 modulates the activity/stability of enzymes and transcription factors that directly regulate metabolic functions. Additionally, by modulation of autophagy, levels of reactive oxygen species, and metabolite flux, MUC1 facilitates cancer cell survival under hypoxic and nutrient-deprived conditions. This article provides a comprehensive review of recent literature on novel metabolic functions of MUC1. PMID:24418575

  20. Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, E C; Calne, D B

    1989-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease there is degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra, with consequent depletion of the neurotransmitter dopamine. The triad of tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia is the clinical hallmark. Drugs currently used for palliative therapy fall into three categories: anticholinergic agents, dopamine precursors (levodopa combined with extracerebral decarboxylase inhibitors) and artificial dopamine agonists. It has been argued, on theoretical grounds, that some drugs slow the progress of Parkinson's disease, although no firm evidence has supported this. Treatment must be individualized, and more than one type of drug can be given concurrently after a careful build-up in dosage. We review the adverse effects of various drugs and consider new developments such as slow-release preparations, selective D-1 and D-2 agonists and transplants of dopaminergic cells into the brain. The treatment of Parkinson's disease can be demanding, rewarding and sometimes frustrating, but it remains a most challenging exercise in pharmacotherapy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:2563667

  1. Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Crohn's disease is a chronic condition of the gastrointestinal tract. It is characterised by transmural, granulomatous inflammation that occurs in a discontinuous pattern, with a tendency to form fistulae. The cause is unknown but may depend on interactions between genetic predisposition, environmental triggers, and mucosal immunity. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of medical treatments to induce remission in adults with Crohn's disease? What are the effects of surgical interventions to induce and maintain remission in adults with small-bowel Crohn's disease? What are the effects of surgical interventions to induce remission in adults with colonic Crohn's disease? What are the effects of medical interventions to maintain remission in adults with Crohn's disease; and to maintain remission following surgery? What are the effects of lifestyle interventions to maintain remission in adults with Crohn's disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 93 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aminosalicylates, antibiotics, azathioprine/mercaptopurine, ciclosporin, corticosteroids (oral), enteral nutrition, fish oil, infliximab, methotrexate, probiotics, resection, segmental colectomy, smoking cessation, and strictureplasty. PMID:21524318

  2. Celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, Stefano

    2003-03-01

    Celiac disease is a genetically determined, permanent intolerance to gluten, a protein complex found in wheat, rye and barley. As many as 1:163 people are affected by it, but only a small percentage are aware of the condition, which begins either in infancy, with gastrointestinal symptoms, or in childhood and later years with non-Gl signs and symptoms, such as fatigue, depression, anxiety, anemia, stunted growth, and delayed puberty. A strong association with Type 1 diabetes and Down syndrome is also found, thus making screening mandatory for these subjects. Celiac disease is often entirely clinically silent, yet it must be detected in order to prevent long-term complications.

  3. [Whipple's disease].

    PubMed

    Marth, T

    2007-01-10

    Whipple's disease is a rare infectious disorder affecting mostly middle aged men. The causative organism, Tropheryma whipplei, recently has been cultivated and phylogenetically identified as an actinomycete. The rareness of the disease despite the ubiquitous occurence of T. whipplei presumably is related to a predisposing defect in cellular immunity. The diagnosis usually can be established by small bowel biopsy, but is frequently delayed due to protean clinical manifestations. The initiation of antibiotic treatment in most cases results in clinical remission, however, a significant number of patients is refractory to antimicrobial therapy or has a relapsing course.

  4. The role of combined SNV and CNV burden in patients with distal symmetric polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Pehlivan, Davut; Beck, Christine R.; Okamoto, Yuji; Harel, Tamar; Akdemir, Zeynep H.C.; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Withers, Marjorie A.; Goksungur, Meryem Tuba; Carvalho, Claudia M.B.; Czesnik, Dirk; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Wiszniewski, Wojciech; Muzny, Donna M.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Sereda, Michael W.; Lupski, James R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders of the peripheral nervous system. Copy-number variants (CNVs) contribute significantly to CMT, as duplication of PMP22 underlies the majority of CMT1 cases. We hypothesized that CNVs and/or single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) might exist in patients with CMT with an unknown molecular genetic etiology. Methods Two hundred patients with CMT, negative for both SNV mutations in several CMT genes and for CNVs involving PMP22, were screened for CNVs by high-resolution oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. Whole-exome sequencing was conducted on individuals with rare, potentially pathogenic CNVs. Results Putatively causative CNVs were identified in five subjects (~2.5%); four of the five map to known neuropathy genes. Breakpoint sequencing revealed Alu-Alu-mediated junctions as a predominant contributor. Exome sequencing identified MFN2 SNVs in two of the individuals. Conclusion Neuropathy-associated CNV outside of the PMP22 locus is rare in CMT. Nevertheless, there is potential clinical utility in testing for CNVs and exome sequencing in CMT cases negative for the CMT1A duplication. These findings suggest that complex phenotypes including neuropathy can potentially be caused by a combination of SNVs and CNVs affecting more than one disease-associated locus and contributing to a mutational burden. PMID:26378787

  5. A brief review of recent Charcot-Marie-Tooth research and priorities

    PubMed Central

    Ekins, Sean; Litterman, Nadia K.; Arnold, Renée J.G.; Burgess, Robert W.; Freundlich, Joel S.; Gray, Steven J.; Higgins, Joseph J.; Langley, Brett; Willis, Dianna E.; Notterpek, Lucia; Pleasure, David; Sereda, Michael W.; Moore, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This brief review of current research progress on Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a summary of discussions initiated at the Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation (HNF) scientific advisory board meeting on November 7, 2014. It covers recent published and unpublished in vitro and in vivo research. We discuss recent promising preclinical work for CMT1A, the development of new biomarkers, the characterization of different animal models, and the analysis of the frequency of gene mutations in patients with CMT. We also describe how progress in related fields may benefit CMT therapeutic development, including the potential of gene therapy and stem cell research. We also discuss the potential to assess and improve the quality of life of CMT patients. This summary of CMT research identifies some of the gaps which may have an impact on upcoming clinical trials. We provide some priorities for CMT research and areas which HNF can support. The goal of this review is to inform the scientific community about ongoing research and to avoid unnecessary overlap, while also highlighting areas ripe for further investigation. The general collaborative approach we have taken may be useful for other rare neurological diseases. PMID:25901280

  6. Total syntheses of disulphated glycosphingolipid SB1a and the related monosulphated SM1a

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Haruka; Tamai, Hideki; Gao, Chao; Imamura, Akihiro; Ando, Hiromune; Ishida, Hideharu; Feizi, Ten; Kiso, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Total syntheses of two natural sulphoglycolipids, disulphated glycosphingolipid SB1a and the structurally related monosulphated SM1a, are described. They have common glycan sequences and ceramide moiety and are associated with human epithelial carcinomas. The syntheses featured efficient glycan assembly and the glucosyl ceramide cassette as a versatile building block. The binding of the synthetic sulphoglycolipids by the carcinoma-specific monoclonal antibody AE3 was investigated using carbohydrate microarray technology. PMID:26399908

  7. Heme Oxygenase-1: A Metabolic Nike

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Zsuzsanna; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Bulmer, Andrew C.; Otterbein, Leo E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Heme degradation, which was described more than 30 years ago, is still very actively explored with many novel discoveries on its role in various disease models every year. Recent Advances: The heme oxygenases (HO) are metabolic enzymes that utilize NADPH and oxygen to break apart the heme moiety liberating biliverdin (BV), carbon monoxide (CO), and iron. Heme that is derived from hemoproteins can be toxic to the cells and if not removed immediately, it causes cell apoptosis and local inflammation. Elimination of heme from the milieu enables generation of three products that influences numerous metabolic changes in the cell. Critical Issues: CO has profound effects on mitochondria and cellular respiration and other hemoproteins to which it can bind and affect their function, while BV and bilirubin (BR), the substrate and product of BV, reductase, respectively, are potent antioxidants. Sequestration of iron into ferritin and its recycling in the tissues is a part of the homeodynamic processes that control oxidation-reduction in cellular metabolism. Further, heme is an important component of a number of metabolic enzymes, and, therefore, HO-1 plays an important role in the modulation of cellular bioenergetics. Future Directions: In this review, we describe the cross-talk between heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its products with other metabolic pathways. HO-1, which we have labeled Nike, the goddess who personified victory, dictates triumph over pathophysiologic conditions, including diabetes, ischemia, and cancer. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 1709–1722. PMID:24180257

  8. Two patients with duplication of 17p11.2: The reciprocal of the Smith-Magenis syndrome deletion?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A. |; Phelan, M.C.; Rogers, R.C.

    1996-05-17

    J.M. and H.G. are two unrelated male patients with developmental delay. Cytogenetic analysis detected a duplication of 17p11.2 in both patients. The extent of the duplicated region was determined using single copy DNA probes: cen-D17S58-D17S29-D17S258-D17S71-D17S445-D17S122-tel. Four of the six markers, D17S29, D17S258, D17S71, and D17S445, were duplicated by dosage analysis. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of H.G., using cosmids for locus D17S29, confirmed the duplication in 17p11.2. Because the deletion that causes the Smith-Magenis syndrome involves the same region of 17p11.2 as the duplication in these patients, the mechanism may be similar to that proposed for the reciprocal deletion/ duplication event observed in Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1A disease (CMT1A). 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Behcet's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... and inflammation in the central nervous system and digestive organs. Vascular System Some people with Behçet’s disease have blood clots ... colon that causes diarrhea, cramps, and weight loss. Digestive tract. The body system that breaks down food. The digestive tract includes ...

  10. Celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Green, Peter H R; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Greywoode, Ruby

    2015-05-01

    This review will focus on the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of celiac disease (CD). Given an increasing awareness of gluten-related disorders, medical professionals of all varieties are encountering patients with a diagnosis of CD or who are thought to have food intolerance to gluten. The prevalence of CD among the general population is estimated to be 1% in Western nations, and there is growing evidence for underdiagnosis of the disease, especially in non-Western nations that were traditionally believed to be unaffected. The development of serologic markers specific to CD has revolutionized the ability both to diagnose and monitor patients with the disease. Additionally, understanding of the clinical presentations of CD has undergone a major shift over the past half century. Although it is well understood that CD develops in genetically predisposed subjects exposed to gluten, the extent of other environmental factors in the pathogenesis of the disease is an area of continued research. Currently, the main therapeutic intervention for CD is a gluten-free diet; however, novel nondietary agents are under active investigation. Future areas of research should also help us understand the relationship of CD to other gluten-related disorders.

  11. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults Making Your Wishes Known Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Prostate Diseases Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Tools & Tips ...

  12. Quincke's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Ladan; Miller, Anthony; Ashurst, John V.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana smoke can cause thermal injury, and since legalization and increased use of marijuana in our society, differentiating, diagnosing, and managing this condition have become mandatory. A case of a 28-year-old male with Quincke's disease secondary to marijuana inhalation is presented. PMID:28217604

  13. Raynaud's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, E C; Dunger, D B; Dillon, M J

    1985-01-01

    We report five children who presented with Raynaud's disease in whom we could find no clinical, haematological, or immunological evidence of a collagen disorder. Oral phenoxybenzamine proved useful for maintenance treatment in most, with infusions of prostacyclin, nitroprusside, and ketanserin during acute attacks. PMID:3160308

  14. Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Toyooka, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    Fabry disease results from deficient activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase A and progressive lysosomal deposition of globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) in cells throughout the body. The main neurological presentations of Fabry disease patients are painful neuropathy, hypohidrosis, and stroke. Fabry neuropathy is characterized as a length-dependent peripheral neuropathy affecting mainly the small myelinated (Aδ) fibers and unmyelinated (C) fibers. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has been shown to have some positive effects on the reduction of neuropathic pain, the improvement of detection threshold for thermal sensation, and sweat function. On the contrary, the effect of ERT on the central nervous system has not been established. Early initiation of ERT before irreversible organ failure is extremely important, and alternative therapeutic approaches are currently being explored. Heterozygotes suffer from peripheral neuropathy at a higher rate than previously shown, significant multisystemic disease, and severely decreased quality of life. As well as being carriers, heterozygotes also display symptoms of Fabry disease, and should be carefully monitored and given adequate therapy.

  15. Graves' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... after radioiodine therapy as a supplemental treatment. Side effects of both drugs include rash, joint pain, liver failure or a decrease in disease-fighting white blood cells. Methimazole isn't used to treat pregnant women in the first trimester because of the slight ...

  16. Infectious Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... that contain genetic material, and use your own cells to multiply Fungi - primitive plants, like mushrooms or mildew Protozoa - one-celled animals that use other living things for food and a place to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  17. Autoinflammatory Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Behçet’s Disease Progress and Promise Key Words The Immune System When your body is attacked – perhaps by a virus or other germs – your immune system defends you. It “sees” and kills the germs ...

  18. Infectious Diseases,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-29

    was of importance in arresting the disease. On the other hand, tuberculous patients may develop a sarcoidosis -like hypersensitivity to vitamin D; if...action of vitamin D and become hypercalcemic, as in sarcoidosis . Normal quantities of vitamins and other nutrients help to maintain host resistance at

  19. Mitochondrial Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... are defective, the cells do not have enough energy. The unused oxygen and fuel molecules build up in the cells and cause damage. The symptoms of mitochondrial disease can vary. It depends on how ... high energy needs, so muscular and neurological problems are common. ...

  20. Sunflower diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower disease chapter is part of the Sunflower Oilseeds Monograph, which will be a new publication in the AOCS Oilseeds Monograph series. The monograph contains an overview and history of sunflower crop development, how the oilseed is cultivated, how the oilseed is produced, how the seed is...

  1. Parasitic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... You can get them from contaminated food or water, a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites range in size from tiny, ... Contaminated water supplies can lead to Giardia infections. Cats can ...

  2. Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  3. SCL/TAL1: a multi-faceted regulator from blood development to disease.

    PubMed

    Porcher, Catherine; Chagraoui, Hedia; Kristiansen, Maiken S

    2017-02-08

    SCL/TAL1 is an essential transcription factor in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. It is required for specification of the blood program during development, adult hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) survival and quiescence, and terminal maturation of select blood lineages. Following ectopic expression, SCL contributes to oncogenesis in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Remarkably, SCL's activities are all mediated through nucleation of a core quaternary protein complex (SCL:E-protein:LMO2:LDB1) and dynamic recruitment of conserved combinatorial associations of additional regulators in a lineage- and stage-specific context. The finely tuned control of SCL's regulatory functions (lineage priming, activation and repression of gene expression programs) provides insight into fundamental developmental and transcriptional mechanisms, and highlights mechanistic parallels between normal and oncogenic processes. Importantly, recent discoveries are paving the way to the development of innovative therapeutic opportunities in SCL-positive T-ALL.

  4. Avian Paramyxovirus Serotype-1: A Review of Disease Distribution, Clinical Symptoms, and Laboratory Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Nichole L.; Miller, Cathy L.

    2012-01-01

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) is capable of infecting a wide range of avian species leading to a broad range of clinical symptoms. Ease of transmission has allowed the virus to spread worldwide with varying degrees of virulence depending on the virus strain and host species. Classification systems have been designed to group isolates based on their genetic composition. The genetic composition of the fusion gene cleavage site plays an important role in virulence. Presence of multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site allows enzymatic cleavage of the fusion protein enabling virulent viruses to spread systemically. Diagnostic tests, including virus isolation, real-time reverse-transcription PCR, and sequencing, are used to characterize the virus and identify virulent strains. Genetic diversity within APMV-1 demonstrates the need for continual monitoring for changes that may arise requiring modifications to the molecular assays to maintain their usefulness for diagnostic testing. PMID:22577610

  5. Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B

    2015-08-01

    Lyme disease is among the most frequently diagnosed zoonotic tick-borne diseases worldwide. The number of human cases has been on the increase since the first recognition of its aetiological agent. Lyme disease is caused by spirochete bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia, with B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) found in the Americas, and B. afzelii and B. garinii, in addition to B. burgdorferi s.s., in Europe and Asia. Environmental factors, such as human encroachment onto habitats favourable to ticks and their hosts, reduced deforestation, increased human outdoor activities, and climatic factors favouring a wider distribution of tick vectors, have enhanced the impact of the disease on both humans and animals. Clinical manifestations in humans include, in the early phases, erythema migrans, followed several weeks later by neuro-borreliosis (meningo-radiculitis, meningitis or meningo-encephalitis), Lyme arthritis and/or Borrelia lymphocytoma. In dogs, acute signs include fever, general malaise, lameness, lymph node enlargement and polyarthritis, as well as neuro-borreliosis in the chronic form. Diagnosis is mainly serological in both humans and animals, based on either a two-tier approach (an immunoenzymatic test followed by a Western blot confirmatory test) in humans or C(6) peptide, only in dogs. Early treatment with antibiotics, such as doxycycline or amoxicillin, for three weeks usually reduces the risk of chronic disease. Tick control, including the use of tick repellents for both humans and animals, particularly dogs, is highly reliable in preventing transmission. Vaccines are not available to prevent human infection, whereas several vaccines are available to reduce transmission and the clinical manifestations of infection in dogs.

  6. Celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Luis

    2006-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune disorder, induced by the intake of gluten proteins present in wheat, barley and rye. Contrary to common belief, this disorder is a protean systemic disease, rather than merely a pure digestive alteration. CD is closely associated with genes that code HLA-II antigens, mainly of DQ2 and DQ8 classes. Previously, it was considered to be a rare childhood disorder, but is actually considered a frequent condition, present at any age, which may have multiple complications. Tissue transglutaminase-2 (tTG), appears to be an important component of this disease, both, in its pathogenesis and diagnosis. Active CD is characterized by intestinal and/or extra-intestinal symptoms, villous atrophy and crypt hyperplasia, and strongly positive tTG auto-antibodies. The duodenal biopsy is considered to be the “gold standard” for diagnosis, but its practice has significant limitations in its interpretation, especially in adults. Occasionally, it results in a false-negative because of patchy mucosal changes and the presence of mucosal villous atrophy is often more severe in the proximal jejunum, usually not reached by endoscopic biopsies. CD is associated with increased rates of several diseases, such as iron deficiency anemia, osteoporosis, dermatitis herpetiformis, several neurologic and endocrine diseases, persistent chronic hypertransami-nasemia of unknown origin, various types of cancer and other autoimmune disorders. Treatment of CD dictates a strict, life-long gluten-free diet, which results in remission for most individuals, although its effect on some associated extraintestinal manifestations remains to be established.

  7. Fumonisin B(1): a neurotoxic mycotoxin.

    PubMed

    Domijan, Ana-Marija

    2012-12-01

    Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. moulds that contaminate crop, predominantly maize, all around the world. More than 15 types of fumonisins have been indentified so far, but FB(1) is the most abundant and toxicologically the most significant one. FB(1) has a wide range of toxic effects, depending on animal species. In horses FB(1) causes equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM), in pigs pulmonary oedema and in experimental rodents nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. In humans exposure to FB(1) is linked with higher incidence of primary liver cancer and oesophageal cancer, which are frequent in certain regions of the world (such as Transkei region in South Africa) where maize is staple food. The occurrence of neural tube defect in children in some countries of Central America (such as Mexico and Honduras) is connected with the consumption of FB(1)-contaminated maize-based food. However, possible involvement of FB(1) in the development of human diseases is not clear. Nevertheless, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified FB(1) as a possible carcinogen to humans (group 2B). FB(1) is a causative agent of ELEM, a brain disorder in equines, indicating that brain is a target organ of FB(1) toxicity. Several studies on experimental animals or on cell cultures of neural origin have established that FB(1) has a neurodegenerative potential, although the mechanism of its neurotoxicity is still vague. The aim of this article is to give an overview of available literature on FB(1) neurotoxicity and involved mechanisms, and to offer a new perspective for future studies.

  8. Refractory disease in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Carlos; Kallenberg, Cees; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2011-09-01

    Refractory disease (RD) definition has different meanings but it is dynamic, according to knowledge and the availability of new drugs. It should be differentiated from severe disease and damage definitions and it must take into account duration of adequate therapy and compliance of the patient. It can be related to inadequate or inefficacious treatment or to pathogenesis. RD definition has multiple implications to clinical guidelines and to the use of off-label drugs. It should not be regarded as lost cases and prospective studies, registries and clinical trials should be planned.

  9. Drug Might Help Some Babies with Rare, Fatal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Might Help Some Babies With Rare, Fatal Disease Spinal muscular atrophy is typically lethal within 2 years, but new ... promise, researchers report. There is no treatment for spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA-1), a degenerative neuromuscular disease ...

  10. Association of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A) haplotypes with listening to music.

    PubMed

    Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa; Oikkonen, Jaana; Onkamo, Päivi; Karma, Kai; Raijas, Pirre; Järvelä, Irma

    2011-04-01

    Music is listened in all cultures. We hypothesize that willingness to produce and perceive sound and music is social communication that needs musical aptitude. Here, listening to music was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire and musical aptitude using the auditory structuring ability test (Karma Music test) and Carl Seashores tests for pitch and for time. Three highly polymorphic microsatellite markers (RS3, RS1 and AVR) of the arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A) gene, previously associated with social communication and attachment, were genotyped and analyzed in 31 Finnish families (n=437 members) using family-based association analysis. A positive association between the AVPR1A haplotype (RS1 and AVR) and active current listening to music (permuted P=0.0019) was observed. Other AVPR1A haplotype (RS3 and AVR) showed association with lifelong active listening to music (permuted P=0.0022). In addition to AVPR1A, two polymorphisms (5-HTTLPR and variable number of tandem repeat) of human serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), a candidate gene for many neuropsychiatric disorders and previously associated with emotional processing, were analyzed. No association between listening to music and the polymorphisms of SLC6A4 were detected. The results suggest that willingness to listen to music is related to neurobiological pathways affecting social affiliation and communication.

  11. In vitro activity of CAY-1, a saponin from Capsicum frutescens, against microsporum and trichophyton species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dermatomycoses are among the world’s most common diseases. The incidence of dermatomycoses has increased over recent years, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. In previous studies, the saponin CAY-1, a saponin from cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutenses), has shown antifungal activities against...

  12. Fabry disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a progressive, X-linked inherited disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism due to deficient or absent lysosomal α-galactosidase A activity. FD is pan-ethnic and the reported annual incidence of 1 in 100,000 may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease. Classically affected hemizygous males, with no residual α-galactosidase A activity may display all the characteristic neurological (pain), cutaneous (angiokeratoma), renal (proteinuria, kidney failure), cardiovascular (cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia), cochleo-vestibular and cerebrovascular (transient ischemic attacks, strokes) signs of the disease while heterozygous females have symptoms ranging from very mild to severe. Deficient activity of lysosomal α-galactosidase A results in progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide within lysosomes, believed to trigger a cascade of cellular events. Demonstration of marked α-galactosidase A deficiency is the definitive method for the diagnosis of hemizygous males. Enzyme analysis may occasionnally help to detect heterozygotes but is often inconclusive due to random X-chromosomal inactivation so that molecular testing (genotyping) of females is mandatory. In childhood, other possible causes of pain such as rheumatoid arthritis and 'growing pains' must be ruled out. In adulthood, multiple sclerosis is sometimes considered. Prenatal diagnosis, available by determination of enzyme activity or DNA testing in chorionic villi or cultured amniotic cells is, for ethical reasons, only considered in male fetuses. Pre-implantation diagnosis is possible. The existence of atypical variants and the availability of a specific therapy singularly complicate genetic counseling. A disease-specific therapeutic option - enzyme replacement therapy using recombinant human α-galactosidase A - has been recently introduced and its long term outcome is currently still being investigated. Conventional management consists of pain relief with analgesic drugs

  13. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of the Human TL1A Ectodomain

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, C.; Yan, Q; Patskovsky, Y; Li, Z; Toro, R; Meyer, A; Cheng, H; Brenowitz, M; Nathenson, S; Almo, S

    2009-01-01

    TNF-like 1A (TL1A) is a newly described member of the TNF superfamily that is directly implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. We report the crystal structure of the human TL1A extracellular domain at a resolution of 2.5 {angstrom}, which reveals a jelly-roll fold typical of the TNF superfamily. This structural information, in combination with complementary mutagenesis and biochemical characterization, provides insights into the binding interface and the specificity of the interactions between TL1A and the DcR3 and DR3 receptors. These studies suggest that the mode of interaction between TL1A and DcR3 differs from other characterized TNF ligand/receptor complexes. In addition, we have generated functional TL1A mutants with altered disulfide bonding capability that exhibit enhanced solution properties, which will facilitate the production of materials for future cell-based and whole animal studies. In summary, these studies provide insights into the structure and function of TL1A and provide the basis for the rational manipulation of its interactions with cognate receptors.

  14. Induction of human sulfotransferase 1A3 (SULT1A3) by glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Bian, Hao Sheng; Ngo, Sherry Yan Yan; Tan, Weiqi; Wong, Chang Hua; Boelsterli, Urs A; Tan, Theresa May Chin

    2007-12-14

    Sulfotransferases (SULTs) play an important role in the detoxification and bioactivation of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Studies on rat sulfotransferases had shown that SULT genes, like cytochrome P450 genes, can be regulated by ligands that bind nuclear receptors. For human SULT genes, the regulation of human SULT2A1 expression is currently the best characterized. In this study, we systematically examined the regulation of human SULT1A genes by glucocorticoids. Treatment of the human hepatocellular carcinoma derived HepG2 cells with 10(-7) M dexamethasone did not affect the SULT1A1 activity toward p-nitrophenol. In contrast, SULT1A3 activity toward dopamine was significantly induced. Transient transfection of the SULT1A3 5'-flanking region/luciferase reporter construct showed that SULT1A3 was responsive to dexamethasone and prednisolone in a concentration-dependent manner with maximal induction at 10(-7) M dexamethasone or 1 microM prednisolone. In addition, induction by dexamethasone was dependent on the level of expression of the glucocorticoid receptor. Analysis of the 5'-flanking region led to the identification of a putative glucocorticoid response element at position (-1211 to -1193) upstream of the transcription start site and deletion or mutation of this element resulted in a loss of response. In summary, the data from this study shows that the human SULT1A3 gene is inducible by glucocorticoids through a glucocorticoid receptor-mediated mechanism and the glucocorticoid response element at position (-1211 to -1193) is necessary for this induction.

  15. Venereal Disease. Consumer Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.

    Designed to be used by health educators when teaching youths and their parents about the control of veneral disease (syphilis and gonorrhea), this booklet includes the following: (1) a two-page teaching plan consisting of objectives for both youths and adults along with notes on subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed…

  16. Menkes disease.

    PubMed

    Tümer, Zeynep; Møller, Lisbeth B

    2010-05-01

    Menkes disease (MD) is a lethal multisystemic disorder of copper metabolism. Progressive neurodegeneration and connective tissue disturbances, together with the peculiar 'kinky' hair are the main manifestations. MD is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, and as expected the vast majority of patients are males. MD occurs due to mutations in the ATP7A gene and the vast majority of ATP7A mutations are intragenic mutations or partial gene deletions. ATP7A is an energy dependent transmembrane protein, which is involved in the delivery of copper to the secreted copper enzymes and in the export of surplus copper from cells. Severely affected MD patients die usually before the third year of life. A cure for the disease does not exist, but very early copper-histidine treatment may correct some of the neurological symptoms.

  17. Minamata disease.

    PubMed

    Eto, K

    2000-09-01

    Minamata disease (methylmercury poisoning) was first discovered in 1956 around Minamata Bay, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. A second epidemic in Japan occurred in 1965 along the Agano River, Niigata Prefecture. This paper presents a brief review of Minamata disease with an emphasis on the cases found in Kumamoto Prefecture. At autopsy, the most conspicuous destructive lesion in the cerebrum was found in the anterior portions of the calcarine cortex. Less severe but similar lesions may be found in the post-central, pre-central and temporal transverse cortices. Secondary degeneration from primary lesions may be seen in cases with long survival. In the cerebellum, pathological changes occur deep in the hemisphere. The granule cell population was more affected, compared with Purkinje cells. Among peripheral nerves, sensory nerves were more affected than motor nerves. Our recent experimental studies that reveal knowledge of the pathogenesis of methylmercury poisoning will be discussed.

  18. Menkes disease

    PubMed Central

    Tümer, Zeynep; Møller, Lisbeth B

    2010-01-01

    Menkes disease (MD) is a lethal multisystemic disorder of copper metabolism. Progressive neurodegeneration and connective tissue disturbances, together with the peculiar ‘kinky' hair are the main manifestations. MD is inherited as an X-linked recessive trait, and as expected the vast majority of patients are males. MD occurs due to mutations in the ATP7A gene and the vast majority of ATP7A mutations are intragenic mutations or partial gene deletions. ATP7A is an energy dependent transmembrane protein, which is involved in the delivery of copper to the secreted copper enzymes and in the export of surplus copper from cells. Severely affected MD patients die usually before the third year of life. A cure for the disease does not exist, but very early copper-histidine treatment may correct some of the neurological symptoms. PMID:19888294

  19. Morgellons disease?

    PubMed

    Accordino, Robert E; Engler, Danielle; Ginsburg, Iona H; Koo, John

    2008-01-01

    Morgellons disease, a pattern of dermatologic symptoms very similar, if not identical, to those of delusions of parasitosis, was first described many centuries ago, but has recently been given much attention on the internet and in the mass media. The present authors present a history of Morgellons disease, in addition to which they discuss the potential benefit of using this diagnostic term as a means of building trust and rapport with patients to maximize treatment benefit. The present authors also suggest "meeting the patient halfway" and creating a therapeutic alliance when providing dermatologic treatment by taking their cutaneous symptoms seriously enough to provide both topical ointments as well as antipsychotic medications, which can be therapeutic in these patients.

  20. Pathogen-associated porin turns IL-10 competent B-1a cells toward proinflammatory cytokine response.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amlan Kanti; Sinha, Debolina; Biswas, Ratna; Biswas, Tapas

    2016-12-01

    Shigellosis is a major problem in the developing countries causing mortality and morbidity particularly among the children. Shigella spp. harbours the epithelial cells of the human colon to infect the host and spread the disease. We analyzed the response of B-1a cells, the major component of the mucosal immune system to porin of Shigella dysenteriae type 1. We show that porin while proliferating B-1a cells, deplete Siglec-G, the inhibitory molecule present on B-1a cells. Adjuvanticity of porin has been shown to govern innate signaling for promoting host adaptive immune response. Up-regulation of CD69 and CD40 denotes activation of the cells parallel to abrogation of Siglec-G. As a result of cell activation, porin stimulated the inflammatory cytokines of CD5(+) B-1a cells, otherwise rich in IL-10. The work shows B-1a cell responses promote the immunopotentiating activity of porin.

  1. Peripheral Artery Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) Peripheral artery disease (PAD) refers to ... is peripheral artery disease treated? What is peripheral artery disease (PAD)? Peripheral artery disease, or PAD, refers ...

  2. Ledderhose Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fausto de Souza, Dominique; Micaelo, Lilian; Cuzzi, Tullia

    2010-01-01

    Plantar fibromatosis, or Ledderhose disease, is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the plantar aponeurosis. It may occur at any age with the greatest prevalence at middle age and beyond. This disorder is more common in men than woman and it is sometimes associated with other forms of fibromatosis. A 28-year-old Brazilian woman with a six-year history of painless bilateral plantar nodules is described in this article. PMID:20877526

  3. Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Hu, Linden T

    2016-05-03

    This issue provides a clinical overview of Lyme disease, focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  4. Whipple's disease.

    PubMed

    Marth, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that Tropheryma whipplei not only causes a chronic multisystemic infection which is often preceded by arthropathies for many years, well known as 'classical' Whipple's disease, but also clinically becomes manifest with localized organ affections and acute (transient) infections in children. T. whipplei is found ubiquitously in the environment and colonizes in some healthy carriers. In this review, we highlight new aspects of this enigmatic infectious disorder.

  5. COL1A1 association and otosclerosis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schrauwen, Isabelle; Khalfallah, Ayda; Ealy, Megan; Fransen, Erik; Claes, Charlotte; Huber, Alex; Murillo, Laura Rodriguez; Masmoudi, Saber; Smith, Richard J H; Van Camp, Guy

    2012-05-01

    Otosclerosis is a disease of abnormal bone remodeling in the human otic capsule that can lead to progressive hearing loss. Little of the underlying disease etiology has been elucidated thus far, although several studies have suggested that COL1A1 may play a role based on its importance in bone metabolism and other diseases like osteoporosis and osteogenesis imperfecta. Genetic association studies between COL1A1 and otosclerosis, however, have been contradictory. To resolve this issue, we studied a large Belgian-Dutch and a Swiss population for a genetic association between COL1A1 and otosclerosis and additionally performed a meta-analysis to investigate the overall genetic effect of COL1A1 on all otosclerosis populations studied to date. We found a significant association both in the Belgian-Dutch population and in the meta-analysis. In aggregate, our analysis supports evidence for an association between COL1A1 and otosclerosis although effect sizes of the variants reported in the initial studies are likely to be an overestimate of true effect sizes.

  6. Beryllium disease

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-20

    After two workers at the nuclear weapons plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee were diagnosed earlier this year with chronic beryllium disease (CBD), a rare and sometimes fatal scarring of the lungs, the Department of Energy ordered up a 4-year probe. Now, part of that probe has begun - tests conducted by the Oak Ridge Associated Universities' Center for Epidemiological Research measuring beryllium sensitivity in 3,000 people who've been exposed to the metal's dust since Manhattan Project managers opened the Y-12 plant at Oak Ridge in 1943. Currently, 119 Y-12 employees process beryllium, which has a number of industrial uses, including rocket heat shields and nuclear weapon and electrical components. The disease often takes 20 to 25 years to develop, and the stricken employees haven't worked with beryllium for years. There is no cure for CBD, estimated to strike 2% of people exposed to the metal. Anti-inflammatory steroids alleviate such symptoms as a dry cough, weight loss, and fatigue. Like other lung-fibrosis diseases that are linked to lung cancer, some people suspect CBD might cause some lung cancer. While difficult to diagnose, about 900 cases of CBD have been reported since a Beryllium Case Registry was established in 1952. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that about 10,000 DOE employees and 800,000 people in private industry have worked with beryllium.

  7. Celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Scherer, John R

    2008-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder caused by the continued ingestion of gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley and rye, by predisposed individuals. With the development of highly sensitive serologic tests, this has become an increasingly recognized disease with prevalence as high as 1% in certain patient populations, such as Caucasian females. Almost all celiac patients carry the human leukocyte antigen DQ2/DQ8 gene. Much has recently been discovered about the role of the innate immune system in exposing genetically vulnerable patients to the pathogenic gliadin fraction of gluten. The "classical" presentation of chronic diarrhea and malabsorption is now a rarity. Due to earlier detection and increased awareness, celiac disease now presents with a myriad of "atypical" signs and symptoms such as iron-deficiency anemia and osteoporosis. Associated conditions include T-cell lymphoma, dermatitis herpetiformis, autoimmune thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes. Diagnosis requires serologic confirmation with either antiendomysial or antitransglutaminase antibodies as well as histologic confirmation from endoscopic small bowel biopsy. The only effective treatment necessitates a lifelong, continual adherence to a gluten-free diet.

  8. ARID1A immunohistochemistry improves outcome prediction in invasive urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Sheila F; Chaux, Alcides; Gonzalez-Roibon, Nilda; Munari, Enrico; Ellis, Carla; Driscoll, Tina; Schoenberg, Mark P; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Shih, Ie-Ming; Netto, George J

    2014-11-01

    AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) is tumor suppressor gene that interacts with BRG1 adenosine triphosphatase to form a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling protein complex. Inactivation of ARID1A has been described in several neoplasms, including epithelial ovarian and endometrial carcinomas, and has been correlated with prognosis. In the current study, ARID1A expression in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder and its association with clinicopathological parameters and outcome are addressed. Five tissue microarrays were constructed from 136 cystectomy specimens performed for UC at our institution. Nuclear ARID1A staining was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. An H-score was calculated as the sum of the products of intensity (0-3) multiplied by extent of expression (0%-100%). Average H-score per case was used for statistical analysis. ARID1A expression was categorized in low and high using Youden index to define the cut point. ARID1A expression significantly increased from normal to noninvasive UC to invasive UC. For both tumor progression and cancer death, Youden index yielded an H-score of 288 as the optimal cut point for ARID1A expression. Low ARID1A expression showed a tendency for lower risk of tumor progression and cancer mortality. Adding ARID1A expression to pathologic features offers a better model for predicting outcome than pathologic features alone. Low ARID1A expression was more frequently seen in earlier stage disease. There was a tendency for low ARID1A expression to predict better outcome. More importantly, the findings indicate that adding ARID1A expression to pathologic features increases the goodness of fit of the predictive model.

  9. Defective Anks1a disrupts the export of receptor tyrosine kinases from the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soochul

    2016-01-01

    EphA2 has been implicated in amplifying ErbB2 tumorigenic signaling. One protein that interacts with EphA2 is the Anks1a PTB adaptor. However, the precise role of Anks1a in EphA2-mediated tumorigenesis is unclear. We demonstrated that Anks1a localizes to the ER upon phosphorylation and that the Ankyrin repeats and PTB of Anks1a bind to EphA2 and Sec23, respectively. Thus, Anks1a facilitates the selective packaging of EphA2 into COPII vesicles. Additionally, Anks1a knockout mice, a phenocopy of EphA2 knockout mice, exhibited markedly reduced ErbB2-induced breast tumorigenesis. Strikingly, ErbB2 did not localize to the cell surface following Anks1a knockdown in primary mammary tumor cells over-expressing ErbB2. Importantly, EphA2 was critical for stabilizing ErbB2 through complex formation, but its interaction with Anks1a also facilitated ErbB2 loading into COPII carriers. These findings suggest a novel role for Anks1a in the molecular pathogenesis of breast tumors and possibly other human diseases. PMID:27802842

  10. Ehrlichial diseases.

    PubMed

    Madigan, J E; Pusterla, N

    2000-12-01

    Equine granulocytic and monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia equi and E. risticii, respectively, are seasonal diseases in horses that occur throughout the United States E. equi is transmitted by lxodes ticks and causes high fever, depression, anorexia, limb edema, petechiation, icterus, ataxia, and stiffness in gait. E. risticii, also known as the agent of Potomac horse fever, causes a febrile illness with a colitis of variable severity. Its occurrence is associated with aquatic habitats. The natural route of transmission is oral, through the ingestion of E. risticii infected trematode stages either free in water or in an intermediate host, such as aquatic animals.

  11. [Bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-13

    Calcium intake shows a small impact on bone mineral density and fracture risk. Denosumab is a more potent inhibitor of bone resorption than zoledronate. Abaloparatide, PTHrP analog, increases bone mineral density and decreases fracture incidence. Teriparatide could be delivered via a transdermic device. Romosozumab and odanacatib improve calculated bone strength. Sequential or combined treatments with denosumab and teriparatide could be of interest, but not denosumab followed by teriparatide. Fibrous dysplasia, Paget disease and hypophosphatasia are updated, as well as atypical femoral fracture and osteonecrosis of the jaw.

  12. Celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Polanco, Isabel

    2008-08-01

    Celiac disease is an immunologically mediated enteropathy of the small intestine, characterized by lifelong intolerance to the gliadin and related prolamines from wheat and other cereals, that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. Symptoms result from structural damage to the mucosa of the small intestine, which may cause malabsorption with positive autoantibodies in the sera. Normal mucosal architecture is restored after the use of a gluten-free diet and the normalization of the autoantibodies. Villous atrophy and high levels of autoantibodies reappear when gluten is reintroduced into the diet (gluten challenge).

  13. High frequency of mutations in codon 98 of the peripheral myelin protein Po gene in 20 French CMT1 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Rougher, H.; LeGuern, E. Gouider, R.

    1996-03-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, characterized by distal muscle weakness and amyotrophy, decreased or absent tendon reflexes, and high arched feet, is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy, with a prevalence of 1 in 2,500. Two types of CMT have been distinguished on the basis of nerve conduction velocities. CMT type 1 is the most frequent, with markedly slowed velocities ({<=}40 m/s) associated with hypertrophic onion bulb changes on nerve biopsy. Autosomal dominant CMT1 is genetically heterogeneous: CMT1A is caused by a 1.5-Mb duplication in 17p11.2 and, more rarely, by a point mutation in tha PMP22 (peripheral myelin protein, 22 kD) gene located in the duplicated region; CMT1B results from mutations in the Po (peripheral myelin protein zero) gene in 1q22-23. Forty-five percent (7/16) of the published mutations associated with CMT1 occur in exon 3 of Po. In order to determine the cause of CMT1 in 20 unrelated patients without 17p11.2 duplications, mutations were sought in exon 3 of Po with three techniques: nonradioactive SSCP, automated sequencing, and PCR enzymatic restriction. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  14. A Mutation in PMP2 Causes Dominant Demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Young Se; Kwak, Geon; Choi, Yu-Ri; Yeo, Ha Kyung; Jwa, Dong Hwan; Kim, Eun Ja; Mo, Won Min; Nam, Soo Hyun; Kim, Sung Min; Yoo, Jeong Hyun; Koo, Heasoo; Park, Hwan Tae; Chung, Ki Wha; Choi, Byung-Ok

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a heterogeneous group of peripheral neuropathies with diverse genetic causes. In this study, we identified p.I43N mutation in PMP2 from a family exhibiting autosomal dominant demyelinating CMT neuropathy by whole exome sequencing and characterized the clinical features. The age at onset was the first to second decades and muscle atrophy started in the distal portion of the leg. Predominant fatty replacement in the anterior and lateral compartment was similar to that in CMT1A caused by PMP22 duplication. Sural nerve biopsy showed onion bulbs and degenerating fibers with various myelin abnormalities. The relevance of PMP2 mutation as a genetic cause of dominant CMT1 was assessed using transgenic mouse models. Transgenic mice expressing wild type or mutant (p.I43N) PMP2 exhibited abnormal motor function. Electrophysiological data revealed that both mice had reduced motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCV). Electron microscopy revealed that demyelinating fibers and internodal lengths were shortened in both transgenic mice. These data imply that overexpression of wild type as well as mutant PMP2 also causes the CMT1 phenotype, which has been documented in the PMP22. This report might expand the genetic and clinical features of CMT and a further mechanism study will enhance our understanding of PMP2-associated peripheral neuropathy. PMID:26828946

  15. [A case of HNPP presenting with late onset of symptoms, chronic progressive course and sensory impairment in face and trunk].

    PubMed

    Yakushiji, Yusuke; Kurohara, Kazuhiro; Yoshimura, Toshiro; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Kuroda, Yasuo

    2004-03-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted with a chief complaint of progressive muscle weakness and tingling sensation in the distal portion of all extremities since the age of 55. On neurological examination, sensory impairment of all modalities was noted in the right side of face, segmental areas of the right Th4-10 and the distal portion of four extremities. Symmetrical muscle weakness and atrophy was also found over the distal portion of all extremities. All deep tendon reflexes except biceps brachii reflexes were absent. Neurophysiological studies, however, rather indicated mononeuritis multiplex in this case. The biopsied specimen of the sural nerve showed a significant decrease in large myelinated fibers and many tomaculous changes. The gene analysis revealed deletion in the CMT 1A locus on chromosome 17p11.2, providing evidence for the diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). The development of sensory impairment in face or thoracic nerves is quite rare in HNPP, indicating that there exists considerable phenotypic heterogeneity in the disease.

  16. Molecular imaging of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in relation to human cognition.

    PubMed

    Borg, Jacqueline

    2008-12-16

    Animal studies and pharmacological studies in man have suggested that the serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor may serve as a biomarker for cognitive functioning and a target for treatment of cognitive impairment. Consistent findings in man have nonetheless hitherto remained sparse. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in patients with Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and depression implicate an alteration in 5-HT(1A) receptor binding compared to control subjects, but it is yet unknown whether these alterations are related to the cognitive impairment associated with these disorders. Pharmacological challenge studies using 5-HT(1A) agonism and antagonism to manipulate the serotonin system support involvement of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in human cognition, mainly in verbal memory functioning. However, the effect varies across studies and it remains unclear if the 5-HT(1A) receptor serves as a validated target for treatment of cognitive deficits. This lack of confirmation of experimental preclinical data, calls for increased efforts in translational research. Molecular imaging techniques such as PET, holds the potential to facilitate translational neuroscience by confirming observations from animal models in man, and aid development of validated animal models of use for advancement of pharmacological treatment. Furthermore, in combination with molecular genetics, molecular imaging may suggest novel strategies for prevention and intervention, based on an understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis of major neuropsychiatric disorder and associated cognitive impairment.

  17. Disease modification in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Henchcliffe, Claire; Severt, W Lawrence

    2011-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related, progressive, multisystem neurodegenerative disorder resulting in significant morbidity and mortality, as well as a growing social and financial burden in an aging population. The hallmark of PD is loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, leading to bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor. Current pharmacological treatment is therefore centred upon dopamine replacement to alleviate symptoms. However, two major problems complicate this approach: (i) motor symptoms continue to progress, requiring increasing doses of medication, which result in both short-term adverse effects and intermediate- to long-term motor complications; (ii) dopamine replacement does little to treat non-dopaminergic motor and non-motor symptoms, which are an important source of morbidity, including dementia, sleep disturbances, depression, orthostatic hypotension, and postural instability leading to falls. It is critical, therefore, to develop a broader and more fundamental therapeutic approach to PD, and major research efforts have focused upon developing neuroprotective interventions. Despite many encouraging preclinical data suggesting the possibility of addressing the underlying pathophysiology by slowing cell loss, efforts to translate this into the clinical realm have largely proved disappointing in the past. Barriers to finding neuroprotective or disease-modifying drugs in PD include a lack of validated biomarkers of progression, which hampers clinical trial design and interpretation; difficulties separating symptomatic and neuroprotective effects of candidate neuroprotective therapies; and possibly fundamental flaws in some of the basic preclinical models and testing. However, three recent clinical trials have used a novel delayed-start design in an attempt to overcome some of these roadblocks. While not examining markers of cell loss and function, which would determine neuroprotective effects, this trial design

  18. Natalizumab plus interferon beta-1a reduces lesion formation in relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Stuart, William H; Calabresi, Peter A; Confavreux, Christian; Galetta, Steven L; Rudick, Richard A; Lublin, Fred D; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Wynn, Daniel R; Fisher, Elizabeth; Papadopoulou, Athina; Lynn, Frances; Panzara, Michael A; Sandrock, Alfred W

    2010-05-15

    The SENTINEL study showed that the addition of natalizumab improved outcomes for patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) who had experienced disease activity while receiving interferon beta-1a (IFNbeta-1a) alone. Previously unreported secondary and tertiary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures are presented here. Patients received natalizumab 300 mg (n=589) or placebo (n=582) intravenously every 4 weeks plus IFNbeta-1a 30 microg intramuscularly once weekly. Annual MRI scans allowed comparison of a range of MRI end points versus baseline. Over 2 years, 67% of patients receiving natalizumab plus IFNbeta-1a remained free of new or enlarging T2-lesions compared with 30% of patients receiving IFNbeta-1a alone. The mean change from baseline in T2 lesion volume over 2 years decreased in patients receiving natalizumab plus IFNbeta-1a and increased in those receiving IFNbeta-1a alone (-277.5mm(3) versus 525.6mm(3); p<0.001). Compared with IFNbeta-1a alone, add-on natalizumab therapy resulted in a smaller increase in mean T1-hypointense lesion volume after 2 years (1821.3mm(3) versus 2210.5mm(3); p<0.001), a smaller mean number of new T1-hypointense lesions over 2 years (2.3 versus 4.1; p<0.001), and a slower rate of brain atrophy during the second year of therapy (-0.31% versus -0.40%; p=0.020). Natalizumab add-on therapy reduced gadolinium-enhancing, T1-hypointense, and T2 MRI lesion activity and slowed brain atrophy progression in patients with relapsing MS who experienced disease activity despite treatment with IFNbeta-1a alone.

  19. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk ...

  20. Altered striatal function in a mutant mouse lacking D1A dopamine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Drago, J; Gerfen, C R; Lachowicz, J E; Steiner, H; Hollon, T R; Love, P E; Ooi, G T; Grinberg, A; Lee, E J; Huang, S P

    1994-01-01

    Of the five known dopamine receptors, D1A and D2 represent the major subtypes expressed in the striatum of the adult brain. Within the striatum, these two subtypes are differentially distributed in the two main neuronal populations that provide direct and indirect pathways between the striatum and the output nuclei of the basal ganglia. Movement disorders, including Parkinson disease and various dystonias, are thought to result from imbalanced activity in these pathways. Dopamine regulates movement through its differential effects on D1A receptors expressed by direct output neurons and D2 receptors expressed by indirect output neurons. To further examine the interaction of D1A and D2 neuronal pathways in the striatum, we used homologous recombination to generate mutant mice lacking functional D1A receptors (D1A-/-). D1A-/- mutants are growth retarded and die shortly after weaning age unless their diet is supplemented with hydrated food. With such treatment the mice gain weight and survive to adulthood. Neurologically, D1A-/- mice exhibit normal coordination and locomotion, although they display a significant decrease in rearing behavior. Examination of the striatum revealed changes associated with the altered phenotype of these mutants. D1A receptor binding was absent in striatal sections from D1A-/- mice. Striatal neurons normally expressing functional D1A receptors are formed and persist in adult homozygous mutants. Moreover, substance P mRNA, which is colocalized specifically in striatal neurons with D1A receptors, is expressed at a reduced level. In contrast, levels of enkephalin mRNA, which is expressed in striatal neurons with D2 receptors, are unaffected. These findings show that D1A-/- mice exhibit selective functional alterations in the striatal neurons giving rise to the direct striatal output pathway. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7809078

  1. Raloxifene glucuronidation in liver and intestinal microsomes of humans and monkeys: contribution of UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Naoki; Takasuka, Akane; Kokawa, Yuki; Isobe, Takashi; Taguchi, Maho; Shigeyama, Masato; Murata, Mikio; Suno, Manabu; Hanioka, Nobumitsu

    2016-01-01

    1. Raloxifene is an antiestrogen that has been marketed for the treatment of osteoporosis, and is metabolized into 6- and 4'-glucuronides by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. In this study, the in vitro glucuronidation of raloxifene in humans and monkeys was examined using liver and intestinal microsomes and recombinant UGT enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9). 2. Although the K(m) and CL(int) values for the 6-glucuronidation of liver and intestinal microsomes were similar between humans and monkeys, and species differences in Vmax values (liver microsomes, humans > monkeys; intestinal microsomes, humans < monkeys) were observed, no significant differences were noted in the K(m) or S50, Vmax and CL(int) or CLmax values for the 4'-glucuronidation of liver and intestinal microsomes between humans and monkeys. 3. The activities of 6-glucuronidation in recombinant UGT enzymes were UGT1A1 > UGT1A8 >UGT1A9 for humans, and UGT1A8 > UGT1A1 > UGT1A9 for monkeys. The activities of 4'-glucuronidation were UGT1A8 > UGT1A1 > UGT1A9 in humans and monkeys. 4. These results demonstrated that the profiles for the hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene by microsomes were moderately different between humans and monkeys.

  2. Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tanowitz, H B; Kirchhoff, L V; Simon, D; Morris, S A; Weiss, L M; Wittner, M

    1992-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of morbidity in many countries in Latin America. The important modes of transmission are by the bite of the reduviid bug and blood transfusion. The organism exists in three morphological forms: trypomastigotes, amastigotes, and epimastigotes. The mechanism of transformation and differentiation is currently being explored, and signal transduction pathways of the parasites may be involved in this process. Parasite adherence to and invasion of host cells is a complex process involving complement, phospholipase, penetrin, neuraminidase, and hemolysin. Two clinical forms of the disease are recognized, acute and chronic. During the acute stage pathological damage is related to the presence of the parasite, whereas in the chronic stage few parasites are found. In recent years the roles of tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, and the interleukins in the pathogenesis of this infection have been reported. The common manifestations of chronic cardiomyopathy are arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. Autoimmune, neurogenic, and microvascular factors may be important in the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathy. The gastrointestinal tract is another important target, and "mega syndromes" are common manifestations. The diagnosis and treatment of this infection are active areas of investigation. New serological and molecular biological techniques have improved the diagnosis of chronic infection. Exacerbations of T. cruzi infection have been reported for patients receiving immuno-suppressive therapy and for those with AIDS. Images PMID:1423218

  3. A chemical with proven clinical safety rescues Down-syndrome-related phenotypes in through DYRK1A inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeongki; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Kim, Ae-Kyeong; Choi, Miri; Choi, Kwangman; Kang, Mingu; Chi, Seung-Wook; Lee, Min-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Soo; Lee, So-Young; Song, Woo-Joo; Yu, Kweon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT DYRK1A is important in neuronal development and function, and its excessive activity is considered a significant pathogenic factor in Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease. Thus, inhibition of DYRK1A has been suggested to be a new strategy to modify the disease. Very few compounds, however, have been reported to act as inhibitors, and their potential clinical uses require further evaluation. Here, we newly identify CX-4945, the safety of which has been already proven in the clinical setting, as a potent inhibitor of DYRK1A that acts in an ATP-competitive manner. The inhibitory potency of CX-4945 on DYRK1A (IC50=6.8 nM) in vitro was higher than that of harmine, INDY or proINDY, which are well-known potent inhibitors of DYRK1A. CX-4945 effectively reverses the aberrant phosphorylation of Tau, amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) in mammalian cells. To our surprise, feeding with CX-4945 significantly restored the neurological and phenotypic defects induced by the overexpression of minibrain, an ortholog of human DYRK1A, in the Drosophila model. Moreover, oral administration of CX-4945 acutely suppressed Tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus of DYRK1A-overexpressing mice. Our research results demonstrate that CX-4945 is a potent DYRK1A inhibitor and also suggest that it has therapeutic potential for DYRK1A-associated diseases. PMID:27483355

  4. Crohn disease - children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Inflammatory bowel disease in children - Crohn disease; IBD in children - Crohn disease; Regional enteritis - children; Ileitis - children; Granulomatous ileocolitis - children; Colitis in children; CD - children

  5. Triggering regeneration and tackling apoptosis: a combinatorial approach to treating congenital muscular dystrophy type 1 A.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Jenny; Kumar, Ajay; Duarte, Lina; Mehuron, Thomas; Girgenrath, Mahasweta

    2013-11-01

    Merosin-deficient congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the laminin-α2 gene (OMIM: 607855). Currently, no treatment other than palliative care exists for this disease. In our previous work, genetic interventions in the Lama2(Dy-w) mouse model for MDC1A demonstrated that limited regeneration and uncontrolled apoptosis are important drivers of this disease. However, targeting one of these disease drivers without addressing the other results in only partial rescue of the phenotype. The present study was designed to determine whether utilizing a combinatorial treatment approach can lead to a more profound amelioration of the disease pathology. To accomplish this task, we generated Bax-null Lama2(Dy-w)mice that overexpressed muscle-specific IGF-1 (Lama2(Dy-w)Bax(-/-)+IGF-1tg). Further to test the translational potential of IGF-1 administration in combination with Bax inhibition, we treated Lama2(Dy-w)Bax(-/-) mice postnatally with systemic recombinant human IGF-1 (IPLEX™). These two combinatorial treatments lead to similar, promising outcomes. In addition to increased body and muscle weights, both transgenic overexpression and systemic administration of IGF-1 combined with Bax-inhibition resulted in improved muscle phenotype and locomotory function that were nearly indistinguishable from wild-type mice. These results provide a fundamental proof of concept that justifies the use of a combination therapy as an effective treatment for MDC1A and highlights a compelling argument toward shifting the paradigm in treating multifaceted neuromuscular diseases.

  6. Joint Precision Approach and Landing System Increment 1A (JPALS Inc 1A)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense Switched Network Econ...March 19, 2014. JPALS Inc 1A December 2013 SAR April 16, 2014 17:17:18 UNCLASSIFIED 7 Schedule Milestones SAR Baseline Dev Est... IOT &E JAN 2014 JAN 2014 JUL 2014 TBD 1 (Ch-2) IOC DEC 2014 DEC 2014 JUN 2015 TBD 1 (Ch-2) FRP JUN 2015 JUN 2015 DEC 2015 TBD 1 (Ch-2) 1APB Breach Change

  7. Predicting the CRIP1a-cannabinoid 1 receptor interactions with integrated molecular modeling approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mostafa H.; Kellogg, Glen E.; Selley, Dana E.; Safo, Martin; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors are a family of G-protein coupled receptors that are involved in a wide variety of physiological processes and diseases. One of the key regulators that are unique to cannabinoid receptors is the cannabinoid receptor interacting proteins (CRIPs). Among them CRIP1a was found to decrease the constitutive activity of the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R). The aim of this study is to gain an understanding of the interaction between CRIP1a and CB1R through using different computational techniques. The generated model demonstrated several key putative interactions between CRIP1a and CB1R, including those involving Lys130 of CRIP1a. PMID:24461351

  8. [Bone disease in Gaucher's disease].

    PubMed

    Roca Espiau, Mercedes

    2011-09-01

    The exposition aims, is to review the pathophysiological mechanisms of bone marrow involvement and the patterns of marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. We have reviewed the different methods of assessment of bone marrow infiltration and its temporal development. Qualitative methods include simple radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and radioisotope. The simple radiography is the basic element, but its sensitivity is limited and only allows for assessing changes and trabecular bone remodeling MRI allows us to appreciate the bone marrow infiltration, detection of complications and response to therapy. Radioisotopes can contribute to the differential diagnosis of osteomyelitis and bone crises. Among the quantitative methods are the QCSI (quantitative chemical shift imaging) and the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), as well as new quantitative techniques of CT, MRI and ultrasound densitometry. The QCSI performed an assessment of fat content of bone marrow in the spine. DEXA quantifies bone density by measuring the attenuation coefficient. The semiquantitative methods have various "scores" to establish criteria for generalized bone disease endpoints of disease progression and response to therapy.

  9. A gene for Usher syndrome type I (USH1A) maps to chromosome 14q

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.; Gerber, S.; Rozet, J.M.; Delrieu, O.; Briard, M.L.; Dollfus, H.; Frezal, J.; Munnich, A. ); Bonneau, D. ); Ghazi, I. )

    1992-12-01

    Usher syndrome (US) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by congenital hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa. It is the most frequent cause of deaf-blindness in adults and accounts for 3 to 6% of deaf children. Here, the authors report the genetic mapping of a gene for US type I (USH1A), the most severe form of the disease, to the long arm of chromosome 14, by linkage to probe MLJ14 at the D14S13 locus in 10 families of Western France ancestry ([cflx Z] = 4.13 at [cflx [theta

  10. Inflammation and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Inflammation and Heart Disease Updated:Oct 12,2016 Understand the risks of ... inflammation causes cardiovascular disease, inflammation is common for heart disease and stroke patients and is thought to be ...

  11. Heart disease and diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - heart disease; CAD - diet; Coronary artery disease - diet; Coronary heart disease - diet ... diet and lifestyle can reduce your risk of: Heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke Conditions that lead ...

  12. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... buildup of plaque in the arteries to your heart. This may also be called hardening of the ...

  13. Heart disease - risk factors

    MedlinePlus

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  14. Lyme Disease (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Lyme Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Lyme Disease A A A ... Pacific Northwest, and the northern Midwest states. About Lyme Disease Lyme disease is caused by the bacterium Borrelia ...

  15. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Conditions Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD) Make an Appointment Find a Doctor ... L. Goldstein, MD, MMSc (February 01, 2016) Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This ...

  16. Genetics and Rheumatic Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Well with Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Genetics and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Studying twins has ... 70%, and for non-identical pairs, even lower. Genetics and ankylosing spondylitis Each rheumatic disease has its ...

  17. Optical Stark Spectroscopy of the B1A^"-X1A' of CuOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Steimle, Timothy C.

    2010-06-01

    Copper hydroxide, CuOH, is one of the most thoroughly studied transition metal containing polyatomic molecules with the most recent investigation being the dispersed fluorescence and radiative lifetime study. The pure rotational spectrum was recorded and analyzed by Saito^'s group some time ago. Recently a high level {ab initio} calculation predicted ground state permanent electric dipole moments, μel, ranging in value from 5.52D to 3.98D depending upon methodology used to treat electron correlation. Here we report on the first molecular beam study of the B1A^"-X1A' band. The spectrum was recorded field-free and in the presence of a static electric field of up to 4000 V/cm. The hyperfine splitting is observed and analyzed for the first time. The determined μel values are used to evaluate the computational methodologies and are compared with those of other copper containing molecules. C. N. Jarman, W. T. M. L Fernando, and P. F. Bernath J.Mol.Spectrosc.. 144 286, 1990. C. Tao, C. Mukarakate, and S. A. Reid Chem.Phys.Lett.. 449 282, 2007. C. J. Whitham, H. Ozeki, and S. Saito J.Chem.Phys. 112 641, 2000.

  18. Bioenergetic Impairment in Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Type 1A and Leigh Syndrome Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fontes-Oliveira, Cibely C.; Steinz, Maarten; Schneiderat, Peter; Mulder, Hindrik; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has high energy requirement and alterations in metabolism are associated with pathological conditions causing muscle wasting and impaired regeneration. Congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is a severe muscle disorder caused by mutations in the LAMA2 gene. Leigh syndrome (LS) is a neurometabolic disease caused by mutations in genes related to mitochondrial function. Skeletal muscle is severely affected in both diseases and a common feature is muscle weakness that leads to hypotonia and respiratory problems. Here, we have investigated the bioenergetic profile in myogenic cells from MDC1A and LS patients. We found dysregulated expression of genes related to energy production, apoptosis and proteasome in myoblasts and myotubes. Moreover, impaired mitochondrial function and a compensatory upregulation of glycolysis were observed when monitored in real-time. Also, alterations in cell cycle populations in myoblasts and enhanced caspase-3 activity in myotubes were observed. Thus, we have for the first time demonstrated an impairment of the bioenergetic status in human MDC1A and LS muscle cells, which could contribute to cell cycle disturbance and increased apoptosis. Our findings suggest that skeletal muscle metabolism might be a promising pharmacological target in order to improve muscle function, energy efficiency and tissue maintenance of MDC1A and LS patients. PMID:28367954

  19. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... They Work Kidney Disease A-Z Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease What is acquired cystic kidney disease? Acquired cystic kidney disease happens when a ... cysts. What are the differences between acquired cystic kidney disease and polycystic kidney disease? Acquired cystic kidney ...

  20. Recommendations to enable drug development for inherited neuropathies: Charcot-Marie-Tooth and Giant Axonal Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sames, Lori; Moore, Allison; Arnold, Renee; Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 2500 Americans suffer from Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. The underlying disease mechanisms are unique in most forms of CMT, with many point mutations on various genes causing a toxic accumulation of misfolded proteins. Symptoms of the disease often present within the first two decades of life, with CMT1A patients having reduced compound muscle and sensory action potentials, slow nerve conduction velocities, sensory loss, progressive distal weakness, foot and hand deformities, decreased reflexes, bilateral foot drop and about 5% become wheelchair bound. In contrast, the ultra-rare disease Giant Axonal Neuropathy (GAN) is frequently described as a recessively inherited condition that results in progressive nerve death. GAN usually appears in early childhood and progresses slowly as neuronal injury becomes more severe and leads to death in the second or third decade. There are currently no treatments for any of the forms of CMTs or GAN. We suggest that further clinical studies should analyse electrical impedance myography as an outcome measure for CMT. Further, additional quality of life (QoL) assessments for these CMTs are required, and we need to identify GAN biomarkers as well as develop new genetic testing panels for both diseases. We propose that using the Global Registry of Inherited Neuropathy (GRIN) could be useful for many of these studies. Patient advocacy groups and professional organizations (such as the Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation (HNF), Hannah's Hope Fund (HHF), The Neuropathy Association (TNA) and the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM) can play a central role in educating clinicians and patients. Undertaking these studies will assist in the correct diagnosis of disease recruiting patients for clinical studies, and will ultimately improve the endpoints for clinical trials. By addressing obstacles that prevent industry investment in various forms of inherited neuropathies, we can

  1. Design and synthesis of thiazolo[5,4-f]quinazolines as DYRK1A inhibitors, part II.

    PubMed

    Foucourt, Alicia; Hédou, Damien; Dubouilh-Benard, Carole; Girard, Angélique; Taverne, Thierry; Casagrande, Anne-Sophie; Désiré, Laurent; Leblond, Bertrand; Besson, Thierry

    2014-09-26

    The convenient synthesis of a focused library (forty molecules) of novel 6,6,5-tricyclic thiazolo[5,4-f]quinazolines was realized mainly under microwave irradiation. A novel 6-aminobenzo[d]thiazole-2,7-dicarbonitrile (1) was used as a versatile molecular platform for the synthesis of various derivatives. Kinase inhibition, of the obtained final compounds, was evaluated on a panel of two kinases (DYRK1A/1B) together with some known reference DYRK1A and DYRK1B inhibitors (harmine, TG003, NCGC-00189310 and leucettine L41). Compound IC50 values were obtained and compared. Five of the novel thiazolo[5,4-f]quinazoline derivatives prepared, EHT 5372 (8c), EHT 6840 (8h), EHT 1610 (8i), EHT 9851 (8k) and EHT 3356 (9b) displayed single-digit nanomolar or subnanomolar IC50 values and are among the most potent DYRK1A/1B inhibitors disclosed to date. DYRK1A/1B kinases are known to be involved in the regulation of various molecular pathways associated with oncology, neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer disease, AD, or other tauopathies), genetic diseases (such as Down Syndrome, DS), as well as diseases involved in abnormal pre-mRNA splicing. The compounds described in this communication constitute a highly potent set of novel molecular probes to evaluate the biology/pharmacology of DYR1A/1B in such diseases.

  2. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A)

    SciTech Connect

    Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Junking, Mutita; Ngaojanlar, Piengpaga; Sukomon, Nattakan; Ungsupravate, Duangporn; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn; Noisakran, Sansanee; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Trafficking defect of kAE1 is a cause of dRTA but trafficking pathway of kAE1 has not been clearly described. {yields} Adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) was firstly reported to interact with kAE1. {yields} The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. {yields} AP-1 mu1A knockdown showed a marked reduction of kAE1 on the cell membrane and its accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum. {yields} AP-1 mu1A has a critical role in kAE1 trafficking to the plasma membrane. -- Abstract: Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride (Cl{sup -}) and bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney {alpha}-intercalated cells. Impaired trafficking of kAE1 leads to defect of the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3}{sup -} exchange at the basolateral membrane and failure of proton (H{sup +}) secretion at the apical membrane, causing a kidney disease - distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). To gain a better insight into kAE1 trafficking, we searched for proteins physically interacting with the C-terminal region of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1), which contains motifs crucial for intracellular trafficking, by a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. An adaptor-related protein complex 1 {mu}1A (AP-1 mu1A) subunit was found to interact with Ct-kAE1. The interaction between either Ct-kAE1 or full-length kAE1 and AP-1 mu1A were confirmed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T by co-immunoprecipitation, affinity co-purification, co-localization, yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA) and GST pull-down assay. The interacting site for AP-1 mu1A on Ct-kAE1 was found to be Y904DEV907, a subset of YXXO motif. Interestingly, suppression of endogenous AP-1 mu1A in HEK 293T by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased membrane localization of kAE1 and increased its intracellular accumulation, suggesting for the first time that AP-1 mu1A is involved in the kAE1

  3. Murine lupus susceptibility locus Sle1a requires the expression of two sub-loci to induce inflammatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Cuda, C M; Zeumer, L; Sobel, E S; Croker, B P; Morel, L

    2010-10-01

    The NZM2410-derived Sle1a lupus susceptibility locus induces activated autoreactive CD4(+) T cells and reduces the number and function of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). In this study, we first showed that Sle1a contributes to autoimmunity by increasing antinuclear antibody production when expressed on either NZB or NZW heterozygous genomes, and by enhancing the chronic graft versus host disease response indicating an expansion of the autoreactive B-cell pool. Screening two non-overlapping recombinants, the Sle1a.1 and Sle1a.2 intervals that cover the entire Sle1a locus, revealed that both Sle1a.1 and Sle1a.2 were necessary for the full Sle1a phenotype. Sle1a.1, and to a lesser extent Sle1a.2, significantly affected CD4(+) T-cell activation as well as Treg differentiation and function. Sle1a.2 also increased the production of autoreactive B cells. As the Sle1a.1 and Sle1a.2 intervals contain only 1 and 15 known genes, respectively, this study considerably reduces the number of candidate genes responsible for the production of autoreactive T cells. These results also show that the Sle1 locus is an excellent model for the genetic architecture of lupus, in which a major obligate phenotype results from the coexpression of multiple genetic variants with individual weak effects.

  4. [Castleman disease].

    PubMed

    Belletti, Gerardo A; Savio, Verónica; Minoldo, Daniel; Caminos, Susana; Yorio, Marcelo A

    2004-01-01

    A 66 years female, who was since last year under astenia, arthralgias, pimply lesions in spread plates and tests showing eritrosedimentation over 100 mm, anemi, leucocitosis with neutrofilia, policlonal hypergammaglobulinemia, slight proteinuria and IgE on 900. This patient was sporadically treated with corticoids. When made the medical consult had lost 34lb., was under anorexy, as well as dyspepsia. Hemoglobyn 6.9 gr/dl, leucocytes 20000/mm3, neutrofils at 90%, proteinogram the same as former, with hypoalbuminemia. She was taking prednisona, 16 mg/day. When examined showed depress of conscience, astenia, and dermic lesions already quoted. 4 cm nonpainful right axillary adenopaty adhered to deep planes. Medulogram with increased iron, hyperegenerative. Ganglionar biopsia: linfoid hyperplasic process linked to inmune response. Toracoabdominal tomography with adenomegalia in torax and retroperitoneo. Skin biopsia: neutrofilic vasculitis. The patient suspends the 16 mg of prednisona and fever as well as generalized adenopatias come up. After laying aside other ethiologies, and understanding as Castleman Multicentric disease, it is started to supply prednisona 1 mg/kg of weight with a clinical and biochemical fast and outstanding response. After 7 months it was progressively suspended the esteroids and 60 days later, the process fall back; for that, corticoids are restarted, with a good evolution. The illness of Castleman although it is not very frequent, it should be considered as differential diagnosis in those clinical cases that are accompanied with important general commitment, linphadenopaties and respons to steroid therapy.

  5. Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Benninger, David H

    2013-01-01

    In advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), the emergence of symptoms refractory to conventional therapy poses therapeutic challenges. The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of PD have raised interest in noninvasive brain stimulation as an alternative therapeutic tool. The rationale for its use draws from the concept that reversing abnormalities in brain activity and physiology thought to cause the clinical deficits may restore normal functioning. Currently the best evidence in support of this concept comes from DBS, which improves motor deficits, and modulates brain activity and motor cortex physiology, although whether a causal interaction exists remains largely undetermined. Most trials of noninvasive brain stimulation in PD have applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), targeting the motor cortex. Current studies suggest a possible therapeutic potential for rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), but clinical effects so far have been small and negligible with regard to functional independence and quality of life. Approaches to potentiate the efficacy of rTMS include increasing stimulation intensity and novel stimulation parameters that derive their rationale from studies on brain physiology. These novel parameters are intended to simulate normal firing patterns or to act on the hypothesized role of oscillatory activity in the motor cortex and basal ganglia with regard to motor control and its contribution to the pathogenesis of motor disorders. Noninvasive brain stimulation studies will enhance our understanding of PD pathophysiology and might provide further evidence for potential therapeutic applications.

  6. Identification of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 modulators using virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Kotraiah, Vinayaka; Pallares, Diego; Toema, Deanna; Kong, Dehe; Beausoleil, Eric

    2013-06-01

    The highly similar aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes (ALDH1A1 and ALDH2) have been implicated in the metabolism of toxic biogenic aldehydes such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) and 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal. We report the down-regulation of ALDH1A1 mRNA found in substantia nigra tissue of human Parkinson's disease (PD) samples using the Genome-Wide SpliceArray(™) (GWSA(™)) technology. Since DOPAL can rapidly inactivate ALDH1A1 in vitro, we set up a DOPAL-induced ALDH1A1 inactivation assay and used this assay to demonstrate that Alda-1, a compound originally identified as an activator of ALDH2, can also activate ALDH1A1. We carried out a virtual screening of 19,943 compounds and the top 21 hits from this screen were tested in the DOPAL inactivation assay with ALDH1A1 which led to identification of an activator as well as two inhibitors among these hits. These findings represent an attractive starting point for developing higher potency activator compounds that may have utility in restoring the metabolism of DOPAL in PD.

  7. Design and synthesis of dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Edward; Zhu, Xue Y; Etukala, Jagan R; Peprah, Kwakye; Jordan, Kamanski R; Adkins, Adia A; Bricker, Barbara A; Kang, Hye J; Huang, Xi-Ping; Roth, Bryan L; Ablordeppey, Seth Y

    2016-08-15

    5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors have been at the center of discussions recently due in part to their major role in the etiology of major central nervous system diseases such as depression, sleep disorders, and schizophrenia. As part of our search to identify dual targeting ligands for these receptors, we have carried out a systematic modification of a selective 5HT7 receptor ligand culminating in the identification of several dual 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor ligands. Compound 16, a butyrophenone derivative of tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ), was identified as the most potent agent with low nanomolar binding affinities to both receptors. Interestingly, compound 16 also displayed moderate affinity to other clinically relevant dopamine receptors. Thus, it is anticipated that compound 16 may serve as a lead for further exploitation in our quest to identify new ligands with the potential to treat diseases of CNS origin.

  8. The TNF-Family Cytokine TL1A Promotes Allergic Immunopathology through Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meylan, Françoise; Hawley, Eric T.; Barron, Luke; Barlow, Jillian L.; Penumetcha, Pallavi; Pelletier, Martin; Sciumè, Giuseppe; Richard, Arianne C.; Hayes, Erika T.; Gomez-Rodriguez, Julio; Chen, Xi; Paul, William E.; Wynn, Thomas A.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.; Siegel, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    The TNF-family cytokine TL1A (TNFSF15) costimulates T cells and promotes diverse T-cell dependent models of autoimmune disease through its receptor DR3. TL1A polymorphisms also confer susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease. Here we find that allergic pathology driven by constitutive TL1A expression depends on IL-13, but not T, NKT, mast cells or commensal intestinal flora. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) express surface DR3 and produce IL-13 and other type 2 cytokines in response to TL1A. DR3 is required for ILC2 expansion and function in the setting of T cell dependent and independent models of allergic disease. By contrast, DR3 deficient ILC2 can still differentiate, expand and produce IL-13 when stimulated by IL-25 or IL-33, and mediate expulsion of intestinal helminths. These data identify costimulation of ILC2 as a novel function of TL1A important for allergic lung disease, and suggest that TL1A may be a therapeutic target in these settings. PMID:24368564

  9. Directed evolution of a soluble human DR3 receptor for the inhibition of TL1A induced cytokine secretion

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Itay; Zaretsky, Marianna; Aharoni, Amir

    2017-01-01

    TNF-like 1A (TL1A) is a cytokine belonging to the TNF superfamily that promotes inflammation in autoimmune diseases. Inhibiting the interaction of TL1A with the endogenous death-domain receptor 3 (DR3) offers a therapeutic approach for treating TL1A-induced autoimmune diseases. Here, we generated improved DR3 variants showing increased TL1A binding affinity and stability using a directed evolution approach. Given the high cysteine content and post-translational modification of DR3, we employed yeast surface display and expression in mammalian cell lines for screening, expression and characterization of improved DR3 variants. A cell-based assay performed with the human TF-1 cell line and CD4+ T cells showed that two improved DR3 mutants efficiently inhibited TL1A-induced cell death and secretion of IFN-γ, respectively. These DR3 mutants can be used as drug candidates for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases and for other autoimmune diseases, including rheumatic arthritis and asthma. PMID:28278297

  10. Fatty Liver Disease (Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Meetings & Events Technology Advancement & Transfer Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  11. Treatment for Peptic Ulcer Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Meetings & Events Technology Advancement & Transfer Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition ...

  12. Prognostic value of plasma levels of HIF-1a and PGC-1a in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xin; Cai, Lu; Lin, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Su; Biskup, Ewelina

    2016-01-01

    Cellular adaptive mechanisms are crucial for tumorigenesis and a common feature in solid tumor progression. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) facilitates the biological response to hypoxia, advancing angiogenesis and metastatic potential of the tumor. The peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivators 1α (PGC-1α) enhances mitochondrial biogenesis, favored by migratory/invasive cancer cells. We conducted a prospective, long-term follow up study to determine whether HIF-1α and PGC-1α can be implemented as predictive biomarker in breast cancer. HIF-1α and PGC-1α plasma concentrations were measured in patients and in healthy controls by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay. Breast cancer patients had significantly higher HIF-1α and PGC-1α levels, which correlated with clinicopathological features, overall with more aggressive cancer characteristics. Disease free and overall survival of breast cancer patients with high HIF-1α and PGC-1α were significantly poorer than in patients with low plasma levels. In multivariate analysis, high amount of PGC-1α showed independent prognostic value. Our data suggests that HIF-1α and PGC-1α may be promising, noninvasive, biomarkers with a high potential for future clinical implication to identify subgroups of patients with poorer prognosis and to indicate early, subclinical metastasis. PMID:27780920

  13. Prognostic value of plasma levels of HIF-1a and PGC-1a in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cai, Feng-Feng; Xu, Cheng; Pan, Xin; Cai, Lu; Lin, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Su; Biskup, Ewelina

    2016-11-22

    Cellular adaptive mechanisms are crucial for tumorigenesis and a common feature in solid tumor progression. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) facilitates the biological response to hypoxia, advancing angiogenesis and metastatic potential of the tumor. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivators 1α (PGC-1α) enhances mitochondrial biogenesis, favored by migratory/invasive cancer cells. We conducted a prospective, long-term follow up study to determine whether HIF-1α and PGC-1α can be implemented as predictive biomarker in breast cancer. HIF-1α and PGC-1α plasma concentrations were measured in patients and in healthy controls by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay. Breast cancer patients had significantly higher HIF-1α and PGC-1α levels, which correlated with clinicopathological features, overall with more aggressive cancer characteristics. Disease free and overall survival of breast cancer patients with high HIF-1α and PGC-1α were significantly poorer than in patients with low plasma levels. In multivariate analysis, high amount of PGC-1α showed independent prognostic value. Our data suggests that HIF-1α and PGC-1α may be promising, noninvasive, biomarkers with a high potential for future clinical implication to identify subgroups of patients with poorer prognosis and to indicate early, subclinical metastasis.

  14. Glomerulocystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Siroky, Brian J.; Yin, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Glomerulocystic disease is a rare renal cystic disease with a long descriptive history. Findings from recent studies have significantly advanced the pathophysiological understanding of the disease processes leading to this peculiar phenotype. Many genetic syndromes associated with glomerulocystic disease have had their respective proteins localized to primary cilia or centrosomes. Transcriptional control of renal developmental pathways is dysregulated in obstructive diseases that also lead to glomerulocystic disease, emphasizing the importance of transcriptional choreography between renal development and renal cystic disease. PMID:20091054

  15. Mycoplasmas in diseases of humans.

    PubMed Central

    Embree, J E; Embil, J A

    1980-01-01

    The roles of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, M. hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in diseases of humans are currently under investigation. M. pneumoniae, which causes primary atypical pneumonia, is a well established pathogen of the respiratory tract. Complications of infection by this organism are also being recognized; they include disorders of the hematopoietic, cardiovascular, central nervous, musculoskeletal, cutaneous and gastrointestinal systems. The roles of the genital mycoplasmas M. hominis and U. urealyticum are controversial but may include infections of the genitourinary tract and in pregnancy as well as diseases of the newborn, such as neonatal pneumonia and meningitis. In this review atypical pneumonia due to M. pneumoniae is described and the role of mycoplasmas in other diseases is discussed. Images FIG. 1A FIG. 1B FIG. 2 PMID:6790148

  16. Catalytic function of avian cytochrome P450 1A4 and 1A5 (CYP1A4 and CYP1A5) enzymes heterologously expressed using in vitro yeast system.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Akira; Iwata, Hisato; Kim, Eun-Young

    2008-07-01

    The present study clarifies the enzymatic properties of two avian cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) paralogs, CYP1A4 and 1A5, using a yeast-based vector system. Recombinant CYP1A4 and 1A5 proteins from common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) were expressed in yeast cells, and showed typical reduced CO-difference spectra with a peak at 446 nm. Kinetic analysis of O-dealkylase of methoxy-, ethoxy-, pentoxy- and benzyloxyresorufin catalyzed by the CYP1A enzymes revealed that Vmax value for ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was much higher than that for the other three O-dealkylase activities for both isozymes. Interestingly, remarkable substrate specificity of the CYP1As was observed for O-dealkylation of benzyloxyresorufin and methoxyresorufin; CYP1A4 was highly specific for catalyzing benzyloxyresorufin-O-debenzylase activity, whereas CYP1A5 was more efficient in catalyzing methoxyresorufin-O-demethylase activity. The present study also measured CYP1A-dependent EROD activity in the presence of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) to evaluate the ability of this dioxin-like congener to inhibit the EROD activity. One hundred nanomolar TCDF noncompetitively inhibited CYP1A5-dependent EROD activity, although no inhibitory effect was detected for CYP1A4-dependent EROD activity. These results indicate that the avian CYP1A paralogs have different affinities for substrate and inhibitor, thus suggesting their distinct physiological and toxicological roles.

  17. 26 CFR 1.148-1A - Definitions and elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions and elections. 1.148-1A Section 1.148-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX....148-1A Definitions and elections. (a) . For guidance see § 1.148-1. (b) Certain...

  18. An ELISA DYRK1A non-radioactive assay suitable for the characterization of inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Adayev, Tatyana; Hwang, Yu-Wen

    2017-01-01

    The DYRK1A (dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A) gene encodes a proline-directed Ser/Thr kinase. Elevated expression and/or altered distribution of the kinase have been implicated in the neurological impairments associated with Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Consequently, DYRK1A inhibition has been of significant interest as a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention of DS and AD. Many classes of novel inhibitors have been described in the past decade. Although non-radioactive methods for analyzing DYRK1A inhibition have been developed, methods employing radioactive tracers are still commonly used for quantitative characterization of DYRK1A inhibitors. Here, we present a non-radioactive ELISA assay based on the detection of DYRK1A-phosphorylated dynamin 1a fragment using a phosphorylation site-specific antibody. The assay was verified by the use of two well-characterized DYRK1A inhibitors, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and harmine. The IC 50s for EGCG and harmine determined by the ELISA method were found to be comparable to those previously measured by radioactive tracing methods.  Furthermore, we determined the mode of inhibition for EGCG and harmine by a modification of the ELISA assay. This assay confirms the mode of inhibition of EGCG (non-ATP-competitive) and harmine (ATP-competitive), as previously determined. We conclude that the ELISA platform demonstrated here is a viable alternative to the traditional radioactive tracer assays for analyzing DYRK1A inhibitors. PMID:28163906

  19. Ghrelin Modulates Physiologic and Pathologic Retinal Angiogenesis through GHSR-1a

    PubMed Central

    Zaniolo, Karine; Sapieha, Przemyslaw; Shao, Zhuo; Stahl, Andreas; Zhu, Tang; Tremblay, Sophie; Picard, Emilie; Madaan, Ankush; Blais, Martine; Lachapelle, Pierre; Mancini, Joseph; Hardy, Pierre; Smith, Lois E. H.; Ong, Huy

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Vascular degeneration and the ensuing abnormal vascular proliferation are central to proliferative retinopathies. Given the metabolic discordance associated with these diseases, the authors explored the role of ghrelin and its growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR-1a) in proliferative retinopathy. Methods. In a rat model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), the contribution of ghrelin and GHSR-1a was investigated using the stable ghrelin analogs [Dap3]-ghrelin and GHRP6 and the GSHR-1a antagonists JMV-2959 and [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6. Plasma and retinal levels of ghrelin were analyzed by ELISA, whereas retinal expression and localization of GHSR-1a were examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The angiogenic and vasoprotective properties of ghrelin and its receptor were further confirmed in aortic explants and in models of vaso-obliteration. Results. Ghrelin is produced locally in the retina, whereas GHSR-1a is abundantly expressed in retinal endothelial cells. Ghrelin levels decrease during the vaso-obliterative phase and rise during the proliferative phase of OIR. Intravitreal delivery of [Dap3]-ghrelin during OIR significantly reduces retinal vessel loss when administered during the hyperoxic phase. Conversely, during the neovascular phase, ghrelin promotes pathologic angiogenesis through the activation of GHSR-1a. These angiogenic effects were confirmed ex vivo in aortic explants. Conclusions. New roles were disclosed for the ghrelin-GHSR-1a pathway in the preservation of retinal vasculature during the vaso-obliterative phase of OIR and during the angiogenic phase of OIR. These findings suggest that the ghrelin-GHSR-1a pathway can exert opposing effects on retinal vasculature, depending on the phase of retinopathy, and thus holds therapeutic potential for proliferative retinopathies. PMID:21642627

  20. Wound healing genes and susceptibility to cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil: Role of COL1A1

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Lucas; Oliveira, Joyce; Guimarães, Luiz Henrique; Carvalho, Edgar M; Blackwell, Jenefer M

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a role for wound healing genes in resolution of cutaneous lesions caused by Leishmania spp. in both mice and humans, including the gene FLI1 encoding Friend leukaemia virus integration 1. Reduction of Fli1 expression in mice has been shown to result in up-regulation of collagen type I alpha 1 (Col1a1) and alpha 2 (Col1a2) genes and, conversely, in down-regulation of the matrix metalloproteinase 1 (Mmp1) gene, suggesting that Fli1 suppression is involved in activation of the profibrotic gene program. Here we examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes as risk factors for cutaneous (CL) and mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), and leishmaniasis per se, caused by L. braziliensis in humans. SNPs were genotyped in 168 nuclear families (250 CL; 87 ML cases) and replicated in 157 families (402 CL; 39 ML cases). Family-based association tests (FBAT) showed the strongest association between SNPs rs1061237 (combined P=0.002) and rs2586488 (combined P=0.027) at COL1A1 and CL disease. This contributes to our further understanding of the role of wound healing in the resolution of CL disease, providing potential for therapies modulating COL1A1 via drugs acting on FLI1. PMID:25562121

  1. The Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup H1a1a-M82 Reveals the Likely Indian Origin of the European Romani Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ajai Kumar; Singh, Vipin Kumar; Karmin, Monika; Singh, Manvendra; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Anugula, Sharath; Yadav, Brijesh Kumar; Singh, Ashish; Srinivasagan, Ramkumar; Yadav, Anita; Kashyap, Manju; Narvariya, Sapna; Reddy, Alla G.; Underhill, Peter A.; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2012-01-01

    Linguistic and genetic studies on Roma populations inhabited in Europe have unequivocally traced these populations to the Indian subcontinent. However, the exact parental population group and time of the out-of-India dispersal have remained disputed. In the absence of archaeological records and with only scanty historical documentation of the Roma, comparative linguistic studies were the first to identify their Indian origin. Recently, molecular studies on the basis of disease-causing mutations and haploid DNA markers (i.e. mtDNA and Y-chromosome) supported the linguistic view. The presence of Indian-specific Y-chromosome haplogroup H1a1a-M82 and mtDNA haplogroups M5a1, M18 and M35b among Roma has corroborated that their South Asian origins and later admixture with Near Eastern and European populations. However, previous studies have left unanswered questions about the exact parental population groups in South Asia. Here we present a detailed phylogeographical study of Y-chromosomal haplogroup H1a1a-M82 in a data set of more than 10,000 global samples to discern a more precise ancestral source of European Romani populations. The phylogeographical patterns and diversity estimates indicate an early origin of this haplogroup in the Indian subcontinent and its further expansion to other regions. Tellingly, the short tandem repeat (STR) based network of H1a1a-M82 lineages displayed the closest connection of Romani haplotypes with the traditional scheduled caste and scheduled tribe population groups of northwestern India. PMID:23209554

  2. Mapping of the gene for the Mel{sub 1a}-melatonin receptor to human chromosome 4 (MTNR1A) and mouse chromosome 8 (Mtnr1a)

    SciTech Connect

    Slaugenhaupt, S.A. |; Liebert, C.B.; Altherr, M.R.

    1995-05-20

    The pineal hormone melatonin elicits potent circadian and reproductive effects in mammals. The authors report the chromosomal location of the gene for the Mel{sub 1a}-melatonin receptor that likely mediates these circadian and reproductive actions. PCR analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids showed that the receptor gene (MTNR1A) maps to human chromosome 4q35.1. An interspecific backcross analysis revealed that the mouse gene (Mtnr1a) maps to the proximal portion of chromosome 8. These loci may be involved in genetically based circadian and neuroendocrine disorders. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Are Novel Inhibitors of Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenghao; Zhu, Ling; Chan, Ting; Lu, Xiaoxi; Shen, Weiyong; Madigan, Michele C; Gillies, Mark C; Zhou, Fanfan

    2016-02-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are widely used to treat malaria and inflammatory diseases, long-term usage of which often causes severe side effects, especially retinopathy. Solute carrier transporters (SLCs) are important proteins responsible for the cellular uptake of endogenous and exogenous substances. Inhibitors competing with transporter substrates for SLCs often results in unfavorable toxicities and unsatisfactory therapeutic outcomes. We investigated the inhibitory effect of CQ and HCQ on substrate uptake mediated through a range of important SLC transporters in overexpressing human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Our data revealed that both CQ and HCQ potently inhibit the uptake activity of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2). We recently reported OATP1A2 to be expressed in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), where it mediates cellular uptake of all-trans-retinol (atROL), a key step in the classical visual cycle. In this study, we demonstrate that CQ and HCQ could markedly impair atROL uptake in OATP1A2-expressing HEK293 cells and more importantly, in primary human RPE cells. Our study shows that CQ and HCQ are novel inhibitors of OATP1A2 and significantly impair OATP1A2-mediated substrate uptake, particularly transport of atROL into the RPE. This effect may compromise the function of the classic visual cycle leading to vision impairment and contribute to the retinopathy observed clinically in patients using CQ or HCQ.

  4. De novo mutations in ATP1A3 cause alternating hemiplegia of childhood

    PubMed Central

    Heinzen, Erin L.; Swoboda, Kathryn J.; Hitomi, Yuki; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Nicole, Sophie; de Vries, Boukje; Tiziano, F. Danilo; Fontaine, Bertrand; Walley, Nicole M.; Heavin, Sinéad; Panagiotakaki, Eleni; Fiori, Stefania; Abiusi, Emanuela; Di Pietro, Lorena; Sweney, Matthew T.; Newcomb, Tara M.; Viollet, Louis; Huff, Chad; Jorde, Lynn B.; Reyna, Sandra P.; Murphy, Kelley J.; Shianna, Kevin V.; Gumbs, Curtis E.; Little, Latasha; Silver, Kenneth; Ptác̆ek, Louis J.; Haan, Joost; Ferrari, Michel D.; Bye, Ann M.; Herkes, Geoffrey K.; Whitelaw, Charlotte M.; Webb, David; Lynch, Bryan J.; Uldall, Peter; King, Mary D.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Neri, Giovanni; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M.J.M.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Mikati, Mohamad A.; Goldstein, David B.; Nicole, Sophie; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Neri, Giovanni; de Vries, Boukje; Koelewijn, Stephany; Kamphorst, Jessica; Geilenkirchen, Marije; Pelzer, Nadine; Laan, Laura; Haan, Joost; Ferrari, Michel; van den Maagdenberg, Arn; Zucca, Claudio; Bassi, Maria Teresa; Franchini, Filippo; Vavassori, Rosaria; Giannotta, Melania; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Granata, Tiziana; Nardocci, Nardo; De Grandis, Elisa; Veneselli, Edvige; Stagnaro, Michela; Gurrieri, Fiorella; Neri, Giovanni; Vigevano, Federico; Panagiotakaki, Eleni; Oechsler, Claudia; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Nicole, Sophie; Giannotta, Melania; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Ninan, Miriam; Neville, Brian; Ebinger, Friedrich; Fons, Carmen; Campistol, Jaume; Kemlink, David; Nevsimalova, Sona; Laan, Laura; Peeters-Scholte, Cacha; van den Maagdenberg, Arn; Casaer, Paul; Casari, Giorgio; Sange, Guenter; Spiel, Georg; Boneschi, Filippo Martinelli; Zucca, Claudio; Bassi, Maria Teresa; Schyns, Tsveta; Crawley, Francis; Poncelin, Dominique; Vavassori, Rosaria

    2012-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare, severe neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by recurrent hemiplegic episodes and distinct neurologic manifestations. AHC is usually a sporadic disorder with unknown etiology. Using exome sequencing of seven patients with AHC, and their unaffected parents, we identified de novo nonsynonymous mutations in ATP1A3 in all seven AHC patients. Subsequent sequence analysis of ATP1A3 in 98 additional patients revealed that 78% of AHC cases have a likely causal ATP1A3 mutation, including one inherited mutation in a familial case of AHC. Remarkably, six ATP1A3 mutations explain the majority of patients, including one observed in 36 patients. Unlike ATP1A3 mutations that cause rapid-onset-dystonia-parkinsonism, AHC-causing mutations revealed consistent reductions in ATPase activity without effects on protein expression. This work identifies de novo ATP1A3 mutations as the primary cause of AHC, and offers insight into disease pathophysiology by expanding the spectrum of phenotypes associated with mutations in this gene. PMID:22842232

  5. Distribution of composite CYP1A1 genotypes in Africans, African-Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Garte, S J; Trachman, J; Crofts, F; Toniolo, P; Buxbaum, J; Bayo, S; Taioli, E

    1996-01-01

    We present the genotype distribution of the CYP1A1 gene in a sample of over 300 subjects of various ethnic origins. Genotypes are presented as composites of eight possible alleles, taking into account the three major polymorphisms, including a recently described African-American-specific MspI RFLP. A new nomenclature system is presented for clarifying the various haplotypes. Interesting interracial differences in allelic frequencies and admixture rates were observed for the three polymorphisms. Because of the importance of the CYP1A1 gene (which encodes the aromatic hydrocarbon hydroxylase) as a biomarker of genetic susceptibility to environmental carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, these data may provide a useful reference for future studies of relationships between CYP1A1 genotype and disease susceptibility.

  6. Hepatic coma culminating in severe brain damage in a child with a SCN1A mutation.

    PubMed

    Nishri, Daniella; Blumkin, Lubov; Lev, Dorit; Leshinsky-Silver, Esther; Abu-Rashid, Mohammad; Birch, Rachael; Zuberi, Sameer M; Lerman-Sagie, Tally

    2010-09-01

    An 11 months old boy, developed liver failure after febrile status epilepticus while being treated with valproic acid for myoclonic epilepsy and recurrent partial and generalized seizures. The diagnosis of Alpers-Huttenlocher disease was considered. A muscle biopsy showed mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial DNA depletion was ruled out. Sequencing of the polymerase gamma gene (POLG1) did not detect any mutations. Sequencing of the alpha-1 subunit gene of the voltage-gated neuronal sodium channel (SCN1A) revealed a novel, de novo amino acid change p.Val 1637 Glu. This case expands the spectrum of clinical presentations related to mutations in SCN1A. We warn that children with SCN1A mutations may be at risk for developing liver failure following status epilepticus, due to mitochondrial dysfunction.

  7. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  8. Strong synergistic induction of CYP1A1 expression by andrographolide plus typical CYP1A inducers in mouse hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Jaruchotikamol, Atika; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan Sirisangtrakul, Wanna; Sakuma, Tsutomu; Kawasaki, Yuki; Nemoto, Nobuo

    2007-10-15

    The effects of andrographolide, the major diterpenoid constituent of Andrographis paniculata, on the expression of cytochrome P450 superfamily 1 members, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, as well as on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression in primary cultures of mouse hepatocytes were investigated in comparison with the effects of typical CYP1A inducers, including benz[a]anthracene, {beta}-naphthoflavone, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Andrographolide significantly induced the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs in a concentration-dependent manner, as did the typical CYP1A inducers, but did not induce that of CYP1B1 or AhR. Interestingly, andrographolide plus the typical CYP1A inducers synergistically induced CYP1A1 expression, and the synergism was blocked by an AhR antagonist, resveratrol. The CYP1A1 enzyme activity showed a similar pattern of induction. This is the first report that shows that andrographolide has a potency to induce CYP1A1 enzyme and indicates that andrographolide could be a very useful compound for investigating the regulatory mechanism of the CYP1A1 induction pathway. In addition, our findings suggest preparing advice for rational administration of A. paniculata, according to its ability to induce CYP1A1 expression.

  9. Filaggrin inhibits generation of CD1a neolipid antigens by house dust mite derived phospholipase

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Rachael; Salio, Mariolina; Lloyd-Lavery, Antonia; Subramaniam, Sumithra; Bourgeois, Elvire; Archer, Charles; Cheung, Ka Lun; Hardman, Clare; Chandler, David; Salimi, Maryam; Gutowska-Owsiak, Danuta; de la Serna, Jorge Bernardino; Fallon, Padraic G.; Jolin, Helen; Mckenzie, Andrew; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Podobas, Ewa Izabela; Bal, Wojciech; Johnson, David; Moody, D Branch

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic skin disease in which barrier dysfunction and cutaneous inflammation play a role in pathogenesis. Mechanisms underlying the associated inflammation are not fully understood, and while CD1a-expressing Langerhans cells are known to be enriched within lesions, their role in clinical disease pathogenesis has not been studied. Here we observed that house dust mite (HDM) generates neolipid antigens for presentation by CD1a to T cells in the blood and skin lesions of affected individuals. HDM-responsive CD1a-reactive T cells increased in frequency after birth and showed rapid effector function, consistent with antigen-driven maturation. To define the underlying mechanisms, we analyzed HDM-challenged human skin and observed allergen-derived phospholipase (PLA2) activity in vivo. CD1a-reactive T cell activation was dependent on HDM-derived PLA2 and such cells infiltrated the skin after allergen challenge. Filaggrin insufficiency is associated with atopic dermatitis, and we observed that filaggrin inhibits PLA2 activity and inhibits CD1a-reactive PLA2-generated neolipid-specific T cell activity from skin and blood. The most widely used classification schemes of hypersensitivity, such as Gell and Coombs are predicated on the idea that non-peptide stimulants of T cells act as haptens that modify peptides or proteins. However our results point to a broader model that does not posit haptenation, but instead shows that HDM proteins generate neolipid antigens which directly activate T cells. Specifically, the data identify a pathway of atopic skin inflammation, in which house dust mite-derived phospholipase A2 generates antigenic neolipids for presentation to CD1a-reactive T cells, and define PLA2 inhibition as a function of filaggrin, supporting PLA2 inhibition as a therapeutic approach. PMID:26865566

  10. Occurrence of Crohn's disease with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Curry, Sadie E; Kennelly, Kathleen D; Tacik, Pawel; Heckman, Michael G; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Strongosky, Audrey J; van Gerpen, Jay A; Uitti, Ryan J; Ross, Owen A; Ikezu, Tsuneya; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2017-02-10

    We retrospectively investigated the co-occurrence of Crohn's disease in a cohort of 876 patients with Parkinson's disease, based on the observation that LRRK2 is a shared genetic risk factor. We identified 2 patients with Crohn's disease; this number was consistent with the number of cases expected in the general population.

  11. Alzheimer's Disease: The Death of the Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Lynn W.

    1987-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease, a form of dementia in middle-age and older adults is becoming more evident because of growing numbers of older people and better diagnosis and detection methods. Describes the behavioral and physical symptoms of the disease as well as specific suggestions for care of patients with Alzheimer's disease, including dealing with…

  12. Adenovirus E1A protein activates transcription of the E1A gene subsequent to transcription complex formation.

    PubMed Central

    Schaack, J; Logan, J; Vakalopoulou, E; Shenk, T

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of transcriptional activation of the adenovirus E1A and E3 genes by E1A protein during infection was examined by using transcription-competition assays. Infection of HeLa cells with one virus led to inhibition of mRNA accumulation from a superinfecting virus. Synthesis of the E1A 289R protein by the first virus to infect reduced inhibition of transcription of the superinfecting virus, indicating that the E1A 289R protein was limiting for E1A-activated transcription. Infection with an E1A- virus, followed 6 h later by superinfection with a wild-type virus, led to preferential transcriptional activation of the E1A gene of the first virus, suggesting that a host transcription component(s) stably associated with the E1A promoter in the absence of E1A protein and that this complex was the substrate for transcriptional activation by E1A protein. The limiting host transcription component(s) bound to the E1A promoter to form a complex with a half-life greater than 24 h in the absence of E1A 289R protein, as demonstrated in a challenge assay with a large excess of superinfecting virus. In the presence of the E1A 289R protein, the E1A gene of the superinfecting virus was gradually activated with a reduction in E1A mRNA accumulation from the first virus. The kinetics of the activation suggest that this was due to an indirect effect rather than to destabilization of stable transcription complexes by the 289R protein. Images PMID:1825853

  13. Tay-Sachs Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Tay-Sachs disease is a rare, inherited disease. It is a type of lipid metabolism disorder. It causes too ... cells, causing mental and physical problems. . Infants with Tay-Sachs disease appear to develop normally for the first few ...

  14. Anemia of chronic disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease Long-term infections, such as bacterial endocarditis, osteomyelitis (bone infection), HIV/AIDS , hepatitis B or hepatitis ... disease Crohn disease Erythropoietin test Juvenile idiopathic arthritis Osteomyelitis Rheumatic fever Ulcerative colitis Review Date 2/1/ ...

  15. Mitochondrial Disease: Possible Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Instagram Email Menu Understanding Mitochondrial Disease What is Mito? What is Mitochondrial Disease? Types of Mitochondrial Disease ... Program Frequently Asked Questions Newly Diagnosed Treatments & Therapies Mito 101 MitoFIRST Handbook Current Clinical Trials & Studies Community ...

  16. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... system. Some people are born with an arrhythmia. Heart valve diseases occur when one of the four valves in ... heart attack, heart disease, or infection, can cause heart valve diseases. Some people are born with heart valve problems. ...

  17. Pediatric Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses Print Share Celiac Disease Many kids have sensitivities to certain foods, ... protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. Pediatric Celiac Disease If your child has celiac disease, consuming ...

  18. Gum (Periodontal) Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Gum (Periodontal) Disease What Is Gum (Periodontal) Disease? An Infection of the Gums and Surrounding Tissues Gum (periodontal) disease is an infection of the gums and surrounding ...

  19. Paget's Disease of Bone

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Paget's Disease of Bone What is Paget's Disease of Bone? Click for more information Enlarged and Misshapen Bones Paget's disease of bone causes affected bones to ...

  20. Tay-Sachs disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001417.htm Tay-Sachs disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Tay-Sachs disease is a life-threatening disease of the nervous ...

  1. Treatment for Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease How do doctors treat celiac disease? A gluten-free diet Doctors treat celiac disease with a ... absorb nutrients from food into the bloodstream normally. Gluten-free diet and dermatitis herpetiformis If you have ...

  2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... work? How does inflammatory bowel disease interfere with digestion? Who gets inflammatory bowel disease? How is inflammatory ... top How does inflammatory bowel disease interfere with digestion? When the small intestine becomes inflamed, as in ...

  3. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Nov 4,2016 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  4. Parkinson disease - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Your doctor has told you that you have Parkinson disease . This disease affects the brain and leads ... have you take different medicines to treat your Parkinson disease and many of the problems that may ...

  5. What's Mad Cow Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Mad Cow Disease? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Mad Cow Disease? A A A You might have heard news reports about mad cow disease and wondered: What the heck is that? ...

  6. Ebola Virus Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Ebola virus disease Fact sheet Updated January 2016 Key facts ... survivors of Ebola virus disease Symptoms of Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the time ...

  7. Penile Curvature (Peyronie's Disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... autoimmune diseases associated with Peyronie’s disease affect connective tissues. Connective tissue is specialized tissue that supports, joins, or ... penis are more likely to develop Peyronie’s disease. Connective Tissue and Autoimmune Disorders Men who have certain connective ...

  8. Lyme disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Lyme disease is an acute inflammatory disease characterized by skin changes, joint inflammation and symptoms similar to the ... that is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi . Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of a deer ...

  9. What Is Crohn's Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are Crohn's & Colitis? > What is Crohn’s Disease? Crohn’s Disease is a Chronic Condition By understanding your ... live a full and rewarding life What is Crohn’s Disease? Email Print + Share Named after Dr. Burrill ...

  10. von Willebrand Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Von Willebrand Disease? Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is a bleeding disorder. ... while hemophilia mainly affects males. Types of von Willebrand Disease The three major types of VWD are called ...

  11. Adult Still's disease

    MedlinePlus

    Still's disease - adult; AOSD ... than 1 out of 100,000 people develop adult-onset Still's disease each year. It affects women more often than men. The cause of adult Still's disease is unknown. No risk factors for ...

  12. Diabetic Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... be coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure, and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetes by itself puts you at risk for heart disease. Other risk factors include Family history of heart disease Carrying extra ...

  13. Mitral Valve Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Disease Diseases of the arteries, valves, and aorta, as well as cardiac rhythm disturbances Aortic Valve ... are two main types of mitral valve disease: Stenosis – the valve does not open enough to allow ...

  14. Thyroid Disease and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... in girls, and muscle weakness. Graves disease , an autoimmune disease, is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. The ... toes thy-roy-DYE-tiss) is also an autoimmune disease and is the most common cause of hypothyroidism ...

  15. Liver Disease and IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Resources > Liver Disease and IBD Go Back Liver Disease and IBD Email Print + Share Several complications ... be necessary to make the definitive diagnosis. FATTY LIVER DISEASE (HEPATCI STEATOSIS) This is the most common ...

  16. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider ...

  17. Heart disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - heart disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on heart disease: American Heart Association -- www.heart.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/heartdisease

  18. Kidney disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - kidney disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on kidney disease: National Kidney Disease Education Program -- www.nkdep.nih.gov National Kidney Foundation -- www.kidney.org National ...

  19. Spinal Cord Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases Autoimmune diseases Degenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinal muscular atrophy Symptoms vary but might include pain, numbness, loss of sensation and muscle weakness. These symptoms can occur around the spinal ...

  20. Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses The Basics Would ...