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Sample records for 1b fig 1c

  1. The role of myosin 1c and myosin 1b in surfactant exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kittelberger, Nadine; Breunig, Markus; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Miklavc, Pika

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Actin and actin-associated proteins have a pivotal effect on regulated exocytosis in secretory cells and influence pre-fusion as well as post-fusion stages of exocytosis. Actin polymerization on secretory granules during the post-fusion phase (formation of an actin coat) is especially important in cells with large secretory vesicles or poorly soluble secretions. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells secrete hydrophobic lipo-protein surfactant, which does not easily diffuse from fused vesicles. Previous work showed that compression of actin coat is necessary for surfactant extrusion. Here, we investigate the role of class 1 myosins as possible linkers between actin and membranes during exocytosis. Live-cell microscopy showed translocation of fluorescently labeled myosin 1b and myosin 1c to the secretory vesicle membrane after fusion. Myosin 1c translocation was dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Expression of myosin 1b and myosin 1c constructs influenced vesicle compression rate, whereas only the inhibition of myosin 1c reduced exocytosis. These findings suggest that class 1 myosins participate in several stages of ATII cell exocytosis and link actin coats to the secretory vesicle membrane to influence vesicle compression. PMID:26940917

  2. The role of myosin 1c and myosin 1b in surfactant exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kittelberger, Nadine; Breunig, Markus; Martin, René; Knölker, Hans-Joachim; Miklavc, Pika

    2016-04-15

    Actin and actin-associated proteins have a pivotal effect on regulated exocytosis in secretory cells and influence pre-fusion as well as post-fusion stages of exocytosis. Actin polymerization on secretory granules during the post-fusion phase (formation of an actin coat) is especially important in cells with large secretory vesicles or poorly soluble secretions. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells secrete hydrophobic lipo-protein surfactant, which does not easily diffuse from fused vesicles. Previous work showed that compression of actin coat is necessary for surfactant extrusion. Here, we investigate the role of class 1 myosins as possible linkers between actin and membranes during exocytosis. Live-cell microscopy showed translocation of fluorescently labeled myosin 1b and myosin 1c to the secretory vesicle membrane after fusion. Myosin 1c translocation was dependent on its pleckstrin homology domain. Expression of myosin 1b and myosin 1c constructs influenced vesicle compression rate, whereas only the inhibition of myosin 1c reduced exocytosis. These findings suggest that class 1 myosins participate in several stages of ATII cell exocytosis and link actin coats to the secretory vesicle membrane to influence vesicle compression.

  3. CYP1B1 C4326G polymorphism and susceptibility to cervical cancer in Chinese Han women.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Tan, Shi-Qiao; Ma, Qian-Hong; Li, Lei; Huang, Zhong-Ying; Wang, Yan; Li, Shang-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a key P450 enzyme, which could catalyze the formation of 4-hydroxy estrogen metabolites and play a role in estrogen-dependent cancers. We hypothesized that genetic variant in CYP1B1 may modify individual susceptibility to cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between CYP1B1 C4326G polymorphism and cervical cancer risk in Chinese women. We extracted the peripheral blood samples in 250 patients with cervical cancer and 250 female controls. The matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method and direct DNA sequencing were performed to detect the polymorphism. The frequencies of CC, CG, and GG genotypes of CYP1B1 C4326G in cases and controls were 66.0, 26.8, 7.2% and 75.2, 21.6, and 3.2%, respectively, and there was a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.034). Compared with the wild-type CC genotype, the variant GG genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of cervical cancer (adjusted OR = 2.30; 95% CI = 1.02, 5.50). Moreover, stratification analysis by age, smoking, drinking, human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 or 18 carrier status, and family history of cervical cancer, we found that the variant genotypes containing the G allele were associated with a significantly increased risk of cervical cancer among HPV 16 or 18-positive individuals (adjusted OR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.45, 5.62) and among women younger than 45 years old (adjusted OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.03, 3.37). These results suggest that CYP1B1 C4326G polymorphism may increase risk of cervical cancer in Chinese women, especially among young individuals with high-risk HPV infection.

  4. FOXM1b, which is present at elevated levels in cancer cells, has a greater transforming potential than FOXM1c

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Andy K. Y.; Ngan, Adaline W. L.; Leung, Man-Hong; Kwok, Davis C. T.; Liu, Vincent W. S.; Chan, David W.; Leung, Wai Y.; Yao, Kwok-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The forkhead box (FOX) M1 transcription factor is required to maintain the proliferation of cancer cells. Two transcriptionally active isoforms of FOXM1, FOXM1b and FOXM1c, have been identified, but their functional differences remain unclear. FOXM1c is distinguished from FOXM1b by an extra exon (exon Va) that contains an ERK1/2 target sequence. Based on a literature search and quantitative PCR analysis, we concluded that FOXM1b is the predominant isoform that is overexpressed in cancers. The further characterization of FOXM1b and FOXM1c revealed two interesting differences. First, FOXM1b exhibited a higher transforming ability than FOXM1c in a soft agar assay. Second, the transactivating activity of FOXM1c, but not that of FOXM1b, was sensitive to activation by RAF/MEK/MAPK signaling. Importantly, the MEK1 activation of FOXM1c was associated with proteolytic processing to generate short forms that might represent constitutively active forms missing the N-terminal inhibitory domain; in contrast, the proteolytic processing of FOXM1b did not require MEK1 activation. Our findings suggest that FOXM1b is functionally more active. These results provide novel insights into the regulation of FOXM1 activity and its role in tumorigenesis. PMID:23386997

  5. RNA Binding Proteins RZ-1B and RZ-1C Play Critical Roles in Regulating Pre-mRNA Splicing and Gene Expression during Development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhe; Zhu, Danling; Lin, Xiaoya; Miao, Jin; Gu, Lianfeng; Deng, Xian; Zhu, Danmeng; Cao, Xiaofeng; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Dean, Caroline; Aoyama, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins are involved in various aspects of RNA metabolism, which in turn modulates gene expression. However, the functions of nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins in plants are poorly understood. Here, we report the functions of two proteins containing RNA recognition motifs, RZ-1B and RZ-1C, in Arabidopsis thaliana. RZ-1B and RZ-1C were localized to nuclear speckles and interacted with a spectrum of serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins through their C termini. RZ-1C preferentially bound to purine-rich RNA sequences in vitro through its N-terminal RNA recognition motif. Disrupting the RNA binding activity of RZ-1C with SR proteins through overexpression of the C terminus of RZ-1C conferred defective phenotypes similar to those observed in rz-1b rz-1c double mutants, including delayed seed germination, reduced stature, and serrated leaves. Loss of function of RZ-1B and RZ-1C was accompanied by defective splicing of many genes and global perturbation of gene expression. In addition, we found that RZ-1C directly targeted FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), promoting efficient splicing of FLC introns and likely also repressing FLC transcription. Our findings highlight the critical role of RZ-1B/1C in regulating RNA splicing, gene expression, and many key aspects of plant development via interaction with proteins including SR proteins. PMID:26721863

  6. Basal and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl-induced expression of cytochrome P450 1A, 1B and 1C genes in zebrafish

    SciTech Connect

    Joensson, Maria E. . E-mail: mjonsson@whoi.edu; Orrego, Rodrigo; Woodin, Bruce R.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

    2007-05-15

    The cytochrome P4501C (CYP1C) gene subfamily was recently discovered in fish, and zebrafish (Danio rerio) CYP1C1 transcript has been cloned. Here we cloned the paralogous CYP1C2, showing that the amino acid sequence is 78% identical to CYP1C1, and examined gene structure and expression of CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2. Xenobiotic response elements were observed upstream of the coding regions in all four genes. Zebrafish adults and embryos were exposed (24 h) to 100 nM 3,3',4,4',5-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB126) or 20 ppm acetone and subsequently held in clean water for 24 h (adults) or 48 h (embryos). All adult organs examined (eye, gill, heart, liver, kidney, brain, gut, and gonads) and embryos showed basal expression of the four genes. CYP1A was most strongly expressed in liver, whereas CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2 were most strongly expressed in heart and eye. CYP1B1 and the CYP1C genes showed an expression pattern similar to one another and to mammalian CYP1B1. In embryos CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 tended to have a higher basal expression than CYP1A and CYP1B1. PCB126 induced CYP1A in all organs, and CYP1B1 and CYP1C1 in all organs except gonads, or gonads and brain, respectively. CYP1C2 induction was significant only in the liver. However, in embryos all four genes were induced strongly by PCB126. The results are consistent with CYP1C1 and CYP1C2, as well as CYP1A and CYP1B1, being regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. While CYP1A may have a protective role against AHR agonists in liver and gut, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2 may also play endogenous roles in eye and heart and possibly other organs, as well as during development.

  7. Biophysical Analysis of Anopheles gambiae Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C and Their Interaction with LRIM1

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Marni; Summers, Brady J.; Baxter, Richard H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Natural infection of Anopheles gambiae by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites is significantly influenced by the APL1 genetic locus. The locus contains three closely related leucine-rich repeat (LRR) genes, APL1A, APL1B and APL1C. Multiple studies have reported the participation of APL1A—C in the immune response of A. gambiae to invasion by both rodent and human Plasmodium isolates. APL1C forms a heterodimer with the related LRR protein LRIM1 via a C-terminal coiled-coil domain that is also present in APL1A and APL1B. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer protects A. gambiae from infection by binding the complement-like protein TEP1 to form a stable and active immune complex. Here we report solution x-ray scatting data for the LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer, the oligomeric state of LRIM1/APL1 LRR domains in solution and the crystal structure of the APL1B LRR domain. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimeric complex has a flexible and extended structure in solution. In contrast to the APL1A, APL1C and LRIM1 LRR domains, the APL1B LRR domain is a homodimer. The crystal structure of APL1B-LRR shows that the homodimer is formed by an N-terminal helix that complements for the absence of an N-terminal capping motif in APL1B, which is a unique distinction within the LRIM1/APL1 protein family. Full-length APL1A1 and APL1B form a stable complex with LRIM1. These results support a model in which APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C can all form an extended, flexible heterodimer with LRIM1, providing a repertoire of functional innate immune complexes to protect A. gambiae from a diverse array of pathogens. PMID:25775123

  8. Biophysical Analysis of Anopheles gambiae Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C and Their Interaction with LRIM1

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Marni; Summers, Brady J.; Baxter, Richard H. G.; Kobe, Bostjan

    2015-03-16

    Natural infection of Anopheles gambiae by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites is significantly influenced by the APL1 genetic locus. The locus contains three closely related leucine-rich repeat (LRR) genes, APL1A, APL1B and APL1C. Multiple studies have reported the participation of APL1A—C in the immune response of A. gambiae to invasion by both rodent and human Plasmodium isolates. APL1C forms a heterodimer with the related LRR protein LRIM1 via a C-terminal coiled-coil domain that is also present in APL1A and APL1B. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer protects A. gambiae from infection by binding the complement-like protein TEP1 to form a stable and active immune complex. We report solution x-ray scatting data for the LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer, the oligomeric state of LRIM1/APL1 LRR domains in solution and the crystal structure of the APL1B LRR domain. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimeric complex has a flexible and extended structure in solution. In contrast to the APL1A, APL1C and LRIM1 LRR domains, the APL1B LRR domain is a homodimer. The crystal structure of APL1B-LRR shows that the homodimer is formed by an N-terminal helix that complements for the absence of an N-terminal capping motif in APL1B, which is a unique distinction within the LRIM1/APL1 protein family. Full-length APL1A1 and APL1B form a stable complex with LRIM1. Our results support a model in which APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C can all form an extended, flexible heterodimer with LRIM1, providing a repertoire of functional innate immune complexes to protect A. gambiae from a diverse array of pathogens.

  9. Biophysical Analysis of Anopheles gambiae Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C and Their Interaction with LRIM1

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Marni; Summers, Brady J.; Baxter, Richard H. G.; ...

    2015-03-16

    Natural infection of Anopheles gambiae by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites is significantly influenced by the APL1 genetic locus. The locus contains three closely related leucine-rich repeat (LRR) genes, APL1A, APL1B and APL1C. Multiple studies have reported the participation of APL1A—C in the immune response of A. gambiae to invasion by both rodent and human Plasmodium isolates. APL1C forms a heterodimer with the related LRR protein LRIM1 via a C-terminal coiled-coil domain that is also present in APL1A and APL1B. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer protects A. gambiae from infection by binding the complement-like protein TEP1 to form a stable and active immune complex.more » We report solution x-ray scatting data for the LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer, the oligomeric state of LRIM1/APL1 LRR domains in solution and the crystal structure of the APL1B LRR domain. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimeric complex has a flexible and extended structure in solution. In contrast to the APL1A, APL1C and LRIM1 LRR domains, the APL1B LRR domain is a homodimer. The crystal structure of APL1B-LRR shows that the homodimer is formed by an N-terminal helix that complements for the absence of an N-terminal capping motif in APL1B, which is a unique distinction within the LRIM1/APL1 protein family. Full-length APL1A1 and APL1B form a stable complex with LRIM1. Our results support a model in which APL1A1, APL1B and APL1C can all form an extended, flexible heterodimer with LRIM1, providing a repertoire of functional innate immune complexes to protect A. gambiae from a diverse array of pathogens.« less

  10. Replication Study of ESCC Susceptibility Genetic Polymorphisms Locating in the ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 Cluster Identified by GWAS

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoling; Pan, Wenting; Ge, Yunxia; Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Chao; Gao, Jia; Yang, Ming; Mao, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    China was one of the countries with highest esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) incidence and mortality worldwide. Alcohol drinking has been identified as a major environmental risk-factor related to ESCC. The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family are major enzymes involved in the alcohol-metabolizing pathways, including alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) and ADH1C. Interestingly, ADH1B and ADH1C genes locate tandemly with ADH7 in a genomic segment as a gene cluster, and are all polymorphic. Several ESCC susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster have been identified previously through a genome-wide association study (GWAS). In the study, we examined the association between five ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster SNPs (rs1042026, rs17033, rs1614972, rs1789903 and rs17028973) and risk of developing ESCC. Genotypes were determined in two independent case-control sets from two regions of China. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. Our data demonstrated that these ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster SNPs confer susceptibility to ESCC in these two case-control sets, which were consistent to results of the previous GWAS. PMID:24722735

  11. Replication study of ESCC susceptibility genetic polymorphisms locating in the ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster identified by GWAS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiwen; Wei, Jinyu; Xu, Xiaoling; Pan, Wenting; Ge, Yunxia; Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Chao; Gao, Jia; Yang, Ming; Mao, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    China was one of the countries with highest esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) incidence and mortality worldwide. Alcohol drinking has been identified as a major environmental risk-factor related to ESCC. The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family are major enzymes involved in the alcohol-metabolizing pathways, including alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) and ADH1C. Interestingly, ADH1B and ADH1C genes locate tandemly with ADH7 in a genomic segment as a gene cluster, and are all polymorphic. Several ESCC susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster have been identified previously through a genome-wide association study (GWAS). In the study, we examined the association between five ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster SNPs (rs1042026, rs17033, rs1614972, rs1789903 and rs17028973) and risk of developing ESCC. Genotypes were determined in two independent case-control sets from two regions of China. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by logistic regression. Our data demonstrated that these ADH1B-ADH1C-ADH7 cluster SNPs confer susceptibility to ESCC in these two case-control sets, which were consistent to results of the previous GWAS.

  12. Genetic polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 in Turkish alcoholics: lack of association with alcoholism and alcoholic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Vatansever, Sezgin; Tekin, Fatih; Salman, Esin; Altintoprak, Ender; Coskunol, Hakan; Akarca, Ulus Salih

    2015-05-17

    No data exists regarding the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene polymorphisms in Turkish alcoholic cirrhotics. We studied the polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 genes in alcoholic cirrhotics and compared the results with non-cirrhotic alcoholics and healthy volunteers. Overall, 237 subjects were included for the study: 156 alcoholic patients (78 cirrhotics, 78 non-cirrhotic alcoholics) and 81 healthy volunteers. Three different single-nucleotide-polymorphism genotyping methods were used. ADH1C genotyping was performed using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The identified ADH1C genotypes were named according to the presence or absence of the enzyme restriction sites. ADH1B (Arg47Hys) genotyping was performed using the allele specific primer extension method, and ALDH2 (Glu487Lys) genotyping was performed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction using two allele-specific primer pairs. For ADH1B, the frequency of allele *1 in the cirrhotics, non-cirrhotic alcoholics and healthy volunteers was 97.4%, 94.9% and 99.4%, respectively. For ADH1C, the frequency of allele *1 in the cirrhotics, non-cirrhotic alcoholics and healthy volunteers was 47%, 36.3% and 45%, respectively. There was no statistical difference between the groups for ADH1B and ADH1C (p>0.05). All alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects (100%) had the allele *1 for ALDH2. The obtained results for ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH gene polymorphisms in the present study are similar to the results of Caucasian studies. ADH1B and ADH1C genetic variations are not related to the development of alcoholism or susceptibility to alcoholic cirrhosis. ALDH2 gene has no genetic variation in the Turkish population.

  13. Genetic variants in or near ADH1B and ADH1C affect susceptibility to alcohol dependence in a British and Irish population.

    PubMed

    Way, Michael; McQuillin, Andrew; Saini, Jit; Ruparelia, Kush; Lydall, Gregory J; Guerrini, Irene; Ball, David; Smith, Iain; Quadri, Giorgia; Thomson, Allan D; Kasiakogia-Worlley, Katherine; Cherian, Raquin; Gunwardena, Priyanthi; Rao, Harish; Kottalgi, Girija; Patel, Shamir; Hillman, Audrey; Douglas, Ewen; Qureshi, Sherhzad Y; Reynolds, Gerry; Jauhar, Sameer; O'Kane, Aideen; Dedman, Alex; Sharp, Sally; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Dar, Karim; Curtis, David; Morgan, Marsha Y; Gurling, Hugh M D

    2015-05-01

    Certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes confer a significant protective effect against alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS) in East Asian populations. Recently, attention has focused on the role of these SNPs in determining ADS risk in European populations. To further elucidate these associations, SNPs of interest in ADH1B, ADH1C and the ADH1B/1C intergenic region were genotyped in a British and Irish population (ADS cases n = 1076: controls n = 1027) to assess their relative contribution to ADS risk. A highly significant, protective association was observed between the minor allele of rs1229984 in ADH1B and ADS risk [allelic P = 8.4 × 10(-6) , odds ratio (OR) = 0.26, 95 percent confidence interval, 0.14, 0.49]. Significant associations were also observed between ADS risk and the ADH1B/1C intergenic variant, rs1789891 [allelic P = 7.2 × 10(-5) , OR = 1.4 (1.2, 1.6)] and three non-synonymous SNPs rs698, rs1693482 and rs283413 in ADH1C. However, these associations were not completely independent; thus, while the ADH1B rs1229984 minor allele association was independent of those of the intergenic variant rs1789891 and the three ADH1C variants, the three ADH1C variants were not individually independent. In conclusion, the rare ADH1B rs1229984 mutation provides significant protection against ADS in this British and Irish population; other variants in the ADH gene cluster also alter ADS risk, although the strong linkage disequilibrium between SNPs at this location precluded clear identification of the variant(s) driving the associations.

  14. Cellular expression of isoforms of endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1c, ECE-1b and ECE-1a) and endothelin-converting enzyme-2.

    PubMed

    Davenport, A P; Kuc, R E

    2000-11-01

    Our aim was to compare the cellular expression of endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) isoforms and ECE-2 using immunocytochemistry in normal and diseased human tissue. Intense ECE-1b immunoreactivity was present within renal and pulmonary epithelial cells with lower levels of staining displayed by ECE-1c, ECE-1a and ECE-2 antisera. Staining was detected with all antisera (except ECE-1a) within the endothelium of renal and pulmonary vessels having a range of lumen diameters as well as pial arteries and intracerebral vessels penetrating brain. ECE-1b, ECE-1c and ECE-2 immunoreactivity was localized to perivascular astrocytes and neuronal processes in the cerebral cortex. In diseased vessels, ECE-1c, ECE-1b and ECE-2 antisera stained macrophages infiltrating atherosclerotic plaques within coronary arteries. These results suggest ECE-1b and ECE-2 may be widely expressed in normal tissue from humans and inhibition of ECE-1 isoforms and ECE-2 expressed by cells such as macrophages in pathophysiological tissue may be an additional therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease.

  15. Crystal structures of human sulfotransferases SULT1B1 and SULT1C1 complexed with the cofactor product adenosine-3'- 5'-diphosphate (PAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Dombrovski, Luidmila; Dong, Aiping; Bochkarev, Alexey; Plotnikov, Alexander N.

    2008-09-17

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs), often referred as Phase II enzymes of chemical defense, are a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a sulfonate group from 3{prime}-phosphoadenosine 5{prime}-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to an acceptor group of substrates. This reaction modulates the activities of a large array of small endogenous and foreign chemicals including drugs, toxic compounds, steroid hormones, and neurotransmitters. In some cases, however, SULTs activate certain food and environmental compounds to mutagenenic and carcinogenic metabolites. Twelve human SULTs have been identified, which are partitioned into three families: SULT1, SULT2 and SULT4. The SULT1 family is further divided in four subfamilies, A, B, C, and E, and comprises eight members (1A1, 1A2, 1A3, 1B1, 1C1, 1C2, 1C3, and 1E1). Despite sequence and structural similarity among the SULTs, the family and subfamily members appear to have different biological function. SULT1 family shows substrate-binding specificity for simple phenols, estradiol, and thyroid hormones, as well as environmental xenobiotics and drugs. Human SULT1B1 is expressed in liver, colon, small intestine, and blood leukocytes, and shows substrate-binding specificity to thyroid hormones and benzylic alcohols. Human SULT1C1 is expressed in the adult stomach, kidney, and thyroid, as well as in fetal kidney and liver. SULT1C1 catalyzes the sulfonation of p-nitrophenol and N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene in vitro. However, the in vivo function of the enzyme remains unknown. We intend to solve the structures for all of the SULTs for which structural information is not yet available, and compare the structural and functional features of the entire SULT superfamily. Here we report the structures of two members of SULT1 family, SULT1B1 and SULT1C1, both in complex with the product of the PAPS cofactor, adenosine-3{prime}-5{prime}-diphosphate (PAP).

  16. β1-C121W Is Down But Not Out: Epilepsy-Associated Scn1b-C121W Results in a Deleterious Gain-of-Function

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Larisa C.; O'Malley, Heather A.; Hull, Jacob M.; Kleeman, Amanda; Patino, Gustavo A.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) β subunits signal through multiple pathways on multiple time scales. In addition to modulating sodium and potassium currents, β subunits play nonconducting roles as cell adhesion molecules, which allow them to function in cell–cell communication, neuronal migration, neurite outgrowth, neuronal pathfinding, and axonal fasciculation. Mutations in SCN1B, encoding VGSC β1 and β1B, are associated with epilepsy. Autosomal-dominant SCN1B-C121W, the first epilepsy-associated VGSC mutation identified, results in genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). This mutation has been shown to disrupt both the sodium-current-modulatory and cell-adhesive functions of β1 subunits expressed in heterologous systems. The goal of this study was to compare mice heterozygous for Scn1b-C121W (Scn1b+/W) with mice heterozygous for the Scn1b-null allele (Scn1b+/−) to determine whether the C121W mutation results in loss-of-function in vivo. We found that Scn1b+/W mice were more susceptible than Scn1b+/− and Scn1b+/+ mice to hyperthermia-induced convulsions, a model of pediatric febrile seizures. β1-C121W subunits are expressed at the neuronal cell surface in vivo. However, despite this, β1-C121W polypeptides are incompletely glycosylated and do not associate with VGSC α subunits in the brain. β1-C121W subcellular localization is restricted to neuronal cell bodies and is not detected at axon initial segments in the cortex or cerebellum or at optic nerve nodes of Ranvier of Scn1bW/W mice. These data, together with our previous results showing that β1-C121W cannot participate in trans-homophilic cell adhesion, lead to the hypothesis that SCN1B-C121W confers a deleterious gain-of-function in human GEFS+ patients. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The mechanisms underlying genetic epilepsy syndromes are poorly understood. Closing this gap in knowledge is essential to the development of new medicines to treat epilepsy. We have used mouse models to

  17. Pharmacogenetics of OATP Transporters Reveals That SLCO1B1 c.388A>G Variant Is Determinant of Increased Atorvastatin Response

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Alice C.; Perin, Paula M. S.; Purim, Sheila G.; Silbiger, Vivian N.; Genvigir, Fabiana D. V.; Willrich, Maria Alice V.; Arazi, Simone S.; Luchessi, Andre D.; Hirata, Mario H.; Bernik, Marcia M. S.; Dorea, Egidio L.; Santos, Carla; Faludi, Andre A.; Bertolami, Marcelo C.; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria V.; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Carracedo, Angel; Hirata, Rosario D. C.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The relationship between variants in SLCO1B1 and SLCO2B1 genes and lipid-lowering response to atorvastatin was investigated. Material and Methods One-hundred-thirty-six unrelated individuals with hypercholesterolemia were selected and treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/day/4 weeks). They were genotyped with a panel of ancestry informative markers for individual African component of ancestry (ACA) estimation by SNaPshot® and SLCO1B1 (c.388A>G, c.463C>A and c.521T>C) and SLCO2B1 (−71T>C) gene polymorphisms were identified by TaqMan® Real-time PCR. Results Subjects carrying SLCO1B1 c.388GG genotype exhibited significantly high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction relative to c.388AA+c.388AG carriers (41 vs. 37%, p = 0.034). Haplotype analysis revealed that homozygous of SLCO1B1*15 (c.521C and c.388G) variant had similar response to statin relative to heterozygous and non-carriers. A multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that c.388GG genotype was associated with higher LDL cholesterol reduction in the study population (OR: 3.2, CI95%:1.3–8.0, p < 0.05). Conclusion SLCO1B1 c.388A>G polymorphism causes significant increase in atorvastatin response and may be an important marker for predicting efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:22016628

  18. Roles of aldo-keto reductases 1B10 and 1C3 and ATP-binding cassette transporter in docetaxel tolerance.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Saito, Haruhi; Endo, Satoshi; Iguchi, Kazuhiro; Soda, Midori; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira; Ikari, Akira

    2016-12-01

    Docetaxel (DTX) is widely used for treatment of inveterate lung and prostate cancers, but its continuous administration elicits the hyposensitivity. Here, we established the DTX-resistant variants of human lung cancer A549 and androgen-independent prostate cancer Du145 cells and found that the resistance development provoked aberrant up-regulations of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1B10 and AKR1C3 in A549 and Du145 cells, respectively. In addition, the sensitivity to the DTX toxicity was significantly decreased and increased by overexpression and knockdown of the two AKR isoforms, respectively. Furthermore, the resistant cells exhibited a decreased level of reactive 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal formed during DTX treatment, and the decrease was alleviated by adding the AKR inhibitors, inferring that the two AKRs confer the chemoresistance through elevating the antioxidant properties. The development of DTX resistance was also associated with enhanced expression of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB1 among the ABC transporter isoforms. The combined treatment with inhibitors of the two AKRs and ABCB1 additively sensitized the resistant cells to DTX. Intriguingly, the AKR1B10 inhibitor also suppressed the lung cancer cross-resistance against cisplatin. The results suggest that combined treatment with AKRs (1B10 and 1C3) and ABCB1 inhibitors exerts overcoming effect against the cancer resistance to DTX and cisplatin, and can be used as the adjuvant therapy.

  19. Mutations in the glucose-6-phosphatase gene are associated with glycogen storage disease types 1a and 1aSP but not 1b and 1c.

    PubMed

    Lei, K J; Shelly, L L; Lin, B; Sidbury, J B; Chen, Y T; Nordlie, R C; Chou, J Y

    1995-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1, which is caused by the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), is an autosomal recessive disease with heterogenous symptoms. Two models of G6Pase catalysis have been proposed to explain the observed heterogeneities. The translocase-catalytic unit model proposes that five GSD type 1 subgroups exist which correspond to defects in the G6Pase catalytic unit (1a), a stabilizing protein (1aSP), the glucose-6-P (1b), phosphate/pyrophosphate (1c), and glucose (1d) translocases. Conversely, the conformation-substrate-transport model suggests that G6Pase is a single multifunctional membrane channel protein possessing both catalytic and substrate (or product) transport activities. We have recently demonstrated that mutations in the G6Pase catalytic unit cause GSD type 1a. To elucidate whether mutations in the G6Pase gene are responsible for other GSD type 1 subgroups, we characterized the G6Pase gene of GSD type 1b, 1c, and 1aSP patients. Our results show that the G6Pase gene of GSD type 1b and 1c patients is normal, consistent with the translocase-catalytic unit model of G6Pase catalysis. However, a mutation in exon 2 that converts an Arg at codon 83 to a Cys (R83C) was identified in both G6Pase alleles of the type 1aSP patient. The R83C mutation was also demonstrated in one homozygous and five heterogenous GSD type 1a patients, indicating that type 1aSP is a misclassification of GSD type 1a. We have also analyzed the G6Pase gene of seven additional type 1a patients and uncovered two new mutations that cause GSD type 1a.

  20. Cytochrome P450 1A, 1B, and 1C mRNA induction patterns in three-spined stickleback exposed to a transient and a persistent inducer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Kai; Brandt, Ingvar; Goldstone, Jared V.; Jönsson, Maria E.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) mRNA induction patterns in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteous aculeatus) were explored for use in environmental monitoring of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists. The cDNAs of stickleback CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2 were cloned and their basal and induced expression patterns were determined in brain, gill, liver and kidney. Also, their induction time courses were compared after waterborne exposure to a transient (indigo) or a persistent (3,3′,4,4′,5-pentacholorbiphenyl PCB 126) AHR agonist. The cloned stickleback CYP1s exhibited a high amino acid sequence identity compared with their zebrafish orthologs and their constitutive tissue distribution patterns largely agree with those reported in other species. PCB 126 (100 nM) induced different CYP1 expression patterns in the four tissues, suggesting tissue-specific regulation. Both indigo (1 nM) and PCB 126 (10 nM) induced a strong CYP1 expression in gills. However, while PCB 126 gave rise to a high and persistent induction in gills and liver, induction by indigo was transient in both organs. The number of putative dioxin response elements found in each CYP1 gene promoter roughly reflected the induction levels of the genes. The high responsiveness of CYP1A, CYP1B1, and CYP1C1 observed in several organs suggests that three-spined stickleback is suitable for monitoring of pollution with AHR agonists. PMID:21354474

  1. Glucocorticoid receptor 1B and 1C mRNA transcript alterations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and their possible regulation by GR gene variants.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Duncan; Fullerton, Janice M; Webster, Maree J; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal patterns of HPA axis activation, under basal conditions and in response to stress, are found in individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA and protein expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in psychiatric illness have also been reported, but the cause of these abnormalities is not known. We quantified expression of GR mRNA transcript variants which employ different 5' promoters, in 35 schizophrenia cases, 31 bipolar disorder cases and 34 controls. We also explored whether sequence variation within the NR3C1 (GR) gene is related to GR mRNA variant expression. Total GR mRNA was decreased in the DLPFC in schizophrenia cases relative to controls (15.1%, p<0.0005) and also relative to bipolar disorder cases (8.9%, p<0.05). GR-1B mRNA was decreased in schizophrenia cases relative to controls (20.2%, p<0.05), while GR-1C mRNA was decreased in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder cases relative to controls (16.1% and 17.2% respectively, both p<0.005). A dose-dependent effect of rs10052957 genotype on GR-1B mRNA expression was observed, where CC homozygotes displayed 18.4% lower expression than TC heterozygotes (p<0.05), and 31.8% lower expression than TT homozygotes (p<0.005). Similarly, a relationship between rs6190 (R23K) genotype and GR-1C expression was seen, with 24.8% lower expression in GG homozygotes than GA heterozygotes (p<0.01). We also observed an effect of rs41423247 (Bcl1) SNP on expression of 67 kDa GRα isoform, the most abundant GRα isoform in the DLPFC. These findings suggest possible roles for the GR-1B and GR-1C promoter regions in mediating GR gene expression changes in psychotic illness, and highlight the potential importance of sequence variation within the NR3C1 gene in modulating GR mRNA expression in the DLPFC.

  2. A1C test

    MedlinePlus

    HbA1C test; Glycated hemoglobin test; Glycohemoglobin test; Hemoglobin A1C; Diabetes - A1C; Diabetic - A1C ... gov/pubmed/26696680 . Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb, glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, HbA1a, HbA1b, HbA1c - blood. ...

  3. Genetic polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2, alcohol consumption, and the risk of gastric cancer: the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Akihisa; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Sawada, Norie; Shimazu, Taichi; Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2015-02-01

    The association between alcohol consumption, genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and gastric cancer risk is not completely understood. We investigated the association between ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH1C (rs698) and ALDH2 (rs671) polymorphisms, alcohol consumption and the risk of gastric cancer among Japanese subjects in a population-based, nested, case-control study (1990-2004). Among 36 745 subjects who answered the baseline questionnaire and provided blood samples, 457 new gastric cancer cases matched to 457 controls were used in the analysis. The odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression models. No association was observed between alcohol consumption, ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH1C (rs698) and ALDH2 (rs671) polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk. However, considering gene-environmental interaction, ADH1C G allele carriers who drink ≥150 g/week of ethanol had a 2.5-fold increased risk of gastric cancer (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.05-6.17) relative to AA genotype carriers who drink 0 to <150 g/week (P for interaction = 0.02). ALDH2 A allele carriers who drink ≥150 g/week also had an increased risk (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.05-4.12) relative to GG genotype carriers who drink 0 to < 150 g/week (P for interaction = 0.08). To find the relation between alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk, it is important to consider both alcohol consumption level and ADH1C and ALDH2 polymorphisms.

  4. Genomic localization of the human genes TAF1A, TAF1B and TAF1C, encoding TAF(I)48, TAF(I)63 and TAF(I)110 subunits of class I general transcription initiation factor SL1.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, C; Rapisarda, A; Amico, V; Bonaiuto, C; Viola, A; Scalia, M; Motta, S; Amato, A; Engel, H; Messina, A; Sichel, G; Grzeschik, K; Purrello, M

    2000-01-01

    Human SL1 is a general transcription initiation factor (GTF) essential for RNA polymerase I to start rRNA synthesis at class I promoters. It is comprised of the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and three TBP-associated factors (TAF(I)48, TAF(I)63 and TAF(I)110). We have determined that the human genes TAF1A, TAF1B and TAF1C, encoding these three TAF(I) polypeptides, are localized at lq42, 2p25 and 16q24, respectively. All three genes are present as single copies in the human genome and map to different chromosomes, as shown by somatic cell hybrid panel and radiation hybrid panel analysis and FISH. Two of these genes, TAF1C and TAF1B, are transcribed into multiple RNAs, as determined through Northern analysis of mRNA from various human organs and cell lines. If translated into different polypeptides, this could result in production of variant isoforms of SL1 with different activation potentials.

  5. TES Level 1B

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    TES Level 1B data files contain radiometric calibrated spectral radiances and their ... and some engineering data are also provided. A Level 1B data file contains data from a single TES orbit for one focal ... as the Aura orbit number at the time of the South Pole apex crossing. version id represents the version identification number, ...

  6. How to be an ant on figs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Anthony; Harrison, Rhett D.; Schatz, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    Mutualistic interactions are open to exploitation by one or other of the partners and a diversity of other organisms, and hence are best understood as being embedded in a complex network of biotic interactions. Figs participate in an obligate mutualism in that figs are dependent on agaonid fig wasps for pollination and the wasps are dependent on fig ovules for brood sites. Ants are common insect predators and abundant in tropical forests. Ants have been recorded on approximately 11% of fig species, including all six subgenera, and often affect the fig-fig pollinator interaction through their predation of either pollinating and parasitic wasps. On monoecious figs, ants are often associated with hemipterans, whereas in dioecious figs ants predominantly prey on fig wasps. A few fig species are true myrmecophytes, with domatia or food rewards for ants, and in at least one species this is linked to predation of parasitic fig wasps. Ants also play a role in dispersal of fig seeds and may be particularly important for hemi-epiphytic species, which require high quality establishment microsites in the canopy. The intersection between the fig-fig pollinator and ant-plant systems promises to provide fertile ground for understanding mutualistic interactions within the context of complex interaction networks.

  7. Triton 2 (1B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Michelle L.; Meiss, A. G.; Neher, Jason R.; Rudolph, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project was to perform a detailed design analysis on a conceptually designed preliminary flight trainer. The Triton 2 (1B) must meet the current regulations in FAR Part 23. The detailed design process included the tasks of sizing load carrying members, pulleys, bolts, rivets, and fuselage skin for the safety cage, empennage, and control systems. In addition to the regulations in FAR Part 23, the detail design had to meet established minimums for environmental operating conditions and material corrosion resistance.

  8. Ecology of a fig ant-plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Rhett D.

    2014-05-01

    Mutualistic interactions are embedded in networks of interactions that affect the benefits accruing to the mutualistic partners. Figs and their pollinating wasps are engaged in an obligate mutualism in which the fig is dependent on the fig pollinator for pollination services and the pollinator is dependent on fig ovules for brood sites. This mutualism is exploited by non-pollinating fig wasps that utilise the same ovules, but do not provide a pollination service. Most non-pollinating wasps oviposit from outside the inflorescence (syconium), where they are vulnerable to ant predation. Ficus schwarzii is exposed to high densities of non-pollinating wasps, but Philidris sp. ants patrolling the syconia prevent them from ovipositing. Philidris rarely catch wasps, but the fig encourages the patrolling by providing a reward through extra-floral nectaries on the surface of syconia. Moreover, the reward is apparently only produced during the phase when parasitoids are ovipositing. An ant-exclusion experiment demonstrated that, in the absence of ants, syconia were heavily attacked and many aborted as a consequence. Philidris was normally rare on the figs during the receptive phase or at the time of day when wasp offspring are emerging, so predation on pollinators was limited. However, Myrmicaria sp. ants, which only occurred on three trees, preyed substantially on pollinating as well as non-pollinating wasps. F. schwarzii occurs in small clusters of trees and has an exceptionally rapid crop turnover. These factors appear to promote high densities of non-pollinating wasps and, as a consequence, may have led to both a high incidence of ants on trees and increased selective pressure on fig traits that increase the payoffs of the fig-ant interaction for the fig. The fig receives no direct benefit from the reward it provides, but protects pollinating wasps that will disperse its pollen.

  9. Ants use odour cues to exploit fig-fig wasp interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, Bertrand; Hossaert-McKey, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Fig wasps may constitute a relatively abundant food source for ants associated with the fig-fig wasp nursery pollination mutualism. We found previously that a Mediterranean ant species detects fig wasps by chemical signals. In this paper we want to test the generality of this finding by studying two tropical ants, Oecophylla smaragdina and Crematogaster sp., preying on fig wasps on the dioecious Ficus fistulosa in Brunei (Borneo). Behavioural tests in a Y-tube olfactometer showed that these two ants were attracted both to odours emitted by receptive figs and to those emitted by fig wasps (male and female of the pollinator, and a non-pollinating fig wasp) used here as a kairomone. Naïve workers were not attracted to fig wasps, suggesting that olfactory learning may play a role in prey detection. We also found that O. smaragdina was much more likely to be present on figs of male trees (where fig wasps are more abundant), and that the abundance of this ant species varied strongly with developmental phase of figs on individual trees. Moreover, its aggressiveness was also strongly influenced by the nature of the object presented in our behavioural tests, the site of the test and the developmental phase of the fig tested. Investigation on the chemical and behavioural ecology of the different interacting species provides important insights into the intricate relationships supported by the fig-fig wasp mutualism.

  10. A1C Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... eAG on their DiabetesPro web site . The NGSP web site also provides a calculator to convert hemoglobin A1c in SI units mmol/mol into percentage. ^ Back to top Is there anything else I should know? The A1c test will not reflect temporary, acute blood glucose increases ...

  11. A1C

    MedlinePlus

    A1C is a blood test for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. It measures your average blood glucose, or blood sugar, level over the past 3 ... A1C alone or in combination with other diabetes tests to make a diagnosis. They also use the ...

  12. Larger fig wasps are more careful about which figs to enter--with good reason.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Yang, Da-Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Peng, Yan-Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Floral longevity reflects a balance between gains in pollinator visitation and the costs of flower maintenance. Because rewards to pollinators change over time, older flowers may be less attractive, reducing the value of extended longevity. Un-pollinated figs, the inflorescences of Ficus species, can remain receptive for long periods, but figs that are older when entered by their host-specific fig wasp pollinators produce fewer seeds and fig wasp offspring. Our field experiments with Ficushispida, a dioecious fig tree, examined how the length of time that receptive figs have remained un-pollinated influences the behaviour and reproductive success of its short-lived fig wasp pollinator, Ceratosolensolmsi marchali. The results were consistent in three different seasons, and on male and female trees, although receptivity was greatly extended during colder months. Pollinators took longer to find the ostioles of older figs, and longer to penetrate them. They also became increasingly unwilling to enter figs as they aged, and increasing numbers of the wasps became trapped in the ostiolar bracts. Larger individuals were particularly unwilling to enter older figs, resulting in older figs being pollinated by smaller wasps. On female trees, where figs produce only seeds, seed production declined rapidly with fig age. On male trees, the numbers and size of fig wasp offspring declined, and a higher proportion were male. Older male figs are harder to enter, especially for larger individuals, and offer poorer quality oviposition opportunities. This study opens an interesting new perspective on the coevolution of figs and their pollinators, especially factors influencing pollinator body size and emphasises the subtleties of interactions between mutualists.

  13. Only pollinator fig wasps have males that collaborate to release their females from figs of an Asian fig tree.

    PubMed

    Suleman, Nazia; Raja, Shazia; Compton, Stephen G

    2012-06-23

    Male insects rarely collaborate with each other, but pollinator fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) are said to be an exception. Immature fig wasps feed on galled ovules located inside figs, the inflorescences of Ficus species (Moraceae). After mating, adult pollinator males chew communal exit-holes that allow mated females (which are often also their siblings) to escape. Figs also support non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFWs), some of which produce exit-holes independently. We determined whether collaboration between pollinator males (Kradibia tentacularis from Ficus montana) was necessary for the release of their females, and used the relationship between male numbers and likelihood of success to measure the extent of cooperation during exit-hole production. These attributes were then compared with those of an NPFW (Sycoscapter sp.) from the same host plant. Pollinators were more abundant than NPFW, but their more female-biased sex ratio meant male pollinator densities were only slightly higher. Individual males of both species could produce an exit-hole. Single males of the NPFW were just as successful as single male pollinators, but only male pollinators cooperated effectively, becoming more successful as their numbers increased. The lack of cooperation among NPFW may be linked to their earlier period of intense inter-male aggression.

  14. [Polymorphic markers of the CYP1B1 (4326C > G), CYP2F1 (c.14_15insC), CYP2J2 (-76G > T), and CYP2S1 (13106C > T and 13255A > G) genes and genetic predisposition to chronic respiratory diseases induced by smoking and occupational factors].

    PubMed

    Akhmadishina, L A; Korytina, G F; Victorova, T V

    2011-10-01

    The contribution of the polymorphic markers of cytochrome P450 genes to respiratory diseases caused by smoking and occupational factors has been assessed. For this purpose, PCR-RFLP analysis of the CYP1B1 (rs1056836, 4326C > G), CYP2F1 (rs11399890, c.14_15insC), CYP2J2 (rs890293, -76G > T), and CYP2S1 (rs34971233, 13106C > T and rs338583, 13255A > G) gene polymorphisms has been performed. The analysis has shown that the polymorphic variants of the CYP1B1 (rs1056836, 4326C > G) and CYP2F1 (rs11399890, c. 14_15insC) genes may contribute to the development of occupational chronic bronchitis. The proportion of CYP1B1* 1*3 heterozygotes in the group of patients with occupational chronic bronchitis is considerably greater than in the group of healthy workers (69.16% versus 53.29%; chi2 = 5.94, P = 0.02, P(cor) = 0.04, OR = 1.97, the 95% CI is 1.13-3.42). Patients with occupational chronic bronchitis and healthy workers significantly differed from each other in the frequency distribution of the genotypes ofthe CYP2F1 (rs11399890, c.14_15insC) polymorphic marker (chi2 = 6.18, d.f = 2, P = 0.05). The frequency of the wild type/ins heterozygous genotype for the CYP2F1 gene is higher in healthy workers (36.08%) than in patients (22.22%) (chi2 = 5.48, P = 0.02, P(cor) = 0.04, OR = 0.51, the 95% CI is 0.28-0.90). No association has been found between the CYP2J2 (rs890293, -76G > T) or CYP2S1 (rs34971233, 13106C > T, P466L and rs338583, 13255A > G) gene polymorphisms and respiratory diseases.

  15. Ancient fig wasps indicate at least 34 Myr of stasis in their mutualism with fig trees

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Stephen G.; Ball, Alexander D.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Hayes, Peta; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P.; Ross, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Fig wasps and fig trees are mutually dependent, with each of the 800 or so species of fig trees (Ficus, Moraceae) typically pollinated by a single species of fig wasp (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae). Molecular evidence suggests that the relationship existed over 65 Ma, during the Cretaceous. Here, we record the discovery of the oldest known fossil fig wasps, from England, dated at 34 Ma. They possess pollen pockets that contain fossil Ficus pollen. The length of their ovipositors indicates that their host trees had a dioecious breeding system. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy reveal that the fossil female fig wasps, and more recent species from Miocene Dominican amber, display the same suite of anatomical characters associated with fig entry and pollen-carrying as modern species. The pollen is also typical of modern Ficus. No innovations in the relationship are discernible for the last tens of millions of years. PMID:20554563

  16. Ancient fig wasps indicate at least 34 Myr of stasis in their mutualism with fig trees.

    PubMed

    Compton, Stephen G; Ball, Alexander D; Collinson, Margaret E; Hayes, Peta; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P; Ross, Andrew J

    2010-12-23

    Fig wasps and fig trees are mutually dependent, with each of the 800 or so species of fig trees (Ficus, Moraceae) typically pollinated by a single species of fig wasp (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae). Molecular evidence suggests that the relationship existed over 65 Ma, during the Cretaceous. Here, we record the discovery of the oldest known fossil fig wasps, from England, dated at 34 Ma. They possess pollen pockets that contain fossil Ficus pollen. The length of their ovipositors indicates that their host trees had a dioecious breeding system. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy reveal that the fossil female fig wasps, and more recent species from Miocene Dominican amber, display the same suite of anatomical characters associated with fig entry and pollen-carrying as modern species. The pollen is also typical of modern Ficus. No innovations in the relationship are discernible for the last tens of millions of years.

  17. The occurrence of fig wasps in the fruits of female gynodioecious fig trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Dunn, Derek W.; Hu, Hao-Yuan; Niu, Li-Ming; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Pan, Xian-Li; Feng, Gui; Fu, Yue-Guan; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Fig trees are pollinated by wasp mutualists, whose larvae consume some of the plant's ovaries. Many fig species (350+) are gynodioecious, whereby pollinators generally develop in the figs of 'male' trees and seeds generally in the 'females.' Pollinators usually cannot reproduce in 'female' figs at all because their ovipositors cannot penetrate the long flower styles to gall the ovaries. Many non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) species also only reproduce in figs. These wasps can be either phytophagous gallers or parasites of other wasps. The lack of pollinators in female figs may thus constrain or benefit different NPFWs through host absence or relaxed competition. To determine the rates of wasp occurrence and abundance we surveyed 11 dioecious fig species on Hainan Island, China, and performed subsequent experiments with Ficus tinctoria subsp. gibbosa to identify the trophic relationships between NPFWs that enable development in female syconia. We found NPFWs naturally occurring in the females of Ficus auriculata, Ficus hainanensis and F. tinctoria subsp. gibbosa. Because pollinators occurred only in male syconia, when NPFWs also occurred in female syconia, overall there were more wasps in male than in female figs. Species occurrence concurred with experimental data, which showed that at least one phytophagous galler NPFW is essential to enable multiple wasp species to coexist within a female fig. Individuals of galler NPFW species present in both male and female figs of the same fig species were more abundant in females than in males, consistent with relaxed competition due to the absence of pollinator. However, these wasps replaced pollinators on a fewer than one-to-one basis, inferring that other unknown mechanisms prevent the widespread exploitation by wasps of female figs. Because some NPFW species may use the holes chewed by pollinator males to escape from their natal fig, we suggest that dispersal factors could be involved.

  18. Critical review of host specificity and its coevolutionary implications in the fig/fig-wasp mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Carlos A.; Robbins, Nancy; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Herre, Edward Allen

    2005-01-01

    Figs (Ficus spp., Moraceae) and their pollinating wasps (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea) constitute perhaps the most tightly integrated pollination mutualism that is known. Figs are characterized by extraordinarily high global and local species diversity. It has been proposed that the diversification of this mutualism has occurred through strict-sense coadaptation and cospeciation between pairs of fig and wasp species that are associated in highly specific one-to-one relationships. However, existing studies cast doubt on the generality of this proposition. Here, we review our current knowledge of the evolutionary history of the fig/fig-wasp mutualism. We critically examine the idea that codivergence between figs and their pollinators has been dominated by strict-sense cospeciation. We present phylogenetic and population genetic data from neotropical fig and fig wasp species that suggest that a more accurate model for diversification in this mutualism is that of groups of genetically well defined wasp species coevolving with genetically less well defined (frequently hybridizing) groups of figs. Last, we use our results to assess previously proposed hypotheses on models of speciation in this mutualism. PMID:15851680

  19. Asymmetric interaction and indeterminate fitness correlation between cooperative partners in the fig-fig wasp mutualism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Sun, Bao-Fa; Zheng, Qi; Shi, Lei; Zhu, Lixing

    2011-10-07

    Empirical observations have shown that cooperative partners can compete for common resources, but what factors determine whether partners cooperate or compete remain unclear. Using the reciprocal fig-fig wasp mutualism, we show that nonlinear amplification of interference competition between fig wasps-which limits the fig wasps' ability to use a common resource (i.e. female flowers)-keeps the common resource unsaturated, making cooperation locally stable. When interference competition was manually prevented, the fitness correlation between figs and fig wasps went from positive to negative. This indicates that genetic relatedness or reciprocal exchange between cooperative players, which could create spatial heterogeneity or self-restraint, was not sufficient to maintain stable cooperation. Moreover, our analysis of field-collected data shows that the fitness correlation between cooperative partners varies stochastically, and that the mainly positive fitness correlation observed during the warm season shifts to a negative correlation during the cold season owing to an increase in the initial oviposition efficiency of each fig wasp. This implies that the discriminative sanction of less-cooperative wasps (i.e. by decreasing the egg deposition efficiency per fig wasp) but reward to cooperative wasps by fig, a control of the initial value, will facilitate a stable mutualism. Our finding that asymmetric interaction leading to an indeterminate fitness interaction between symbiont (i.e. cooperative actors) and host (i.e. recipient) has the potential to explain why conflict has been empirically observed in both well-documented intraspecific and interspecific cooperation systems.

  20. Asymmetric or diffusive co-evolution generates meta-populations in fig-fig wasp mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, RuiWu; Yang, Yan; Wiggins, Natasha L

    2014-06-01

    Co-evolutionary theory assumes co-adapted characteristics are a positive response to counter those of another species, whereby co-evolved species reach an evolutionarily stable interaction through bilateral adaptation. However, evidence from the fig-fig wasp mutualistic system implies very different co-evolutionary selection mechanisms, due to the inherent conflict among interacted partners. Fig plants appear to have discriminatively enforced fig wasps to evolve "adaptation characteristics" that provide greater benefit to the fig, and fig wasps appear to have diversified their evolutionary strategies in response to discriminative enforcement by figs and competition among different fig wasp species. In what appears to be an asymmetric interaction, the prosperity of cooperative pollinating wasps should inevitably lead to population increases of parasitic individuals, thus resulting in localized extinctions of pollinating wasps. In response, the sanctioning of parasitic wasps by the fig should lead to a reduction in the parasitic wasp population. The meta-populations created by such asymmetric interactions may result in each population of coevolved species chaotically oscillated, temporally or evolutionarily.

  1. Climate warming and the potential extinction of fig wasps, the obligate pollinators of figs

    PubMed Central

    Jevanandam, Nanthinee; Goh, Alexander G. R.; Corlett, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Figs (Ficus) have a reciprocally obligate mutualism with tiny, short-lived (1–2 days) fig wasps (Agaonidae). The small size and short life of these pollinators is expected to make them more vulnerable to climate change than their larger and longer-lived hosts. We experimentally tested the thermal tolerances of four species of adult female fig wasp from equatorial Singapore. The results suggest that an increase of 3°C or more above the current temperatures experienced across much of the equatorial tropics would markedly decrease the active adult lifespan of all four species. Fig plants are the centre of an intricate web of specialist and generalist animals. Unless fig wasps can acclimate or adapt to warmer temperatures in time, these responses may disrupt the mutualism, potentially affecting multiple trophic levels. PMID:23515979

  2. Climate warming and the potential extinction of fig wasps, the obligate pollinators of figs.

    PubMed

    Jevanandam, Nanthinee; Goh, Alexander G R; Corlett, Richard T

    2013-06-23

    Figs (Ficus) have a reciprocally obligate mutualism with tiny, short-lived (1-2 days) fig wasps (Agaonidae). The small size and short life of these pollinators is expected to make them more vulnerable to climate change than their larger and longer-lived hosts. We experimentally tested the thermal tolerances of four species of adult female fig wasp from equatorial Singapore. The results suggest that an increase of 3°C or more above the current temperatures experienced across much of the equatorial tropics would markedly decrease the active adult lifespan of all four species. Fig plants are the centre of an intricate web of specialist and generalist animals. Unless fig wasps can acclimate or adapt to warmer temperatures in time, these responses may disrupt the mutualism, potentially affecting multiple trophic levels.

  3. Strv1-b Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV-1b) is discussed. The STRV-1b is a small (100 watt) satellite flown by the British Defense Research Agency (DRA). The mission goal is to fly new and emerging space technologies at a more reasonable cost in a short-term timeframe. The STRV-1b's orbit can be described as a geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) with a perigee of 200 km, an apogee of 36,000 km (geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO)), and a period of 10.5 hours. The Phillips Laboratory plans to use the STRV-1b to test up to 20 advanced experimental photovoltaic cells. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  4. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1b injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  5. Diffusive coevolution and mutualism maintenance mechanisms in a fig-fig wasp system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Sun, Bao-Fa; Zheng, Qi

    2010-05-01

    In reciprocal mutualism systems, the exploitation events by exploiters might disrupt the reciprocal mutualism, wherein one exploiter species might even exclude other coexisting exploiter species over an evolutionary time frame. What remains unclear is how such a community is maintained. Niche partitioning, or spatial heterogeneity among the mutualists and exploiters, is generally believed to enable stability within a mutualistic system. However, our examination of a reciprocal mutualism between a fig species (Ficus racemosa) and its pollinator wasp (Ceratosolen fusciceps) shows that spatial niche partitioning does not sufficiently prevent exploiters from overexploiting the common resource (i.e., the female flowers), because of the considerable niche overlap between the mutualists and exploiters. In response to an exploiter, our experiment shows that the fig can (1) abort syconia-containing flowers that have been galled by the exploiter, Apocryptophagus testacea, which oviposits before the pollinators do; and (2) retain syconia-containing flowers galled by Apocryptophagus mayri, which oviposit later than pollinators. However, as a result of (2), there is decreased development of adult non-pollinators or pollinator species in syconia that have not been sufficiently pollinated, but not aborted. Such discriminative abortion of figs or reduction in offspring development of exploiters while rewarding cooperative individuals with higher offspring development by the fig will increase the fitness of cooperative pollinating wasps, but decrease the fitness of exploiters. The fig-fig wasp interactions are diffusively coevolved, a case in which fig wasps diversify their genotype, phenotype, or behavior as a result of competition between wasps, while figs diverge their strategies to facilitate the evolution of cooperative fig waps or lessen the detrimental behavior by associated fig wasps. In habitats or syconia that suffer overexploitation, discriminative abortion of figs or

  6. An Extreme Case of Plant–Insect Codiversification: Figs and Fig-Pollinating Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Cruaud, Astrid; Rønsted, Nina; Chantarasuwan, Bhanumas; Chou, Lien Siang; Clement, Wendy L.; Couloux, Arnaud; Cousins, Benjamin; Genson, Gwenaëlle; Harrison, Rhett D.; Hanson, Paul E.; Hossaert-Mckey, Martine; Jabbour-Zahab, Roula; Jousselin, Emmanuelle; Kerdelhué, Carole; Kjellberg, Finn; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Peebles, John; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo; Schramm, Tselil; Ubaidillah, Rosichon; van Noort, Simon; Weiblen, George D.; Yang, Da-Rong; Yodpinyanee, Anak; Libeskind-Hadas, Ran; Cook, James M.; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Savolainen, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    It is thought that speciation in phytophagous insects is often due to colonization of novel host plants, because radiations of plant and insect lineages are typically asynchronous. Recent phylogenetic comparisons have supported this model of diversification for both insect herbivores and specialized pollinators. An exceptional case where contemporaneous plant–insect diversification might be expected is the obligate mutualism between fig trees (Ficus species, Moraceae) and their pollinating wasps (Agaonidae, Hymenoptera). The ubiquity and ecological significance of this mutualism in tropical and subtropical ecosystems has long intrigued biologists, but the systematic challenge posed by >750 interacting species pairs has hindered progress toward understanding its evolutionary history. In particular, taxon sampling and analytical tools have been insufficient for large-scale cophylogenetic analyses. Here, we sampled nearly 200 interacting pairs of fig and wasp species from across the globe. Two supermatrices were assembled: on an average, wasps had sequences from 77% of 6 genes (5.6 kb), figs had sequences from 60% of 5 genes (5.5 kb), and overall 850 new DNA sequences were generated for this study. We also developed a new analytical tool, Jane 2, for event-based phylogenetic reconciliation analysis of very large data sets. Separate Bayesian phylogenetic analyses for figs and fig wasps under relaxed molecular clock assumptions indicate Cretaceous diversification of crown groups and contemporaneous divergence for nearly half of all fig and pollinator lineages. Event-based cophylogenetic analyses further support the codiversification hypothesis. Biogeographic analyses indicate that the present-day distribution of fig and pollinator lineages is consistent with a Eurasian origin and subsequent dispersal, rather than with Gondwanan vicariance. Overall, our findings indicate that the fig-pollinator mutualism represents an extreme case among plant–insect interactions of

  7. An extreme case of plant-insect codiversification: figs and fig-pollinating wasps.

    PubMed

    Cruaud, Astrid; Rønsted, Nina; Chantarasuwan, Bhanumas; Chou, Lien Siang; Clement, Wendy L; Couloux, Arnaud; Cousins, Benjamin; Genson, Gwenaëlle; Harrison, Rhett D; Hanson, Paul E; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Jabbour-Zahab, Roula; Jousselin, Emmanuelle; Kerdelhué, Carole; Kjellberg, Finn; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Peebles, John; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Pereira, Rodrigo Augusto Santinelo; Schramm, Tselil; Ubaidillah, Rosichon; van Noort, Simon; Weiblen, George D; Yang, Da-Rong; Yodpinyanee, Anak; Libeskind-Hadas, Ran; Cook, James M; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Savolainen, Vincent

    2012-12-01

    It is thought that speciation in phytophagous insects is often due to colonization of novel host plants, because radiations of plant and insect lineages are typically asynchronous. Recent phylogenetic comparisons have supported this model of diversification for both insect herbivores and specialized pollinators. An exceptional case where contemporaneous plant-insect diversification might be expected is the obligate mutualism between fig trees (Ficus species, Moraceae) and their pollinating wasps (Agaonidae, Hymenoptera). The ubiquity and ecological significance of this mutualism in tropical and subtropical ecosystems has long intrigued biologists, but the systematic challenge posed by >750 interacting species pairs has hindered progress toward understanding its evolutionary history. In particular, taxon sampling and analytical tools have been insufficient for large-scale cophylogenetic analyses. Here, we sampled nearly 200 interacting pairs of fig and wasp species from across the globe. Two supermatrices were assembled: on an average, wasps had sequences from 77% of 6 genes (5.6 kb), figs had sequences from 60% of 5 genes (5.5 kb), and overall 850 new DNA sequences were generated for this study. We also developed a new analytical tool, Jane 2, for event-based phylogenetic reconciliation analysis of very large data sets. Separate Bayesian phylogenetic analyses for figs and fig wasps under relaxed molecular clock assumptions indicate Cretaceous diversification of crown groups and contemporaneous divergence for nearly half of all fig and pollinator lineages. Event-based cophylogenetic analyses further support the codiversification hypothesis. Biogeographic analyses indicate that the present-day distribution of fig and pollinator lineages is consistent with a Eurasian origin and subsequent dispersal, rather than with Gondwanan vicariance. Overall, our findings indicate that the fig-pollinator mutualism represents an extreme case among plant-insect interactions of

  8. Prevalence and genetic diversity of fig mosaic virus isolates infecting fig tree in Iran.

    PubMed

    Danesh-Amuz, S; Rakhshandehroo, F; Rezaee, S

    2014-01-01

    Commercial and outdoor fig orchards in four Iranian provinces were surveyed for the incidence of fig mosaic virus (FMV), fig leaf mottle associated virus 2 (FLMaV-2) and fig mild mottle associated virus (FMMaV) from March 2011 to October 2012. A total of 350 asymptomatic and symptomatic fig samples were collected and tested by dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA) for the fig mosaic disease (FMD) using a polyclonal antiserum. According to DIBA results, FMD was present in 73% of the collected symptomatic samples from all visited regions. Samples with positive reactions in DIBA were then analyzed by RT-PCR using with specific primers. PCR results showed that about 14.8% of the FMD-positive samples from three inspected provinces are infected with at least one virus. FMV was the most widely spread virus (14%) followed by FLMaV-2 (1.5%), whereas FMMaV was not found. Phylogenetic analysis of the glycoprotein nucleotide and amino acid sequences of known FMV isolates showed two independent groups with high bootstrap values, with all Iranian isolates distinctly clustered in group I, subgroup IA beside those reported in Turkey. Nucleotide diversity was high within but low between different selected geographic regions and except for Europe, nucleotide distance within geographic regions was low. Statistical analyses indicated a correlation between the genetic structure of the FMV isolates and the geographical origin of isolation. Our analyses suggested that the FMV population is in a state of increase following a bottleneck or founder event in Iran.

  9. A trophic cascade induced by predatory ants in a fig-fig wasp mutualism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Geng, Xiang-Zong; Ma, Li-Bin; Cook, James M; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2014-09-01

    A trophic cascade occurs when predators directly decrease the densities, or change the behaviour, of herbivores and thus indirectly increase plant productivity. The predator-herbivore-plant context is well known, but some predators attack species beneficial to plants (e.g. pollinators) and/or enemies of herbivores (e.g. parasites), and their role in the dynamics of mutualisms remains largely unexplored. We surveyed the predatory ant species and studied predation by the dominant ant species, the weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina, associated with the fig tree Ficus racemosa in southwest China. We then tested the effects of weaver ants on the oviposition behaviour of pollinating and non-pollinating fig wasps in an ant-exclusion experiment. The effects of weaver ants on fig wasp community structure and fig seed production were then compared between trees with and without O. smaragdina. Oecophylla smaragdina captured more non-pollinating wasps (Platyneura mayri) than pollinators as the insects arrived to lay eggs. When ants were excluded, more non-pollinators laid eggs into figs and fewer pollinators entered figs. Furthermore, trees with O. smaragdina produced more pollinator offspring and fewer non-pollinator offspring, shifting the community structure significantly. In addition, F. racemosa produced significantly more seeds on trees inhabited by weaver ants. Oecophylla smaragdina predation reverses the dominance of the two commonest wasp species at the egg-laying stage and favours the pollinators. This behavioural pattern is mirrored by wasp offspring production, with pollinators' offspring dominating figs produced by trees inhabited by weaver ants, and offspring of the non-pollinator P. mayri most abundant in figs on trees inhabited by other ants. Overall, our results suggest that predation by weaver ants limits the success of the non-pollinating P. mayri and therefore indirectly benefits the mutualism by increasing the reproductive success of both the

  10. 75 FR 11935 - Technical Change to the Filing Location of Prevailing Wage Determinations for Use in the H-1B, H...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Determinations for Use in the H-1B, H-1B1 (Chile/Singapore), H-1C, H- 2B, E-3 (Australia), and Permanent Labor... determination requests for H-1B, H-1B1 (Chile/Singapore), H-1C, H- 2B, E-3 (Australia), and Permanent...

  11. 21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned figs. 145.131... § 145.131 Artificially sweetened canned figs. (a) Artificially sweetened canned figs is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned figs by § 145.130, except that...

  12. [Anaphylactic reaction to Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)].

    PubMed

    Werfel, S; Ruëff, F; Przybilla, B

    2001-10-01

    Ficus benjamina (weeping fig) is a widespread indoor ornamental plant. Allergens of Ficus benjamina are a well-known cause of IgE-mediated respiratory diseases. We treated a 32-year-old female who for 10 years had suffered from perennial rhinoconjunctivitis. When dusting her 2 meter high Ficus benjamina, she developed an anaphylactic reaction which resolved without sequelae. Skin prick testing revealed a strong immediate type reaction to a Ficus extract, the serum concentration of specific IgE-antibodies to Ficus was > 100 kU/I (CAP class 6). In view of these strong test reactions and the conclusive history, no challenge tests with Ficus allergens were performed. After removal of the Ficus plants which she had owned for 17 years and after thorough cleaning of her dwelling, the patient's symptoms of perennial rhinoconjunctivitis stopped. The patient also was sensitized to, but not allergic to natural rubber latex, which occurs frequently in Ficus allergy and probably is due to cross reactivity to allergens from both sources. As Ficus benjamina is an important source of indoor allergens, it should not be used in dwellings or work places.

  13. Host sanctions and pollinator cheating in the fig tree–fig wasp mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Jandér, K. Charlotte; Herre, Edward Allen

    2010-01-01

    Theory predicts that mutualisms should be vulnerable to invasion by cheaters, yet mutualistic interactions are both ancient and diverse. What prevents one partner from reaping the benefits of the interaction without paying the costs? Using field experiments and observations, we examined factors affecting mutualism stability in six fig tree–fig wasp species pairs. We experimentally compared the fitness of wasps that did or did not perform their most basic mutualistic service, pollination. We found host sanctions that reduced the fitness of non-pollinating wasps in all derived, actively pollinated fig species (where wasps expend time and energy pollinating), but not in the basal, passively pollinated fig species (where wasps do not). We further screened natural populations of pollinators for wasp individuals that did not carry pollen (‘cheaters’). Pollen-free wasps occurred only in actively pollinating wasp species, and their prevalence was negatively correlated with the sanction strength of their host species. Combined with previous studies, our findings suggest that (i) mutualisms can show coevolutionary dynamics analogous to those of ‘arms races’ in overtly antagonistic interactions; (ii) sanctions are critical for long-term mutualism stability when providing benefits to a host is costly, and (iii) there are general principles that help maintain cooperation both within and among species. PMID:20071379

  14. Host sanctions and pollinator cheating in the fig tree-fig wasp mutualism.

    PubMed

    Jandér, K Charlotte; Herre, Edward Allen

    2010-05-22

    Theory predicts that mutualisms should be vulnerable to invasion by cheaters, yet mutualistic interactions are both ancient and diverse. What prevents one partner from reaping the benefits of the interaction without paying the costs? Using field experiments and observations, we examined factors affecting mutualism stability in six fig tree-fig wasp species pairs. We experimentally compared the fitness of wasps that did or did not perform their most basic mutualistic service, pollination. We found host sanctions that reduced the fitness of non-pollinating wasps in all derived, actively pollinated fig species (where wasps expend time and energy pollinating), but not in the basal, passively pollinated fig species (where wasps do not). We further screened natural populations of pollinators for wasp individuals that did not carry pollen ('cheaters'). Pollen-free wasps occurred only in actively pollinating wasp species, and their prevalence was negatively correlated with the sanction strength of their host species. Combined with previous studies, our findings suggest that (i) mutualisms can show coevolutionary dynamics analogous to those of 'arms races' in overtly antagonistic interactions; (ii) sanctions are critical for long-term mutualism stability when providing benefits to a host is costly, and (iii) there are general principles that help maintain cooperation both within and among species.

  15. Spatial heterogeneity and host repression in fig-fig wasp mutualism.

    PubMed

    Wang, RuiWu; Wen, XiaoLan; Chen, Chun; Shi, Lei; Compton, Stephen G

    2015-05-01

    It is generally believed that physical heterogeneity in common resource or evolutionary restraint can sufficiently prevent direct conflict between host and symbionts in mutualism systems. Our data on fig/fig wasp reciprocal mutualism (Ficus racemosa), however, show that structural barriers of female flowers or genetic constraints of pollinators previously hypothesized exist, but cannot sufficiently maintain the mutualism stability. The results show that a positive relationship between seed and wasp production could be maintained in warm season, which might be because of density dependence restraint among foundresses and their low oviposition and pollination efficiency, keeping common resource (female flowers) utilization unsaturated. Whilst, a negative correlation between wasp offspring and viable seed production was also observed in cold season, which might be that the increased oviposition and pollination efficiency maximized the common resource utilization. The fitness trade-off between fig and pollinator wasps is greatly affected by environmental or ecological variations. The local stability might result from temporal low exploitation efficiency of pollinators together with interference competition among pollinators. We suggest that host repression through the active regulation of bract closure, which can create interference competition among the foundresses and prevent extra more foundresses sequential entry in fruit cavities, would help the figs avoiding the cost of over-exploitation. This essentially takes the same role as sanctioning of cheating or competitive behaviors.

  16. Nematodes Associated with Fig Wasps, Pegoscapus spp. (Agaonidae), and Syconia of Native Floridian Figs (Ficus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Center, Barbara J.; Nadel, Hannah; Frank, J. Howard; Ramírez B., William

    1995-01-01

    Syconia in successive developmental phases from Ficus laevigata Vahl (F. citrifolia Miller sensu DeWolf 1960) (Moraceae) and successive life stages of its fig wasp pollinator, Pegoscapus sp. (P. assuetus (Grandi) sensu Wiebes 1983) (Agaonidae) were dissected to elucidate their association with two undescribed species of nematodes. Parasitodiplogazter sp. (Diplogasteridae) are transported by female Pegoscapus sp. into the cavity of a phase B syconium as third-stage juveniles (J3), where they molt to the J4 stage and greatly increase in size in the hemocoel of the fig wasp after it begins to pollinate and oviposit in female florets. The J4 exit the wasp cadaver in a phase B or early phase C syconium, and molt to adults that mate and lay eggs. New J3 infect the next generation of female or male wasps as they emerge from their galls in phase D figs. Mated entomogenous females of Schistonchus sp. (Aphelenchoididae) are transported in the hemocoel of female wasps to the fig cavity of a phase B syconium. Female Schistonchus sp. exit the wasp and parasitize immature male florets causing an exudate, the development of hypertrophied epidermal cells of the anther filaments and anthers, and aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. At least one generation of Schistonchus sp. occurs in the male florets. Entomogenous females appear at about the time that fig wasps molt to adults in their galls in late phase C syconia. Another Schistonchus sp. was recovered from females of P. mexicanus (Ashmead) (P. jimenezi (Grandi) sensu Wiebes 1983) and from the syconia of F. aurea Nuttall and appears to have a life cycle similar to that described for the Schistonchus sp. from F. laevigata. PMID:19277255

  17. Biomechanics of substrate boring by fig wasps.

    PubMed

    Kundanati, Lakshminath; Gundiah, Namrata

    2014-06-01

    Female insects of diverse orders bore into substrates to deposit their eggs. Such insects must overcome several biomechanical challenges to successfully oviposit, which include the selection of suitable substrates through which the ovipositor can penetrate without itself fracturing. In many cases, the insect may also need to steer and manipulate the ovipositor within the substrate to deliver eggs at desired locations before rapidly retracting her ovipositor to avoid predation. In the case of female parasitoid ichneumonid wasps, this process is repeated multiple times during her lifetime, thus testing the ability of the ovipositioning apparatus to endure fracture and fatigue. What specific adaptations does the ovipositioning apparatus of a female ichneumonoid wasp possess to withstand these challenges? We addressed this question using a model system composed of parasitoid and pollinator fig wasps. First, we show that parasitoid ovipositor tips have teeth-like structures, preferentially enriched with zinc, unlike the smooth morphology of pollinator ovipositors. We describe sensillae present on the parasitoid ovipositor tip that are likely to aid in the detection of chemical species and mechanical deformations and sample microenvironments within the substrate. Second, using atomic force microscopy, we show that parasitoid tip regions have a higher modulus compared with regions proximal to the abdomen in parasitoid and pollinator ovipositors. Finally, we use videography to film wasps during substrate boring and analyse buckling of the ovipositor to estimate the forces required for substrate boring. Together, these results allow us to describe the biomechanical principles underlying substrate boring in parasitoid ichneumonid wasps. Such studies may be useful for the biomimetic design of surgical tools and in the use of novel mechanisms to bore through hard substrates.

  18. Ecology of parasite Sycophilomorpha sp. on Ficus altissima and its effect on the fig-fig wasp mutualism.

    PubMed

    Peng, Y Q; Zhao, J B; Harrison, R D; Yang, D R

    2010-11-01

    Figs and their pollinating wasps are a classic example of an obligate mutualism. In addition, figs are parasitized by a suite of non-mutualistic wasps whose basic ecology is largely undescribed. Sycophilomorpha (subfamily Epichrysomallinae) fig wasps are ovule gallers and the genus contains only 1 described species. An undescribed Sycophilomorpha species parasitized Ficus altissima at Xishuangbana, Southwestern China. The wasp was observed ovipositing on the tiny immature figs that were still concealed beneath the involucral bracts. A Sycophilomorpha wasp oviposited on more than 1 fig and spent long time-periods to lay large clutches on a single fig. The wasps naturally occurred on all 7 sampled trees, but the occurrence of wasps was significantly different among trees, crops and months. These wasps were able to prevent unpollinated figs from being aborted, and their offspring were able to develop in the figs that otherwise had no pollinator wasps or seeds. The Sycophilomorpha wasp had a detrimental effect on the fig-fig wasp mutualism. Figs in which Sycophilomorpha wasps were present, produced significantly fewer seeds, pollinators and cheaters. However, the abundance of Sycophilomorpha in a fig was only significantly negatively correlated with pollinator production and not seed or cheater production. Our study illustrates a previously unknown fig wasp niche and expands our understanding of factors that can affect the fig-fig wasp interaction.

  19. Molecular phylogenies of figs and fig-pollinating wasps in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Harrison, Rhett D; Nakamura, Keiko; Su, Zhi-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between figs (Ficus, Moraceae) and fig-pollinating wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) is one of the most specific mutualisms, and thus is a model system for studying coevolution and cospeciation. In this study we focused on figs and their associated fig-wasps found in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands, Japan, because it has been suggested that breakdown in the specificity may occur in islands or at edge of a species' distribution. We collected 136 samples of 15 native fig species and 95 samples of 13 associated fig-wasps from all major islands in the Ryukyu Islands, including two fig species and one fig-wasp species endemic to the Bonin Islands. We performed molecular phylogenetic analyses using plastid DNA and nuclear ITS sequences for the figs and nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial COI genes for the fig-wasps to investigate the interspecific phylogenies and intraspecific variation within the mutualism. Our phylogenetic analyses using multiple samples per species show the single clade of each fig (except the Bonin endemic species) and fig-pollinating wasp species. Fig species belonging to the same subgenera formed well-supported clades in both plastid and ITS trees, except for the subgenus Urostigma. Likewise, fig wasps emerging from host fig species belonging to the same subgenera formed mostly well supported clades in both 28S and COI trees. Host specificity between the figs and fig-wasps functions strictly in these islands. There was very little sequence variation within species, and that no major geographic structure was found. The two Bonin endemic species (F. boninsimae and F. nishimurae) or their common ancestor and the associated fig-wasps (Blastophaga sp.) are apparently derived from F. erecta and its associated fig-wasps (B. nipponica), respectively, and probably migrated from the Ryukyu Islands.

  20. Female figs as traps: Their impact on the dynamics of an experimental fig tree-pollinator-parasitoid community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleman, Nazia; Sait, Steve; Compton, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between fig trees (Ficus) and their pollinating fig wasps (Agaonidae) result in both a highly species-specific nursery mutualism and mutual exploitation. Around half of the 800 or so fig tree species are functionally dioecious. Figs on male plants produce pollen and fig wasp offspring, whereas figs on female plants produce only seeds. Figs on female plants are traps for pollinators. The fig wasps enter the female figs to oviposit, but lose their wings on entry and are then prevented from oviposition by the long styles that characterise the flowers in female figs. Continuation of the mutualism depends on the pollinators' failure to distinguish between male and female figs before entry. Female plants may also have a negative impact on the parasitoid fig wasps that feed on pollinators, if they are also attracted to female figs. We used glasshouse populations of figs (with and without female plants), pollinators and parasitoids to infer the impact of female figs on fig wasp dynamics. Cyclic population fluctuations were present in both species. Female plants appeared to dampen the amplitudes of pollinator population cycles, and parasitoid populations may become less tightly coupled with host populations, but the presence of female figs did not reduce parasitism rates, nor parasitoid and pollinator densities, and only parasitoid sex ratios were affected. Our glasshouse experimental design was likely to favour the impact of female figs on the wasp populations, which suggests that female plants in the field are unlikely to have a major negative impact on their pollinators, despite being a major mortality factor.

  1. [Oviposition timing and community structure of Ficus curtipes fig wasps].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Yang, Da-Rong

    2009-08-01

    Through the behavioral observation of Ficus curtipes fig wasps and the counting of various kinds of flowerets in F. curtipes figs, the oviposition timing and community structure of 12 F. curtipes fig wasp species were studied. Besides the agaonid wasp Eupristina sp., the two non-agaonid wasps Diaziella yangi and Lipothymus sp. could enter into F. curtipes figs and oviposit. The other nine non-agaonid fig wasps ( Walkerella sp., Micranisa sp., Sycophilomorpha sp., Philotrypesis sp., Sycosapter sp., Sycobia sp., Ficomila sp., Ormyrus sp. and Sycophila sp.) oviposited outside the figs. In the fig wasp community, Eupristina sp. was the dominant species, accounting for 62.11% of the total, D. yangi and Lipothymus sp. accounted for 27.19% and 4.71%, respectively, while the other nine non-agaonid fig wasp species only occupied 5.99%. The non-agaonid fig wasps produced their progeny through the reproduction strategies of oviposition timing and diet allocation of female flowerets, so as to sustain the fig-wasp mutualism. The individuals of non-agaonid fig wasp progeny had significant negative correlation with those of agaonid fig wasp progeny, but no correlation with F. curtipes seed production.

  2. Arabidopsis HEAT SHOCK TRANSCRIPTION FACTORA1b overexpression enhances water productivity, resistance to drought, and infection

    PubMed Central

    Richard, François; Bowden, Laura; Morison, James I.L.; Mullineaux, Philip M.

    2013-01-01

    Heat-stressed crops suffer dehydration, depressed growth, and a consequent decline in water productivity, which is the yield of harvestable product as a function of lifetime water consumption and is a trait associated with plant growth and development. Heat shock transcription factor (HSF) genes have been implicated not only in thermotolerance but also in plant growth and development, and therefore could influence water productivity. Here it is demonstrated that Arabidopsis thaliana plants with increased HSFA1b expression showed increased water productivity and harvest index under water-replete and water-limiting conditions. In non-stressed HSFA1b-overexpressing (HSFA1bOx) plants, 509 genes showed altered expression, and these genes were not over-represented for development-associated genes but were for response to biotic stress. This confirmed an additional role for HSFA1b in maintaining basal disease resistance, which was stress hormone independent but involved H2O2 signalling. Fifty-five of the 509 genes harbour a variant of the heat shock element (HSE) in their promoters, here named HSE1b. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR confirmed binding of HSFA1b to HSE1b in vivo, including in seven transcription factor genes. One of these is MULTIPROTEIN BRIDGING FACTOR1c (MBF1c). Plants overexpressing MBF1c showed enhanced basal resistance but not water productivity, thus partially phenocopying HSFA1bOx plants. A comparison of genes responsive to HSFA1b and MBF1c overexpression revealed a common group, none of which harbours a HSE1b motif. From this example, it is suggested that HSFA1b directly regulates 55 HSE1b-containing genes, which control the remaining 454 genes, collectively accounting for the stress defence and developmental phenotypes of HSFA1bOx. PMID:23828547

  3. Floral ratios in the figs of Ficus montana span the range from actively to passively pollinated fig trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleman, Nazia; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    Fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae) and their associated obligate pollinator fig wasps (Agaonidae) are partners in what is often a pair-wise species-specific association. Their interaction centres on the unique enclosed inflorescence of Ficus species - the fig. Among dioecious fig tree species, only pollinated ovules in figs on female trees develop into seeds. On male trees, galled ovules support development of the fig wasp offspring that will transport their pollen, but no seeds develop. Some fig wasp species actively collect and disperse pollen, whereas others are typical insect pollinators in that pollen is transferred passively. Active pollination is associated with improved larval survivorship in pollinated figs. Because active pollination is much more efficient, their host figs need to contain far fewer male flowers and across numerous Ficus species anther-ovule ratios are a good predictor of pollination mode. We examined variation in inflorescence size and floral ratios among male figs of the Asian Ficus montana and its consequences for the amounts of pollen that would be available for each pollinator to collect. Inflorescence size (total flower number) was highly variable, and female pollinator offspring production was higher in figs with more female flowers. Pollinator offspring numbers and anther-ovule ratios were also highly variable, and encompassed the range typical of both actively and passively pollinated fig tree species. In combination, this variation resulted in large differences in the extent to which pollinators were competing for access to pollen, with potential fitness consequences for both partners in the mutualism.

  4. Aflatoxins in Turkish dried figs intended for export to the European Union.

    PubMed

    Senyuva, H Z; Gilbert, J; Ulken, U

    2007-04-01

    Dried figs for export from Turkey from crop years 2003 through 2006 were tested for aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins. For export to the European Union, consignments of 0.5 to 10 tonnes of dried figs were sampled according to European Commission regulations, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine concentrations of aflatoxins Bl, B2, G1, and G2. For each consignment of dried figs, a 30-kg sample (comprising 100 subsamples) was divided into three 10-kg subsamples, which were separately blended and analyzed with HPLC. This monitoring effort was conducted for figs from 2003, 2004, 2005, and up to June 2006, for a total of 10,396 30-kg samples (28,489 analyses). The incidence of contamination with aflatoxin B1 at higher than 2 ng/g was on average 0.6, 2.0, 4.0, and 2.4% for 2003, 2004, 2005, and up to June 2006, respectively, whereas contamination with total aflatoxins at higher than 4 ng/g was 2.6, 3.0, 5.1, and 2.7%. There was significant variability in contamination between replicate 1-kg samples, indicating small numbers of individual contaminated figs were probably responsible. There were also substantial differences in the relative proportions of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 among samples, suggesting different contributing fungal sources.

  5. Effect of moisture content on textural attributes of dried figs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Sara; Maftoon-Azad, Neda; Farahnaky, Asgar; Hosseini, Ebrahim; Badii, Fojan

    2014-10-01

    Due to their soft texture consumers prefer moist figs, which has motivated fig processors to increase the production of this product. However, as water enhances the browning reaction rate, moisture content optimisation of moist figs is very important. Processed figs must have suitable texture softness with browning kept to a minimum. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of moisture content on the textural attributes of dried figs. Hardness, compression energy, gradient, gumminess and chewiness of fig samples decreased with moisture content exponentially, whereas the trend of springiness and cohesiveness with change of moisture content was nearly constant. Moreover, in the texture profile analysis plot of rehydrated figs, the presence of negative area is an indication of adhesiveness which was zero in control dried figs. The results of the texture profile analysis tests proved the existence of a critical moisture content of about 18.4%, above which no significant effect of moisture content on textural parameters was found. The glass-rubber transition results from differential scanning calorimeter may explain the different texture profile analysis attributes of dried figs compared with rehydrated figs.

  6. FIG4 regulates lysosome membrane homeostasis independent of phosphatase function.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Rajnish; Cunningham, Kathleen M; Zhang, Ke; Lloyd, Thomas E

    2016-02-15

    FIG4 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that is mutated in several diseases including Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease 4J (CMT4J) and Yunis-Varon syndrome (YVS). To investigate the mechanism of disease pathogenesis, we generated Drosophila models of FIG4-related diseases. Fig4 null mutant animals are viable but exhibit marked enlargement of the lysosomal compartment in muscle cells and neurons, accompanied by an age-related decline in flight ability. Transgenic animals expressing Drosophila Fig4 missense mutations corresponding to human pathogenic mutations can partially rescue lysosomal expansion phenotypes, consistent with these mutations causing decreased FIG4 function. Interestingly, Fig4 mutations predicted to inactivate FIG4 phosphatase activity rescue lysosome expansion phenotypes, and mutations in the phosphoinositide (3) phosphate kinase Fab1 that performs the reverse enzymatic reaction also causes a lysosome expansion phenotype. Since FIG4 and FAB1 are present together in the same biochemical complex, these data are consistent with a model in which FIG4 serves a phosphatase-independent biosynthetic function that is essential for lysosomal membrane homeostasis. Lysosomal phenotypes are suppressed by genetic inhibition of Rab7 or the HOPS complex, demonstrating that FIG4 functions after endosome-to-lysosome fusion. Furthermore, disruption of the retromer complex, implicated in recycling from the lysosome to Golgi, does not lead to similar phenotypes as Fig4, suggesting that the lysosomal defects are not due to compromised retromer-mediated recycling of endolysosomal membranes. These data show that FIG4 plays a critical noncatalytic function in maintaining lysosomal membrane homeostasis, and that this function is disrupted by mutations that cause CMT4J and YVS.

  7. FIG4 regulates lysosome membrane homeostasis independent of phosphatase function

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Rajnish; Cunningham, Kathleen M.; Zhang, Ke; Lloyd, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    FIG4 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that is mutated in several diseases including Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease 4J (CMT4J) and Yunis-Varon syndrome (YVS). To investigate the mechanism of disease pathogenesis, we generated Drosophila models of FIG4-related diseases. Fig4 null mutant animals are viable but exhibit marked enlargement of the lysosomal compartment in muscle cells and neurons, accompanied by an age-related decline in flight ability. Transgenic animals expressing Drosophila Fig4 missense mutations corresponding to human pathogenic mutations can partially rescue lysosomal expansion phenotypes, consistent with these mutations causing decreased FIG4 function. Interestingly, Fig4 mutations predicted to inactivate FIG4 phosphatase activity rescue lysosome expansion phenotypes, and mutations in the phosphoinositide (3) phosphate kinase Fab1 that performs the reverse enzymatic reaction also causes a lysosome expansion phenotype. Since FIG4 and FAB1 are present together in the same biochemical complex, these data are consistent with a model in which FIG4 serves a phosphatase-independent biosynthetic function that is essential for lysosomal membrane homeostasis. Lysosomal phenotypes are suppressed by genetic inhibition of Rab7 or the HOPS complex, demonstrating that FIG4 functions after endosome-to-lysosome fusion. Furthermore, disruption of the retromer complex, implicated in recycling from the lysosome to Golgi, does not lead to similar phenotypes as Fig4, suggesting that the lysosomal defects are not due to compromised retromer-mediated recycling of endolysosomal membranes. These data show that FIG4 plays a critical noncatalytic function in maintaining lysosomal membrane homeostasis, and that this function is disrupted by mutations that cause CMT4J and YVS. PMID:26662798

  8. Seasonality of Leaf and Fig Production in Ficus squamosa, a Fig Tree with Seeds Dispersed by Water

    PubMed Central

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G.; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2016-01-01

    The phenology of plants reflects selection generated by seasonal climatic factors and interactions with other plants and animals, within constraints imposed by their phylogenetic history. Fig trees (Ficus) need to produce figs year-round to support their short-lived fig wasp pollinators, but this requirement is partially de-coupled in dioecious species, where female trees only develop seeds, not pollinator offspring. This allows female trees to concentrate seed production at more favorable times of the year. Ficus squamosa is a riparian species whose dispersal is mainly by water, rather than animals. Seeds can float and travel in long distances. We recorded the leaf and reproductive phenology of 174 individuals for three years in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. New leaves were produced throughout the year. Fig production occurred year-round, but with large seasonal variations that correlated with temperature and rainfall. Female and male trees initiated maximal fig crops at different times, with production in female trees confined mainly to the rainy season and male figs concentrating fig production in the preceding months, but also often bearing figs continually. Ficus squamosa concentrates seed production by female plants at times when water levels are high, favouring dispersal by water, and asynchronous flowering within male trees allow fig wasps to cycle there, providing them with potential benefits by maintaining pollinators for times when female figs become available to pollinate. PMID:27010540

  9. Seasonality of Leaf and Fig Production in Ficus squamosa, a Fig Tree with Seeds Dispersed by Water.

    PubMed

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2016-01-01

    The phenology of plants reflects selection generated by seasonal climatic factors and interactions with other plants and animals, within constraints imposed by their phylogenetic history. Fig trees (Ficus) need to produce figs year-round to support their short-lived fig wasp pollinators, but this requirement is partially de-coupled in dioecious species, where female trees only develop seeds, not pollinator offspring. This allows female trees to concentrate seed production at more favorable times of the year. Ficus squamosa is a riparian species whose dispersal is mainly by water, rather than animals. Seeds can float and travel in long distances. We recorded the leaf and reproductive phenology of 174 individuals for three years in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. New leaves were produced throughout the year. Fig production occurred year-round, but with large seasonal variations that correlated with temperature and rainfall. Female and male trees initiated maximal fig crops at different times, with production in female trees confined mainly to the rainy season and male figs concentrating fig production in the preceding months, but also often bearing figs continually. Ficus squamosa concentrates seed production by female plants at times when water levels are high, favouring dispersal by water, and asynchronous flowering within male trees allow fig wasps to cycle there, providing them with potential benefits by maintaining pollinators for times when female figs become available to pollinate.

  10. Molecular dating and biogeography of fig-pollinating wasps.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Wikström, Niklas; Kjer, Karl M; Weiblen, George D; Rasplus, Jean Yves; Machado, Carlos A; Cook, James M

    2009-09-01

    Figs and fig-pollinating wasps are obligate mutualists that have coevolved for over 60 million years. But when and where did pollinating fig wasps (Agaonidae) originate? Some studies suggest that agaonids arose in the Late Cretaceous and the current distribution of fig-wasp faunas can be explained by the break-up of the Gondwanan landmass. However, recent molecular-dating studies suggest divergence time estimates that are inconsistent with the Gondwanan vicariance hypothesis and imply that long distance oceanic dispersal could have been an important process for explaining the current distribution of both figs and fig wasps. Here, we use a combination of phylogenetic and biogeographical data to infer the age, the major period of diversification, and the geographic origin of pollinating fig wasps. Age estimates ranged widely depending on the molecular-dating method used and even when using the same method but with slightly different constraints, making it difficult to assess with certainty a Gondwanan origin of agaonids. The reconstruction of ancestral areas suggests that the most recent common ancestor of all extant fig-pollinating wasps was most likely Asian, although a southern Gondwana origin cannot be rejected. Our analysis also suggests that dispersal has played a more important role in the development of the fig-wasp biota than previously assumed.

  11. 18 CFR 1b.14 - Subpoenas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Subpoenas. 1b.14 Section 1b.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.14 Subpoenas. (a) Service of a...

  12. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  13. 18 CFR 1b.19 - Submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Submissions. 1b.19 Section 1b.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.19 Submissions. In the event...

  14. 18 CFR 1b.14 - Subpoenas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Subpoenas. 1b.14 Section 1b.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.14 Subpoenas. (a) Service of a...

  15. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to...

  16. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part—...

  17. 18 CFR 1b.12 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transcripts. 1b.12 Section 1b.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.12 Transcripts. Transcripts, if any,...

  18. 18 CFR 1b.21 - Enforcement hotline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enforcement hotline. 1b.21 Section 1b.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.21 Enforcement hotline. (a)...

  19. 18 CFR 1b.19 - Submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Submissions. 1b.19 Section 1b.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.19 Submissions. In the event...

  20. 18 CFR 1b.21 - Enforcement hotline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enforcement hotline. 1b.21 Section 1b.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.21 Enforcement hotline. (a)...

  1. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to...

  2. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  3. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  4. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  5. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part—...

  6. 18 CFR 1b.12 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transcripts. 1b.12 Section 1b.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.12 Transcripts. Transcripts, if any,...

  7. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of... compliance with Executive Order 12114, “Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions.”...

  8. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  9. 18 CFR 1b.14 - Subpoenas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subpoenas. 1b.14 Section 1b.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.14 Subpoenas. (a) Service of a...

  10. 18 CFR 1b.12 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transcripts. 1b.12 Section 1b.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.12 Transcripts. Transcripts, if any,...

  11. 18 CFR 1b.14 - Subpoenas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Subpoenas. 1b.14 Section 1b.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.14 Subpoenas. (a) Service of a...

  12. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to...

  13. 18 CFR 1b.19 - Submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Submissions. 1b.19 Section 1b.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.19 Submissions. In the event...

  14. 18 CFR 1b.12 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transcripts. 1b.12 Section 1b.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.12 Transcripts. Transcripts, if any,...

  15. 18 CFR 1b.19 - Submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Submissions. 1b.19 Section 1b.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.19 Submissions. In the event...

  16. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  17. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  18. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part—...

  19. 18 CFR 1b.12 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transcripts. 1b.12 Section 1b.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.12 Transcripts. Transcripts, if any,...

  20. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to...

  1. 18 CFR 1b.19 - Submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submissions. 1b.19 Section 1b.19 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.19 Submissions. In the event...

  2. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  3. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part—...

  4. 18 CFR 1b.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1b.1 Section 1b.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.1 Definitions. For purposes of this part—...

  5. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to...

  6. 18 CFR 1b.14 - Subpoenas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Subpoenas. 1b.14 Section 1b.14 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.14 Subpoenas. (a) Service of a...

  7. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  8. 18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....

  9. Paresev 1-C Inflatable Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Aboard a truck and ready for a test flight is the Paresev 1-C on the ramp at the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The half-scale version of the inflatable Gemini parawing was pre-flighted by being carried across the Rosamond dry lakebed on the back of a truck before a tow behind an International Harvester Carry- All. The inflatable center spar ran fore and aft and measured 191 inches, two other inflatable spars formed the leading edges. The three compartments were filled with nitrogen under pressure to make them rigid. The Paresev 1-C was very unstable in flight with this configuration.

  10. Exchange of hosts: can agaonid fig wasps reproduce successfully in the figs of non-host Ficus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pei; Li, Zongbo; Peng, Yanqiong; Yang, Darong

    2012-03-01

    In the obligate mutualism between figs ( Ficus) and their specific pollinators (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae), each species of fig wasp typically reproduces in figs of a single host species. Host specificity is maintained largely because pollinators are attracted to tree-specific volatiles released from their host figs, but whether the wasps can reproduce if they enter figs of non-host species is unclear. We investigated the reproductive success of Ceratosolen emarginatus (associated with Ficus auriculata) and Ceratosolen sp. (associated with F. hainanensis) in atypical hosts by experimentally introducing foundresses into host and non-host figs. F. auriculata figs entered by Ceratosolen sp. were more likely to abort than if entered by C. emarginatus, but abortion of F. hainanensis figs was not affected by pollinator species. Single C. emarginatus foundresses produced more but smaller offspring in F. hainanensis than in their normal host. Conversely Ceratosolen sp. produced fewer but larger offspring in F. auriculata than in their normal host, probably as a result of having longer to develop. Mean style length differences, relative to the lengths of the wasps' ovipositors, may have dictated the number of offspring produced, with oviposition made easier by the shorter styles in F. hainanensis figs. Our results imply that, in addition to morphological constraints and tree-specific volatiles, reduced reproductive success in atypical hosts can be another factor maintaining host specificity, but for other species only behavioural changes are required for host switching to occur.

  11. The early regulation of figs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Young, J H

    1999-01-01

    When the Food and Drugs Act became law in 1906, the commercial fig industry in California had just become established. Domestic figs began to compete with imported figs, especially from Turkey and Greece. Fig culture, both in the Near East and the American West, was beset by many threats, especially insect pests. The Bureau of Chemistry in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), enforcer of the 1906 law, undertook to protect consumers from spoiled figs from overseas and in interstate commerce. Simultaneously the USDA helped both domestic and Turkish growers to counter infestation. Through the State Department, sanitary controls in Smyrna were enhanced. Scientific experts from Agriculture educated American growers and packers in protective techniques. A high point of both legal actions and educational endeavors came in the late 1920s. In the 1930s, the state of California assumed the role of guiding inspection and helping dispose of substandard figs. World War II brought retrogression in fig quality, requiring a new corrective campaign by the Food and Drug Administration, successor to the Bureau of Chemistry, to prevent spoiled figs from reaching the market. By the 1950s, the need for such legal actions was rare.

  12. Rain-fed fig yield as affected by rainfall distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Ensieh; Sepaskhah, Ali Reza

    2014-08-01

    Variable annual rainfall and its uneven distribution are the major uncontrolled inputs in rain-fed fig production and possibly the main cause of yield fluctuation in Istahban region of Fars Province, I.R. of Iran. This introduces a considerable risk in rain-fed fig production. The objective of this study was to find relationships between seasonal rainfall distribution and rain-fed fig production in Istahban region to determine the critical rainfall periods for rain-fed fig production and supplementary irrigation water application. Further, economic analysis for rain-fed fig production was considered in this region to control the risk of production. It is concluded that the monthly, seasonal and annual rainfall indices are able to show the effects of rainfall and its distribution on the rain-fed fig yield. Fig yield with frequent occurrence of 80 % is 374 kg ha-1. The internal rates of return for interest rate of 4, 8 and 12 % are 21, 58 and 146 %, respectively, that are economically feasible. It is concluded that the rainfall in spring especially in April and in December has negatively affected fig yield due to its interference with the life cycle of Blastophaga bees for pollination. Further, it is concluded that when the rainfall is limited, supplementary irrigation can be scheduled in March.

  13. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated fig (Ficus carica L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred ninety-four germplasm accessions of fig representing the four fig types, Common, Smyrna, San Pedro, and Caprifig were analyzed for genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation using genetic polymorphism at 17 microsatellite loci. The collection showed considerable polymorphism with ...

  14. One fig to bind them all: host conservatism in a fig wasp community unraveled by cospeciation analyses among pollinating and nonpollinating fig wasps.

    PubMed

    Jousselin, Emmanuelle; van Noort, Simon; Berry, Vincent; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; Rønsted, Nina; Erasmus, J Christoff; Greeff, Jaco M

    2008-07-01

    The study of chalcid wasps that live within syconia of fig trees (Moraceae, Ficus), provides a unique opportunity to investigate the evolution of specialized communities of insects. By conducting cospeciation analyses between figs of section Galoglychia and some of their associated fig wasps, we show that, although host switches and duplication have evidently played a role in the construction of the current associations, the global picture is one of significant cospeciation throughout the evolution of these communities. Contrary to common belief, nonpollinating wasps are at least as constrained as pollinators by their host association in their diversification in this section. By adapting a randomization test in a supertree context, we further confirm that wasp phylogenies are significantly congruent with each other, and build a "wasp community" supertree that retrieves Galoglychia taxonomic subdivisions. Altogether, these results probably reflect wasp host specialization but also, to some extent, they might indicate that niche saturation within the fig prevents recurrent intrahost speciation and host switching. Finally, a comparison of ITS2 sequence divergence of cospeciating pairs of wasps suggests that the diversification of some pollinating and nonpollinating wasps of Galoglychia figs has been synchronous but that pollinating wasps exhibit a higher rate of molecular evolution.

  15. An integrated badnavirus is prevalent in fig germplasm.

    PubMed

    Laney, Alma G; Hassan, Mohamed; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2012-12-01

    Fig mosaic occurs worldwide and is the most common and important viral disease of fig. In the quest to identify the causal agent of the disease, several new viruses have been identified, including a new DNA virus, the subject of this communication. Phylogenetic analysis placed the virus, provisionally named Fig badnavirus-1 (FBV-1), in the genus Badnavirus, family Caulimoviridae. The experimental host range of FBV-1 was evaluated and the virus was mechanically transmitted to several herbaceous hosts. FBV-1 was detected in the National Clonal Germplasm Repository fig collection and additional samples from Arkansas, California, Florida, Michigan, Ohio, Oregon, and South Carolina, suggesting its wide distribution in the United States. Further tests revealed the presence of FBV-1 in seedlings and meristem tissue culture plants. Forty-four isolates were used in a study evaluating the population structure of the virus in the United States. Evidence that FBV-1 is integrated in the fig genome is presented and discussed.

  16. How chimpanzees integrate sensory information to select figs

    PubMed Central

    Yeakel, Justin D.; Bhat, Uttam; Ramsden, Lawrence; Wrangham, Richard W.; Lucas, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Figs are keystone resources that sustain chimpanzees when preferred fruits are scarce. Many figs retain a green(ish) colour throughout development, a pattern that causes chimpanzees to evaluate edibility on the basis of achromatic accessory cues. Such behaviour is conspicuous because it entails a succession of discrete sensory assessments, including the deliberate palpation of individual figs, a task that requires advanced visuomotor control. These actions are strongly suggestive of domain-specific information processing and decision-making, and they call attention to a potential selective force on the origin of advanced manual prehension and digital dexterity during primate evolution. To explore this concept, we report on the foraging behaviours of chimpanzees and the spectral, chemical and mechanical properties of figs, with cutting tests revealing ease of fracture in the mouth. By integrating the ability of different sensory cues to predict fructose content in a Bayesian updating framework, we quantified the amount of information gained when a chimpanzee successively observes, palpates and bites the green figs of Ficus sansibarica. We found that the cue eliciting ingestion was not colour or size, but fig mechanics (including toughness estimates from wedge tests), which relays higher-quality information on fructose concentrations than colour vision. This result explains why chimpanzees evaluate green figs by palpation and dental incision, actions that could explain the adaptive origins of advanced manual prehension. PMID:27274803

  17. Discriminative host sanctions in a fig-wasp mutualism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Dunn, Derek W; Sun, Bao Fa

    2014-05-01

    In some mutualisms, cooperation in symbionts is promoted by hosts sanctioning "cheats," who obtain benefits but fail to reciprocate. In fig-wasp mutualisms, agaonid wasps pollinate the trees (Ficus spp.), but are also exploitative by using some flowers as larval food. Ficus can sanction cheats that fail to pollinate by aborting some un-pollinated figs. However, in those un-pollinated figs retained by trees, cheats successfully reproduce. When this occurs, wasp broods are reduced, suggesting sanctions increase offspring mortality within un-pollinated figs. We investigated sanction mechanisms of abortion and larval mortality against wasp cheats in the monoecious Ficus racemosa by introducing into figs 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9 female wasps (foundresses) that were either all pollen-laden (P+) or all pollen-free (P-). The abortion rates of P- figs were highest (-60%) when single foundresses were present. Abortion declined with increased foundresses and ceased with seven or more wasps present, irrespective of pollination. In un-aborted figs, wasp fitness (mean offspring per foundress) declined as foundress number increased, especially in P- figs. Reduced broods in P- figs resulted from increased larval mortality of female offspring as foundress number increased, resulting in more male-biased sex ratios. Overall sanctions estimated from both abortion rates and reduced offspring production strengthened as the number of cheats increased. In a second experiment, we decoupled pollination from wasp oviposition by introducing one pollen-free foundress, followed 24 h later by seven pollen-laden ovipositor-excised wasps. Compared with P+ and P- single-foundress figs, delayed pollination resulted in intermediate larval mortality and wasp fitness, which concurred with patterns of female offspring production. We conclude that fig abortion reflects both pollinator numbers and pollen presence. Sanctions within P- figs initiate soon after oviposition and discriminate against female offspring

  18. Ruthenium complexes as inhibitors of the aldo-keto reductases AKR1C1-1C3.

    PubMed

    Traven, Katja; Sinreih, Maša; Stojan, Jure; Seršen, Sara; Kljun, Jakob; Bezenšek, Jure; Stanovnik, Branko; Turel, Iztok; Rižner, Tea Lanišnik

    2015-06-05

    The human aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) from the 1C subfamily are important targets for the development of new drugs. In this study, we have investigated the possible interactions between the recombinant AKR1C enzymes AKR1C1-AKR1C3 and ruthenium(II) complexes; in particular, we were interested in the potential inhibitory actions. Five novel ruthenium complexes (1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 2c), two precursor ruthenium compounds (P1, P2), and three ligands (a, b, c) were prepared and included in this study. Two different types of novel ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesized. First, bearing the sulphur macrocycle [9]aneS3, S-bonded dimethylsulphoxide (dmso-S), and an N,N-donor ligand, with the general formula of [Ru([9]aneS3)(dmso)(N,N-ligand)](PF6)2 (1a, 1b), and second, with the general formula of [(η(6)-p-cymene)RuCl(N,N-ligand)]Cl (2a, 2b, 2c). All of these synthesized compounds were characterized by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography (compounds a, b, c, 1a, 1b) and other standard physicochemical methods. To evaluate the potential inhibitory actions of these compounds on the AKR1C enzymes, we followed enzymatically catalyzed oxidation of the substrate 1-acenaphthenol by NAD(+) in the absence and presence of various micromolar concentrations of the individual compounds. Among 10 compounds, one ruthenium complex (2b) and two precursor ruthenium compounds (P1, P2) inhibited all three AKR1C enzymes, and one ruthenium complex (2a) inhibited only AKR1C3. Ligands a, b and c revealed no inhibition of the AKR1C enzymes. All four of the active compounds showed multiple binding with the AKR1C enzymes that was characterized by an initial instantaneous inhibition followed by a slow quasi-irreversible step. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that has examined interactions between these AKR1C enzymes and ruthenium(II) complexes.

  19. Pollinating fig wasps: genetic consequences of island recolonization.

    PubMed

    Zavodna, Monika; Arens, Paul; Van Dijk, Peter J; Partomihardjo, Tukirin; Vosman, Ben; Van Damme, Jos M M

    2005-09-01

    The levels of genetic diversity and gene flow may influence the long-term persistence of populations. Using microsatellite markers, we investigated genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in island (Krakatau archipelago, Indonesia) and mainland (Java and Sumatra, Indonesia) populations of Liporrhopalum tentacularis and Ceratosolen bisulcatus, the fig wasp pollinators of two dioecious Ficus (fig tree) species. Genetic diversity in Krakatau archipelago populations was similar to that found on the mainland. Population differentiation between mainland coastal sites and the Krakatau islands was weak in both wasp species, indicating that the intervening 40 km across open sea may not be a barrier for wasp gene flow (dispersal) and colonization of the islands. Surprisingly, mainland populations of the fig waSPS may be more genetically isolated than the islands, as gene flow between populations on the Javan mainland differed between the two wasp species. Contrasting growth forms and relative 'immunity' to the effects of deforestation in their host fig trees may account for these differences.

  20. Regulation of transcription factors on sexual dimorphism of fig wasps.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-Fa; Li, Yong-Xing; Jia, Ling-Yi; Niu, Li-Hua; Murphy, Robert W; Zhang, Peng; He, Shunmin; Huang, Da-Wei

    2015-06-02

    Fig wasps exhibit extreme intraspecific morphological divergence in the wings, compound eyes, antennae, body color, and size. Corresponding to this, behaviors and lifestyles between two sexes are also different: females can emerge from fig and fly to other fig tree to oviposit and pollinate, while males live inside fig for all their lifetime. Genetic regulation may drive these extreme intraspecific morphological and behavioral divergence. Transcription factors (TFs) involved in morphological development and physiological activity may exhibit sex-specific expressions. Herein, we detect 865 TFs by using genomic and transcriptomic data of the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi. Analyses of transcriptomic data indicated that up-regulated TFs in females show significant enrichment in development of the wing, eye and antenna in all stages, from larva to adult. Meanwhile, TFs related to the development of a variety of organs display sex-specific patterns of expression in the adults and these may contribute significantly to their sexual dimorphism. In addition, up-regulated TFs in adult males exhibit enrichment in genitalia development and circadian rhythm, which correspond with mating and protandry. This finding is consistent with their sex-specific behaviors. In conclusion, our results strongly indicate that TFs play important roles in the sexual dimorphism of fig wasps.

  1. Urbanized landscapes favored by fig-eating birds increase invasive but not native juvenile strangler fig abundance.

    PubMed

    Caughlin, Trevor; Wheeler, Jessica H; Jankowski, Jill; Lichstein, Jeremy W

    2012-07-01

    Propagule pressure can determine the success or failure of invasive plant range expansion. Range expansion takes place at large spatial scales, often encompassing many types of land cover, yet the effect of landscape context on propagule pressure remains largely unknown. Many studies have reported a positive correlation between invasive plant abundance and human land use; increased propagule pressure in these landscapes may be responsible for this correlation. We tested the hypothesis that increased rates of seed dispersal by fig-eating birds, which are more common in urban habitats, result in an increase in invasive strangler fig abundance in landscapes dominated by human land use. We quantified abundance of an invasive species (Ficus microcarpa) and a native species (F. aurea) of strangler fig in plots spanning the entire range of human land use in South Florida, USA, from urban parking lots to native forest. We then compared models that predicted juvenile fig abundance based on distance to adult fig seed sources and fig-eating bird habitat quality with models that lacked one or both of these terms. The best model for juvenile invasive fig abundance included both distance to adult and fig-eating bird habitat terms, suggesting that landscape effects on invasive fig abundance are mediated by seed-dispersing birds. In contrast, the best model for juvenile native fig abundance included only presence/absence of adults, suggesting that distance from individual adult trees may have less effect on seed limitation for a native species compared to an invasive species undergoing range expansion. However, models for both species included significant effects of adult seed sources, implying that juvenile abundance is limited by seed arrival. This result was corroborated by a seed addition experiment that indicated that both native and invasive strangler figs were strongly seed limited. Understanding how landscape context affects the mechanisms of plant invasion may lead to

  2. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1c A A A What's in this article? ... de sangre: hemoglobina A1c What It Is A hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test is used to monitor long- ...

  3. A1C Test and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosis The A1C Test & Diabetes The A1C Test & Diabetes What is the A1C test? The A1C test ... A1C test be used to diagnose type 2 diabetes and prediabetes? Yes. In 2009, an international expert ...

  4. 18 CFR 1b.21 - Enforcement hotline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforcement hotline. 1b..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.21 Enforcement hotline. (a) The Hotline Staff may provide information to the public and give informal staff opinions. The opinions...

  5. DSCOVR_EPIC_L1B

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-04

    DSCOVR_EPIC_L1B Full sun-light Earth images, georectified to the same ... 551NM 680NM 688NM 764NM 780NM DSCOVR EPIC IMAGERY L1B LAGRANGE Order Data:  Earthdata ...   Order Data Readme Files:  EPIC Data Format Control Book SCAR-B Block:  ...

  6. How to be a fig wasp down under: The diversity and structure of an Australian fig wasp community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segar, Simon T.; Dunn, Derek W.; Darwell, Clive T.; Cook, James M.

    2014-05-01

    Endophytic insects and their parasitoids provide valuable models for community ecology. The wasp communities in inflorescences of fig trees have great potential for comparative studies, but we must first describe individual communities. Here, we add to the few detailed studies of such communities by describing the one associated with Ficus rubiginosa in Australia. First, we describe community composition, using two different sampling procedures. Overall, we identified 14 species of non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) that fall into two size classes. Small wasps, including pollinators, gallers and their parasitoids, were more abundant than large wasps (both galler and parasitoid species). We show that in figs where wasps emerge naturally, the presence of large wasps may partly explain the low emergence of small wasps. During fig development, large gallers oviposit first, before and around the time of pollination, while parasitoids lay eggs after pollination. We further show that parasitoids in the subfamily Sycoryctinae, which comprise the majority of all individual NPFWs, segregate temporally by laying eggs at different stages of fig development. We discuss our results in terms of species co-existence and community structure and compare our findings to those from fig wasp communities on other continents.

  7. Identification of Shigella flexneri Subserotype 1c in Rural Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Gendy, Atef; El-Ghorab, Nemat; Lane, Edward M.; Elyazeed, Remon Abu; Carlin, Nils I. A.; Mitry, Mary M.; Kay, Bradford A.; Savarino, Stephen J.; Peruski, Leonard F.

    1999-01-01

    In a population-based study of diarrhea in rural, northern Egypt, 60 Shigella flexneri strains were identified, of which 10 could not be definitively serotyped. Serological analysis with commercial reagents suggested that they were serotype 1, but the strains failed to react with subserotype 1a- or 1b-specific antibodies. All 10 strains reacted with MASF 1c, a monoclonal antibody specific for a provisional S. flexneri subserotype, 1c, first identified in Bangladesh and not previously detected outside of that region. Our results show that S. flexneri subserotype 1c is not unique to Bangladesh and that the inability to detect it may reflect both the limited use of suitable screening methods and the rarity of this subserotype. PMID:9986881

  8. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants

    PubMed Central

    An, Yuyan; Qi, Lin; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn.) plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC), and reduced leaf superoxide anion (O2⋅¯) production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA) content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance. PMID:26789407

  9. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants.

    PubMed

    An, Yuyan; Qi, Lin; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn.) plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC), and reduced leaf superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA) content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance.

  10. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C: From cognition to cancer.

    PubMed

    Casals, Núria; Zammit, Victor; Herrero, Laura; Fadó, Rut; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Rosalía; Serra, Dolors

    2016-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) C was the last member of the CPT1 family of genes to be discovered. CPT1A and CPT1B were identified as the gate-keeper enzymes for the entry of long-chain fatty acids (as carnitine esters) into mitochondria and their further oxidation, and they show differences in their kinetics and tissue expression. Although CPT1C exhibits high sequence similarity to CPT1A and CPT1B, it is specifically expressed in neurons (a cell-type that does not use fatty acids as fuel to any major extent), it is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells, and it has minimal CPT1 catalytic activity with l-carnitine and acyl-CoA esters. The lack of an easily measurable biological activity has hampered attempts to elucidate the cellular and physiological role of CPT1C but has not diminished the interest of the biomedical research community in this CPT1 isoform. The observations that CPT1C binds malonyl-CoA and long-chain acyl-CoA suggest that it is a sensor of lipid metabolism in neurons, where it appears to impact ceramide and triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism. CPT1C global knock-out mice show a wide range of brain disorders, including impaired cognition and spatial learning, motor deficits, and a deregulation in food intake and energy homeostasis. The first disease-causing CPT1C mutation was recently described in humans, with Cpt1c being identified as the gene causing hereditary spastic paraplegia. The putative role of CPT1C in the regulation of complex-lipid metabolism is supported by the observation that it is highly expressed in certain virulent tumor cells, conferring them resistance to glucose- and oxygen-deprivation. Therefore, CPT1C may be a promising target in the treatment of cancer. Here we review the molecular, biochemical, and structural properties of CPT1C and discuss its potential roles in brain function, and cancer.

  11. Antioxidant activity of a Mediterranean food product: "fig syrup".

    PubMed

    Puoci, Francesco; Iemma, Francesca; Spizzirri, Umile G; Restuccia, Donatella; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Sirianni, Rosa; Manganaro, Lillo; Curcio, Manuela; Parisi, Ortensia I; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Picci, Nevio

    2011-03-01

    In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were performed to determine the amount of nutraceutical ingredients, such as phenolic compounds (3.92 mg equivalent of gallic acid per g) and flavonoids (0.35 mg equivalent of catechin per g), while HPLC analyses provided specific information about the composition of antioxidants in the syrup. Furthermore, total antioxidant activity, scavenging properties against DPPH and peroxyl radicals, and the anticholinesterase activity, clearly showed the efficacy of the syrup in preventing damage induced by free radicals and, thus, the applicability of this food derivative as a nutraceutical supplement.

  12. Identification of phenylpropanoids in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the phenylpropanoid composition and antioxidant activity of identified components in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves were examined. Known polyphenols rutin, isoschaftoside, isoquercetin, and chlorogenic acid were identified. Furthermore, caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) was the most abundant polyphenol and was identified for the first time. CMA exhibited antioxidant activity similar to that of vitamin C or catechin. Psoralen and bergapten were identified as known furanocoumarins, with psoralen being the most abundant. Moreover, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG) was identified for the first time. As a precursor of psoralen, PAG content was equivalent to the psoralen content in moles. Notably, the content of these compounds varied between the five fig varieties, and the furanocoumarin and PAG contents varied more than that of the polyphenols. Further investigations concerning the influence of CMA and PAG on human health are necessary to elucidate functionalities of fig leaves.

  13. Interference competition and high temperatures reduce the virulence of fig wasps and stabilize a fig-wasp mutualism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Ridley, Jo; Sun, Bao-Fa; Zheng, Qi; Dunn, Derek W; Cook, James; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Yu, Douglas W

    2009-11-12

    Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia ('figs') that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps) are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few galls, many empty ovules) and are overexploited in the winter (few seeds, many galls, few empty ovules). Conversely, syconia with many foundresses produce intermediate numbers of galls and seeds, regardless of season. We use experiments to explain these patterns, and thus, to explain how this mutualism is maintained. In the hot summer, wasps suffer short lifespans and therefore fail to oviposit in many flowers. In contrast, cooler temperatures in the winter permit longer wasp lifespans, which in turn allows most flowers to be exploited by the wasps. However, even in winter, only in syconia that happen to have few foundresses are most flowers turned into galls. In syconia with higher numbers of foundresses, interference competition reduces foundress lifespans, which reduces the proportion of flowers that are galled. We further show that syconia encourage the entry of multiple foundresses by delaying ostiole closure. Taken together, these factors allow fig trees to reduce galling in the wasp-benign winter and boost galling (and pollination) in the wasp-stressing summer. Interference competition has been shown to reduce virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Our results show that interference also maintains cooperation in a classic, cooperative symbiosis, thus linking theories of virulence and mutualism. More generally, our results reveal how frequency-dependent population regulation can occur in the fig-wasp mutualism, and how a host species can 'set the rules of the game' to ensure

  14. FOLH1B — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    FOLH1B, or PSMAL, is a cytoplasmic protein. It has been found in the kidney and liver, and has not been detected in the prostate. GO annotations related to this gene include metallopeptidase activity and dipeptidase activity.

  15. Effect of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to endothelin-converting enzyme-1c (ECE-1c) on ECE-1c mRNA, ECE-1 protein and endothelin-1 synthesis in bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Barker, S; Khan, N Q; Wood, E G; Corder, R

    2001-02-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is secreted from endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) after intracellular hydrolysis of big ET-1 by endothelin converting enzyme (ECE). The metallopeptidase called ECE-1 is widely thought to be the physiological ECE, but unequivocal evidence of this role has yet to be provided. Endothelial cells express four isoforms of ECE-1 (ECE-1a, ECE-1b, ECE-1c, and ECE-1d), but the identity of ECE-1 isoforms expressed in VSMC is less clear. Here, we describe the characterization of ECE-1 isoforms in bovine pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (BPASMC) and the effect on ET-1 synthesis of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) to ECE-1c. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) evaluation of total RNA from BPASMC showed that ECE-1a and ECE-1d were not expressed. Sequencing of cloned ECE-1 cDNA products and semiquantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that ECE-1b and ECE-1c were expressed in BPASMC, with ECE-1c being the predominant isoform. Basal release of ET-1 from BPASMC was low. Treatment for 24 h with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) stimulated ET-1 production by up to 10-fold with parallel increases in levels of preproET-1 mRNA. Levels of ECE-1c mRNA were also raised after TNFalpha, whereas amounts of ECE-1b mRNA were decreased significantly. Treatment of BPASMC with a phosphorothioate antisense ODN to ECE-1c caused a marked reduction in ECE-1c mRNA levels and ECE-1 protein levels. However, basal and TNFalpha-stimulated ET-1 release were largely unaffected by the ECE-1c antisense ODN despite the inhibition of ECE-1c synthesis. Hence, an endopeptidase distinct from ECE-1 is mainly responsible big ET-1 processing in BPASMC.

  16. 21 CFR 145.134 - Canned preserved figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... section are whole mature figs of the light or dark varieties that may be either peeled or unpeeled. (c)(1... words “Preserved Figs”, but there shall be no intervening written, printed, or graphic matter, and the... precede or follow such name without intervening written, printed, or graphic matter, except that...

  17. 21 CFR 145.134 - Canned preserved figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... section are whole mature figs of the light or dark varieties that may be either peeled or unpeeled. (c)(1... words “Preserved Figs”, but there shall be no intervening written, printed, or graphic matter, and the... precede or follow such name without intervening written, printed, or graphic matter, except that...

  18. 21 CFR 145.134 - Canned preserved figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section are whole mature figs of the light or dark varieties that may be either peeled or unpeeled. (c)(1... words “Preserved Figs”, but there shall be no intervening written, printed, or graphic matter, and the... precede or follow such name without intervening written, printed, or graphic matter, except that...

  19. 21 CFR 145.134 - Canned preserved figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section are whole mature figs of the light or dark varieties that may be either peeled or unpeeled. (c)(1... words “Preserved Figs”, but there shall be no intervening written, printed, or graphic matter, and the... precede or follow such name without intervening written, printed, or graphic matter, except that...

  20. 21 CFR 145.134 - Canned preserved figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... section are whole mature figs of the light or dark varieties that may be either peeled or unpeeled. (c)(1... words “Preserved Figs”, but there shall be no intervening written, printed, or graphic matter, and the... precede or follow such name without intervening written, printed, or graphic matter, except that...

  1. 21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned figs. 145.131 Section 145.131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITS Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned...

  2. Genetic characterization of fig tree mutants with molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M G F; Martins, A B G; Desidério, J A; Bertoni, B W; Alves, M C

    2012-08-06

    The fig (Ficus carica L.) is a fruit tree of great world importance and, therefore, the genetic improvement becomes an important field of research for better crops, being necessary to gather information on this species, mainly regarding its genetic variability so that appropriate propagation projects and management are made. The improvement programs of fig trees using conventional procedures in order to obtain new cultivars are rare in many countries, such as Brazil, especially due to the little genetic variability and to the difficulties in obtaining plants from gamete fusion once the wasp Blastophaga psenes, responsible for the natural pollinating, is not found in Brazil. In this way, the mutagenic genetic improvement becomes a solution of it. For this reason, in an experiment conducted earlier, fig plants formed by cuttings treated with gamma ray were selected based on their agronomic characteristics of interest. We determined the genetic variability in these fig tree selections, using RAPD and AFLP molecular markers, comparing them to each other and to the Roxo-de-Valinhos, used as the standard. For the reactions of DNA amplification, 140 RAPD primers and 12 primer combinations for AFLP analysis were used. The selections did not differ genetically between themselves and between them and the Roxo-de-Valinhos cultivar. Techniques that can detect polymorphism between treatments, such as DNA sequencing, must be tested. The phenotypic variation of plants may be due to epigenetic variation, necessitating the use of techniques with methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes.

  3. 21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... artificially sweetened food is subject to the requirements for label statement of ingredients used, as... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned figs. 145.131 Section 145.131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  4. 21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... artificially sweetened food is subject to the requirements for label statement of ingredients used, as... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned figs. 145.131 Section 145.131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  5. 21 CFR 145.131 - Artificially sweetened canned figs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... artificially sweetened food is subject to the requirements for label statement of ingredients used, as... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned figs. 145.131 Section 145.131 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  6. Aflatoxins in hazelnuts and dried figs: Occurrence and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Kabak, Bulent

    2016-11-15

    A total of 300 samples of hazelnuts and dried fig were analysed for the incidence of any aflatoxins (AFs). High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was used to quantify the amounts of AFs. The limit of quantification varied from 0.21 to 0.30μgkg(-1). No AFs were detected in shells of the hazelnuts, while six raw hazelnut kernel samples (12%) and five roasted hazelnut kernel samples (8.3%) contained AFs ranging from 0.09 to 11.3μgkg(-1) and from 0.17 to 11.2μgkg(-1), respectively. Sixteen dried fig samples (12.3%) contained AFs ranging from 0.1 to 28.2μgkg(-1) and a mean value of 3.8μgkg(-1). Three hazelnuts and six dried fig samples exceeded the European maximum limits (MLs) of 5 and 2μgkg(-1) for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), respectively. The contribution of hazelnuts to AFs exposure is higher than that of dried figs.

  7. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated fig (Ficus carica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Ed; Velasco, Dianne; Koehmstedt, Anne

    2010-01-01

    One hundred ninety-four germplasm accessions of fig representing the four fig types, Common, Smyrna, San Pedro, and Caprifig were analyzed for genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation using genetic polymorphism at 15 microsatellite loci. The collection showed considerable polymorphism with observed number of alleles per locus ranging from four for five different loci, MFC4, LMFC14, LMFC22, LMFC31 and LMFC35 to nine for LMFC30 with an average of 4.9 alleles per locus. Seven of the 15 loci included in the genetic structure analyses exhibited significant deviation from panmixia, of which two showed excess and five showed deficiency of heterozygote. The cluster analysis (CA) revealed ten groups with 32 instances of synonymy among cultivars and groups differed significantly for frequency and composition of alleles for different loci. The principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the results of CA with some groups more differentiated than the others. Further, the model based Bayesian approach clustering suggested a subtle population structure with mixed ancestry for most figs. The gene diversity analysis indicated that much of the total variation is found within groups (HG/HT = 0.853; 85.3%) and the among groups within total component (GGT = 0.147) accounted for the remaining 14.7%, of which ~64% accounted for among groups within clusters (GGC = 0.094) and ~36% among clusters (GCT = 0.053). The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed approximately similar results with nearly 87% of variation within groups and ~10% among groups within clusters, and ~3% among clusters. Overall, the gene pool of cultivated fig analyzed possesses substantial genetic polymorphism but exhibits narrow differentiation. It is evident that fig accessions from Turkmenistan are somewhat genetically different from the rest of the Mediterranean and the Caucasus figs. The long history of domestication and cultivation with widespread dispersal of cultivars with many synonyms

  8. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated fig (Ficus carica L.).

    PubMed

    Aradhya, Mallikarjuna K; Stover, Ed; Velasco, Dianne; Koehmstedt, Anne

    2010-06-01

    One hundred ninety-four germplasm accessions of fig representing the four fig types, Common, Smyrna, San Pedro, and Caprifig were analyzed for genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation using genetic polymorphism at 15 microsatellite loci. The collection showed considerable polymorphism with observed number of alleles per locus ranging from four for five different loci, MFC4, LMFC14, LMFC22, LMFC31 and LMFC35 to nine for LMFC30 with an average of 4.9 alleles per locus. Seven of the 15 loci included in the genetic structure analyses exhibited significant deviation from panmixia, of which two showed excess and five showed deficiency of heterozygote. The cluster analysis (CA) revealed ten groups with 32 instances of synonymy among cultivars and groups differed significantly for frequency and composition of alleles for different loci. The principal components analysis (PCA) confirmed the results of CA with some groups more differentiated than the others. Further, the model based Bayesian approach clustering suggested a subtle population structure with mixed ancestry for most figs. The gene diversity analysis indicated that much of the total variation is found within groups (H (G) /H (T) = 0.853; 85.3%) and the among groups within total component (G (GT) = 0.147) accounted for the remaining 14.7%, of which approximately 64% accounted for among groups within clusters (G (GC) = 0.094) and approximately 36% among clusters (G (CT) = 0.053). The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed approximately similar results with nearly 87% of variation within groups and approximately 10% among groups within clusters, and approximately 3% among clusters. Overall, the gene pool of cultivated fig analyzed possesses substantial genetic polymorphism but exhibits narrow differentiation. It is evident that fig accessions from Turkmenistan are somewhat genetically different from the rest of the Mediterranean and the Caucasus figs. The long history of domestication and cultivation

  9. Initial assessment of natural diversity in Mexican fig landraces.

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, M T; Mendoza-Castillo, V M; Valadez-Moctezuma, E; Muratalla-Lúa, A

    2013-09-23

    The common fig (Ficus carica L.) was introduced into Mexico by Spanish Franciscan missionaries in the 16th century. It is widely assumed that Mexican figs are the Spanish cultivar Black Mission. We collected and propagated 12 fig plants from six landraces from different states in Central Mexico that represent different climate. All of them were grown in a greenhouse at Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, in the State of Mexico. During the experimental period, the greenhouse had an average temperature and relative humidity of 29.2° ± 5.4°C (SEM) and 78.1 ± 6.7% (SEM), respectively. Morphological characterization was done following a selected set of quantitative and qualitative descriptors established by the IPGRI. DNA analysis was based on a combination of ISSR and RFLP markers. We observed great diversity mainly in fruit weight (28.1-96.2 g), fruit shape (ovoid, pyriform), and neck length (0.97-3.80 cm), which could not be explained by environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity. The Nei and Li/Dice similarity coefficient between landraces was determined by cluster analysis using the UPGMA method. Based on the morphological characterization and DNA fingerprinting data presented in this study, our results showed that after hundreds of years, black figs have adapted to local environmental condition in Central Mexico, yielding at least six clearly distinct landraces that represent valuable and previously undescribed genetic diversity. We also suggested names for those landraces according to their location and established a basis for further agronomic and molecular characterization of fig landraces.

  10. Therapeutic effects of fig tree latex on bovine papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Hemmatzadeh, F; Fatemi, A; Amini, F

    2003-12-01

    The effects of fig tree latex in treating teat papillomatosis in cow in comparison with salicylic acid were evaluated. For this purpose, 12 cows of 1-3 years of age (average 2.25) affected by teat papillomatosis were divided into three groups. In group A, four cows were treated by fig tree (Ficus carica) latex; in group B, four cows were treated with 10% salicylic acid solution and in group C, four cows were kept as control animals receiving no treatment. Animals in each treatment group received their treatment once every 5 days. In groups A and B, de-epithelialization and shrinking of the warts began from the fifth day of treatment and all the warts disappeared within 30 days. However, in the control group no changes in the number of warts were observed until day 15 but thereafter a number of warts disappeared spontaneously in some of the animals. Both salicylic acid and fig tree latex were evaluated as having similar therapeutic effects in treating teat papillomatosis in cow.

  11. 18 CFR 1b.21 - Enforcement hotline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enforcement hotline. 1b... or writing to the Hotline at the telephone number and address in paragraph (f) of this section. The... matter. A caller may terminate use of the Hotline procedure at any time. (f) The Hotline may be...

  12. 18 CFR 1b.21 - Enforcement hotline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enforcement hotline. 1b... or writing to the Hotline at the telephone number and address in paragraph (f) of this section. The... matter. A caller may terminate use of the Hotline procedure at any time. (f) The Hotline may be...

  13. 7 CFR 1b.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.1 Purpose. (a) This part supplements the regulations for implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), for which regulations were published by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) in 40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508. This...

  14. Experimental Reproduction of Type 1B Chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, G. E.; Le, L.

    2002-01-01

    We have replicated type 1B chondrule textures and compositions with crystallization experiments in which UOC material was melted at 1400 deg.C and cooled at 5-1000 deg.C/hr using graphite crucibles in evacuated silica tubes to provide a reducing environment. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  16. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  17. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  18. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  19. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  20. 7 CFR 1c.107 - IRB membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IRB membership. 1c.107 Section 1c.107 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.107 IRB membership. (a) Each IRB shall have at least five members, with varying backgrounds to promote complete and adequate review...

  1. 7 CFR 1c.107 - IRB membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false IRB membership. 1c.107 Section 1c.107 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.107 IRB membership. (a) Each IRB shall have at least five members, with varying backgrounds to promote complete and adequate review...

  2. 7 CFR 1c.107 - IRB membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false IRB membership. 1c.107 Section 1c.107 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.107 IRB membership. (a) Each IRB shall have at least five members, with varying backgrounds to promote complete and adequate review...

  3. Aldo-keto Reductase 1B15 (AKR1B15)

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Susanne; Salabei, Joshua K.; Möller, Gabriele; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Adamski, Jerzy; Barski, Oleg A.

    2015-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) comprise a superfamily of proteins involved in the reduction and oxidation of biogenic and xenobiotic carbonyls. In humans, at least 15 AKR superfamily members have been identified so far. One of these is a newly identified gene locus, AKR1B15, which clusters on chromosome 7 with the other human AKR1B subfamily members (i.e. AKR1B1 and AKR1B10). We show that alternative splicing of the AKR1B15 gene transcript gives rise to two protein isoforms with different N termini: AKR1B15.1 is a 316-amino acid protein with 91% amino acid identity to AKR1B10; AKR1B15.2 has a prolonged N terminus and consists of 344 amino acid residues. The two gene products differ in their expression level, subcellular localization, and activity. In contrast with other AKR enzymes, which are mostly cytosolic, AKR1B15.1 co-localizes with the mitochondria. Kinetic studies show that AKR1B15.1 is predominantly a reductive enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of androgens and estrogens with high positional selectivity (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity) as well as 3-keto-acyl-CoA conjugates and exhibits strong cofactor selectivity toward NADP(H). In accordance with its substrate spectrum, the enzyme is expressed at the highest levels in steroid-sensitive tissues, namely placenta, testis, and adipose tissue. Placental and adipose expression could be reproduced in the BeWo and SGBS cell lines, respectively. In contrast, AKR1B15.2 localizes to the cytosol and displays no enzymatic activity with the substrates tested. Collectively, these results demonstrate the existence of a novel catalytically active AKR, which is associated with mitochondria and expressed mainly in steroid-sensitive tissues. PMID:25577493

  4. The effect of fig wall thickness in Ficus erecta var. beecheyana on parasitism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Ou, Chern-Hsiung; Lu, Fu-Yuan; Bain, Anthony; Chou, Lien-Siang; Kjellberg, Finn

    2014-05-01

    Fig wasp communities constitute a model system to analyse determinants of community complexity and to investigate how biological interaction networks are maintained. It has been suggested for monoecious figs, that fig pollinating wasps avoid ovipositing in flowers located close to the fig wall because of strong parasitic pressure by wasps ovipositing through the fig wall. This behaviour could help explain why mainly seeds are produced in flowers located close to the fig wall, thus stabilizing the fig-pollinating wasp mutualism. In this contribution we explore, for dioecious figs, whether ovipositor length of parasitic species may really be limiting. In dioecious figs, functionally male figs produce pollinating wasps and pollen while female figs produce only seeds, facilitating selection of traits favouring pollinator reproduction in male figs. We show in Ficus erecta that fig walls are thicker in male figs than in female figs. Male figs presenting thick walls, thicker than the length of the parasites' ovipositors, went unparasitized while male figs presenting thinner walls were systematically parasitized. Hence, in F. erecta, ovipositor length of the parasites is limiting access to some figs. However, we also show that in another dioecious species, Ficus formosana, presenting thin walled male figs, no fig is protected against oviposition by its two parasites. Hence in dioecious as well as in monoecious figs, in some Ficus species, ovipositors of the parasites are limiting access to ovules, while in other Ficus species all ovules are exposed to parasitism.

  5. MISR Level 1A CCD, 1B1, 1B2, and Browse Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... 1B1 Radiance, CCD Science;  Local Mode Data (Hi-Res Target Scenes): Terrain/Ellipsoid-Projected Radiance, 1B1 Radiance ... transform fix. ROI Image Matching improvements to blunder detection algorithm and to Image Coordinate Correction. New ancillary ...

  6. The brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1c regulates energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, Michael J; Kurama, Takeshi; Dai, Yun; Suwa, Akira; Asaumi, Makoto; Matsumoto, Shun-Ichiro; Cha, Seung Hun; Shimokawa, Teruhiko; Lane, M Daniel

    2006-05-09

    Fatty acid synthesis in the central nervous system is implicated in the control of food intake and energy expenditure. An intermediate in this pathway, malonyl-CoA, mediates these effects. Malonyl-CoA is an established inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1), an outer mitochondrial membrane enzyme that controls entry of fatty acids into mitochondria and, thereby, fatty acid oxidation. CPT1c, a brain-specific enzyme with high sequence similarity to CPT1a (liver) and CPT1b (muscle) was recently discovered. All three CPTs bind malonyl-CoA, and CPT1a and CPT1b catalyze acyl transfer from various fatty acyl-CoAs to carnitine, whereas CPT1c does not. These findings suggest that CPT1c has a unique function or activation mechanism. We produced a targeted mouse knockout (KO) of CPT1c to investigate its role in energy homeostasis. CPT1c KO mice have lower body weight and food intake, which is consistent with a role as an energy-sensing malonyl-CoA target. Paradoxically, CPT1c KO mice fed a high-fat diet are more susceptible to obesity, suggesting that CPT1c is protective against the effects of fat feeding. CPT1c KO mice also exhibit decreased rates of fatty acid oxidation, which may contribute to their increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. These findings indicate that CPT1c is necessary for the regulation of energy homeostasis.

  7. The brain-specific carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1c regulates energy homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgang, Michael J.; Kurama, Takeshi; Dai, Yun; Suwa, Akira; Asaumi, Makoto; Matsumoto, Shun-ichiro; Cha, Seung Hun; Shimokawa, Teruhiko; Lane, M. Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Fatty acid synthesis in the central nervous system is implicated in the control of food intake and energy expenditure. An intermediate in this pathway, malonyl-CoA, mediates these effects. Malonyl-CoA is an established inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1), an outer mitochondrial membrane enzyme that controls entry of fatty acids into mitochondria and, thereby, fatty acid oxidation. CPT1c, a brain-specific enzyme with high sequence similarity to CPT1a (liver) and CPT1b (muscle) was recently discovered. All three CPTs bind malonyl-CoA, and CPT1a and CPT1b catalyze acyl transfer from various fatty acyl-CoAs to carnitine, whereas CPT1c does not. These findings suggest that CPT1c has a unique function or activation mechanism. We produced a targeted mouse knockout (KO) of CPT1c to investigate its role in energy homeostasis. CPT1c KO mice have lower body weight and food intake, which is consistent with a role as an energy-sensing malonyl-CoA target. Paradoxically, CPT1c KO mice fed a high-fat diet are more susceptible to obesity, suggesting that CPT1c is protective against the effects of fat feeding. CPT1c KO mice also exhibit decreased rates of fatty acid oxidation, which may contribute to their increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. These findings indicate that CPT1c is necessary for the regulation of energy homeostasis. PMID:16651524

  8. PTP1B inhibitors from Saussrurea lappa.

    PubMed

    Li, S; An, T-Y; Li, J; Shen, Q; Lou, F-C; Hu, L-H

    2006-01-01

    A new lignan glycoside, named 1,5-dihydroxypinoresinol-4'-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), has been isolated from the EtOH extract of the roots of Saussurea lappa, together with twenty known compounds: (+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), fraxiresinol-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), (-)-olivil-4''-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), 4-allyl-2,6-dimethoxybenzene-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, syringin, costunolide-15-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, chlorogenic acid, aloe-emodin-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), rhein-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), chrysophanol (7), emodin, dehydrocostus lactone, costunolide, beta-costic acid, reynosin, arbusculin A, alpha-cyclocostunolide, beta-cyclocostunolide, santamarine and magnolialide. Three anthraquinones (5-7) showed moderate bioactivity against human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (hPTP1B) in vitro.

  9. Papain Induced Occupational Asthma with Kiwi and Fig Allergy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Wen, Liping

    2016-03-01

    Papain is a proteolytic enzyme which is widely used in food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Occupational and non-occupational papain allergies have previously been documented; however, there are limited publications about papain allergy with its relative fruit allergy. Here, we present a case of occupational, IgE-mediated papain allergy with kiwi fruit and fig fruit allergy. A 53-year-old man suffered from rhinitis for several years, with the onset of his symptoms coinciding with the time he started to work at a sausage processing plant where papain is often used as a meat tenderizer. He began to experience symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath and wheezing shortly after starting work 5 years ago. Furthermore, he experienced several episodes of oral itching, and tongue and oropharyngeal angioedema after injestion of kiwi fruit and fig fruit. The patient had a lifelong history of allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, and childhood asthma. Specific IgE was positive to kiwi fruit, papain and chymopapain (2.95 kUA/L, >100 kUA/L, and 95.0 kUA/L, respectively). Similar bands at 10-15 kDa in blotting with papain and kiwi fruit extracts were found. This patient showed a potential association between papain allergy and sensitization to kiwi fruit. We also reviewed 13 patients with papain allergy published in the literature, with 85% (11/13) of the patients sensitized through the respiratory tract, and 40% (4/11) having atopy. Further studies should focus on the determination of cross-reactive allergens between papain and its fruit relatives, and the prevalence of food allergy in patients with papain allergy should be investigated in a relatively large cohort.

  10. Oleanane triterpenes as protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors from Camellia japonica.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Sharma, Govinda; Yang, Jun-Li; Choi, Hong Seok; Lim, Seong-Il; Kang, Keon Wook; Oh, Won Keun

    2014-07-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays a key role in metabolic signaling, thereby making it an exciting drug target for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Besides, there is substantial evidence that shows its overexpression is involved in breast cancer, which suggests that selective PTP1B inhibition might be effective in breast cancer treatment. As part of our continuous research on PTP1B inhibitors from medicinal plants, four oleanane-type triterpenes were isolated from an EtOAc-soluble extract of fruit peels of Camellia japonica (Theaceae), together with 6 previously known compounds of this class. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis (UV, IR, (1)H and (13)CNMR, HMBC, HSQC, NOESY, and MS). All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on PTP1B, as well as their cytotoxic effects against human breast cancer cell lines MCF7, MCF7/ADR, and MDA-MB-231. Several compounds with OH-3 or/and COOH-28 functionalities showed strong PTP1B inhibitory activity (IC50 values ranging from 3.77±0.11 to 6.40±0.81 μM) as well as significant cytotoxicity (IC50 values ranging from 0.51±0.05 to 13.55±1.44 μM).

  11. 9 CFR 73.1c - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 73.1c Section 73.1c Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE §...

  12. 9 CFR 73.1c - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 73.1c Section 73.1c Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE §...

  13. 9 CFR 73.1c - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 73.1c Section 73.1c Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE §...

  14. 9 CFR 73.1c - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 73.1c Section 73.1c Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE §...

  15. 9 CFR 73.1c - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 73.1c Section 73.1c Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE §...

  16. Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1 and OATP1B3 as important regulators of the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    Nobody doubts the importance of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1 and 1B3 in the clinical pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs. Based on the theory of pharmacokinetics, even if a drug is eliminated from the body by extensive metabolism, the rate-determining process of the hepatic intrinsic clearance of OATP substrates is often hepatic uptake. Because of their broad substrate specificities, once the functions of OATP1B1 or OATP1B3 are altered by several kinds of special occasions such as drug-drug interactions (DDI) and genetic polymorphisms of transporter genes, the hepatic clearance of many kinds of structurally-unrelated drugs is expected to be changed. In some cases, these alterations of pharmacokinetics lead to modified pharmacological effects and adverse reactions such as statin-induced myotoxicity and the glucose-lowering effect of anti-diabetes drugs. Thus, appropriate methods with which to quantitatively predict the changes in plasma and tissue concentrations of drugs are needed in the process of drug development. As for DDI, a static model that takes into consideration of the theoretically-maximum unbound inhibitor concentration is often used for the sensitive detection of possible DDI risks and this method has been adopted in several regulatory guidance/guidelines on DDI. Regarding genetic polymorphisms, the effects of SLCO1B1 c.388A>G and c.521T>C on the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs have been extensively investigated. Even though there are some discrepancies, c.521T>C generally decreased hepatic uptake activity, while c.388A>G tended to slightly increase it. This article briefly summarizes the current status of research on hepatic OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 and the clinical significance of their functions.

  17. Cytotoxicity of fig fruit latex against human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiujie; Jiang, Shu; Lin, Ping; Zhang, Jie; Lu, Yanrong; Wang, Qi; Xiong, Zhujuan; Wu, Yaying; Ren, Jingjing; Yang, Hongliang

    2008-03-01

    Fig fruit latex (FFL) contains significant amounts of polyphenolic compounds and can serve as a source of antioxidants after human consumption. The purpose of this study is to confirm anticancer activity of FFL against human cancer cells and to further elucidate its mechanism of activity. Human glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and normal liver cells were used for in vitro tests of FFL effects. Those tests included cytotoxicity, colony formation inhibition, Brdu incorporation, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining for apoptotic cells, cell cycle distribution through flow cytometry (FCM), and ADP-ribosyltransferase (NAD+; poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase)-like 1 (ADPERL1) mRNA expression through RT-PCR in response to FFL treatment. After FFL treatment, the proliferation, colony formation, and Brdu labeling indices of cancer cells decreased (P<0.05), while the AO/EB stained apoptotic cells increased (P<0.05). By FCM analysis, an increase of G(0)/G(1) phase cell population and decrease of S and G(2)/M phase cells were observed (P<0.01), while both ADPRTL1 mRNA expression and apoptotic indices increased (P<0.01). The findings in these studies suggested that FFL exhibited potent cytotoxicity in some human cancer cells with little effect in normal cells at certain concentration. The mechanism for such effects might be associated with the inhibition of DNA synthesis, induction of apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest of cancer cells.

  18. TNFRSF1B — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    TNFRSF1B, also known as TNFr2, a single-pass type I member of the TNF-receptor superfamily, forms a heterocomplex with TNF-receptor 1 that mediates the recruitment of two anti-apoptotic proteins, c-IAP1 and c-IAP2, which possess E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Although the function of IAPs in TNF-receptor signalling is unknown, c-IAP1 is thought to potentiate TNF-induced apoptosis by the ubiquitination and degradation of TNF-receptor-associated factor 2, which mediates anti-apoptotic signals. Knockout studies in mice also suggest that TNFr2 plays a role in protecting neurons from apoptosis by stimulating antioxidative pathways.

  19. Skylab Saturn 1B flight manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A Saturn 1B Flight Manual provides launch vehicle systems descriptions and predicted performance data for the Skylab missions. Vehicle SL-2 (SA-206) is the baseline for this manual; but, as a result of the great similarity, the material is representative of SL-3 and SL-4 launch vehicles, also. The Flight Manual is not a control document but is intended primarily as an aid to astronauts who are training for Skylab missions. In order to provide a comprehensive reference for that purpose, the manual also contains descriptions of the ground support interfaces, prelaunch operations, and emergency procedures. Mission variables and constraints are summarized, and mission control monitoring and data flow during launch preparation and flight are discussed.

  20. Ficus spp. (fig): ethnobotany and potential as anticancer and anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Lansky, Ephraim Philip; Paavilainen, Helena M; Pawlus, Alison D; Newman, Robert A

    2008-09-26

    This review explores medieval, ancient and modern sources for ethnopharmacological uses of Ficus (fig) species, specifically for employment against malignant disease and inflammation. The close connection between inflammatory/infectious and cancerous diseases is apparent both from the medieval/ancient merging of these concepts and the modern pharmacological recognition of the initiating and promoting importance of inflammation for cancer growth. Also considered are chemical groups and compounds underlying the anticancer and anti-inflammatory actions, the relationship of fig wasps and fig botany, extraction and storage of fig latex, and traditional methods of preparing fig medicaments including fig lye, fig wine and medicinal poultices.

  1. GIFTS SM EDU Level 1B Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Jialin; Gazarik, Michael J.; Reisse, Robert A.; Johnson, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) SensorModule (SM) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is a high resolution spectral imager designed to measure infrared (IR) radiances using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The GIFTS instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. This paper describes the GIFTS SM EDU Level 1B algorithms involved in the calibration. The GIFTS Level 1B calibration procedures can be subdivided into four blocks. In the first block, the measured raw interferograms are first corrected for the detector nonlinearity distortion, followed by the complex filtering and decimation procedure. In the second block, a phase correction algorithm is applied to the filtered and decimated complex interferograms. The resulting imaginary part of the spectrum contains only the noise component of the uncorrected spectrum. Additional random noise reduction can be accomplished by applying a spectral smoothing routine to the phase-corrected spectrum. The phase correction and spectral smoothing operations are performed on a set of interferogram scans for both ambient and hot blackbody references. To continue with the calibration, we compute the spectral responsivity based on the previous results, from which, the calibrated ambient blackbody (ABB), hot blackbody (HBB), and scene spectra can be obtained. We now can estimate the noise equivalent spectral radiance (NESR) from the calibrated ABB and HBB spectra. The correction schemes that compensate for the fore-optics offsets and off-axis effects are also implemented. In the third block, we developed an efficient method of generating pixel performance assessments. In addition, a

  2. Blood Test: Hemoglobin A1C

    MedlinePlus

    ... few minutes. previous continue What to Expect Either method (finger or heel sticking or vein withdrawal) of ... that since labs and offices may use different methods to measure HbA1c, the range of normal values ...

  3. A1C and eAG

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  4. Minimum variance and variance of outgoing quality limit MDS-1(c1, c2) plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, C.; Vidya, R.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the outgoing quality (OQ) and total inspection (TI) of multiple deferred state sampling plans MDS-1(c1,c2) are studied. It is assumed that the inspection is rejection rectification. Procedures for designing MDS-1(c1,c2) sampling plans with minimum variance of OQ and TI are developed. A procedure for obtaining a plan for a designated upper limit for the variance of the OQ (VOQL) is outlined.

  5. Low-temperature brewing using yeast immobilized on dried figs.

    PubMed

    Bekatorou, A; Sarellas, A; Ternan, N G; Mallouchos, A; Komaitis, M; Koutinas, A A; Kanellaki, M

    2002-12-04

    Dried figs, following exhaustive extraction of their residual sugars with water, were used for immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1. The immobilized biocatalyst was used in repeated batch fermentations of glucose at 30 degrees C, where significant reduction of the fermentation time was observed, falling from 65 h in the first batch to 7 h after the sixth batch. Repeated fermentations of wort at room and low temperatures resulted in fermentation times that fell from 26 to 20 h and from 27 to 24 days at 18 and 3 degrees C, respectively. Ethanol and beer productivities were high, showing suitability of the biocatalyst for low-temperature brewing. Diacetyl concentrations were low (0.3-0.5 mg/L), and polyphenols were lower than in commercial products and decreased as the fermentation temperature was decreased (126-50 mg/L). Ethyl acetate concentrations increased from 53 to 88 mg/L as the temperature was decreased, while the concentration of amyl alcohols at 3 degrees C (58 mg/L) was lower than half of that at 18 degrees C (125 mg/L). The beers produced at the end of the main fermentation had a fine clarity and a special fruity figlike aroma and taste, distinct from commercial products and more intense than beers produced by cells immobilized on other food-grade supports (gluten pellets or delignified cellulosic materials). GC-MS analysis did not show significant differences in the qualitative composition of the aroma compounds of the beers produced by immobilized and free cells.

  6. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B): A Potential Target for Alzheimer’s Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Marcelo N. N.; Lyra e Silva, Natalia M.; Ferreira, Sergio T.; De Felice, Fernanda G.

    2017-01-01

    Despite significant advances in current understanding of mechanisms of pathogenesis in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), attempts at drug development based on those discoveries have failed to translate into effective, disease-modifying therapies. AD is a complex and multifactorial disease comprising a range of aberrant cellular/molecular processes taking part in different cell types and brain regions. As a consequence, therapeutics for AD should be able to block or compensate multiple abnormal pathological events. Here, we examine recent evidence that inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) may represent a promising strategy to combat a variety of AD-related detrimental processes. Besides its well described role as a negative regulator of insulin and leptin signaling, PTB1B recently emerged as a modulator of various other processes in the central nervous system (CNS) that are also implicated in AD. These include signaling pathways germane to learning and memory, regulation of synapse dynamics, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. We propose that PTP1B inhibition may represent an attractive and yet unexplored therapeutic approach to correct aberrant signaling pathways linked to AD. PMID:28197094

  7. Patterns of diversification of Afrotropical Otiteselline fig wasps: phylogenetic study reveals a double radiation across host figs and conservatism of host association.

    PubMed

    Jousselin, E; Van Noort, S; Rasplus, J-Y; Greeff, J M

    2006-01-01

    We studied the phylogenetic relationships of Otiteselline fig waSPS associated with Ficus in the Afrotropical region using rDNA sequences. African fig species usually host two species of Otiteselline fig waSPS. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that this pattern of association results from the radiation of two clades of waSPS superimposed on the fig system. Within each clade, wasp species generally cluster according to their host classification. The phylogenies of the two clades are also generally more congruent than expected by chance. Together these results suggest that Otiteselline wasp speciation is largely constrained by the diversification of their hosts. Finally, we show a difference in ovipositor length between the two Otiteselline species coexisting in the same Ficus species, which probably corresponds to ecological differences. The diversification of ecological niches within the fig is probably, with cospeciation, one of the key factors explaining the diversification and maintenance of species of parasites of the fig/pollinator system.

  8. The new vertebrate CYP1C family: cloning of new subfamily members and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Godard, Celine A J; Goldstone, Jared V; Said, Maya R; Dickerson, Richard L; Woodin, Bruce R; Stegeman, John J

    2005-06-17

    Two novel CYP1 genes from teleost fish constituting a new subfamily have been cloned. These paralogous sequences are designated CYP1C1 and CYP1C2. Both genes were initially obtained from untreated scup Stenotomus chrysops tissues by RT-PCR and RACE. Scup CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 code for 524 and 525 amino acids, respectively, and share 80-81% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Orthologues of CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 were identified in genome databases for other fish species, and both CYP1B1 and CYP1C1 were cloned from zebrafish (Danio rerio). Phylogenetic analysis shows that CYP1Cs and CYP1Bs constitute a sister clade to the CYP1As. Analysis of sequence domains likely to have functional significance suggests that the two CYP1Cs in scup may have catalytic functions and/or substrate specificity that differ from each other and from those of mammalian CYP1Bs or CYP1As. RT-PCR results indicate that CYP1C1 and CYP1C2 are variously expressed in several scup organs.

  9. Description of the L1C signal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Betz, J.W.; Blanco, M.A.; Cahn, C.R.; Dafesh, P.A.; Hegarty, C.J.; Hudnut, K.W.; Kasemsri, V.; Keegan, R.; Kovach, K.; Lenahan, L.S.; Ma, H.H.; Rushanan, J.J.; Sklar, D.; Stansell, T.A.; Wang, C.C.; Yi, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Detailed design of the modernized LI civil signal (L1C) signal has been completed, and the resulting draft Interface Specification IS-GPS-800 was released in Spring 2006. The novel characteristics of the optimized L1C signal design provide advanced capabilities while offering to receiver designers considerable flexibility in how to use these capabilities. L1C provides a number of advanced features, including: 75% of power in a pilot component for enhanced signal tracking, advanced Weilbased spreading codes, an overlay code on the pilot that provides data message synchronization, support for improved reading of clock and ephemeris by combining message symbols across messages, advanced forward error control coding, and data symbol interleaving to combat fading. The resulting design offers receiver designers the opportunity to obtain unmatched performance in many ways. This paper describes the design of L1C. A summary of LIC's background and history is provided. The signal description then proceeds with the overall signal structure consisting of a pilot component and a carrier component. The new L1C spreading code family is described, along with the logic used for generating these spreading codes. Overlay codes on the pilot channel are also described, as is the logic used for generating the overlay codes. Spreading modulation characteristics are summarized. The data message structure is also presented, showing the format for providing time, ephemeris, and system data to users, along with features that enable receivers to perform code combining. Encoding of rapidly changing time bits is described, as are the Low Density Parity Check codes used for forward error control of slowly changing time bits, clock, ephemeris, and system data. The structure of the interleaver is also presented. A summary of L 1C's unique features and their benefits is provided, along with a discussion of the plan for L1C implementation.

  10. Phenological Adaptations in Ficus tikoua Exhibit Convergence with Unrelated Extra-Tropical Fig Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ting-Ting; Compton, Stephen G.; Yang, Yong-Jiang; Wang, Rong; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Flowering phenology is central to the ecology and evolution of most flowering plants. In highly-specific nursery pollination systems, such as that involving fig trees (Ficus species) and fig wasps (Agaonidae), any mismatch in timing has serious consequences because the plants must balance seed production with maintenance of their pollinator populations. Most fig trees are found in tropical or subtropical habitats, but the dioecious Chinese Ficus tikoua has a more northerly distribution. We monitored how its fruiting phenology has adapted in response to a highly seasonal environment. Male trees (where fig wasps reproduce) had one to three crops annually, whereas many seed-producing female trees produced only one fig crop. The timing of release of Ceratosolen fig wasps from male figs in late May and June was synchronized with the presence of receptive figs on female trees, at a time when there were few receptive figs on male trees, thereby ensuring seed set while allowing remnant pollinator populations to persist. F. tikoua phenology has converged with those of other (unrelated) northern Ficus species, but there are differences. Unlike F. carica in Europe, all F. tikoua male figs contain male flowers, and unlike F. pumila in China, but like F. carica, it is the second annual generation of adult wasps that pollinate female figs. The phenologies of all three temperate fig trees generate annual bottlenecks in the size of pollinator populations and for female F. tikoua also a shortage of fig wasps that results in many figs failing to be pollinated. PMID:25474008

  11. Phenological adaptations in Ficus tikoua exhibit convergence with unrelated extra-tropical fig trees.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting-Ting; Compton, Stephen G; Yang, Yong-Jiang; Wang, Rong; Chen, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Flowering phenology is central to the ecology and evolution of most flowering plants. In highly-specific nursery pollination systems, such as that involving fig trees (Ficus species) and fig wasps (Agaonidae), any mismatch in timing has serious consequences because the plants must balance seed production with maintenance of their pollinator populations. Most fig trees are found in tropical or subtropical habitats, but the dioecious Chinese Ficus tikoua has a more northerly distribution. We monitored how its fruiting phenology has adapted in response to a highly seasonal environment. Male trees (where fig wasps reproduce) had one to three crops annually, whereas many seed-producing female trees produced only one fig crop. The timing of release of Ceratosolen fig wasps from male figs in late May and June was synchronized with the presence of receptive figs on female trees, at a time when there were few receptive figs on male trees, thereby ensuring seed set while allowing remnant pollinator populations to persist. F. tikoua phenology has converged with those of other (unrelated) northern Ficus species, but there are differences. Unlike F. carica in Europe, all F. tikoua male figs contain male flowers, and unlike F. pumila in China, but like F. carica, it is the second annual generation of adult wasps that pollinate female figs. The phenologies of all three temperate fig trees generate annual bottlenecks in the size of pollinator populations and for female F. tikoua also a shortage of fig wasps that results in many figs failing to be pollinated.

  12. Structure and Promoter Characterization of Aldo-Keto Reductase Family 1 B10 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ziwen; Zhong, Linlin; Krishack, Paulette A; Robbins, Sarah; Cao, Julia X; Zhao, Yupei; Chung, Stephen; Cao, Deliang

    2009-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) is overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma, lung squamous carcinoma, and lung adenocarcinoma in smokers. Our recent studies have showed that AKR1B10 plays a critical role in the growth and proliferation of cancer cells by detoxifying reactive carbonyls and regulating fatty acid biosynthesis. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of AKR1B10 expression. In this study, we determined the structure of AKR1B10 gene and characterized its promoter. The results demonstrated that AKR1B10 consists of 10 exons and 9 introns, stretching approximately 13.8 kb. A 5′-RACE study determined the transcriptional start site of AKR1B10 at 320 bp upstream of the ATG translational start codon. A TATA-like (TAATAA) and a CAAT box are present from −145 to −140 bp and −193 to −190 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site, respectively. Motif analysis recognized multiple putative oncogenic and tumor suppressor protein binding sites in the AKR1B10 promoter, including c-Ets-1, C/EBP, AP-1, and p53, but osmolytic response elements were not found. A -4,091 bp of the 5′-flanking fragment of the AKR1B10 gene was capable of driving GFP and luciferase reporter gene expression in HepG2 cells derived from human hepatocellular carcinoma; progressive 5′-deletions revealed that a −255 bp fragment possesses full promoter activity. PMID:19236911

  13. Expression and evolutionary divergence of the non-conventional olfactory receptor in four species of fig wasp associated with one species of fig

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bin; Wang, Nina; Xiao, Jinhua; Xu, Yongyu; Murphy, Robert W; Huang, Dawei

    2009-01-01

    Background The interactions of fig wasps and their host figs provide a model for investigating co-evolution. Fig wasps have specialized morphological characters and lifestyles thought to be adaptations to living in the fig's syconium. Although these aspects of natural history are well documented, the genetic mechanism(s) underlying these changes remain(s) unknown. Fig wasp olfaction is the key to host-specificity. The Or83b gene class, an unusual member of olfactory receptor family, plays a critical role in enabling the function of conventional olfactory receptors. Four Or83b orthologous genes from one pollinator (PFW) (Ceratosolen solmsi) and three non-pollinator fig wasps (NPFWs) (Apocrypta bakeri, Philotrypesis pilosa and Philotrypesis sp.) associated with one species of fig (Ficus hispida) can be used to better understand the molecular mechanism underlying the fig wasp's adaptation to its host. We made a comparison of spatial tissue-specific expression patterns and substitution rates of one orthologous gene in these fig wasps and sought evidence for selection pressures. Results A newly identified Or83b orthologous gene was named Or2. Expressions of Or2 were restricted to the heads of all wingless male fig wasps, which usually live in the dark cavity of a fig throughout their life cycle. However, expressions were widely detected in the antennae, legs and abdomens of all female fig wasps that fly from one fig to another for oviposition, and secondarily pollination. Weak expression was also observed in the thorax of PFWs. Compared with NPFWs, the Or2 gene in C. solmsi had an elevated rate of substitutions and lower codon usage. Analyses using Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D* and F* tests indicated a non-neutral pattern of nucleotide variation in all fig wasps. Unlike in NPFWs, this non-neutral pattern was also observed for synonymous sites of Or2 within PFWs. Conclusion The sex- and species-specific expression patterns of Or2 genes detected beyond the known primary

  14. L1C signal design options

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Betz, J.W.; Cahn, C.R.; Dafesh, P.A.; Hegarty, C.J.; Hudnut, K.W.; Jones, A.J.; Keegan, R.; Kovach, K.; Lenahan, L.S.; Ma, H.H.; Rushanan, J.J.; Stansell, T.A.; Wang, C.C.; Yi, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Design activities for a new civil signal centered at 1575.42 MHz, called L1C, began in 2003, and the Phase 1 effort was completed in 2004. The L1C signal design has evolved and matured during a Phase 2 design activity that began in 2005. Phase 2 has built on the initial design activity, guided by responses to international user surveys conducted during Phase 1. A common core of signal characteristics has been developed to provide advances in robustness and performance. The Phase 2 activity produced five design options, all drawing upon the core signal characteristics, while representing different blends of characteristics and capabilities. A second round of international user surveys was completed to solicit advice concerning these design options. This paper provides an update of the L1C design process, and describes the current L1C design options. Initial performance estimates are presented for each design option, displaying trades between signal tracking robustness, the speed and robustness of clock and ephemeris data, and the rate and robustness of other data message contents. Planned remaining activities are summarized, leading to optimization of the L1C design.

  15. Level-1C Product from AIRS: Principal Component Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Evan M.; Jiang, Yibo; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Elliott, Denis A.; Hannon, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), launched on the EOS Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002, is a grating spectrometer with 2378 channels in the range 3.7 to 15.4 microns. In a grating spectrometer each individual radiance measurement is largely independent of all others. Most measurements are extremely accurate and have very low noise levels. However, some channels exhibit high noise levels or other anomalous behavior, complicating applications needing radiances throughout a band, such as cross-calibration with other instruments and regression retrieval algorithms. The AIRS Level-1C product is similar to Level-1B but with instrument artifacts removed. This paper focuses on the "cleaning" portion of Level-1C, which identifies bad radiance values within spectra and produces substitute radiances using redundant information from other channels. The substitution is done in two passes, first with a simple combination of values from neighboring channels, then with principal components. After results of the substitution are shown, differences between principal component reconstructed values and observed radiances are used to investigate detailed noise characteristics and spatial misalignment in other channels.

  16. Practical route to the left wing of CTX1B and total syntheses of CTX1B and 54-deoxyCTX1B.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shuji; Takeuchi, Katsutoshi; Koyama, Takuya; Inoue, Masayuki; Hayashi, Yujiro; Hirama, Masahiro

    2015-02-02

    Ciguatoxins, the principal causative agents of ciguatera seafood poisoning, are extremely large polycyclic ethers. We report herein a reliable route for constructing the left wing of CTX1B, which possesses the acid/base/oxidant-sensitive bisallylic ether moiety, by a 6-exo radical cyclization/ring-closing metathesis strategy. This new route enabled us to achieve the second-generation total synthesis of CTX1B and the first synthesis of 54-deoxyCTX1B.

  17. Kinetics and Mechanism of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) Inactivation by Acrolein

    PubMed Central

    Seiner, Derrick R.; LaButti, Jason N.; Gates, Kent S.

    2010-01-01

    Human cells are exposed to the electrophilic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein from a variety of sources. Reaction of acrolein with functionally critical protein thiol residues can yield important biological consequences. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are an important class of cysteine-dependent enzymes whose reactivity with acrolein previously has not been well characterized. These enzymes catalyze the dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine residues on proteins via a phosphocysteine intermediate. PTPs work in tandem with protein tyrosine kinases to regulate a number of critically important mammalian signal transduction pathways. We find that acrolein is a potent time-dependent inactivator of the enzyme PTP1B (kinact = 0.02 ± 0.005 s−1, KI = 2.3 ± 0.6 × 10−4 M). Enzyme activity does not return upon gel filtration of the inactivated enzyme and addition of the competitive phosphatase inhibitor vanadate slows inactivation of PTP1B by acrolein. Together these observations suggest that acrolein covalently modifies the active site of PTP1B. Mass spectrometric analysis reveals that acrolein modifies the catalytic cysteine residue at the active site of the enzyme. Aliphatic aldehydes such as glyoxal, acetaldehyde, and propanal are relatively weak inactivators of PTP1B under the conditions employed here. Similarly, unsaturated aldehydes such as crotonaldehyde and 3-methyl-2-butenal bearing substitution at the alkene terminus are poor inactivators of the enzyme. Overall, the data suggest that enzyme inactivation occurs via conjugate addition of the catalytic cysteine residue to the carbon-carbon double bond of acrolein. The results indicate that inactivation of PTPs should be considered as a possible contributor to the diverse biological activities of acrolein and structurally-related α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. PMID:17655273

  18. Olfactive detection of fig wasps as prey by the ant Crematogaster scutellaris (Formicidae; Myrmicinae).

    PubMed

    Schatz, Bertrand; Anstett, Marie-Charlotte; Out, Welmoed; Hossaert-McKey, Martine

    2003-10-01

    In the species-specific and obligate mutualism between the fig (Ficus carica) and its pollinator (the fig wasps Blastophaga psenes), a third participant, the ant Crematogaster scutellaris, is a predator of the wasps. Here, we ask how ant workers can rapidly localise such prey, whose availability is limited in time and space. Using a Y-tube olfactometer, we tested ant response to odours emitted by different types of figs (receptive female, ripe female or male figs) and by fig wasps (pollinators or non-pollinators). We demonstrate that ants were significantly attracted only to odours emitted by pollinators, either alone or associated with odours of male figs (releasing wasps). Detection of prey odour by ants is an important trait that can explain their observed high rate of predation on pollinators, and could have important implications on the stability of the fig/fig wasp mutualism.

  19. The incidence and pattern of copollinator diversification in dioecious and monoecious figs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li-Yuan; Machado, Carlos A; Dang, Xiao-Dong; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Yang, Da-Rong; Zhang, Da-Yong; Liao, Wan-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Differences in breeding system are associated with correlated ecological and morphological changes in plants. In Ficus, dioecy and monoecy are strongly associated with different suites of traits (tree height, population density, fruiting frequency, pollinator dispersal ecology). Although approximately 30% of fig species are pollinated by multiple species of fig-pollinating wasps, it has been suggested that copollinators are rare in dioecious figs. Here, we test whether there is a connection between the fig breeding system and copollinator incidence and diversification by conducting a meta-analysis of molecular data from pollinators of 119 fig species that includes new data from 15 Asian fig species. We find that the incidence of copollinators is not significantly different between monoecious and dioecious Ficus. Surprisingly, while all copollinators in dioecious figs are sister taxa, only 32.1% in monoecious figs are sister taxa. We present hypotheses to explain those patterns and discuss their consequences on the evolution of this mutualism. PMID:25495152

  20. Sensory profiles for dried fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars commercially grown and processed in California.

    PubMed

    Haug, Megan T; King, Ellena S; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-08-01

    A trained sensory panel evaluated the 6 fig cultivars currently sold in the California dried fig market. The main flavor and aroma attributes determined by the sensory panel were "caramel," "honey," "raisin," and "fig," with additional aroma attributes: "common date," "dried plum," and "molasses." Sensory differences were observed between dried fig cultivars. All figs were processed by 2 commercial handlers. Processing included potassium sorbate as a preservative and SO2 application as an antibrowning agent for white cultivars. As a consequence of SO2 use during processing, high sulfite residues affected the sensory profiles of the white dried fig cultivars. Significant differences between dried fig cultivars and sources demonstrate perceived differences between processing and storage methods. The panel-determined sensory lexicon can help with California fig marketing.

  1. 7 CFR 1c.115 - IRB records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., including the following: (1) Copies of all research proposals reviewed, scientific evaluations, if any, that... members voting for, against, and abstaining; the basis for requiring changes in or disapproving research... significant new findings provided to subjects, as required by § 1c.116(b)(5). (b) The records required by...

  2. 18 CFR 1b.3 - Scope of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scope of investigations. 1b.3 Section 1b.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.3 Scope of investigations....

  3. 18 CFR 1b.7 - Procedure after investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedure after investigation. 1b.7 Section 1b.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.7 Procedure after...

  4. 18 CFR 1b.11 - Limitation on participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Limitation on participation. 1b.11 Section 1b.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.11 Limitation...

  5. 18 CFR 1b.9 - Confidentiality of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Confidentiality of investigations. 1b.9 Section 1b.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.9 Confidentiality of...

  6. 18 CFR 1b.11 - Limitation on participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitation on participation. 1b.11 Section 1b.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.11 Limitation...

  7. 18 CFR 1b.16 - Rights of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rights of witnesses. 1b.16 Section 1b.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.16 Rights of witnesses. (a)...

  8. 18 CFR 1b.20 - Request for confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Request for confidential treatment. 1b.20 Section 1b.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.20 Request...

  9. 18 CFR 1b.3 - Scope of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scope of investigations. 1b.3 Section 1b.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.3 Scope of investigations....

  10. 18 CFR 1b.9 - Confidentiality of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidentiality of investigations. 1b.9 Section 1b.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.9 Confidentiality of...

  11. 18 CFR 1b.20 - Request for confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Request for confidential treatment. 1b.20 Section 1b.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.20 Request...

  12. 18 CFR 1b.7 - Procedure after investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedure after investigation. 1b.7 Section 1b.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.7 Procedure after...

  13. 18 CFR 1b.16 - Rights of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rights of witnesses. 1b.16 Section 1b.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.16 Rights of witnesses. (a)...

  14. 7 CFR 1b.4 - Exclusion of agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exclusion of agencies. 1b.4 Section 1b.4 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.4 Exclusion of agencies. (a... activities that have been found to have no individual or cumulative effect on the human environment. The...

  15. 18 CFR 1b.18 - Right to submit statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right to submit statements. 1b.18 Section 1b.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.18 Right to...

  16. 18 CFR 1b.18 - Right to submit statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Right to submit statements. 1b.18 Section 1b.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.18 Right to...

  17. 18 CFR 1b.8 - Requests for Commission investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requests for Commission investigations. 1b.8 Section 1b.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.8 Requests for...

  18. 18 CFR 1b.3 - Scope of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scope of investigations. 1b.3 Section 1b.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.3 Scope of investigations....

  19. 18 CFR 1b.3 - Scope of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope of investigations. 1b.3 Section 1b.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.3 Scope of investigations....

  20. 18 CFR 1b.10 - By whom conducted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false By whom conducted. 1b.10 Section 1b.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.10 By whom conducted....

  1. 18 CFR 1b.10 - By whom conducted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false By whom conducted. 1b.10 Section 1b.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.10 By whom conducted....

  2. 18 CFR 1b.16 - Rights of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rights of witnesses. 1b.16 Section 1b.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.16 Rights of witnesses. (a)...

  3. 18 CFR 1b.3 - Scope of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope of investigations. 1b.3 Section 1b.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.3 Scope of investigations....

  4. 18 CFR 1b.4 - Types of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Types of investigations. 1b.4 Section 1b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.4 Types of...

  5. 18 CFR 1b.7 - Procedure after investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedure after investigation. 1b.7 Section 1b.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.7 Procedure after...

  6. 18 CFR 1b.11 - Limitation on participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation on participation. 1b.11 Section 1b.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.11 Limitation...

  7. 18 CFR 1b.18 - Right to submit statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Right to submit statements. 1b.18 Section 1b.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.18 Right to...

  8. 18 CFR 1b.16 - Rights of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rights of witnesses. 1b.16 Section 1b.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.16 Rights of witnesses. (a)...

  9. 18 CFR 1b.7 - Procedure after investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedure after investigation. 1b.7 Section 1b.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.7 Procedure after...

  10. 18 CFR 1b.9 - Confidentiality of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Confidentiality of investigations. 1b.9 Section 1b.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Freedom of Information Act disclosure are set forth in 18 CFR part 3b and § 1b.20. A request...

  11. 18 CFR 1b.16 - Rights of witnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rights of witnesses. 1b.16 Section 1b.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.16 Rights of witnesses. (a)...

  12. 18 CFR 1b.4 - Types of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Types of investigations. 1b.4 Section 1b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.4 Types of...

  13. 18 CFR 1b.11 - Limitation on participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limitation on participation. 1b.11 Section 1b.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.11 Limitation...

  14. 18 CFR 1b.8 - Requests for Commission investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requests for Commission investigations. 1b.8 Section 1b.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.8 Requests for...

  15. 18 CFR 1b.8 - Requests for Commission investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requests for Commission investigations. 1b.8 Section 1b.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.8 Requests for...

  16. 18 CFR 1b.9 - Confidentiality of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidentiality of investigations. 1b.9 Section 1b.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Freedom of Information Act disclosure are set forth in 18 CFR part 3b and § 1b.20. A request...

  17. 18 CFR 1b.10 - By whom conducted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false By whom conducted. 1b.10 Section 1b.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.10 By whom conducted....

  18. 18 CFR 1b.11 - Limitation on participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limitation on participation. 1b.11 Section 1b.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.11 Limitation...

  19. 18 CFR 1b.7 - Procedure after investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure after investigation. 1b.7 Section 1b.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.7 Procedure after...

  20. 18 CFR 1b.4 - Types of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Types of investigations. 1b.4 Section 1b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.4 Types of...

  1. 18 CFR 1b.9 - Confidentiality of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Confidentiality of investigations. 1b.9 Section 1b.9 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... Freedom of Information Act disclosure are set forth in 18 CFR part 3b and § 1b.20. A request...

  2. 18 CFR 1b.4 - Types of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Types of investigations. 1b.4 Section 1b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.4 Types of...

  3. 18 CFR 1b.4 - Types of investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Types of investigations. 1b.4 Section 1b.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.4 Types of...

  4. Reactivation of Lysosomal Ca2+ Efflux Rescues Abnormal Lysosomal Storage in FIG4-Deficient Cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jianlong; Hu, Bo; Arpag, Sezgi; Yan, Qing; Hamilton, Audra; Zeng, Yuan-Shan; Vanoye, Carlos G; Li, Jun

    2015-04-29

    Loss of function of FIG4 leads to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 4J, Yunis-Varon syndrome, or an epilepsy syndrome. FIG4 is a phosphatase with its catalytic specificity toward 5'-phosphate of phosphatidylinositol-3,5-diphosphate (PI3,5P2). However, the loss of FIG4 decreases PI3,5P2 levels likely due to FIG4's dominant effect in scaffolding a PI3,5P2 synthetic protein complex. At the cellular level, all these diseases share similar pathology with abnormal lysosomal storage and neuronal degeneration. Mice with no FIG4 expression (Fig4(-/-)) recapitulate the pathology in humans with FIG4 deficiency. Using a flow cytometry technique that rapidly quantifies lysosome sizes, we detected an impaired lysosomal fission, but normal fusion, in Fig4(-/-) cells. The fission defect was associated with a robust increase of intralysosomal Ca(2+) in Fig4(-/-) cells, including FIG4-deficient neurons. This finding was consistent with a suppressed Ca(2+) efflux of lysosomes because the endogenous ligand of lysosomal Ca(2+) channel TRPML1 is PI3,5P2 that is deficient in Fig4(-/-) cells. We reactivated the TRPML1 channels by application of TRPML1 synthetic ligand, ML-SA1. This treatment reduced the intralysosomal Ca(2+) level and rescued abnormal lysosomal storage in Fig4(-/-) culture cells and ex vivo DRGs. Furthermore, we found that the suppressed Ca(2+) efflux in Fig4(-/-) culture cells and Fig4(-/-) mouse brains profoundly downregulated the expression/activity of dynamin-1, a GTPase known to scissor organelle membranes during fission. This downregulation made dynamin-1 unavailable for lysosomal fission. Together, our study revealed a novel mechanism explaining abnormal lysosomal storage in FIG4 deficiency. Synthetic ligands of the TRPML1 may become a potential therapy against diseases with FIG4 deficiency.

  5. Multiple Intravenous Infusions Phase 1b

    PubMed Central

    Cassano-Piché, A; Fan, M; Sabovitch, S; Masino, C; Easty, AC

    2012-01-01

    Background Minimal research has been conducted into the potential patient safety issues related to administering multiple intravenous (IV) infusions to a single patient. Previous research has highlighted that there are a number of related safety risks. In Phase 1a of this study, an analysis of 2 national incident-reporting databases (Institute for Safe Medical Practices Canada and United States Food and Drug Administration MAUDE) found that a high percentage of incidents associated with the administration of multiple IV infusions resulted in patient harm. Objectives The primary objectives of Phase 1b of this study were to identify safety issues with the potential to cause patient harm stemming from the administration of multiple IV infusions; and to identify how nurses are being educated on key principles required to safely administer multiple IV infusions. Data Sources and Review Methods A field study was conducted at 12 hospital clinical units (sites) across Ontario, and telephone interviews were conducted with program coordinators or instructors from both the Ontario baccalaureate nursing degree programs and the Ontario postgraduate Critical Care Nursing Certificate programs. Data were analyzed using Rasmussen’s 1997 Risk Management Framework and a Health Care Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. Results Twenty-two primary patient safety issues were identified with the potential to directly cause patient harm. Seventeen of these (critical issues) were categorized into 6 themes. A cause-consequence tree was established to outline all possible contributing factors for each critical issue. Clinical recommendations were identified for immediate distribution to, and implementation by, Ontario hospitals. Future investigation efforts were planned for Phase 2 of the study. Limitations This exploratory field study identifies the potential for errors, but does not describe the direct observation of such errors, except in a few cases where errors were observed. Not all

  6. Somatic overgrowth associated with homozygous mutations in both MAN1B1 and SEC23A

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swati; Fahiminiya, Somayyeh; Wang, Tracy; Dempsey Nunez, Laura; Rosenblatt, David S.; Gibson, William T.; Gilfix, Brian; Bergeron, John J. M.; Jerome-Majewska, Loydie A.

    2016-01-01

    Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified homozygous mutations in two unlinked genes, SEC23A c.1200G>C (p.M400I) and MAN1B1 c.1000C>T (p.R334C), associated with congenital birth defects in two patients from a consanguineous family. Patients presented with carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, tall stature, obesity, macrocephaly, and maloccluded teeth. The parents were healthy heterozygous carriers for both mutations and an unaffected sibling with tall stature carried the heterozygous mutation in SEC23A only. Mutations in SEC23A are responsible for craniolenticosultura dysplasia (CLSD). CLSD patients are short, have late-closing fontanels, and have reduced procollagen (pro-COL1A1) secretion because of abnormal pro-COL1A1 retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The mutation we identified in MAN1B1 was previously associated with reduced MAN1B1 protein and congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). CDG patients are also short, are obese, and have abnormal glycan remodeling. Molecular analysis of fibroblasts from the family revealed normal levels of SEC23A in all cells and reduced levels of MAN1B1 in cells with heterozygous or homozygous mutations in SEC23A and MAN1B1. Secretion of pro-COL1A1 was increased in fibroblasts from the siblings and patients, and pro-COL1A1 was retained in Golgi of heterozygous and homozygous mutant cells, although intracellular pro-COL1A1 was increased in patient fibroblasts only. We postulate that increased pro-COL1A1 secretion is responsible for tall stature in these patients and an unaffected sibling, and not previously discovered in patients with mutations in either SEC23A or MAN1B1. The patients in this study share biochemical and cellular characteristics consistent with mutations in MAN1B1 and SEC23A, indicating a digenic disease. PMID:27148587

  7. GD1b-specific antibodies may bind to complex of GQ1b and GM1, causing ataxia.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Nobuhiro; Fukami, Yuki; Yanaka, Chiaki; Koike, Saiko; Hirata, Koichi

    2014-08-01

    Monospecific IgG antibodies to GD1b ganglioside (GD1b-specific antibodies) have been found in patients with acute ataxic neuropathy and Guillain-Barré syndrome, but the association of the GD1b-specific antibodies with specific neurological conditions has yet to be established. We tested sera from more than 10,000 patients with various neurological disorders, and found six sera, which contained IgG antibodies to GD1b, but not to LM1, GM1, GM1b, GD1a, GalNAc-GD1a, GT1a, GT1b and GQ1b. All six patients who carried GD1b-specific antibodies presented with acute onset of ataxia and monophasic course of the illness, of whom five demonstrated cerebellar-like ataxia. Four patients had antecedent symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. The six patients demonstrated areflexia, and four complained of distal numbness. All the six patients who had the GD1b-specific antibodies carried IgG antibodies to complex of GQ1b/GM1 and GT1a/GM1. GD1b-specific antibodies were significantly absorbed by GQ1b/GM1 and GT1a/GM1 and anti-GQ1b/GM1 and -GT1a/GM1 antibodies were absorbed by GD1b. In conclusion, the GD1b-specific antibodies, which recognizes GQ1b/GM1 or GT1a/GM1 complex, are associated with acute ataxia.

  8. Tracking the elusive history of diversification in plant-herbivorous insect-parasitoid food webs: insights from figs and fig wasps.

    PubMed

    Kjellberg, Finn; Proffit, Magali

    2016-02-01

    The food webs consisting of plants, herbivorous insects and their insect parasitoids are a major component of terrestrial biodiversity. They play a central role in the functioning of all terrestrial ecosystems, and the number of species involved is mind-blowing (Nyman et al. 2015). Nevertheless, our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological determinants of their diversity is still in its infancy. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Sutton et al. (2016) open a window into the comparative analysis of spatial genetic structuring in a set of comparable multitrophic models, involving highly species-specific interactions: figs and fig wasps. This is the first study to compare genetic structure using population genetics tools in a fig-pollinating wasp (Pleistodontes imperialis sp1) and its main parasitoid (Sycoscapter sp.A). The fig-pollinating wasp has a discontinuous spatial distribution that correlates with genetic differentiation, while the parasitoid bridges the discontinuity by parasitizing other pollinator species on the same host fig tree and presents basically no spatial genetic structure. The full implications of these results for our general understanding of plant-herbivorous insect-insect parasitoids diversification become apparent when envisioned within the framework of recent advances in fig and fig wasp biology.

  9. Development of molecular tools for characterization and genetic diversity analysis in Tunisian fig (Ficus carica) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Chatti, Khaled; Baraket, Ghada; Ben Abdelkrim, Ahmed; Saddoud, Olfa; Mars, Messaoud; Trifi, Mokhtar; Salhi Hannachi, Amel

    2010-10-01

    Fig, Ficus carica L., is a useful genetic resource for commercial cultivation. In this study, RAPD (60), ISSR (48), RAMPO (63), and SSR (34) markers were compared to detect polymorphism and to establish genetic relationships among Tunisian fig tree cultivars. The statistical procedures conducted on the combined data show considerable genetic diversity, and the tested markers discriminated all fig genotypes studied. The identification key established on the basis of SSR permitted the unambiguous discrimination of cultivars and confirmed the reliability of SSR for fingerprinting fig genotypes. The study findings are discussed in relation to the establishment of a national reference collection that will aid in the conservation of Tunisian fig resources.

  10. MQ-1C Gray Eagle Unmanned Aircraft System (MQ-1C Gray Eagle)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-420 MQ-1C Gray Eagle Unmanned Aircraft System (MQ-1C Gray Eagle) As of FY 2017 President’s...Program Manager POE - Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service

  11. Multiple Horizontal Transfers of Bacteriophage WO and Host Wolbachia in Fig Wasps in a Closed Community

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ningxin; Jia, Sisi; Xu, Heng; Liu, Yong; Huang, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia-bacteriophage WO is a good model system for studying interactions between bacteria and viruses. Previous surveys of insect hosts have been conducted via sampling from open or semi-open communities; however, no studies have reported the infection patterns of phage WO of insects living in a closed community. Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium habitat for a variety of fig wasp. Therefore, in this study, we performed a thorough survey of Wolbachia and bacteriophage WO infection patterns in a total of 1406 individuals from 23 fig wasps species living on three different fig tree species. The infection rates of Wolbachia and phage WO were 82.6% (19/23) and 39.1% (9/23), respectively. Additionally, phage WO from fig wasps showed strong insect host specificity based on orf7 sequences from fig wasps and 21 other insect species. Probably due to the physical barrier of fig syconium, most phage WO from fig wasps form a specific clade. Phylogenetic analysis showed the absence of congruence between WO and host Wolbachia, WO and insect host, as well as Wolbachia and fig wasps, suggesting that both Wolbachia and phage WO exchanged frequently and independently within the closed syconium. Thus, the infection pattern of bacteriophage WO from fig wasps appeared quite different from that in other insects living outside, although the effect and the transfer routes of phage WO are unclear, which need to be investigated in the future. PMID:26913026

  12. Multiple Horizontal Transfers of Bacteriophage WO and Host Wolbachia in Fig Wasps in a Closed Community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ningxin; Jia, Sisi; Xu, Heng; Liu, Yong; Huang, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia-bacteriophage WO is a good model system for studying interactions between bacteria and viruses. Previous surveys of insect hosts have been conducted via sampling from open or semi-open communities; however, no studies have reported the infection patterns of phage WO of insects living in a closed community. Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium habitat for a variety of fig wasp. Therefore, in this study, we performed a thorough survey of Wolbachia and bacteriophage WO infection patterns in a total of 1406 individuals from 23 fig wasps species living on three different fig tree species. The infection rates of Wolbachia and phage WO were 82.6% (19/23) and 39.1% (9/23), respectively. Additionally, phage WO from fig wasps showed strong insect host specificity based on orf7 sequences from fig wasps and 21 other insect species. Probably due to the physical barrier of fig syconium, most phage WO from fig wasps form a specific clade. Phylogenetic analysis showed the absence of congruence between WO and host Wolbachia, WO and insect host, as well as Wolbachia and fig wasps, suggesting that both Wolbachia and phage WO exchanged frequently and independently within the closed syconium. Thus, the infection pattern of bacteriophage WO from fig wasps appeared quite different from that in other insects living outside, although the effect and the transfer routes of phage WO are unclear, which need to be investigated in the future.

  13. Deep mtDNA divergences indicate cryptic species in a fig-pollinating wasp

    PubMed Central

    Haine, Eleanor R; Martin, Joanne; Cook, James M

    2006-01-01

    Background Figs and fig-pollinating wasps are obligate mutualists that have coevolved for ca 90 million years. They have radiated together, but do not show strict cospeciation. In particular, it is now clear that many fig species host two wasp species, so there is more wasp speciation than fig speciation. However, little is known about how fig wasps speciate. Results We studied variation in 71 fig-pollinating wasps from across the large geographic range of Ficus rubiginosa in Australia. All wasps sampled belong to one morphological species (Pleistodontes imperialis), but we found four deep mtDNA clades that differed from each other by 9–17% nucleotides. As these genetic distances exceed those normally found within species and overlap those (10–26%) found between morphologically distinct Pleistodontes species, they strongly suggest cryptic fig wasp species. mtDNA clade diversity declines from all four present in Northern Queensland to just one in Sydney, near the southern range limit. However, at most sites multiple clades coexist and can be found in the same tree or even the same fig fruit and there is no evidence for parallel sub-division of the host fig species. Both mtDNA data and sequences from two nuclear genes support the monophyly of the "P. imperialis complex" relative to other Pleistodontes species, suggesting that fig wasp divergence has occurred without any host plant shift. Wasps in clade 3 were infected by a single strain (W1) of Wolbachia bacteria, while those in other clades carried a double infection (W2+W3) of two other strains. Conclusion Our study indicates that cryptic fig-pollinating wasp species have developed on a single host plant species, without the involvement of host plant shifts, or parallel host plant divergence. Despite extensive evidence for coevolution between figs and fig wasps, wasp speciation may not always be linked strongly with fig speciation. PMID:17040562

  14. Redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B by manipulation of dietary selenium affects the triglyceride concentration in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Andreas S; Klomann, Sandra D; Wolf, Nicole M; Schneider, Sandra; Schmidt, Rupert; Spielmann, Julia; Stangl, Gabriele; Eder, Klaus; Pallauf, Josef

    2008-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key enzyme in the counter-regulation of insulin signaling and in the stimulation of fatty acid synthesis. Selenium (Se), via the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), is involved in the removal of H(2)O(2) and organic peroxides, which are critical compounds in the modulation of PTP1B activity via glutathionylation. Our study with growing rats investigated how the manipulation of dietary Se concentration influences the regulation of PTP1B and lipogenic effects mediated by PTP1B. Weanling albino rats were divided into 3 groups of 10. The negative control group (NC) was fed a Se-deficient diet for 8 wk. Rats in groups Se75 and Se150 received diets supplemented with 75 or 150 microg Se/kg. Se supplementation of the rats strongly influenced expression and activity of the selenoenzymes cytosolic GPx, plasma GPx, phospholipidhydroperoxide GPx, and cytosolic TrxR, and liver PTP1B. Liver PTP1B activity was significantly higher in groups Se75 and Se150 than in the NC group and this was attributed to a lowered inhibition of the enzyme by glutathionylation. The increased liver PTP1B activity in groups Se75 and Se150 resulted in 1.1- and 1.4-fold higher liver triglyceride concentrations than in the NC rats. The upregulation of the sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and of fatty acid synthase, 2 PTP1B targets, provided a possible explanation for the lipogenic effect of PTP1B due to the manipulation of dietary Se. We therefore conclude that redox-regulated proteins, such as PTP1B, represent important interfaces between dietary antioxidants such as Se and the regulation of metabolic processes.

  15. Selectivity and potency of microcystin congeners against OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 expressing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Niedermeyer, Timo H J; Daily, Abigail; Swiatecka-Hagenbruch, Monika; Moscow, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Microcystins are potent phosphatase inhibitors and cellular toxins. They require active transport by OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 transporters for uptake into human cells, and the high expression of these transporters in the liver accounts for their selective hepatic toxicity. Several human tumors have been shown to have high levels of expression of OATP1B3 but not OATP1B1, the main transporter in liver cells. We hypothesized that microcystin variants could be isolated that are transported preferentially by OATP1B3 relative to OATP1B1 to advance as anticancer agents with clinically tolerable hepatic toxicity. Microcystin variants have been isolated and tested for cytotoxicity in cancer cells stably transfected with OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 transporters. Microcystin variants with cytotoxic OATP1B1/OATP1B3 IC50 ratios that ranged between 0.2 and 32 were found, representing a 150-fold range in transporter selectivity. As microcystin structure has a significant impact on transporter selectivity, it is potentially possible to develop analogs with even more pronounced OATP1B3 selectivity and thus enable their development as anticancer drugs.

  16. Relative investment in egg load and poison sac in fig wasps: Implications for physiological mechanisms underlying seed and wasp production in figs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Jandér, K. Charlotte; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Chen, Huan-Huan; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Herre, Edward Allen

    2014-05-01

    Fig pollinating wasps and most non-pollinator wasps apply secretions from their poison sacs into oviposited flowers that appear necessary to the formation of the galls that their developing offspring consume. Thus, both eggs and poison sac secretions appear to be essential for wasp reproduction, but the relative investment in each is unknown. We measured relative investment in poison sac and egg production in pollinating and non-pollinating wasps associated with seven species of monoecious Panamanian figs representing both active and passive pollination syndromes. We then collected similar data for four fig hosts in China, where some wasp species in the genus Eupristina have lost the ability to pollinate ("cheaters"). All wasps examined possessed large poison sacs, and we found a strong positive correlation between poison sac size and absolute egg production. In the Panamanian species, the relative poison sac to egg investment was highest in the externally ovipositing non-pollinator wasps, followed by active pollinators, then by passive pollinators. Further, pollinator wasps of fig species with demonstrated host sanctions against "cheating" wasps showed higher investment in the poison sac than wasps of species without sanctions. In the Chinese samples, relative investment in the poison sac was indistinguishable between pollinators and "cheaters" associated with the same fig species. We suggest that higher relative investment in poison sac across fig wasp species reflects higher relative difficulty in initiating formation of galls and subsequently obtaining resources from the fig. We discuss the implications for the stability of the fig-wasp mutualism, and for the ability of non-pollinators to exploit this mutualism.

  17. Same but different: Larval development and gall-inducing process of a non-pollinating fig wasp compared to that of pollinating fig-wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen-González, Sergio; Teixeira, Simone de Padua; Kjellberg, Finn; Pereira, Rodrigo A. Santinelo

    2014-05-01

    The receptacles of fig trees (Ficus spp.) can harbor a highly diversified and complex community of chalcid wasps. Functional groups of fig wasps (e.g. gallers, cleptoparasites and parasitoids) oviposit into the fig at different developmental stages, reflecting different feeding regimes for these insect larvae. There are few direct data available on larval feeding regimes and access to resources. We studied the gall induction and larval feeding strategy of an Idarnes (group flavicollis) species, a non-pollinating fig wasp (NPFW) associated to Ficus citrifolia P. Miller in Brazil. This Idarnes species shares with the pollinator characteristics such as time of oviposition, ovipositor insertion through flower and location of the egg inside plant ovaries. Nevertheless, we show that the gall induction differs considerably from that of the pollinating species. This Idarnes species relies on the induction of nucellus cell proliferation for gall formation and as the main larval resource. This strategy enables it to develop in both pollinated and unpollinated figs. The large differences between this NPFW and other fig wasps in how ovules are galled suggest that there are different ways to be a galler. A functional analysis of NPFW community structure may require descriptions of the histological processes associated with larval development.

  18. Pollinator sharing and gene flow among closely related sympatric dioecious fig taxa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Cannon, Charles H; Chen, Jin

    2016-04-13

    Hybridization and insect pollination are widely believed to increase rates of plant diversification. The extreme diversity of figs (Ficus) and their obligate pollinators, fig wasps (Agaonidae), provides an opportunity to examine the possible role of pollinator-mediated hybridization in plant diversification. Increasing evidence suggests that pollinator sharing and hybridization occurs among fig taxa, despite relatively strict coevolution with the pollinating wasp. Using five sympatric dioecious fig taxa and their pollinators, we examine the degree of pollinator sharing and inter-taxa gene flow. We experimentally test pollinator preference for floral volatiles, the main host recognition signal, from different figs. All five fig taxa shared pollinators with other taxa, and gene flow occurred between fig taxa within and between sections. Floral volatiles of each taxon attracted more than one pollinator species. Floral volatiles were more similar between closely related figs, which experienced higher levels of pollinator sharing and inter-taxa gene flow. This study demonstrates that pollinator sharing and inter-taxa gene flow occurs among closely related sympatric dioecious fig taxa and that pollinators choose the floral volatiles of multiple fig taxa. The implications of pollinator sharing and inter-taxa gene flow on diversification, occurring even in this highly specialized obligate pollination system, require further study.

  19. Amyloid-beta peptide binds to microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B).

    PubMed

    Gevorkian, Goar; Gonzalez-Noriega, Alfonso; Acero, Gonzalo; Ordoñez, Jorge; Michalak, Colette; Munguia, Maria Elena; Govezensky, Tzipe; Cribbs, David H; Manoutcharian, Karen

    2008-05-01

    Extracellular and intraneuronal formation of amyloid-beta aggregates have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, the precise mechanism of amyloid-beta neurotoxicity is not completely understood. Previous studies suggest that binding of amyloid-beta to a number of targets have deleterious effects on cellular functions. In the present study we have shown for the first time that amyloid-beta 1-42 bound to a peptide comprising the microtubule binding domain of the heavy chain of microtubule-associated protein 1B by the screening of a human brain cDNA library expressed on M13 phage. This interaction may explain, in part, the loss of neuronal cytoskeletal integrity, impairment of microtubule-dependent transport and synaptic dysfunction observed previously in Alzheimer's disease.

  20. AMYLOID-β PEPTIDE BINDS TO MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 1B (MAP1B)

    PubMed Central

    Gevorkian, Goar; Gonzalez-Noriega, Alfonso; Acero, Gonzalo; Ordoñez, Jorge; Michalak, Colette; Munguia, Maria Elena; Govezensky, Tzipe; Cribbs, David H.; Manoutcharian, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular and intraneuronal formation of amyloid-beta aggregates have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. However, the precise mechanism of amyloid-beta neurotoxicity is not completely understood. Previous studies suggest that binding of amyloid-beta to a number of targets have deleterious effects on cellular functions. In the present study we have shown for the first time that amyloid-beta 1-42 bound to a peptide comprising the microtubule binding domain of the heavy chain of microtubule-associated protein 1B by the screening of a human brain cDNA library expressed on M13 phage. This interaction may explain, in part, the loss of neuronal cytoskeletal integrity, impairment of microtubule-dependent transport and synaptic dysfunction observed previously in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:18079022

  1. Curated human hyperbilirubinemia data and the respective OATP1B1 and 1B3 inhibition predictions.

    PubMed

    Kotsampasakou, Eleni; Escher, Sylvia E; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2017-04-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is a pathological condition, very often indicative of underlying liver condition that is characterized by excessive accumulation of conjugated or unconjugated bilirubin in sinusoidal blood. In literature there are several indications associating the inhibition of the basolateral hepatic transporters Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1 and 1B3) with hyperbilirubinemia. In this article, we present a curated human hyperbilirubinemia dataset and the respective OATP1B1 and 1B3 inhibition predictions obtained from an effort to generate a classification model for hyperbilirubinemia. These data originate from the research article "Linking organic anion transporting polypeptide 1b1 and 1b3 (oatp1b1 and oatp1b3) interaction profiles to hepatotoxicity- the hyperbilirubinemia use case" (E. Kotsampasakou, S.E. Escher, G.F. Ecker, 2017) [1]. We further provide the full list of descriptors used for generating the hyperbilirubinemia classification models as well as the calculated descriptors for each compound of the dataset that was used to build the classification model.

  2. Overexpression and enhanced specific activity of aldoketo reductases (AKR1B1 & AKR1B10) in human breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ashok; Kumar, P Uday; Srinivasulu, M; Triveni, B; Sharada, K; Ismail, Ayesha; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of breast cancer in India is on the rise and is rapidly becoming the primary cancer in Indian women. The aldoketo reductase (AKR) family has more than 190 proteins including aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and aldose reductase like protein (AKR1B10). Apart from liver cancer, the status of AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 with respect to their expression and activity has not been reported in other human cancers. We studied the specific activity and expression of AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 in breast non tumor and tumor tissues and in the blood. Fresh post-surgical breast cancer and non-cancer tissues and blood were collected from the subjects who were admitted for surgical therapy. Malignant, benign and pre-surgical chemotherapy samples were evaluated by histopathology scoring. Expression of AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 was carried out by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) while specific activity was determined spectrophotometrically. The specific activity of AKR1B1 was significantly higher in red blood cells (RBC) in all three grades of primary surgical and post-chemotherapy samples. Specific activity of both AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 increased in tumor samples compared to their corresponding non tumor samples (primary surgical and post-chemotherapy). Immunoblotting and IHC data also indicated overexpression of AKR1B1 in all grades of tumors compared to their corresponding non tumor samples. There was no change in the specific activity of AKR1B1 in benign samples compared to all grades of tumor and non-tumors.

  3. Quinazoline derivatives as selective CYP1B1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mohd Siddique, Mohd Usman; McCann, Glen J P; Sonawane, Vinay R; Horley, Neill; Gatchie, Linda; Joshi, Prashant; Bharate, Sandip B; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan; Sinha, Barij N; Chaudhuri, Bhabatosh

    2017-04-21

    CYP1B1 is implicated to have a role in the development of breast, ovarian, renal, skin and lung carcinomas. It has been suggested that identification of potent and specific CYP1B1 inhibitors can lead to a novel treatment of cancer. Flavonoids have a compact rigid skeleton which fit precisely within the binding cavity of CYP1B1. Systematic isosteric replacement of flavonoid 'O' atom with 'N' atom led to the prediction that a 'quinazoline' scaffold could be the basis for designing potential CYP1B1 inhibitors. A total of 20 quinazoline analogs were synthesized and screened for CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 inhibition in Sacchrosomes™. IC50 determinations of six compounds with capability of inhibiting CYP1B1 identified quinazolines 5c and 5h as the best candidates for CYP1B1 inhibition, with IC50 values in the nM range. Further selectivity studies with homologous CYPs, belonging to the CYP1, CYP2 and CYP3 family of enzymes, showed that the compounds are likely to be free from critical drug-drug interaction liability. Molecular modelling studies were performed to rationalize the observed enzymatic inhibitions. Further biological studies in live yeast and human cells, harboring CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 enzymes, have illustrated the most potent compounds' cellular permeability and capability of potently inhibiting CYP1B1 enzyme expressed within live cells.

  4. Grumman OV-1C in hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Grumman OV-1C in the hangar used at the time by the Army at Edwards Air Force Base. This OV-1C Mohawk, serial #67-15932, was used in a joint NASA/US Army Aviation Engineering Flight Activity (USAAEFA) program to study a stall-speed warning system in the early 1980s. NASA designed and built an automated stall-speed warning system which presented both airspeed and stall speed to the pilot. Visual indication of impending stall would be displayed to the pilot as a cursor or pointer located on a conventional airspeed indicator. In addition, an aural warning at predetermined stall margins was presented to the pilot through a voice synthesizer. The Mohawk was developed by Grumman Aircraft as a photo observation and electronic reconnaissance aircraft for the US Marines and the US Army. The OV-1 entered production in October 1959 and served the US Army in Europe, Korea, the Viet Nam War, Central and South America, Alaska, and during Desert Shield/Desert Storm in the Middle East. The Mohawk was retired from service in September 1996. 133 OV-1Cs were built, the 'C' designating the model which used an IR (infrared) imaging system to provide reconnaissance.

  5. Grumman OV-1C in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Grumman OV-1C in flight. This OV-1C Mohawk, serial #67-15932, was used in a joint NASA/US Army Aviation Engineering Flight Activity (USAAEFA) program to study a stall-speed warning system in the early 1980s. NASA designed and built an automated stall-speed warning system which presented both airspeed and stall speed to the pilot. Visual indication of impending stall would be displayed to the pilot as a cursor or pointer located on a conventional airspeed indicator. In addition, an aural warning at predetermined stall margins was presented to the pilot through a voice synthesizer. The Mohawk was developed by Grumman Aircraft as a photo observation and reconnaissance aircraft for the US Marines and the US Army. The OV-1 entered production in October 1959 and served the US Army in Europe, Korea, the Viet Nam War, Central and South America, Alaska, and during Desert Shield/Desert Storm in the Middle East. The Mohawk was retired from service in September 1996. 133 OV-1Cs were built, the 'C' designating the model which used an IR (infrared) imaging system to provide reconnaissance.

  6. Utilisation of chemical signals by inquiline wasps in entering their host figs.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ding; Yang, Da-Rong

    2013-10-01

    The fig tree, Ficus curtipes, hosts an obligate pollinating wasp, an undescribed Eupristina sp., but can also be pollinated by two inquiline (living in the burrow, nest, gall, or other habitation of another animal) wasps, Diaziella yangi and an undescribed Lipothymus sp. The two inquilines are unable to independently induce galls and depend on the galls induced by the obligate pollinator for reproduction and, therefore, normally enter receptive F. curtipes figs colonised by the obligate pollinators. However, sometimes the inquilines also enter figs that are not colonised by the pollinators, despite consequent reproductive failure. It is still unknown which signal(s) the inquilines use in entering the colonised and non-colonised figs. We conducted behavioural experiments to investigate several possible signals utilised by the inquilines in entering their host receptive figs. Our investigation showed that both inquiline species enter the receptive F. curtipes figs in response to the body odours of the obligate wasps and one of the main compounds emitted by the figs, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. The compound was not found in the pollinator body odours, suggesting that the two inquiline wasps can utilise two signals to enter their host figs, which is significant for the evolution of the fig-fig wasp system. These inquilines could evolve to become mutualists of the figs if they evolve the ability to independently gall fig flowers; there is, however, another possibility that a monoecious Ficus species hosting such inquilines may evolve into a dioecious one if these inquilines cannot evolve the above-mentioned ability. Additionally, this finding provides evidence for the evolution of chemical communication between plants and insects.

  7. Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) vaginal infection of goats: clinical efficacy of fig latex.

    PubMed

    Camero, Michele; Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Losurdo, Michele; Larocca, Vittorio; Bodnar, Livia; Patruno, Giovanni; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The latex of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) has been shown to interfere with the replication of caprine herpesvirus (CpHV)-1 in vitro. The present study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of vaginal administration of fig latex in goats experimentally infected with CpHV-1. The fig latex reduced the clinical signs of the herpetic disease although it slightly influenced the titres of CpHV-1 shed. Thus, the fig latex maintained a partial efficacy in vivo.

  8. ARID1B-mediated disorders: Mutations and possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Joe C. H.; White, Susan M; Lockhart, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mutations in the gene encoding AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1B (ARID1B) were recently associated with multiple syndromes characterized by developmental delay and intellectual disability, in addition to nonsyndromic intellectual disability. While the majority of ARID1B mutations identified to date are predicted to result in haploinsufficiency, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms have yet to be fully understood. ARID1B is a DNA-binding subunit of the Brahma-associated factor chromatin remodelling complexes, which play a key role in the regulation of gene activity. The function of remodelling complexes can be regulated by their subunit composition, and there is some evidence that ARID1B is a component of the neuron-specific chromatin remodelling complex. This complex is involved in the regulation of stem/progenitor cells exiting the cell cycle and differentiating into postmitotic neurons. Recent research has indicated that alterations in the cell cycle contribute to the underlying pathogenesis of syndromes associated with ARID1B haploinsufficiency in fibroblasts derived from affected individuals. This review describes studies linking ARID1B to neurodevelopmental disorders and it summarizes the function of ARID1B to provide insights into the pathogenic mechanisms underlying ARID1B-mediated disorders. In conclusion, ARID1B is likely to play a key role in neurodevelopment and reduced levels of wild-type protein compromise normal brain development. Additional studies are required to determine the mechanisms by which impaired neural development contributes to the intellectual disability and speech impairment that are consistently observed in individuals with ARID1B haploinsufficiency. PMID:25674384

  9. Natural products possessing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity found in the last decades

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cheng-shi; Liang, Lin-fu; Guo, Yue-wei

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of approximately 300 secondary metabolites with inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), which were isolated from various natural sources or derived from synthetic process in the last decades. The structure-activity relationship and the selectivity of some compounds against other protein phosphatases were also discussed. Potential pharmaceutical applications of several PTP1B inhibitors were presented. PMID:22941286

  10. Host range of the potential biopesticide Pea Albumin 1b (PA1b) is limited to insects.

    PubMed

    Rahioui, Isabelle; Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Sasse, Florenz; Carre-Pierrat, Maïté; Qin, An; Zheng, Ming H; Toepfer, Stefan; Sivignon, Catherine; Royer, Corinne; Da Silva, Pedro; Gressent, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    The Pea Albumin 1 subunit b (PA1b) peptide is an entomotoxin extracted from legume seeds with lethal activity towards several insect pests. Its toxic activity occurs after the perception of PA1b by a plasmalemmic proton pump (V-ATPase) in the insects. Assays revealed that PA1b showed no activity towards mammalian cells displaying high V-ATPase activity. Similarly, PA1b displayed no binding activity and no biological activity towards other non-insect organisms. We demonstrate here that binding to labelled PA1b was found in all the insect families tested, regardless of the sensitivity or insensitivity of the individual species. The coleopteran Bruchidae, which are mainly legume seed pests, were found to be fully resistant. A number of insect species were seen to be insensitive to the toxin although they exhibited binding activity for the labelled PA1b. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera), was generally insensitive when maintained on an agar diet, but the fly appeared to be sensitive to PA1b in bioassays using a different diet. In conclusion, the PA1b toxin provides legumes with a major source of resistance to insects, and insects feeding on legume seeds need to overcome this plant resistance by disrupting the PA1b - V-ATPase interaction.

  11. 18 CFR 1b.20 - Request for confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request for confidential treatment. 1b.20 Section 1b.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... disclosure requirements of the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552), is information referred to in 18...

  12. 18 CFR 1b.20 - Request for confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Request for confidential treatment. 1b.20 Section 1b.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... disclosure requirements of the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552), is information referred to in 18...

  13. 18 CFR 1b.20 - Request for confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Request for confidential treatment. 1b.20 Section 1b.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... disclosure requirements of the Freedom of Information Act (5 U.S.C. 552), is information referred to in 18...

  14. 18 CFR 1b.18 - Right to submit statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Right to submit statements. 1b.18 Section 1b.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... of facts or memoranda of law for the purpose of explaining said person's position or...

  15. 18 CFR 1b.8 - Requests for Commission investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requests for Commission investigations. 1b.8 Section 1b.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... investigations should set forth the alleged violation of law with supporting documentation and information...

  16. 18 CFR 1b.18 - Right to submit statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Right to submit statements. 1b.18 Section 1b.18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... of facts or memoranda of law for the purpose of explaining said person's position or...

  17. 18 CFR 1b.10 - By whom conducted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false By whom conducted. 1b.10 Section 1b.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... laws of the United States and the regulations of the Commission. Investigating Officers shall have...

  18. 18 CFR 1b.10 - By whom conducted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false By whom conducted. 1b.10 Section 1b.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... laws of the United States and the regulations of the Commission. Investigating Officers shall have...

  19. 18 CFR 1b.8 - Requests for Commission investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requests for Commission investigations. 1b.8 Section 1b.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... investigations should set forth the alleged violation of law with supporting documentation and information...

  20. Acute myelogenous leukemia and glycogen storage disease 1b.

    PubMed

    Pinsk, Maury; Burzynski, Jeffrey; Yhap, Margaret; Fraser, Robert B; Cummings, Brian; Ste-Marie, Micheline

    2002-12-01

    Glycogen storage disease 1b (GSD 1b) is caused by a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate translocase and the intracellular accumulation of glycogen. The disease presents with failure to thrive, hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, as well as neutropenia causing increased susceptibility to pyogenic infections. We present a case of a young woman with GSD 1b who developed acute myelogenous leukemia while on long-term granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy. The presence of two rare diseases in a single patient raises suspicion that GSD 1b and acute myelogenous leukemia are linked. Surveillance for acute myelogenous leukemia should become part of the long-term follow-up for GSD 1b.

  1. Study on land surface temperature retrieval from HJ-1B infrared data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaoguang; Wu, Minjie; Tang, Bohui; Xi, Xiaohuan

    2009-10-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is an important measurement for estimating equilibrium of income and expense of land surface energy. It is also a key input parameter in many geographic models. Therefore, research on land surface temperature retrieval has close relation with thermal infrared-related study, such as hydrology, ecology, climatology, environment and other fields. Made in China, the Small Satellite Constellation for Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Forecasting is an advanced satellite constellation (composed of satellite HJ-1A, 1B and 1C) designed for environment and disaster monitoring and mitigation. Whether the sensor data can reach the designed specifications and meet the demands of application? It is necessary to carry out relative research before the launch of a new satellite. There is an infrared sensor in HJ-1B. Our work has been done before the launch of HJ-1B. This paper focuses on the land surface temperature retrieval study based on HJ-1B thermal infrared data, which is significant for its potential assessment and effective application in environment monitoring and disaster preventing and management. According to the characteristics of HJ-1B thermal infrared sensor, a method of using middle infrared (MIR) band and thermal infrared (TIR) band of HJ-1B is put forward in this paper. The spectral response function of bands, standard atmospheric profiles data and radiation transfer simulating software-MODTRAN are used to get simulated HJ-1B infrared data. And finally, the algorithm accuracy is estimated by comparing the retrieval value and true value of temperature. And the sensitive analyzing of retrieval algorithm is made through some main parameters. It can be know from our research that the proposed land surface temperature retrieving algorithm for HJ-1B infrared data has a considerable precision, the RMSE value range is 0.01K~2.08K. The RMSE increases with the increase of view zenith angle. The variation range of temperature retrieval

  2. CYP1B1 and hormone-induced cancer.

    PubMed

    Gajjar, Ketan; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Martin, Francis L

    2012-11-01

    Cancers in hormone-responsive tissues (e.g., breast, ovary, endometrium, prostate) occur at high incidence rates worldwide. However, their genetic basis remains poorly understood. Studies to date suggest that endogenous/exogenous oestrogen and environmental carcinogens may play a role in development and/or progression of hormone-induced cancers via oxidative oestrogen metabolism. Cytochrome P450 1B1 is a key enzyme in its oestrogen metabolism pathway, giving rise to hydroxylation and conjugation. Although CYP1B1 is expressed in many cancers, particularly high levels of expression are observed in oestrogen-mediated disease. CYP1B1 is more readily found in tumour tissue compared to normal. Given the role of CYP1B1 in pro-carcinogen and oestrogen metabolism, polymorphisms in CYP1B1 could result in modifications in its enzyme activity and subsequently lead to hormone-mediated carcinogenesis. CYP1B1 may also be involved in progression of the disease by altering the tissue response to hormones and clinical response to chemotherapy. The exact mechanism behind these events is complex and unclear. Only a few functional single nucleotide polymorphisms of CYP1B1 are known to result in amino acid substitutions and have been extensively investigated. Studies examining the contribution of different CYP1B1 alleles to hormone-mediated cancer risks are inconsistent. The main focus of this review is to appraise the available studies linking the pathogenesis of the hormone-induced cancers to various CYP1B1 polymorphisms. Additionally, we explore the role of a neuronal protein, γ-synuclein, in CYP1B1-mediated pathogenesis.

  3. Longevity, early emergence and body size in a pollinating fig wasp--implications for stability in a fig-pollinator mutualism.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Derek W; Yu, Douglas W; Ridley, Jo; Cook, James M

    2008-09-01

    1. Fig trees (Ficus) are pollinated only by agaonid wasps, whose larvae also gall fig ovules. Each ovule develops into either a seed (when pollinated) or a wasp (when an egg is also laid inside) but not both. 2. Ovipositing wasps (foundresses) favour ovules near the centre of the enclosed inflorescence (syconium or 'fig'), leaving ovules near the outer wall to develop into seeds. This spatial stratification of wasps and seeds ensures reproduction in both partners, and thereby enables mutualism persistence. However, the mechanism(s) responsible remain(s) unknown. 3. Theory shows that foundresses will search for increasingly rare inner ovules and ignore outer ovules, as long as ovipositing in outer ovules is sufficiently slow and/or if inner ovules confer greater fitness to wasps. The fig-pollinator mutualism can therefore be stabilized by strong time constraints on foundresses and by offspring fitness gradients over variation in ovule position. 4. Female fig wasps cannot leave their galls without male assistance. We found that females in outer ovules were unlikely to be released. Inner ovules thus have added value to foundresses, because their female offspring are more likely to mate and disperse. 5. For those offspring that did emerge, gall position (inner/outer) and body size did not influence the order in which female pollinators exited syconia, nor did early emerging wasps enjoy increased life spans. 6. We also found that the life spans of female wasps nearly doubled when given access to moisture. We suggest that conflict resolution in the fig-pollinator mutualism may thus be influenced by tropical seasonality, because wasps may be less able to over-exploit ovules in dry periods due to time constraints.

  4. Study on Optimal Extracting Conditions and Anti-Cancer Effects of Fig Flavones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As dietary components, flavones have health-promoting properties due to their high antioxidant capacity both in vivo and in vitro systems. Figs have been consumed as both herb medicine and popular fruit in daily life due to its polyphones, flavones and anthocyanins. However, fig residue from juice...

  5. Asymmetric interaction and indeterminate fitness correlation between cooperative partners in the fig–fig wasp mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Sun, Bao-Fa; Zheng, Qi; Shi, Lei; Zhu, Lixing

    2011-01-01

    Empirical observations have shown that cooperative partners can compete for common resources, but what factors determine whether partners cooperate or compete remain unclear. Using the reciprocal fig–fig wasp mutualism, we show that nonlinear amplification of interference competition between fig wasps—which limits the fig wasps' ability to use a common resource (i.e. female flowers)—keeps the common resource unsaturated, making cooperation locally stable. When interference competition was manually prevented, the fitness correlation between figs and fig wasps went from positive to negative. This indicates that genetic relatedness or reciprocal exchange between cooperative players, which could create spatial heterogeneity or self-restraint, was not sufficient to maintain stable cooperation. Moreover, our analysis of field-collected data shows that the fitness correlation between cooperative partners varies stochastically, and that the mainly positive fitness correlation observed during the warm season shifts to a negative correlation during the cold season owing to an increase in the initial oviposition efficiency of each fig wasp. This implies that the discriminative sanction of less-cooperative wasps (i.e. by decreasing the egg deposition efficiency per fig wasp) but reward to cooperative wasps by fig, a control of the initial value, will facilitate a stable mutualism. Our finding that asymmetric interaction leading to an indeterminate fitness interaction between symbiont (i.e. cooperative actors) and host (i.e. recipient) has the potential to explain why conflict has been empirically observed in both well-documented intraspecific and interspecific cooperation systems. PMID:21490005

  6. Evolution and Expression Plasticity of Opsin Genes in a Fig Pollinator, Ceratosolen solmsi

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Sheng-Nan; Niu, Li-Ming; Murphy, Robert W.; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Figs and fig pollinators have co-evolved species-specific systems of mutualism. So far, it was unknown how visual opsin genes of pollinators have evolved in the light conditions inside their host figs. We cloned intact full-length mRNA sequences of four opsin genes from a species of fig pollinator, Ceratosolen solmsi, and tested for selective pressure and expressional plasticity of these genes. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicated that the four opsin genes evolved under different selective constraints. Subsets of codons in the two long wavelength sensitive opsin (LW1, LW2) genes were positively selected in ancestral fig pollinators. The ultraviolet sensitive opsin (UV) gene was under strong purifying selection, whereas a relaxation of selective constrains occurred on several amino acids in the blue opsin. RT-qPCR analysis suggested that female and male fig pollinators had different expression patterns possibly due to their distinct lifestyles and different responses to light within the syconia. Co-evolutionary history with figs might have influenced the evolution and expression plasticity of opsin genes in fig pollinators. PMID:23342036

  7. Host-Plant Species Conservatism and Ecology of a Parasitoid Fig Wasp Genus (Chalcidoidea; Sycoryctinae; Arachonia)

    PubMed Central

    McLeish, Michael J.; Beukman, Gary; van Noort, Simon; Wossler, Theresa C.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitoid diversity in terrestrial ecosystems is enormous. However, ecological processes underpinning their evolutionary diversification in association with other trophic groups are still unclear. Specialisation and interdependencies among chalcid wasps that reproduce on Ficus presents an opportunity to investigate the ecology of a multi-trophic system that includes parasitoids. Here we estimate the host-plant species specificity of a parasitoid fig wasp genus that attacks the galls of non-pollinating pteromalid and pollinating agaonid fig wasps. We discuss the interactions between parasitoids and the Ficus species present in a forest patch of Uganda in context with populations in Southern Africa. Haplotype networks are inferred to examine intraspecific mitochondrial DNA divergences and phylogenetic approaches used to infer putative species relationships. Taxonomic appraisal and putative species delimitation by molecular and morphological techniques are compared. Results demonstrate that a parasitoid fig wasp population is able to reproduce on at least four Ficus species present in a patch. This suggests that parasitoid fig wasps have relatively broad host-Ficus species ranges compared to fig wasps that oviposit internally. Parasitoid fig wasps did not recruit on all available host plants present in the forest census area and suggests an important ecological consequence in mitigating fitness trade-offs between pollinator and Ficus reproduction. The extent to which parasitoid fig wasps exert influence on the pollination mutualism must consider the fitness consequences imposed by the ability to interact with phenotypes of multiple Ficus and fig wasps species, but not equally across space and time. PMID:22970309

  8. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Results Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. Conclusions The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution. PMID:22214193

  9. Chaos of Wolbachia Sequences Inside the Compact Fig Syconia of Ficus benjamina (Ficus: Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Li-Ming; Ma, Guang-Chang; Cook, James M.; Bian, Sheng-Nan; Fu, Yue-Guan; Huang, Da-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium (inflorescence) habitat for the lives of a complex assemblage of Chalcidoid insects. These diverse fig wasp species have intimate ecological relationships within the closed world of the fig syconia. Previous surveys of Wolbachia, maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that infect vast numbers of arthropod hosts, showed that fig wasps have some of the highest known incidences of Wolbachia amongst all insects. We ask whether the evolutionary patterns of Wolbachia sequences in this closed syconium community are different from those in the outside world. In the present study, we sampled all 17 fig wasp species living on Ficus benjamina, covering 4 families, 6 subfamilies, and 8 genera of wasps. We made a thorough survey of Wolbachia infection patterns and studied evolutionary patterns in wsp (Wolbachia Surface Protein) sequences. We find evidence for high infection incidences, frequent recombination between Wolbachia strains, and considerable horizontal transfer, suggesting rapid evolution of Wolbachia sequences within the syconium community. Though the fig wasps have relatively limited contact with outside world, Wolbachia may be introduced to the syconium community via horizontal transmission by fig wasps species that have winged males and visit the syconia earlier. PMID:23145008

  10. Evolution and expression plasticity of opsin genes in a fig pollinator, Ceratosolen solmsi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Bian, Sheng-Nan; Niu, Li-Ming; Murphy, Robert W; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Figs and fig pollinators have co-evolved species-specific systems of mutualism. So far, it was unknown how visual opsin genes of pollinators have evolved in the light conditions inside their host figs. We cloned intact full-length mRNA sequences of four opsin genes from a species of fig pollinator, Ceratosolen solmsi, and tested for selective pressure and expressional plasticity of these genes. Molecular evolutionary analysis indicated that the four opsin genes evolved under different selective constraints. Subsets of codons in the two long wavelength sensitive opsin (LW1, LW2) genes were positively selected in ancestral fig pollinators. The ultraviolet sensitive opsin (UV) gene was under strong purifying selection, whereas a relaxation of selective constrains occurred on several amino acids in the blue opsin. RT-qPCR analysis suggested that female and male fig pollinators had different expression patterns possibly due to their distinct lifestyles and different responses to light within the syconia. Co-evolutionary history with figs might have influenced the evolution and expression plasticity of opsin genes in fig pollinators.

  11. Pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation among dioecious fig species (Ficus, Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Moe, Annika M; Weiblen, George D

    2012-12-01

    The extent of isolation among closely related sympatric plant species engaged in obligate pollination mutualisms depends on the fitness consequences of interspecies floral visitation. In figs (Ficus), interspecific gene flow may occur when pollinating wasps (Agaonidae) visit species other than their natal fig species. We studied reproductive isolation in a clade of six sympatric dioecious fig species in New Guinea. Microsatellite genotyping and Bayesian clustering analysis of the fig community indicated strong reproductive barriers among sympatric species. A total of 1-2% of fig populations consisted of hybrid individuals. A new experimental method of manipulating fig wasps investigated the reproductive consequences of conspecific and heterospecific pollinator visitation for both mutualists. Fig wasps introduced to Ficus hispidioides pollinated and oviposited in receptive figs. Seed development and seedling growth were largely comparable between conspecific and heterospecific crosses. Heterospecific pollinator fitness, however, was significantly less than that of conspecific pollinators. Heterospecific pollinators induced gall formation but offspring did not develop to maturity in the new host. Selection on pollinators maintaining host specificity appears to be an important mechanism of contemporary reproductive isolation among these taxa that could potentially influence their diversification.

  12. Describing the appearance and flavor profiles of fresh fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    King, Ellena S; Hopfer, Helene; Haug, Megan T; Orsi, Jennifer D; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Gayle M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2012-12-01

    Twelve fig cultivars, including cultivars destined for the fresh and dried markets, were harvested from 6 locations and evaluated by a trained panel using descriptive sensory analysis. Instrumental measurements were taken at harvest and also during sensory analysis. Each fresh fig cultivar had a characteristic appearance and flavor sensory profile regardless of the source. The primary flavor attributes used to describe the fig cultivars were "fruity,"melon,"stone fruit,"berry,"citrus,"honey,"green," and "cucumber." Maturity levels significantly affected the chemical composition and sensory profiles of the fig cultivars. Less mature figs had a higher compression force, a thicker outer skin, and higher ratings for "green" and "latex" flavors, firmness, graininess, bitterness, tingling, and seed adhesiveness. Meanwhile, more mature figs had higher soluble solids concentration, and were perceptibly higher in "fruit" flavors, juiciness, stickiness, sliminess, and sweetness. The specific sensory terminology used for fig appearance and flavor profiles will assist with communication between marketers and consumers, which can increase fresh fig consumption.

  13. Host-plant species conservatism and ecology of a parasitoid fig wasp genus (Chalcidoidea; Sycoryctinae; Arachonia).

    PubMed

    McLeish, Michael J; Beukman, Gary; van Noort, Simon; Wossler, Theresa C

    2012-01-01

    Parasitoid diversity in terrestrial ecosystems is enormous. However, ecological processes underpinning their evolutionary diversification in association with other trophic groups are still unclear. Specialisation and interdependencies among chalcid wasps that reproduce on Ficus presents an opportunity to investigate the ecology of a multi-trophic system that includes parasitoids. Here we estimate the host-plant species specificity of a parasitoid fig wasp genus that attacks the galls of non-pollinating pteromalid and pollinating agaonid fig wasps. We discuss the interactions between parasitoids and the Ficus species present in a forest patch of Uganda in context with populations in Southern Africa. Haplotype networks are inferred to examine intraspecific mitochondrial DNA divergences and phylogenetic approaches used to infer putative species relationships. Taxonomic appraisal and putative species delimitation by molecular and morphological techniques are compared. Results demonstrate that a parasitoid fig wasp population is able to reproduce on at least four Ficus species present in a patch. This suggests that parasitoid fig wasps have relatively broad host-Ficus species ranges compared to fig wasps that oviposit internally. Parasitoid fig wasps did not recruit on all available host plants present in the forest census area and suggests an important ecological consequence in mitigating fitness trade-offs between pollinator and Ficus reproduction. The extent to which parasitoid fig wasps exert influence on the pollination mutualism must consider the fitness consequences imposed by the ability to interact with phenotypes of multiple Ficus and fig wasps species, but not equally across space and time.

  14. Chaos of Wolbachia sequences inside the compact fig syconia of Ficus benjamina (Ficus: moraceae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Yan; Xiao, Jin-Hua; Niu, Li-Ming; Ma, Guang-Chang; Cook, James M; Bian, Sheng-Nan; Fu, Yue-Guan; Huang, Da-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Figs and fig wasps form a peculiar closed community in which the Ficus tree provides a compact syconium (inflorescence) habitat for the lives of a complex assemblage of Chalcidoid insects. These diverse fig wasp species have intimate ecological relationships within the closed world of the fig syconia. Previous surveys of Wolbachia, maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that infect vast numbers of arthropod hosts, showed that fig wasps have some of the highest known incidences of Wolbachia amongst all insects. We ask whether the evolutionary patterns of Wolbachia sequences in this closed syconium community are different from those in the outside world. In the present study, we sampled all 17 fig wasp species living on Ficus benjamina, covering 4 families, 6 subfamilies, and 8 genera of wasps. We made a thorough survey of Wolbachia infection patterns and studied evolutionary patterns in wsp (Wolbachia Surface Protein) sequences. We find evidence for high infection incidences, frequent recombination between Wolbachia strains, and considerable horizontal transfer, suggesting rapid evolution of Wolbachia sequences within the syconium community. Though the fig wasps have relatively limited contact with outside world, Wolbachia may be introduced to the syconium community via horizontal transmission by fig wasps species that have winged males and visit the syconia earlier.

  15. Wine and vinegar-based attractants for the African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African fig fly (AFF), Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States after first being detected in Florida in 2005. This drosophilid is a primary pest of figs in Brazil, so there were initial concern...

  16. Host-specificity and coevolution among pollinating and nonpollinating New World fig wasps.

    PubMed

    Marussich, Wendy A; Machado, Carlos A

    2007-05-01

    Figs (Ficus spp., Moraceae) and their pollinating wasps (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea) constitute a classic example of an obligate plant-pollinator mutualism, and have become an ideal system for addressing questions on coevolution, speciation, and the maintenance of mutualisms. In addition to pollinating wasps, figs host several types of nonpollinating, parasitic wasps from a diverse array of Chalcid subfamilies with varied natural histories and ecological strategies (e.g. competitors, gallers, and parasitoids). Although a few recent studies have addressed the question of codivergence between specific genera of pollinating and nonpollinating fig wasps, no study has addressed the history of divergence of a fig wasp community comprised of multiple genera of wasps associated with a large number of sympatric fig hosts. Here, we conduct phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences (COI) using 411 individuals from 69 pollinating and nonpollinating fig wasp species to assess relationships within and between five genera of fig wasps (Pegoscapus, Idarnes, Heterandrium, Aepocerus, Physothorax) associated with 17 species of New World Urostigma figs from section Americana. We show that host-switching and multiple wasp species per host are ubiquitous across Neotropical nonpollinating wasp genera. In spite of these findings, cophylogenetic analyses (TREEMAP 1.0, TREEMAP 2.02beta, and parafit) reveal evidence of codivergence among fig wasps from different ecological guilds. Our findings further challenge the classical notion of strict-sense coevolution between figs and their associated wasps, and mirror conclusions from detailed molecular studies of other mutualisms that have revealed common patterns of diffuse coevolution and asymmetric specialization among the participants.

  17. Reduced ultrasonic vocalizations in vasopressin 1b knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Scattoni, M L; McFarlane, H G; Zhodzishsky, V; Caldwell, H K; Young, W S; Ricceri, L; Crawley, J N

    2008-03-05

    The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin have been implicated in rodent social and affiliative behaviors, including social bonding, parental care, social recognition, social memory, vocalizations, territoriality, and aggression, as well as components of human social behaviors and the etiology of autism. Previous investigations of mice with various manipulations of the oxytocin and vasopressin systems reported unusual levels of ultrasonic vocalizations in social settings. We employed a vasopressin 1b receptor (Avpr1b) knockout mouse to evaluate the role of the vasopressin 1b receptor subtype in the emission of ultrasonic vocalizations in adult and infant mice. Avpr1b null mutant female mice emitted fewer ultrasonic vocalizations, and their vocalizations were generally at lower frequencies, during a resident-intruder test. Avpr1b null mutant pups emitted ultrasonic vocalizations similar to heterozygote and wildtype littermates when separated from the nest on postnatal days 3, 6, 9, and 12. However, maternal potentiation of ultrasonic vocalizations in Avpr1b null and heterozygote mutants was absent, when tested at postnatal day 9. These results indicate that Avpr1b null mutant mice are impaired in the modulation of ultrasonic vocalizations within different social contexts at infant and adult ages.

  18. Transcription Factor GFI1B in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Anguita, Eduardo; Candel, Francisco J.; Chaparro, Alberto; Roldán-Etcheverry, Juan J.

    2017-01-01

    Many human diseases arise through dysregulation of genes that control key cell fate pathways. Transcription factors (TFs) are major cell fate regulators frequently involved in cancer, particularly in leukemia. The GFI1B gene, coding a TF, was identified by sequence homology with the oncogene growth factor independence 1 (GFI1). Both GFI1 and GFI1B have six C-terminal C2H2 zinc fingers and an N-terminal SNAG (SNAIL/GFI1) transcriptional repression domain. Gfi1 is essential for neutrophil differentiation in mice. In humans, GFI1 mutations are associated with severe congenital neutropenia. Gfi1 is also required for B and T lymphopoiesis. However, knockout mice have demonstrated that Gfi1b is required for development of both erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages. Consistent with this, human mutations of GFI1B produce bleeding disorders with low platelet count and abnormal function. Loss of Gfi1b in adult mice increases the absolute numbers of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are less quiescent than wild-type HSCs. In keeping with this key role in cell fate, GFI1B is emerging as a gene involved in cancer, which also includes solid tumors. In fact, abnormal activation of GFI1B and GFI1 has been related to human medulloblastoma and is also likely to be relevant in blood malignancies. Several pieces of evidence supporting this statement will be detailed in this mini review.

  19. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors isolated from Artemisia roxburghiana.

    PubMed

    Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ishtiaq; Hizbullah, Syed Muhammad; Habtemariam, Solomon; Zarrelli, Armando; Muhammad, Akhtar; Collina, Simona; Khan, Inamulllah

    2016-08-01

    Artemisia roxburghiana is used in traditional medicine for treating various diseases including diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of active constituents by using protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a validated target for management of diabetes. Various compounds were isolated as active principles from the crude methanolic extract of aerial parts of A. roxburghiana. All compounds were screened for PTP1B inhibitory activity. Molecular docking simulations were performed to investigate the mechanism behind PTP1B inhibition of the isolated compound and positive control, ursolic acid. Betulinic acid, betulin and taraxeryl acetate were the active PTP1B principles with IC50 values 3.49 ± 0.02, 4.17 ± 0.03 and 87.52 ± 0.03 µM, respectively. Molecular docking studies showed significant molecular interactions of the triterpene inhibitors with Gly220, Cys215, Gly218 and Asp48 inside the active site of PTP1B. The antidiabetic activity of A. roxburghiana could be attributed due to PTP1B inhibition by its triterpene constituents, betulin, betulinic acid and taraxeryl acetate. Computational insights of this study revealed that the C-3 and C-17 positions of the compounds needs extensive optimization for the development of new lead compounds.

  20. Identification of Novel Inhibitors of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) Using a Consensus Vote of Six Classification Models

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 are transporters selectively expressed on the basolateral membrane of the hepatocyte. Several studies reveal that they are involved in drug–drug interactions, cancer, and hyperbilirubinemia. In this study, we developed a set of classification models for OATP1B1 and 1B3 inhibition based on more than 1700 carefully curated compounds from literature, which were validated via cross-validation and by use of an external test set. After combining several sets of descriptors and classifiers, the 6 best models were selected according to their statistical performance and were used for virtual screening of DrugBank. Consensus scoring of the screened compounds resulted in the selection and purchase of nine compounds as potential dual inhibitors and of one compound as potential selective OATP1B3 inhibitor. Biological testing of the compounds confirmed the validity of the models, yielding an accuracy of 90% for OATP1B1 and 80% for OATP1B3, respectively. Moreover, at least half of the new identified inhibitors are associated with hyperbilirubinemia or hepatotoxicity, implying a relationship between OATP inhibition and these severe side effects. PMID:26469880

  1. Interaction of human organic anion transporter polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 with antineoplastic compounds.

    PubMed

    Marada, Venkata V V R; Flörl, Saskia; Kühne, Annett; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Hagos, Yohannes

    2015-03-06

    Antineoplastic compounds are used in the treatment of a variety of cancers. The effectiveness of an antineoplastic compound to exert its activity is largely dependent on transport proteins involved in the entry of the compound into the cells, and those which drive it out of the cell. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3), belonging to the SLCO family of proteins, are specifically expressed in the sinusoidal membranes of the liver, and are known to interact with a variety of drugs. The present study deals with the interaction of these proteins with antineoplastic compounds routinely used in cancer chemotherapy. The proteins OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 were functionally characterized in stably transfected human embryonic kidney cells using [(3)H] labeled estrone 3-sulfate and [(3)H] labeled cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) as substrates, respectively. Substrate uptake experiments performed in the presence of antineoplastic compounds showed that vinblastine and paclitaxel strongly interacted with the OATP1B1 with Ki values of 10.2 μM and 0.84 μM, respectively. OATP1B3 showed highly significant interactions with a variety of antineoplastic compounds including chlorambucil, mitoxantrone, vinblastine, vincristine, paclitaxel and etoposide, with Ki values of 40.6 μM, 3.2 μM, 15.9 μM, 30.6 μM, 1.8 μM and 13.5 μM, respectively. We report several novel interactions of the transporter proteins OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 highlighting the need to investigate their role in drug-drug interactions and cancer chemotherapy.

  2. CYP1B1: a unique gene with unique characteristics.

    PubMed

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Sharma, Reetika; Saluja, Daman; Dada, Tanuj

    2014-01-01

    CYP1B1, a recently described dioxin inducible oxidoreductase, is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily involved in the metabolism of estradiol, retinol, benzo[a]pyrene, tamoxifen, melatonin, sterols etc. It plays important roles in numerous physiological processes and is expressed at mRNA level in many tissues and anatomical compartments. CYP1B1 has been implicated in scores of disorders. Analyses of the recent studies suggest that CYP1B1 can serve as a universal/ideal cancer marker and a candidate gene for predictive diagnosis. There is plethora of literature available about certain aspects of CYP1B1 that have not been interpreted, discussed and philosophized upon. The present analysis examines CYP1B1 as a peculiar gene with certain distinctive characteristics like the uniqueness in its chromosomal location, gene structure and organization, involvement in developmentally important disorders, tissue specific, not only expression, but splicing, potential as a universal cancer marker due to its involvement in key aspects of cellular metabolism, use in diagnosis and predictive diagnosis of various diseases and the importance and function of CYP1B1 mRNA in addition to the regular translation. Also CYP1B1 is very difficult to express in heterologous expression systems, thereby, halting its functional studies. Here we review and analyze these exceptional and startling characteristics of CYP1B1 with inputs from our own experiences in order to get a better insight into its molecular biology in health and disease. This may help to further understand the etiopathomechanistic aspects of CYP1B1 mediated diseases paving way for better research strategies and improved clinical management.

  3. [Solubilization Specificities Interferon beta-1b from Inclusion Bodies].

    PubMed

    Zhuravko, A S; Kononova, N V; Bobruskin, A I

    2015-01-01

    A new solubilization method of recombinant interferon beta-1b (IFNβ-1b) from the inclusion bodies was developed. This method allows to extract the target protein selectively in the solutions of different alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol and isopropanol. It was shown that the more effective IFNβ-1b solubilization was achieved in the 55% propanol solution. This method allowed to extract the target protein from inclusion bodies around 85-90%, and significantly reduced Escherichia coli content in the solubilizate, in comparison with standard methods.

  4. PROBING THE EARLIEST STAGE OF PROTOSTELLAR EVOLUTION-BARNARD 1-bN AND BARNARD 1-bS

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yun-Hsin; Hirano, Naomi

    2013-04-01

    Two submm/mm sources in the Barnard 1b (B1-b) core, B1-bN and B1-bS, have been observed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and the Submillimeter Telescope (SMT). The 1.1 mm continuum map obtained with the SMA reveals that the two sources contain spatially compact components, suggesting that they harbor protostars. The N{sub 2}D{sup +} and N{sub 2}H{sup +} J = 3-2 maps were obtained by combining the SMA and SMT data. The N{sub 2}D{sup +} map clearly shows two peaks at the continuum positions. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} map also peaks at the continuum positions, but is more dominated by the spatially extended component. The N{sub 2}D{sup +}/N{sub 2}H{sup +} ratio was estimated to be {approx}0.2 at the positions of both B1-bN and B1-bS. The derived N{sub 2}D{sup +}/N{sub 2}H{sup +} ratio is comparable to those of the prestellar cores in the late evolutionary stage and the class 0 protostars in the early evolutionary stage. Although B1-bN is bright in N{sub 2}H{sup +} and N{sub 2}D{sup +}, this source was barely seen in H{sup 13}CO{sup +}. This implies that the depletion of carbon-bearing molecules is significant in B1-bN. The chemical property suggests that B1-bN is in the earlier evolutionary stage as compared to B1-bS with the H{sup 13}CO{sup +} counterpart. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} and N{sub 2}D{sup +} lines show that the radial velocities of the two sources are different by {approx}0.9 km s{sup -1}. However, the velocity pattern along the line through B1-bN and B1-bS suggests that these two sources were not formed out of a single rotating cloud. It is likely that the B1-b core consists of two velocity components, each of which harbors a very young source.

  5. Cytochrome P450 1b1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced skin carcinogenesis: Tumorigenicity of individual PAHs and coal-tar extract, DNA adduction and expression of select genes in the Cyp1b1 knockout mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Bunde, Kristi L.; Harper, Tod A.; McQuistan, Tammie J.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Bramer, Lisa M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Krueger, Sharon K.; and others

    2015-09-01

    FVB/N mice wild-type, heterozygous or null for Cyp 1b1 were used in a two-stage skin tumor study comparing PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), and coal tar extract (CTE, SRM 1597a). Following 20 weeks of promotion with TPA the Cyp 1b1 null mice, initiated with DBC, exhibited reductions in incidence, multiplicity, and progression. None of these effects were observed with BaP or CTE. The mechanism of Cyp 1b1-dependent alteration of DBC skin carcinogenesis was further investigated by determining expression of select genes in skin from DBC-treated mice 2, 4 and 8 h post-initiation. A significant reduction in levels of Cyp 1a1, Nqo1 at 8 h and Akr 1c14 mRNA was observed in Cyp 1b1 null (but not wt or het) mice, whereas no impact was observed in Gst a1, Nqo 1 at 2 and 4 h or Akr 1c19 at any time point. Cyp 1b1 mRNA was not elevated by DBC. The major covalent DNA adducts, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-(±)-11,12-dihydrodiol-cis and trans-13,14-epoxide-deoxyadenosine (DBCDE-dA) were quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS 8 h post-initiation. Loss of Cyp1 b1 expression reduced DBCDE-dA adducts in the skin but not to a statistically significant degree. The ratio of cis- to trans-DBCDE-dA adducts was higher in the skin than other target tissues such as the spleen, lung and liver (oral dosing). These results document that Cyp 1b1 plays a significant role in bioactivation and carcinogenesis of DBC in a two-stage mouse skin tumor model and that loss of Cyp 1b1 has little impact on tumor response with BaP or CTE as initiators. - Highlights: • Cyp1b1 null mice exhibit lower skin cancer sensitivity to DBC but not BaP or CTE. • Cyp1b1 expression impacts expression of other PAH metabolizing enzymes. • cis/trans-DBCDE-dA ratio significantly higher in the skin than the spleen, lung or liver • Potency of DBC and CTE in mouse skin is higher than predicted by RPFs.

  6. African parasitoid fig wasp diversification is a function of Ficus species ranges.

    PubMed

    McLeish, Michael J; van Noort, Simon; Tolley, Krystal A

    2010-10-01

    Host specificity is a fundamental property implicit in obligate insect-plant associations. Rigid life history constraints exhibited by parasitoid fig wasps are believed to select for specialization directed at fig trees and this is supported by evidence of phenotypic adaptation to figs and partial co-speciation with the fig wasps they attack. Conversely, the ability to colonize such novel communities occurs under relaxed specificity, a behavior typified by more generalist groups such as parasitoids. The specificity directed towards Ficus species by Sycoryctinae parasitoid fig wasps is important in order to understand how this form of specialization influences their diversification and interactions with other fig wasp guilds. We use genetic distance analyses and reconstruct ancestral patterns of Ficus trait association with two genera of Sycoryctinae parasitoid fig wasps to identify evolutionary conservatism in Ficus species utilization. Ancestral state reconstructions of (i) affiliate Ficus subsection and (ii) syconia diameters of natal Ficus species indicate contrasting Ficus species ranges between Arachonia and Sycoryctes parasitoid genera. This work demonstrates that parasitoid speciation is not tightly constrained to Ficus speciation and rather a function of Ficus range limitations. Ficus evolution, ecology, and functional compatibility between parasitoid and Ficus traits appear to constrain parasitoid Ficus utilization. These results suggest that contrasting ecological settings and potential number of hosts available impose different ramifications for the evolution of parasitoid host specificity and so to the species interactions within the communities to which they belong.

  7. [Sex ratio adjustment of a non-pollinating fig wasp species on Ficus semicordata in Xishuangbanna].

    PubMed

    Song, Bo; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Guan, Jun-Ming; Yang, Pei; Yang, Da-Rong

    2008-03-01

    Through controlling the number of ovipositing foundresses inside a fig, and combining with the observation of ovipositing behavior and mating behavior, this paper studied the sex ratio of Apocryptophagus sp., a species of non-pollinating fig wasps hosted on Ficus semicordata in Xishuangbanna. The results showed that female Apocryptophagus sp. started to visit the fig on the 3rd day after pollinator Ceratosolen gravelyi oviposited. Apocryptaphagus sp. oviposited on the outside of the fig, and the ovipositing lasted for 2 days. Male Apocryptophagus sp. emerged at the same time with pollinators. The males opened a small hole on the wall of gall where the females developed, and mated with the females. Mated females emerged from their development fig, and left for a new receptive fig. The sex ratio of Apocryptaphagus sp. was in agreement with local mate competition theory, i. e., it was female-biased. Meanwhile, the total number of offspring increased with increasing foundress number. In contrast, the average number of offspring per foundress decreased. At individual level, when a female laid eggs inside a fig, the sex ratio of offspring correlated negatively with the number of offspring.

  8. Obligate mutualism within a host drives the extreme specialization of a fig wasp genome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fig pollinating wasps form obligate symbioses with their fig hosts. This mutualism arose approximately 75 million years ago. Unlike many other intimate symbioses, which involve vertical transmission of symbionts to host offspring, female fig wasps fly great distances to transfer horizontally between hosts. In contrast, male wasps are wingless and cannot disperse. Symbionts that keep intimate contact with their hosts often show genome reduction, but it is not clear if the wide dispersal of female fig wasps will counteract this general tendency. We sequenced the genome of the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi to address this question. Results The genome size of the fig wasp C. solmsi is typical of insects, but has undergone dramatic reductions of gene families involved in environmental sensing and detoxification. The streamlined chemosensory ability reflects the overwhelming importance of females finding trees of their only host species, Ficus hispida, during their fleeting adult lives. Despite long-distance dispersal, little need exists for detoxification or environmental protection because fig wasps spend nearly all of their lives inside a largely benign host. Analyses of transcriptomes in females and males at four key life stages reveal that the extreme anatomical sexual dimorphism of fig wasps may result from a strong bias in sex-differential gene expression. Conclusions Our comparison of the C. solmsi genome with other insects provides new insights into the evolution of obligate mutualism. The draft genome of the fig wasp, and transcriptomic comparisons between both sexes at four different life stages, provide insights into the molecular basis for the extreme anatomical sexual dimorphism of this species. PMID:24359812

  9. Competitive exclusion among fig wasps achieved via entrainment of host plant flowering phenology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Zhao, Rui; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Compton, Stephen G; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Molecular techniques are revealing increasing numbers of morphologically similar but co-existing cryptic species, challenging the niche theory. To understand the co-existence mechanism, we studied phenologies of morphologically similar species of fig wasps that pollinate the creeping fig (F. pumila) in eastern China. We compared phenologies of fig wasp emergence and host flowering at sites where one or both pollinators were present. At the site where both pollinators were present, we used sticky traps to capture the emerged fig wasps and identified species identity using mitochondrial DNA COI gene. We also genotyped F. pumila individuals of the three sites using polymorphic microsatellites to detect whether the host populations were differentiated. Male F. pumila produced two major crops annually, with figs receptive in spring and summer. A small partial third crop of receptive figs occurred in the autumn, but few of the second crop figs matured at that time. Hence, few pollinators were available to enter third crop figs and they mostly aborted, resulting in two generations of pollinating wasps each year, plus a partial third generation. Receptive figs were produced on male plants in spring and summer, timed to coincide with the release of short-lived adult pollinators from the same individual plants. Most plants were pollinated by a single species. Plants pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 1 released wasps earlier than those pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 3, with little overlap. Plants occupied by different pollinators were not spatially separated, nor genetically distinct. Our findings show that these differences created mismatches with the flight periods of the other Wiebesia species, largely 'reserving' individual plants for the resident pollinator species. This pre-emptive competitive displacement may prevent long term co-existence of the two pollinators.

  10. Chemical mediation and niche partitioning in non-pollinating fig-wasp communities.

    PubMed

    Proffit, Magali; Schatz, Bertrand; Borges, Renée M; Hossaert-McKey, Martine

    2007-03-01

    1. The parasitic chalcidoid wasps associated with the species-specific and obligatory pollination mutualisms between Ficus spp. and their agaonid wasp pollinators provide a good model to study the functional organization of communities. 2. However, communities of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFWs) remain little characterized, and their functioning and evolutionary dynamics are still poorly understood. 3. We studied the communities of NPFWs associated with the monoecious F. racemosa and the dioecious F. hispida. Associated with these two fig species are a total of seven wasp species belonging to three genera. These species present contrasts in life history traits and in timing of oviposition. The species studied are thus broadly representative of the communities of NPFWs associated specifically with fig-pollinator mutualisms. 4. In our study systems, there is temporal segregation of oviposition time among members of NPFW communities. 5. We tested the role of volatile chemicals in the attraction of NPFWs associated with these two fig species, and tried to determine if chemical mediation can explain the organization of the communities. 6. We conducted odour choice tests using a Y-tube olfactometer. All the NPFWs studied were shown to use volatile chemicals produced by the fig to locate their host. Furthermore, the signals used by each species depended on the phenological stage of the fig they exploit. 7. Results demonstrated that the pattern of oviposition results from the utilization of volatile signals produced by figs that vary in their composition at different stages of fig development. Thus, chemical mediation allows resource partitioning in the NPFW communities associated with fig-pollinator mutualisms, and suggests hypotheses to explain coexistence in other parasite communities.

  11. Fitness reduction for uncooperative fig wasps through reduced offspring size: a third component of host sanctions.

    PubMed

    Jandér, K C; Dafoe, A; Herre, E A

    2016-09-01

    Mutually beneficial interactions between two species-mutualisms-are ancient, diverse, and of fundamental ecological importance. Nonetheless, factors that prevent one partner from reaping the benefits of the interaction without paying the cost are still poorly understood. Fig trees and their unique pollinators, fig wasps, present a powerful model system for studying mutualism stability. Both partners depend completely on each other for reproduction, cooperation levels can be manipulated, and the resulting field-based fitness quantified. Previous work has shown that fig trees can impose two types of host sanctions that reduce the fitness of wasps that do not pollinate: (1) fig abortion, which kills all developing larvae, and (2) reduced number of wasp offspring in figs that are not aborted. Here we demonstrate a third component of host sanctions. Through manipulative field experiments, we show that for four of five studied species, offspring of pollen-free foundresses are only 50-90% the size of offspring of pollinating foundresses. We further show that in all four studied species, smaller wasps are less likely to reach and enter a flowering fig to become foundresses themselves. Therefore, the experimentally determined size reduction of offspring is estimated to cause an additional reduction of up to 80% in fitness for a pollen-free foundress. We determine that the size reduction of pollen-free offspring acts on the level of the entire fig fruit rather than on individual flowers. These results show that estimates of the fitness effect of host sanctions on uncooperative symbionts should consider not only offspring quantity but also offspring quality. We discuss implications beyond the fig tree-fig wasp mutualism.

  12. AKR1B10 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The AKR1B10 protein is a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily. This superfamily has more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. AKR1B10 acts as an all-trans-retinaldehyde reductase. It can efficiently reduce aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, and is less active on hexoses (in vitro). It is highly expressed in adrenal gland, small intestine, and colon, and may play an important role in liver carcinogenesis.

  13. APOLLO SOYUZ TEST PROJECT [ASTP] MATING OF SATURN 1B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The second stage of the Saturn 1B booster for the United States mission on the Apollo Soyuz Test Project was mated with the Saturn 1B first stage in the Kennedy Space Center's Vehicle Assembly Building today. Mating was completed at 9:50 a.m. The U. S. ASTP launch with mission commander Thomas Stafford, command module pilot Vance Brand and docking module pilot Donald Slayton is scheduled at 3:50 p.m. EDT July 15.

  14. PTP1B inhibitors from stems of Angelica keiskei (Ashitaba).

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Long; Gao, Li-Xin; Meng, Fan-Wang; Tang, Chun-Lan; Zhang, Ru-Jun; Li, Jing-Ya; Luo, Cheng; Li, Jia; Zhao, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01

    Three new chalcones, xanthoangelols K-M (1-3), together with 19 known compounds were isolated from the stems of Angelica keiskei Koidzumi, a well-known rejuvenated and anti-diabetic plant originated from Japan. The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and Mosher's method. All compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Among them, six chalcones, xanthoangelol K (1), xanthoangelol (4), xanthoangelol F (5), 4-hydroxyderricin (6), xanthoangelol D (7), xanthoangelol E (8), and a coumarin, methoxsalen (17), showed strong PTP1B inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 0.82, 1.97, 1.67, 2.47, 3.97, 1.43, and 2.53μg/mL, respectively. A kinetic study revealed that compound 1 inhibited PTP1B with characteristics typical of a competitive inhibitor. Molecular docking simulations elucidated that ring B of 1 may anchor in a pocket of PTP1B and the molecule is stabilized by hydrogen bonds with Arg47, Asp48, and π-π interaction with Phe182 of PTP1B.

  15. Linking organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) interaction profiles to hepatotoxicity - The hyperbilirubinemia use case.

    PubMed

    Kotsampasakou, Eleni; Escher, Sylvia E; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2017-03-30

    Hyperbilirubinemia is a pathological condition of excessive accumulation of conjugated or unconjugated bilirubin in blood. It has been associated with neurotoxicity and non-neural organ dysfunctions, while it can also be a warning of liver side effects. Hyperbilirubinemia can either be a result of overproduction of bilirubin due to hemolysis or dyserythropoiesis, or the outcome of impaired bilirubin elimination due to liver transporter malfunction or inhibition. There are several reports in literature that inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) might lead to hyperbilirubinemia. In this study we created a set of classification models for hyperbilirubinemia, which, besides physicochemical descriptors, also include the output of classification models of human OATP1B1 and 1B3 inhibition. Models were based on either human data derived from public toxicity reports or animal data extracted from the eTOX database VITIC. The generated models showed satisfactory accuracy (68%) and area under the curve (AUC) for human data and 71% accuracy and 70% AUC for animal data. However, our results did not indicate strong association between OATP inhibition and hyperbilirubinemia, neither for humans nor for animals.

  16. CYP1B1-mediated Pathobiology of Primary Congenital Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Qadri, Rizwana; Dada, Tanuj

    2015-01-01

    CYP1B1 is a dioxin-inducible enzyme belonging to the cytochrome P450 superfamily. It has been observed to be important in a variety of developmental processes including in utero development of ocular structures. Owing to its role in the developmental biology of eye, its dysfunction can lead to ocular developmental defects. This has been found to be true and CYP1B1 mutations have been observed in a majority of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) patients from all over the globe. Primary congenital glaucoma is an irreversibly blinding childhood disorder (onset at birth or early infancy) typified by anomalous development of trabecular meshwork (TM). How CYP1B1 causes PCG is not known; however, some basic investigations have been reported. Understanding the CYP1B1 mediated etiopathomechanism of PCG is very important to identify targets for therapy and preventive management. In this perspective, we will make an effort to reconstruct the pathomechanism of PCG in the light of already reported information about the disease and the CYP1B1 gene. How to cite this article: Faiq MA, Dada R, Qadri R, Dada T. CYP1 B1-mediated Pathobiology of Primary Congenital Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(3):77-80.

  17. CYP1B1-mediated Pathobiology of Primary Congenital Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Faiq, Muneeb A; Dada, Rima; Qadri, Rizwana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT CYP1B1 is a dioxin-inducible enzyme belonging to the cytochrome P450 superfamily. It has been observed to be important in a variety of developmental processes including in utero development of ocular structures. Owing to its role in the developmental biology of eye, its dysfunction can lead to ocular developmental defects. This has been found to be true and CYP1B1 mutations have been observed in a majority of primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) patients from all over the globe. Primary congenital glaucoma is an irreversibly blinding childhood disorder (onset at birth or early infancy) typified by anomalous development of trabecular meshwork (TM). How CYP1B1 causes PCG is not known; however, some basic investigations have been reported. Understanding the CYP1B1 mediated etiopathomechanism of PCG is very important to identify targets for therapy and preventive management. In this perspective, we will make an effort to reconstruct the pathomechanism of PCG in the light of already reported information about the disease and the CYP1B1 gene. How to cite this article: Faiq MA, Dada R, Qadri R, Dada T. CYP1 B1-mediated Pathobiology of Primary Congenital Glaucoma. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(3):77-80. PMID:26997841

  18. Interaction of digitalis-like compounds with liver uptake transporters NTCP, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3.

    PubMed

    Gozalpour, Elnaz; Greupink, Rick; Wortelboer, Heleen M; Bilos, Albert; Schreurs, Marieke; Russel, Frans G M; Koenderink, Jan B

    2014-06-02

    Digitalis-like compounds (DLCs) such as digoxin, digitoxin, and ouabain, also known as cardiac glycosides, are among the oldest pharmacological treatments for heart failure. The compounds have a narrow therapeutic window, while at the same time, DLC pharmacokinetics is prone to drug-drug interactions at the transport level. Hepatic transporters organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3, and Na(+)-dependent taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) influence the disposition of a variety of drugs by mediating their uptake from blood into hepatocytes. The interaction of digoxin, digitoxin, and ouabain with hepatic uptake transporters has been studied before. However, here, we systematically investigated a much wider range of structurally related DLCs for their capability to inhibit or to be transported by these transporters in order to better understand the relation between the activity and chemical structure of this compound type. We studied the uptake and inhibitory potency of a series of 14 structurally related DLCs in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing NTCP (CHO-NTCP) and human embryonic kidney cells expressing OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 (HEK-OATP1B1 and HEK-OATP1B3). The inhibitory effect of the DLCs was measured against taurocholic acid (TCA) uptake in CHO-NTCP cells and against uptake of β-estradiol 17-β-d-glucuronide (E217βG) in HEK-OATP1B1 and HEK-OATP1B3 cells. Proscillaridin A was the most effective inhibitor of NTCP-mediated TCA transport (IC50 = 22 μM), whereas digitoxin and digitoxigenin were the most potent inhibitors of OATP1B1 and OAPTP1B3, with IC50 values of 14.2 and 36 μM, respectively. Additionally, we found that the sugar moiety and hydroxyl groups of the DLCs play different roles in their interaction with NTCP, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3. The sugar moiety decreases the inhibition of NTCP and OATP1B3 transport activity, whereas it enhances the inhibitory potency against OATP1B1. Moreover, the hydroxyl group at position 12

  19. Convergent incidences of Wolbachia infection in fig wasp communities from two continents

    PubMed Central

    Haine, Eleanor R.; Cook, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Wide surveys suggest that Wolbachia bacteria infect ca. 20% of all insect species, but particular taxonomic or ecological groups may display significantly higher or lower incidences. We studied 61 fig wasp species in Australia and found the highest known incidence (67%) of infection in a targeted study of this nature. A comparable study in Panama reported a similar figure (59%), confirming the exceptionally high incidence of Wolbachia in fig wasps. Importantly, these are two independent estimates of Wolbachia incidence in fig wasp communities, because no host species, or even genera, are shared between localities. The high level of infection may reflect enhanced opportunities for horizontal transmission inside fig fruits. Although incidence was similar in Panama and Australia, the actual strains involved were different and region-specific. Local strains were shared by several host species, although there was often no obvious (direct) ecological link between two hosts with the same infection. PMID:15734697

  20. Mass modeling of fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit with some physical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Feizollah; Rahmati, Satar

    2013-03-01

    Horticultural crops with the similar weight and uniform shape are in high demand in terms of marketing value, which are used as food. For proper design of grading systems, important relationships among the mass and other properties of fruits such as length, width, thickness, volumes, and projected areas must be known. The aim of this research was to measure and present some physical properties of fig fruits. In addition, Linear, Quadratic, S-curve, and Power models are used for mass predication of fig fruits based on measured physical properties. The results showed that all measured physical properties were statistically significant at the 1% probability level. For mass predication of fig fruits, the best and the worst models were obtained based on criteria projected area and thickness of the fruits with determination coefficients (R (2)) of 0.984 and 0.664, respectively. At last, from economical standpoint, mass modeling of fig fruits based on first projected area is recommended.

  1. The non-pollinating fig wasps associated with Ficus guianensis: Community structure and impact of the large species on the fig/pollinator mutualism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conchou, Lucie; Ciminera, Marina; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Kjellberg, Finn

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the ecology of non-pollinating fig-wasp communities depends on a good knowledge of larval feeding habits of the species involved, which can be gall inducers, kleptoparasites, parasitoids or seed eaters. However, larval feeding habits are poorly known and most community ecology studies on NPFW are based on hypothetical feeding habits or data analyzed independently of feeding habit. Here we take advantage of the particular situation in Ficus guianensis whose community is dominated by large NPFW, i.e. species that are obviously larger than pollinators, to establish the community structure and feeding habits of the most frequent wasps. We provide the first non-ambiguous negative correlation between the number of NPFW and the production of pollinators and seeds. Each developing large NPFW represents a disproportionate cost to the mutualism as it is responsible for the loss of about ten seeds plus pollinators, i.e. about 10% of the production of a fig.

  2. FoxO1 inhibits sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expression via transcription factors Sp1 and SREBP-1c.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiong; Zhang, Wenwei; O-Sullivan, InSug; Williams, J Bradley; Dong, Qingming; Park, Edwards A; Raghow, Rajendra; Unterman, Terry G; Elam, Marshall B

    2012-06-08

    Induction of lipogenesis in response to insulin is critically dependent on the transcription factor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). FoxO1, a forkhead box class-O transcription factor, is an important mediator of insulin action, but its role in the regulation of lipid metabolism has not been clearly defined. We examined the effects of FoxO1 on srebp1 gene expression in vivo and in vitro. In vivo studies showed that constitutively active (CA) FoxO1 (CA-FoxO1) reduced basal expression of SREBP-1c mRNA in liver by ∼60% and blunted induction of SREBP-1c in response to feeding. In liver-specific FoxO knock-out mice, SREBP-1c expression was increased ∼2-fold. Similarly, in primary hepatocytes, CA-FoxO1 suppressed SREBP1-c expression and inhibited basal and insulin-induced SREBP-1c promoter activity. SREBP-1c gene expression is induced by the liver X receptor (LXR), but CA-FoxO1 did not block the activation of SREBP-1c by the LXR agonist TO9. Insulin stimulates SREBP-1c transcription through Sp1 and via "feed forward" regulation by newly synthesized SREBP-1c. CA-FoxO1 inhibited SREBP-1c by reducing the transactivational capacity of both Sp1 and SREBP-1c. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicate that FoxO1 can associate with the proximal promoter region of the srebp1 gene and disrupt the assembly of key components of the transcriptional complex of the SREBP-1c promoter. We conclude that FoxO1 inhibits SREBP-1c transcription via combined actions on multiple transcription factors and that this effect is exerted at least in part through reduced transcriptional activity of Sp1 and SREBP-1c and disrupted assembly of the transcriptional initiation complex on the SREBP-1c promoter.

  3. Odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes affect host specificity in a fig-pollinator mutualistic system.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Wang, N X; Niu, L M; Bian, S N; Xiao, J H; Huang, D W

    2014-10-01

    The interaction between figs and their pollinating wasps is regarded as a model system for studying specialized co-evolved mutualism. Chemoreception of fig wasps plays an important role in this interaction, and odorant-binding proteins (OBP) function in the first step of odorant detection. The OBP repertoire of the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi is reported to be one of the smallest among insects; however, it is unknown how these OBPs are related to the complicated mating process occurring within the fig cavity and the extreme host specificity of the species. In the present study, we combined a structural analysis of the conserved cysteine pattern and motif order, a phylogenetic analysis, and previous studies on ligand-binding assays to deduce the function of OBPs. We also quantified the expression of OBP genes in different life stages of female and male fig wasps by using real-time quantitative PCR, which can help to predict the function of these genes. The results indicated that CsolOBP1 and CsolOBP2 (or CsolOBP5) in males may bind to pheromones and play important roles in mate choice, whereas CsolOBP4 and CsolOBP5 may primarily function in host localization by females through binding of volatile compounds emitted by receptive figs.

  4. Screening for the FIG-ROS1 fusion in biliary tract carcinomas by nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Peraldo Neia, Caterina; Cavalloni, Giuliana; Balsamo, Antonella; Venesio, Tiziana; Napoli, Francesca; Sassi, Francesco; Martin, Vittoria; Frattini, Milo; Aglietta, Massimo; Leone, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    ROS1 rearrangements have been detected in a variety of tumors and are considered as suitable targets of anticancer therapies. We developed a new, quick, specific, and sensitive PCR test to screen for the FIG-ROS1 fusion and applied it to a series of Italian patients with bile duct carcinoma (BTC). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, derived from 65 Italian BTC patients, and six cell lines were analyzed by nested PCR to investigate the prevalence of a previously reported FIG-ROS1 fusion. The specificity and sensitivity of nested PCR were investigated in FIG-ROS1 positive U118MG cells in reconstitution experiments with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found that six out of 65 (9%) BTC patients were positive for the FIG-ROS1 fusion, comprising two out of 14 (14%) gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) patients and four out of 25 (16%) extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) patients. None of the 26 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cases harbored the FIG-ROS1 fusion. All the cell lines were negative for this variant. In conclusion, 14-16% of GBC and ECC were positive for FIG-ROS1. This may have clinical implications, since these patients will potentially benefit from the treatment with specific ROS1 inhibitors.

  5. Study on mating ecology and sex ratio of three internally ovipositing fig wasps of Ficus curtipes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, F P; Yang, D R

    2010-04-01

    Studies on mating ecology and sex allocation in fig-parasitizing wasps ovipositing from outside the fig have given valuable insights into known factors that are responsible for the theory of sex ratio. Similarly, internally ovipositing fig-parasitizing wasps and fig-pollinating wasps provide interesting models for comparative analysis. In addition to the fig-pollinating wasp Eupristina sp., we found that Ficus curtipes hosts two species of internally ovipositing fig-parasitizing wasps: D. yangi and Lipothymus sp. Eupristina sp. males showed less aggression. Eupristina sp. has wingless males that mate only within the natal patch, providing excellent examples of full local-mate competition. D. yangi males showed high levels of aggression and lethal combat. D. yangi has winged males but mate mostly within the natal patch. Only a few matings occur after male dispersal. Its sex ratio was lower than the prediction of partial local mate competition theory. Wingless male Lipothymus sp., which mate partly after dispersal, did not present fatal fight. Therefore, the mating behaviour of D. yangi and Lipothymus sp. did not follow predicted patterns, based on wing morph. The mating pattern of D. yangi and Lipothymus sp. should follow the partial local mate competition theory. Furthermore, there was not a significant correlation between the proportion of males and the proportion of fruit parasitized in both winged D. yangi males and wingless Lipothymus sp. males.

  6. Detection of gamma irradiated fig seeds by analysing electron spin resonance.

    PubMed

    Engin, Birol; Aydaş, Canan; Polat, Mustafa

    2011-06-15

    Seeds of fig produced in Turkey were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique for detection purposes. Unirradiated fig seeds (control) exhibited a weak ESR singlet at g=2.0052±0.0003 (native signal). Irradiation induced at least one additional intense singlet overlapping to the control signal and caused a significant increase in signal intensity without any changes in spectral patterns. Variation of ESR signal intensity of irradiated samples at room temperature with time in a long-term showed that free radicals responsible from the ESR spectrum of fig seeds were not stable but detectable after 80days. Annealing studies at five different temperatures were used to determine the kinetic behaviour and activation energy of the radiation-induced radicals in fig seeds. A study on microwave saturation characteristics and thermal behaviour of the ESR singlet (g=2.0052) in irradiated and unirradiated fig seed samples was also carried out by using ESR technique. These preliminary results indicate that microwave saturation characteristics of the ESR signal at room and low temperatures may be useful method to distinguish irradiated fig seeds from unirradiated ones.

  7. [Spatial distribution of fig wasps in syconia of two monoecious Ficus sp].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Ji; Li, Guo-Chang; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Yang, Da-Rong

    2012-04-01

    In addition to pollinator fig wasps, there are several non-pollinating fig wasps associated with monoecious Ficus sp. In order to understand how pollinator fig wasps and non-pollinating fig wasps are distributed across the same syconium, the spatial distribution of fig wasps associated with Ficus altissima and F. benjamina were compared using the pedicle lengths of galls containing each species. The results indicate that in Ficus altissima, the average pedicel length of galls containing Eupristina sp. is longer than that containing E. altissima. Average pedicel length of galls containing Sycobia sp., Micranisa ralianga and Sycoscapter sp. two did not show significant difference. The range of pedicel lengths of galls containing Sycobia sp., M. ralianga or Sycoscapter sp. two is narrower than that of galls containing E. altissima, indicating these non-pollinating fig wasps and pollinator have partially separated spatial niches. In F. benjamina, E. koningsbergeri was distributed in galls from the outer layer to inner layer, while most Walkerella sp. were found in outer layer galls, indicating E. koningsbergeri and Walkerella sp. have partially separated spatial niches.

  8. RU 24969-induced emesis in the cat - 5-HT1 sites other than 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B or 5-HT1C implicated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.

    1990-01-01

    RU 24969 was administered s.c. to cats and found to elicit emesis with a maximally effective dose of 1.0 mg/kg 5-Methoxytryptamine was found to have lower efficacy and to produce a higher incidence of nonspecific effects while trifluoromethylphenylpiperizine (TFMPP) was devoid of emetic effects. The emesis elicited by 1.0 mg/kg of RU 24969 was not altered by pretreatment with phentolamine, haloperidol, yohimbine or (-)-propranolol, indicating that catecholamines played no role in this response. The emesis was prevented by metergoline and methysergide but not by ketanserin, cyproheptadine, mesulergine, ICS 205 930, methiothepin, trimethobenzamide or BMY 7378. An indirect argument is presented that implicates a role for 5-HT1D sites. This conclusion must remain tentative until drugs selective for this site are synthesized and tested. The emesis was also prevented by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamine)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), confirming that this drug has a general antiemetic effect in cats.

  9. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL1A, NPFPDL1B, NPFPDL1C and NPFPDL1D

    SciTech Connect

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    This Hazardous Waste Determination Report is intended to satisfy the terms of a Memorandum of Agreement (Agreement signed on June 16, 1999) between the U.S. Department of Energy and the New Mexico Environment Department. The Agreement pertains to the exchange of information before a final decision is made on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant application for a permit under the ''New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act''. The Agreement will terminate upon the effective date of a final ''New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act'' permit for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. In keeping with the principles and terms of the Agreement, this report describes the waste stream data and information compilation process, and the physical and chemical analyses that the U.S. Department of Energy has performed on selected containers of transuranic debris waste to confirm that the waste is nonhazardous (non-mixed). This also summarizes the testing and analytical results that support the conclusion that the selected transuranic debris waste is not hazardous and thus, not subject to regulation under the ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act'' or the ''New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act''. This report will be submitted to the New Mexico Environment Department no later than 45 days before the first shipment of waste from the Hanford Site to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, unless the parties mutually agree in writing to a shorter time. The 52 containers of transuranic debris waste addressed in this report were generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1995 and 1997. Based on reviews of administrative documents, operating procedures, waste records, generator certifications, and personnel interviews, this transuranic debris waste was determined to be nonhazardous. This determination is supported by the data derived from nondestructive examination, confirmatory visual examination, and the results of container headspace gas sampling and analysis. Therefore, it is concluded that this transuranic debris waste, which consists of 52 containers from waste streams NPFPDLIA, NPFPDLIB, NPFPDLIC, and NPFPDLID, is not hazardous waste, and no hazardous waste numbers specified in Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 261, have been assigned. Accordingly, the 52 containers of transuranic debris waste addressed in this report meet the requirements for transuranic waste as defined by the Department of Energy Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The 52 containers are acceptable for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant as nonhazardous transuranic waste.

  10. The structure and conformational switching of Rap1B.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hiroki; Ikegami, Takahisa; Nagadoi, Aritaka; Kamatari, Yuji O; Park, Sam-Yong; Tame, Jeremy R H; Unzai, Satoru

    2015-06-19

    Rap1B is a small GTPase involved in the regulation of numerous cellular processes including synaptic plasticity, one of the bases of memory. Like other members of the Ras family, the active GTP-bound form of Rap1B can bind to a large number of effector proteins and so transmit signals to downstream components of the signaling pathways. The structure of Rap1B bound only to a nucleotide has yet to be solved, but might help reveal an inactive conformation that can be stabilized by a small molecule drug. Unlike other Ras family proteins such as H-Ras and Rap2A, Rap1B crystallizes in an intermediate state when bound to a non-hydrolyzable GTP analog. Comparison with H-Ras and Rap2A reveals conservative mutations relative to Rap1B, distant from the bound nucleotide, which control how readily the protein may adopt the fully activated form in the presence of GTP. High resolution crystallographic structures of mutant proteins show how these changes may influence the hydrogen bonding patterns of the key switch residues.

  11. Oncolytic Replication of E1b-Deleted Adenoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Pei-Hsin; Wechman, Stephen L.; McMasters, Kelly M.; Zhou, Heshan Sam

    2015-01-01

    Various viruses have been studied and developed for oncolytic virotherapies. In virotherapy, a relatively small amount of viruses used in an intratumoral injection preferentially replicate in and lyse cancer cells, leading to the release of amplified viral particles that spread the infection to the surrounding tumor cells and reduce the tumor mass. Adenoviruses (Ads) are most commonly used for oncolytic virotherapy due to their infection efficacy, high titer production, safety, easy genetic modification, and well-studied replication characteristics. Ads with deletion of E1b55K preferentially replicate in and destroy cancer cells and have been used in multiple clinical trials. H101, one of the E1b55K-deleted Ads, has been used for the treatment of late-stage cancers as the first approved virotherapy agent. However, the mechanism of selective replication of E1b-deleted Ads in cancer cells is still not well characterized. This review will focus on three potential molecular mechanisms of oncolytic replication of E1b55K-deleted Ads. These mechanisms are based upon the functions of the viral E1B55K protein that are associated with p53 inhibition, late viral mRNA export, and cell cycle disruption. PMID:26561828

  12. In vitro enzymatic assays of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    PubMed

    Lubben, T; Clampit, J; Stashko, M; Trevillyan, J; Jirousek, M R

    2001-08-01

    Many hormone or growth factor receptors signal via the activation of protein-tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. Alteration of the phosphorylation state of tyrosine residues in certain proteins can directly regulate enzyme activity or cause formation of protein complexes necessary for transducing intracellular signals. Genetic and biochemical evidence also implicates protein-tyrosine phosphatases in several disease processes, including negative regulation of insulin receptor signaling at the level of the insulin receptor and perhaps in signaling at the IRS-1 level. The expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) is elevated in muscle and adipose tissue in insulin-resistant states both in man and rodents suggesting that PTP1B may play a role in the insulin-resistant state associated with diabetes and obesity. As described in this unit, PTP1B activity can be determined with the small molecule substrate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP), in which the cleavage of the phosphate results in production of p-nitrophenol (pNP) and an increase in absorbance at 405 nm. Alternatively, PTP1B activity can be measured as described using model phosphotyrosyl-containing peptide substrates in which the release of free phosphate from the peptide is determined using a malachite green colorimetric assay.

  13. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. 7 CFR 1c.108 - IRB functions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IRB functions and operations. 1c.108 Section 1c.108... operations. In order to fulfill the requirements of this policy each IRB shall: (a) Follow written procedures...) Except when an expedited review procedure is used (see § 1c.110), review proposed research at...

  15. Identification of natural rubber and characterization of rubber biosynthetic activity in fig tree.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Kang, M Y; Han, K H

    2000-07-01

    Natural rubber was extracted from the fig tree (Ficus carica) cultivated in Korea as part of a survey of rubber producing plants. Fourier transform infrared and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of samples prepared by successive extraction with acetone and benzene confirmed that the benzene-soluble residues are natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene. The rubber content in the latex of fig tree was about 4%, whereas the rubber content in the bark, leaf, and fruit was 0.3%, 0.1%, and 0.1%, respectively. Gel-permeation chromatography revealed that the molecular size of the natural rubber from fig tree is about 190 kD. Similar to rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), rubber biosynthesis in fig tree is tightly associated with rubber particles. The rubber transferase in rubber particles exhibited a higher affinity for farnesyl pyrophosphate than for isopentenyl pyrophosphate, with apparent K(m) values of 2.8 and 228 microM, respectively. Examination of latex serum from fig tree by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed major proteins of 25 and 48 kD in size, and several proteins with molecular mass below 20 and above 100 kD. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing and immunochemical analyses revealed that the 25- and 48-kD proteins were novel and not related to any other suggested rubber transferases. The effect of EDTA and Mg(2+) ion on in vitro rubber biosynthesis in fig tree and rubber tree suggested that divalent metal ion present in the latex serum is an important factor in determining the different rubber biosynthetic activities in fig tree and rubber tree.

  16. Fruit characteristics and factors affecting fruit removal in a Panamanian community of strangler figs.

    PubMed

    Korine, C; Kalko, E K V; Herre, E A

    2000-06-01

    We describe fruiting characteristics for 12 species in a community of strangler figs (Moraceae: Urostigma) studied in Panama. We quantify diurnal and nocturnal removal rates and proportions of fruits removed, and relate them to the activities of the main dispersers of the figs: bats and birds. These results combined with previous studies show that there are clear differences between fig species with fruit that ripen red and those with fruit that remain green(ish). In the red-fruited species, the fruit are small, ripen asynchronously over relatively long periods, produce little scent, and are mainly taken during the day by birds. In contrast, in the green(ish)-fruited species, the fruits are larger, span a range of sizes, ripen relatively synchronously, produce very distinctive aromas, and are mainly taken at night by bats. This dichotomy in fruiting characteristics suggests coadaptive links between groups of dispersers and different species within the genus Ficus. All fig species produce a range of fruit crop sizes (10-155 fuits/m(2) canopy area) of which a high proportion were removed by seed dispersers (>80%). Removal rates (fruit removed per day) were positively correlated with crop size, suggesting that trees with large crop size attract more frugivores. Removal rates of green-fruited figs were significantly lower and persistence and abortion of ripe fruit were significant higher around full moon, apparently due to the reduced activity of bats. We further estimate the number of bats that are sustained by a tree fruit crop and account for the observed fruit removal. We then discuss the evidence for coadaptation between different groups of figs and their seed dispersers, Finally, we consider the conservation implications for figs as keystone resources in tropical forests.

  17. [Relationship between population variation of fig trees and environment in the tropical rainforests of Xishuangbanna].

    PubMed

    Yang, Darong; Peng, Yanqiong; Zhang, Guangming; Song, Qishi; Zhao, Tingzhou; Wang, Qiuyan

    2002-09-01

    The species diversity of the plant plays an important role in the ecological environment conservation. In the tropical rainforest of Xishuangbanna the biological diversity is extremely rich, and which is a key region used to biological diversity research. And the fig is a key plant species in the tropical rainforest. The research results about the relationship between the variation of the figs population and environment of the region were following: 1. There were 69 species, variants and subspecies Ficus plant that was known in the tropical rainforest of Xishuangbanna, thereinto there were 23 species and subspecies owned to the Urostigma, and the Pharmacosyea had four species; the Sycomorrus two species and subspecies; while the Ficus owned 41 species, subspecies and variants, then Xishuangbanna borne the most richness and diversity of fig species and numbers in China. 2. The distribution of the figs had intimate connection with the environment, and the species and the quantities showed the most richness in the tropical primary rainforest that was protected well and almost intact, where the figs were mainly to be arbors and giant arbors; and in the devastated stand and secondary forest dwarf arbors, shrubs, bushes and ligneous liana possessed the most in the fig species; while in such regions of tropical rainforest environment that have been destroyed seriously one proportion of the pioneer species of the figs were the main members. 3. Only the key colony of Ficus can be conserved in the tropical rainforest, can the whole ecological environment of the tropical rainforest be protected and rehabilitated, which was one of the important measures to realize it.

  18. Pyrithione-based ruthenium complexes as inhibitors of aldo-keto reductase 1C enzymes and anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Kljun, Jakob; Anko, Maja; Traven, Katja; Sinreih, Maša; Pavlič, Renata; Peršič, Špela; Ude, Žiga; Codina, Elisa Esteve; Stojan, Jure; Lanišnik Rižner, Tea; Turel, Iztok

    2016-08-07

    Four ruthenium complexes of clinically used zinc ionophore pyrithione and its oxygen analog 2-hydroxypyridine N-oxide were prepared and evaluated as inhibitors of enzymes of the aldo-keto reductase subfamily 1C (AKR1C). A kinetic study assisted with docking simulations showed a mixed type of inhibition consisting of a fast reversible and a slow irreversible step in the case of both organometallic compounds 1A and 1B. Both compounds also showed a remarkable selectivity towards AKR1C1 and AKR1C3 which are targets for breast cancer drug design. The organoruthenium complex of ligand pyrithione as well as pyrithione itself also displayed toxicity on the hormone-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cell line with EC50 values in the low micromolar range.

  19. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Ellen O.; Hackett, Jeremiah D.; Machado, Carlos A.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    A striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between gall- and seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association. PMID:26090817

  20. Relationship between pollination and cell wall properties in common fig fruit.

    PubMed

    Trad, Mehdi; Ginies, Christian; Gaaliche, Badii; Renard, Catherine M G C; Mars, Messaoud

    2014-02-01

    Most botanical types in fig Ficus carica require pollination to fulfil their development and ensure quality onset of the fruit. Cell wall behaviour and composition was followed in fig fruit in response to pollination during maturity. Figs, when ripe, soften drastically and lose of their firmness and cell wall cohesion. Pollination increased peel thickness, flesh thickness, fresh weight and dry matter content of the fruit. Alcohol insoluble solids (AIS), more concentrated in the flesh tissue, were not influenced by the lack of pollination. Concentrations in uronic acids were higher in the AIS of the peel than that of the flesh and differences were significant between pollinated and non-pollinated fruits. Pectin polymers in figs were high methylated (DM>50). The methylation degree (DM) increased more with pollination affecting textural properties of the fig receptacle. The major neutral sugars from the AIS were glucose (Glc) from cellulose followed by arabinose (Ara). No significant changes in neutral sugars content could be allocated to pollination. Pollination is essential in fruit enlargement and softening. Minor changes were determined in the cell wall composition of the fruit at maturity. Fertile seeds resulting from pollination may possibly take place in hormonal activity stimulating many related enzymes of the wall matrix depolymerisation in particular polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin methylesterase (PME).

  1. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Ellen O; Hackett, Jeremiah D; Machado, Carlos A; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    A striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between gall- and seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association.

  2. Evaluation of genetic diversity in fig accessions by using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    do Val, A D B; Souza, C S; Ferreira, E A; Salgado, S M L; Pasqual, M; Cançado, G M A

    2013-04-25

    Fig (Ficus carica L.) is a fruit of great importance worldwide. Its propagation is carried out with stem cuttings, a procedure that favors the occurrence of synonymy among specimens. Thus, molecular markers have become an important tool for studies of DNA fingerprinting, germplasm characterization, and genetic diversity evaluation in this plant species. The aim of this study was the analysis of genetic diversity among accessions of fig and the detection of synonyms among samples using molecular markers. Five microsatellite markers previously reported as polymorphic to fig were used to characterize 11 fig cultivars maintained in the germplasm bank located in Lavras, Minas Gerais. A total of 21 polymorphic DNA fragments were amplified, with an average of 4.2 alleles per locus. The average allelic diversity and polymorphic information content were 0.6300 and 0.5644, respectively, whereas the total value for the probability of identity was 1.45 x 10(-4). The study allowed the identification of 10 genotypes and 2 synonymous individuals. The principal coordinate analysis showed no defined clusters despite the formation of groups according to geographical origin. However, neighbor-joining analysis identified the same case of synonymy detected using principal coordinate analysis. The data also indicated that the fig cultivars analyzed constitute a population of individuals with high genetic diversity and a broad range of genetic variation.

  3. Studies on preparation of mixed fruit toffee from Fig and Guava fruits.

    PubMed

    Kohinkar, S N; Chavan, U D; Pawar, V D; Amarowicz, R

    2014-09-01

    Studies were carried out to develop a technology for preparation of mixed fruit toffee from fig and guava fruit pulp and to evaluate the changes in quality of prepared toffees during storage under ambient as well as refrigerated conditions for 180 days. Among the various combinations of fig and guava fruit pulp, toffee prepared from75:25 w/w (fig: guava) ratios was found better than other combinations in respect to yield, organoleptic properties and nutritional quality. The cost of toffee prepared from higher level of fig pulp i.e. 75:25 (fig:guava) ratio was higher (Rs. 71.84/kg). The storage studies of toffees packed in 200 gauge polyethylene bags indicated that the TSS, reducing and total sugars increased with the advancement of storage period, while moisture and acidity content decreased. The rate of reactions was relatively higher at ambient temperature than refrigerated temperature. Though the sensory quality of toffees also decreased at faster rate during 180 days storage period at ambient condition than the refrigerated condition yet the toffees were found to be acceptable even after 180 days at both the conditions.

  4. Is hemoglobin A1c level effective in predicting the prognosis of Fournier gangrene?

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Haluk; Bayrak, Omer; Erturhan, Sakip; Borazan, Ersin; Koc, Mustafa Nihat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of immune failure and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) association on the mortality and morbidity of the Fournier's Gangrene (FG), and interrelatedly, the usability of HbA1c level in the prediction of prognosis. Materials and Methods: The data of 38 patients with the diagnosis of FG were investigated retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups as patients with DM (Group 1, n = 18) and non-diabetics (Group 2, n = 20). The patients in group 1 were also divided into two subgroups as patients with HbA1c value ≥7 (Group 1a) and HbA1c value <7 (Group 1b). Results: The mean age of all 38 male patients was 66.3 ± 6.4 years. The initial symptoms were scrotal rash and swelling (n = 20, 52.6%), high fever (>38°C) (n = 22, 57.8%), purulent discharge from genital or perineal areas (n = 13, 34.2%), skin bruises (n = 11, 28.9%) and general state disorder in five patients that were admitted from day care center (13.1%). DM, as the most often comorbid disease, was detected in 18 patients (47.3%). Six patients (15.7%) were deceased during the follow-up period. Conclusion: In the present study, the researchers determined that diabetic patients with HbA1c level of 7 or higher had worse prognosis, and increased mortality. PMID:27453658

  5. A brachytic dwarfism trait (dw) in peach trees is caused by a nonsense mutation within the gibberellic acid receptor PpeGID1c.

    PubMed

    Hollender, Courtney A; Hadiarto, Toto; Srinivasan, Chinnathambi; Scorza, Ralph; Dardick, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the genetic factors controlling tree size and shape. Here, we studied the genetic basis for a recessive brachytic dwarfism trait (dw) in peach (Prunus persica) that has little or no effect on fruit development. A sequencing-based mapping strategy positioned dw on the distal end of chromosome 6. Further sequence analysis and fine mapping identified a candidate gene for dw as a non-functional allele of the gibberellic acid receptor GID1c. Expression of the two GID1-like genes found in peach, PpeGID1c and PpeGID1b, was analyzed. GID1c was predominantly expressed in actively growing vegetative tissues, whereas GID1b was more highly expressed in reproductive tissues. Silencing of GID1c in plum via transgenic expression of a hairpin construct led to a dwarf phenotype similar to that of dw/dw peaches. In general, the degree of GID1c silencing corresponded to the degree of dwarfing. The results suggest that PpeGID1c serves a primary role in vegetative growth and elongation, whereas GID1b probably functions to regulate gibberellic acid perception in reproductive organs. Modification of GID1c expression could provide a rational approach to control tree size without impairing fruit development.

  6. A new release 06 of the GRACE Atmosphere and Ocean De-aliasing Level-1B (AOD1B) product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagiolini, E.; Dobslaw, H.; Flechtner, F.; Rudenko, S.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new release 06 of the GRACE AOD1B product, intended to serve as a background model for the removal of high-frequency non-tidal mass variations due to short-term (daily and sub-daily) mass transport in the atmosphere and oceans. AOD1B shall avoid aliasing of these high frequency signals into monthly gravity models derived from modern gravity missions (CHAMP, GRACE or GRACE-FO) and shall help to consistently reprocess altimetry and SLR satellites for later combination of gravimetric and geometric results. Therefore, AOD1B RL06 will be provided for an extended time-range (from 1976 till present). Some results on the use of the new and previous releases of the AOD1B product for precise orbit determination (POD) of these satellites are presented as well. For AOD1B RL06 the ocean part is the same as in RL05, while the atmospheric one includes an improved algorithm for the vertical integration of the atmospheric columns as well as a correction strategy for errors (jumps) present in the atmospheric input data. These errors are estimated by comparing the standard atmospheric coefficients based on the ECMWF operational analysis with independently generated coefficients based on the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis. With this, we are able to correct the 6-hourly AOD1B data sets applied during GRACE POD. The derived gravity solutions, as well as the monthly averages 'GAA' (atmosphere only) and 'GAC' (atmosphere combined with ocean), are then free from errors present in the atmospheric input data. Furthermore, we are checking routinely processing changes at ECMWF, since they are strictly associated with the above mentioned errors, and will estimate new correction coefficients, if necessary.

  7. Aldo-keto reductases AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3 may enhance progesterone metabolism in ovarian endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Hevir, N; Vouk, K; Sinkovec, J; Ribič-Pucelj, M; Rižner, T Lanišnik

    2011-05-30

    Endometriosis is a very common disease that is characterized by increased formation of estradiol and disturbed progesterone action. This latter is usually explained by a lack of progesterone receptor B (PR-B) expression, while the role of pre-receptor metabolism of progesterone is not yet fully understood. In normal endometrium, progesterone is metabolized by reductive 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (20α-HSDs), 3α/β-HSDs and 5α/β-reductases. The aldo-keto reductases 1C1 and 1C3 (AKR1C1 and AKR1C3) are the major reductive 20α-HSDs, while the oxidative reaction is catalyzed by 17β-HSD type 2 (HSD17B2). Also, 3α-HSD and 3β-HSD activities have been associated with the AKR1C isozymes. Additionally, 5α-reductase types 1 and 2 (SRD5A1, SRD5A2) and 5β-reductase (AKR1D1) are responsible for the formation of 5α- and 5β-reduced pregnanes. In this study, we examined the expression of PR-AB and the progesterone metabolizing enzymes in 31 specimens of ovarian endometriosis and 28 specimens of normal endometrium. Real-time PCR analysis revealed significantly decreased mRNA levels of PR-AB, HSD17B2 and SRD5A2, significantly increased mRNA levels of AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3 and SRD5A1, and negligible mRNA levels of AKR1D1. Immunohistochemistry staining of endometriotic tissue compared to control endometrium showed significantly lower PR-B levels in epithelial cells and no significant differences in stromal cells, there were no significant differences in the expression of AKR1C3 and significantly higher AKR1C2 levels were seen only in stromal cells. Our expression analysis data at the mRNA level and partially at the cellular level thus suggest enhanced metabolism of progesterone by SRD5A1 and the 20α-HSD and 3α/β-HSD activities of AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3.

  8. The phenotype Ae1B: a probable result of chimerism.

    PubMed Central

    Longster, G H; Robinson, E A; North, D I

    1978-01-01

    An apparently normal healthy adult with the blood group phenotype Ae1B is described. The unusual ABO group is apparently the result of chimerism, the proportion of the minor population of cells being so small as to be only detectable by absorption and elution techniques. PMID:739532

  9. Saturn 1B and Saturn 5 computer programs, software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Information on the progress and development of all Saturn 1B and Saturn 5 computer programs is presented. On-line, operating systems, test programs, and on-line display descriptions are given along with off-line programs. All programs are listed in tabular form.

  10. 7 CFR 1b.4 - Exclusion of agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.4 Exclusion of agencies. (a... activities that have been found to have no individual or cumulative effect on the human environment. The USDA agencies and agency units listed in paragraph (b) of this section are excluded from the requirements...

  11. Radiation processing as a post-harvest quarantine control for raisins, dried figs and dried apricots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Ozyardımci, B.; Denli, E.; Ic, E.

    2006-03-01

    The commercially packed samples of raisins, dried figs and dried apricots were irradiated using doses in the range of 0.5-1.0 kGy for disinfestation and 0.5-5.0 kGy for sensory analysis with the dose rate ranging from 1.44 to 1.92 kGy/h. Pests on dried fruits were evaluated after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months of storage for irradiated dried figs and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage for raisins and dried apricots. Sensory analysis of dried figs, dried apricots and raisins were carried out after 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that radiation processing at low doses, (˜1.0 kGy) is an effective post-harvest treatment and quarantine control for these products with no adverse effects on sensory (marketing) attributes.

  12. Molecular approaches to identify cryptic species and polymorphic species within a complex community of fig wasps.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jin-Hua; Wang, Ning-Xin; Li, Yan-Wei; Murphy, Robert W; Wan, Dong-Guang; Niu, Li-Ming; Hu, Hao-Yuan; Fu, Yue-Guan; Huang, Da-Wei

    2010-11-29

    Cryptic and polymorphic species can complicate traditional taxonomic research and both of these concerns are common in fig wasp communities. Species identification is very difficult, despite great effort and the ecological importance of fig wasps. Herein, we try to identify all chalcidoid wasp species hosted by one species of fig, using both morphological and molecular methods. We compare the efficiency of four different DNA regions and find that ITS2 is highly effective for species identification, while mitochondrial COI and Cytb regions appear less reliable, possibly due to the interference signals from either nuclear copies of mtDNA, i.e. NUMTs, or the effects of Wolbachia infections. The analyses suggest that combining multiple markers is the best choice for inferring species identifications as any one marker may be unsuitable in a given case.

  13. Finding hidden females in a crowd: Mate recognition in fig wasps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anusha; Joshi, Kanchan Anand; Abraham, Ambily; Ayyub, Shreya; Lahiry, Mohini; Mukherjee, Ritwika; Javadekar, Saniya Milind; Narayan, Vignesh; Borges, Renee M.

    2014-05-01

    Multi-species mating aggregations are crowded environments within which mate recognition must occur. Mating aggregations of fig wasps can consist of thousands of individuals of many species that attain sexual maturity simultaneously and mate in the same microenvironment, i.e, in syntopy, within the close confines of an enclosed globular inflorescence called a syconium - a system that has many signalling constraints such as darkness and crowding. All wasps develop within individual galled flowers. Since mating mostly occurs when females are still confined within their galls, male wasps have the additional burden of detecting conspecific females that are "hidden" behind barriers consisting of gall walls. In Ficus racemosa, we investigated signals used by pollinating fig wasp males to differentiate conspecific females from females of other syntopic fig wasp species. Male Ceratosolen fusciceps could detect conspecific females using cues from galls containing females, empty galls, as well as cues from gall volatiles and gall surface hydrocarbons.

  14. Synergistic Effects of Crizotinib and Temozolomide in Experimental FIG-ROS1 Fusion-Positive Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Das, Arabinda; Cheng, Ron Ron; Hilbert, Megan L.T.; Dixon-Moh, Yaenette N.; Decandio, Michele; Vandergrift, William Alex; Banik, Naren L.; Lindhorst, Scott M.; Cachia, David; Varma, Abhay K.; Patel, Sunil J.; Giglio, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common malignant brain tumor. Drug resistance frequently develops in these tumors during chemotherapy. Therefore, predicting drug response in these patients remains a major challenge in the clinic. Thus, to improve the clinical outcome, more effective and tolerable combination treatment strategies are needed. Robust experimental evidence has shown that the main reason for failure of treatments is signal redundancy due to coactivation of several functionally linked receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor), and oncogenic c-ros oncogene1 (ROS1: RTK class orphan) fusion kinase FIG (fused in GB)-ROS1. As such, these could be attractive targets for GB therapy. The study subjects consisted of 19 patients who underwent neurosurgical resection of GB tissues. Our in vitro and ex vivo models promisingly demonstrated that treatments with crizotinib (PF-02341066: dual ALK/c-Met inhibitor) and temozolomide in combination induced synergistic antitumor activity on FIG-ROS1-positive GB cells. Our results also showed that ex vivo FIG-ROS1+ slices (obtained from GB patients) when cultured were able to preserve tissue architecture, cell viability, and global gene-expression profiles for up to 14 days. Both in vitro and ex vivo studies indicated that combination blockade of FIG, p-ROS1, p-ALK, and p-Met augmented apoptosis, which mechanistically involves activation of Bim and inhibition of survivin, p-Akt, and Mcl-1 expression. However, it is important to note that we did not see any significant synergistic effect of crizotinib and temozolomide on FIG-ROS1-negative GB cells. Thus, these ex vivo culture results will have a significant impact on patient selection for clinical trials and in predicting response to crizotinib and temozolomide therapy. Further studies in different animal models of FIG-ROS1-positive GB cells are warranted to determine useful therapies for the

  15. Synergistic Effects of Crizotinib and Temozolomide in Experimental FIG-ROS1 Fusion-Positive Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Das, Arabinda; Cheng, Ron Ron; Hilbert, Megan L T; Dixon-Moh, Yaenette N; Decandio, Michele; Vandergrift, William Alex; Banik, Naren L; Lindhorst, Scott M; Cachia, David; Varma, Abhay K; Patel, Sunil J; Giglio, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is the most common malignant brain tumor. Drug resistance frequently develops in these tumors during chemotherapy. Therefore, predicting drug response in these patients remains a major challenge in the clinic. Thus, to improve the clinical outcome, more effective and tolerable combination treatment strategies are needed. Robust experimental evidence has shown that the main reason for failure of treatments is signal redundancy due to coactivation of several functionally linked receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor), and oncogenic c-ros oncogene1 (ROS1: RTK class orphan) fusion kinase FIG (fused in GB)-ROS1. As such, these could be attractive targets for GB therapy. The study subjects consisted of 19 patients who underwent neurosurgical resection of GB tissues. Our in vitro and ex vivo models promisingly demonstrated that treatments with crizotinib (PF-02341066: dual ALK/c-Met inhibitor) and temozolomide in combination induced synergistic antitumor activity on FIG-ROS1-positive GB cells. Our results also showed that ex vivo FIG-ROS1+ slices (obtained from GB patients) when cultured were able to preserve tissue architecture, cell viability, and global gene-expression profiles for up to 14 days. Both in vitro and ex vivo studies indicated that combination blockade of FIG, p-ROS1, p-ALK, and p-Met augmented apoptosis, which mechanistically involves activation of Bim and inhibition of survivin, p-Akt, and Mcl-1 expression. However, it is important to note that we did not see any significant synergistic effect of crizotinib and temozolomide on FIG-ROS1-negative GB cells. Thus, these ex vivo culture results will have a significant impact on patient selection for clinical trials and in predicting response to crizotinib and temozolomide therapy. Further studies in different animal models of FIG-ROS1-positive GB cells are warranted to determine useful therapies for the

  16. New occurrence of non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Ficus microcarpa in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Farache, Fernando H A; O, Vanessa T do; Pereira, Rodrigo A S

    2009-01-01

    Ficus microcarpa is an Asian fig tree that is ornamentally cultivated. The specific pollinator, Eupristina verticillata Waterston, and the non-pollinators Walkerella microcarpae Boucek and Philotrypesis emeryi Grandi, have been reported associated to F. microcarpa in Brazil. In here we report for the first time the occurrence of Odontofroggatia ishii Wiebes and Philotrypesis taiwanensis Chen et al in F. microcarpa in Brazil. Our results suggest that P. taiwanensis and O. ishii represent a recent influx of these wasps into Brazil. Considering that approximately 20 fig wasp species are associated with F. microcarpa in its native area, novel occurrences can be reported in the future in Brazil.

  17. Host pollination mode and mutualist pollinator presence: net effect of internally ovipositing parasite in the fig-wasp mutualism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengping; Peng, Yanqiong; Compton, Stephen G; Zhao, Yi; Yang, Darong

    2009-04-01

    The Ficus-their specific pollinating fig wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) interaction presents a striking example of mutualism. Figs also shelter numerous non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW) that exploit the fig-pollinator mutualism. Only a few NPFW species can enter figs to oviposit, they do not belong to the pollinating lineage Agaonidae. The internally ovipositing non-agaonid fig wasps can efficiently pollinate the Ficus species that were passively pollinated. However, there is no study to focus on the net effect of these internally ovipositing non-agaonid wasps in actively pollinated Ficus species. By collecting the data of fig wasp community and conducting controlled experiments, our results showed that internally ovipositing Diaziella bizarrea cannot effectively pollinate Ficus glaberrima, an actively pollinated monoecious fig tree. Furthermore, D. bizarrea failed to reproduce if they were introduced into figs without Eupristina sp., the regular pollinator, as all the figs aborted. Furthermore, although D. bizarrea had no effect on seed production in shared figs, it significantly reduced the number of Eupristina sp. progeny emerging from them. Thus, our experimental evidence shows that reproduction in Diaziella depends on the presence of agaonid pollinators, and whether internally ovipositing parasites can act as pollinators depends on the host fig's pollination mode (active or passive). Overall, this study and others suggest a relatively limited mutualistic role for internally ovipositing fig wasps from non-pollinator (non-Agaonidae) lineages.

  18. PDE1C deficiency antagonizes pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Walter E.; Chen, Si; Zhang, Yishuai; Oikawa, Masayoshi; Wu, Meiping; Zhou, Qian; Miller, Clint L.; Cai, Yujun; Mickelsen, Deanne M.; Moravec, Christine; Small, Eric M.; Abe, Junichi; Yan, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C (PDE1C) represents a major phosphodiesterase activity in human myocardium, but its function in the heart remains unknown. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we studied the expression, regulation, function, and underlying mechanisms of PDE1C in the pathogenesis of cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. PDE1C expression is up-regulated in mouse and human failing hearts and is highly expressed in cardiac myocytes but not in fibroblasts. In adult mouse cardiac myocytes, PDE1C deficiency or inhibition attenuated myocyte death and apoptosis, which was largely dependent on cyclic AMP/PKA and PI3K/AKT signaling. PDE1C deficiency also attenuated cardiac myocyte hypertrophy in a PKA-dependent manner. Conditioned medium taken from PDE1C-deficient cardiac myocytes attenuated TGF-β–stimulated cardiac fibroblast activation through a mechanism involving the crosstalk between cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. In vivo, cardiac remodeling and dysfunction induced by transverse aortic constriction, including myocardial hypertrophy, apoptosis, cardiac fibrosis, and loss of contractile function, were significantly attenuated in PDE1C-knockout mice relative to wild-type mice. These results indicate that PDE1C activation plays a causative role in pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. Given the continued development of highly specific PDE1 inhibitors and the high expression level of PDE1C in the human heart, our findings could have considerable therapeutic significance. PMID:27791092

  19. Bladder cancer risk and genetic variation in AKR1C3 and other metabolizing genes

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Jonine D.; Malats, Núria; García-Closas, Montserrat; Real, Francisco X.; Silverman, Debra; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chanock, Stephen; Welch, Robert; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Lan, Qing; Tardón, Adonina; Serra, Consol; Carrato, Alfredo; García-Closas, Reina; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2008-01-01

    Aromatic amines (AAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogens present in tobacco smoke and functional polymorphisms in NAT2 and GSTM1 metabolizing genes are associated with increased bladder cancer risk. We evaluated whether genetic variation in other candidate metabolizing genes are also associated with risk. Candidates included genes that control the transcription of metabolizing genes [aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), AHRR and aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT)] and genes that activate/detoxify AA or PAH (AKR1C3, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP3A4, EPHX1, EPHX2, NQO1, MPO, UGT1A4, SULT1A1 and SULT1A2). Using genotype data from 1150 cases of urothelial carcinomas and 1149 controls from the Spanish Bladder Cancer Study, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusting for age, gender, region and smoking status. Based on a test for trend, we observed 10 non-redundant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes (AKR1C3, ARNT, CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and SULT1A2) significantly associated with bladder cancer risk. We observed an inverse association with risk for the AKR1C3 promoter SNP rs1937845 [OR (95% CI) for heterozygote and homozygote variant compared with common homozygote genotype were 0.86 (0.70–1.06) and 0.74 (0.57–0.96), respectively; P for trend = 0.02]. Interestingly, genetic variation in this region has been associated with lung, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and prostate cancer risk. Analysis of additional SNPs to capture most (∼90%) of common genetic variation in AKR1C3 and haplotype walking analyses based on all AKR1C3 SNPs (n = 25) suggest two separate regions associated with bladder cancer risk. These results indicate that genetic variation in carcinogen-metabolizing genes, particularly AKR1C3, could be associated with bladder cancer risk. PMID:18632753

  20. Preference of Conjugated Bile Acids over Unconjugated Bile Acids as Substrates for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3.

    PubMed

    Suga, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Sato, Toshihiro; Maekawa, Masamitsu; Goto, Junichi; Mano, Nariyasu

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids, the metabolites of cholesterol, are signaling molecules that play critical role in many physiological functions. They undergo enterohepatic circulation through various transporters expressed in intestine and liver. Human organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1 and OATP1B3 contribute to hepatic uptake of bile acids such as taurocholic acid. However, the transport properties of individual bile acids are not well understood. Therefore, we selected HEK293 cells overexpressing OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 to evaluate the transport of five major human bile acids (cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid) together withtheir glycine and taurine conjugates via OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. The bile acids were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The present study revealed that cholic acid, chenodeoxyxcholic acid, and deoxycholic acid were transported by OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, while ursodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid were not significantly transported by OATPs. However, all the conjugated bile acids were taken up rapidly by OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Kinetic analyses revealed the involvement of saturable OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated transport of bile acids. The apparent Km values for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 of the conjugated bile acids were similar (0.74-14.7 μM for OATP1B1 and 0.47-15.3 μM for OATP1B3). They exhibited higher affinity than cholic acid (47.1 μM for OATP1B1 and 42.2 μM for OATP1B3). Our results suggest that conjugated bile acids (glycine and taurine) are preferred to unconjugated bile acids as substrates for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3.

  1. Cutting Edge: Resistance to Bacillus anthracis Infection Mediated by a Lethal Toxin Sensitive Allele of Nalp1b/Nlrp1b

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Nalp1b/Nlrp1b Lethal Toxin Sensitive Allele of Infection Mediated by aanthracis BacillusCutting Edge: Resistance to http://www.jimmunol.org/cgi/content...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cutting edge: resistance to Bacillus anthracis infection mediated by a lethal toxin -sensitive allele of Nalp1b...Bacillus anthracis is associated with the production of lethal toxin (LT), which activates the murine Nalp1b/Nlrp1b inflammasome and induces caspase

  2. Preference of Conjugated Bile Acids over Unconjugated Bile Acids as Substrates for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3

    PubMed Central

    Suga, Takahiro; Sato, Toshihiro; Maekawa, Masamitsu; Goto, Junichi; Mano, Nariyasu

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids, the metabolites of cholesterol, are signaling molecules that play critical role in many physiological functions. They undergo enterohepatic circulation through various transporters expressed in intestine and liver. Human organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1 and OATP1B3 contribute to hepatic uptake of bile acids such as taurocholic acid. However, the transport properties of individual bile acids are not well understood. Therefore, we selected HEK293 cells overexpressing OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 to evaluate the transport of five major human bile acids (cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid) together withtheir glycine and taurine conjugates via OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. The bile acids were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The present study revealed that cholic acid, chenodeoxyxcholic acid, and deoxycholic acid were transported by OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, while ursodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid were not significantly transported by OATPs. However, all the conjugated bile acids were taken up rapidly by OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Kinetic analyses revealed the involvement of saturable OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated transport of bile acids. The apparent Km values for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 of the conjugated bile acids were similar (0.74–14.7 μM for OATP1B1 and 0.47–15.3 μM for OATP1B3). They exhibited higher affinity than cholic acid (47.1 μM for OATP1B1 and 42.2 μM for OATP1B3). Our results suggest that conjugated bile acids (glycine and taurine) are preferred to unconjugated bile acids as substrates for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. PMID:28060902

  3. Competitive protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors, prenylated caged xanthones from Garcinia hanburyi and their inhibitory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xue Fei; Uddin, Zia; Park, Chanin; Song, Yeong Hun; Son, Minky; Lee, Keun Woo; Park, Ki Hun

    2017-04-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays important role in diabetes, obesity and cancer. The methanol extract of the gum resin of Garcinia hanburyi (G. hanburyi) showed potent PTP1B inhibition at 10µg/ml. The active compounds were identified as prenylated caged xanthones (1-9) which inhibited PTP1B in dose-dependent manner. Carboxybutenyl group within caged motif (A ring) was found to play a critical role in enzyme inhibition such as 1-6 (IC50s=0.47-4.69µM), whereas compounds having hydroxymethylbutenyl 7 (IC50=70.25µM) and methylbutenyl 8 (IC50>200µM) showed less activity. The most potent inhibitor, gambogic acid 1 (IC50=0.47µM) showed 30-fold more potency than ursolic acid (IC50=15.5µM), a positive control. In kinetic study, all isolated xanthones behaved as competitive inhibitors which were fully demonstrated with Km, Vmax and Kik/Kiv ratio. It was also proved that inhibitor 1 operated under the enzyme isomerization model having k5=0.0751µM(-)(1)S(-)(1), k6=0.0249µM(-)(1)S(-)(1) and Ki(app)=0.499µM. To develop a pharmacophore model, we explored the binding sites of compound 1 and 7 in PTP1B. These modeling results were in agreement with our findings, which revealed that the inhibitory activities are tightly related to caged motif and prenyl group in A ring.

  4. Cross-reactivity between Ficus benjamina (weeping fig) and natural rubber latex.

    PubMed

    Brehler, R; Abrams, E; Sedlmayr, S

    1998-04-01

    The importance of hypersensitivity to Ficus allergens is reported. Cross-sensitization between fig (Ficus carica), weeping fig (F. benjamina [Fb]), and natural rubber latex (NRL) was confirmed by RAST inhibition. We performed skin prick tests with fresh Fb tree sap and NRL extracts in 346 consecutive patients and in 151 patients with immediate-type hypersensitivity to NRL. Total serum IgE and IgE antibodies to NRL and Ficus spp. were analyzed in sera. By the RAST-inhibition method, we studied cross-reactivity among latex, fig, and weeping fig. Sensitization to Fb was diagnosed in 23 of the 346 consecutive patients, and the simultaneous presence of latex-specific IgE was highly significant. Of 151 NRL-allergic patients, 35 were also sensitized to Fb. Cross-reacting IgE antibodies recognizing latex and Ficus allergens were demonstrated by RAST inhibition. The present study reinforces the importance of Fb as an indoor allergen. Cross-reacting IgE antibodies to NRL and Ficus spp. allergens are frequently found in the sera of atopic patients. Development of commercially available standardized extracts for skin tests is urgently necessary.

  5. Riparian Ficus Tree Communities: The Distribution and Abundance of Riparian Fig Trees in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G.; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010–2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance. PMID:25310189

  6. New Plant-Parasitic Nematode from the Mostly Mycophagous Genus Bursaphelenchus Discovered inside Figs in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kanzaki, Natsumi; Tanaka, Ryusei; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Davies, Kerrie A.

    2014-01-01

    A new nematode species, Bursaphelenchus sycophilus n. sp. is described. The species was found in syconia of a fig species, Ficus variegata during a field survey of fig-associated nematodes in Japan. Because it has a well-developed stylet and pharyngeal glands, the species is considered an obligate plant parasite, and is easily distinguished from all other fungal-feeding species in the genus based upon these characters. Although B. sycophilus n. sp. shares an important typological character, male spicule possessing a strongly recurved condylus, with the “B. eremus group” and the “B. leoni group” of the genus, it was inferred to be monophyletic with the “B. fungivorus group”. The uniquely shaped stylet and well-developed pharyngeal glands is reminiscent of the fig-floret parasitic but paraphyletic assemblage of “Schistonchus”. Thus, these morphological characters appear to be an extreme example of convergent evolution in the nematode family, Aphelenchoididae, inside figs. Other characters shared by the new species and its close relatives, i.e., lack of ventral P1 male genital papilla, female vulval flap, and papilla-shaped P4 genital papillae in males, corroborate the molecular phylogenetic inference. The unique biological character of obligate plant parasitism and highly derived appearance of the ingestive organs of Bursaphelenchus sycophilus n. sp. expands our knowledge of the potential morphological, physiological and developmental plasticity of the genus Bursaphelenchus. PMID:24940595

  7. Non-quantitative adjustment of offspring sex ratios in pollinating fig wasps

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Sun, Bao-Fa; He, Jun-Zhou; Dunn, Derek W.

    2015-01-01

    Fig wasp is one of the most well known model systems in examining whether or not the parents could adjust their offspring sex ratio to maximize their gene frequency transmission in next generations. Our manipulative experiments showed that, in all of the five pollinator wasps of figs (Agaonidae) that have different averages of foundress numbers per syconium, almost the same proportions of male offspring are produced in the experiment that foundresses deposit one hour then are killed with ether (66.1%–70.1%) and over the lifespan of each foundress (14.0%–21.0%). The foundresses tend to deposit their male eggs prior to female eggs. The observed increase in the proportion of male offspring as a function of foundress number results from density-dependent interference competition among the foundresses. These results showed that the selection of gene frequency transmission through the behavioral adjustment in the evolution of sex ratio does not exist in these five fig wasps. The results here implied that genetic adjustment mechanisms of the sex ratio of fig wasps can only be triggered to be on or off and that the foundresses can not quantitatively adjust their sex ratio according to increased environmental selection pressure. PMID:26293349

  8. 76 FR 14320 - Importation of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... pomegranates from Chile using mitigation measures other than fumigation with methyl bromide. DATES: We will... with methyl bromide. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) also received a request... fresh figs and pomegranates from Chile using mitigation measures other than fumigation with...

  9. Global focused identification of germplasm strategy (figs) application on Trifolium epens L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trifolium repens L. is a legume species extensively used in grass pastures. Traits such as level of cyanogenic glucosides and flower production are important in breeding productive and nutritious varieties. The Focused Identification of Germplasm Strategy (FIGS) is an approach used to screen large g...

  10. Local coexistence and genetic isolation of three pollinator species on the same fig tree species.

    PubMed

    Sutton, T L; DeGabriel, J L; Riegler, M; Cook, J M

    2017-01-11

    Molecular tools increasingly reveal cryptic lineages and species that were previously unnoticed by traditional taxonomy. The discovery of cryptic species in sympatry prompts the question of how they coexist in the apparent absence of ecological divergence. However, this assumes first that the molecular taxonomy used to identify cryptic lineages delimits species boundaries accurately. This issue is important, because many diversity studies rely heavily or solely on data from mitochondrial DNA sequences for species delimitation, and several factors may lead to poor identification of species boundaries. We used a multilocus population genetics approach to show that three mtDNA-defined cryptic lineages of the fig wasp Pleistodontes imperialis Saunders, which pollinate Port Jackson figs (Ficus rubiginosa) in north-eastern Australia, represent reproductively isolated species. These species coexist locally, with about 13% of figs (where mating occurs) containing wasps from two or three species. However, there was no evidence for gene flow between them. Confirmed cases of coexisting cryptic species provide excellent opportunities for future studies of the ecological and evolutionary forces shaping both species coexistence and fig/pollinator coevolution.Heredity advance online publication, 11 January 2017; doi:10.1038/hdy.2016.125.

  11. Riparian Ficus tree communities: the distribution and abundance of riparian fig trees in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010-2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1) calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2) measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha) were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious) from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance.

  12. Non-quantitative adjustment of offspring sex ratios in pollinating fig wasps.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Wu; Sun, Bao-Fa; He, Jun-Zhou; Dunn, Derek W

    2015-08-21

    Fig wasp is one of the most well known model systems in examining whether or not the parents could adjust their offspring sex ratio to maximize their gene frequency transmission in next generations. Our manipulative experiments showed that, in all of the five pollinator wasps of figs (Agaonidae) that have different averages of foundress numbers per syconium, almost the same proportions of male offspring are produced in the experiment that foundresses deposit one hour then are killed with ether (66.1%-70.1%) and over the lifespan of each foundress (14.0%-21.0%). The foundresses tend to deposit their male eggs prior to female eggs. The observed increase in the proportion of male offspring as a function of foundress number results from density-dependent interference competition among the foundresses. These results showed that the selection of gene frequency transmission through the behavioral adjustment in the evolution of sex ratio does not exist in these five fig wasps. The results here implied that genetic adjustment mechanisms of the sex ratio of fig wasps can only be triggered to be on or off and that the foundresses can not quantitatively adjust their sex ratio according to increased environmental selection pressure.

  13. Parasitoid fig-wasp evolutionary diversification and variation in ecological opportunity.

    PubMed

    McLeish, M J; van Noort, S; Tolley, K A

    2010-04-01

    Ecological processes are manifest in the evolution and form of phenotype diversity. The great abundance of parasitoid species has led to speculation whether rates of speciation and extinction are dependent on parasitoid diversity. If these factors are mutually exclusive, species diversity should fluctuate instead of remaining relatively constant over time. It is not known whether radiations constrained by coevolutionary interactions conform to density-dependent diversification processes. Here we test the prediction that parasitoid fig wasp diversification responds to changes in ecological opportunity and density-independent processes. A phylogenetic approach is used to estimate relative divergence times and infer diversification rate changes using gamma-statistics. Monte Carlo constant rates tests that accommodate incomplete sampling could not reject constant rates diversification. Parasitoid fig wasp diversification is consistent with a more complex explanation than density-dependent cladogenesis. The results suggest contemporary African parasitoid fig wasp diversity remains a legacy of an ancient ecological opportunity facilitated by fig tree diversification following the breakup of Pan-African forests and evolution of the savanna biome over the last 55 Ma and the more recent aridification of the African continent in the last 5 Ma. These results imply that amplified phenotypic differentiation of specialist insects coevolving with plants is coupled to evolutionarily infrequent changes in ecological opportunity.

  14. Trapping African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae) with combinations of vinegar and wine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States. Tests were conducted in southern Florida that recorded the response of Z. indianus to baits that included Merlot wine, rice vinegar, et...

  15. Terminal complement complexes and C1/C1 inhibitor complexes in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed Central

    Weetman, A P; Cohen, S B; Oleesky, D A; Morgan, B P

    1989-01-01

    The potential role of complement activation and the membrane attack complex in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis has been investigated by measuring serum concentrations of the C1r-C1s-C1 inhibitor complex (C1/C1-inh) and the terminal complement complex (TCC), and by studying the binding to thyroid tissue of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against TCC neoantigens. Serum C1/C1-inh and TCC concentrations were significantly increased in 29 patients with untreated Graves' disease compared with 47 healthy subjects (P less than 0.001 for both), and decreased significantly after carbimazole treatment in 18 of these patients for whom post-treatment samples were available (P less than 0.01 and P less than 0.02, respectively). The serum TCC concentration, but not that of C1/C1-inh, was also significantly increased in 15 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis compared with the 47 healthy subjects (P less than 0.001). TCCs were identified by immunohistochemical staining around the thyroid follicles in thyroidectomy specimens from patients with Graves' disease (six out of six) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (two out of two); normal thyroid tissue from two subjects showed no staining. These results suggest a role for complement, in particular the membrane attack complex in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease. Images Fig. 3 PMID:2766576

  16. Hemoglobin A1c in predicting progression to diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Tomoko; Tajima, Naoko; Oizumi, Toshihide; Karasawa, Shigeru; Wada, Kiriko; Kameda, Wataru; Susa, Shinji; Kato, Takeo; Daimon, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The predictive value of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in comparison to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) is evaluated for 5-year incident diabetes (DM), as HbA1c may be more practical than FPG in the screening for DM in the future. Of 1189 non-DM subjects aged 35-89 years old from the Funagata Study, 57 subjects (4.8%) had developed DM on the WHO criteria at 5-year follow-up. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval: CI) for a one standard deviation increase in FPG/HbA1c was 3.40 (2.44-4.74)/3.49 (2.42-5.02). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for FPG/HbA1c was 0.786 (95% CI: 0.719-0.853)/0.785 (0.714-0.855). The HbA1c corresponding to FPG 5.56 mmol/l was HbA1c 5.3%. There was no statistical difference in sensitivity between FPG 5.56 mmol/l and HbA1c 5.3% (61.4% vs. 56.1%), while specificity was higher in HbA1c 5.3% than FPG 5.56 mmol/l (87.8% vs. 82.5%, p-value<0.001). The fraction of incident case from those with baseline IGT was similar between the groups, however the fraction of people above the cut-off was significantly lower in HbA1c 5.3% than FPG 5.56 mmol/l (14.3% vs. 19.6%, p-value<0.001). HbA1c is similar to FPG to evaluate DM risk, and HbA1c could be practical and efficient to select subjects for intervention.

  17. PTP1B: a new therapeutic target for Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tautz, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by successive loss of acquired cognitive, social, and motor skills and development of autistic behavior. RTT affects approximately 1 in 10,000 live female births and is the second most common cause of severe mental retardation in females, after Down syndrome. Currently, there is no cure or effective therapy for RTT. Approved treatment regimens are presently limited to supportive management of specific physical and mental disabilities. In this issue, Krishnan and colleagues reveal that the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is upregulated in patients with RTT and in murine models and provide strong evidence that targeting PTP1B has potential as a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of RTT. PMID:26214520

  18. PTP1B: a new therapeutic target for Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tautz, Lutz

    2015-08-03

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by successive loss of acquired cognitive, social, and motor skills and development of autistic behavior. RTT affects approximately 1 in 10,000 live female births and is the second most common cause of severe mental retardation in females, after Down syndrome. Currently, there is no cure or effective therapy for RTT. Approved treatment regimens are presently limited to supportive management of specific physical and mental disabilities. In this issue, Krishnan and colleagues reveal that the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is upregulated in patients with RTT and in murine models and provide strong evidence that targeting PTP1B has potential as a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of RTT.

  19. Host pollination mode and mutualist pollinator presence: net effect of internally ovipositing parasite in the fig-wasp mutualism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fengping; Peng, Yanqiong; Compton, Stephen G.; Zhao, Yi; Yang, Darong

    2009-04-01

    The Ficus-their specific pollinating fig wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) interaction presents a striking example of mutualism. Figs also shelter numerous non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW) that exploit the fig-pollinator mutualism. Only a few NPFW species can enter figs to oviposit, they do not belong to the pollinating lineage Agaonidae. The internally ovipositing non-agaonid fig wasps can efficiently pollinate the Ficus species that were passively pollinated. However, there is no study to focus on the net effect of these internally ovipositing non-agaonid wasps in actively pollinated Ficus species. By collecting the data of fig wasp community and conducting controlled experiments, our results showed that internally ovipositing Diaziella bizarrea cannot effectively pollinate Ficus glaberrima, an actively pollinated monoecious fig tree. Furthermore, D. bizarrea failed to reproduce if they were introduced into figs without Eupristina sp., the regular pollinator, as all the figs aborted. Furthermore, although D. bizarrea had no effect on seed production in shared figs, it significantly reduced the number of Eupristina sp. progeny emerging from them. Thus, our experimental evidence shows that reproduction in Diaziella depends on the presence of agaonid pollinators, and whether internally ovipositing parasites can act as pollinators depends on the host fig’s pollination mode (active or passive). Overall, this study and others suggest a relatively limited mutualistic role for internally ovipositing fig wasps from non-pollinator (non-Agaonidae) lineages.

  20. Host sex-specific parasites in a functionally dioecious fig: a preference way of adaptation to their hosts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Jiang, Zi-Feng; Wang, Ning-Xin; Niu, Li-Ming; Li, Zi; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Host-parasites interaction is a common phenomenon in nature. Diffusive coevolution might maintain stable cooperation in a fig-fig wasps system, in which the exploiter might diversify their genotype, phenotype, or behavior as a result of competition with pollinator, whereas the figs change flower syconia, fruits thickness, and syconia structure. In functionally dioecious Ficus auriculata, male figs and female figs contain two types of florets on separate plant, and share high similarities in outside morphology. Apocryptophagus (Sycophaginae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera) is one of few groups of nonpollinating fig wasps that can reproduce within both male and female figs. On the basis of the morphology and DNA barcoding, evidence from partial sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2, we found that there are two nonsibling Apocryptophagus species living on male and female F. auriculata figs, respectively. We estimated that these two species diverged about 19.2 million years ago. Our study suggests that the host shift from Ficus variegate or Ficus prostrata fig species to male figs is a preference way for Apocryptophagus wasps to adapt to the separation of sexual function in diecious figs. Furthermore, to escape the disadvantage or sanction impact of the host, the exploiter Apocryptophagus wasps can preferably adapt to exploiting each sex of the figs, by changing their oviposition, niche shift, and habitat.

  1. Lithostratigraphy from downhole logs in Hole AND-1B, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Trevor; Morin, Roger H.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Jackolski, Chris L.; Henrys, Stuart A.; Niessen, Frank; Magens, Diana; Kuhn, Gerhard; Monien, Donata; Powell, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    The ANDRILL (Antarctic Drilling Project) McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) project drilled 1285 m of sediment in Hole AND–1B, representing the past 12 m.y. of glacial history. Downhole geophysical logs were acquired to a depth of 1018 mbsf (meters below seafloor), and are complementary to data acquired from the core. The natural gamma radiation (NGR) and magnetic susceptibility logs are particularly useful for understanding lithological and paleoenvironmental change at ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Hole AND–1B. NGR logs cover the entire interval from the seafloor to 1018 mbsf, and magnetic susceptibility and other logs covered the open hole intervals between 692 and 1018 and 237–342 mbsf. In the upper part of AND–1B, clear alternations between low and high NGR values distinguish between diatomite (lacking minerals containing naturally radioactive K, U, and Th) and diamictite (containing K-bearing clays, K-feldspar, mica, and heavy minerals). In the lower open hole logged section, NGR and magnetic susceptibility can also distinguish claystones (rich in K-bearing clay minerals, relatively low in magnetite) and diamictites (relatively high in magnetite). Sandstones can be distinguished by their high resistivity values in AND–1B. On the basis of these three downhole logs, diamictite, claystones, and sandstones can be predicted correctly for 74% of the 692–1018 mbsf interval. The logs were then used to predict facies for the 6% of this interval that was unrecovered by coring. Given the understanding of the physical property characteristics of different facies, it is also possible to identify subtle changes in lithology from the physical properties and help refine parts of the lithostratigraphy, for example, the varying terrigenous content of diatomites and the transitions from subice diamictite to open-water diatomite.

  2. NICMOS OBSERVATIONS OF THE TRANSITING HOT JUPITER XO-1b

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Christopher J.; McCullough, P. R.; Bergeron, L. E.; Long, Douglas; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Nelan, Edmund P.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Janes, Kenneth A.

    2010-08-20

    We refine the physical parameters of the transiting hot Jupiter planet XO-1b and its stellar host XO-1 using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) NICMOS observations. XO-1b has a radius R{sub p} = 1.21 {+-} 0.03 R{sub J} , and XO-1 has a radius R{sub *} = 0.94 {+-} 0.02 R{sub sun}, where the uncertainty in the mass of XO-1 dominates the uncertainty of R{sub p} and R{sub *}. There are no significant differences in the XO-1 system properties between these broadband NIR observations and previous determinations based upon ground-based optical observations. We measure two transit timings from these observations with 9 s and 15 s precision. As a residual to a linear ephemeris model, there is a 2.0{sigma} timing difference between the two HST visits that are separated by three transit events (11.8 days). These two transit timings and additional timings from the literature are sufficient to rule out the presence of an Earth mass planet orbiting in 2:1 mean motion resonance coplanar with XO-1b. We identify and correct for poorly understood 'gain-like' variations present in NICMOS time series data. This correction reduces the effective noise in time series photometry by a factor of 2 for the case of XO-1.

  3. Zinc ions modulate protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Elisa; Massarotti, Alberto; Hogstrand, Christer; Maret, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key enzymes in cellular regulation. The 107 human PTPs are regulated by redox signalling, phosphorylation, dimerisation, and proteolysis. Recent findings of very strong inhibition of some PTPs by zinc ions at concentrations relevant in a cellular environment suggest yet another mechanism of regulation. One of the most extensively investigated PTPs is PTP1B (PTPN1). It regulates the insulin and leptin signalling pathway and is implicated in cancer and obesity/diabetes. The development of novel assay conditions to investigate zinc inhibition of PTP1B provides estimates of about 5.6 nM affinity for inhibitory zinc(II) ions. Analysis of three PTP1B 3D structures (PDB id: 2CM2, 3I80 and 1A5Y) identified putative zinc binding sites and supports the kinetic studies in suggesting an inhibitory zinc only in the closed and cysteinyl-phosphate intermediate forms of the enzyme. These observations gain significance with regard to recent findings of regulatory roles of zinc ions released from the endoplasmic reticulum.

  4. Expression and Biological Activity of the Cystine Knot Bioinsecticide PA1b (Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b)

    PubMed Central

    Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Rahioui, Isabelle; Sivignon, Catherine; Da Silva, Pedro; Rahbé, Yvan; Royer, Corinne; Gressent, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) peptide is an entomotoxin extract from Legume seeds with lethal activity on several insect pests, such as mosquitoes, some aphids and cereal weevils. This 37 amino-acid cysteine-rich peptide has been, until now, obtained by biochemical purification or chemical synthesis. In this paper, we present our results for the transient production of the peptide in Nicotiana benthamiana by agro-infiltration, with a yield of about 35 µg/g of fresh leaves and maximum production 8 days after infiltration. PA1b is part of the PA1 gene which, after post-translational modifications, encodes two peptides (PA1b and PA1a). We show that transforming tobacco with the PA1b cDNA alone does not result in production of the toxin and, in fact, the entire cDNA is necessary, raising the question of the role of PA1a. We constructed a PA1-cassette, allowing for the quick “cut/paste” of different PA1b mutants within a conserved PA1 cDNA. This cassette enabled us to produce the six isoforms of PA1b which exist in pea seeds. Biological tests revealed that all the isoforms display similar activity, with the exception of one which is inactive. The lack of activity in this isoform led us to conclude that the amphiphilic nature of the peptide is necessary for activity. The possible applications of this expression system for other cysteine-rich biomolecules are discussed. PMID:24349099

  5. Expression and biological activity of the cystine knot bioinsecticide PA1b (Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b).

    PubMed

    Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Rahioui, Isabelle; Sivignon, Catherine; Da Silva, Pedro; Rahbé, Yvan; Royer, Corinne; Gressent, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) peptide is an entomotoxin extract from Legume seeds with lethal activity on several insect pests, such as mosquitoes, some aphids and cereal weevils. This 37 amino-acid cysteine-rich peptide has been, until now, obtained by biochemical purification or chemical synthesis. In this paper, we present our results for the transient production of the peptide in Nicotiana benthamiana by agro-infiltration, with a yield of about 35 µg/g of fresh leaves and maximum production 8 days after infiltration. PA1b is part of the PA1 gene which, after post-translational modifications, encodes two peptides (PA1b and PA1a). We show that transforming tobacco with the PA1b cDNA alone does not result in production of the toxin and, in fact, the entire cDNA is necessary, raising the question of the role of PA1a. We constructed a PA1-cassette, allowing for the quick "cut/paste" of different PA1b mutants within a conserved PA1 cDNA. This cassette enabled us to produce the six isoforms of PA1b which exist in pea seeds. Biological tests revealed that all the isoforms display similar activity, with the exception of one which is inactive. The lack of activity in this isoform led us to conclude that the amphiphilic nature of the peptide is necessary for activity. The possible applications of this expression system for other cysteine-rich biomolecules are discussed.

  6. TCR bias and affinity define two compartments of the CD1b-glycolipid-specific T Cell repertoire.

    PubMed

    Van Rhijn, Ildiko; Gherardin, Nicholas A; Kasmar, Anne; de Jager, Wilco; Pellicci, Daniel G; Kostenko, Lyudmila; Tan, Li Lynn; Bhati, Mugdha; Gras, Stephanie; Godfrey, Dale I; Rossjohn, Jamie; Moody, D Branch

    2014-05-01

    Current views emphasize TCR diversity as a key feature that differentiates the group 1 (CD1a, CD1b, CD1c) and group 2 (CD1d) CD1 systems. Whereas TCR sequence motifs define CD1d-reactive NKT cells, the available data do not allow a TCR-based organization of the group 1 CD1 repertoire. The observed TCR diversity might result from donor-to-donor differences in TCR repertoire, as seen for MHC-restricted T cells. Alternatively, diversity might result from differing CD1 isoforms, Ags, and methods used to identify TCRs. Using CD1b tetramers to isolate clones recognizing the same glycolipid, we identified a previously unknown pattern of V gene usage (TRAV17, TRBV4-1) among unrelated human subjects. These TCRs are distinct from those present on NKT cells and germline-encoded mycolyl lipid-reactive T cells. Instead, they resemble the TCR of LDN5, one of the first known CD1b-reactive clones that was previously thought to illustrate the diversity of the TCR repertoire. Interdonor TCR conservation was observed in vitro and ex vivo, identifying LDN5-like T cells as a distinct T cell type. These data support TCR-based organization of the CD1b repertoire, which consists of at least two compartments that differ in TCR sequence motifs, affinity, and coreceptor expression.

  7. 7 CFR 1c.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... research. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under Control Number 0990-0260.) ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IRB review of research. 1c.109 Section 1c.109... research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to...

  8. 7 CFR 1c.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IRB review of research. 1c.109 Section 1c.109... research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove all research activities covered by this policy. (b) An IRB shall require...

  9. 7 CFR 1c.109 - IRB review of research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false IRB review of research. 1c.109 Section 1c.109... research. (a) An IRB shall review and have authority to approve, require modifications in (to secure approval), or disapprove all research activities covered by this policy. (b) An IRB shall require...

  10. Host sex-specific parasites in a functionally dioecious fig: a preference way of adaptation to their hosts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Jiang, Zi-Feng; Wang, Ning-xin; Niu, Li-ming; Li, Zi; Huang, Da-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Host–parasites interaction is a common phenomenon in nature. Diffusive coevolution might maintain stable cooperation in a fig–fig wasps system, in which the exploiter might diversify their genotype, phenotype, or behavior as a result of competition with pollinator, whereas the figs change flower syconia, fruits thickness, and syconia structure. In functionally dioecious Ficus auriculata, male figs and female figs contain two types of florets on separate plant, and share high similarities in outside morphology. Apocryptophagus (Sycophaginae, Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera) is one of few groups of nonpollinating fig wasps that can reproduce within both male and female figs. On the basis of the morphology and DNA barcoding, evidence from partial sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2, we found that there are two nonsibling Apocryptophagus species living on male and female F. auriculata figs, respectively. We estimated that these two species diverged about 19.2 million years ago. Our study suggests that the host shift from Ficus variegate or Ficus prostrata fig species to male figs is a preference way for Apocryptophagus wasps to adapt to the separation of sexual function in diecious figs. Furthermore, to escape the disadvantage or sanction impact of the host, the exploiter Apocryptophagus wasps can preferably adapt to exploiting each sex of the figs, by changing their oviposition, niche shift, and habitat. PMID:24101987

  11. Refinement of the spinal muscular atrophy locus to the interval between D5S435 and MAP1B

    SciTech Connect

    Soares, V.M.; Brzustowicz, L.M.; Kleyn, P.W.; Knowles, J.A.; Palmer, D.A.; Asokan, S.; Penchaszadeh, G.K.; Gilliam, T.C. ); Munsat, T.L. )

    1993-02-01

    The childhood-onset SMA locus has been mapped to chromosome 5q13, in a region bounded by the proximal locus, D5S6, and the closely linked distal loci, D5S112 and MAP1B. We now describe a highly polymorphic, tightly linked microsatellite marker (D5S435) that is very likely the closet proximal marker to the SMA locus. Multipoint linkage analysis firmly establishes the following order of markers at 5q13; centromere-D5S76-D5S6-D5S435-MAP1B/D5S112-D5S39-telomere. The data indicate that SMA resides in an approximately 0.7-cM (range 01.-2.1) region between D5S435 and MAP1B. This finding reduces by approximately fourfold the genetic region that most likely harbors the SMA locus and will facilitate the physical mapping and cloning of the disease gene region. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Cytochrome P1B1 (CYP1B1) polymorphisms and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 52 studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiping; Long, Bingshuang; Qin, Xianjing; Li, Weixiong; Zhou, Yang

    2015-01-02

    CYP1B1 plays a critical role in the oxidative metabolism of a variety of exogenous compounds, including carcinogenic compounds, which may be activated during metabolism. There are only a few studies that have examined the association between the two polymorphisms and cancer, and that these studies have been inconclusive. Hence, the aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between polymorphisms in CYP1B1 G119T and A453G and cancer risk. We performed a detailed search using the PubMed and EMBASE libraries to obtain all relevant published reports on the relationship between the G119T and A453G polymorphisms in CYP1B1 and cancer risk. Combined odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by Stata version 11.2. We conducted stratified analyses based on cancer types, ethnicity, source of controls, and quality assessments. We also made assessments of heterogeneity tests, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias. There were a total of 25 articles with 15,376 cases and 18,382 controls concerning CYP1B1 G119T and 40 articles with 27,983 cases and 35,839 controls concerning A453G polymorphisms. Regarding G119T, the combined results indicate that the variant genotypes were significantly associated with a slightly increased cancer risk in comparison to the homozygote (TT versus GG: p=0.006, OR=1.231, 95% CI: 1.061-1.428), especially for breast cancer and prostate cancer. Moreover, significantly increased associations with cancer risk were demonstrated in Asians in all genetic models. The combined results indicated no association of A453G with cancer risk; however, an association was observed specifically for prostate cancer. This meta-analysis suggests that the CYP1B1 G119T polymorphism may confer to genetic susceptibility to cancer in Asians, especially to breast cancer and prostate cancer. The A453G polymorphism was found to modify the risk of prostate cancer.

  13. Cytochrome P1B1 (CYP1B1) polymorphisms and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gajjar, Ketan; Owens, Gemma; Sperrin, Matthew; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Martin, Francis L

    2012-12-16

    CYP1B1 is a key P450 enzyme involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous substrates and plays a key role in hormone-induced carcinogenesis. Risk factors for ovarian cancer are related to hormonal exposure and reproduction, and polymorphisms within genes involved in metabolism of oestrogen and certain xenobiotics may influence the risk of developing ovarian cancer. Current meta-analysis evaluated four CYP1B1 polymorphisms (Leu432Val, Arg48Gly, Ala119Ser and Asn453Ser) for their association with ovarian cancer risk. A search of the MEDLINE bibliographic database for the period up to April 2012 identified five relevant studies. With regards to Leu432Val polymorphism, all of the five studies were eligible (1199 cases and 2596 controls) for analysis, while for Arg48Gly (799 cases and 1169 controls), Ala119Ser (799 cases and 1172 controls) and Asn453Ser (361cases and 1577 controls) only two studies were eligible for analysis. Fixed-effect models were used to estimate pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and chi-square based Q-test was used to test for heterogeneity. The pooled OR (95% CI) for CYP1B1_Leu432Val polymorphism were 1.1 (0.84-1.31) for heterozygous subjects and 0.82 (0.57-1.17) for homozygous Val subjects. In a recessive model, homozygous carriers of Leu432Val showed a weak trend towards reduced risk as compared to 'wild type' and heterozygous carriers (OR 0.8, 95% CI; 0.66-0.99); however, this association was of limited significance. Regarding Arg48Gly, the pooled OR (95% CI) were 1.06 (0.89-1.27) for heterozygous and 0.98 (1.72-1.33) for homozygous Gly subjects. With respect to Ala119Ser and Asn453Ser, the pooled OR were 1.06 (0.87-1.29) and 1.24 (0.94-1.63) for heterozygous and 1.1 (0.8-1.52) and 1.09 (0.5-2.34) for homozygous respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that CYP1B1 polymorphisms are not associated with ovarian cancer risk. Studies evaluating CYP1B1_Leu432Val polymorphism are required to

  14. Suppressors of cancer cell proliferation from fig (Ficus carica) resin: isolation and structure elucidation.

    PubMed

    Rubnov, S; Kashman, Y; Rabinowitz, R; Schlesinger, M; Mechoulam, R

    2001-07-01

    A mixture of 6-O-acyl-beta-D-glucosyl-beta-sitosterols, the acyl moeity being primarily palmitoyl and linoleyl with minor amounts of stearyl and oleyl, has been isolated as a potent cytotoxic agent from fig (Ficuscarica) latex and soybeans. Identity was established by spectroscopic methods (NMR, MS) and confirmed by chemical synthesis. Both the natural and the synthetic compounds showed in vitro inhibitory effects on proliferation of various cancer cell lines.

  15. Surveillance study of hepatitis A virus RNA on fig and date samples.

    PubMed

    Boxman, Ingeborg L A; te Loeke, Nathalie A J M; Klunder, Kyara; Hägele, Geke; Jansen, Claudia C C

    2012-02-01

    A total of 91 fig and 185 date samples were analyzed by reverse transcription (RT) real-time PCR for the presence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) RNA. Two batches of dates tested positive, and the HAV RNA detected was genotyped as IA. These findings warrant further development of methods applicable to food which is consumed untreated and is exported from countries in which HAV is endemic.

  16. P27/CDKN1B Translational Regulators in Pituitary Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Martins, C S; Camargo, R C; Saggioro, F P; Neder, L; Machado, H R; Moreira, A C; de Castro, M

    2016-12-01

    In pituitary tumors, P27(CDKN1B) is underexpressed. We aimed to clarify whether translational regulation underlies this phenomenon. This study evaluated the expression of P27/CDKN1B, its targets (CCNE1, CDK2) and translational regulators (DKC1, RPS13, miR221, miR222) and screened for DKC1 variants in sporadic pituitary adenomas. Samples were obtained during transsphenoidal surgery from 48 patients with pituitary adenomas: 10 ACTH-, 17 GH-secreting, and 21 nonfunctioning (NFPA). The control group comprised 7 normal pituitaries (NP) obtained during autopsies. Gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. The 15 exons of DKC1 were sequenced. P27 protein underexpression was observed in all adenomas subtypes (p=0.001). CCNE1 mRNA (p=0.01) overexpression, but not protein, was observed in NFPA. No differential gene expression among groups was observed in CDKN1B regulators RPS13 (p=0.23) and DKC1 (p=0.34). The expression of miR221 and miR222 was similar among tumors and NP. Frequent DKC1 variants (SNPs) were found in exon 14 and in the 3'-UTR in similar frequency to NCBI-dsSNP databases. We also observed rare DKC1 variants in 11% of the studied tumor samples, indicating a high prevalence in pituitary adenomas, however, in silico studies failed to indicate deleterious effects. The high frequency of DKC1 variants may influence, in some extent, pituitary tumors development, without clear role in its tumorigenesis. Our data reinforce the P27 underexpression in pituitary adenomas and provide further evidence of the post-translational machinery involvement, although this phenomenon cannot be explained either by mis-expression of P27 translational regulators - DKC1, RPS13, miR221, miR222 - or directly by DKC1 mutations.

  17. Hemoglobin A1c and Self-Monitored Average Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Kovatchev, Boris P.; Breton, Marc D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previously we have introduced the eA1c—a new approach to real-time tracking of average glycemia and estimation of HbA1c from infrequent self-monitoring (SMBG) data, which was developed and tested in type 2 diabetes. We now test eA1c in type 1 diabetes and assess its relationship to the hemoglobin glycation index (HGI)—an established predictor of complications and treatment effect. Methods: Reanalysis of previously published 12-month data from 120 patients with type 1 diabetes, age 39.15 (14.35) years, 51/69 males/females, baseline HbA1c = 7.99% (1.48), duration of diabetes 20.28 (12.92) years, number SMBG/day = 4.69 (1.84). Surrogate fasting BG and 7-point daily profiles were derived from these unstructured SMBG data and the previously reported eA1c method was applied without any changes. Following the literature, we calculated HGI = HbA1c – (0.009 × Fasting BG + 6.8). Results: The correlation of eA1c with reference HbA1c was r = .75, and its deviation from reference was MARD = 7.98%; 95% of all eA1c values fell within ±20% from reference. The HGI was well approximated by a linear combination of the eA1c calibration factors: HGI = 0.007552*θ1 + 0.007645*θ2 – 3.154 (P < .0001); 73% of low versus moderate-high HGIs were correctly classified by the same factors as well. Conclusions: The eA1c procedure developed in type 2 diabetes to track in real-time changes in average glycemia and present the results in HbA1c-equivalent units has shown similar performance in type 1 diabetes. The eA1c calibration factors are highly predictive of the HGI, thereby explaining partially the biological variation causing discrepancies between HbA1c and its linear estimates from SMBG data. PMID:26553023

  18. Five Cases of Phytophotodermatitis Caused by Fig Leaves and Relevant Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Son, Jin-Hwa; Jin, Hyunju; You, Hyang-Suk; Shim, Woo-Haing; Kim, Jeong-Min; Kim, Gun-Wook; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum

    2017-01-01

    Phytophotodermatitis is a condition caused by sequential exposure to photosensitizing substances present in plants followed by ultraviolet light. Several plants (e.g., limes, celery, fig, and wild parsnip) contain furocoumarin compounds (psoralens). It is important for dermatologists to be aware of phytophotodermatitis because it may be misdiagnosed as cellulitis, tinea, or allergic contact dermatitis. We present five patients with a sharply defined erythematous swollen patch with bullae on both feet. They described soaking their feet in a fig leaves decoction to treat their underlying dermatologic diseases. Within 24 hours, all patients had a burning sensation in their feet, and erythema and edema had developed on the feet dorsa with exception of the portion of the skin covered by the sandals. Histopathologic examinations revealed sub-epithelial blisters with intensive epidermal necrosis. Phytophotodermatitis was ultimately diagnosed and, after several days, the patients' skin lesions began to recover upon treatment with systemic and topical corticosteroids. Unfortunately, since there are no studies providing sufficient evidence on the benefits of fig leaves, they should be used with caution. PMID:28223753

  19. Conflict of interest in a mutualism: documenting the elusive fig wasp-seed trade-off

    PubMed Central

    Herre, E. A.; West, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    The generally accepted view that mutualisms represent reciprocal exploitations implies a greater or lesser degree of inherent tension between the partners. This view emphasizes the importance of identifying conflicts of interest between the partners, and then attempting to quantify the effects of factors that influence costs and benefits to each. The natural history of the speciose fig-fig wasp pollination mutualisms permits such measurements. However, previous attempts to document the presumed tensions, which are expected to result in a negative relationship between the production of viable seeds and pollinator wasp offspring, have met with mixed results, casting doubt on the existence of the conflict. Here, we present hierarchical analyses of 929 fruits sampled from 30 crops representing nine species of monoecious New World figs. These analyses control for the confounding influences of variation in (1) pollination intensity (numbers of foundress pollinators); (2) flower number per fruit; and (3) the proportion of those flowers that develop, on seed and wasp production, both among and within crops. We thereby show that a negative relationship between the production of viable seeds and wasps is, in fact, ubiquitous, thus documenting this underlying tension inherent in the mutualism. We suggest that complex interactions of variables that influence costs and benefits are likely to be a general property of most mutualistic systems.

  20. New insights into the phylogeny of fig pollinators using Bayesian analyses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zi-Feng; Huang, Da-Wei; Zhu, Chao-Dong; Zhen, Wen-Quan

    2006-02-01

    The interaction between figs and fig pollinators is one of the most species-specific mutualisms. Recently, phylogenies of both partners based on molecular data provided insights into a wide spectrum of co-evolutionary questions. However, for the phylogeny of fig pollinators, there are some discrepancies between different studies and left some relationships unresolved, especially for deep nodes. The phylogenetic uncertainties of pollinators prohibit our further understanding of the history of the mutualism. Here, we present phylogenetic analyses of a larger COI sequence dataset that includes previously published datasets and our sequences from 20 species using Bayesian method and maximum parsimony. The analyses using different methods share similar topologies. Bayesian analyses provide high level of confidence for most internal nodes in terms of posterior probability. This study also clarifies some discrepancies between previous studies. After rooting with Tetrapus, other pollinators split into two clades. Wiebesia and Blastophaga are at basal positions in respective clade. Ceratosolen is not monophyletic because Kradibia and Liporrhopalum fall inside this group. Three subgenera of Ceratosolen: subgen. Ceratosolen, subgen. Rothropus, and subgen. Strepitus are not supported. Therefore, Ceratosolen is suggested to be re-divided into three groups. Urostigma pollinators (including Dolichoris and Blastophaga psenes) are clustered together. The monophylies of Wiebesia, Blastophaga, Dolichoris are not supported in this analysis. This study also provides a new framework for re-evaluating character evolution and re-inspecting the definition of some genera.

  1. FigSum: automatically generating structured text summaries for figures in biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shashank; Yu, Hong

    2009-11-14

    Figures are frequently used in biomedical articles to support research findings; however, they are often difficult to comprehend based on their legends alone and information from the full-text articles is required to fully understand them. Previously, we found that the information associated with a single figure is distributed throughout the full-text article the figure appears in. Here, we develop and evaluate a figure summarization system - FigSum, which aggregates this scattered information to improve figure comprehension. For each figure in an article, FigSum generates a structured text summary comprising one sentence from each of the four rhetorical categories - Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion (IMRaD). The IMRaD category of sentences is predicted by an automated machine learning classifier. Our evaluation shows that FigSum captures 53% of the sentences in the gold standard summaries annotated by biomedical scientists and achieves an average ROUGE-1 score of 0.70, which is higher than a baseline system.

  2. Wind-borne insects mediate directional pollen transfer between desert fig trees 160 kilometers apart

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sophia; Compton, Stephen G.; Butlin, Roger K.; Gilmartin, Philip M.

    2009-01-01

    The question of how far pollen can move between plants has implications for topics as diverse as habitat fragmentation, conservation management, and the containment of genetically modified crops. The monoecious African fig tree Ficus sycomorus L. relies on the small, short-lived, night-flying, host-specific fig wasp Ceratosolen arabicus Mayr for pollination. We used microsatellite markers to characterize a geographically isolated riparian population of F. sycomorus growing along the Ugab River in the Namib Desert, Namibia, together with paternity analysis of seedlings from known mothers, to map pollen movement within this population. In this way we tracked insect movements between individually recognizable trees by means of their pollen cargo and documented the movement of C. arabicus between known trees separated by more than 160 km, with a mean distance for confirmed successful pollination events of 88.6 km. The predominant observed movement of pollinators was in a westerly direction, toward the sea, reflecting seasonal nighttime wind direction and the wind-borne dispersal of fig wasps. Our results suggest the existence of an extensive panmictic population of trees that are well suited to overcome the effects of geographical isolation. PMID:19910534

  3. Pollinating fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi adjusts the offspring sex ratio to other foundresses.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao-Yuan; Chen, Zhong-Zheng; Jiang, Zi-Feng; Huang, Da-Wei; Niu, Li-Ming; Fu, Yue-Guan

    2013-04-01

    Local mate competition theory predicts that offspring sex ratio in pollinating fig wasps is female-biased when there is only one foundress, and increased foundress density results in increased offspring sex ratio. Information of other foundresses and clutch size have been suggested to be the main proximate explanations for sex ratio adjustment under local mate competition. Our focus was to show the mechanism of sex ratio adjustment in a pollinating fig wasp, Ceratosolen solmsi Mayr, an obligate pollinator of the functionally dioecious fig, Ficus hispida Linn., with controlled experiments in the field. First, we obtained offspring from one pollinator and offspring at different oviposition sequences, and found that offspring sex ratio decreased with clutch size, and pollinators produced most of their male offspring at the start of bouts, followed by mostly females. Second, we found that offspring sex ratio increased with foundress density, and pollinators did adjust their offspring sex ratio to other females in the oviposition patches. We suggest that when oviposition sites are not limited, pollinators will mainly adjust their offspring sex ratio to other foundresses independent of clutch size changes, whereas adjusting clutch size may be used to adjust sex ratio when oviposition sites are limited.

  4. Characterization of fig achenes' oil of Ficus carica grown in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Soltana, Hala; Tekaya, Meriem; Amri, Zahra; El-Gharbi, Sinda; Nakbi, Amel; Harzallah, Arij; Mechri, Beligh; Hammami, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    This work investigated the composition of the oil extract from achenes of "Kholi" variety of Ficus carica, grown in Tunisia. Fatty acid and sterol compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to flame ionization detector (FID). Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity in fig achenes' oil was assessed by employing two different in vitro assays such as DPPH, ABTS(+) radical scavenging capacities. Our results indicated that the fig achenes' oil is a rich source of bioactive molecules. The soxhlet n-hexane extraction of these achenes produced a total oil yield of 16.24%. The predominant fatty acid was linolenic acid. Concerning phytosterols, the total amount reached 1061.45 mg/100 g with a predominance of Δ(5,23)-stigmastadienol (73.78%). Regarding antioxidant activities, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 215.86 μg/ml and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was 95.25 mM. These data indicate that fig achenes oil of F. carica could be potentially useful in food and pharmaceutical applications.

  5. Five Cases of Phytophotodermatitis Caused by Fig Leaves and Relevant Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Son, Jin-Hwa; Jin, Hyunju; You, Hyang-Suk; Shim, Woo-Haing; Kim, Jeong-Min; Kim, Gun-Wook; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2017-02-01

    Phytophotodermatitis is a condition caused by sequential exposure to photosensitizing substances present in plants followed by ultraviolet light. Several plants (e.g., limes, celery, fig, and wild parsnip) contain furocoumarin compounds (psoralens). It is important for dermatologists to be aware of phytophotodermatitis because it may be misdiagnosed as cellulitis, tinea, or allergic contact dermatitis. We present five patients with a sharply defined erythematous swollen patch with bullae on both feet. They described soaking their feet in a fig leaves decoction to treat their underlying dermatologic diseases. Within 24 hours, all patients had a burning sensation in their feet, and erythema and edema had developed on the feet dorsa with exception of the portion of the skin covered by the sandals. Histopathologic examinations revealed sub-epithelial blisters with intensive epidermal necrosis. Phytophotodermatitis was ultimately diagnosed and, after several days, the patients' skin lesions began to recover upon treatment with systemic and topical corticosteroids. Unfortunately, since there are no studies providing sufficient evidence on the benefits of fig leaves, they should be used with caution.

  6. Wind-borne insects mediate directional pollen transfer between desert fig trees 160 kilometers apart.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sophia; Compton, Stephen G; Butlin, Roger K; Gilmartin, Philip M

    2009-12-01

    The question of how far pollen can move between plants has implications for topics as diverse as habitat fragmentation, conservation management, and the containment of genetically modified crops. The monoecious African fig tree Ficus sycomorus L. relies on the small, short-lived, night-flying, host-specific fig wasp Ceratosolen arabicus Mayr for pollination. We used microsatellite markers to characterize a geographically isolated riparian population of F. sycomorus growing along the Ugab River in the Namib Desert, Namibia, together with paternity analysis of seedlings from known mothers, to map pollen movement within this population. In this way we tracked insect movements between individually recognizable trees by means of their pollen cargo and documented the movement of C. arabicus between known trees separated by more than 160 km, with a mean distance for confirmed successful pollination events of 88.6 km. The predominant observed movement of pollinators was in a westerly direction, toward the sea, reflecting seasonal nighttime wind direction and the wind-borne dispersal of fig wasps. Our results suggest the existence of an extensive panmictic population of trees that are well suited to overcome the effects of geographical isolation.

  7. Wind tunnel study of wake downwash behind A 6% scale model B1-B aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, J.H.; Tadios, E.L.; Powers, D.A.

    1990-05-01

    Parachute system performance issues such a turnover and wake recontact may be strongly influenced by velocities induced by the wake of the delivering aircraft, especially if the aircraft is maneuvering at the time of parachute deployment. The effect of the aircraft on the parachute system is a function of the aircraft size, weight, and flight path. In order to provide experimental data for validation of a computer code to predict aircraft wake velocities, a test was conducted in the NASA 14 {times} 22 ft wind tunnel using a 5.78% model of the B-1B strategic bomber. The model was strut mounted through the top of its fuselage by a mechanism which was capable of pitching the model at moderate rates. In this series of tests, the aircraft was pitched at 10{degree}/sec from a cruise angle of attack of 5.3{degree} to an angle of attack of 11{degree} in order to simulate a 2.2g pullup. Data were also taken for the subsequent pitch down sequence back to the cruise angle of attack. Instantaneous streamwise and vertical velocities were measured in the wake at a number of points using a hot wire anemometer. These data have been reduced to the form of downwash coefficients which are a function of the aircraft angle of attack time-history. Unsteady effects are accounted for by use of a wake convection lag-time correlation. 12 refs., 59 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Organic Anion–Transporting Polypeptide 1b2 (Oatp1b2) Is Important for the Hepatic Uptake of Unconjugated Bile Acids: Studies in Oatp1b2-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Csanaky, Iván L.; Lu, Hong; Zhang, Youcai; Ogura, Kenichiro; Choudhuri, Supratim; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2011-01-01

    The organic anion–transporting polypeptide 1b family (Oatp1b2 in rodents and OATP1B1/1B3 in humans) is liver-specific and transports various chemicals into the liver. However, the role of the Oatp1b family in the hepatic uptake of bile acids (BAs) into the liver is unknown. Therefore, in Oatp1b2-null mice, the concentrations of BAs in plasma, liver, and bile were compared with wild-type (WT) mice. It was first determined that livers of the Oatp1b2-null mice were not compensated by altered expression of other hepatic transporters. However, the messenger RNA of Cyp7a1 was 70% lower in the Oatp1b2-null mice. Increased expression of fibroblast growth factor 15 in intestines of Oatp1b2-null mice might be responsible for decreased hepatic expression of Cyp7a1 in Oatp1b2-null mice. The hepatic concentration and biliary excretion of conjugated and unconjugated BAs were essentially the same in Oatp1b2-null and WT mice. The serum concentration of taurine-conjugated BAs was essentially the same in the two genotypes. In contrast, the serum concentrations of unconjugated BAs were 3–45 times higher in Oatp1b2-null than WT mice. After intravenous administration of cholate to Oatp1b2-null mice, its clearance was 50% lower than in WT mice, but the clearance of taurocholate was similar in the two genotypes. Conclusion This study indicates that Oatp1b2 has a major role in the hepatic uptake of unconjugated BAs. PMID:20949553

  9. Premature Attraction of Pollinators to Inaccessible Figs of Ficus altissima: A Search for Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Compton, Stephen G.; Yang, Da-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Adult life spans of only one or two days characterise life cycles of the fig wasps (Agaonidae) that pollinate fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae). Selection is expected to favour traits that maximise the value of the timing of encounters between such mutualistic partners, and fig wasps are usually only attracted to their hosts by species- and developmental-stage specific volatiles released from figs at the time when they are ready to be entered, oviposited in and pollinated. We found that Ficus altissima is exceptional, because it has persistent tight-fitting bud covers that prevent its Eupristina altissima pollinator (and a second species of ‘cheater’ agaonid) from entering its figs for several days after they start to be attracted. We examined the consequences of delayed entry for the figs and fig wasps and tested whether delayed entry has been selected to increase adult longevity. We found that older pollinators produced fewer and smaller offspring, but seed production was more efficient. Pollinator offspring ratios also varied depending on the age of figs they entered. The two agaonids from F. altissima lived slightly longer than six congeners associated with typical figs, but this was explainable by their larger body sizes. Delayed entry generates reproductive costs, especially for the pollinator. This opens an interesting perspective on the coevolution of figs and their pollinators and on the nature of mutualistic interactions in general. PMID:24466217

  10. Berberine inhibits PTP1B activity and mimics insulin action.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunhua; Zhang, Yuebo; Huang, Cheng

    2010-07-02

    Type 2 diabetes patients show defects in insulin signal transduction that include lack of insulin receptor, decrease in insulin stimulated receptor tyrosine kinase activity and receptor-mediated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRSs). A small molecule that could target insulin signaling would be of significant advantage in the treatment of diabetes. Berberine (BBR) has recently been shown to lower blood glucose levels and to improve insulin resistance in db/db mice partly through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and induction of phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR). However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here we report that BBR mimics insulin action by increasing glucose uptake ability by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes in an insulin-independent manner, inhibiting phosphatase activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), and increasing phosphorylation of IR, IRS1 and Akt in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In diabetic mice, BBR lowers hyperglycemia and improves impaired glucose tolerance, but does not increase insulin release and synthesis. The results suggest that BBR represents a different class of anti-hyperglycemic agents.

  11. RELATIVE PHOTOMETRY OF HAT-P-1b OCCULTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Beky, Bence; Holman, Matthew J.; Noyes, Robert W.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Bakos, Gaspar A.; Winn, Joshua N.

    2013-06-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations of two occultations of the transiting exoplanet HAT-P-1b. By measuring the planet to star flux ratio near opposition, we constrain the geometric albedo of the planet, which is strongly linked to its atmospheric temperature gradient. An advantage of HAT-P-1 as a target is its binary companion ADS 16402 A, which provides an excellent photometric reference, simplifying the usual steps in removing instrumental artifacts from HST time-series photometry. We find that without this reference star, we would need to detrend the lightcurve with the time of the exposures as well as the first three powers of HST orbital phase, and this would introduce a strong bias in the results for the albedo. However, with this reference star, we only need to detrend the data with the time of the exposures to achieve the same per-point scatter, therefore we can avoid most of the bias associated with detrending. Our final result is a 2{sigma} upper limit of 0.64 for the geometric albedo of HAT-P-1b between 577 and 947 nm.

  12. Down-regulated expression of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Long-Yi; Zhou, Dong-Xun; Lu, Jin; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Zou, Da-Jin

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTP1B protein showed decreased expression in 67.79% of the HCC patients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PTP1B expression predicts poor prognosis of HCC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PTP1B expression is correlated with expansion of OV6{sup +} tumor-initiating cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Down-regulation of PTP1B is associated with activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling. -- Abstract: The protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a classical non-transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a key role in metabolic signaling and can exert both tumor suppressing and tumor promoting effects in different cancers depending on the substrate involved and the cellular context. However, the expression level and function of PTP1B in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, PTP1B expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in normal liver tissue (n = 16) and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 169). The correlations between PTP1B expression level and clinicopathologic features and patient survival were also analyzed. One hundred and eleven of 169 HCC patients (65.7%) had negative or low PTP1B expression in tumorous tissues, whereas normal tissues always expressed strong PTP1B. Decreased PTP1B expression was significantly associated with aggressive clinicopathologic features and poor prognosis. Immunohistochemistry also showed that low PTP1B expression level was correlated with high percentage of OV6{sup +} tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) and high frequency of nuclear {beta}-Catenin expression in HCC specimens. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the loss of inhibitory effect of PTP1B may contribute to progression and invasion of HCC through activation of Wnt/{beta}-Catenin signaling and expansion of liver T-ICs. PTP1B may serve as a valuable prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in HCC.

  13. Insertion of the beta Geo promoter trap into the Fem1c gene of ROSA3 mice.

    PubMed

    Schlamp, Cassandra L; Thliveris, Andrew T; Li, Yan; Kohl, Louis P; Knop, Claudia; Dietz, Joel A; Larsen, Inna V; Imesch, Pascal; Pinto, Lawrence H; Nickells, Robert W

    2004-05-01

    ROSA3 mice were developed by retroviral insertion of the beta Geo gene trap vector. Adult ROSA3 mice exhibit widespread expression of the trap gene in epithelial cells found in most organs. In the central nervous system the highest expression of beta Geo is found in CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, and ganglion cells of the retina. Characterization of the genomic insertion site for beta Geo in ROSA3 mice shows that the trap vector is located in the first intron of Fem1c, a gene homologous to the sex-determining gene fem-1 of Caenorhabditis elegans. Transcription of the Rosa3 allele (R3) yields a spliced message that includes the first exon of Fem1c and the beta Geo coding region. Although normal processing of the Fem1c transcript is disrupted in homozygous Rosa3 (Fem1c(R3/R3)) mice, some tissues show low levels of a partially processed transcript containing exons 2 and 3. Since the entire coding region of Fem1c is located in these two exons, Fem1c(R3/R3) mice may still be able to express a putative FEM1C protein. To this extent, Fem1c(R3/R3) mice show no adverse effects in their sexual development or fertility or in the attenuation of neuronal cell death, another function that has been attributed to both fem-1 and a second mouse homolog, Fem1b. Examination of beta Geo expression in ganglion cells after exposure to damaging stimuli indicates that protein levels are rapidly depleted prior to cell death, making the beta Geo reporter gene a potentially useful marker to study early molecular events in damaged neurons.

  14. The Response of Marine Biota to OAE 1b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrle, J. O.

    2006-12-01

    The latest Aptian to earliest Albian is characterized by the first appearance of a distinctly modern phytoplankton community accompanied by a cold episode during a generally extreme greenhouse climate. Massive burial of organic matter caused the formation of the black shale `Niveaus' Jacob, Kilian, Paquier and Leenhardt in the Vocontian Basin (SE France). This interval is reported as the Oceanic Anoxic Event 1b (OAE1b) following the definition of Leckie et al. (2002). Lasting about four million years, OAE1b facilitates analysis of rapid climate change in a greenhouse world, and crucial for understanding climate change. During latest Aptian angiosperms and diatoms became abundant in the terrestrial and marine environments (Gersonde & Haywood 1990; Heimhofer et al. 2005). Planktic foraminifera experienced their greatest turnover rates since their first appearance, accompanied by a decrease in test size and changes of the ultrastructures of their shells (Leckie et al. 2002). Calcareous nannoplankton show a major change characterized by the influx of the boreal cool water indicator Repagulum parvidentatum into the Tethyan Realm (Herrle & Mutterlose 2003). Moreover, ammonite faunas became more cosmopolitan at the expense of Tethyan taxa during this period. Both the influx of boreal nannoplankton taxa and the trend to more cosmopolitian ammonite assemblages in the Tethyan Realm was probably favored by a long-term sea level rise accompanied by a global cooling during the late Aptian to early Albian interval. Most dramatic changes of the marine carbonate system are reflected by the stepwise decrease of nannoconids and carbonate platform drowning accompanied by a positive carbon isotope excursion which is similar to the biocalcification crisis associated with the early Aptian OAE1a (Erba 1994, Weissert et al., 1998). The massive change in the global carbon cycle is probably linked to a major change in global marine productivity from a calcareous system (nannoconids

  15. A new topology of the human Y chromosome haplogroup E1b1 (E-P2) revealed through the use of newly characterized binary polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Trombetta, Beniamino; Cruciani, Fulvio; Sellitto, Daniele; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2011-01-06

    Haplogroup E1b1, defined by the marker P2, is the most represented human Y chromosome haplogroup in Africa. A phylogenetic tree showing the internal structure of this haplogroup was published in 2008. A high degree of internal diversity characterizes this haplogroup, as well as the presence of a set of chromosomes undefined on the basis of a derived character. Here we make an effort to update the phylogeny of this highly diverse haplogroup by including seven mutations which have been newly discovered by direct resequencing. We also try to incorporate five previously-described markers which were not, however, reported in the 2008 tree. Additionally, during the process of mapping, we found that two previously reported SNPs required a new position on the tree. There are three key changes compared to the 2008 phylogeny. Firstly, haplogroup E-M2 (former E1b1a) and haplogroup E-M329 (former E1b1c) are now united by the mutations V38 and V100, reducing the number of E1b1 basal branches to two. The new topology of the tree has important implications concerning the origin of haplogroup E1b1. Secondly, within E1b1b1 (E-M35), two haplogroups (E-V68 and E-V257) show similar phylogenetic and geographic structure, pointing to a genetic bridge between southern European and northern African Y chromosomes. Thirdly, most of the E1b1b1* (E-M35*) paragroup chromosomes are now marked by defining mutations, thus increasing the discriminative power of the haplogroup for use in human evolution and forensics.

  16. Insufficient Sensitivity of Hemoglobin A1C (A1C) Determination in Diagnosis or Screening of Early Diabetic States

    PubMed Central

    Fajans, Stefan S.; Herman, William H.; Oral, Elif A.

    2010-01-01

    An International Expert Committee made recommendations for using the hemoglobin A1C (A1C) assay as the preferred method for diagnosis of diabetes in nonpregnant individuals. A concentration of ≥ 6.5% was considered as diagnostic. It is the aim of this study to compare the sensitivity of A1C with that of plasma glucose concentrations in subjects with early diabetes or IGT. We chose two groups of subjects who had A1C of ≤ 6.4%. The first group of 89 subjects had family histories of diabetes (MODY or T2DM) and had OGTT and A1C determinations. They included 36 subjects with diabetes or IGT and 53 with normal OGTT. The second group of 58 subjects was screened for diabetes in our Diabetes Clinic by FPG or 2HPG or OGTT and A1C and similar comparisons were made. Subjects with diabetes or IGT, including those with fasting hyperglycemia, had A1C ranging from 5.0 – 6.4%, mean 5.8%. The subjects with normal OGTT had A1C of 4.2 – 6.3%, mean 5.4% or 5.5% for the two groups. A1C may be in the normal range in subjects with diabetes or IGT, including those with fasting hyperglycemia. Approximately one third of subjects with early diabetes and IGT have A1C <5.7%, the cut-point that ADA recommends as indicating the onset of risk of developing diabetes in the future. The results of our study are similar to those obtained by a large Dutch epidemiological study. If our aim is to recognize early diabetic states to apply effective prophylactic procedures to prevent or delay progression to more severe diabetes, A1C is not sufficiently sensitive or reliable for diagnosis of diabetes or IGT. A combination of A1C and plasma glucose determinations, where necessary, are recommended for diagnosis or screening of diabetes or IGT. PMID:20723948

  17. 77 FR 53912 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; H-1B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ...; H-1B Technical Skills Training Grants and H-1B Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge Grants... Administration (ETA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) proposal titled, ``H-1B Technical Skills Training Grants and H-1B Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge Grants,'' to the Office of...

  18. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  19. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Dddd of... - Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Add-on Control Systems Compliance Options 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Products Pt. 63, Subpt. DDDD, Table 1B Table 1B to Subpart DDDD of Part 63—Add-on Control...

  1. 50 CFR Table 1b to Part 679 - Discard and Disposition Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discard and Disposition Codes 1b Table 1b... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 1b Table 1b to Part 679—Discard and Disposition Codes Description Code Confiscation... bait. 95 Whole fish/sold, for human consumption. 60 NOTE: When using whole fish codes, record...

  2. Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C3: role in prostate disease and the development of specific inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Penning, Trevor M; Steckelbroeck, Stephan; Bauman, David R; Miller, Meredith W; Jin, Yi; Peehl, Donna M; Fung, Kar-Ming; Lin, Hseuh-Kung

    2006-03-27

    Human aldo-keto reductases (AKR) of the 1A, 1B, 1C and 1D subfamilies are involved in the pre-receptor regulation of nuclear (steroid hormone and orphan) receptors by regulating the local concentrations of their lipophilic ligands. AKR1C3 is one of the most interesting isoforms. It was cloned from human prostate and the recombinant protein was found to function as a 3-, 17- and 20-ketosteroid reductase with a preference for the conversion of Delta4-androstene-3,17-dione to testosterone implicating this enzyme in the local production of active androgens within the prostate. Using a validated isoform specific real-time RT-PCR procedure the AKR1C3 transcript was shown to be more abundant in primary cultures of epithelial cells than stromal cells, and its expression in stromal cells increased with benign and malignant disease. Using a validated isoform specific monoclonal Ab, AKR1C3 protein expression was also detected in prostate epithelial cells by immunoblot analysis. Immunohistochemical staining of prostate tissue showed that AKR1C3 was expressed in adenocarcinoma and surprisingly high expression was observed in the endothelial cells. These cells are a rich source of prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 (COX-2) and vasoactive prostaglandins (PG) and thus the ability of recombinant AKR1C enzymes to act as PGF synthases was compared. AKR1C3 had the highest catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) for the 11-ketoreduction of PGD2 to yield 9alpha,11beta-PGF2 raising the prospect that AKR1C3 may govern ligand access to peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPARgamma). Activation of PPARgamma is often a pro-apoptotic signal and/or leads to terminal differentiation, while 9alpha,11beta-PGF2 is a pro-proliferative signal. AKR1C3 is potently inhibited by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs suggesting that the cancer chemopreventive properties of these agents may be mediated either by inhibition of AKR1C3 or COX. To discriminate between these effects we developed potent AKR1C

  3. FigA, a Putative Homolog of Low-Affinity Calcium System Member Fig1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Is Involved in Growth and Asexual and Sexual Development in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shizhu; Zheng, Hailin; Long, Nanbiao; Carbó, Natalia; Chen, Peiying; Aguilar, Pablo S.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-mediated signaling pathways are widely employed in eukaryotes and are implicated in the regulation of diverse biological processes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, at least two different calcium uptake systems have been identified: the high-affinity calcium influx system (HACS) and the low-affinity calcium influx system (LACS). Compared to the HACS, the LACS in fungi is not well known. In this study, FigA, a homolog of the LACS member Fig1 from S. cerevisiae, was functionally characterized in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Loss of figA resulted in retardant hyphal growth and a sharp reduction of conidial production. Most importantly, FigA is essential for the homothallic mating (self-fertilization) process; further, FigA is required for heterothallic mating (outcrossing) in the absence of HACS midA. Interestingly, in a figA deletion mutant, adding extracellular Ca2+ rescued the hyphal growth defects but could not restore asexual and sexual reproduction. Furthermore, quantitative PCR results revealed that figA deletion sharply decreased the expression of brlA and nsdD, which are known as key regulators during asexual and sexual development, respectively. In addition, green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagging at the C terminus of FigA (FigA::GFP) showed that FigA localized to the center of the septum in mature hyphal cells, to the location between vesicles and metulae, and between the junctions of metulae and phialides in conidiophores. Thus, our findings suggest that FigA, apart from being a member of a calcium uptake system in A. nidulans, may play multiple unexplored roles during hyphal growth and asexual and sexual development. PMID:24376003

  4. Application preliminary evaluation of HJ-1-C SAR satellite of S band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Lin, Yueguan

    2015-12-01

    On Nov 19, 2012, HJ-1-C launched successfully, which is belong to Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Prediction Small Satellite Constellation, and is the first civil Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite in China and the first successful SAR satellite of S band on-orbit operation in the world. During the on-orbit test period, National Disaster Reduction Center of China (NDRCC) preliminarily evaluated its disaster reduction application ability in the ice, flood, drought, snow, landslide and debris flow, etc. The results show that SAR satellite of S band has more highlight advantage than the HJ-1-A and HJ-1-B in the detailed characterization, and has well disaster reduction potential.

  5. Loss of Fig4 in both Schwann cells and motor neurons contributes to CMT4J neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Vaccari, Ilaria; Carbone, Antonietta; Previtali, Stefano Carlo; Mironova, Yevgeniya A.; Alberizzi, Valeria; Noseda, Roberta; Rivellini, Cristina; Bianchi, Francesca; Del Carro, Ubaldo; D'Antonio, Maurizio; Lenk, Guy M.; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Giger, Roman J.; Meisler, Miriam H.; Bolino, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of FIG4 are responsible for Yunis-Varón syndrome, familial epilepsy with polymicrogyria, and Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4J neuropathy (CMT4J). Although loss of the FIG4 phospholipid phosphatase consistently causes decreased PtdIns(3,5)P2 levels, cell-specific sensitivity to partial loss of FIG4 function may differentiate FIG4-associated disorders. CMT4J is an autosomal recessive neuropathy characterized by severe demyelination and axonal loss in human, with both motor and sensory involvement. However, it is unclear whether FIG4 has cell autonomous roles in both motor neurons and Schwann cells, and how loss of FIG4/PtdIns(3,5)P2-mediated functions contribute to the pathogenesis of CMT4J. Here, we report that mice with conditional inactivation of Fig4 in motor neurons display neuronal and axonal degeneration. In contrast, conditional inactivation of Fig4 in Schwann cells causes demyelination and defects in autophagy-mediated degradation. Moreover, Fig4-regulated endolysosomal trafficking in Schwann cells is essential for myelin biogenesis during development and for proper regeneration/remyelination after injury. Our data suggest that impaired endolysosomal trafficking in both motor neurons and Schwann cells contributes to CMT4J neuropathy. PMID:25187576

  6. Yunis-Varón Syndrome Is Caused by Mutations in FIG4, Encoding a Phosphoinositide Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Campeau, Philippe M.; Lenk, Guy M.; Lu, James T.; Bae, Yangjin; Burrage, Lindsay; Turnpenny, Peter; Román Corona-Rivera, Jorge; Morandi, Lucia; Mora, Marina; Reutter, Heiko; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Faivre, Laurence; Haan, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A.; Meisler, Miriam H.; Lee, Brendan H.

    2013-01-01

    Yunis-Varón syndrome (YVS) is an autosomal-recessive disorder with cleidocranial dysplasia, digital anomalies, and severe neurological involvement. Enlarged vacuoles are found in neurons, muscle, and cartilage. By whole-exome sequencing, we identified frameshift and missense mutations of FIG4 in affected individuals from three unrelated families. FIG4 encodes a phosphoinositide phosphatase required for regulation of PI(3,5)P2 levels, and thus endosomal trafficking and autophagy. In a functional assay, both missense substitutions failed to correct the vacuolar phenotype of Fig4-null mouse fibroblasts. Homozygous Fig4-null mice exhibit features of YVS, including neurodegeneration and enlarged vacuoles in neurons. We demonstrate that Fig4-null mice also have small skeletons with reduced trabecular bone volume and cortical thickness and that cultured osteoblasts accumulate large vacuoles. Our findings demonstrate that homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for null mutations of FIG4 is responsible for YVS, the most severe known human phenotype caused by defective phosphoinositide metabolism. In contrast, in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J (also caused by FIG4 mutations), one of the FIG4 alleles is hypomorphic and disease is limited to the peripheral nervous system. This genotype-phenotype correlation demonstrates that absence of FIG4 activity leads to central nervous system dysfunction and extensive skeletal anomalies. Our results describe a role for PI(3,5)P2 signaling in skeletal development and maintenance. PMID:23623387

  7. Level1B Performance Evaluation On CryoSat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Tagliani, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    A performance assessment of the CryoSat products for SAR/SARin modes is here presented. The effective across-track IRF has been compared with the expected one, according to the system requirements, and exploiting the calibration products. Then, starting from the along-track processing for Delay/Doppler Radar altimeters, the theoretical model of the along-track IRF for CryoSat has been derived. Moreover the effects of the azimuth windowing on the along-track resolution and on the clutter suppression have been investigated. In particular, the clutter has been evaluated on the Level1b products for both sea ice and ocean scenario, revealing that the azimuth window allows to improve the signal to clutter ratio also in case of ocean waveforms.

  8. Efficient transformation and regeneration of fig (Ficus carica L.) via somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Hemaid Ibrahim; Gabr, Mahdia; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2010-01-01

    Fig is one of the most important fruit trees in Egypt. It used to constitute the major source of income for the inhabitants of the western north coast of Egypt. Since 1993 fig cultivations were threatened by a number of factors including virus, insect and mite infections. An efficient system for regeneration and transformation of the common fig Ficus carica L. cultivar Sultani (fresh consumption) was required to conserve fig cultivation in the area. The effect of different combinations of BA and NAA/2,4-D and kinetin on callus formation from leaf segments were studied. Results showed that the best medium for callus formation was MS supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.2 mg/l kinetin. The best plantlet differentiation was obtained at concentrations of 30 mg/l 2iP and 7 mg/l TDZ with 0.25 mg/l NAA (with a regeneration efficiency of 83 and 79%, respectively). On the other hand, the obtained callus failed to induce organogenesis on media containing a combination of BA and kinetin. The highest shoot formation percentage (89%) was obtained when using 2 mg/l TDZ and 4 mg/l 2iP. The highest percentage of shoots forming roots (95%) was obtained when using MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l IBA. Explants were transformed using Agrobacterium and microprojectile bombardment using the plasmid pISV2678 which harbors the gus-intron and bar genes. Results showed that the highest transformation efficiency using the Agrobacterium (17.5%) was obtained when explants were co-cultivated with the bacteria for 30 min. The highest transformation efficiency recorded using the microprojectile bombardment (12%) was obtained with 2.0 μg DNA per shot at 1,100 psi and a distance of 6 cm repeated twice. The transgenic nature of regenerated plants was confirmed by PCR analysis, histochemical GUS assay and leaf painting assay.

  9. Proteasomal degradation of human CYP1B1: effect of the Asn453Ser polymorphism on the post-translational regulation of CYP1B1 expression.

    PubMed

    Bandiera, Silvio; Weidlich, Simone; Harth, Volker; Broede, Peter; Ko, Yun; Friedberg, Thomas

    2005-02-01

    Allelic variations in CYP1B1 are reported to modulate the incidence of several types of cancer. To provide a mechanistic basis for this association, we investigated the impact of nonsilent allelic changes on the intracellular levels and post-translational regulation of CYP1B1 protein. When transiently expressed in COS-1 cells, either in the presence or absence of recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, the cellular level of the CYP1B1.4 allelic variant (containing a Ser at the amino acid position 453; Ser453) was 2-fold lower compared with the other four allelic CYP1B1 proteins (containing Asn453), as analyzed by both immunoblotting and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity. This difference was caused by post-translational regulation; as in the presence of cycloheximide, the rate of degradation of immunodetectable and enzymatically active CYP1B1.4 was distinctly faster than that of CYP1B1.1. Pulse-chase analysis revealed that the half-life of CYP1B1.4 was a mere 1.6 h compared with 4.8 h for CYP1B1.1. The presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG132 [N-benzoyloxycarbonyl (Z)-Leu-Leuleucinal] increased the stability not only of immunodetectable CYP1B1, but also--unexpectedly given the size of the proteasome access channel--increased the stability of enzymatically active CYP1B1. The data presented herein also demonstrate that CYP1B1 is targeted for its polymorphism-dependent degradation by polyubiquitination but not phosphorylation. Our results importantly provide a mechanism to explain the recently reported lower incidence of endometrial cancer in individuals carrying the CYP1B1*4 compared with the CYP1B1*1 haplo-type. In addition, the mechanistic paradigms revealed herein may explain the strong overexpression of CYP1B1 in tumors compared with nondiseased tissues.

  10. HIV protease inhibitors are substrates for OATP1A2, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 and lopinavir plasma concentrations are influenced by SLCO1B1 polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Hartkoorn, Ruben C; San Kwan, Wai; Shallcross, Victoria; Chaikan, Ammara; Liptrott, Neill; Egan, Deirdre; Enrique Salcedo Sora, J; James, Chloe E; Gibbons, Sara; Bray, Pat G; Back, David J; Khoo, Saye H; Owen, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 are major hepatic drug transporters whilst OATP1A2 is mainly located in the brain but is also located in liver and several other organs. These transporters affect the distribution and clearance of many endo- and xenobiotics and have been reported to have functional SNPs. We have assessed the substrate specificites of these transporters for a panel of antiretrovirals and investigated the effects of SNPs within these transporters on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir. SLCO1A2, SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3 were cloned, verified and used to generate cRNA for use in the Xenopus laevis oocyte transport system. Using the oocyte system, antiretrovirals were tested for their substrate specificities. Plasma samples (n=349) from the Liverpool therapeutic drug monitoring registry were genotyped for SNPs in SLCO1A2, SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3 and associations between SNPs and lopinavir plasma concentrations were analysed. Antiretroviral protease inhibitors, but not non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are substrates for OATP1A2, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Furthermore, ritonavir was not an inhibitor of OATP1B1. The 521T>C polymorphism in SLCO1B1 was significantly associated with higher lopinavir plasma concentrations. No associations were observed with functional variants of SLCO1A2 and SLCO1B3. These data add to our understanding of the factors that contribute to variability in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors. Further studies are now required to confirm the association of SLCO1B1 521T>C with lopinavir plasma concentrations and to assess the influence of other polymorphisms in the SLCO family. PMID:20051929

  11. Ammonia oxidation is not required for growth of Group 1.1c soil Thaumarchaeota

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Eva B.; Lehtovirta-Morley, Laura E.; Prosser, James I.; Gubry-Rangin, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Thaumarchaeota are among the most abundant organisms on Earth and are ubiquitous. Within this phylum, all cultivated representatives of Group 1.1a and Group 1.1b Thaumarchaeota are ammonia oxidizers, and play a key role in the nitrogen cycle. While Group 1.1c is phylogenetically closely related to the ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and is abundant in acidic forest soils, nothing is known about its physiology or ecosystem function. The goal of this study was to perform in situ physiological characterization of Group 1.1c Thaumarchaeota by determining conditions that favour their growth in soil. Several acidic grassland, birch and pine tree forest soils were sampled and those with the highest Group 1.1c 16S rRNA gene abundance were incubated in microcosms to determine optimal growth temperature, ammonia oxidation and growth on several organic compounds. Growth of Group 1.1c Thaumarchaeota, assessed by qPCR of Group 1.1c 16S rRNA genes, occurred in soil, optimally at 30°C, but was not associated with ammonia oxidation and the functional gene amoA could not be detected. Growth was also stimulated by addition of organic nitrogen compounds (glutamate and casamino acids) but not when supplemented with organic carbon alone. This is the first evidence for non-ammonia oxidation associated growth of Thaumarchaeota in soil. PMID:25764563

  12. Yeasts isolated from figs (Ficus carica L.) as biocontrol agents of postharvest fruit diseases.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Moyano, S; Martín, A; Villalobos, M C; Calle, A; Serradilla, M J; Córdoba, M G; Hernández, A

    2016-08-01

    Fresh fruit is highly perishable during postharvest life, mainly due to fungal growth. Thus, fungal control is an important goal for the fruit industry. In this work, a selection of antagonistic yeasts isolated from fig and breba crops were screened in vitro. The isolated yeasts were challenged with three moulds isolated from decayed figs and breba crops, identified as Penicillium expansum M639 and Cladosporium cladosporioides M310 and M624, and pathogenic moulds Botrytis cinerea CECT20518 and Monilia laxa CA1 from culture collections. Two yeast isolates, Hanseniaspora opuntiae L479 and Metschnikowia pulcherrima L672, were selected for their ability to inhibit the growth of aforementioned moulds. These yeasts reduced the radial growth of moulds on PDA by between 45.23% and 66.09%. Antagonistic activity was associated with the interaction of live yeast cells with moulds. M. pulcherrima L672 apparently parasitised C. cladosporioides isolates. In addition, challenges were assayed using wounded apples and nectarines, with significant reductions in percent infection and lesion size for all moulds tested. To our knowledge, this is the first report identifying H. opuntiae as an antagonist against different pathogenic moulds.

  13. A Multilocus Phylogeny of the World Sycoecinae Fig Wasps (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huguin, Maïlis; Genson, Gwenaëlle; Jabbour-Zahab, Roula; Tolley, Krystal A.; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; van Noort, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The Sycoecinae is one of five chalcid subfamilies of fig wasps that are mostly dependent on Ficus inflorescences for reproduction. Here, we analysed two mitochondrial (COI, Cytb) and four nuclear genes (ITS2, EF-1α, RpL27a, mago nashi) from a worldwide sample of 56 sycoecine species. Various alignment and partitioning strategies were used to test the stability of major clades. All topologies estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were similar and well resolved but did not support the existing classification. A high degree of morphological convergence was highlighted and several species appeared best described as species complexes. We therefore proposed a new classification for the subfamily. Our analyses revealed several cases of probable speciation on the same host trees (up to 8 closely related species on one single tree of F. sumatrana), which raises the question of how resource partitioning occurs to avoid competitive exclusion. Comparisons of our results with fig phylogenies showed that, despite sycoecines being internally ovipositing wasps host-switches are common incidents in their evolutionary history. Finally, by studying the evolutionary properties of the markers we used and profiling their phylogenetic informativeness, we predicted their utility for resolving phylogenetic relationships of Chalcidoidea at various taxonomic levels. PMID:24223925

  14. A multilocus phylogeny of the world Sycoecinae fig wasps (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Cruaud, Astrid; Underhill, Jenny G; Huguin, Maïlis; Genson, Gwenaëlle; Jabbour-Zahab, Roula; Tolley, Krystal A; Rasplus, Jean-Yves; van Noort, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The Sycoecinae is one of five chalcid subfamilies of fig wasps that are mostly dependent on Ficus inflorescences for reproduction. Here, we analysed two mitochondrial (COI, Cytb) and four nuclear genes (ITS2, EF-1α, RpL27a, mago nashi) from a worldwide sample of 56 sycoecine species. Various alignment and partitioning strategies were used to test the stability of major clades. All topologies estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were similar and well resolved but did not support the existing classification. A high degree of morphological convergence was highlighted and several species appeared best described as species complexes. We therefore proposed a new classification for the subfamily. Our analyses revealed several cases of probable speciation on the same host trees (up to 8 closely related species on one single tree of F. sumatrana), which raises the question of how resource partitioning occurs to avoid competitive exclusion. Comparisons of our results with fig phylogenies showed that, despite sycoecines being internally ovipositing wasps host-switches are common incidents in their evolutionary history. Finally, by studying the evolutionary properties of the markers we used and profiling their phylogenetic informativeness, we predicted their utility for resolving phylogenetic relationships of Chalcidoidea at various taxonomic levels.

  15. Labile male morphology and intraspecific male polymorphism in the Philotrypesis fig wasps.

    PubMed

    Jousselin, Emmanuelle; van Noort, Simon; Greeff, Jaco M

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the evolution of male morphology in the fig wasps belonging to the genus Philotrypesis (Chalcidoidea, Sycorectinae). We first reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Philotrypesis associated with African figs using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. We then determine male morphotypes in the species included in our phylogeny and show that intraspecific polymorphism is common. Most species present two types of males and some species have up to three types. These morphotypes are believed to represent alternative mating tactics: some males show morphological adaptations to fighting, others are winged dispersers and others are small sneakers. Mapping out these variations onto our phylogeny reveals that the combination of morphs changes randomly along the branches of the tree. Both parsimony and likelihood approaches indicate that there has been at least one transition from dimorphism to trimorphism, several gains and losses of the small morph and two independent acquisitions of the winged morph. Using maximum likelihood analyses of character evolution, we estimate transition rates for each morph and show that the evolution of each type of morph are not correlated and that forward and backward transition rates are not significantly different. Our results altogether suggest that male morphology is evolutionary labile, it responds quickly to selection imposed by the mating environment. This study, also suggests that seemingly complex phenotypes, such as winged males, can evolve several times and can even be recreated after having been lost.

  16. The mechanism of sex ratio adjustment in a pollinating fig wasp.

    PubMed

    Raja, Shazia; Suleman, Nazia; Compton, Stephen G; Moore, Jamie C

    2008-07-22

    Sex ratio strategies in species subject to local mate competition (LMC), and in particular their fit to quantitative theoretical predictions, provide insight into constraints upon adaptation. Pollinating fig wasps are widely used in such studies because their ecology resembles theory assumptions, but the cues used by foundresses to assess potential LMC have not previously been determined. We show that Liporrhopalum tentacularis females (foundresses) use their clutch size as a cue. First, we make use of species ecology (foundresses lay multiple clutches, with second clutches smaller than first) to show that increases in sex ratio in multi-foundress figs occur only when foundresses are oviposition site limited, i.e. that there is no direct response to foundress density. Second, we introduce a novel technique to quantify foundress oviposition sequences and show, consistent with the theoretical predictions concerning clutch size-only strategies, that they produce mainly male offspring at the start of bouts, followed by mostly females interspersed by a few males. We then discuss the implications of our findings for our understanding of the limits of the ability of natural selection to produce 'perfect' organisms, and for our understanding of when different cue use patterns evolve.

  17. The mechanism of sex ratio adjustment in a pollinating fig wasp

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Shazia; Suleman, Nazia; Compton, Stephen G; Moore, Jamie C

    2008-01-01

    Sex ratio strategies in species subject to local mate competition (LMC), and in particular their fit to quantitative theoretical predictions, provide insight into constraints upon adaptation. Pollinating fig wasps are widely used in such studies because their ecology resembles theory assumptions, but the cues used by foundresses to assess potential LMC have not previously been determined. We show that Liporrhopalum tentacularis females (foundresses) use their clutch size as a cue. First, we make use of species ecology (foundresses lay multiple clutches, with second clutches smaller than first) to show that increases in sex ratio in multi-foundress figs occur only when foundresses are oviposition site limited, i.e. that there is no direct response to foundress density. Second, we introduce a novel technique to quantify foundress oviposition sequences and show, consistent with the theoretical predictions concerning clutch size-only strategies, that they produce mainly male offspring at the start of bouts, followed by mostly females interspersed by a few males. We then discuss the implications of our findings for our understanding of the limits of the ability of natural selection to produce ‘perfect’ organisms, and for our understanding of when different cue use patterns evolve. PMID:18430647

  18. Complete sequence of Fig fleck-associated virus, a novel member of the family Tymoviridae.

    PubMed

    Elbeaino, Toufic; Digiaro, Michele; Martelli, Giovanni P

    2011-11-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence and the genome organization were determined of a novel virus, tentatively named Fig fleck-associated virus (FFkaV). The viral genome is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA 7046 nucleotides in size excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tract, and comprising two open reading frames. ORF1 encodes a polypeptide of 2161 amino acids (p240), which contains the signatures of replication-associated proteins and the coat protein cistron (p24) at its 3' end. ORF2 codes for a 461 amino acid protein (p50) identified as a putative movement proteins (MP). In phylogenetic trees constructed with sequences of the putative polymerase and CP proteins FFkaV consistently groups with members of the genus Maculavirus, family Tymoviridae. However, the genome organization diverges from that of the two completely sequenced maculaviruses, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV) and Bombix mori Macula-like virus (BmMLV), as it exhibits a structure resembling that of Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), the type species of the genus Marafivirus and of Olive latent virus 3 (OLV-3), an unclassified virus in the family Tymoviridae. FFkaV was found in field-grown figs from six Mediterranean countries with an incidence ranging from 15% to 25%.

  19. No association of genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1 with primary open-angle glaucoma: a meta- and gene-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shuqian; Yang, Jingyun; Yu, Weihong; Kota, Pravina; Xia, Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450, subfamily 1, polypeptide 1 (C1P1B1) on primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods A systematic literature search was performed, and random-effects meta-analyses were used to evaluate genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1 with POAG. A gene-based analysis was conducted to investigate the cumulative effects of genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1. Results A total of six studies from published papers were included in our analysis. Random-effects meta-analyses failed to detect any significant association of POAG with genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1, including rs180040, rs1056836, rs10012, rs1056827, rs1056837, and rs2567206. The gene-based analysis indicated that the cumulative effect of genetic polymorphisms in CYP1B1 is not associated with POAG (p>0.50). Conclusions We did not find any evidence of strong association of POAG with CYP1B1 genetic polymorphisms and their cumulative effect. PMID:22509109

  20. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B)-inhibiting constituents from the leaves of Syzygium polyanthum.

    PubMed

    Saifudin, Azis; Tanaka, Ken; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2012-08-01

    A methanol extract of the leaves of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. afforded four new acylbenzene derivatives (1-4) together with seven known compounds (5-11). The structures of 1-11 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and comparison with the literature data. The new compounds 1-3 and a known compound, campest-4-en-3-one (10), exhibited a significant protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity with IC₅₀ values of 13.1 ± 0.1, 5.77 ± 0.15, 4.01 ± 0.26, and 10.4 ± 0.5 µM, respectively. The inhibitory potency of the new compounds 2 and 3 was comparable to that of a positive control RK-682 (IC₅₀, 5.51 ± 0.04 µM).

  1. Chronic Dietary Supplementation of 4% Figs on the Modification of Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer's Disease Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Al-Asmi, Abdullah; Vaishnav, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the changes in the plasma Aβ, oxidative stress/antioxidants, and membrane bound enzymes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease (AD) transgenic mice (Tg2576) after dietary supplementation of Omani figs fruits for 15 months along with spatial memory and learning test. AD Tg mice on control diet without figs showed significant impairment in spatial learning ability compared to the wild-type mice on same diet and figs fed Tg mice as well. Significant increase in oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status were observed in AD Tg mice. 4% figs treated AD Tg mice significantly attenuated oxidative damage, as evident by decreased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls and restoration of antioxidant status. Altered activities of membrane bound enzymes (Na+ K+ ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)) in AD Tg mice brain regions and was restored by figs treatment. Further, figs supplementation might be able to decrease the plasma levels of Aβ (1–40, 1–42) significantly in Tg mice suggesting a putative delay in the formation of plaques, which might be due to the presence of high natural antioxidants in figs. But this study warrants further extensive investigation to find a novel lead for a therapeutic target for AD from figs. PMID:25050360

  2. Living on the edge: Fig tree phenology at the northern range limit of monoecious Ficus in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu-Shui; Compton, Stephen G.; Xiao, Hui; Lu, Qian; Chen, Yan

    2014-05-01

    Fig trees (Ficus) are a species-rich group of mainly tropical and subtropical plants that are of ecological importance because of the large numbers of vertebrates that utilise their figs for food. Factors limiting their distributions to warmer regions are still poorly understood, but are likely to include factors linked to their specialised pollination biology, because each Ficus species is dependent on one or a small number of host-specific fig wasps (Agaonidae) for pollination. Adult fig wasps are short-lived, but some species are capable of dispersing extremely long distances to pollinate their hosts. Close to its northern range limit we investigated the phenology of Ficus virens, the monoecious fig tree that reaches furthest north in China. Relatively few trees produced any figs, and very few retained figs throughout the winter. Despite this, new crops produced in spring were pollinated, with seasonally migrant pollinators from plants growing further south the most likely pollen vectors. An inability to initiate new crops at low temperatures may limit the distribution of monoecious fig trees to warmer areas.

  3. How to be a dioecious fig: Chemical mimicry between sexes matters only when both sexes flower synchronously.

    PubMed

    Hossaert-McKey, M; Proffit, M; Soler, C C L; Chen, C; Bessière, J-M; Schatz, B; Borges, R M

    2016-02-18

    In nursery pollination mutualisms, which are usually obligate interactions, olfactory attraction of pollinators by floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is the main step in guaranteeing partner encounter. However, mechanisms ensuring the evolutionary stability of dioecious fig-pollinator mutualisms, in which female fig trees engage in pollination by deceit resulting in zero reproductive success of pollinators that visit them, are poorly understood. In dioecious figs, individuals of each sex should be selected to produce odours that their pollinating wasps cannot distinguish, especially since pollinators have usually only one choice of a nursery during their lifetime. To test the hypothesis of intersexual chemical mimicry, VOCs emitted by pollen-receptive figs of seven dioecious species were compared using headspace collection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. First, fig-flower scents varied significantly among species, allowing host-species recognition. Second, in species in which male and female figs are synchronous, intersexual VOC variation was not significant. However, in species where figs of both sexes flower asynchronously, intersexual variation of VOCs was detectable. Finally, with one exception, there was no sexual dimorphism in scent quantity. We show that there are two ways to use scent to be a dioecious fig based on differences in flowering synchrony between the sexes.

  4. 75 FR 6344 - Notice of Availability of Pest Risk Analyses for Importation of Fresh Figs, Pomegranates, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... of Fresh Figs, Pomegranates, and Baby Kiwi from Chile into the United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant... prepared two pest risk analyses, one with respect to fresh figs and pomegranates grown in Chile and one with respect to fresh baby kiwi fruit grown in Chile. The analyses evaluate the risks associated...

  5. Natural enemies managing the invasion of the Fig whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), infesting a Ficus benjamina hedge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fig whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) is a recent invasive species that has become a major pest in Florida feeding on Ficus shrubs and trees. A pilot study was conducted on a weeping fig, Ficus benjamina shrub hedge to determine the efficacy and compatibility of a biopesticide (PFR 97™=Isaria...

  6. Identification of RAN1 orthologue associated with sex determination through whole genome sequencing analysis in fig (Ficus carica L.).

    PubMed

    Mori, Kazuki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Nogata, Hitoshi; Hirata, Chiharu; Tashiro, Kosuke; Habu, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Sangwan; Himeno, Shuichi; Kuhara, Satoru; Ikegami, Hidetoshi

    2017-01-25

    With the aim of identifying sex determinants of fig, we generated the first draft genome sequence of fig and conducted the subsequent analyses. Linkage analysis with a high-density genetic map established by a restriction-site associated sequencing technique, and genome-wide association study followed by whole-genome resequencing analysis identified two missense mutations in RESPONSIVE-TO-ANTAGONIST1 (RAN1) orthologue encoding copper-transporting ATPase completely associated with sex phenotypes of investigated figs. This result suggests that RAN1 is a possible sex determinant candidate in the fig genome. The genomic resources and genetic findings obtained in this study can contribute to general understanding of Ficus species and provide an insight into fig's and plant's sex determination system.

  7. Molecular Cloning, Tissue Distribution, and Functional Characterization of Marmoset Cytochrome P450 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a New World monkey, has potential to be an animal model for drug metabolism studies. In this study, we identified and characterized cytochrome P450 (P450) 1A1 and 1B1 in addition to the known P450 1A2 in marmosets. Marmoset P450 1A1 and 1B1 cDNA contained open reading frames encoding 512 and 543 amino acids, respectively, with high sequence identities (90%-93%) to other primate P450 1A1s and 1B1s. A phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences showed close evolutionary relationships among marmoset, macaque, and human P450 1A and 1B enzymes. By mRNA quantification and immunoblot analyses in five marmoset tissues, P450 1A1 was mainly expressed in lungs and small intestines, and P450 1A2 was expressed predominantly in livers. In contrast, P450 1B1 was expressed in all tissues tested. Marmoset P450 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1 heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation, and phenacetin O-deethylation, similar to those of humans and cynomolgus monkeys. Notably, marmoset P450 1A1 and 1A2 more efficiently catalyzed 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation than those of the human homologs, but were comparable to those of the cynomolgus monkey homologs. Additionally, marmoset P450 1B1 preferentially catalyzed estradiol 4-hydroxylation; however, rat P450 1B1 more favorably catalyzed estradiol 2-hydroxylation, indicating that the estradiol hydroxylation specificity of marmoset P450 1B1 was similar to those of human and cynomolgus monkey P450 1B1. These results indicated that marmoset P450 1A and 1B enzymes had functional characteristics similar to those of humans and cynomolgus monkeys, suggesting that P450 1A and 1B-dependent metabolism was similar among marmosets, cynomolgus monkeys, and humans.

  8. Distribution and evolution of the mobile vma-1b intein.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Kristen S; Soucy, Shannon M; Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Lapierre, Pascal; Gogarten, Johann Peter

    2013-12-01

    Inteins are self-splicing parasitic genetic elements found in all domains of life. These genetic elements are found in highly conserved positions in conserved proteins. One protein family that has been invaded by inteins is the vacuolar and archaeal catalytic ATPase subunits (vma-1). There are two intein insertion sites in this protein, "a" and "b." The b site was previously thought to be only invaded in archaeal lineages. Here we survey the distribution and evolutionary histories of the b site inteins and show that the intein is present in more lineages than previously annotated, including a bacterial lineage, Mahella australiensis 50-1 BON. We present evidence, through ancestral character state reconstruction and substitution ratios between host genes and inteins, for several transfers of this intein between divergent species, including an interdomain transfer between the archaea and bacteria. Although inteins may persist within a single population or species for long periods of time, transfer of the vma-1b intein between divergent species contributed to the distribution of this intein.

  9. A Photometric Survey of Ori OB1b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Allison T.; Sherry, W.

    2011-01-01

    Several mechanisms have been suggested to describe the formation of sub-stellar mass objects (SSMOs), specifically brown dwarfs. Each proposed mechanism predicts a unique spatial distribution of the brown dwarfs relative to the O and B stars of the association. We have 9 square degrees of optical (VRI) data and 7 square degrees of NIR (JHK) data of Orion OB1b. The purpose of the survey is to obtain the photometric data that will allow us to determine the spatial distribution of brown dwarfs in this region and constrain the various formation theories. We present an overview of the survey, with an emphasis on the NIR data, as well as color-magnitude diagrams. This research was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program and the Department of Defense ASSURE program through Scientific Program Order No. 13 (AST-0754223) of the Cooperative Agreement No. AST-0132798 between the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) and the NSF.

  10. Genetic variants in MTNR1B affecting insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Müssig, Karsten; Staiger, Harald; Machicao, Fausto; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has markedly increased worldwide over the past decades. Pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction as well as central and peripheral insulin resistance appears to be elementary features in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Major environmental conditions predisposing to the development of type 2 diabetes are excessive food intake and sedentary life-style on the background of a genetic predisposition. Recent genome-wide association studies identified several novel type 2 diabetes risk genes, with impaired pancreatic beta-cell function as the underlying mechanism of increased diabetes risk in the majority of genes. Many of the novel type 2 diabetes risk genes, including MTNR1B which encodes one of the two known human melatonin receptors, were unexpected at first glance. However, previous animal as well as human studies already pointed to a significant impact of the melatonin system on the regulation of glucose homeostasis, in addition to its well known role in modulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. This brief review aims to give an overview of how alterations in the melatonin system could contribute to an increased diabetes risk, paying special attention to the role of melatonin receptors in pancreatic beta-cell function.

  11. Hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein-5A activates sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c through transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Zhonghua; Qiao, Ling; Zhou, Yan; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Liu, Qiang

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} A chimeric subgenomic HCV replicon expresses HCV-3a NS5A in an HCV-1b backbone. {yields} HCV-3a NS5A increases mature SREBP-1c protein level. {yields} HCV-3a NS5A activates SREBP-1c transcription. {yields} Domain II of HCV-3a NS5A is more effective in SREBP-1c promoter activation. {yields} Transcription factor Sp1 is required for SREBP-1c activation by HCV-3a NS5A. -- Abstract: Steatosis is an important clinical manifestation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The molecular mechanisms of HCV-associated steatosis are not well understood. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a key transcription factor which activates the transcription of lipogenic genes. Here we showed that the nuclear, mature SREBP-1c level increases in the nucleus of replicon cells expressing HCV-3a nonstructural protein-5A (NS5A). We further showed that HCV-3a NS5A up-regulates SREBP-1c transcription. Additional analysis showed that transcriptional factor Sp1 is involved in SREBP-1c activation by HCV-3a NS5A because inhibition of Sp1 activity by mithramycin A or a dominant-negative Sp1 construct abrogated SREBP-1c promoter activation by HCV-3a NS5A. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated enhanced binding of Sp1 on the SREBP-1c promoter in HCV-3a NS5A replicon cells. These results showed that HCV-3a NS5A activates SREBP-1c transcription through Sp1. Taken together, our results suggest that HCV-3a NS5A is a contributing factor for steatosis caused by HCV-3a infection.

  12. Autolysis control and structural changes of purified ficin from Iranian fig latex with synthetic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zare, H; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Salami, M; Sheibani, N; Khajeh, K; Habibi-Rezaei, M

    2016-03-01

    The fig's ficin is a cysteine endoproteolytic enzyme, which plays fundamental roles in many plant physiological processes, and has many applications in different industries such as pharmaceutical and food. In this work, we report the inhibition and activation of autolysis and structural changes associated with reaction of ficin with iodoacetamide and tetrathionate using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultra filtration membrane, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) methods. The ficin structural changes were also determined using UV-absorption, circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. These techniques demonstrated that iodoacetamide completely inhibited ficin autolysis, which was irreversible. However, tetrathionate partially and reversibility inhibited its autolysis. The ficin structural changes with two synthetic inhibitors were associated with secondary structural changes related to decreased alpha-helix and increased beta sheet and random coil conformations, contributing to its aggregation.

  13. Complete nucleotide sequence of a novel strain of fig fleck-associated virus from China.

    PubMed

    He, Zhen; Mijit, Mahmut; Li, Shifang; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2017-04-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of fig fleck-associated virus from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China (FFkaV-CN) was determined. The 6,723-nucleotide-long viral genome, excluding a terminal poly(A) tail, contains three open reading frames (ORFs). Pairwise comparisons showed that FFkaV-CN shares 83% and 92% sequence identity with FFkaV-Italy based on the complete genomic sequence and CP aa sequence, respectively, slightly higher than the species demarcation criterion for the genus Maculavirus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that FFkaV-CN and FFkaV-Italy clustered into one group. These results indicate that FFkaV-CN is a novel strain of FFkaV with a genome organization somewhat different from what was reported for FFkaV-Italy.

  14. Sm-Nd dating of Fig Tree clay minerals of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toulkeridis, T.; Goldstein, S. L.; Clauer, N.; Kroner, A.; Lowe, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic data from carbonate-derived clay minerals of the 3.22-3.25 Ga Fig Tree Group, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, form a linear array corresponding to an age of 3102 +/- 64 Ma, making these minerals the oldest dated clays on Earth. The obtained age is 120-160 m.y. younger than the depositional age determined by zircon geochronology. Nd model ages for the clays range from approximately 3.39 to 3.44 Ga and almost cover the age variation of the Barberton greenstone belt rocks, consistent with independent evidence that the clay minerals are derived from material of the belt. The combined isotopic and mineralogical data provide evidence for a cryptic thermal overprint in the sediments of the belt. However, the highest temperature reached by the samples since the time of clay-mineral formation was <300 degrees C, lower than virtually any known early Archean supracrustal sequence.

  15. Growth factor independence 1b (gfi1b) is important for the maturation of erythroid cells and the regulation of embryonic globin expression.

    PubMed

    Vassen, Lothar; Beauchemin, Hugues; Lemsaddek, Wafaa; Krongold, Joseph; Trudel, Marie; Möröy, Tarik

    2014-01-01

    Growth factor independence 1b (GFI1B) is a DNA binding repressor of transcription with vital functions in hematopoiesis. Gfi1b-null embryos die at midgestation very likely due to defects in erythro- and megakaryopoiesis. To analyze the full functionality of Gfi1b, we used conditionally deficient mice that harbor floxed Gfi1b alleles and inducible (Mx-Cre, Cre-ERT) or erythroid specific (EpoR-Cre) Cre expressing transgenes. In contrast to the germline knockout, EpoR-Cre mediated erythroid specific ablation of Gfi1b allows full gestation, but causes perinatal lethality with very few mice surviving to adulthood. Both the embryonic deletion of Gfi1b by EpoR-Cre and the deletion in adult mice by Mx-Cre or Cre-ERT leads to reduced numbers of erythroid precursors, perturbed and delayed erythroid maturation, anemia and extramedullary erythropoiesis. Global expression analyses showed that the Hba-x, Hbb-bh1 and Hbb-y embryonic globin genes were upregulated in Gfi1b deficient TER119+ fetal liver cells over the gestation period from day 12.5-17.5 p.c. and an increased level of Hbb-bh1 and Hbb-y embryonic globin gene expression was even maintained in adult Gfi1b deficient mice. While the expression of Bcl11a, a regulator of embryonic globin expression was not affected by Gfi1b deficiency, the expression of Gata1 was reduced and the expression of Sox6, also involved in globin switch, was almost entirely lost when Gfi1b was absent. These findings establish Gfi1b as a regulator of embryonic globin expression and embryonic and adult erythroid maturation.

  16. FCER1B, a candidate gene for atopy, is located in 11q13 between CD20 and TCN1

    SciTech Connect

    Szepetowski, P.; Gaudray, P. )

    1994-01-15

    It is now well established that syntenic regions of the genome such as the pericentromeric region of mouse chromosome 19 and band q12 of human chromosome 11 are conserved in mice and men. One study has linked genetically familial forms of allergic asthma and rhinitis (atopy) to this human chromosome region. The murine gene encoding the [beta]-chain of the high-affinity receptor for IgE (Fce1b) has been mapped to chromosome 19. It is conceivable that this gene could be involved in allergic responses. The authors have thus hypothesized that the human homolog of this gene should be situated in chromosome band 11q13 and could be a good candidate for the atopy gene itself. While work was in progress, the human homolog of Fce1b, which had been cloned and sequenced by Kuester et al., was localized genetically in 11q13, and a dinucleotide (CA) repeat located nearby was strongly linked to familial atopy. However, the precise mapping of this gene and the actual distances separating it from neighboring sequences have not been determined. The authors describe the precise mapping of this gene using fluorescence in situ hybridization and pulsed-field electrophoresis. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Common Variants at 10 Genomic Loci Influence Hemoglobin A1C Levels via Glycemic and Nonglycemic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Soranzo, Nicole; Sanna, Serena; Wheeler, Eleanor; Gieger, Christian; Radke, Dörte; Dupuis, Josée; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Langenberg, Claudia; Prokopenko, Inga; Stolerman, Elliot; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Heeney, Matthew M.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ricketts, Sally L.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), used to monitor and diagnose diabetes, is influenced by average glycemia over a 2- to 3-month period. Genetic factors affecting expression, turnover, and abnormal glycation of hemoglobin could also be associated with increased levels of HbA1c. We aimed to identify such genetic factors and investigate the extent to which they influence diabetes classification based on HbA1c levels. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied associations with HbA1c in up to 46,368 nondiabetic adults of European descent from 23 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 8 cohorts with de novo genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We combined studies using inverse-variance meta-analysis and tested mediation by glycemia using conditional analyses. We estimated the global effect of HbA1c loci using a multilocus risk score, and used net reclassification to estimate genetic effects on diabetes screening. RESULTS Ten loci reached genome-wide significant association with HbA1c, including six new loci near FN3K (lead SNP/P value, rs1046896/P = 1.6 × 10−26), HFE (rs1800562/P = 2.6 × 10−20), TMPRSS6 (rs855791/P = 2.7 × 10−14), ANK1 (rs4737009/P = 6.1 × 10−12), SPTA1 (rs2779116/P = 2.8 × 10−9) and ATP11A/TUBGCP3 (rs7998202/P = 5.2 × 10−9), and four known HbA1c loci: HK1 (rs16926246/P = 3.1 × 10−54), MTNR1B (rs1387153/P = 4.0 × 10−11), GCK (rs1799884/P = 1.5 × 10−20) and G6PC2/ABCB11 (rs552976/P = 8.2 × 10−18). We show that associations with HbA1c are partly a function of hyperglycemia associated with 3 of the 10 loci (GCK, G6PC2 and MTNR1B). The seven nonglycemic loci accounted for a 0.19 (% HbA1c) difference between the extreme 10% tails of the risk score, and would reclassify ∼2% of a general white population screened for diabetes with HbA1c. CONCLUSIONS GWAS identified 10 genetic loci reproducibly associated with HbA1c. Six are novel and seven map to loci where rarer variants cause hereditary anemias and iron

  18. Protective effect of Porphyra yezoensis glycoprotein on D-galactosamine‑induced cytotoxicity in Hepa 1c1c7 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Wook; Kim, Young-Min; Park, Su-Jin; Kim, In-Hye; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2015-05-01

    The present study aimed to examine the signaling pathways and enzyme activity associated with the protective effect of Porphyra yezoensis glycoprotein (PYGP) on D‑galactosamine (D‑GaIN)‑induced cytotoxicity in Hepa 1c1c7 cells. D‑GaIN is commonly used to induce hepatic injury models in vivo as well as in vitro. PYGP was extracted from Porphyra yezoensis, a red algae distributed along the coasts of Republic of Korea, China and Japan. In the present study, Hepa 1c1c7 cells were pre‑treated with PYGP (20 and 40 µg/ml) for 24 h and then the media was replaced with D‑GaIN (20 mM) and PYGP (20 and 40 µg/ml). The results demonstrated that D‑GaIN induced Hepa 1c1c7 cell death and pretreatment with PYGP was found to attenuate D‑GaIN toxicity. In addition, D‑GaIN decreased the antioxidant activity and increased lipid peroxidation processes; however, pre‑treatment with PYGP reduced the generation of lipid peroxidation products, such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, as well as increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione‑s‑transferase (GST). PYGP was shown to suppress the overexpression of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase, c‑jun N‑terminal kinase and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation induced by D‑GaIN. Furthermore, PYGP increased the protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 (Nrf2), quinine oxidoreductase 1, GST and heme oxygenase 1 protein expression. These results suggested that PYGP had cytoprotective effects against D‑GaIN‑induced cell damage, which may be associated with MAPKs and the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  19. Oligouridylate Binding Protein 1b Plays an Integral Role in Plant Heat Stress Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Cam Chau; Nakaminami, Kentaro; Matsui, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Shuhei; Kurihara, Yukio; Toyooka, Kiminori; Tanaka, Maho; Seki, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    Stress granules (SGs), which are formed in the plant cytoplasm under stress conditions, are transient dynamic sites (particles) for mRNA storage. SGs are actively involved in protecting mRNAs from degradation. Oligouridylate binding protein 1b (UBP1b) is a component of SGs. The formation of microscopically visible cytoplasmic foci, referred to as UBP1b SG, was induced by heat treatment in UBP1b-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants (UBP1b-ox). A detailed understanding of the function of UBP1b, however, is still not clear. UBP1b-ox plants displayed increased heat tolerance, relative to control plants, while ubp1b mutants were more sensitive to heat stress than control plants. Microarray analysis identified 117 genes whose expression was heat-inducible and higher in the UBP1b-ox plants. RNA decay analysis was performed using cordycepin, a transcriptional inhibitor. In order to determine if those genes serve as targets of UBP1b, the rate of RNA degradation of a DnaJ heat shock protein and a stress-associated protein (AtSAP3) in UBP1b-ox plants was slower than in control plants; indicating that the mRNAs of these genes were protected within the UBP1b SG granule. Collectively, these data demonstrate that UBP1b plays an integral role in heat stress tolerance in plants. PMID:27379136

  20. Cyp1b1 Mediates Periostin Regulation of Trabecular Meshwork Development by Suppression of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yun; Wang, Shoujian; Sorenson, Christine M.; Teixeira, Leandro; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Peters, Donna M.; Conway, Simon J.; Jefcoate, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Mutation in CYP1B1 has been reported for patients with congenital glaucoma. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show increased diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) in Cyp1b1-deficient (Cyp1b1−/−) mice. Cyp1b1−/− mice presented ultrastructural irregular collagen distribution in their trabecular meshwork (TM) tissue along with increased oxidative stress and decreased levels of periostin (Postn). Increased levels of oxidative stress and decreased levels of Postn were also detected in human glaucomatous TM tissues. Furthermore, Postn-deficient mice exhibited TM tissue ultrastructural abnormalities similar to those of Cyp1b1−/− mice. Administration of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) restored structural abnormality of TM tissue in Cyp1b1−/− mice. In addition, TM cells prepared from Cyp1b1−/− mice exhibited increased oxidative stress, altered adhesion, and decreased levels of Postn. These aberrant cellular responses were reversed in the presence of NAC or by restoration of Cyp1b1 expression. Cyp1b1 knockdown or inhibition of CYP1B1 activity in Cyp1b1+/+ TM cells resulted in a Cyp1b1−/− phenotype. Thus, metabolic activity of CYP1B1 contributes to oxidative homeostasis and ultrastructural organization and function of TM tissue through modulation of Postn expression. PMID:23979599

  1. EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing Software. Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perun, Vincent S.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Wagner, Paul A.; Cofield, Richard E., IV; Nguyen, Honghanh T.; Vuu, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This software is an improvement on Version 2, which was described in EOS MLS Level 1B Data Processing, Version 2.2, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 5 (May 2009), p. 34. It accepts the EOS MLS Level 0 science/engineering data, and the EOS Aura spacecraft ephemeris/attitude data, and produces calibrated instrument radiances and associated engineering and diagnostic data. This version makes the code more robust, improves calibration, provides more diagnostics outputs, defines the Galactic core more finely, and fixes the equator crossing. The Level 1 processing software manages several different tasks. It qualifies each data quantity using instrument configuration and checksum data, as well as data transmission quality flags. Statistical tests are applied for data quality and reasonableness. The instrument engineering data (e.g., voltages, currents, temperatures, and encoder angles) is calibrated by the software, and the filter channel space reference measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement with the interpolates being differenced from the measurements. Filter channel calibration target measurements are interpolated onto the times of each limb measurement, and are used to compute radiometric gain. The total signal power is determined and analyzed by each digital autocorrelator spectrometer (DACS) during each data integration. The software converts each DACS data integration from an autocorrelation measurement in the time domain into a spectral measurement in the frequency domain, and estimates separately the spectrally, smoothly varying and spectrally averaged components of the limb port signal arising from antenna emission and scattering effects. Limb radiances are also calibrated.

  2. SREBP-1c regulates glucose-stimulated hepatic clusterin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Gukhan; Kim, Geun Hyang; Oh, Gyun-Sik; Yoon, Jin; Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Min-Seon; Kim, Seung-Whan

    2011-05-20

    Highlights: {yields} This is the first report to show nutrient-regulated clusterin expression. {yields} Clusterin expression in hepatocytes was increased by high glucose concentration. {yields} SREBP-1c is directly involved in the transcriptional activation of clusterin by glucose. {yields} This glucose-stimulated activation process is mediated through tandem E-box motifs. -- Abstract: Clusterin is a stress-response protein that is involved in diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, tissue differentiation, inflammation, and lipid transport. Its expression is upregulated in a broad spectrum of diverse pathological states. Clusterin was recently reported to be associated with diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and their sequelae. However, the regulation of clusterin expression by metabolic signals was not addressed. In this study we evaluated the effects of glucose on hepatic clusterin expression. Interestingly, high glucose concentrations significantly increased clusterin expression in primary hepatocytes and hepatoma cell lines, but the conventional promoter region of the clusterin gene did not respond to glucose stimulation. In contrast, the first intronic region was transcriptionally activated by high glucose concentrations. We then defined a glucose response element (GlRE) of the clusterin gene, showing that it consists of two E-box motifs separated by five nucleotides and resembles carbohydrate response element (ChoRE). Unexpectedly, however, these E-box motifs were not activated by ChoRE binding protein (ChREBP), but were activated by sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). Furthermore, we found that glucose induced recruitment of SREBP-1c to the E-box of the clusterin gene intronic region. Taken together, these results suggest that clusterin expression is increased by glucose stimulation, and SREBP-1c plays a crucial role in the metabolic regulation of clusterin.

  3. Insulin-mimetic selaginellins from Selaginella tamariscina with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phi-Hung; Zhao, Bing-Tian; Ali, Md Yousof; Choi, Jae-Sue; Rhyu, Dong-Young; Min, Byung-Sun; Woo, Mi-Hee

    2015-01-23

    As part of an ongoing search for new antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants, three new (2, 4, and 5) and two known selaginellin derivatives (1 and 3) were isolated from a methanol extract of Selaginella tamariscina. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic data analysis. All isolates showed strong glucose uptake stimulatory effects in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cells at a concentration of 5 μM. Furthermore, these compounds were found to possess inhibitory effects on PTP1B enzyme activity with IC50 values ranging from 4.6 ± 0.1 to 21.6 ± 1.5 μM. Compound 2 showed the greatest potency, with an IC50 value of 4.6 ± 0.1 μM, when compared with the positive control (ursolic acid, IC50 = 3.5 ± 0.1 μM). Therefore, these selaginellin derivatives may have value as new lead compounds for the development of agents against type 2 diabetes.

  4. How to be a dioecious fig: Chemical mimicry between sexes matters only when both sexes flower synchronously

    PubMed Central

    Hossaert-McKey, M.; Proffit, M.; Soler, C. C. L.; Chen, C.; Bessière, J.-M.; Schatz, B.; Borges, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    In nursery pollination mutualisms, which are usually obligate interactions, olfactory attraction of pollinators by floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is the main step in guaranteeing partner encounter. However, mechanisms ensuring the evolutionary stability of dioecious fig–pollinator mutualisms, in which female fig trees engage in pollination by deceit resulting in zero reproductive success of pollinators that visit them, are poorly understood. In dioecious figs, individuals of each sex should be selected to produce odours that their pollinating wasps cannot distinguish, especially since pollinators have usually only one choice of a nursery during their lifetime. To test the hypothesis of intersexual chemical mimicry, VOCs emitted by pollen-receptive figs of seven dioecious species were compared using headspace collection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. First, fig-flower scents varied significantly among species, allowing host-species recognition. Second, in species in which male and female figs are synchronous, intersexual VOC variation was not significant. However, in species where figs of both sexes flower asynchronously, intersexual variation of VOCs was detectable. Finally, with one exception, there was no sexual dimorphism in scent quantity. We show that there are two ways to use scent to be a dioecious fig based on differences in flowering synchrony between the sexes. PMID:26888579

  5. The influence of fig proteases on the inhibition of angiotensin I-converting and GABA formation in meat.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyue; Izumimoto, Masatoshi; Yonehara, Makiko; Hirotsu, Seiya; Kuriki, Takayoshi; Naito, Ichiro; Yamada, Hidenori

    2009-12-01

    The purposes of this research were to use fig protease for texture tenderizing, and to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) action and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) formation of meat. Liberated peptides by the enzymatic action of fig protease in processing meat and free amino acids were determined and ACE inhibitory activity was assayed. Meat treated with fig protease became tender as indicated by shear force value (SFV) which was half of those of non-fig treated meat during storage even at 5 degrees C. Liberated peptides, free amino acids and GABA increased while extremely low levels of Glu were detected after storage. The optimal temperature of fig protease against meat was 80 degrees C. However, the activity of fig protease decreased after pre-heating more than 40 degrees C. High ACE inhibitory activity of a mixture of fig and meat was found around 80 degrees C, and the value corresponded to the amount of liberated peptide. A lot of liberated peptides were found at 60-80 degrees C and pasterization of meat product becomes convenient to produce peptides. Production of ACE inhibitory peptides and GABA can be expected as the healthy functional meat product such as antihypertensive activity and improve brain function.

  6. The N-terminal region of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) plays an essential role in regulating its plasma membrane trafficking.

    PubMed

    Chun, Se-Eun; Thakkar, Nilay; Oh, Yunseok; Park, Ji Eun; Han, Songhee; Ryoo, Gongmi; Hahn, Hyunggu; Maeng, Sang Hyun; Lim, Young-Ran; Han, Byung Woo; Lee, Wooin

    2017-05-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) is a major influx transporter mediating the hepatic uptake of various endogenous substrates as well as clinically important drugs such as statins and anticancer drugs. However, molecular mechanisms controlling the membrane trafficking of OATP1B3 have been largely unknown. Several reports recently indicated the presence of a distinct, cancer-type OATP1B3 variant lacking the N-terminal 28 amino acids compared to OATP1B3 expressed in non-malignant hepatocytes. Interestingly, the cancer-type OATP1B3 variant is located predominantly in the cytoplasm, implicating the involvement of the N-terminal region of OATP1B3 in its membrane trafficking. In the current study, we set out to experimentally validate the importance of the N-terminal region of OATP1B3 and to identify responsible sequence motif(s) in that region. A number of truncation or point mutants of OATP1B3 were transiently expressed in HEK293T, HCT-8 or MDCK II cells and their expression in cytoplasmic and surface membrane fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting. Our results indicated that the N-terminal sequence of OATP1B3, in particular, at the amino acid positions between 12 and 28, may be indispensable in its membrane trafficking. Moreover, our results using a fusion construct indicated that the first 50 amino acids of OATP1B3 are sufficient for its membrane localization. The importance of the N-terminal region in membranous localization was shared among the other OATP1B subfamily members, OATP1B1 and rat Oatp1b2. Our efforts to identify the responsible amino acid(s) or structure motif(s) in the N-terminal region did not pinpoint individual amino acids or motifs with putative secondary structures. Our current findings however demonstrate that the N-terminal region is important for the membrane localization of the OATP1B subfamily members and should facilitate future investigations of the mechanisms involved in the regulation and membrane trafficking of

  7. Effects of ingestion by neotropical bats on germination parameters of native free-standing and strangler figs (Ficus sp., Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Heer, Katrin; Albrecht, Larissa; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2010-06-01

    Fruit-eating animals can influence the germination success of seeds through transportation and handling. We experimentally tested the contribution of ingestion by the common fruit-eating bat, Artibeus jamaicensis (Phyllostomidae, Chiroptera), to the percentage and rate of seed germination of figs (Ficus, Moraceae), which are considered keystone species for many frugivores. We collected fruits from three species of native free-standing figs (subgenus Pharmacosycea: F. insipida, F. maxima and F. yoponensis) and three species of native strangler figs (subgenus Urostigma: F. nymphiifolia, F. obtusifolia and F. popenoei) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. The germination success of seeds removed from fruit pulp either manually or by ingestion was very high (>92%), while seeds that were not removed from fruit pulp were destroyed by fast-growing fungi within a few days. The dynamics of seed germination were not influenced by ingestion, but differed between the two subgenera of figs. In free-standing figs, germination started significantly earlier (5.3 +/- 0.7 days) than in strangler figs (8.6 +/- 1.4 days). Furthermore, strangler seeds were covered with a sticky coating and their seedlings developed cotyledons faster than fine roots, in contrast to free-standing figs that showed the opposite pattern. Our results demonstrate that the germination of fig seeds is positively influenced by passage through the gut of A. jamaicensis. Furthermore, free-standing and strangler figs revealed differences in germination parameters that might be adaptive with respect to the suitability of microsites such as tree fall gaps or host trees for establishment.

  8. Insect responses to host plant provision beyond natural boundaries: latitudinal and altitudinal variation in a Chinese fig wasp community

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Quinnell, Rupert J; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Barwell, Louise; Chen, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Many plants are grown outside their natural ranges. Plantings adjacent to native ranges provide an opportunity to monitor community assembly among associated insects and their parasitoids in novel environments, to determine whether gradients in species richness emerge and to examine their consequences for host plant reproductive success. We recorded the fig wasps (Chalcidoidea) associated with a single plant resource (ovules of Ficus microcarpa) along a 1200 km transect in southwest China that extended for 1000 km beyond the tree's natural northern range margin. The fig wasps included the tree's agaonid pollinator and other species that feed on the ovules or are their parasitoids. Phytophagous fig wasps (12 species) were more numerous than parasitoids (nine species). The proportion of figs occupied by fig wasps declined with increasing latitude, as did the proportion of utilized ovules in occupied figs. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of fig wasps also significantly changed along both latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. Parasitoids declined more steeply with latitude than phytophages. Seed production declined beyond the natural northern range margin, and at high elevation, because pollinator fig wasps became rare or absent. This suggests that pollinator climatic tolerances helped limit the tree's natural distribution, although competition with another species may have excluded pollinators at the highest altitude site. Isolation by distance may prevent colonization of northern sites by some fig wasps and act in combination with direct and host-mediated climatic effects to generate gradients in community composition, with parasitoids inherently more sensitive because of declines in the abundance of potential hosts. PMID:26380693

  9. Insect responses to host plant provision beyond natural boundaries: latitudinal and altitudinal variation in a Chinese fig wasp community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Quinnell, Rupert J; Peng, Yan-Qiong; Barwell, Louise; Chen, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Many plants are grown outside their natural ranges. Plantings adjacent to native ranges provide an opportunity to monitor community assembly among associated insects and their parasitoids in novel environments, to determine whether gradients in species richness emerge and to examine their consequences for host plant reproductive success. We recorded the fig wasps (Chalcidoidea) associated with a single plant resource (ovules of Ficus microcarpa) along a 1200 km transect in southwest China that extended for 1000 km beyond the tree's natural northern range margin. The fig wasps included the tree's agaonid pollinator and other species that feed on the ovules or are their parasitoids. Phytophagous fig wasps (12 species) were more numerous than parasitoids (nine species). The proportion of figs occupied by fig wasps declined with increasing latitude, as did the proportion of utilized ovules in occupied figs. Species richness, diversity, and abundance of fig wasps also significantly changed along both latitudinal and altitudinal gradients. Parasitoids declined more steeply with latitude than phytophages. Seed production declined beyond the natural northern range margin, and at high elevation, because pollinator fig wasps became rare or absent. This suggests that pollinator climatic tolerances helped limit the tree's natural distribution, although competition with another species may have excluded pollinators at the highest altitude site. Isolation by distance may prevent colonization of northern sites by some fig wasps and act in combination with direct and host-mediated climatic effects to generate gradients in community composition, with parasitoids inherently more sensitive because of declines in the abundance of potential hosts.

  10. Differential Expression of OATP1B3 Mediates Unconjugated Testosterone Influx.

    PubMed

    Sissung, Tristan M; Ley, Ariel M; Strope, Jonathan D; McCrea, Edel M; Beedie, Shaunna L; Peer, Cody J; Shukla, Suneet; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C; Reece, Kelie; Troutman, Sarah; Campbell, Tessa; Fernandez, Elena; Huang, Phoebe; Smith, Jordan; Thakkar, Nilay; Venzon, David; Brenner, Steffan; Lee, Wooin; Merino, Maria J; Luo, Ji; Jager, Walter; Chau, Cindy H; Price, Douglas K; Figg, William D

    2017-04-07

    Castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has greater intratumoral testosterone concentrations than similar tumors from eugonadal men; simple diffusion does not account for this observation. The present study was undertaken to ascertain the androgen uptake kinetics, functional, and clinical relevance of de novo expression of the steroid hormone transporter OATP1B3 (SLCO1B3). Experiments testing the cellular uptake of androgens suggest that testosterone is an excellent substrate of OATP1B3 (KM=23.2µM; VMAX=321.6pmol/mg/min), and cells expressing a doxycycline-inducible SLCO1B3 construct had greater uptake of a clinically relevant concentration of 3H-testosterone (50nM; 1.6-fold, P=0.0027). When compared to Slco1b2 (-/-) mice, Slco1b2 (-/-)/hSLCO1B3 knockins had greater hepatic uptake (15% greater AUC, P=0.0040) and lower plasma exposure to 3H-testosterone (17% lower AUC, P=0.0030). Of 82 transporters genes, SLCO1B3 is the second-most differentially-expressed transporter in CRPC cell lines (116-fold vs androgen sensitive cells), with a differentially-spliced cancer-type ct-SLCO1B3 making up the majority of SLCO1B3 expression. Overexpression of SLCO1B3 in androgen responsive cells results in 1.5- to 2-fold greater testosterone uptake whereas siRNA knockdown of SLCO1B3 in CRPC cells did not change intracellular testosterone concentration. Primary human prostate tumors express SLCO1B3 to a greater extent than ct-SLCO1B3 (26% of total SLCO1B3 expression vs 0.08%), suggesting that androgen uptake in these tumor cells also is greater. Non-liver tumors do not differentially express SLCO1B3.

  11. Four and a Half LIM Domains 1b (Fhl1b) Is Essential for Regulating the Liver versus Pancreas Fate Decision and for β-Cell Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Cui, Jiaxi; Del Campo, Aranzazu; Shin, Chong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The liver and pancreas originate from overlapping embryonic regions, and single-cell lineage tracing in zebrafish has shown that Bone morphogenetic protein 2b (Bmp2b) signaling is essential for determining the fate of bipotential hepatopancreatic progenitors towards the liver or pancreas. Despite its pivotal role, the gene regulatory networks functioning downstream of Bmp2b signaling in this process are poorly understood. We have identified four and a half LIM domains 1b (fhl1b), which is primarily expressed in the prospective liver anlage, as a novel target of Bmp2b signaling. fhl1b depletion compromised liver specification and enhanced induction of pancreatic cells from endodermal progenitors. Conversely, overexpression of fhl1b favored liver specification and inhibited induction of pancreatic cells. By single-cell lineage tracing, we showed that fhl1b depletion led lateral endodermal cells, destined to become liver cells, to become pancreatic cells. Reversely, when fhl1b was overexpressed, medially located endodermal cells, fated to differentiate into pancreatic and intestinal cells, contributed to the liver by directly or indirectly modulating the discrete levels of pdx1 expression in endodermal progenitors. Moreover, loss of fhl1b increased the regenerative capacity of β-cells by increasing pdx1 and neurod expression in the hepatopancreatic ductal system. Altogether, these data reveal novel and critical functions of Fhl1b in the hepatic versus pancreatic fate decision and in β-cell regeneration. PMID:26845333

  12. 20 CFR 655.700 - What statutory provisions govern the employment of H-1B, H-1B1, and E-3 nonimmigrants and how do...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... obtained from an DHS district or area office. (3) If DHS approves the H-1B classification, the nonimmigrant... nurses. Therefore, the references in this part to “H-1B nonimmigrant” apply to any Mexican citizen nonimmigrant who is classified by DHS as “TN.” In the case of a registered nurse, the following...

  13. 20 CFR 655.705 - What Federal agencies are involved in the H-1B and H-1B1 programs, and what are the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employers Seeking To Employ Nonimmigrants on H-1b Visas in Specialty Occupations and as Fashion Models, and... whether the individual is a fashion model of distinguished merit and ability, and whether the... § 655.700(d)(4). Each employer seeking an H-1B nonimmigrant in a specialty occupation or as a...

  14. 18 CFR 1b.15 - Non-compliance with compulsory processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Non-compliance with compulsory processes. 1b.15 Section 1b.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.15 Non-compliance...

  15. 18 CFR 1b.17 - Appearance and practice before the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Appearance and practice before the Commission. 1b.17 Section 1b.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.17...

  16. 18 CFR 1b.15 - Non-compliance with compulsory processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Non-compliance with compulsory processes. 1b.15 Section 1b.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.15 Non-compliance...

  17. 18 CFR 1b.17 - Appearance and practice before the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Appearance and practice before the Commission. 1b.17 Section 1b.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.17...

  18. 39 CFR 3010.28 - Maximum size of Type 1-B rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maximum size of Type 1-B rate adjustments. 3010.28... DOMINANT PRODUCTS Rules for Determining the Maximum Rate Adjustment § 3010.28 Maximum size of Type 1-B rate... used to make a Type 1-B rate adjustment for any class in any 12-month period may not exceed...

  19. 18 CFR 1b.15 - Non-compliance with compulsory processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Non-compliance with compulsory processes. 1b.15 Section 1b.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.15 Non-compliance...

  20. 18 CFR 1b.17 - Appearance and practice before the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Appearance and practice before the Commission. 1b.17 Section 1b.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.17...

  1. 18 CFR 1b.17 - Appearance and practice before the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appearance and practice before the Commission. 1b.17 Section 1b.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.17...

  2. 18 CFR 1b.17 - Appearance and practice before the Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Appearance and practice before the Commission. 1b.17 Section 1b.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.17...

  3. 18 CFR 1b.15 - Non-compliance with compulsory processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Non-compliance with compulsory processes. 1b.15 Section 1b.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.15 Non-compliance...

  4. 18 CFR 1b.15 - Non-compliance with compulsory processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-compliance with compulsory processes. 1b.15 Section 1b.15 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.15 Non-compliance...

  5. Development of an In Vitro Model to Screen CYP1B1-Targeted Anticancer Prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiying; Chen, Yao; Drbohlav, Laura M; Wu, Judy Qiju; Wang, Michael Zhuo

    2016-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is an anticancer therapeutic target due to its overexpression in a number of steroid hormone-related cancers. One anticancer drug discovery strategy is to develop prodrugs specifically activated by CYP1B1 in malignant tissues to cytotoxic metabolites. Here, we aimed to develop an in vitro screening model for CYP1B1-targeted anticancer prodrugs using the KLE human endometrial carcinoma cell line. KLE cells demonstrated superior stability of CYP1B1 expression relative to transiently transfected cells and did not express any appreciable amount of cognate CYP1A1 or CYP1A2, which would have compromised the specificity of the screening assay. The effect of two CYP1B1-targeted probe prodrugs on KLE cells was evaluated in the absence and presence of a CYP1B1 inhibitor to chemically "knock out" CYP1B1 activity (CYP1B1 inhibited). Both probe prodrugs were more toxic to KLE cells than to CYP1B1-inhibited KLE cells and significantly induced G0/G1 arrest and decreased the S phase in KLE cells. They also exhibited pro-apoptotic effects in KLE cells, which were attenuated in CYP1B1-inhibited KLE cells. In summary, a KLE cell-based model has been characterized to be suitable for identifying CYP1B1-targeted anticancer prodrugs and should be further developed and employed for screening chemical libraries.

  6. Deregulation of FoxM1b leads to tumour metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jung; Gusarova, Galina; Wang, Zebin; Carr, Janai R; Li, Jing; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Qiu, Jin; Park, Yoon-Dong; Williamson, Peter R; Hay, Nissim; Tyner, Angela L; Lau, Lester F; Costa, Robert H; Raychaudhuri, Pradip

    2011-01-01

    The forkhead box M1b (FoxM1b) transcription factor is over-expressed in human cancers, and its expression often correlates with poor prognosis. Previously, using conditional knockout strains, we showed that FoxM1b is essential for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. However, over-expression of FoxM1b had only marginal effects on HCC progression. Here we investigated the effect of FoxM1b expression in the absence of its inhibitor Arf. We show that transgenic expression of FoxM1b in an Arf-null background drives hepatic fibrosis and metastasis of HCC. We identify novel mechanisms of FoxM1b that are involved in epithelial–mesenchymal transition, cell motility, invasion and a pre-metastatic niche formation. FoxM1b activates the Akt-Snail1 pathway and stimulates expression of Stathmin, lysyl oxidase, lysyl oxidase like-2 and several other genes involved in metastasis. Furthermore, we show that an Arf-derived peptide, which inhibits FoxM1b, impedes metastasis of the FoxM1b-expressing HCC cells. The observations indicate that FoxM1b is a potent activator of tumour metastasis and that the Arf-mediated inhibition of FoxM1b is a critical mechanism for suppression of tumour metastasis. PMID:21204266

  7. AP-1/σ1A and AP-1/σ1B adaptor-proteins differentially regulate neuronal early endosome maturation via the Rab5/Vps34-pathway

    PubMed Central

    Candiello, Ermes; Kratzke, Manuel; Wenzel, Dirk; Cassel, Dan; Schu, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The σ1 subunit of the AP-1 clathrin-coated-vesicle adaptor-protein complex is expressed as three isoforms. Tissues express σ1A and one of the σ1B and σ1C isoforms. Brain is the tissue with the highest σ1A and σ1B expression. σ1B-deficiency leads to severe mental retardation, accumulation of early endosomes in synapses and fewer synaptic vesicles, whose recycling is slowed down. AP-1/σ1A and AP-1/σ1B regulate maturation of these early endosomes into multivesicular body late endosomes, thereby controlling synaptic vesicle protein transport into a degradative pathway. σ1A binds ArfGAP1, and with higher affinity brain-specific ArfGAP1, which bind Rabex-5. AP-1/σ1A-ArfGAP1-Rabex-5 complex formation leads to more endosomal Rabex-5 and enhanced, Rab5GTP-stimulated Vps34 PI3-kinase activity, which is essential for multivesicular body endosome formation. Formation of AP-1/σ1A-ArfGAP1-Rabex-5 complexes is prevented by σ1B binding of Rabex-5 and the amount of endosomal Rabex-5 is reduced. AP-1 complexes differentially regulate endosome maturation and coordinate protein recycling and degradation, revealing a novel molecular mechanism by which they regulate protein transport besides their established function in clathrin-coated-vesicle formation. PMID:27411398

  8. AP-1/σ1A and AP-1/σ1B adaptor-proteins differentially regulate neuronal early endosome maturation via the Rab5/Vps34-pathway.

    PubMed

    Candiello, Ermes; Kratzke, Manuel; Wenzel, Dirk; Cassel, Dan; Schu, Peter

    2016-07-14

    The σ1 subunit of the AP-1 clathrin-coated-vesicle adaptor-protein complex is expressed as three isoforms. Tissues express σ1A and one of the σ1B and σ1C isoforms. Brain is the tissue with the highest σ1A and σ1B expression. σ1B-deficiency leads to severe mental retardation, accumulation of early endosomes in synapses and fewer synaptic vesicles, whose recycling is slowed down. AP-1/σ1A and AP-1/σ1B regulate maturation of these early endosomes into multivesicular body late endosomes, thereby controlling synaptic vesicle protein transport into a degradative pathway. σ1A binds ArfGAP1, and with higher affinity brain-specific ArfGAP1, which bind Rabex-5. AP-1/σ1A-ArfGAP1-Rabex-5 complex formation leads to more endosomal Rabex-5 and enhanced, Rab5(GTP)-stimulated Vps34 PI3-kinase activity, which is essential for multivesicular body endosome formation. Formation of AP-1/σ1A-ArfGAP1-Rabex-5 complexes is prevented by σ1B binding of Rabex-5 and the amount of endosomal Rabex-5 is reduced. AP-1 complexes differentially regulate endosome maturation and coordinate protein recycling and degradation, revealing a novel molecular mechanism by which they regulate protein transport besides their established function in clathrin-coated-vesicle formation.

  9. Preparation of 1-C-glycosyl aldehydes by reductive hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Szabolcs; Jablonkai, István

    2011-09-06

    Reductive hydrolysis of various protected glycosyl cyanides was carried out using DIBAL-H to form aldimine alane intermediates which were then hydrolyzed under mildly acidic condition to provide the corresponding aldehyde derivatives. While 1-C-formyl glycal and 2-deoxy glycosyl derivatives were stable during isolation and storage 1-C-glycosyl formaldehydes in the gluco, galacto and manno series were sensitive and decomposition occurred by 2-alkyloxy elimination. A one-pot method using N,N'-diphenylethylenediamine to trap these aldehydes in stable form was developed. Reductive hydrolysis of glycosyl cyanides offers valuable aldehyde building blocks in a convenient way which can be applied in the synthesis of complex C-glycosides.

  10. The effect of organic anion-transporting polypeptides 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1 on the antitumor activity of flavopiridol in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Stefan; Riha, Juliane; Giessrigl, Benedikt; Thalhammer, Theresia; Grusch, Michael; Krupitza, Georg; Stieger, Bruno; Jäger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) to the cellular uptake of flavopiridol was investigated in OATP1B1-, OATP1B3- and OATP2B1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Uptake of flavopiridol into these cells showed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics with much higher transport capacity for OATP1B3 compared to OATP1B1 and OATP2B1 (Vmax/Km, 33.9 vs. 8.84 and 2.41 µl/mg/min, respectively). The predominant role of OATPs was further supported by a dramatic inhibition of flavopiridol uptake in the presence of the OATP substrate rifampicin. Uptake of flavopiridol by OATPs also seems to be an important determinant in breast cancer cells. The much higher mRNA level for OATP1B1 found in wild-type compared to ZR-75-1 OATP1B1 knockdown cells correlated with higher flavopiridol initial uptake leading to 4.6-fold decreased IC50 values in the cytotoxicity assay (IC50, 1.45 vs. 6.64 µM). Cell cycle profile also showed a clear incidence for a stronger cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase for ZR-75-1 wild-type cells compared to OATP1B1 knockdown cells, further indicating an active uptake via OATP1B1. In conclusion, our results revealed OATP1B1, OATP1B3 and OATP2B1 as uptake transporters for flavopiridol in cancer cells, which may also apply in patients during cancer therapy.

  11. The influence of macrolide antibiotics on the uptake of organic anions and drugs mediated by OATP1B1 and OATP1B3.

    PubMed

    Seithel, Annick; Eberl, Sonja; Singer, Katrin; Auge, Daniel; Heinkele, Georg; Wolf, Nadine B; Dörje, Frank; Fromm, Martin F; König, Jörg

    2007-05-01

    Macrolides may cause severe drug interactions due to the inhibition of metabolizing enzymes. Transporter-mediated uptake of drugs into cells [e.g., by members of the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family] is a determinant of drug disposition and a prerequisite for subsequent metabolism. However whether macrolides are also inhibitors of uptake transporters, thereby providing an additional mechanism of drug interactions, has not been systematically studied. The human OATP family members OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 mediate the uptake of endogenous substances and drugs such as antibiotics and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) into hepatocytes. In this study we investigated the potential role of these uptake transporters on macrolide-induced drug interactions. By using sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor pravastatin as substrates, the effects of the macrolides azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, and roxithromycin and of the ketolide telithromycin on the OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated uptake were analyzed. These experiments demonstrated that the OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated uptake of BSP and pravastatin can be inhibited by increasing concentrations of all macrolides except azithromycin. The IC50 values for the inhibition of OATP1B3-mediated BSP uptake were 11 microM for telithromycin, 32 microM for clarithromycin, 34 microM for erythromycin, and 37 microM for roxithromycin. These IC50 values were lower than the IC50 values for inhibition of OATP1B1-mediated BSP uptake (96-217 microM). These macrolides also inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner the OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated uptake of pravastatin. In summary, these results indicate that alterations of uptake transporter function by certain macrolides/ketolides have to be considered as a potential additional mechanism underlying drug-drug interactions.

  12. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Jumonji AT-rich Interactive Domain 1B (JARID1B) Histone Demethylase by a Sensitive High Throughput Screen*

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Joyce; Cao, Jian; Zou, Mike Ran; Morales, Alfonso; Blair, Lauren P.; Norcia, Michael; Hoyer, Denton; Tackett, Alan J.; Merkel, Jane S.; Yan, Qin

    2013-01-01

    JARID1B (also known as KDM5B or PLU1) is a member of the JARID1 family of histone lysine demethylases responsible for the demethylation of trimethylated lysine 27 in histone H3 (H3K4me3), a mark for actively transcribed genes. JARID1B is overexpressed in several cancers, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer. In addition, JARID1B is required for mammary tumor formation in syngeneic or xenograft mouse models. JARID1B-expressing melanoma cells are associated with increased self-renewal character. Therefore, JARID1B represents an attractive target for cancer therapy. Here we characterized JARID1B using a homogeneous luminescence-based demethylase assay. We then conducted a high throughput screen of over 15,000 small molecules to identify inhibitors of JARID1B. From this screen, we identified several known JmjC histone demethylase inhibitors, including 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid and catechols. More importantly, we identified several novel inhibitors, including 2-4(4-methylphenyl)-1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one (PBIT), which inhibits JARID1B with an IC50 of about 3 μm in vitro. Consistent with this, PBIT treatment inhibited removal of H3K4me3 by JARID1B in cells. Furthermore, this compound inhibited proliferation of cells expressing higher levels of JARID1B. These results suggest that this novel small molecule inhibitor is a lead compound that can be further optimized for cancer therapy. PMID:23408432

  13. Identification of RAN1 orthologue associated with sex determination through whole genome sequencing analysis in fig (Ficus carica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kazuki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Nogata, Hitoshi; Hirata, Chiharu; Tashiro, Kosuke; Habu, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Sangwan; Himeno, Shuichi; Kuhara, Satoru; Ikegami, Hidetoshi

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of identifying sex determinants of fig, we generated the first draft genome sequence of fig and conducted the subsequent analyses. Linkage analysis with a high-density genetic map established by a restriction-site associated sequencing technique, and genome-wide association study followed by whole-genome resequencing analysis identified two missense mutations in RESPONSIVE-TO-ANTAGONIST1 (RAN1) orthologue encoding copper-transporting ATPase completely associated with sex phenotypes of investigated figs. This result suggests that RAN1 is a possible sex determinant candidate in the fig genome. The genomic resources and genetic findings obtained in this study can contribute to general understanding of Ficus species and provide an insight into fig’s and plant’s sex determination system. PMID:28120935

  14. Serum reactivity to other indoor ficus plants in patients with allergy to weeping fig (Ficus benjamina).

    PubMed

    Axelsson, I G; Johansson, S G; Larsson, P H; Zetterström, O

    1991-02-01

    Ornamental plants have long been used for indoor decoration. An example is the india rubber tree (Ficus elastica). With the increased popularity of green plants, both in private homes and public premises, small-leaf species, such as weeping fig or Ficus benjamina (Fb), have become widely used. Exposure to dust from Fb may cause sensitization and allergic airway symptoms, which among occupationally exposed plant keepers occur both in atopics and non-atopics. The serum reactivity to sap extracts from Fb and seven other indoor plants of the genus Ficus were investigated with RAST and a RAST inhibition technique, using sera from 12 atopic subjects and 12 plant keepers, sensitized to Fb. The allergenic similarity between the different extracts was found to be extensive. The specific IgE antibodies with the highest concentrations in serum were those against Fb and its variegate form, "star light", with decreasing values for the other species, especially those with larger leaves. The binding of IgE antibodies to the other Ficus RAST discs could be completely inhibited by extract of Fb. These reactions were probably due to cross-reactivity. Sensitization is believed to occur by inhalation of allergen-enriched dust, emanating from the leaves of the plants. The high allergenic potency of the species with many small leaves may be due to their large total leaf area.

  15. A Role for Parasites in Stabilising the Fig-Pollinator Mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Derek W; Segar, Simon T; Ridley, Jo; Chan, Ruth; Crozier, Ross H; Yu, Douglas W; Cook, James M

    2008-01-01

    Mutualisms are interspecific interactions in which both players benefit. Explaining their maintenance is problematic, because cheaters should outcompete cooperative conspecifics, leading to mutualism instability. Monoecious figs (Ficus) are pollinated by host-specific wasps (Agaonidae), whose larvae gall ovules in their “fruits” (syconia). Female pollinating wasps oviposit directly into Ficus ovules from inside the receptive syconium. Across Ficus species, there is a widely documented segregation of pollinator galls in inner ovules and seeds in outer ovules. This pattern suggests that wasps avoid, or are prevented from ovipositing into, outer ovules, and this results in mutualism stability. However, the mechanisms preventing wasps from exploiting outer ovules remain unknown. We report that in Ficus rubiginosa, offspring in outer ovules are vulnerable to attack by parasitic wasps that oviposit from outside the syconium. Parasitism risk decreases towards the centre of the syconium, where inner ovules provide enemy-free space for pollinator offspring. We suggest that the resulting gradient in offspring viability is likely to contribute to selection on pollinators to avoid outer ovules, and by forcing wasps to focus on a subset of ovules, reduces their galling rates. This previously unidentified mechanism may therefore contribute to mutualism persistence independent of additional factors that invoke plant defences against pollinator oviposition, or physiological constraints on pollinators that prevent oviposition in all available ovules. PMID:18336072

  16. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of dried fig against oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Turan, Abdullah; Celik, Ismail

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect and antioxidant role of dried fig (DF) (Ficus carica L.) against ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Experiment was designed as normal Control, 20% ethanol, 10% DF and 10% DF+20% ethanol groups. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant role of the dried DF supplementation feed against ethanol induced oxidatif stress were evaluated by liver histopathological changes, measuring liver damage serum enzymes (LDSE), antioxidant defense system (ADS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in various tissues of rats following the exposure of experimental for 50days. The biochemical analysis showed a considerable increase the LDSE in the ethanol group as compared to that of control group whereas, decreased in 10% DF+20% ethanol group as compared to that of ethanol group. In addition, the DF supplementation diet restored the ethanol-induced MDA and ADS towards to control. The hepatoprotection of DF is further substantiated by the almost normal histologic findings of liver in 10% DF+20% ethanol group against degenerative changes in ethanol group. The results indicated that the DF could be as important as diet-derived antioxidants and antihepatotoxicity in preventing oxidative damage in the tissues by inhibiting the production of ethanol-induced free radicals and hepatotoxicity in rats.

  17. Pectinesterase inhibitor from jelly-fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) achenes reduces methanol content in carambola wine.

    PubMed

    Wu, James Swi-Bea; Wu, Ming-Chang; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hwang, Ya-Ping; Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Hung-Min

    2005-11-30

    Crude pectinesterase (PE) inhibitor (PEI) extracted from jelly-fig achenes (JFA) (Ficus awakeosang Makino) was added to carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) puree to determine the change in methanol production during fermentation. Addition of pectin or microbial pectic enzyme to puree increased dose-dependently the methanol content in fermented products. Decreasing ratio (from 1:0 to 1:19, v:v) of pectic enzyme to diluted crude PEI solution in the puree-enzyme mixture decreased the PE activity remarkably. Except for transmittance (%T), addition of crude PEI to puree did not affect apparently the physical and chemical properties of wine; however, it reduced methanol content in the control from 256 to 58 ppm. The degree of esterification (DE) of pectin in starting puree was approximately 70%. It decreased to approximately 27% in the control group and reduced slightly to approximately 67% in fermented puree with crude PEI added after 14 days of fermentation. This reveals that crude PEI solution was potent in inhibiting intrinsic carambola PE activity and appeared to be a potential alternative for methanol reduction in wines.

  18. Biosorption of Ni(II) by Fig Male: Optimization and Modeling Using a Full Factorial Design.

    PubMed

    Madjene, F; Chergui, A; Trari, M

    2016-06-01

    The fig male (FM) is successfully used as biosorbent for Ni(2+) removal. The maximum removal efficiency (96.6%) is obtained at pH ~ 5 for a concentration of 1.70 mmol L(-1) and catalyst dose of 5 g L(-1) in less than 10 minutes. The Ni(2+) uptake follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic, the rate constants increase with increasing temperature, and an activation energy of 55.48 kJ mol(-1) is found. The thermodynamic parameters indicate a spontaneous endothermic bisorption. The isotherm data are fitted by the Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich models. The former indicates a maximum Ni(2+) uptake of 0.459 mmol g(-1), which is higher than that of most biosorbents investigated to date. The FTIR spectra reveal the biosorption mechanism between Ni(2+) and FM functional groups. An empirical modeling is performed by using a 2(3) full factorial design, and a regression equation for Ni(2+) biosorption is determined. The biosorbent mass and pH are the most significant parameters affecting the Ni(2+) biosorption.

  19. A role for parasites in stabilising the fig-pollinator mutualism.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Derek W; Segar, Simon T; Ridley, Jo; Chan, Ruth; Crozier, Ross H; Yu, Douglas W; Cook, James M

    2008-03-11

    Mutualisms are interspecific interactions in which both players benefit. Explaining their maintenance is problematic, because cheaters should outcompete cooperative conspecifics, leading to mutualism instability. Monoecious figs (Ficus) are pollinated by host-specific wasps (Agaonidae), whose larvae gall ovules in their "fruits" (syconia). Female pollinating wasps oviposit directly into Ficus ovules from inside the receptive syconium. Across Ficus species, there is a widely documented segregation of pollinator galls in inner ovules and seeds in outer ovules. This pattern suggests that wasps avoid, or are prevented from ovipositing into, outer ovules, and this results in mutualism stability. However, the mechanisms preventing wasps from exploiting outer ovules remain unknown. We report that in Ficus rubiginosa, offspring in outer ovules are vulnerable to attack by parasitic wasps that oviposit from outside the syconium. Parasitism risk decreases towards the centre of the syconium, where inner ovules provide enemy-free space for pollinator offspring. We suggest that the resulting gradient in offspring viability is likely to contribute to selection on pollinators to avoid outer ovules, and by forcing wasps to focus on a subset of ovules, reduces their galling rates. This previously unidentified mechanism may therefore contribute to mutualism persistence independent of additional factors that invoke plant defences against pollinator oviposition, or physiological constraints on pollinators that prevent oviposition in all available ovules.

  20. SorCS1 variants and amyloid precursor protein (APP) are co-transported in neurons but only SorCS1c modulates anterograde APP transport.

    PubMed

    Hermey, Guido; Schmidt, Nadine; Bluhm, Björn; Mensching, Daniel; Ostermann, Kristina; Rupp, Carsten; Kuhl, Dietmar; Kins, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is crucial for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because this processing is highly dependent on its intracellular itinerary, altered subcellular targeting of APP is thought to directly affect the degree to which Aβ is generated. The sorting receptor SorCS1 has been genetically linked to AD, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We analyze two SorCS1 variants; one, SorCS1c, conveys internalization of surface-bound ligands whereas the other, SorCS1b, does not. In agreement with previous studies, we demonstrate co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization of both SorCS1 variants with APP. Our results suggest that SorCS1c and APP are internalized independently, although they mostly share a common post-endocytic pathway. We introduce functional Venus-tagged constructs to study SorCS1b and SorCS1c in living cells. Both variants are transported by fast anterograde axonal transport machinery and about 30% of anterograde APP-positive transport vesicles contain SorCS1. Co-expression of SorCS1b caused no change of APP transport kinetics, but SorCS1c reduced the anterograde transport rate of APP and increased the number of APP-positive stationary vesicles. These data suggest that SorCS1 and APP share trafficking pathways and that SorCS1c can retain APP from insertion into anterograde transport vesicles. Altered APP trafficking is thought to modulate its processing. SorCS1 has been suggested to function in APP trafficking. We analyzed if the two SorCS1 variants, SorCS1b and SorCS1c, tie APP to the cell surface or modify its internalization and intracellular targeting. We observed co-localization and vesicular co-transport of APP and SorCS1, but independent internalization and sorting through a common post-endocytic pathway. Co-expression of one variant, SorCS1c, reduced anterograde APP transport. These data demonstrate that SorCS1 and APP share trafficking pathways and