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Sample records for 1d bose gases

  1. Probing 1D super-strongly correlated dipolar quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citro, R.; de Palo, S.; Orignac, E.; Pedri, P.; Chiofalo, M.-L.

    2009-04-01

    One-dimensional (1D) dipolar quantum gases are characterized by a very special condition where super-strong correlations occur to significantly affect the static and dynamical low-energy behavior. This behavior is accurately described by the Luttinger Liquid theory with parameter K < 1. Dipolar Bose gases are routinely studied in laboratory with Chromium atoms. On the other hand, 1D realizations with molecular quantum gases can be at reach of current experimental expertises, allowing to explore such extreme quantum degenerate conditions which are the bottom line for designing technological devices. Aim of the present contribution is to focus on the possible probes expected to signal the reach of Luttinger-Liquid behavior in 1D dipolar gases.

  2. From unitary to uniform Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2014-05-01

    In this talk I will give an overview of our recent experiments on Bose gases in extreme interaction regimes. In one limit, we studied the stability of a unitary Bose gas, with strongest possible interactions allowed by quantum mechanics. In the other limit, we studied purely quantum-statistical ideal-gas phenomena, such as the quantum Joule-Thomson effect, by achieving Bose-Einstein condensation in a quasi-uniform potential of an optical-box trap.

  3. Atomtronics with Ultracold Bose Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Herwig

    Neutral atom systems can exhibit similar transport properties like solid state devices. For instance, a neutral atom current is induced by a difference in chemical potential very much in the same way as a voltage drives an electric current. Employing Bose-Einstein condensed atomic gases allows observing superfluid transport phenomena, thus drawing connections to superconductivity. With help of light fields, the atomic current can additionally be guided in engineered potential landscapes in which one can also incorporate tunneling junctions. Eventually, the different components and elements can be integrated in atomtronic circuits which shed light on fundamental transport properties of many-body quantum systems. In this talk, I will present two fundamental atomtronic devices. The first is the observation of negative differential conductivity, which occurs at a multimode tunneling junction for ultracold atoms. The second is the appearance of a DC Josephson current in a biased tunneling junction, which features bistable transport characteristics. I will discuss the prospects of these basic elements for more complex atomtronic circuits.

  4. Bose-Einstein condensation in binary mixture of Bose gases

    SciTech Connect

    Tran Huu Phat; Le Viet Hoa; Nguyen Tuan Anh Nguyen Van Long

    2009-10-15

    The Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in a binary mixture of Bose gases is studied by means of the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action approach. The equations of state (EoS) and various scenarios of phase transitions of the system are considered in detail, in particular, the numerical computations are carried out for symmetry restoration (SR), symmetry nonrestoration (SNR) and inverse symmetry breaking (ISB) for getting an insight into their physical nature. It is shown that due to the cross interaction between distinct components of mixture there occur two interesting phenomena: the high temperature BEC and the inverse BEC, which could be tested in experiments.

  5. Efimov correlations in strongly interacting Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Johannes; Barth, Marcus

    A series of recent hallmark experiments have demonstrated that Bose gases can be created in the strongly interacting unitary limit in the non-degenerate high-temperature regime. These systems display the three-body Efimov effect, which poses a theoretical challenge to compute observables including these relevant three-body correlations. In this talk, I shall present our results for the virial coefficients, the contact parameters, and the momentum distribution of a strongly interacting three-dimensional Bose gas obtained by means of a virial expansion up to third order in the fugacity, which takes into account three-body correlations exactly. Our results characterize the non-degenerate regime of the interacting Bose gas, where the thermal wavelength is smaller than the interparticle spacing but the scattering length may be arbitrarily large. In addition, we provide a calculation of the momentum distribution at unitarity, which displays a universal high-momentum tail with a log-periodic momentum dependence - a direct signature of Efimov physics. In particular, we provide a quantitative description of the momentum distribution at high momentum as measured by the JILA group [Makotyn et al., Nat. Phys. 10, 116 (2014)]. Our results allow the spectroscopy of Efimov states at unitarity.

  6. Simulating frustrated magnetism with spinor Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debelhoir, T.; Dupuis, N.

    2016-05-01

    Although there is a broad consensus on the fact that critical behavior in stacked triangular Heisenberg antiferromagnets—an example of frustrated magnets with competing interactions—is described by a Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson Hamiltonian with O(3 )×O(2 ) symmetry, the nature of the phase transition in three dimensions is still debated. We show that spin-one Bose gases provide us with a simulator of the O(3 )×O(2 ) model. Using a renormalization-group approach, we argue that the transition is weakly first order and shows pseudoscaling behavior, and give estimates of the pseudocritical exponent ν in 87Rb, 41K, and 7Li atom gases which can be tested experimentally.

  7. Fast Rotating Scalar and Multi-component Bose Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, TIn-Lun Jason

    2003-01-01

    We show that in the limit of large angular momentum, many equilibrium and dynamical phenomena of scalar and multi-component Bose gases can be accounted for by approximating the system to reside in an effective lowest Landau level. This method explains the origin of the mysterious stripe formation in fast rotating Bose gas recently observed at JILA, and accounts for all the dynamical details observed in this experiment. To further demonstrate the usefulness of this method, we present its predictions of the interference patterns of two vortex lattices, and rich vortex lattice structures in multi-component Bose gases.

  8. Three-Body Losses in Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensed Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.

    2004-05-01

    A time-dependent Kohn-Sham (KS)-like equation for N bosons in a trap [1] is generalized for the case of inelastic collisions [2]. We derive adiabatic equations which are used to calculate the nonlinear dynamics of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and non-mean field corrections due to the three-body recombination. We find that the calculated corrections are about 13 times larger for 3D trapped dilute bose gases and about 7 times larger for 1D trapped weakly interacting bose gases when compared with the corresponding corrections for the ground state energy and for the collective frequencies. The comparising of the our numerical calculations with corresponding experimental data will be discussed. [1] Y.E. Kim and A.L. Zubarev, Phys. Rev. A67, 015602 (2003). [2] Y.E. Kim and A.L. Zubarev, Phys. Rev. A (in print); cond-mat/0305089.

  9. Condensate fluctuations of interacting Bose gases within a microcanonical ensemble

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jianhui; He Jizhou; Ma Yongli

    2011-05-15

    Based on counting statistics and Bogoliubov theory, we present a recurrence relation for the microcanonical partition function for a weakly interacting Bose gas with a finite number of particles in a cubic box. According to this microcanonical partition function, we calculate numerically the distribution function, condensate fraction, and condensate fluctuations for a finite and isolated Bose-Einstein condensate. For ideal and weakly interacting Bose gases, we compare the condensate fluctuations with those in the canonical ensemble. The present approach yields an accurate account of the condensate fluctuations for temperatures close to the critical region. We emphasize that the interactions between excited atoms turn out to be important for moderate temperatures.

  10. Higher-order local and non-local correlations for 1D strongly interacting Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandani, EJKP; Römer, Rudolf A.; Tan, Shina; Guan, Xi-Wen

    2016-05-01

    The correlation function is an important quantity in the physics of ultracold quantum gases because it provides information about the quantum many-body wave function beyond the simple density profile. In this paper we first study the M-body local correlation functions, g M , of the one-dimensional (1D) strongly repulsive Bose gas within the Lieb–Liniger model using the analytical method proposed by Gangardt and Shlyapnikov (2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 010401; 2003 New J. Phys. 5 79). In the strong repulsion regime the 1D Bose gas at low temperatures is equivalent to a gas of ideal particles obeying the non-mutual generalized exclusion statistics with a statistical parameter α =1-2/γ , i.e. the quasimomenta of N strongly interacting bosons map to the momenta of N free fermions via {k}i≈ α {k}iF with i=1,\\ldots ,N. Here γ is the dimensionless interaction strength within the Lieb–Liniger model. We rigorously prove that such a statistical parameter α solely determines the sub-leading order contribution to the M-body local correlation function of the gas at strong but finite interaction strengths. We explicitly calculate the correlation functions g M in terms of γ and α at zero, low, and intermediate temperatures. For M = 2 and 3 our results reproduce the known expressions for g 2 and g 3 with sub-leading terms (see for instance (Vadim et al 2006 Phys. Rev. A 73 051604(R); Kormos et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 210404; Wang et al 2013 Phys. Rev. A 87 043634). We also express the leading order of the short distance non-local correlation functions < {{{\\Psi }}}\\dagger ({x}1)\\cdots {{{\\Psi }}}\\dagger ({x}M){{\\Psi }}({y}M)\\cdots {{\\Psi }}({y}1)> of the strongly repulsive Bose gas in terms of the wave function of M bosons at zero collision energy and zero total momentum. Here {{\\Psi }}(x) is the boson annihilation operator. These general formulas of the higher-order local and non-local correlation functions of the 1D Bose gas provide new insights into the

  11. Spin Drag in Noncondensed Bose Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Duine, R. A.; Stoof, H. T. C.

    2009-10-23

    We show how time-dependent magnetic fields lead to spin motive forces and spin drag in a spinor Bose gas. We propose to observe these effects in a toroidal trap and analyze this particular proposal in some detail. In the linear-response regime we define a transport coefficient that is analogous to the usual drag resistivity in electron bilayer systems. Because of Bose enhancement of atom-atom scattering, this coefficient strongly increases as temperature is lowered. We also investigate the effects of heating.

  12. Rotons in Interacting Ultracold Bose Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Cormack, Samuel C.; Schumayer, Daniel; Hutchinson, David A. W.

    2011-09-30

    In three dimensions, noninteracting bosons undergo Bose-Einstein condensation at a critical temperature, T{sub c}, which is slightly shifted by {Delta}T{sub c}, if the particles interact. We calculate the excitation spectrum of interacting Bose systems, {sup 4}He and {sup 87}Rb, and show that a roton minimum emerges in the spectrum above a threshold value of the gas parameter. We provide a general theoretical argument for why the roton minimum and the maximal upward critical temperature shift are related. We also suggest two experimental avenues to observe rotons in condensates. These results, based upon a path-integral Monte Carlo approach, provide a microscopic explanation of the shift in the critical temperature and also show that a roton minimum does emerge in the excitation spectrum of particles with a structureless, short-range, two-body interaction.

  13. Degenerate Bose gases with uniform loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grišins, Pjotrs; Rauer, Bernhard; Langen, Tim; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Mazets, Igor E.

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically investigate a weakly interacting degenerate Bose gas coupled to an empty Markovian bath. We show that in the universal phononic limit the system evolves towards an asymptotic state where an emergent temperature is set by the quantum noise of the outcoupling process. For situations typically encountered in experiments, this mechanism leads to significant cooling. Such dissipative cooling supplements conventional evaporative cooling and dominates in settings where thermalization is highly suppressed, such as in a one-dimensional quasicondensate.

  14. Interference effect of critical ultra-cold atomic Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xuguang; Liu, Shujuan; Xiong, Hongwei

    2016-02-01

    For ultra-cold atomic gases close to the critical temperature, there is a divergent correlation behavior within the critical regime. This divergent correlation behavior is the cornerstone of the universal behavior within the critical regime, e.g. the universal critical exponent for the same class with very different physical systems. It is still quite challenging to observe this divergent correlation behavior in experiments with ultra-cold atomic gases. Here we consider theoretically the interference effect of the critical atomic Bose gas by a Kapitza-Dirac scattering. We find that the Kapitza-Dirac scattering has the merit of enhancing the interference effect in the observation of the correlation behavior. This provides a potential method to study the critical behavior of ultra-cold Bose gases. A simple rule is found by numerical simulations to get the critical exponent and correlation amplitude ratio from the interference fringes after the Kapitza-Dirac scattering.

  15. Bose gases near resonance: Renormalized interactions in a condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Fei Mashayekhi, Mohammad S.

    2013-01-15

    Bose gases at large scattering lengths or beyond the usual dilute limit for a long time have been one of the most challenging problems in many-body physics. In this article, we investigate the fundamental properties of a near-resonance Bose gas and illustrate that three-dimensional Bose gases become nearly fermionized near resonance when the chemical potential as a function of scattering lengths reaches a maximum and the atomic condensates lose metastability. The instability and accompanying maximum are shown to be a precursor of the sign change of g{sub 2}, the renormalized two-body interaction between condensed atoms. g{sub 2} changes from effectively repulsive to attractive when approaching resonance from the molecular side, even though the scattering length is still positive. This occurs when dimers, under the influence of condensates, emerge at zero energy in the atomic gases at a finite positive scattering length. We carry out our studies of Bose gases via applying a self-consistent renormalization group equation which is further subject to a boundary condition. We also comment on the relation between the approach here and the diagrammatic calculation in an early article [D. Borzov, M.S. Mashayekhi, S. Zhang, J.-L. Song, F. Zhou, Phys. Rev. A 85 (2012) 023620]. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Bose gas becomes nearly fermionized when its chemical potential approaches a maximum near resonance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At the maximum, an onset instability sets in at a positive scattering length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Condensates strongly influence the renormalization flow of few-body running coupling constants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effective two-body interaction constant changes its sign at a positive scattering length.

  16. Dimensional phase transition from an array of 1D Luttinger liquids to a 3D Bose-Einstein condensate.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Andreas; Labouvie, Ralf; Barontini, Giovanni; Eggert, Sebastian; Guarrera, Vera; Ott, Herwig

    2014-11-21

    We study the thermodynamic properties of a 2D array of coupled one-dimensional Bose gases. The system is realized with ultracold bosonic atoms loaded in the potential tubes of a two-dimensional optical lattice. For negligible coupling strength, each tube is an independent weakly interacting 1D Bose gas featuring Tomonaga Luttinger liquid behavior. By decreasing the lattice depth, we increase the coupling strength between the 1D gases and allow for the phase transition into a 3D condensate. We extract the phase diagram for such a system and compare our results with theoretical predictions. Because of the high effective mass across the periodic potential and the increased 1D interaction strength, the phase transition is shifted to large positive values of the chemical potential. Our results are prototypical to a variety of low-dimensional systems, where the coupling between the subsystems is realized in a higher spatial dimension such as coupled spin chains in magnetic insulators. PMID:25479499

  17. Condensation temperature of interacting Bose gases with and without disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Zobay, O.

    2006-02-15

    The momentum-shell renormalization group (RG) is used to study the condensation of interacting Bose gases without and with disorder. First of all, for the homogeneous disorder-free Bose gas the interaction-induced shifts in the critical temperature and chemical potential are determined up to second order in the scattering length. The approach does not make use of dimensional reduction and is thus independent of previous derivations. Secondly, the RG is used together with the replica method to study the interacting Bose gas with delta-correlated disorder. The flow equations are derived and found to reduce, in the high-temperature limit, to the RG equations of the classical Landau-Ginzburg model with random-exchange defects. The random fixed point is used to calculate the condensation temperature under the combined influence of particle interactions and disorder.

  18. Efimov correlations in strongly interacting Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Marcus; Hofmann, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    We compute the virial coefficients, the contact parameters, and the momentum distribution of a strongly interacting three-dimensional Bose gas by means of a virial expansion up to third order in the fugacity, which takes into account three-body correlations exactly. Our results characterize the nondegenerate regime of the interacting Bose gas, where the thermal wavelength is smaller than the interparticle spacing but the scattering length may be arbitrarily large. We observe a rapid variation of the third virial coefficient as the scattering length is tuned across the three-atom and the atom-dimer thresholds. The momentum distribution at unitarity displays a universal high-momentum tail with a log-periodic momentum dependence, which is a direct signature of Efimov physics. We provide a quantitative description of the momentum distribution at high momentum as measured by P. Makotyn et al. [Nat. Phys. 10, 116 (2014), 10.1038/nphys2850], and our calculations indicate that the lowest trimer state might not be occupied in the experiment. Our results allow for a spectroscopy of Efimov states in the unitary limit.

  19. Scanning Cryogenic Magnetometry with a 1D Bose Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straquadine, Joshua; Yang, Fan; Lev, Benjamin

    We present a novel scanning probe magnetometer suitable for cryogenic studies, in which the probe is a Bose-Einstein condensate of 87Rb. The system is designed for rapid sample changes and operation between 35 K and room temperature while remaining compatible with the UHV requirements of ultracold atom experiments. We demonstrate a spatial resolution (FWHM) of 2.6 μm and a repeatability of 1.9 +/- 1.0 nT. We also show that the system is operating close to the fundamental measurement limits set by photon shot noise and atom shot noise. Our scanning quantum cryogenic atom microscope is suitable for fundamental studies of transport and magnetism in condensed matter systems such as high-temperature superconductors and topological insulators. We discuss the advantages and applications of this magnetometry technique.

  20. Universal low-energy physics in 1D strongly repulsive multi-component Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuzhu; He, Peng; Guan, Xi-Wen

    2016-04-01

    It has been shown (Yang and You 2011 Chin. Phys. Lett. 28 020503) that at zero temperature the ground state of the one-dimensional (1D) w-component Fermi gas coincides with that of the spinless Bose gas in the limit ω \\to ∞ . This behavior was experimentally evidenced through quasi-1D tightly trapping ultracold 173Yb atoms in a recent paper (Pagano et al 2014 Nat. Phys. 10 198). However, understanding of low-temperature behavior of Fermi gases with a repulsive interaction requires spin-charge separated conformal field theories of an effective Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid and an antiferromagnetic SU(w) Heisenberg spin chain. Here we analytically derive universal thermodynamics of 1D strongly repulsive fermionic gases with SU(w) symmetry via the Yang-Yang thermodynamic Bethe ansatz method. The analytical free energy and magnetic properties of the systems at low temperature in a weak magnetic field are obtained through the Wiener-Hopf method. In particular, the free energy essentially manifests the spin-charge separated conformal field theories for high-symmetry systems with arbitrary repulsive interaction strength. We also find that the sound velocity of the Fermi gases in the large w limit coincides with that for the spinless Bose gas, whereas the spin velocity vanishes quickly as w becomes large. This indicates strong suppression of the Fermi exclusion statistics by the commutativity feature among the w-component fermions with different spin states in the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid phase. Moreover, the equations of state and critical behavior of physical quantities at finite temperature are analytically derived in terms of the polylogarithm functions in the quantum critical region.

  1. Persistent currents in Bose gases confined in annular traps

    SciTech Connect

    Bargi, S.; Malet, F.; Reimann, S. M.; Kavoulakis, G. M.

    2010-10-15

    We examine the problem of stability of persistent currents in a mixture of two Bose gases trapped in an annular potential. We evaluate the critical coupling for metastability in the transition from quasi-one- to two-dimensional motion. We also evaluate the critical coupling for metastability in a mixture of two species as a function of the population imbalance. The stability of the currents is shown to be sensitive to the deviation from one-dimensional motion.

  2. Quantum Monte Carlo study of quasi-one-dimensional Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrakharchik, G. E.; Blume, D.; Giorgini, S.; Granger, B. E.

    2004-04-01

    We study the behaviour of quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) Bose gases by Monte Carlo techniques, i.e. by the variational Monte Carlo, the diffusion Monte Carlo and the fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo techniques. Our calculations confirm and extend our results of an earlier study (Astrakharchik et al 2003 Preprint cond-mat/0308585). We find that a quasi-1D Bose gas (i) is well described by a 1D model Hamiltonian with contact interactions and renormalized coupling constant; (ii) reaches the Tonks-Girardeau regime for a critical value of the 3D scattering length a3D; (iii) enters a unitary regime for |a3D| rarr infin, where the properties of the gas are independent of a3D and are similar to those of a 1D gas of hard-rods and (iv) becomes unstable against cluster formation for a critical value of the 1D gas parameter. The accuracy and implications of our results are discussed in detail.

  3. Studying non-equilibrium many-body dynamics using one-dimensional Bose gases

    SciTech Connect

    Langen, Tim; Gring, Michael; Kuhnert, Maximilian; Rauer, Bernhard; Geiger, Remi; Mazets, Igor; Smith, David Adu; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Kitagawa, Takuya; Demler, Eugene

    2014-12-04

    Non-equilibrium dynamics of isolated quantum many-body systems play an important role in many areas of physics. However, a general answer to the question of how these systems relax is still lacking. We experimentally study the dynamics of ultracold one-dimensional (1D) Bose gases. This reveals the existence of a quasi-steady prethermalized state which differs significantly from the thermal equilibrium of the system. Our results demonstrate that the dynamics of non-equilibrium quantum many-body systems is a far richer process than has been assumed in the past.

  4. Thermodynamics of noninteracting bosonic gases in cubic optical lattices versus ideal homogeneous Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhimov, Abdulla; Askerzade, Iman N.

    2015-06-01

    We have studied the thermodynamic properties of noninteracting gases in periodic lattice potential at arbitrary integer fillings and compared them with that of ideal homogeneous gases. By deriving explicit expressions for the thermodynamic quantities and performing exact numerical calculations, we have found that the dependence of e.g., entropy and energy on the temperature in the normal phase is rather weak especially at large filling factors. In the Bose condensed phase, their power dependence on the reduced temperature is nearly linear, which is in contrast to that of ideal homogeneous gases. We evaluated the discontinuity in the slope of the specific heat which turned out to be approximately the same as that of the ideal homogeneous Bose (IHB) gas for filling factor ν = 1. The discontinuity i.e. the jump in the heat capacity per particle linearly decreases with increasing ν. These results may serve as a checkpoint for various experiments on optical lattices as well as theoretical studies of weakly interacting Bose systems in periodic potentials being a starting point for perturbative calculations.

  5. Loschmidt echo in one-dimensional interacting Bose gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lelas, K.; Seva, T.; Buljan, H.

    2011-12-15

    We explore Loschmidt echo in two regimes of one-dimensional interacting Bose gases: the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau (TG) regime, and the weakly interacting mean-field regime. We find that the Loschmidt echo of a TG gas decays as a Gaussian when small (random and time independent) perturbations are added to the Hamiltonian. The exponent is proportional to the number of particles and the magnitude of a small perturbation squared. In the mean-field regime the Loschmidt echo shows richer behavior: it decays faster for larger nonlinearity, and the decay becomes more abrupt as the nonlinearity increases; it can be very sensitive to the particular realization of the noise potential, especially for relatively small nonlinearities.

  6. Dynamical correlation functions of the 1D Bose gas (Lieb Liniger model)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caux, Jean-Sebastien; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2007-03-01

    The momentum- and frequency-dependent correlation functions (one-body and density-density) of the one-dimensional interacting Bose gas (Lieb-Liniger model) are obtained for any value (repulsive or attractive) of the interaction parameter. In the repulsive regime, we use the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz and the ABACUS method to reconstruct the correlators to high accuracy for systems with finite but large numbers of particles. For attractive interactions, the correlations are computed analytically. Our results are discussed, with particular emphasis on their applications to quasi-one-dimensional atomic gases.

  7. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics in one-dimensional bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldovin, F.; Cappellaro, A.; Orlandini, E.; Salasnich, L.

    2016-06-01

    We study cold dilute gases made of bosonic atoms, showing that in the mean-field one-dimensional regime they support stable out-of-equilibrium states. Starting from the 3D Boltzmann–Vlasov equation with contact interaction, we derive an effective 1D Landau–Vlasov equation under the condition of a strong transverse harmonic confinement. We investigate the existence of out-of-equilibrium states, obtaining stability criteria similar to those of classical plasmas.

  8. Bose Einstein condensation: Its role in the excitations of liquid helium and in trapped Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhel, Asaad R.

    The role of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in determining the properties of Bose systems at ultracold temperatures is investigated. First, we present a model of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,o) of liquid 4He as observed in inelastic neutron scattering measurements beyond the roton (Q ≳ 2.0 A-1). We separate the dynamic susceptibility into chi = chiS + chi'R. chi S involves states in the condensate and chi' R states above the condensate only. We find that the weight of chiS scales with the condensate fraction n0(T) and vanishes at Tlambda. chi' R is broad and largely temperature independent and a low energy intensity broadening arises from the thermal broadening of the phonon-roton (p-r) modes. Secondly, we investigate ultracold Bose gases with repulsive and attractive interactions confined in a spherical harmonic trap over a broad range of densities using model potentials and variational Monte Carlo (VMC) at T = 0 K. In the case of repulsive interactions, the Bosons are represented by hard spheres (HS)s interacting by a HS potential. We change the densities of the Bosons by increasing the s-wave scattering length a. We find that the VMC total and VMC condensate density distributions are similar in shape, they are flat nearly at the higher densities. Further the Thomas-Fermi approximation becomes invalid and the condensate is substantially depleted at the higher densities. In the case of attractive interactions, we model the interactions by a hard core square well (HCSW). We change the densities of these systems by keeping the hard core diameter, a c, fixed and increasing the potential depth V 0 or by increasing both of them simultaneously while keeping a fixed. We find that a Bose gas with attractive interactions undergoes a first order phase transition from the gas to the liquid state at a value of N|a| ≈ 0.574 in agreement with the value predicted by Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) theory. The condensate depletion is mainly driven by the HC diameter in the

  9. Decay of Bogoliubov excitations in one-dimensional Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristivojevic, Zoran; Matveev, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    We study the decay of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in one-dimensional Bose gases. Starting from the hydrodynamic Hamiltonian, we develop a microscopic theory that enables one to systematically study both the excitations and their decay. At zero temperature, the leading mechanism of decay of a quasiparticle is disintegration into three others. We find that low-energy quasiparticles (phonons) decay with the rate that scales with the seventh power of momentum, whereas the rate of decay of the high-energy quasiparticles does not depend on momentum. In addition, our approach allows us to study analytically the quasiparticle decay in the whole crossover region between the two limiting cases. When applied to integrable models, including the Lieb-Liniger model of bosons with contact repulsion, our theory confirms the absence of the decay of quasiparticle excitations. We account for two types of integrability-breaking perturbations that enable finite decay: three-body interaction between the bosons and two-body interaction of finite range.

  10. Topological order in 1D super-lattice Bose-Hubbard models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, Michael; Grusdt, Fabian; Hoening, Michael

    2013-05-01

    After the discovery of topological insulators as a new state of matter and their consequent classification for free fermions, the question arises what kind of topological order can be supported by incompressible systems of interacting bosons. We consider a 1D super-lattice Hamiltonian with a non-trivial band structure (the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model) and show that its Mott-insulating (MI) states can be classified by a quantized many-body winding number. This quantization is protected by sub-lattice and time-reversal symmetries, and it allows the implementation of a quantized cyclic pumping process (Thouless pump) in a simple super-lattice Bose-Hubbard model (BHM). For extended BHMs we discuss a connection of such a pump with the fractional quantum Hall effect. Furthermore we show that the quantization of the winding number leads to localized, protected edge states at sharp interfaces between topologically distinct MI phases which can be experimentally realized using Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical superlattices. DMRG simulations show that these edge states manifest themself either in localized density maxima or localized density minima, which can easily be detected. Supported by research center OPTIMAS and graduate school MAINZ.

  11. Detecting different correlation regimes in a 1D Bose gas using in-situ absorption imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salces-Carcoba, Francisco; Sugawa, Seiji; Yue, Yuchen; Putra, Andika; Spielman, Ian

    2016-05-01

    We present the realization of a single 1D Bose gas (1DBG) using a tightly focused Laguerre-Gauss beam as a waveguide for a 87Rb cloud. Axial confinement is provided by a weak trap that also sets the final density profile. A homogeneous 1DBG at T = 0 can be fully described by the dimensionless interaction parameter γ ~ 1/n, where n is the linear density; at sufficiently low densities the system becomes strongly interacting. An inhomogeneous (trapped) system can enter this description within the local density approximation (LDA) where the interaction parameter becomes position dependent γ(x) ~ 1/n(x). The system then displays different correlation regimes over its extension which can be detected by measuring its equation of state (EoS) or the density density correlations in real space using in-situ absorption imaging.

  12. Dynamics of Two Dimensional Bose Gases and the Role of Scale Invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Jeff

    2016-05-01

    The controllable study of dynamics has become commonplace in cold atom experiments. However, the theoretical exploration of dynamics has relied heavily on numerical simulations due to the vast complexity of dynamical many body problems. The situation is simplified in two dimensional Bose gases thanks to the presence of scale invariance. This symmetry is presumed to have an important effect on the dynamics of the system but has yet to be studied in the context of cold gases. In this talk we report a study of interacting two dimensional Bose gases and the role scale invariance plays on the system's dynamics.

  13. Spectral functions in the 1D and 2D Bose Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancic, Robert; Duchon, Eric; Trivedi, Nandini

    2014-03-01

    We use state of the art numerical techniques including quantum Monte Carlo and maximum entropy methods to obtain the low energy excitation spectra in the superfluid and Mott-insulator phases of the Bose Hubbard model. These results are checked in 1D against Bethe Ansatz and tDMRG results and extended to 2D where such approaches are impossible. In the superfluid, we find linearly dispersing Bogoliubov sound modes as well as additional gapped modes broadened by interaction effects. In the Mott insulator, we find evidence for a finite gap and well defined quasiparticle excitations. We examine properties such as the excitation lifetime, density of states, and speed of sound as the system is tuned across the quantum phase transition that separates the superfluid and Mott states. These results provide an important theoretical framework for upcoming ultracold atom experiments in one and two dimensions. We acknowledge support from the NSF DMR-0907275 (R.I., E.D. and N.T.).

  14. Bose gases, Bose–Einstein condensation, and the Bogoliubov approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Seiringer, Robert

    2014-07-15

    We review recent progress towards a rigorous understanding of the Bogoliubov approximation for bosonic quantum many-body systems. We focus, in particular, on the excitation spectrum of a Bose gas in the mean-field (Hartree) limit. A list of open problems will be discussed at the end.

  15. Superfluid-insulator transition in weakly interacting disordered Bose gases: a kernel polynomial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, J.; Lugan, P.; Savona, V.

    2013-04-01

    An iterative scheme based on the kernel polynomial method is devised for the efficient computation of the one-body density matrix of weakly interacting Bose gases within Bogoliubov theory. This scheme is used to analyze the coherence properties of disordered bosons in one and two dimensions. In the one-dimensional geometry, we examine the quantum phase transition between superfluid and Bose glass at weak interactions, and we recover the scaling of the phase boundary that was characterized using a direct spectral approach by Fontanesi et al (2010 Phys. Rev. A 81 053603). The kernel polynomial scheme is also used to study the disorder-induced condensate depletion in the two-dimensional geometry. Our approach paves the way for an analysis of coherence properties of Bose gases across the superfluid-insulator transition in two and three dimensions.

  16. Quantum phases of Bose gases on a lattice with pair-tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue-Ming; Liang, Jiu-Qing

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the strongly interacting lattice Bose gases on a lattice with two-body interaction of nearest neighbors characterized by pair tunneling. The excitation spectrum and the depletion of the condensate of lattice Bose gases are investigated using the Bogoliubov transformation method and the results show that there is a pair condensate as well as a single particle condensate. The various possible quantum phases, such as the Mott-insulator phase (MI), the superfluid phase (SF) of an individual atom, the charge density wave phase (CDW), the supersolid phase (SS), the pair-superfluid (PSF) phase, and the pair-supersolid phase (PSS) are discussed in different parametric regions within our extended Bose-Hubbard model using perturbation theory.

  17. Sideband Rabi spectroscopy of finite-temperature trapped Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, Baptiste; Fadel, Matteo; Schmied, Roman; Treutlein, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    We use Rabi spectroscopy to explore the low-energy excitation spectrum of a finite-temperature Bose gas of rubidium atoms across the phase transition to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). To record this spectrum, we coherently drive the atomic population between two spin states. A small relative displacement of the spin-specific trapping potentials enables sideband transitions between different motional states. The intrinsic nonlinearity of the motional spectrum, mainly originating from two-body interactions, makes it possible to resolve and address individual excitation lines. Together with sensitive atom counting, this constitutes a feasible technique to count single excited atoms of a BEC and to determine the temperature of nearly pure condensates. As an example, we show that for a nearly pure BEC of N =800 atoms the first excited state has a population of less than five atoms, corresponding to an upper bound on the temperature of 30 nK .

  18. A primary noise thermometer for ultracold Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gati, R.; Esteve, J.; Hemmerling, B.; Ottenstein, T. B.; Appmeier, J.; Weller, A.; Oberthaler, M. K.

    2006-09-01

    We discuss in detail the experimental investigation of thermally induced fluctuations of the relative phase between two weakly coupled Bose Einstein condensates (BECs). In analogy to superconducting Josephson junctions, the weak coupling originates from a tunnelling process through a potential barrier which is obtained by trapping the condensates in an optical double-well potential. The observed fluctuations of the relative phase are in quantitative agreement with a many body two mode model at finite temperature. The agreement demonstrates the possibility of using the phase fluctuation measurements in a bosonic Josephson junction (BJJ) as a primary thermometer. This new method allows for measuring temperatures far below the critical temperature where standard methods based on time of flight measurements fail. We employ this new thermometer to probe the heat capacity of a degenerate Bose gas as a function of temperature.

  19. Theory of Raman Superradiance Imaging of Condensed Bose Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uys, Hermann; Meystre, Pierre

    2006-05-01

    We investigate superradiant off-resonant Raman scattering of light from an elongated Bose-condensate of atoms. Absorption imaging of superradiant systems yields stronger image contrast than imaging of systems scattering light incoherently. However, the spatial structure of the recoiling atomic fields is not simply proportional to the initial state density. We present a multi-mode theory that reproduces the time evolving spatial features observed in absorption images and accounts for shot-to-shot fluctuations.

  20. Comparison between microscopic methods for finite-temperature Bose gases

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, S. P.; Proukakis, N. P.; Negretti, A.; Henkel, C.

    2011-04-15

    We analyze the equilibrium properties of a weakly interacting, trapped quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas at finite temperatures and compare different theoretical approaches. We focus in particular on two stochastic theories: a number-conserving Bogoliubov (NCB) approach and a stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation (SGPE) that have been extensively used in numerical simulations. Equilibrium properties like density profiles, correlation functions, and the condensate statistics are compared to predictions based upon a number of alternative theories. We find that due to thermal phase fluctuations, and the corresponding condensate depletion, the NCB approach loses its validity at relatively low temperatures. This can be attributed to the change in the Bogoliubov spectrum, as the condensate gets thermally depleted, and to large fluctuations beyond perturbation theory. Although the two stochastic theories are built on different thermodynamic ensembles (NCB, canonical; SGPE, grand-canonical), they yield the correct condensate statistics in a large Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) (strong enough particle interactions). For smaller systems, the SGPE results are prone to anomalously large number fluctuations, well known for the grand-canonical, ideal Bose gas. Based on the comparison of the above theories to the modified Popov approach, we propose a simple procedure for approximately extracting the Penrose-Onsager condensate from first- and second-order correlation functions that is both computationally convenient and of potential use to experimentalists. This also clarifies the link between condensate and quasicondensate in the Popov theory of low-dimensional systems.

  1. Dimensional phase transition from 1D behavior to a 3D Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelster, Axel; Morath, Denis; Straßel, Dominik; Eggert, Sebastian

    The emergence of new properties from low-dimensional building blocks is a universal theme in different areas in physics. The investigation of transitions between isolated and coupled low-dimensional systems promises to reveal new phenomena and exotic phases. Interacting 1D bosons, which are coupled in a two-dimensional array, are maybe the most fundamental example of a system which illustrates the concept of a dimensional phase transition. However, recent experiments using ultracold gases have shown a surprising discrepancy between theory and experiment and it is far from obvious if the power laws from the underlying 1D theory can predict the transition temperature and order parameter correctly for all interaction strengths. Using a combination of large-scale Quantum Monte-Carlo simulations and chain mean-field calculations, we show that the behavior of the ordering temperature as a function of inter-chain coupling strength does not follow a universal powerlaw, but also depends strongly on the filling

  2. Theory of coherent Raman superradiance imaging of condensed Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uys, H.; Meystre, P.

    2007-03-01

    We describe theoretically the dynamics of the off-resonant superradiant Raman scattering of light in a prolate atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, from the initial stages governed by quantum fluctuations to the subsequent semiclassical regime, and within a multimode theory that fully accounts for propagation effects. Our results are in good agreement with recent experimental results that exploit Raman superradiance as an imaging technique to probe the long-range coherence of condensates, including the observed time-dependent spatial features, and account properly for the macroscopic shot-to-shot fluctuations resulting from the quantum noise that initiates the superradiance process.

  3. Non-equilibrium disordered Bose gases: condensation, superfluidity and dynamical Bose glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Liang, Zhaoxin; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Zhidong

    2016-01-01

    In an equilibrium three-dimensional (3D) disordered condensate, it is well established that disorder can generate an amount of normal fluid ρ n equaling to 4/3 of ρ ex , where ρ ex is a sum of interaction-induced quantum depletion and disorder-induced condensate deformation. The concept that the superfluid is more volatile to the existence of disorder than the condensate is crucial to the understanding of the Bose glass phase. In this work, we show that, by bringing a weakly disordered 3D condensate to non-equilibrium regime via a quantum quench in the interaction, disorder can destroy superfluid significantly more, leading to a steady state of Hamiltonian H f in which the ρ n far exceeds 4/3 of the ρ ex . This suggests the possibility of engineering Bose glass in the dynamic regime. Here, we refer to the dynamical Bose glass as the case where in the steady state of quenched condensate, the superfluid density goes to zero while the condensate density remains finite. As both the ρ n and ρ ex are measurable quantities, our results allow an experimental demonstration of the dramatized interplay between the disorder and interaction in the non-equilibrium scenario.

  4. Analytical limits for cold-atom Bose gases with tunable interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaila, Bogdan; Chien, Chih-Chun; Timmermans, Eddy; Cooper, Fred; Dawson, John F.

    2011-08-15

    We discuss the equilibrium properties of dilute Bose gases using a nonperturbative formalism based on auxiliary fields related to the normal and anomalous densities. We show analytically that for a dilute Bose gas of weakly interacting particles at zero temperature, the leading-order auxiliary field (LOAF) approximation leads to well-known analytical results. Close to the critical point the LOAF predictions are the same as those obtained using an effective field theory in the large-N approximation. We also report analytical approximations for the LOAF results in the unitarity limit, which compare favorably with our numerical results. LOAF predicts that the equation of state for the Bose gas in the unitarity limit is E/(pV)=1, unlike the case of the Fermi gas when E/(pV)=3/2.

  5. Force on a slow moving impurity due to thermal and quantum fluctuations in a 1D Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, David; Sykes, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We study the drag force acting on an impurity moving through a 1D Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of both quantum and thermal fluctuations. We are able to find exact analytical solutions of the partial differential equations to the level of the Bogoliubov approximation. At zero temperature, we find a nonzero force is exerted on the impurity at subcritical velocities, due to the scattering of quantum fluctuations. We make the following explicit assumptions: far from the impurity the system is in a quantum state given by that of a zero (or finite) temperature Bose-Einstein condensate, and the scattering process generates only causally related reflection/transmission. The results raise unanswered questions in the quantum dynamics associated with the formation of persistent currents.

  6. Radio frequency spectroscopy of polarons in ultracold Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashi, Aditya; Grusdt, Fabian; Abanin, Dmitry; Demler, Eugene

    2014-05-01

    Recent experimental advances enabled the realization of mobile impurities immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of ultracold atoms. We consider impurities with two or more internal hyperfine states, and study their radio-frequency (RF) absorption spectra, which correspond to transitions between two different hyperfine states. We calculate RF spectra for the case when one of the hyperfine states involved interacts with the BEC, while the other state is non-interacting, by performing a non-perturbative resummation of the probabilities of exciting different numbers of phonon modes. We discuss both the direct RF measurement, in which the impurity is initially in an interacting state, and the inverse RF measurement, in which the impurity is initially in a non-interacting state. In the latter case, in order to calculate the RF spectrum, we solve the problem of polaron formation: a mobile impurity dynamically gets dressed by Bogoliubov phonons, using a time-dependent variational ansatz of coherent states.

  7. Critical temperature of interacting Bose gases in periodic potentials.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T T; Herrmann, A J; Troyer, M; Pilati, S

    2014-05-01

    The superfluid transition of a repulsive Bose gas in the presence of a sinusoidal potential which represents a simple-cubic optical lattice is investigated using quantum Monte Carlo simulations. At the average filling of one particle per well the critical temperature has a nonmonotonic dependence on the interaction strength, with an initial sharp increase and a rapid suppression at strong interactions in the vicinity of the Mott transition. In an optical lattice the positive shift of the transition is strongly enhanced compared to the homogenous gas. By varying the lattice filling we find a crossover from a regime where the optical lattice has the dominant effect to a regime where interactions dominate and the presence of the lattice potential becomes almost irrelevant. PMID:24836222

  8. Unlocking the Mysteries of Three-Dimensional Bose Gases Near Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashayekhi, Mohammad S.; Bernier, Jean-Sébastien; Zhou, Fei

    2013-12-01

    In this chapter, we present, with simplicity in mind, the physics of three-dimensional Bose gases at large positive scattering lengths. We review the different experiments conducted in the dilute limit and beyond, highlighting the recent experimental evaluation of the fermionization ratio of a Bose gas near unitarity and the role of three-body physics. We also present theoretical advances recently carried out to understand upper branch physics near resonance. While this review focuses on the results obtained within a recently developed non-perturbative self-consistent method, we contrast and compare these results with ones derived using other approaches. We particularly emphasize that, within this novel theoretical framework, one predicts, in the zero-temperature limit, that the interaction between condensed atoms for positive scattering length near resonance can be effectively attractive. Finally, we propose a few possible directions to further explore the physics of quantum gases near Feshbach resonances.

  9. Strongly Interacting Fermi and Bose-Fermi Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ye-Ryoung; Choi, Jae; Christensen, Caleb; Jo, Gyu-Boong; Wang, Tout; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Pritchard, David

    2010-03-01

    We present our recent progress on the study ultracold gases of ^6Li and ^23Na near homonuclear and heteronuclear Feshbach resonances. We discuss new experimental and theoretical developments on itinerant ferromagnetism in a Fermi gas of ultracold atoms [1]. We also report on ultracold gases of ^6Li and ^23Na, including fermionic LiNa molecules. [4pt] [1] G.-B. Jo, Y.-R. Lee, J.-H. Choi, C.A. Christensen, T.H. Kim, J.H. Thywissen, D.E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, Observation of itinerant ferromagnetism in a strongly interacting Fermi gas of ultracold atoms, Science 325, 1521 (2009).

  10. Radio-frequency spectroscopy of polarons in ultracold Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashi, Aditya; Grusdt, Fabian; Abanin, Dmitry A.; Demler, Eugene

    2014-05-01

    Recent experimental advances enabled the realization of mobile impurities immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of ultracold atoms. Here, we consider impurities with two or more internal hyperfine states, and study their radio-frequency (rf) absorption spectra, which correspond to transitions between two different hyperfine states. We calculate rf spectra for the case when one of the hyperfine states involved interacts with the BEC, while the other state is noninteracting, by performing a nonperturbative resummation of the probabilities of exciting different numbers of phonon modes. In the presence of interactions, the impurity gets dressed by Bogoliubov excitations of the BEC, and forms a polaron. The rf signal contains a δ-function peak centered at the energy of the polaron measured relative to the bare impurity transition frequency with a weight equal to the amount of bare impurity character in the polaron state. The rf spectrum also has a broad incoherent part arising from the background excitations of the BEC, with a characteristic power-law tail that appears as a consequence of the universal physics of contact interactions. We discuss both the direct rf measurement, in which the impurity is initially in an interacting state, and the inverse rf measurement, in which the impurity is initially in a noninteracting state. In the latter case, in order to calculate the rf spectrum, we solve the problem of polaron formation: a mobile impurity is suddenly introduced in a BEC, and dynamically gets dressed by Bogoliubov phonons. Our solution is based on a time-dependent variational ansatz of coherent states of Bogoliubov phonons, which becomes exact when the impurity is localized. Moreover, we show that such an ansatz compares well with a semiclassical estimate of the propagation amplitude of a mobile impurity in the BEC. Our technique can be extended to cases when both initial and final impurity states are interacting with the BEC.

  11. Prediction of the expansion velocity of ultracold 1D quantum gases for integrable models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Zhongtao; Vidmar, Lev; Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Bolech, Carlos

    In the theory of Bethe-ansatz integrable quantum systems, rapidities play an important role as they are used to specify many-body states. The physical interpretation of rapidities going back to Sutherland is that they are the asymptotic momenta after letting a quantum gas expand into a larger volume rendering it dilute and noninteracting. We exploit this picture to calculate the expansion velocity of a one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model by using the distribution of rapidities defined by the initial state. Our results are consistent with the ones from time-dependent density-matrix renormalization. We show in addition that an approximate Bethe-ansatz solution works well also for the Bose-Hubbard model. Our results are of interests for future sudden-expansion experiments with ultracold quantum gases.

  12. Equilibrating dynamics in quenched Bose gases: Characterizing multiple time regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rançon, A.; Levin, K.

    2014-08-01

    We address the physics of equilibration in ultracold atomic gases following a quench of the interaction parameter. Our work is based on a bath model which generates damping of the bosonic excitations. We illustrate this dissipative behavior through the momentum distribution of the excitations nk, observing that larger k modes have shorter relaxation times τ (k); they will equilibrate faster, as has been claimed in recent experimental work. We identify three time regimes. At short times nk exhibits oscillations; these are damped out at intermediate times where the system appears to be in a false or slowly converging equilibrium. Finally, at longer times, full equilibration occurs. This false equilibrium is, importantly, associated with the k dependence in τ (k) and has implications for experiment.

  13. Ultracold Bose gases in time-dependent one-dimensional superlattices: Response and quasimomentum structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hild, Markus; Schmitt, Felix; Tuerschmann, Ilona; Roth, Robert

    2007-11-15

    The response of ultracold atomic Bose gases in time-dependent optical lattices is discussed based on direct simulations of the time-evolution of the many-body state in the framework of the Bose-Hubbard model. We focus on small-amplitude modulations of the lattice potential as implemented in several recent experiments and study different observables in the region of the first resonance in the Mott-insulator phase. In addition to the energy transfer we investigate the quasimomentum structure of the system which is accessible via the matter-wave interference pattern after a prompt release. We identify characteristic correlations between the excitation frequency and the quasimomentum distribution and study their structure in the presence of a superlattice potential.

  14. Quench-Induced Breathing Mode of One-Dimensional Bose Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Bess; Carleo, Giuseppe; Johnson, Aisling; Bouchoule, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    We measure the position- and momentum-space breathing dynamics of trapped one-dimensional Bose gases at finite temperature. The profile in real space reveals sinusoidal width oscillations whose frequency varies continuously through the quasicondensate to ideal Bose gas crossover. A comparison with theoretical models taking temperature into account is provided. In momentum space, we report the first observation of a frequency doubling in the quasicondensate regime, corresponding to a self-reflection mechanism due to the repulsive interactions. Such a mechanism is predicted for a fermionized system, and has not been observed to date. The disappearance of the frequency doubling through the crossover is mapped out experimentally, giving insights into the dynamics of the breathing evolution.

  15. Exponents of the spectral functions and dynamical structure factor of the 1D Lieb-Liniger Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmelo, J. M. P.; Sacramento, P. D.

    2016-06-01

    We study the (k , ω) -plane finite-energy line shape of the zero-temperature one-boson removal spectral function (ω < 0) , one-boson addition spectral function (ω > 0) , and charge dynamical structure factor (ω > 0) of the 1D Lieb-Liniger Bose gas with repulsive boson interaction c > 0. Our analysis of the problem focuses on the line shape at finite excitation energies in the vicinity of these functions spectrum upper (ω < 0) or lower (ω > 0) threshold. Specifically, we derive the exact momentum, interaction, and density dependences of the exponents controlling such a line shape in each of the N = 1 , 2 , 3 , … momentum subdomains k ∈ [(N - 1) 2 πn , N 2 πn ] . Here n = N / L is the boson density, N the boson number, and L the system length. In the thermodynamic limit considered in our study nearly all spectral weight of the dynamical correlation functions is for large values of n / c contained in the N = 1 momentum subdomain k ∈ [ 0 , 2 πn ] . As n / c decreases a small fraction of that weight is transferred to the remaining set of N = 2 , 3 , 4 , … momentum subdomains, particularly to the N = 2 subdomain. In the case of the momentum subdomain k ∈ [ 0 , 2 πn ] , our exact results agree with those of previous studies. For that subdomain the above exponents are plotted as a function of the momentum for several n / c values. Our derivation of the line shapes of the three dynamical correlation functions relies on the use of a simplified form of the pseudofermion dynamical theory of the fermionic 1D Hubbard model suitably modified in this paper for the 1D Bose gas.

  16. Impurity driven diffusion and destruction of solitons in quasi-1D Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aycock, Lauren; Hurst, Hilary; Lu, Hsin-I.; Genkina, Dina; Spielman, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Current experimental research on solitons focuses on their collisions with each other and how dimensionality influences their stability and decay. Here, we investigate the effect of evenly distributed impurity atoms on soliton dynamics. We launch lone, long-lived solitons in highly elongated 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) by phase imprinting and observe oscillations stable over many seconds. We compare these long-lived solitons to those launched in BECs containing a few percent of impurity-the same atomic species in a different Zeeman sublevel-controllably introduced just before evaporation to degeneracy. These impurities - evenly distributed throughout the condensate - dramatically decrease the soliton lifetime and enhance Brownian-like diffusion in the soliton's trajectory.

  17. Gaussian potentials facilitate access to quantum Hall states in rotating Bose gases.

    PubMed

    Morris, Alexis G; Feder, David L

    2007-12-14

    Through exact numerical diagonalization for small numbers of atoms, we show that it is possible to access quantum Hall states in harmonically confined Bose gases at rotation frequencies well below the centrifugal limit by applying a repulsive Gaussian potential at the trap center. The main idea is to reduce or eliminate the effective trapping frequency in regions where the particle density is appreciable. The critical rotation frequency required to obtain the bosonic Laughlin state can be fixed at an experimentally accessible value by choosing an applied Gaussian whose amplitude increases linearly with the number of atoms while its width increases as the square root. PMID:18233424

  18. Composite-fermion description of rotating Bose gases at low angular momenta

    SciTech Connect

    Korslund, M. N.; Viefers, S.

    2006-06-15

    We study the composite-fermion (CF) construction at and below the single vortex (L=N) state of weakly interacting rotating Bose gases, presenting a new method for handling the large number of derivatives typically occurring via the Slater determinant. Remarkably, the CF wave function at L=N becomes asymptotically exact in the thermodynamic limit, even though this construction is not, a priori, expected to work in the low angular momentum regime. This implies an interesting mathematical identity which may be useful in other contexts.

  19. The weakening of fermionization of one dimensional spinor Bose gases induced by spin-exchange interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yajiang

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the ground state density distributions of anti-ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose gases in a one dimensional harmonic potential in the full interacting regimes. The ground state is obtained by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian in the Hilbert space composed of the lowest eigenstates of noninteracting Bose gas and spin components. The study reveals that in the situation of a weak spin-dependent interaction the total density profiles evolve from a Gaussian-like distribution to a Fermi-like shell structure of N peaks with the increasing of spin-independent interaction. The increasing spin-exchange interaction always weakens the fermionization of the density distribution such that the total density profiles show the shell structure of less peaks and even show single peak structure in the limit of the strong spin-exchange interaction. The weakening of fermionization results from the formation of composite atoms induced by the spin-exchange interaction. It is also shown that phase separation occurs for the spinor Bose gas with a weak spin-exchange interaction, meanwhile the spin-independent interaction is strong.

  20. Bose and Fermi gases in the early Universe with self-gravitational effect

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Yuezhen; Huang Junwu; Ma Boqiang

    2011-03-15

    We study the self-gravitational effect on the equation of state (EoS) of Bose and Fermi gases in thermal equilibrium at the end of reheating, the period after quark-hadron transition and before big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). After introducing new grand canonical partition functions based on the work of Uhlenbeck and Gropper, we notice some interesting features of the newly developed EoSs with distinct behaviors of relativistic and nonrelativistic gases under self-gravity. The usual negligence of the self-gravitational effect when solving the background expansion of the early Universe is justified with numerical results, showing the magnitude of the self-gravitational modification of the state constant to be less than O(10{sup -78}). This helps us to clarify the background thermal evolution of the primordial patch. Such clarification is crucial in testing gravity theories, evaluating inflation models and determining element abundances in BBN.

  1. Glimmers of a Quantum KAM Theorem: Insights from Quantum Quenches in One-Dimensional Bose Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandino, G. P.; Caux, J.-S.; Konik, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    Real-time dynamics in a quantum many-body system are inherently complicated and hence difficult to predict. There are, however, a special set of systems where these dynamics are theoretically tractable: integrable models. Such models possess nontrivial conserved quantities beyond energy and momentum. These quantities are believed to control dynamics and thermalization in low-dimensional atomic gases as well as in quantum spin chains. But what happens when the special symmetries leading to the existence of the extra conserved quantities are broken? Is there any memory of the quantities if the breaking is weak? Here, in the presence of weak integrability breaking, we show that it is possible to construct residual quasiconserved quantities, thus providing a quantum analog to the KAM theorem and its attendant Nekhoreshev estimates. We demonstrate this construction explicitly in the context of quantum quenches in one-dimensional Bose gases and argue that these quasiconserved quantities can be probed experimentally.

  2. Bose and Fermi gases in the early Universe with self-gravitational effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Yuezhen; Huang, Junwu; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2011-03-01

    We study the self-gravitational effect on the equation of state (EoS) of Bose and Fermi gases in thermal equilibrium at the end of reheating, the period after quark-hadron transition and before big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). After introducing new grand canonical partition functions based on the work of Uhlenbeck and Gropper, we notice some interesting features of the newly developed EoSs with distinct behaviors of relativistic and nonrelativistic gases under self-gravity. The usual negligence of the self-gravitational effect when solving the background expansion of the early Universe is justified with numerical results, showing the magnitude of the self-gravitational modification of the state constant to be less than O(10-78). This helps us to clarify the background thermal evolution of the primordial patch. Such clarification is crucial in testing gravity theories, evaluating inflation models and determining element abundances in BBN.

  3. Transport of an interacting Bose gas in 1D disordered lattices

    SciTech Connect

    D'Errico, C.; Chaudhuri, S.; Gori, L.; Kumar, A.; Lucioni, E.; Tanzi, L.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.

    2014-08-20

    We use ultracold atoms in a quasiperiodic lattice to study two outstanding problems in the physics of disordered systems: a) the anomalous diffusion of a wavepacket in the presence of disorder, interactions and noise; b) the transport of a disordered superfluid. a) Our results show that the subdiffusion, observed when interaction alone is present, can be modelled with a nonlinear diffusion equation and the peculiar shape of the expanding density profiles can be connected to the microscopic nonlinear diffusion coefficients. Also when noise alone is present we can describe the observed normal diffusion dynamics by existing microscopic models. In the unexplored regime in which noise and interaction are combined, instead, we observe an anomalous diffusion, that we model with a generalized diffusion equation, where noise- and interaction-induced contributions add each other. b) We find that an instability appearing at relatively large momenta can be employed to locate the fluid-insulator crossover driven by disorder. By investigating the momentum-dependent transport, we observe a sharp crossover from a weakly dissipative regime to a strongly unstable one at a disorder-dependent critical momentum. The set of critical disorder and interaction strengths for which such critical momentum vanishes, can be identified with the separation between a fluid regime and an insulating one and can be related to the predicted zero-temperature superfluid-Bose glass transition.

  4. Quantum states of dark solitons in the 1D Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Jun; Kanamoto, Rina; Kaminishi, Eriko; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2016-07-01

    We present a series of quantum states that are characterized by dark solitons of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (i.e. the Gross–Pitaevskii equation) for the one-dimensional Bose gas interacting through the repulsive delta-function potentials. The classical solutions satisfy the periodic boundary conditions and we simply call them classical dark solitons. Through exact solutions we show corresponding aspects between the states and the solitons in the weak coupling case: the quantum and classical density profiles completely overlap with each other not only at an initial time but also at later times over a long period of time, and they move together with the same speed in time; the matrix element of the bosonic field operator between the quantum states has exactly the same profiles of the square amplitude and the phase as the classical complex scalar field of a classical dark soliton not only at the initial time but also at later times, and the corresponding profiles move together for a long period of time. We suggest that the corresponding properties hold rigorously in the weak coupling limit. Furthermore, we argue that the lifetime of the dark soliton-like density profile in the quantum state becomes infinitely long as the coupling constant approaches zero, by comparing it with the quantum speed limit time. Thus, we call the quantum states quantum dark soliton states.

  5. Physical Realization of von Neumann Lattices in Rotating Bose Gases with Dipole Interatomic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions. PMID:27545446

  6. Physical Realization of von Neumann Lattices in Rotating Bose Gases with Dipole Interatomic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions. PMID:27545446

  7. O(1D) kinetic study of key ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Fleming, Eric L; Jackman, Charles H; Burkholder, James B

    2013-03-28

    A key stratospheric loss process for ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is reaction with the O((1)D) atom. In this study, rate coefficients, k, for the O((1)D) atom reaction were measured for the following key halocarbons: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CFCl2CF2Cl (CFC-113), CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115); hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b); and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) CHF3 (HFC-23), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CH3CF3 (HFC-143a), and CF3CHFCF3 (HFC-227ea). Total rate coefficients, kT, corresponding to the loss of the O((1)D) atom, were measured over the temperature range 217-373 K using a competitive reactive technique. kT values for the CFC and HCFC reactions were >1 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), except for CFC-115, and the rate coefficients for the HFCs were in the range (0.095-0.72) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Rate coefficients for the CFC-12, CFC-114, CFC-115, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea reactions were observed to have a weak negative temperature dependence, E/R ≈ -25 K. Reactive rate coefficients, kR, corresponding to the loss of the halocarbon, were measured for CFC-11, CFC-115, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea using a relative rate technique. The reactive branching ratio obtained was dependent on the composition of the halocarbon and the trend in O((1)D) reactivity with the extent of hydrogen and chlorine substitution is discussed. The present results are critically compared with previously reported kinetic data and the discrepancies are discussed. 2D atmospheric model calculations were used to evaluate the local and global annually averaged atmospheric lifetimes of the halocarbons and the contribution of O((1)D) chemistry to their atmospheric loss. The O((1)D) reaction was found to be a major global loss process for CFC-114 and CFC-115 and a secondary global loss process for the other molecules included

  8. Role of quantum fluctuations in the dissipative dynamics of a 1D Bose gas in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Ana Maria; Gea-Banacloche, Julio; Pupillo, Guido; Williams, Carl J.; Clark, Charles W.

    2005-03-01

    We will present a theoretical treatment[1] of the surprisingly large damping observed recently in a experiment done at NIST [2] where the transport properties of a harmonically trapped 1D Bose gas in a periodic (optical lattice) potential were studied by observing small amplitude dipole oscillations. In the absence of the lattice these oscillations are expected to be undamped (generalized Kohn's theorem), however, large damping of the dipole mode was observed in the experiment for very weak optical lattices and very small cloud displacements. We will show that the observed damping can be derived from a model whose main ingredients are (a) a large noncondensate fraction that arises as a direct consequence of the enhanced effective on-site interaction due to the tight transverse confinement, (b) the fact that a non-negligible part of it occupies high-momentum states and is therefore affected by dynamical instabilities, and (c) the interaction of the condensate atoms with the random field created by these noncondensate atoms when their equilibrium state is perturbed. We find good agreement between the model and the experimental results. [1] Julio Gea-Banacloche et al. cond-mat/0410677. [2] C. D. Fertig, K. et al.cond-mat/0410491.

  9. Fractional Quantum Hall Effects with Bose-gases in Rotating Optical Lattice Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemelke, Nathan; Sarajlic, Edina; Chu, Steven

    2008-05-01

    It has previously been noted that an analog to the fractional quantum-Hall (FQH) effect for two-dimensional electron gases can be produced with harmonically trapped and rotating neutral atoms. We report progress investigating FQH-like effects in the centrifugal limit of small, rotating, two-dimensional Bose gases. An ensemble of such systems is prepared in an optical lattice with locally rotating on-site potentials, produced by manipulation only of lattice beam optical phases. The non- rotating few-atom ground states are adiabatically transformed to higher angular momentum by applying a time-dependent sweep of rotation rate and deformation of the local lattice potential. Near the centrifugal limit, where the trap rotates at its vibration frequency, correlation is expected as a result of collisions. The onset of this behavior is probed by a combination of photoassociative transitions to bound molecules, and careful analysis of time-of-flight momentum distributions of atoms suddenly released from the lattice.

  10. Two-component Bose gases with one-body and two-body couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lellouch, Samuel; Dao, Tung-Lam; Koffel, Thomas; Sanchez-Palencia, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    We study the competition between one-body and two-body couplings in weakly interacting two-component Bose gases, in particular as regards field correlations. We derive the mean-field theory for both ground-state and low-energy pair excitations in the general case where both one-body and two-body couplings are position dependent and the fluid is subjected to a state-dependent trapping potential. General formulas for phase and density correlations are also derived. Focusing on the case of homogeneous systems, we discuss the pair-excitation spectrum and the corresponding excitation modes, and use them to calculate correlation functions, including both quantum and thermal fluctuation terms. We show that the relative phase of the two components is imposed by that of the one-body coupling, while its fluctuations are determined by the modulus of the one-body coupling and by the two-body coupling. One-body coupling and repulsive two-body coupling cooperate to suppress relative-phase fluctuations, while attractive two-body coupling tends to enhance them. Further applications of the formalism presented here and extensions of our work are also discussed.

  11. Quantum Hall states of atomic Bose gases: Density profiles in single-layer and multilayer geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, N. R.; Lankvelt, F. J. M. van; Reijnders, J. W.; Schoutens, K.

    2005-12-15

    We describe the density profiles of confined atomic Bose gases in the high-rotation limit, in single-layer and multilayer geometries. We show that, in a local-density approximation, the density in a single layer shows a landscape of quantized steps due to the formation of incompressible liquids, which are analogous to fractional quantum Hall liquids for a two-dimensional electron gas in a strong magnetic field. In a multilayered setup we find different phases, depending on the strength of the interlayer tunneling t. We discuss the situation where a vortex lattice in the three-dimensional condensate (at large tunneling) undergoes quantum melting at a critical tunneling t{sub c{sub 1}}. For tunneling well below t{sub c{sub 1}} one expects weakly coupled or isolated layers, each exhibiting a landscape of quantum Hall liquids. After expansion, this gives a radial density distribution with characteristic features (cusps) that provide experimental signatures of the quantum Hall liquids.

  12. Numerical methods for atomic quantum gases with applications to Bose-Einstein condensates and to ultracold fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguzzi, A.; Succi, S.; Toschi, F.; Tosi, M. P.; Vignolo, P.

    2004-06-01

    The achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in ultra-cold vapours of alkali atoms has given enormous impulse to the study of dilute atomic gases in condensed quantum states inside magnetic traps and optical lattices. High-purity and easy optical access make them ideal candidates to investigate fundamental issues on interacting quantum systems. This review presents some theoretical issues which have been addressed in this area and the numerical techniques which have been developed and used to describe them, from mean-field models to classical and quantum simulations for equilibrium and dynamical properties. After an introductory overview on dilute quantum gases, both in the homogeneus state and under harmonic or periodic confinement, the article is organized in three main sections. The first concerns Bose-condensed gases at zero temperature, with main regard to the properties of the ground state in different confinements and to collective excitations and transport in the condensate. Bose-Einstein-condensed gases at finite temperature are addressed in the next section, the main emphasis being on equilibrium properties and phase transitions and on dynamical and transport properties associated with the presence of the thermal cloud. Finally, the last section is focused on theoretical and computational issues that have emerged from the efforts to drive gases of fermionic atoms and boson-fermion mixtures deep into the quantum degeneracy regime, with the aim of realizing novel superfluids from fermion pairing. The attention given in this article to methods beyond standard mean-field approaches should make it a useful reference point for future advances in these areas.

  13. Optically trapped quasi-two-dimensional Bose gases in a random environment: Quantum fluctuations and superfluid density

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Kezhao; Liang Zhaoxin; Zhang Zhidong; Hu Ying

    2010-10-15

    We investigate a dilute Bose gas confined in a tight one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice plus a superimposed random potential at zero temperature. Accordingly, the ground-state energy, quantum depletion, and superfluid density are calculated. The presence of the lattice introduces a crossover to the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) regime, where we analyze asymptotically the 2D behavior of the system, particularly the effects of disorder. We thereby offer an analytical expression for the ground-state energy of a purely 2D Bose gas in a random potential. The obtained disorder-induced normal fluid density n{sub n} and quantum depletion n{sub d} both exhibit a characteristic 1/ln(1/n{sub 2D}a{sub 2D}{sup 2}) dependence. Their ratio n{sub n}/n{sub d} increases to 2 compared to the familiar 4/3 in lattice-free three-dimensional (3D) geometry, signifying a more pronounced contrast between superfluidity and Bose-Einstein condensation in low dimensions. The conditions for possible experimental realization of our scenario are also proposed.

  14. GENERAL: Dissipation-Managed Bright Soliton in a 1D Bose-Einstein Condensate in an Optical-Lattice Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zheng; Yu, Hui-You; Ao, Sheng-Mei; Yan, Jia-Ren

    2010-07-01

    We study the formation of a dynamically-stabilized dissipation-managed bright soliton in a quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate by including an imaginary three-body recombination loss term and an imaginary linear feeding one in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, trapped in a shallow optical-lattice potential. Based on the direct approach of perturbation theory for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we demonstrate that the height (as well as width) of bright soliton may have little change through selecting experimental parameters.

  15. Controlling a class of chaotic quantum system under disturbances and noisy measurements: Application to 1D Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-López, Ricardo; López-Pérez, Pablo A.; Lara-Cisneros, Gerardo; Femat, Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a robust nonlinear feedback control scheme with adaptive gain is proposed to control the chaotic behavior in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The control goal concerns the track or regulation purposes. The BEC system is represented as stochastic ordinary differential equations with measured output perturbed by Gaussian noise, which represents the nature of the quantum systems. The convergence of the BEC control law is analyzed under the frame of the Lyapunov stability theory. Numerical experiments show an adequate performance of the proposed methodology under the required conditions. The results are applicable when the shape of the condensate is sufficiently simple.

  16. Mixtures of ultracold gases: Fermi sea and Bose-Einstein condensate of lithium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, F.

    2003-03-01

    This thesis presents studies of quantum degenerate atomic gases of fermionic ^6Li and bosonic ^7Li. Degeneracy is reached by evaporative cooling of ^7Li in a strongly confining magnetic trap. Since at low temperatures direct evaporative cooling is not possible for a polarized fermionic gas, ^6Li is sympathetically cooled by thermal contact with ^7Li. In a first series of experiments both isotopes are trapped in their low-field seeking higher hyperfine states. A Fermi degeneracy of T/T_F=0.25(5) is achieved for 10^5 fermions. For more than 300 atoms, the ^7Li condensate collapses, due to the attractive interatomic interaction in this state. This limits the degeneracy reached for both species. To overcome this limit, in a second series of experiments ^7Li and ^6Li atoms are transferred to their low field seeking lower hyperfine states, where the boson-boson interaction is repulsive but weak. The inter-isotope collisions are used to thermalize the mixture. A ^7Li Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of 10^4 atoms immersed in a Fermi sea is produced. The BEC is quasi-one-dimensional and the thermal fraction can be negligible. The measured degeneracies are T/T_C=T/T_F=0.2(1). The temperature is measured using the bosonic thermal fraction, which vanishes at the lowest temperatures, limiting our measurement sensitivity. In a third series of experiments, the bosons are transferred into an optical trap and their internal state is changed to |F=1,m_F=1rangle, the lowest energy state. A Feshbach resonance is detected and used to produce a BEC with tunable atomic interactions. When the effective interaction between atoms is tuned to be small and attractive, we observe the formation of a matter-wave bright soliton. Propagation of the soliton without spreading over a macroscopic distance of 1.1 mm is observed. Mélanges de gaz ultrafroids: mer de Fermi et condensat de Bose-Einstein des isotopes du lithium Cette thèse décrit l'étude des gaz de fermions ^6Li et de bosons ^7Li dans le

  17. Superfluid-insulator transition of two-dimensional disordered Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, Joseph; Lugan, Pierre; Savona, Vincenzo

    2014-09-01

    We study the two-dimensional weakly repulsive Bose gas at zero temperature in the presence of correlated disorder. Using large-scale simulations, we show that the low-energy Bogoliubov cumulative density of states remains quadratic up to a critical disorder strength, beyond which a power law with disorder-dependent exponent β <2 sets in. We associate this threshold behavior with the transition from superfluid to Bose glass, and compare the resulting mean-field phase diagram with scaling laws and the Thomas-Fermi percolation threshold of the mean-field density profile.

  18. Solitary waves in mixtures of Bose gases confined in annular traps

    SciTech Connect

    Smyrnakis, J.; Magiropoulos, M.; Kavoulakis, G. M.; Jackson, A. D.

    2010-06-15

    A two-component Bose-Einstein condensate that is confined in a one-dimensional ring potential supports solitary-wave solutions, which we evaluate analytically in the limit of a large ring. The derived solutions are shown to be unique. The corresponding dispersion relation that generalizes the case of a single-component system shows interesting features.

  19. Universality far from equilibrium: from superfluid Bose gases to heavy-ion collisions.

    PubMed

    Berges, J; Boguslavski, K; Schlichting, S; Venugopalan, R

    2015-02-13

    Isolated quantum systems in extreme conditions can exhibit unusually large occupancies per mode. This overpopulation gives rise to new universality classes of many-body systems far from equilibrium. We present theoretical evidence that important aspects of non-Abelian plasmas in the ultrarelativistic limit admit a dual description in terms of a Bose condensed scalar field theory. PMID:25723203

  20. Universality far from equilibrium: From superfluid Bose gases to heavy-ion collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schlichting, S.; Venugopalan, R.; Berges, J.; Boguslavski, K.

    2015-02-10

    Isolated quantum systems in extreme conditions can exhibit unusually large occupancies per mode. In addition, this over-population gives rise to new universality classes of many-body systems far from equilibrium. We present theoretical evidence that important aspects of non-Abelian plasmas in the ultra-relativistic limit admit a dual description in terms of a Bose condensed scalar field theory.

  1. Spin-Polarized Fermi Gases in 1D, 3D, and Crossover Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Jacob A.; Revelle, Melissa C.; Olsen, Ben A.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2015-05-01

    We report recent results on mapping the superfluid transition as a function of atomic interaction and global spin polarization in a two-component, 3D gas of fermionic lithium. The atomic interactions are controlled using a Feshbach resonance to tune between the strongly interacting BEC regime and the weakly interacting BCS regime. Previously, a 3D gas was found to have an unpolarized superfluid core that is enclosed by polarized shells. By applying a 2D optical lattice we confine our gas in one-dimensional tubes. In this 1D gas, in contrast to the 3D gas, we found a partially polarized superfluid core and either fully polarized or fully paired wings depending on the overall spin polarization. In the current experiment, we have mapped the phase diagram of the 1D/3D crossover by increasing the inter-tube coupling. The exotic superfluid state, FFLO, is predicted to occupy a large portion of the phase diagram in the crossover regime, making it an ideal location in parameter space for its detection. ARO, NSF, ONR, and The Welch Foundation.

  2. Slave-particle approach to the finite-temperature properties of ultracold Bose gases in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Xiancong; Yu Yue; Li Jinbin

    2006-04-15

    By using slave particle (slave boson and slave fermion) techniques on the Bose-Hubbard model, we study the finite temperature properties of ultracold Bose gases in optical lattices. The phase diagrams at finite temperature are depicted by including different types of slave particles and the effect of the finite types of slave particles is estimated. The superfluid density is evaluated using the Landau second order phase transition theory. The atom density, excitation spectrum, and dispersion curve are also computed at various temperatures, and how the Mott-insulator evolves as the temperature increases is demonstrated. For most quantities to be calculated, we find that there are no qualitative differences in using the slave boson or the slave fermion approaches. However, when studying the stability of the mean field state, we find that in contrast to the slave fermion approach, the slave boson mean field state is not stable. Although the slave boson mean field theory gives a qualitatively correct phase boundary, it corresponds to a local maximum of Landau free energy and cannot describe the second order phase transition because the coefficient a{sub 4} of the fourth order term is always negative in the free energy expansion.

  3. Ehrenfest breakdown of the mean-field dynamics of Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xizhi; Wu, Biao

    2016-02-01

    The unstable mean-field dynamics of a Bose gas is shown to break down at time τh=(c1/γ ) lnN , where γ is the Lyapunov exponent of the mean-field theory, N is the number of bosons, and c1 is a system-dependent constant. The breakdown time τh is essentially the Ehrenfest time that characterizes the breakdown of the correspondence between classical and quantum dynamics. This breakdown can be well described by a quantum fidelity defined for one-particle reduced density matrices. Our results are obtained with the formalism in particle-number phase space and are illustrated with a triple-well model. The logarithmic quantum-classical correspondence time may be verified experimentally with Bose-Einstein condensates.

  4. Magnetic properties of two-dimensional charged spin-1 Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yingxue; Qin, Jihong; Gu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Within the mean-field theory, we investigate the magnetic properties of a charged spin-1 Bose gas in two dimensions. In this system the diamagnetism competes with paramagnetism, where the Landé factor g is introduced to describe the strength of the paramagnetic effect. The system presents a crossover from diamagnetism to paramagnetism with the increasing of the Landé factor. gc denotes the critical value of the Landé factor. We get the same value of gc both in the low temperature and strong magnetic field limit. Our results also show that in very weak magnetic field no condensation happens in the two-dimensional charged spin-1 Bose gas.

  5. Collective oscillations in trapped Bose-Einstein-condensed gases in the presence of weak disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, G. M.; Pelster, A.; Graham, R.

    2007-07-15

    The influence of a weak random potential on the collective modes of a trapped interacting Bose-Einstein condensate at zero temperature is calculated in the limit when the correlation length of the disorder is smaller than the healing length of the superfluid. The problem is solved in the Thomas-Fermi limit by generalizing the superfluid hydrodynamic equations to allow for the presence of weak disorder. We find that the disorder-induced frequency shifts of the low-energy excitations can be of the same order of magnitude as the beyond mean-field corrections in the normal interaction recently observed experimentally.

  6. Entanglement of Vortex Lattices for Ultracold Bose Gases in a Non-Abelian Gauge Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jiang, T. F.; Jheng, Shih-Da; Atomic; Molecular Physics Team; Atomic; Molecular Physics Team

    We develop a theory, referred to as the von Neumann lattice in a higher Landau level, for vortex lattices labelled by an integral number of flux quantums per unit cell in a higher Landau level. Using this lattice theory, we study the vortex lattice states of a pseudospin-1/2 ultracold Bose gas with contact interactions in a non-Abelian gauge potential. In addition to a uniform magnetic field, the Bose gas is also subjected to a non-Abelian gauge field, which creates an effect of the spin-orbit coupling to lift the spin degeneracy of the Landau levels. Because of interactions from the spin-orbit coupling, there are new degenerate points of the single particle spectrum due to the crossings of two Landau levels at certain coupling strengths. We show that interactions from the spin-orbit coupling force the nature and structure of the vortex lattice changing dramatically if the strength of the non-Abelian gauge field is increasing. We also find that the ground state of the vortex lattice at a degenerate point exhibits strong correlation and entanglement involving vortex lattices from different Landau levels. This entangled state builds the connection between two phases of vortex lattices during the first order phase transition of the adiabatic evolution.

  7. Compacton matter waves in binary Bose gases under strong nonlinear management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Hadi, M. S. A.; Salerno, M.; Umarov, B.

    2014-12-01

    The existence of compacton matter waves in binary mixtures of quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates in deep optical lattices, and in the presence of nonlinearity management, is demonstrated. For this, we derive an averaged vector discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE) and show that compacton solutions of different types can exist as stable excitations. Stability properties are studied by linear analysis and by direct numerical integrations of the DNLSE system and their dependence on the inter- and intraspecies scattering lengths investigated. We show that under proper management conditions, compactons can be very robust excitations that can emerge spontaneously from generic initial conditions. A possible experimental setting for compacton observation is also discussed.

  8. Magnetic phases of spin-1 spin-orbit coupled Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Daniel; Price, Ryan; Putra, Andika; Valdés-Curiel, Ana; Trypogeorgos, Dimitrios; Spielman, Ian; Spielman Team

    We experimentally explore the magnetic phases present in a near-zero temperature spin-1 spin-orbit coupled atomic Bose gas. We observe ferromagnetic and unpolarized phases which are stabilized by the spin-orbit coupling's explicit locking between spin and motion. In the limit of weak spin-orbit coupling, these phases are separated by a critical curve of 1st order quantum phase transitions, with an observed width as small as h × 4Hz . These phase transitions give rise to long-lived metastable states. This work was partially supported by the ARO's atomtronics MURI, by the AFOSR's Quantum Matter MURI, NIST, and the NSF through the PFC at the JQI.

  9. Magnetic phases of spin-1 spin–orbit-coupled Bose gases

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D. L.; Price, R. M.; Putra, A.; Valdés-Curiel, A.; Trypogeorgos, D.; Spielman, I. B.

    2016-01-01

    Phases of matter are characterized by order parameters describing the type and degree of order in a system. Here we experimentally explore the magnetic phases present in a near-zero temperature spin-1 spin–orbit-coupled atomic Bose gas and the quantum phase transitions between these phases. We observe ferromagnetic and unpolarized phases, which are stabilized by spin–orbit coupling's explicit locking between spin and motion. These phases are separated by a critical curve containing both first- and second-order transitions joined at a tricritical point. The first-order transition, with observed width as small as h × 4 Hz, gives rise to long-lived metastable states. These measurements are all in agreement with theory. PMID:27025562

  10. Magnetic phases of spin-1 spin-orbit-coupled Bose gases.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L; Price, R M; Putra, A; Valdés-Curiel, A; Trypogeorgos, D; Spielman, I B

    2016-01-01

    Phases of matter are characterized by order parameters describing the type and degree of order in a system. Here we experimentally explore the magnetic phases present in a near-zero temperature spin-1 spin-orbit-coupled atomic Bose gas and the quantum phase transitions between these phases. We observe ferromagnetic and unpolarized phases, which are stabilized by spin-orbit coupling's explicit locking between spin and motion. These phases are separated by a critical curve containing both first- and second-order transitions joined at a tricritical point. The first-order transition, with observed width as small as h × 4 Hz, gives rise to long-lived metastable states. These measurements are all in agreement with theory. PMID:27025562

  11. Formation of Vortex Lattices in Superfluid Bose Gases at Finite Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arahata, E.; Nikuni, T.

    2016-05-01

    We study the dynamics of a rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at finite temperatures. Using the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin formalism, based on a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate coupled to a semiclassical kinetic equation for a thermal cloud, we numerically simulate vortex lattice formation in the presence of a time-dependent rotating trap potential. At low rotation frequency, the thermal cloud undergoes rigid body rotation, while the condensate exhibits irrotational flow. Above a certain threshold rotation frequency, vortices penetrate into the condensate and form a vortex lattice. Our simulation result clearly indicates a crucial role for the thermal cloud, which triggers vortex lattice formation in the rotating BEC.

  12. Magnetic phase transition in coherently coupled Bose gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbiero, L.; Abad, M.; Recati, A.

    2016-03-01

    We describe the ground state of a gas of bosonic atoms with two coherently coupled internal levels in a deep optical lattice in a one-dimensional geometry. In the single-band approximation this system is described by a Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. The system has a superfluid and a Mott insulating phase that can be either paramagnetic or ferromagnetic. We characterize the quantum phase transitions at unit filling by means of a density-matrix renormalization-group technique and compare the results with a mean-field approach and an effective spin Hamiltonian. The presence of the ferromagnetic Ising-like transition modifies the Mott lobes. In the Mott insulating region the system maps to the ferromagnetic spin-1/2 X X Z model in a transverse field and the numerical results compare very well with the analytical results obtained from the spin model. In the superfluid regime quantum fluctuations strongly modify the phase transition with respect to the well-established mean-field three-dimensional classical bifurcation.

  13. Interfaces between Bose-Einstein and Tonks-Girardeau atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatrella, Giovanni; Malomed, Boris A.

    2016-02-01

    We consider one-dimensional mixtures of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and Tonks-Girardeau (TG) gas. The mixture is modeled by a coupled system of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the BEC and the quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the TG component. An immiscibility condition for the binary system is derived in a general form. Under this condition, three types of BEC-TG interfaces are considered: domain walls (DWs) separating the two components; bubble-drops (BDs), in the form of a drop of one component immersed into the other (BDs may be considered as bound states of two DWs); and bound states of bright and dark solitons (BDSs). The same model applies to the copropagation of two optical waves in a colloidal medium. The results are obtained by means of systematic numerical analysis, in combination with analytical Thomas-Fermi approximations (TFAs). Using both methods, families of DW states are produced in a generic form. BD complexes exist solely in the form of a TG drop embedded into the BEC background. On the contrary, BDSs exist as bound states of TG bright and BEC dark components, and vice versa.

  14. Theoretical studies of Efimov states and dynamics in quenched unitary Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Incao, Jose P.; Wang, Jia; Klauss, Cathy; Xie, Xin; Jin, Deborah S.; Cornell, Eric A.

    2016-05-01

    We study the three-body physics relevant for quenched unitary Bose gas experiments in order to determine the role of Efimov states on the dynamics of the atomic and molecular populations. Initially, the interatomic interactions are quenched from weak to infinitely strong. After some dwelling time, the interactions are slowly ramped back to some final weak value where a mixture of atoms, dimers, and Efimov trimers can exist and whose populations depend strongly on the dwell time. We model the problem using the adiabatic hyperspherical representation for three atoms assuming a local interaction model in which a harmonic potential mimics finite density effects. We also developed a novel Slow Variable Discretization (SVD) method to accurately determine the time evolution of the system, overcoming the difficulty of implementing diabatization schemes to minimize unwanted effects due to sharp-avoid crossings. This method also allows us to account for three-body losses during the time evolution. This research is supported by the U. S. National Science Foundation.

  15. Variational Monte Carlo study of soliton excitations in hard-sphere Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota, R.; Giorgini, S.

    2015-10-01

    By using a full many-body approach, we calculate the excitation energy, the effective mass, and the density profile of soliton states in a three-dimensional Bose gas of hard spheres at zero temperature. The many-body wave function used to describe the soliton contains a one-body term, derived from the solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, and a two-body Jastrow term, which accounts for the repulsive correlations between atoms. We optimize the parameters in the many-body wave function via a variational Monte Carlo procedure, calculating the grand-canonical energy and the canonical momentum of the system in a moving reference frame where the soliton is stationary. As the density of the gas is increased, significant deviations from the mean-field predictions are found for the excitation energy and the density profile of both dark and gray solitons. In particular, the soliton effective mass m* and the mass m Δ N of missing particles in the region of the density depression are smaller than the result from the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, their ratio, however, being well reproduced by this theory up to large values of the gas parameter. We also calculate the profile of the condensate density around the soliton notch, finding good agreement with the prediction of the local-density approximation.

  16. Quasi-long-range order in trapped two-dimensional Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Igor; Holzmann, Markus

    2016-07-01

    We study the fate of algebraic decay of correlations in a harmonically trapped two-dimensional degenerate Bose gas. The analysis is inspired by recent experiments on ultracold atoms where power-law correlations have been observed despite the presence of the external potential. We generalize the spin wave description of phase fluctuations to the trapped case and obtain an analytical expression for the one-body density matrix within this approximation. We show that algebraic decay of the central correlation function persists to lengths of about 20% of the Thomas-Fermi radius. We establish that the trap-averaged correlation function decays algebraically with a strictly larger exponent weakly changing with trap size and find indications that the recently observed enhanced scaling exponents receive significant contributions from the normal component of the gas. We discuss radial and angular correlations and propose a local correlation approximation which captures the correlations very well. Our analysis goes beyond the usual local density approximation and the developed summation techniques constitute a powerful tool to investigate correlations in inhomogeneous systems.

  17. Localization of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in interacting Bose gases with correlated disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugan, P.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.

    2011-07-01

    We study the Anderson localization of Bogoliubov quasiparticles (elementary many-body excitations) in a weakly interacting Bose gas of chemical potential μ subjected to a disordered potential V. We introduce a general mapping (valid for weak inhomogeneous potentials in any dimension) of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations onto a single-particle Schrödinger-like equation with an effective potential. For disordered potentials, the Schrödinger-like equation accounts for the scattering and localization properties of the Bogoliubov quasiparticles. We derive analytically the localization lengths for correlated disordered potentials in the one-dimensional geometry. Our approach relies on a perturbative expansion in V/μ, which we develop up to third order, and we discuss the impact of the various perturbation orders. Our predictions are shown to be in very good agreement with direct numerical calculations. We identify different localization regimes: For low energy, the effective disordered potential exhibits a strong screening by the quasicondensate density background, and localization is suppressed. For high-energy excitations, the effective disordered potential reduces to the bare disordered potential, and the localization properties of quasiparticles are the same as for free particles. The maximum of localization is found at intermediate energy when the quasicondensate healing length is of the order of the disorder correlation length. Possible extensions of our work to higher dimensions are also discussed.

  18. Effect of the particle-hole channel on BCS–Bose-Einstein condensation crossover in atomic Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qijin

    2016-05-01

    BCS–Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor’kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories.

  19. Effect of the particle-hole channel on BCS–Bose-Einstein condensation crossover in atomic Fermi gases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qijin

    2016-01-01

    BCS–Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor’kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories. PMID:27183875

  20. Effect of the particle-hole channel on BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover in atomic Fermi gases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qijin

    2016-01-01

    BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor'kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories. PMID:27183875

  1. Microscopic description of anisotropic low-density dipolar Bose gases in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Macia, A.; Mazzanti, F.; Boronat, J.; Zillich, R. E.

    2011-09-15

    A microscopic description of the zero-energy two-body ground state and many-body static properties of anisotropic homogeneous gases of bosonic dipoles in two dimensions at low densities is presented and discussed. By changing the polarization angle with respect to the plane, we study the impact of the anisotropy, present in the dipole-dipole interaction, on the energy per particle, comparing the results with mean-field predictions. We restrict the analysis to the regime where the interaction is always repulsive, although the strength of the repulsion depends on the orientation with respect to the polarization field. We present a series expansion of the solution of the zero-energy two-body problem, which allows us to find the scattering length of the interaction and to build a suitable Jastrow factor that we use as a trial wave function for both a variational and diffusion Monte Carlo simulation of the infinite system. We find that the anisotropy has an almost negligible impact on the ground-state properties of the many-body system in the universal regime where the scattering length governs the physics of the system. We also show that scaling in the gas parameter persists in the dipolar case up to values where other isotropic interactions with the same scattering length yield different predictions.

  2. Final LDRD report : the physics of 1D and 2D electron gases in III-nitride heterostructure NWs.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Arslan, Ilke; Upadhya, Prashanth C.; Morales, Eugenia T.; Leonard, Francois Leonard; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Talin, Albert Alec; Prasankumar, Rohit P.; Lin, Yong

    2009-09-01

    The proposed work seeks to demonstrate and understand new phenomena in novel, freestanding III-nitride core-shell nanowires, including 1D and 2D electron gas formation and properties, and to investigate the role of surfaces and heterointerfaces on the transport and optical properties of nanowires, using a combined experimental and theoretical approach. Obtaining an understanding of these phenomena will be a critical step that will allow development of novel, ultrafast and ultraefficient nanowire-based electronic and photonic devices.

  3. Quench in the 1D Bose-Hubbard model: Topological defects and excitations from the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Dziarmaga, Jacek; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2014-01-01

    Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) uses critical scaling to predict density of topological defects and other excitations created in second order phase transitions. We point out that simply inserting asymptotic critical exponents deduced from the immediate vicinity of the critical point to obtain predictions can lead to results that are inconsistent with a more careful KZM analysis based on causality – on the comparison of the relaxation time of the order parameter with the “time distance” from the critical point. As a result, scaling of quench-generated excitations with quench rates can exhibit behavior that is locally (i.e., in the neighborhood of any given quench rate) well approximated by the power law, but with exponents that depend on that rate, and that are quite different from the naive prediction based on the critical exponents relevant for asymptotically long quench times. Kosterlitz-Thouless scaling (that governs e.g. Mott insulator to superfluid transition in the Bose-Hubbard model in one dimension) is investigated as an example of this phenomenon. PMID:25091996

  4. Ground-state properties of one-dimensional ultracold Bose gases in a hard-wall trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yajiang; Zhang, Yunbo; Liang, J. Q.; Chen, Shu

    2006-06-01

    We investigate the ground state of the system of N bosons enclosed in a hard-wall trap interacting via a repulsive or attractive δ -function potential. Based on the Bethe ansatz method, the explicit ground state wave function is derived and the corresponding Bethe ansatz equations are solved numerically for the full physical regime from the Tonks limit to the strongly attractive limit. It is shown that the solution takes a different form in different regime. We also evaluate the one body density matrix and second-order correlation function of the ground state for finite systems. In the Tonks limit the density profiles display the Fermi-like behavior, while in the strongly attractive limit the Bosons form a bound state of N atoms corresponding to the N -string solution. The density profiles show the continuous crossover behavior in the entire regime. Further, the correlation function indicates that the Bose atoms bunch closer as the interaction constant decreases.

  5. Quantum Monte Carlo method for pairing phenomena: Supercounterfluid of two-species Bose gases in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Ohgoe, Takahiro; Kawashima, Naoki

    2011-02-15

    We study the supercounterfluid (SCF) states in the two-component hard-core Bose-Hubbard model on a square lattice, using the quantum Monte Carlo method based on the worm (directed-loop) algorithm. Since the SCF state is a state of a pair condensation characterized by {ne}0,=0, and =0, where a and b are the order parameters of the two components, it is important to study behaviors of the pair-correlation function . For this purpose, we propose a choice of the worm head for calculating the pair-correlation function. From this pair correlation, we confirm the Kosterlitz-Thouless character of the SCF phase. The simulation efficiency is also improved in the SCF phase.

  6. Quantum Monte Carlo method for pairing phenomena: Supercounterfluid of two-species Bose gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohgoe, Takahiro; Kawashima, Naoki

    2011-02-01

    We study the supercounterfluid (SCF) states in the two-component hard-core Bose-Hubbard model on a square lattice, using the quantum Monte Carlo method based on the worm (directed-loop) algorithm. Since the SCF state is a state of a pair condensation characterized by ≠0,=0, and =0, where a and b are the order parameters of the two components, it is important to study behaviors of the pair-correlation function . For this purpose, we propose a choice of the worm head for calculating the pair-correlation function. From this pair correlation, we confirm the Kosterlitz-Thouless character of the SCF phase. The simulation efficiency is also improved in the SCF phase.

  7. Hybrid apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics: Single atom detection in quantum degenerate gases

    SciTech Connect

    Oettl, Anton; Ritter, Stephan; Koehl, Michael; Esslinger, Tilman

    2006-06-15

    We present and characterize an experimental system in which we achieve the integration of an ultrahigh finesse optical cavity with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The conceptually novel design of the apparatus for the production of BECs features nested vacuum chambers and an in vacuo magnetic transport configuration. It grants large scale spatial access to the BEC for samples and probes via a modular and exchangeable ''science platform.'' We are able to produce {sup 87}Rb condensates of 5x10{sup 6} atoms and to output couple continuous atom lasers. The cavity is mounted on the science platform on top of a vibration isolation system. The optical cavity works in the strong coupling regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics and serves as a quantum optical detector for single atoms. This system enables us to study atom optics on a single particle level and to further develop the field of quantum atom optics. We describe the technological modules and the operation of the combined BEC cavity apparatus. Its performance is characterized by single atom detection measurements for thermal and quantum degenerate atomic beams. The atom laser provides a fast and controllable supply of atoms coupling with the cavity mode and allows for an efficient study of atom field interactions in the strong coupling regime. Moreover, the high detection efficiency for quantum degenerate atoms distinguishes the cavity as a sensitive and weakly invasive probe for cold atomic clouds.

  8. Quadrupole oscillations in Bose-Fermi mixtures of ultracold atomic gases made of Yb atoms in the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii and Vlasov equations

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Yabu, Hiroyuki

    2009-10-15

    We study quadrupole collective oscillations in the bose-fermi mixtures of ultracold atomic gases of Yb isotopes, which are realized by Kyoto group. Three kinds of combinations are chosen, {sup 170}Yb-{sup 171}Yb, {sup 170}Yb-{sup 173}Yb and {sup 174}Yb-{sup 173}Yb, where boson-fermion interactions are weakly repulsive, strongly attractive and strongly repulsive respectively. Collective oscillations in these mixtures are calculated in a dynamical time-evolution approach with the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii and the Vlasov equations. The boson oscillations are shown to have one collective mode, and the fermions are shown to have the boson-forced and two intrinsic modes, which correspond to the inside- and outside-fermion oscillations for the boson-distributed regions. The oscillations obtained in the dynamical approach show discrepancies from the results obtained in the small-amplitude approximations, e.g., the random phase approximation, except in the case of weak boson-fermion interactions. We also analyze these discrepancies, and show that they originated in the change of the fermion distributions through oscillation.

  9. Superballistic center-of-mass motion in one-dimensional attractive Bose gases: Decoherence-induced Gaussian random walks in velocity space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Christoph; Cornish, Simon L.; Gardiner, Simon A.; Breuer, Heinz-Peter

    2016-01-01

    We show that the spreading of the center-of-mass density of ultracold attractively interacting bosons can become superballistic in the presence of decoherence, via one-, two-, and/or three-body losses. In the limit of weak decoherence, we analytically solve the numerical model introduced in Weiss et al. [Phys. Rev. A 91, 063616 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.063616. The analytical predictions allow us to identify experimentally accessible parameter regimes for which we predict superballistic spreading of the center-of-mass density. Ultracold attractive Bose gases form weakly bound molecules, quantum matter-wave bright solitons. Our computer simulations combine ideas from classical field methods ("truncated Wigner") and piecewise deterministic stochastic processes. While the truncated Wigner approach to use an average over classical paths as a substitute for a quantum superposition is often an uncontrolled approximation, here it predicts the exact root-mean-square width when modeling an expanding Gaussian wave packet. In the superballistic regime, the leading order of the spreading of the center-of-mass density can thus be modeled as a quantum superposition of classical Gaussian random walks in velocity space.

  10. Optimal control of Bose-Einstein condensates in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennemann, J.-F.; Matthes, D.; Weishäupl, R.-M.; Langen, T.

    2015-11-01

    Ultracold gases promise many applications in quantum metrology, simulation and computation. In this context, optimal control theory (OCT) provides a versatile framework for the efficient preparation of complex quantum states. However, due to the high computational cost, OCT of ultracold gases has so far mostly been applied to one-dimensional (1D) problems. Here, we realize computationally efficient OCT of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation to manipulate Bose-Einstein condensates in all three spatial dimensions. We study various realistic experimental applications where 1D simulations can only be applied approximately or not at all. Moreover, we provide a stringent mathematical footing for our scheme and carefully study the creation of elementary excitations and their minimization using multiple control parameters. The results are directly applicable to recent experiments and might thus be of immediate use in the ongoing effort to employ the properties of the quantum world for technological applications.

  11. A basis-set based Fortran program to solve the Gross Pitaevskii equation for dilute Bose gases in harmonic and anharmonic traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Rakesh Prabhat; Shukla, Alok

    2006-06-01

    Inhomogeneous boson systems, such as the dilute gases of integral spin atoms in low-temperature magnetic traps, are believed to be well described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE). GPE is a nonlinear Schrödinger equation which describes the order parameter of such systems at the mean field level. In the present work, we describe a Fortran 90 computer program developed by us, which solves the GPE using a basis set expansion technique. In this technique, the condensate wave function (order parameter) is expanded in terms of the solutions of the simple-harmonic oscillator (SHO) characterizing the atomic trap. Additionally, the same approach is also used to solve the problems in which the trap is weakly anharmonic, and the anharmonic potential can be expressed as a polynomial in the position operators x, y, and z. The resulting eigenvalue problem is solved iteratively using either the self-consistent-field (SCF) approach, or the imaginary time steepest-descent (SD) approach. Iterations can be initiated using either the simple-harmonic-oscillator ground state solution, or the Thomas-Fermi (TF) solution. It is found that for condensates containing up to a few hundred atoms, both approaches lead to rapid convergence. However, in the strong interaction limit of condensates containing thousands of atoms, it is the SD approach coupled with the TF starting orbitals, which leads to quick convergence. Our results for harmonic traps are also compared with those published by other authors using different numerical approaches, and excellent agreement is obtained. GPE is also solved for a few anharmonic potentials, and the influence of anharmonicity on the condensate is discussed. Additionally, the notion of Shannon entropy for the condensate wave function is defined and studied as a function of the number of particles in the trap. It is demonstrated numerically that the entropy increases with the particle number in a monotonic way. Program summaryTitle of program:bose

  12. Bose-Einstein Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sherbini, Th.M.

    2005-03-17

    This article gives a brief review of Bose-Einstein condensation. It is an exotic quantum phenomenon that was observed in dilute atomic gases for the first time in 1995. It exhibits a new state of matter in which a group of atoms behaves as a single particle. Experiments on this form of matter are relevant to many different areas of physics- from atomic clocks and quantum computing to super fluidity, superconductivity and quantum phase transition.

  13. Hydrodynamics of a unitary Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Jay; Fletcher, Richard; Lopes, Raphael; Navon, Nir; Smith, Rob; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2016-05-01

    In general, normal-phase Bose gases are well described by modelling them as ideal gases. In particular, hydrodynamic flow is usually not observed in the expansion dynamics of normal gases, and is more readily observable in Bose-condensed gases. However, by preparing strongly-interacting clouds, we observe hydrodynamic behaviour in normal-phase Bose gases, including the `maximally' hydrodynamic unitary regime. We avoid the atom losses that often hamper experimental access of this regime by using radio-frequency injection, which switches on interactions much faster than trap or loss timescales. At low phase-space densities, we find excellent agreement with a collisional model based on the Boltzmann equation. At higher phase-space densities our results show a deviation from this model in the vicinity of an Efimov resonance, which cannot be accounted for by measured losses.

  14. Non-equilibrium scale invariance and shortcuts to adiabaticity in a one-dimensional Bose gas

    PubMed Central

    Rohringer, W.; Fischer, D.; Steiner, F.; Mazets, I. E.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Trupke, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present experimental evidence for scale invariant behaviour of the excitation spectrum in phase-fluctuating quasi-1d Bose gases after a rapid change of the external trapping potential. Probing density correlations in free expansion, we find that the temperature of an initial thermal state scales with the spatial extension of the cloud as predicted by a model based on adiabatic rescaling of initial eigenmodes with conserved quasiparticle occupation numbers. Based on this result, we demonstrate that shortcuts to adiabaticity for the rapid expansion or compression of the gas do not induce additional heating. PMID:25867640

  15. Non-equilibrium scale invariance and shortcuts to adiabaticity in a one-dimensional Bose gas.

    PubMed

    Rohringer, W; Fischer, D; Steiner, F; Mazets, I E; Schmiedmayer, J; Trupke, M

    2015-01-01

    We present experimental evidence for scale invariant behaviour of the excitation spectrum in phase-fluctuating quasi-1d Bose gases after a rapid change of the external trapping potential. Probing density correlations in free expansion, we find that the temperature of an initial thermal state scales with the spatial extension of the cloud as predicted by a model based on adiabatic rescaling of initial eigenmodes with conserved quasiparticle occupation numbers. Based on this result, we demonstrate that shortcuts to adiabaticity for the rapid expansion or compression of the gas do not induce additional heating. PMID:25867640

  16. Application of Bogolyubov's theory of weakly nonideal Bose gases to the A+A, A+B, B+B reaction-diffusion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konkoli, Zoran

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical methods for dealing with diffusion-controlled reactions inevitably rely on some kind of approximation, and to find the one that works on a particular problem is not always easy. Here the approximation used by Bogolyubov to study a weakly nonideal Bose gas, referred to as the weakly nonideal Bose gas approximation (WBGA), is applied in the analysis of three reaction-diffusion models: (i) A+A→Ø, (ii) A+B→Ø, and (iii) A+A,B+B,A+B→Ø (the ABBA model). Two types of WBGA are considered, the simpler WBGA-I and the more complicated WBGA-II. All models are defined on the lattice to facilitate comparison with computer experiment (simulation). It is found that the WBGA describes the A+B reaction well, it reproduces the correct d/4 density decay exponent. However, it fails in the case of the A+A reaction and the ABBA model. (To cure the deficiency of WBGA in dealing with the A+A model, a hybrid of the WBGA and Kirkwood superposition approximations is suggested.) It is shown that the WBGA-I is identical to the dressed-tree calculation suggested by Lee [J. Phys. A 27, 2633 (1994)], and that the dressed-tree calculation does not lead to the d/2 density decay exponent when applied to the A+A reaction, as normally believed, but it predicts the d/4 decay exponent. Last, the usage of the small n0 approximation suggested by Mattis and Glasser [Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 979 (1998)] is questioned if used beyond the A+B reaction-diffusion model.

  17. Bose-Einstein condensation. Twenty years after

    SciTech Connect

    Bagnato, V. S.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, B. A.; Mihalache, D.

    2015-02-23

    The aim of this introductory article is two-fold. First, we aim to offer a general introduction to the theme of Bose-Einstein condensates, and briefly discuss the evolution of a number of relevant research directions during the last two decades. Second, we introduce and present the articles that appear in this Special Volume of Romanian Reports in Physics celebrating the conclusion of the second decade since the experimental creation of Bose-Einstein condensation in ultracold gases of alkali-metal atoms.

  18. Cold bose gases with large scattering lengths.

    PubMed

    Cowell, S; Heiselberg, H; Mazets, I E; Morales, J; Pandharipande, V R; Pethick, C J

    2002-05-27

    We calculate the energy and condensate fraction for a dense system of bosons interacting through an attractive short range interaction with positive s-wave scattering length a. At high densities n>a(-3), the energy per particle, chemical potential, and square of the sound speed are independent of the scattering length and proportional to n(2/3), as in Fermi systems. The condensate is quenched at densities na(3) approximately 1. PMID:12059466

  19. Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases for the Entire Range of Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Shyamal; Jana, Debnarayan

    2012-01-01

    We have analytically explored the thermodynamics of free Bose and Fermi gases for the entire range of temperature, and have extended the same for harmonically trapped cases. We have obtained approximate chemical potentials for the quantum gases in closed forms of temperature so that the thermodynamic properties of the quantum gases become…

  20. Calorimetry of a Bose-Einstein-condensed photon gas.

    PubMed

    Damm, Tobias; Schmitt, Julian; Liang, Qi; Dung, David; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin; Klaers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Phase transitions, as the condensation of a gas to a liquid, are often revealed by a discontinuous behaviour of thermodynamic quantities. For liquid helium, for example, a divergence of the specific heat signals the transition from the normal fluid to the superfluid state. Apart from liquid helium, determining the specific heat of a Bose gas has proven to be a challenging task, for example, for ultracold atomic Bose gases. Here we examine the thermodynamic behaviour of a trapped two-dimensional photon gas, a system that allows us to spectroscopically determine the specific heat and the entropy of a nearly ideal Bose gas from the classical high temperature to the Bose-condensed quantum regime. The critical behaviour at the phase transition is clearly revealed by a cusp singularity of the specific heat. Regarded as a test of quantum statistical mechanics, our results demonstrate a quantitative agreement with its predictions at the microscopic level. PMID:27090978

  1. Calorimetry of a Bose-Einstein-condensed photon gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, Tobias; Schmitt, Julian; Liang, Qi; Dung, David; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin; Klaers, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Phase transitions, as the condensation of a gas to a liquid, are often revealed by a discontinuous behaviour of thermodynamic quantities. For liquid helium, for example, a divergence of the specific heat signals the transition from the normal fluid to the superfluid state. Apart from liquid helium, determining the specific heat of a Bose gas has proven to be a challenging task, for example, for ultracold atomic Bose gases. Here we examine the thermodynamic behaviour of a trapped two-dimensional photon gas, a system that allows us to spectroscopically determine the specific heat and the entropy of a nearly ideal Bose gas from the classical high temperature to the Bose-condensed quantum regime. The critical behaviour at the phase transition is clearly revealed by a cusp singularity of the specific heat. Regarded as a test of quantum statistical mechanics, our results demonstrate a quantitative agreement with its predictions at the microscopic level.

  2. Feshbach resonances in ultracold gases

    SciTech Connect

    Chin Cheng; Grimm, Rudolf; Julienne, Paul; Tiesinga, Eite

    2010-04-15

    Feshbach resonances are the essential tool to control the interaction between atoms in ultracold quantum gases. They have found numerous experimental applications, opening up the way to important breakthroughs. This review broadly covers the phenomenon of Feshbach resonances in ultracold gases and their main applications. This includes the theoretical background and models for the description of Feshbach resonances, the experimental methods to find and characterize the resonances, a discussion of the main properties of resonances in various atomic species and mixed atomic species systems, and an overview of key experiments with atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and ultracold molecules.

  3. Resource Article: Experiments with Vortices in Superfluid Atomic Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Brian P.

    2010-12-01

    Observations of quantized vortices in dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates were first reported in 1999. Over the next 10 years, more than 70 papers describing experiments involving vortices in superfluid atomic gases were published in scientific journals. This resource article provides a guide to the published experimental studies related to quantized vortices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and superfluid Fermi gases. A BibTex-formatted bibliography document listing these published studies is also available electronically.

  4. Cooling into the spin-nematic state for a spin-1 Bose gas in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, M.-C.; Yip Sungkit

    2009-05-15

    The possibility of adiabatically cooling a spin-1 polar Bose gas to a spin-nematic phase is theoretically discussed. The relation between the order parameter of the final spin-nematic phase and the starting temperature of the spinor Bose gas is obtained both using the mean-field approach for high temperature and spin-wave approach for low temperature. We find that there exists a good possibility to reach the spin-nematic ordering starting with spinor antiferromagnetic Bose gases.

  5. Bose-Einstein-condensate heating by atomic losses

    SciTech Connect

    Dziarmaga, Jacek; Sacha, Krzysztof

    2003-10-01

    Atomic Bose-Einstein condensate is heated by atomic losses. The losses act as a heat reservoir for the condensate. The condensate is approaching a state of thermal equilibrium with a thermal depletion ranging from 1% for a uniform three-dimensional (3D) condensate to around 13% for a quasi-1D condensate in a harmonic trap.

  6. Energy-pressure relation for low-dimensional gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancarella, Francesco; Mussardo, Giuseppe; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    A particularly simple relation of proportionality between internal energy and pressure holds for scale-invariant thermodynamic systems (with Hamiltonians homogeneous functions of the coordinates), including classical and quantum - Bose and Fermi - ideal gases. One can quantify the deviation from such a relation by introducing the internal energy shift as the difference between the internal energy of the system and the corresponding value for scale-invariant (including ideal) gases. After discussing some general thermodynamic properties associated with the scale-invariance, we provide criteria for which the internal energy shift density of an imperfect (classical or quantum) gas is a bounded function of temperature. We then study the internal energy shift and deviations from the energy-pressure proportionality in low-dimensional models of gases interpolating between the ideal Bose and the ideal Fermi gases, focusing on the Lieb-Liniger model in 1d and on the anyonic gas in 2d. In 1d the internal energy shift is determined from the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz integral equations and an explicit relation for it is given at high temperature. Our results show that the internal energy shift is positive, it vanishes in the two limits of zero and infinite coupling (respectively the ideal Bose and the Tonks-Girardeau gas) and it has a maximum at a finite, temperature-depending, value of the coupling. Remarkably, at fixed coupling the energy shift density saturates to a finite value for infinite temperature. In 2d we consider systems of Abelian anyons and non-Abelian Chern-Simons particles: as it can be seen also directly from a study of the virial coefficients, in the usually considered hard-core limit the internal energy shift vanishes and the energy is just proportional to the pressure, with the proportionality constant being simply the area of the system. Soft-core boundary conditions at coincident points for the two-body wavefunction introduce a length scale, and induce a

  7. A World of Bose Particles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudarshan, E. C. G.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a four page paper written by S. Bose who helped found quantum statistics. The consequences of the paper to modern physics are presented. Contrasted are the scientific relationships of Einstein, Dirac, and Bose. (GH)

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Bose-Einstein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, D.

    2003-09-01

    L Pitaevskii and S Stringari Oxford: Oxford University Press (2003) £55.50 (hardback), ISBN 0-19-850719-4 The Gross--Pitaevskii equation, named after one of the authors of the book, and its large number of applications for describing the properties of Bose--Einstein condensation (BEC) in trapped weakly interacting atomic gases, is the main topic of this book. In total the monograph comprises 18 chapters and is divided into two parts. Part I introduces the notion of BEC and superfluidity in general terms. The most important properties of the ideal and the weakly interacting Bose gas are described and the effects of nonuniformity due to an external potential at zero temperature are studied. The first part is then concluded with a summary of the properties of superfluid ^{4}He. In Part II the authors describe the theoretical aspects of BEC in harmonically trapped weakly interacting atomic gases. A short and rather rudimentary chapter on collisions and trapping of atomic gases which seems to be included for completeness only is followed by a detailed analysis of the ground state,\

  9. Bose-Einstein Condensation: A Platform for Quantum Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dilute atomic gases and dense exciton-polaritons provides unique experimental platforms for the simulation of quantum many-body systems in various trap and lattice structures. Atomic BEC is suitable for exploration of the thermal equilibrium and steady state properties of isolated many-body systems, while exciton-polariton BEC is suitable for study of the nonequilibrium and transient properties of open dissipative many-body systems. In this chapter, we will review the fundamental properties of these distinct Bose-Einstein condensates to provide a basis for later discussions of various quantum simulation experiments using cold atoms and exciton-polaritons.

  10. Bose-Einstein Condensation of Strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Stellmer, Simon; Huang Bo; Grimm, Rudolf; Tey, Meng Khoon; Schreck, Florian

    2009-11-13

    We report on the attainment of Bose-Einstein condensation with ultracold strontium atoms. We use the {sup 84}Sr isotope, which has a low natural abundance but offers excellent scattering properties for evaporative cooling. Accumulation in a metastable state using a magnetic-trap, narrowline cooling, and straightforward evaporative cooling in an optical trap lead to pure condensates containing 1.5x10{sup 5} atoms. This puts {sup 84}Sr in a prime position for future experiments on quantum-degenerate gases involving atomic two-electron systems.

  11. Atomic Bose and Anderson Glasses in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damski, B.; Zakrzewski, J.; Santos, L.; Zoller, P.; Lewenstein, M.

    2003-08-01

    An ultracold atomic Bose gas in an optical lattice is shown to provide an ideal system for the controlled analysis of disordered Bose lattice gases. This goal may be easily achieved under the current experimental conditions by introducing a pseudorandom potential created by a second additional lattice or, alternatively, by placing a speckle pattern on the main lattice. We show that, for a noncommensurable filling factor, in the strong-interaction limit, a controlled growing of the disorder drives a dynamical transition from superfluid to Bose-glass phase. Similarly, in the weak interaction limit, a dynamical transition from superfluid to Anderson-glass phase may be observed. In both regimes, we show that even very low-intensity disorder-inducing lasers cause large modifications of the superfluid fraction of the system.

  12. Entanglement entropy and mutual information in Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Wenxin; Yang Kun

    2009-07-15

    In this paper we study the entanglement properties of free nonrelativistic Bose gases. At zero temperature, we calculate the bipartite block entanglement entropy of the system and find that it diverges logarithmically with the particle number in the subsystem. For finite temperatures, we study the mutual information between the two blocks. We first analytically study an infinite-range hopping model, then numerically study a set of long-range hopping models in one dimension that exhibit Bose-Einstein condensation. In both cases we find that a Bose-Einstein condensate, if present, makes a divergent contribution to the mutual information which is proportional to the logarithm of the number of particles in the condensate in the subsystem. The prefactor of the logarithmic divergent term is model dependent.

  13. Quantum filaments in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächtler, F.; Santos, L.

    2016-06-01

    Collapse in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates may be arrested by quantum fluctuations. Due to the anisotropy of the dipole-dipole interactions, the dipole-driven collapse induced by soft excitations is compensated by the repulsive Lee-Huang-Yang contribution resulting from quantum fluctuations of hard excitations, in a similar mechanism as that recently proposed for Bose-Bose mixtures. The arrested collapse results in self-bound filamentlike droplets, providing an explanation for the intriguing results of recent dysprosium experiments. Arrested instability and droplet formation are general features directly linked to the nature of the dipole-dipole interactions, and should hence play an important role in all future experiments with strongly dipolar gases.

  14. Sine-Gordon model coupled with a free scalar field emergent in the low-energy phase dynamics of a mixture of pseudospin-\\frac{1}{2} Bose gases with interspecies spin exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Li; Shi, Yu

    2012-10-01

    Using the approach of low-energy effective field theory, the phase diagram is studied for a mixture of two species of pseudospin-\\frac{1}{2} Bose atoms with interspecies spin exchange. There are four mean-field regimes on the parameter plane of ge and gz, where ge is the interspecies spin-exchange interaction strength, while gz is the difference between the interaction strength of interspecies scattering without spin exchange of equal spins and that of unequal spins. Two regimes, with |gz| > |ge|, correspond to ground states with the total spins of the two species parallel or antiparallel along the z direction, and the low-energy excitations are equivalent to those of two-component spinless bosons. The other two regimes, with |ge| > |gz|, correspond to ground states with the total spins of the two species parallel or antiparallel on the xy plane, and the low-energy excitations are described by a sine-Gordon model coupled with a free scalar field, where the effective fields are combinations of the phases of the original four boson fields. In (1 + 1)-dimension, they are described by Kosterlitz-Thouless renormalization group (RG) equations, and there are three sectors in the phase plane of a scaling dimension and a dimensionless parameter proportional to the strength of the cosine interaction, both depending on the densities. The gaps of these elementary excitations are experimental probes of the underlying many-body ground states.

  15. Bose-Einstein Condensation in Extended Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharringhausen, Marco; Quantus Team; Rasel, Ernst Maria

    2012-07-01

    The setup and the envisaged experiment timeline of the QUANTUS-III experiment onboard a sounding rocket to be started in the near future are presented. The major intention of QUANTUS-III is the stable generation of a number of Bose-Einstein condensates as a source for atom interferometry during several minutes of microgravity onboard the sounding rocket. Later missions aim at the realization of atom interferoemeters as precursor satellite missions. These condesates will be generated serially, allowing a large number of repeatable tests. Within such Bose-Einstein condensates, millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. During the expansion over several seconds, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter. Cold quantum gases and, in particular, Bose-Einstein condensates represent a new state of matter which is nowadays established in many laboratories. They offer unique insights into a broad range of fundamental physics as well as prospects for novel quantum sensors. Microgravity will substantially extend the science of quantum gases towards nowadays inaccessible regimes at lowest temperatures, to macroscopic dimensions, and to unequalled durations of unperturbed evolution of these distinguished quantum objects. Right now, the QUANTUS-III experiment is in the development phase, taking heritage from QUANTUS-I and QUANTUS-II. Major components of the engineering model are available. Boundary conditions of the rocket, requirements of the experiment and interface considerations are presented. This include laser stabilization, vacuum technology and magnetic shielding. The planned trajectory of the rocket will have an apogee of 200 - 300 km and a total microgravity time of 4 - 7 minutes, both depending on the total experiment mass.

  16. Critical temperature of noninteracting bosonic gases in cubic optical lattices at arbitrary integer fillings.

    PubMed

    Rakhimov, Abdulla; Askerzade, Iman N

    2014-09-01

    We have shown that the critical temperature of a Bose-Einstein condensate to a normal phase transition of noninteracting bosons in cubic optical lattices has a linear dependence on the filling factor, especially at large densities. The condensed fraction exhibits a linear power law dependence on temperature in contrast to the case of ideal homogeneous Bose gases. PMID:25314412

  17. Bose metals and insulators on multileg ladders with ring exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishmash, Ryan V.; Block, Matthew S.; Kaul, Ribhu K.; Sheng, D. N.; Motrunich, Olexei I.; Fisher, Matthew P. A.

    2011-12-01

    We establish compelling evidence for the existence of new quasi-one-dimensional descendants of the d-wave Bose liquid (DBL), an exotic two-dimensional quantum phase of uncondensed itinerant bosons characterized by surfaces of gapless excitations in momentum space [O. I. Motrunich and M. P. A. Fisher, Phys. Rev. BPLRBAQ1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.75.235116 75, 235116 (2007)]. In particular, motivated by a strong-coupling analysis of the gauge theory for the DBL, we study a model of hard-core bosons moving on the N-leg square ladder with frustrating four-site ring exchange. Here, we focus on four- and three-leg systems where we have identified two novel phases: a compressible gapless Bose metal on the four-leg ladder and an incompressible gapless Mott insulator on the three-leg ladder. The former is conducting along the ladder and has five gapless modes, one more than the number of legs. This represents a significant step forward in establishing the potential stability of the DBL in two dimensions. The latter, on the other hand, is a fundamentally quasi-one-dimensional phase that is insulating along the ladder but has two gapless modes and incommensurate power-law transverse density-density correlations. While we have already presented results on this latter phase elsewhere [M. S. Block , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.106.046402 106, 046402 (2011)], we will expand upon those results in this work. In both cases, we can understand the nature of the phase using slave-particle-inspired variational wave functions consisting of a product of two distinct Slater determinants, the properties of which compare impressively well to a density matrix renormalization group solution of the model Hamiltonian. Stability arguments are made in favor of both quantum phases by accessing the universal low-energy physics with a bosonization analysis of the appropriate quasi-1D gauge theory. We will briefly discuss the potential relevance of these findings to high

  18. Strongly interacting Bose-Fermi mixtures in one dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haiping; Guan, Liming; Chen, Shu

    2016-02-01

    We study one-dimensional (1D) strongly interacting Bose-Fermi mixtures by both the exact Bethe-ansatz method and variational perturbation theory within the degenerate ground state subspace of the system in the infinitely repulsive limit. Based on the exact solution of the 1D Bose-Fermi gas with equal boson-boson and boson-fermion interaction strengths, we demonstrate that the ground state energy is degenerate for different Bose-Fermi configurations and the degeneracy is lifted when the interaction deviates the infinitely interacting limit. We then show that the ground properties in the strongly interacting regime can be well characterized by using the variational perturbation method within the degenerate ground state subspace, which can be applied to deal with more general cases with anisotropic interactions and in external traps. Our results indicate that the total ground-state density profile in the strongly repulsive regime behaves like the polarized non-interacting fermions, whereas the density distributions of bosons and fermions display different properties for different Bose-Fermi configurations and are sensitive to the anisotropy of interactions.

  19. Effect of the band structure in a rigorous two-body model with long-range interactions in 1D optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Tom; Simoni, Andrea; Launay, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-01

    We compute scattering and bound state properties for two ultracold molecules in a pure 1D optical lattice. We introduce reference functions with complex quasi-momentum that naturally account for the effect of excited energy bands. Our exact results for a short-range interaction are first compared with the simplest version of the standard Bose-Hubbard (BH) model. Such comparison allows us to highlight the effect of the excited bands, of the non-on-site interaction and of tunneling with distant neighbor, that are not taken into account in the BH model. The effective interaction can depend strongly on the particle quasi-momenta and can present a resonant behavior even in a deep lattice. As a second step, we study scattering of two polar particles in the optical lattice. Peculiar Wigner threshold laws stem from the interplay of the long range dipolar interaction and the presence of the energy bands. We finally assess the validity of an extended Bose-Hubbard model for dipolar gases based on our exact two-body calculations. This work was supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Contract No. ANR-12-BS04-0020-01).

  20. NOBLE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Noble Gases symposium, on which this report is based, provided comprehensive coverage of the noble gases. The coverage included, but was not limited to, the properties, biokinetics, bioeffects, production and release to the environment, detection techniques, standards, and ap...

  1. Magnetism in ultracold quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaljohann, H.; Erhard, M.; Kronjäger, J.; Kottke, M.; van Staa, S.; Arlt, J. J.; Bongs, K.; Sengstock, K.

    2004-12-01

    We study the static and dynamic magnetic properties of ultracold quantum gases, in particular the spinor physics of F = 1 and F = 2 Bose-Einstein condensates of 87Rb atoms. Our data lead to the conclusion, that the F = 2 ground state of 87Rb is polar, while we find the F = 1 ground state to be ferromagnetic. The dynamics of spinor systems is linked to an interplay between coherent mean-field interactions, losses and interactions with atoms in the thermal cloud. Within this rich parameter space we observe indications for coherent spinor dynamics and novel thermalization regimes.

  2. Interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Müntinga, H; Ahlers, H; Krutzik, M; Wenzlawski, A; Arnold, S; Becker, D; Bongs, K; Dittus, H; Duncker, H; Gaaloul, N; Gherasim, C; Giese, E; Grzeschik, C; Hänsch, T W; Hellmig, O; Herr, W; Herrmann, S; Kajari, E; Kleinert, S; Lämmerzahl, C; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Malcolm, J; Meyer, N; Nolte, R; Peters, A; Popp, M; Reichel, J; Roura, A; Rudolph, J; Schiemangk, M; Schneider, M; Seidel, S T; Sengstock, K; Tamma, V; Valenzuela, T; Vogel, A; Walser, R; Wendrich, T; Windpassinger, P; Zeller, W; van Zoest, T; Ertmer, W; Schleich, W P; Rasel, E M

    2013-03-01

    Atom interferometers covering macroscopic domains of space-time are a spectacular manifestation of the wave nature of matter. Because of their unique coherence properties, Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal sources for an atom interferometer in extended free fall. In this Letter we report on the realization of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated with a Bose-Einstein condensate in microgravity. The resulting interference pattern is similar to the one in the far field of a double slit and shows a linear scaling with the time the wave packets expand. We employ delta-kick cooling in order to enhance the signal and extend our atom interferometer. Our experiments demonstrate the high potential of interferometers operated with quantum gases for probing the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and general relativity. PMID:23496709

  3. Bose and Mott glass phases in dimerized quantum antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, S. J.; Krüger, F.

    2015-11-01

    We examine the effects of disorder on dimerized quantum antiferromagnets in a magnetic field, using the mapping to a lattice gas of hard-core bosons with finite-range interactions. Combining a strong-coupling expansion, the replica method, and a one-loop renormalization-group analysis, we investigate the nature of the glass phases formed. We find that away from the tips of the Mott lobes, the transition is from a Mott insulator to a compressible Bose glass, however the compressibility at the tips is strongly suppressed. We identify this finding with the presence of a rare Mott glass phase and demonstrate that the inclusion of replica symmetry breaking is vital to correctly describe the glassy phases. This result suggests that the formation of Bose and Mott glass phases is not simply a weak localization phenomenon but is indicative of much richer physics. We discuss our results in the context of both ultracold atomic gases and spin-dimer materials.

  4. Interferometry with Bose-Einstein Condensates in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müntinga, H.; Ahlers, H.; Krutzik, M.; Wenzlawski, A.; Arnold, S.; Becker, D.; Bongs, K.; Dittus, H.; Duncker, H.; Gaaloul, N.; Gherasim, C.; Giese, E.; Grzeschik, C.; Hänsch, T. W.; Hellmig, O.; Herr, W.; Herrmann, S.; Kajari, E.; Kleinert, S.; Lämmerzahl, C.; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W.; Malcolm, J.; Meyer, N.; Nolte, R.; Peters, A.; Popp, M.; Reichel, J.; Roura, A.; Rudolph, J.; Schiemangk, M.; Schneider, M.; Seidel, S. T.; Sengstock, K.; Tamma, V.; Valenzuela, T.; Vogel, A.; Walser, R.; Wendrich, T.; Windpassinger, P.; Zeller, W.; van Zoest, T.; Ertmer, W.; Schleich, W. P.; Rasel, E. M.

    2013-03-01

    Atom interferometers covering macroscopic domains of space-time are a spectacular manifestation of the wave nature of matter. Because of their unique coherence properties, Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal sources for an atom interferometer in extended free fall. In this Letter we report on the realization of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated with a Bose-Einstein condensate in microgravity. The resulting interference pattern is similar to the one in the far field of a double slit and shows a linear scaling with the time the wave packets expand. We employ delta-kick cooling in order to enhance the signal and extend our atom interferometer. Our experiments demonstrate the high potential of interferometers operated with quantum gases for probing the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and general relativity.

  5. Dynamics and thermodynamics in spinor quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaljohann, H.; Erhard, M.; Kronjäger, J.; Sengstock, K.; Bongs, K.

    2004-12-01

    We discuss magnetism in spinor quantum gases theoretically and experimentally with emphasis on temporal dynamics of the spinor order parameter in the presence of an external magnetic field. In a simple coupled Gross Pitaevskii picture we observe a dramatic suppression of spin dynamics due to quadratic Zeeman “dephasing”. In view of an inhomogeneous density profile of the trapped condensate we present evidence of spatial variations of spin dynamics. In addition we study spinor quantum gases as a model system for thermodynamics of Bose Einstein condensation. As a particular example we present measurements on condensate magnetisation due to the interaction with a thermal bath.

  6. Seeing Spin Dynamics in Atomic Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamper-Kurn, Dan M.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of internal spin, electronic orbital, and nuclear motion states of atoms and molecules have preoccupied the atomic and molecular physics community for decades. Increasingly, such dynamics are being examined within many-body systems composed of atomic and molecular gases. Our findings sometimes bear close relation to phenomena observed in condensed-matter systems, while on other occasions they represent truly new areas of investigation. I discuss several examples of spin dynamics that occur within spinor Bose-Einstein gases, highlighting the advantages of spin-sensitive imaging for understanding and utilizing such dynamics.

  7. Black Hole Bose Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2013-12-01

    General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a "cold", stable remnant.

  8. Scattering coefficients and gray-body factor for 1D BEC acoustic black holes: Exact results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Alessandro; Balbinot, Roberto; Anderson, Paul R.

    2016-03-01

    A complete set of exact analytic solutions to the mode equation is found in the region exterior to the acoustic horizon for a class of 1D Bose-Einstein condensate acoustic black holes. From these, analytic expressions for the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor are obtained. The results are used to verify previous predictions regarding the behaviors of the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor in the low-frequency limit.

  9. Effect of impurities on the transition temperature of a dilute dipolar trapped Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavari, H.; Afsaneh, E.

    2013-01-01

    By using a two-fluid model the effect of impurities on the transition temperature of a dipolar trapped Bose gas is investigated. By treating Gaussian spatial correlation for impurities from the interaction modified spectra of the system, the formula for the shift of the transition temperature is derived. The shift of the transition temperature contains essentially three contributions due to contact, dipole-dipole, and impurity interactions. Applying our results to dipolar Bose gases shows that the shift of the transition temperature due to impurities could be measured for an isotropic trap (dipole-dipole contribution is zero) and the Feshbach resonance technique (contact potential contribution is negligible).

  10. Probing Kibble-Zurek Mechanism in Quenched Elongated Bose Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, I.-Kang; Gou, Shih-Chuan; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Donadello, Simone; Dalfovo, Franco; Ferrari, Gabriele; Proukakis, Nikolaos

    2016-05-01

    We report our numerical findings on the statistics and dynamics of spontaneous formation of defects during a gradual quench of an initially thermal atomic gas to below the critical temperature. Our study focuses on the Trento experiments, which showed the appearance of a few long-lived solitonic vortices, as measured sometime after the system crossed the transition temperature. Our simulations access both the initial quench-driven turbulent regime where a large number of randomly-distributed defects emerge during the condensation, and the subsequent relaxation of such defects towards a few long-lived solitonic vortices, similar to those observed experimentally. We analyze our findings in the context of the Kibble-Zurek scaling law, highlighting various subtle issues associated with this dynamical process, and characterize the transition through the critical region, by studying the corresponding first-order spatial correlation functions. Our simulations are based on the 3D stochastic projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation subjected to a linear temperature and chemical potential quench. Funding: MOST Taiwan, EPSRC, Provinza Autonoma di Trento.

  11. Probing microscopic structure and braid statistics in rotating Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianshi; Jacome, Louis; Gemelke, Nathan

    2015-05-01

    It has been predicted that interacting bosonic atoms confined in a rapidly rotating two dimensional harmonic trap exhibit ground states analogous to fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states, and exhibit non-Landau-Ginzburg order and long range entanglement. Some of these states are expected to have excitations which possess fractional statistics, although no convincing measurement has yet been made. We describe an experiment which seeks to realize FQH physics using cold Rb-87 atoms confined to an optical lattice with rotating lattice sites. In these experiments, FQH droplets can be imaged using two high-resolution quantum gas microscopes (N.A. = 0.4, 0.8) which allow for occupancy resolved measurements, imaging in three dimensions, and expand on previous measurements by providing an unambiguous identification of states through microscopic time-of-flight. The latter permits identification of novel properties through counting statistics - using impurity atoms (in a minority spin state), pair correlation measurements can reveal an effectively fractionalized relative angular momentum, indicative of fractionalized braid statistics. Supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1068570.

  12. Novel Quantum Phases of Dipolar Bose Gases in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, S.; Li, T.; Sun, C. P.

    2007-06-01

    We investigate the quantum phases of polarized dipolar bosons loaded into a two-dimensional square and three-dimensional cubic optical lattices. We show that the long-range and anisotropic nature of the dipole-dipole interaction induces a rich variety of quantum phases, including the supersolid and striped supersolid phases in two-dimensional lattices, and the layered supersolid phase in three-dimensional lattices.

  13. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Greenhouse Gases Come From Outlook for Future Emissions Recycling and Energy Nonrenewable Sources Oil and Petroleum Products ... Power Wave Power Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Biomass Wood and Wood Waste Waste-to-Energy (MSW) Landfill ...

  14. Collisions of Dark Solitons in Elongated Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Stellmer, S.; Becker, C.; Soltan-Panahi, P.; Richter, E.-M.; Doerscher, S.; Baumert, M.; Kronjaeger, J.; Sengstock, K.; Bongs, K.

    2008-09-19

    We present experimental data showing the head-on collision of dark solitons generated in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate. No discernable interaction can be recorded, in full agreement with the fundamental theoretical concepts of solitons as mutually transparent quasiparticles. Our soliton generation technique allows for the creation of solitons with different depths; hence, they can be distinguished and their trajectories be followed. Simulations of the 1D-Gross-Pitaevskii equation have been performed to compare the experiment with a mean-field description.

  15. Cooperative scattering of light and atoms in ultracold atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uys, H.; Meystre, P.

    2008-07-01

    Superradiance and coherent atomic recoil lasing are two closely related phenomena, both resulting from the cooperative scattering of light by atoms. In ultracold atomic gases below the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation these processes take place with the simultaneous amplification of the atomic matter waves. We explore these phenomena by surveying some of the experimental and theoretical developments that have emerged in this field of study since the first observation of superradiant scattering from a Bose-Einstein condensate in 1999 [1].

  16. Thermodynamics of quantum degenerate gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakie, P. B.; Rey, A.-M.; Bezett, A.

    2007-02-01

    The entropy-temperature curves are calculated for non-interacting Bose and Fermi gases in a 3D optical lattice. These curves facilitate understanding of how adiabatic changes in the lattice depth affect the temperature, and we demonstrate regimes where the atomic sample can be significantly heated or cooled by the loading process. We assess the effects of interactions on a Bose gas in a deep optical lattice, and show that interactions ultimately limit the extent of cooling that can occur during lattice loading.

  17. Direct evaporative cooling of 39K atoms to Bose-Einstein condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landini, M.; Roy, S.; Roati, G.; Simoni, A.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.; Fattori, M.

    2012-09-01

    We report the realization of a Bose-Einstein condensate of 39K atoms without the aid of an additional atomic coolant. Our route to Bose-Einstein condensation comprises sub-Doppler laser cooling of large atomic clouds with more than 1010 atoms and evaporative cooling in an optical dipole trap where the collisional cross section can be increased using magnetic Feshbach resonances. Large condensates with almost 106 atoms can be produced in less than 15 s. Our achievements eliminate the need for sympathetic cooling with Rb atoms, which was the usual route implemented until now due to the unfavorable collisional property of 39K. Our findings simplify the experimental setup for producing Bose-Einstein condensates of 39K atoms with tunable interactions, which have a wide variety of promising applications, including atom interferometry to studies on the interplay of disorder and interactions in quantum gases.

  18. Nonlinear Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates with Long-Range Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wunner, G.; Cartarius, H.; Fabcic, T.; Koeberle, P.; Main, J.; Schwidder, T.

    2008-11-13

    The motto of this paper is: Let's face Bose-Einstein condensation through nonlinear dynamics. We do this by choosing variational forms of the condensate wave functions (of given symmetry classes), which convert the Bose-Einstein condensates via the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation into Hamiltonian systems that can be studied using the methods of nonlinear dynamics. We consider in particular cold quantum gases where long-range interactions between the neutral atoms are present, in addition to the conventional short-range contact interaction, viz. gravity-like interactions, and dipole-dipole interactions. The results obtained serve as a useful guide in the search for nonlinear dynamics effects in numerically exact quantum calculations for Bose-Einstein condensates. A main result is the prediction of the existence of stable islands as well as chaotic regions for excited states of dipolar condensates, which could be checked experimentally.

  19. Quantum turbulence in trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsatsos, Marios C.; Tavares, Pedro E. S.; Cidrim, André; Fritsch, Amilson R.; Caracanhas, Mônica A.; dos Santos, F. Ednilson A.; Barenghi, Carlo F.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    Turbulence, the complicated fluid behavior of nonlinear and statistical nature, arises in many physical systems across various disciplines, from tiny laboratory scales to geophysical and astrophysical ones. The notion of turbulence in the quantum world was conceived long ago by Onsager and Feynman, but the occurrence of turbulence in ultracold gases has been studied in the laboratory only very recently. Albeit new as a field, it already offers new paths and perspectives on the problem of turbulence. Herein we review the general properties of quantum gases at ultralow temperatures paying particular attention to vortices, their dynamics and turbulent behavior. We review the recent advances both from theory and experiment. We highlight, moreover, the difficulties of identifying and characterizing turbulence in gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates compared to ordinary turbulence and turbulence in superfluid liquid helium and spotlight future possible directions.

  20. Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Loris

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…

  1. Shock waves in quasi one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salasnich, Luca

    2016-03-01

    We study analytically and numerically the generation of shock waves in a quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) made of dilute and ultracold alkali-metal atoms. For the BEC we use an equation of state based on a 1D nonpolynomial Schrödinger equation (1D NPSE), which takes into account density modulations in the transverse direction and generalizes the familiar 1D Gross-Pitaevskii equation (1D GPE). Comparing 1D NPSE with 1D GPE we find quantitative differences in the dynamics of shock waves regarding the velocity of propagation, the time of formation of the shock, and the wavelength of after-shock dispersive ripples.

  2. Cooling Atomic Gases With Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, Thereza; Khatami, Ehsan; Yang, Shuxiang; Rousseau, Valéry; Jarrell, Mark; Moreno, Juana; Hulet, Randall G.; Scalettar, Richard T.

    2015-12-01

    Cold atomic gases have proven capable of emulating a number of fundamental condensed matter phenomena including Bose-Einstein condensation, the Mott transition, Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov pairing, and the quantum Hall effect. Cooling to a low enough temperature to explore magnetism and exotic superconductivity in lattices of fermionic atoms remains a challenge. We propose a method to produce a low temperature gas by preparing it in a disordered potential and following a constant entropy trajectory to deliver the gas into a nondisordered state which exhibits these incompletely understood phases. We show, using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, that we can approach the Néel temperature of the three-dimensional Hubbard model for experimentally achievable parameters. Recent experimental estimates suggest the randomness required lies in a regime where atom transport and equilibration are still robust.

  3. Cooling Atomic Gases With Disorder.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Thereza; Khatami, Ehsan; Yang, Shuxiang; Rousseau, Valéry; Jarrell, Mark; Moreno, Juana; Hulet, Randall G; Scalettar, Richard T

    2015-12-11

    Cold atomic gases have proven capable of emulating a number of fundamental condensed matter phenomena including Bose-Einstein condensation, the Mott transition, Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov pairing, and the quantum Hall effect. Cooling to a low enough temperature to explore magnetism and exotic superconductivity in lattices of fermionic atoms remains a challenge. We propose a method to produce a low temperature gas by preparing it in a disordered potential and following a constant entropy trajectory to deliver the gas into a nondisordered state which exhibits these incompletely understood phases. We show, using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, that we can approach the Néel temperature of the three-dimensional Hubbard model for experimentally achievable parameters. Recent experimental estimates suggest the randomness required lies in a regime where atom transport and equilibration are still robust. PMID:26705614

  4. Nanodamage and Nanofailure of 1d Zno Nanomaterials and Nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peifeng; Yang, Ya; Huang, Yunhua; Zhang, Yue

    2012-08-01

    One-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanomaterials include nanowires, nanobelts, and nanorods etc. The extensive applied fields and excellent properties of 1D ZnO nanomaterials can meet the requests of the electronic and electromechanical devices for "smaller, faster and colder", and would be applied in new energy convention, environmental protection, information science and technology, biomedical, security and defense fields. While micro porous, etching pits nanodamage and brittle fracture, dissolving, functional failure nanofailure phenomena of 1D ZnO nanomaterials and nanodevices are observed in some practical working environments like illumination, currents or electric fields, external forces, and some chemical gases or solvents. The more important thing is to discuss the mechanism and reduce or prohibit their generation.

  5. Bose polarons in the strongly interacting regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedar, Dhruv; Hu, Ming-Guang; van de Graaff, Michael; Corson, John; Cornell, Eric; Jin, Deborah

    2016-05-01

    Impurities immersed in and interacting with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) are predicted to form quasiparticle excitations called Bose polarons. I will present experimental evidence of Bose polarons in cold atoms obtained using radio-frequency spectroscopy to measure the excitation spectrum of fermionic K-40 impurities interacting with a BEC of Rb-87 atoms. We use an interspecies Feshbach resonance to tune the interactions between the impurities and the bosons, and we take data in the strongly interacting regime.

  6. Toxic gases.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given. PMID:2687827

  7. Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podosek, F. A.

    2003-12-01

    The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the

  8. Releasing the trapped 1d Bose gas: from integrability and renormalization to Generalized Gibbs ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-05-01

    In this talk, we consider the out-of-equilibrium evolution of a one-dimensional bosonic gas (as described by the Lieb-Liniger model) after release from a parabolic trapping potential. We present a new method based on combining the theory of integrable models with numerical renormalization, which allows to reconstruct the post-quench dynamics of the gas all the way to infinite time. We also present a framework by which the generalized Gibbs ensemble, which has been suggested as the effective theory governing this dynamics, can be explicitly constructed. We compare predictions for reequilibration from this ensemble against the long-time dynamics observed using our method. Supported by FOM and NWO (Netherlands).

  9. Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in an ideal atomic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruchkov, Alex; Slyusarenko, Yurii

    2013-07-01

    We study peculiarities of Bose-Einstein condensation of photons that are in thermodynamic equilibrium with atoms of noninteracting gases. General equations of the thermodynamic equilibrium of the system under study are obtained. We examine solutions of these equations in the case of high temperatures, when the atomic components of the system can be considered as nondegenerated ideal gases of atoms, and the photonic component can form a state with the Bose condensate. Transcendental equation for transition temperature and expression for the density of condensed photons in the considered system are derived. We also obtain analytical solutions of the equation for the critical temperature in a number of particular cases. The existence of two regimes of Bose condensation of photons, which differ significantly in nature of transition temperature dependence on the total density of photons pumped into the system, is revealed. In one case, this dependence is a traditional fractional-power law, and in another one it is the logarithmic law. Applying numerical methods, we determine boundaries of existence and implementation conditions for different regimes of condensation depending on the physical parameters of the system under study. We also show that for a large range of physical systems that are in equilibrium with photons (from ultracold gases of alkali metals to certain types of ideal plasma), the condensation of photons should occur according to the logarithmic regime.

  10. Decay of superfluid currents in the interacting one-dimensional Bose gas

    SciTech Connect

    Cherny, Alexander Yu.; Caux, Jean-Sebastien; Brand, Joachim

    2009-10-15

    We examine the superfluid properties of a one-dimensional (1D) Bose gas in a ring trap based on the model of Lieb and Liniger. While the 1D Bose gas has nonclassical rotational inertia and exhibits quantization of velocities, the metastability of currents depends sensitively on the strength of interactions in the gas: the stronger the interactions, the faster the current decays. It is shown that the Landau critical velocity is zero in the thermodynamic limit due to the first supercurrent state, which has zero energy and finite probability of excitation. We calculate the energy dissipation rate of ring currents in the presence of weak defects, which should be observable on experimental time scales.

  11. Superfluidity and mean-field energy loops: Hysteretic behavior in Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Erich J.

    2002-12-01

    We present a theory of hysteretic phenomena in Bose gases, using superfluidity in one-dimensional rings and in optical lattices as primary examples. Through this study we are able to give a physical interpretation of swallow-tail loops recently found by many authors in the mean-field energy structure of trapped atomic gases. These loops are a generic sign of hysteresis, and in the present context are an indication of superfluidity. We have also calculated the rate of decay of metastable current-carrying states due to quantum fluctuations.

  12. Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.

    2002-01-01

    A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.

  13. Collision of Bose Condensate Dark Matter structures

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman, F. S.

    2008-12-04

    The status of the scalar field or Bose condensate dark matter model is presented. Results about the solitonic behavior in collision of structures is presented as a possible explanation to the recent-possibly-solitonic behavior in the bullet cluster merger. Some estimates about the possibility to simulate the bullet cluster under the Bose Condensate dark matter model are indicated.

  14. A new apparatus for studying quantum gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Ulrich; Duca, Lucia; Li, Tracy; Boll, Martin; Ronzheimer, Philipp; Braun, Simon; Will, Sebastian; Rom, Tim; Schreiber, Michael; Bloch, Immanuel

    2011-05-01

    We present the design of a new apparatus targeted at the study of equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium phenomena of quantum gases in 2D and 3D optical lattices. Specifically this apparatus will allow for a study of the crossover between 2D and 3D using bosonic and fermionic gases as well as Bose-Fermi mixtures. In addition we present a new analysis of previous results concerning the Fermi-Hubbard model and will analyze possible routes for creating many-body states with long range order, including antiferromagnetically ordered states and BCS-superfluids. This work is supported by DARPA/OLE MURI DFG MPQ.

  15. Route to supersolidity for the extended Bose-Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Iskin, M.

    2011-05-15

    We use the Gutzwiller ansatz and analyze the phase diagram of the extended Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian with on-site (U) and nearest-neighbor (V) repulsions. For d-dimensional hypercubic lattices, when 2dVU, in this Rapid Communication, we show that the ground state has only CDW insulators, and more importantly, the SS phase occupies a much larger region in the phase diagram, existing up to very large hopping values which could be orders of magnitude higher than that of the well-known case. In particular, the SS-superfluid phase boundary increases linearly as a function of hopping when 2dV > or approx. 1.5U, for which the prospects of observing the SS phase with dipolar Bose gases loaded into optical lattices is much higher.

  16. Universal Loss Dynamics in a Unitary Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eismann, Ulrich; Khaykovich, Lev; Laurent, Sébastien; Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Rem, Benno S.; Grier, Andrew T.; Delehaye, Marion; Chevy, Frédéric; Salomon, Christophe; Ha, Li-Chung; Chin, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    The low-temperature unitary Bose gas is a fundamental paradigm in few-body and many-body physics, attracting wide theoretical and experimental interest. Here, we present experiments performed with unitary 133Cs and 7Li atoms in two different setups, which enable quantitative comparison of the three-body recombination rate in the low-temperature domain. We develop a theoretical model that describes the dynamic competition between two-body evaporation and three-body recombination in a harmonically trapped unitary atomic gas above the condensation temperature. We identify a universal "magic" trap depth where, within some parameter range, evaporative cooling is balanced by recombination heating and the gas temperature stays constant. Our model is developed for the usual three-dimensional evaporation regime as well as the two-dimensional evaporation case, and it fully supports our experimental findings. Combined 133Cs and 7Li experimental data allow investigations of loss dynamics over 2 orders of magnitude in temperature and 4 orders of magnitude in three-body loss rate. We confirm the 1 /T2 temperature universality law. In particular, we measure, for the first time, the Efimov inelasticity parameter η*=0.098 (7 ) for the 47.8-G d -wave Feshbach resonance in 133Cs. Our result supports the universal loss dynamics of trapped unitary Bose gases up to a single parameter η*.

  17. Vortices in Spontaneous Bose-Einstein Condensates of Exciton-Polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deveaud-Plédran, Benoit; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.

    One of the most striking quantum effects in an interacting Bose gas at low temperature is superfluidity. First observed in liquid 4He, this phenomenon has been intensively studied in a variety of systems for its remarkable features such as the persistence of superflows and the proliferation of quantized vortices. The achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases provided the opportunity to observe and study superfluidity in an extremely clean and well-controlled environment. In the solid state, Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons now allows to plan for the observation of similar phenomenology. Polaritons are interacting light-matter quasiparticles that occur naturally in semiconductor microcavities in the strong coupling regime and constitute an interesting example of composite bosons. Here, we report the observation of spontaneous formation of pinned quantized vortices in the Bose-condensed phase of a polariton fluid. Theoretical insight into the possible origin of such vortices is presented in terms of a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation. In the second part of the chapter, we provide the clear observation of half vortices, special to spinor condensates. We then go no, in the last part of this chapter, to study the dynamics of spontaneously created vortices. We show that their path is determined by the disorder landscape towards their final stable position.

  18. Tunneling in degenerate atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraoanu, Gheorghe-Sorin

    The experimental achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in cold alkali atomic gases in 1995 has started a period of fertile research at the intersection of atomic physics, quantum optics, and condensed matter. In this thesis, various tunneling effects in both bosonic and fermionic gases are investigated. The first part of this work deals with bosons in different Josephson-type experimental setups. After a brief general introduction we establish, in Chapter 2, a mapping between the phase and the Bogoliubov representation for the Josephson oscillations; in Chapter 3 we calculate the Josephson coupling constant for the condensate in the external Josephson effect. Chapter 4 deals with Josephson effects at the level of depletion: we describe in detail the oscillatory dynamics of the virtual quasiparticles. The next Chapter is a stability analysis for the formation of vortices in the Kibble Zurek scenario. Finally, Chapter 6 contains a discussion on the time-evolution of the many-body states in the absence of tunneling. The second part of the thesis (Chapter 7--Chapter 9) deals with fermionic systems below the BCS critical temperature. The first two of these Chapters explore the possibility of driving transitions between hyperfine states with lasers. In Chapter 7 we show that these transitions could be used to investigate the coherence of the Cooper pairs. In Chapter 8 we imagine an internal Josephson experiment which uses a pair of lasers to drive transitions between two superfluids. Finally, in Chapter 9 we examine the properties of vortices formed in trapped Cooper-paired fermionic gases.

  19. Bose-Hubbard model with occupation-parity couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kuei; Bolech, C. J.

    2014-02-01

    We study a Bose-Hubbard model having on-site repulsion, nearest-neighbor tunneling, and ferromagneticlike coupling between occupation parities of nearest-neighbor sites. For a uniform system in any dimension at zero tunneling, we obtain an exact phase diagram characterized by Mott-insulator (MI) and pair liquid phases and regions of phase separation of two MIs. For a general trapped system in one and two dimensions with finite tunneling, we perform quantum Monte Carlo and Gutzwiller mean-field calculations, both of which show the evolution of the system, as the parity coupling increases, from a superfluid to wedding-cake-structure MIs with their occupations jumping by 2. We also identify an exotic pair superfluid at relatively large tunneling strength. Our model ought to effectively describe recent findings in imbalanced Fermi gases in two-dimensional optical lattices and also potentially apply to an anisotropic version of bilinear-biquadratic spin systems.

  20. Bose polarons in the strongly interacting regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming-Guang; van de Graaff, Michael; Kedar, Dhruv; Cornell, Eric; Jin, Deborah

    Impurities immersed in and interacting with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) are predicted to form quasiparticle excitations called Bose polarons. I will present experimental evidence of Bose polarons in cold atoms obtained using radio-frequency spectroscopy to measure the excitation spectrum of fermionic 40K impurities interacting with a BEC of 87Rb atoms. We use an interspecies Feshbach resonance to tune the interactions between the impurities and the bosons, and we take data in the strongly interacting regime. This work is supported by NSF, NASA and NIST.

  1. Entanglement pre-thermalization in a one-dimensional Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminishi, Eriko; Mori, Takashi; Ikeda, Tatsuhiko N.; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-12-01

    An isolated quantum system often shows relaxation to a quasi-stationary state before reaching thermal equilibrium. Such a pre-thermalized state was observed in recent experiments in a one-dimensional Bose gas after it had been coherently split into two. Although the existence of local conserved quantities is usually considered to be the key ingredient of pre-thermalization, the question of whether non-local correlations between the subsystems can influence pre-thermalization of the entire system has remained unanswered. Here we study the dynamics of coherently split one-dimensional Bose gases and find that the initial entanglement combined with energy degeneracy due to parity and translation invariance strongly affects the long-term behaviour of the system. The mechanism of this entanglement pre-thermalization is quite general and not restricted to one-dimensional Bose gases. In view of recent experiments with a small and well-defined number of ultracold atoms, our predictions based on exact few-body calculations could be tested in experiments.

  2. Entropy density of an adiabatic relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate star

    SciTech Connect

    Khaidir, Ahmad Firdaus; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza

    2015-04-24

    Inspired by recent works, we investigate how the thermodynamics parameters (entropy, temperature, number density, energy density, etc) of Bose-Einstein Condensate star scale with the structure of the star. Below the critical temperature in which the condensation starts to occur, we study how the entropy behaves with varying temperature till it reaches its own stability against gravitational collapse and singularity. Compared to photon gases (pressure is described by radiation) where the chemical potential, μ is zero, entropy of photon gases obeys the Stefan-Boltzmann Law for a small values of T while forming a spiral structure for a large values of T due to general relativity. The entropy density of Bose-Einstein Condensate is obtained following the similar sequence but limited under critical temperature condition. We adopt the scalar field equation of state in Thomas-Fermi limit to study the characteristics of relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate under varying temperature and entropy. Finally, we obtain the entropy density proportional to (σT{sup 3}-3T) which obeys the Stefan-Boltzmann Law in ultra-relativistic condition.

  3. Bose-Hubbard model with ferromagnetic-like occupation-parity couplings and its realization in imbalanced fermionic superfluids in tubular optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kuei; Bolech, Carlos J.

    2014-03-01

    We study a Bose-Hubbard model with a nearest-neighbor occupation-parity coupling that can be considered as energy cost for a domain-wall link between two adjacent sites if their occupation parity is different (one even and the other odd). Our analysis shows that the parity coupling has non-trivial interplay with the tunneling and onsite repulsion, resulting in several exotic quantum phases. For example, a uniform system with zero tunneling can exhibit a pair-liquid phase or phase separation of two Mott insulators, while a trapped system with finite tunneling shows a wedding-cake structure of only even-filling Mott insulators or a structure of central regular superfluid and outer pair superfluid. In addition, we find similar physics in a recent experimental system of imbalanced Fermi gases in optical lattices producing a 2D array of 1D tubes, with the presence of an oscillatory superfluid order parameter (the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov or FFLO state). We show that the unpaired majority fermions on each tube have a bosonic behavior with cross-tube tunneling, on-tube repulsion, and interplay with the spatial parity of the FFLO order that contributes to the occupation-parity coupling. Therefore, such system provides a realization of our model in two dimensions. Supported by the DARPA-ARO Award No. W911NF-07-1-0464 and by the University of Cincinnati.

  4. EDITORIAL: Cold Quantum GasesEditorial: Cold Quantum Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassen, W.; Hemmerich, A.; Arimondo, E.

    2003-04-01

    This Special Issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics brings together the contributions of various researchers working on theoretical and experimental aspects of cold quantum gases. Different aspects of atom optics, matter wave interferometry, laser manipulation of atoms and molecules, and production of very cold and degenerate gases are presented. The variety of subjects demonstrates the steadily expanding role associated with this research area. The topics discussed in this issue, extending from basic physics to applications of atom optics and of cold atomic samples, include: bulletBose--Einstein condensation bulletFermi degenerate gases bulletCharacterization and manipulation of quantum gases bulletCoherent and nonlinear cold matter wave optics bulletNew schemes for laser cooling bulletCoherent cold molecular gases bulletUltra-precise atomic clocks bulletApplications of cold quantum gases to metrology and spectroscopy bulletApplications of cold quantum gases to quantum computing bulletNanoprobes and nanolithography. This special issue is published in connection with the 7th International Workshop on Atom Optics and Interferometry, held in Lunteren, The Netherlands, from 28 September to 2 October 2002. This was the last in a series of Workshops organized with the support of the European Community that have greatly contributed to progress in this area. The scientific part of the Workshop was managed by A Hemmerich, W Hogervorst, W Vassen and J T M Walraven, with input from members of the International Programme Committee who are listed below. The practical aspects of the organization were ably handled by Petra de Gijsel from the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. The Workshop was funded by the European Science Foundation (programme BEC2000+), the European Networks 'Cold Quantum Gases (CQG)', coordinated by E Arimondo, and 'Cold Atoms and Ultraprecise Atomic Clocks (CAUAC)', coordinated by J Henningsen, by the German Physical Society (DFG), by

  5. Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Kalman, G.

    1997-09-22

    This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations.

  6. Full counting statistics of the interference contrast from independent Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, Steffen Patrick; Zwerger, Wilhelm

    2010-11-15

    We show that the visibility in interference experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates is directly related to the condensate fraction. The probability distribution of the contrast over many runs of an interference experiment thus gives the full counting statistics of the condensed atom number. For two-dimensional Bose gases, we discuss the universal behavior of the probability distribution in the superfluid regime and provide analytical expressions for the distributions for both homogeneous and harmonically trapped samples. They are non-Gaussian and unimodal with a variance that is directly related to the superfluid density. In general, the visibility is a self-averaging observable only in the presence of long-range phase coherence. Close to the transition temperature, the visibility distribution reflects the universal order-parameter distribution in the vicinity of the critical point.

  7. Droplet formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate with strong dipole-dipole interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Kui-Tian; Saito, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the recent experiment [H. Kadau et al., arXiv:1508.05007], we study roton instability and droplet formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate of 164Dy atoms with strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. We numerically solve the cubic-quintic Gross-Pitaevskii equation with dipole-dipole interaction, and show that the three-body interaction plays a significant role in the formation of droplet patterns. We numerically demonstrate the formation of droplet patterns and crystalline structures, decay of droplets, and hysteresis behavior, which are in good agreement with the experiment. Our numerical simulations provide the first prediction on the values of the three-body interaction in a 164Dy Bose-Einstein condensate. We also predict that the droplets remain stable during the time-of-flight expansion. From our results, further experiments investigating the three-body interaction in dipolar quantum gases are required.

  8. Quantum phase transitions of atom-molecule Bose mixtures in a double-well potential.

    PubMed

    Relaño, A; Dukelsky, J; Pérez-Fernández, P; Arias, J M

    2014-10-01

    The ground state and spectral properties of Bose gases in double-well potentials are studied in two different scenarios: (i) an interacting atomic Bose gas, and (ii) a mixture of an atomic gas interacting with diatomic molecules. A ground state second-order quantum phase transition is observed in both scenarios. For large attractive values of the atom-atom interaction, the ground state is degenerate. For repulsive and small attractive interaction, the ground state is not degenerate and is well approximated by a boson coherent state. Both systems depict an excited state quantum phase transition. In both cases, a critical energy separates a region in which all the energy levels are degenerate in pairs, from another region in which there are no degeneracies. For the atomic system, the critical point displays a singularity in the density of states, whereas this behavior is largely smoothed for the mixed atom-molecule system. PMID:25375470

  9. Bose-Einstein condensation at constant temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhard, M.; Schmaljohann, H.; Kronjäger, J.; Bongs, K.; Sengstock, K.

    2004-09-01

    We present an experimental approach to Bose-Einstein condensation by increasing the particle number of the system at almost constant temperature. In particular, the emergence of a new condensate is observed in multicomponent F=1 spinor condensates of Rb87 . Furthermore, we develop a simple rate-equation model for multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensate thermodynamics at finite temperature which well reproduces the measured effects.

  10. A Ring with a Spin: Superfluidity in a toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Anand Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    Superfluidity is a remarkable phenomenon. Superfluidity was initially characterized by flow without friction, first seen in liquid helium in 1938, and has been studied extensively since. Superfluidity is believed to be related to, but not identical to Bose-Einstein condensation, a statistical mechanical phenomena predicted by Albert Einstein in 1924 based on the statistics of Satyendra Nath Bose, where bosonic atoms make a phase transition to form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a gas which has macroscopic occupation of a single quantum state. Developments in laser cooling of neutral atoms and the subsequent realization of Bose-Einstein condensates in ultracold gases have opened a new window into the study of superfluidity and its relation to Bose-Einstein condensation. In our atomic sodium BEC experiment, we studied superfluidity and dissipationless flow in an all-optical toroidal trap, constructed using the combination of a horizontal "sheet"-like beam and vertical "ring"-like beam, which, like a circuit loop, allows flow around the ring. On inducing a single quantum of circulation in the condensate, the smoothness and uniformity of the toroidal BEC enabled the sustaining of a persistent current lasting 40 seconds, limited by the lifetime of the BEC due to background gas pressure. This success set the stage for further experiments studying superfluidity. In a first set of experiments, we studied the stability of the persistent current by inserting a barrier in the flow path of the ring. The superflow stopped abruptly at a barrier strength such that the local flow velocity at the barrier exceeded a critical velocity, which supported decay via the creation of a vortex-antivortex pair. Our precise control in inducing and arresting superflow in the BEC is a first step toward studying other aspects of superfluidity, such as the effect of temperature and dimensionality. This thesis discusses these experiments and also details partial-transfer absorption imaging, an

  11. Exotic gapless Bose metals and insulators on multi-leg ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishmash, Ryan V.; Block, Matt S.; Kaul, Ribhu K.; Sheng, Donna N.; Motrunich, Olexei I.; Fisher, Matthew P. A.

    2011-03-01

    We present recent work establishing compelling evidence for the existence of quasi-1D descendants of the d -wave Bose liquid (DBL), a novel 2D quantum phase of itinerant bosons first discussed in. In particular, we study a model of hard-core bosons moving on the N -leg ladder square lattice with frustrating four-site ring exchange. In this talk, we focus on two novel phases: an incompressible gapless Mott insulator on the 3-leg ladder and a compressible gapless Bose metal on the 4-leg ladder. The former is a fundamentally quasi-1D phase that is insulating along the ladder but has two 1D gapless modes and power law transverse density-density correlations at incommensurate wave vectors; extensions of this phase to full 2D will be discussed. The latter, on the other hand, is conducting along the ladder and has five 1D gapless modes, one more than the number of legs; this represents a significant step forward in establishing the existence of the DBL in two dimensions. In both cases, we can understand the nature of the phase using slave-particle-inspired variational wave functions consisting of a product of two distinct Slater determinants, the properties of which compare impressively well to a DMRG solution of the model Hamiltonian.

  12. Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André

    2015-12-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.

  13. Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.

    PubMed

    Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André

    2015-12-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state. PMID:26764644

  14. Quantum degenerate atomic gases in controlled optical lattice potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemelke, Nathan D.

    2007-12-01

    Since the achievement of Bose Einstein condensation in cold atomic gases, mean-field treatments of the condensed phase have provided an excellent description for the static and dynamic properties observed in experiments. Recent experimental efforts have focused on studying deviations from mean-field behavior. I will describe work on two experiments which introduce controlled single particle degeneracies with time-dependent optical potentials, aiming to induce correlated motion and nontrivial statistics in the gas. In the first experiment, an optical lattice with locally rotating site potentials is produced to investigate fractional quantum Hall effects (FQHE) in rotating Bose gases. Here, the necessary gauge potential is provided by the rotating reference frame of the gas, which, in direct analogy to the electronic system, organizes single particle states into degenerate Landau levels. At low temperatures the repulsive interaction provided by elastic scattering is expected to produce ground states with structure nearly identical to those in the FQHE. I will discuss how these effects are made experimentally feasible by working at small particle numbers in the tight trapping potentials of an optical lattice, and present first results on the use of photoassociation to probe correlation in this system. In the second experiment, a vibrated optical lattice potential alters the single-particle dispersion underlying a condensed Bose gas and offers tailored phase-matching for nonlinear atom optical processes. I will demonstrate how this leads to parametric instability in the condensed gas, and draw analogy to an optical parametric oscillator operating above threshold.

  15. Generalized Bose-Einstein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullin, William J.; Sakhel, Asaad R.

    2012-02-01

    Generalized Bose-Einstein condensation (GBEC) involves condensates appearing simultaneously in multiple states. We review examples of the three types in an ideal Bose gas with different geometries. In Type I there is a discrete number of quantum states each having macroscopic occupation; Type II has condensation into a continuous band of states, with each state having macroscopic occupation; in Type III each state is microscopically occupied while the entire condensate band is macroscopically occupied. We begin by discussing Type I or "normal" BEC into a single state for an isotropic harmonic oscillator potential. Other geometries and external potentials are then considered: the "channel" potential (harmonic in one dimension and hard-wall in the other), which displays Type II, the "cigar trap" (anisotropic harmonic potential), and the "Casimir prism" (an elongated box), the latter two having Type III condensations. General box geometries are considered in an appendix. We particularly focus on the cigar trap, which Van Druten and Ketterle first showed had a two-step condensation: a GBEC into a band of states at a temperature T c and another "one-dimensional" transition at a lower temperature T 1 into the ground state. In a thermodynamic limit in which the ratio of the dimensions of the anisotropic harmonic trap is kept fixed, T 1 merges with the upper transition, which then becomes a normal BEC. However, in the thermodynamic limit of Beau and Zagrebnov, in which the ratio of the boundary lengths increases exponentially, T 1 becomes fixed at the temperature of a true Type I phase transition. The effects of interactions on GBEC are discussed and we show that there is evidence that Type III condensation may have been observed in the cigar trap.

  16. An efficient numerical method for computing dynamics of spin F = 2 Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Hanquan

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we extend the efficient time-splitting Fourier pseudospectral method to solve the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations, which model the dynamics of spin F = 2 Bose-Einstein condensates at extremely low temperature. Using the time-splitting technique, we split the generalized GP equations into one linear part and two nonlinear parts: the linear part is solved with the Fourier pseudospectral method; one of nonlinear parts is solved analytically while the other one is reformulated into a matrix formulation and solved by diagonalization. We show that the method keeps well the conservation laws related to generalized GP equations in 1D and 2D. We also show that the method is of second-order in time and spectrally accurate in space through a one-dimensional numerical test. We apply the method to investigate the dynamics of spin F = 2 Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a uniform/nonuniform magnetic field.

  17. Theoretical studies of Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kunal Kashyap

    This thesis is a theoretical study of Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) in harmonically-trapped, weakly-interacting dilute gases. The motivation for this study is the experimental realization of BEC in trapped alkali gases since 1995. The weak inter-particle interactions and diluteness of the gases allow for a fairly accurate mean-field treatment and justifies a discrete quasi-particle description as we use in this work. This thesis considers three specific topics in the rapidly growing field of BEC theory: (i) interference effects in BEC, (ii) interaction-induced energy shifts and damping of excitations of condensates and (iii) the properties of highly anisotropic condensates. The results are summarized here: i. We show that if two multiply occupied boson modes are in eigenstates of the Hermitian relative phase operator, then the visibility of fringes formed by the interference between the modes is necessarily less than unity. For large total occupation numbers the visibility V ≤ pi/4. States with definite relative phase and unit visibility do exist. They are related to coherent states and are not orthogonal (not eigenstates of a Hermitian phase operator). This visibility limitation may make it possible to investigate experimentally the physical role of the relative phase eigenstates in interference measurements on BEC. ii. We evaluate analytically the asymptotic energy shifts of the high energy Bogoliubov quasi-particle modes. In spherical geometry, those modes display a 1/ n dependence on their number of radial nodes n but only a weak dependence on their angular momenta l. We obtain similar results for cylindrical geometry. We derive an implicit equation for the widths or decay rates gamma of the modes from an assumption of exponential decay. We use the equation to do a detailed numerical study of the trends in the behavior of the widths as a function of temperature, energy, particle number and scattering lengths. In particular, we find that widths due to

  18. Cooling Atomic Gases With Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalettar, Richard

    Cold atomic gases have proven capable of emulating a number of fundamental condensed matter phenomena including Bose-Einstein condensation, the Mott transition, Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov pairing and the quantum Hall effect. Cooling to a low enough temperature to explore magnetism and exotic superconductivity in lattices of fermionic atoms remains a challenge. We propose a method to produce a low temperature gas by preparing it in a disordered potential and following a constant entropy trajectory to deliver the gas into a non-disordered state which exhibits these incompletely understood phases. We show, using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, that we can approach the Neél temperature of the three-dimensional Hubbard model for experimentally achievable parameters. Recent experimental estimates suggest the randomness required lies in a regime where atom transport and equilibration are still robust. Thereza Paiva, Ehsan Khatami, Shuxiang Yang, Valery Rousseau, Mark Jarrell, Juana Moreno, Randall G. Hulet, and Richard T. Scalettar, arXiv:1508.02613 This work was supported by the NNSA SSAA program.

  19. Atomic Quantum Gases in Kagomé Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, L.; Baranov, M. A.; Cirac, J. I.; Everts, H.-U.; Fehrmann, H.; Lewenstein, M.

    2004-07-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of creating and controlling an ideal and trimerized optical Kagomé lattice, and study the low temperature physics of various atomic gases in such lattices. In the trimerized Kagomé lattice, a Bose gas exhibits a Mott transition with fractional filling factors, whereas a spinless interacting Fermi gas at 2/3 filling behaves as a quantum magnet on a triangular lattice. Finally, a Fermi-Fermi mixture at half-filling for both components represents a frustrated quantum antiferromagnet with a resonating-valence-bond ground state and quantum spin liquid behavior dominated by a continuous spectrum of singlet and triplet excitations. We discuss the method of preparing and observing such a quantum spin liquid employing molecular Bose condensates.

  20. Gray solitons and phonons in repulsive Bose-Einstein condensates confined in one-dimensional nonharmonic traps

    SciTech Connect

    Radouani, A.

    2003-10-01

    We numerically solve the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) that describes the evolution of an elongated dilute repulsive atomic Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a one-dimensional (1D) nonharmonic potential. We find that the gray solitons, which are propagative solutions of the 1D GPE, traveling at an initial constant velocity, smaller than the speed of sound, oscillate through the trapped condensate, but that this oscillatory motion is accompanied by a spontaneous emission of small sound waves. By examining the gray soliton trajectory and its velocity in the trapped repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate, we show that the oscillatory motion is uniform and nondissipative except at the returning points of the gray soliton, where it exhibits a slight radiative acceleration (antidamping). Our numerical results are in good agreement with previous theoretical predictions, but show the need to take radiation emission into account.

  1. Vought F4U-1D Corsair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    Vought F4U-1D Corsair: In February and March of 1945 this Corsair was examined in the NACA's 30 x 60 Full Scale Tunnel at Langley Field. The F4U-1D has rockets mounted on its wings for this test. After installation and during testing, the wings would be lowered to their flight position.

  2. Satyendranath Bose: Co-Founder of Quantum Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanpied, William A.

    1972-01-01

    Satyendranath Bose was first to prove Planck's Law by using ideal quantum gas. Einstein credited Bose for this first step in the development of quantum statistical mechanics. Bose did not realize the importance of his work, perhaps because of peculiar academic settings in India under British rule. (PS)

  3. “Hard probes” of strongly-interacting atomic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Yusuke

    2012-06-18

    We investigate properties of an energetic atom propagating through strongly interacting atomic gases. The operator product expansion is used to systematically compute a quasiparticle energy and its scattering rate both in a spin-1/2 Fermi gas and in a spinless Bose gas. Reasonable agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations even at a relatively small momentum k/kF > 1.5 indicates that our large-momentum expansions are valid in a wide range of momentum. We also study a differential scattering rate when a probe atom is shot into atomic gases. Because the number density and current density of the target atomic gas contribute to the forward scattering only, its contact density (measure of short-range pair correlation) gives the leading contribution to the backward scattering. Therefore, such an experiment can be used to measure the contact density and thus provides a new local probe of strongly interacting atomic gases.

  4. Disordered spinor Bose-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łącki, Mateusz; Paganelli, Simone; Ahufinger, Veronica; Sanpera, Anna; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    We study the zero-temperature phase diagram of the disordered spin-1 Bose-Hubbard model in a two-dimensional square lattice. To this aim, we use a mean-field Gutzwiller ansatz and a probabilistic mean-field perturbation theory. The spin interaction induces two different regimes, corresponding to a ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order. In the ferromagnetic case, the introduction of disorder reproduces analogous features of the disordered scalar Bose-Hubbard model, consisting in the formation of a Bose glass phase between Mott insulator lobes. In the antiferromagnetic regime, the phase diagram differs more from the scalar case. Disorder in the chemical potential can lead to the disappearance of Mott insulator lobes with an odd-integer filling factor and, for sufficiently strong spin coupling, to Bose glass of singlets between even-filling Mott insulator lobes. Disorder in the spinor coupling parameter results in the appearance of a Bose glass phase only between the n and the n+1 lobes for n odd. Disorder in the scalar Hubbard interaction inhibits Mott insulator regions for occupation larger than a critical value.

  5. Superfluidity in ultracold gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Gretchen

    2016-05-01

    The study of superfluidity has a long and rich history. In Bose-Einstein condensate, superfluidity gives rise to a number of interesting effects, including quantized vortices and persistent currents. In this seminar I will give an introduction to superfluidity in ultracold atoms, including a discussion of the critical velocity and the spectrum of elementary excitations in superfluid systems.

  6. Stability of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, S.; Billy, J.; Henn, E. A. L.; Kadau, H.; Griesmaier, A.; Pfau, T.; Jona-Lasinio, M.; Santos, L.

    2011-11-15

    We show that in contrast with contact interacting gases, an optical lattice changes drastically the stability properties of a dipolar condensate, inducing a crossover from dipolar destabilization to dipolar stabilization for increasing lattice depths. Performing stability measurements on a {sup 52}Cr Bose-Einstein condensate in an interaction-dominated regime, repulsive dipolar interaction balances negative scattering lengths down to -17 Bohr radii. Our findings are in excellent agreement with mean-field calculations, revealing the important destabilizing role played by intersite dipolar interactions in deep lattices.

  7. Quantum Dynamics with Spatiotemporal Control of Interactions in a Stable Bose-Einstein Condensate.

    PubMed

    Clark, Logan W; Ha, Li-Chung; Xu, Chen-Yu; Chin, Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Optical control of atomic interactions in quantum gases is a long-sought goal of cold atom research. Previous experiments have been hindered by rapid decay of the quantum gas and parasitic deformation of the trap potential. We develop and implement a generic scheme for optical control of Feshbach resonances which yields long quantum gas lifetimes and a negligible parasitic dipole force. We show that fast and local control of interactions leads to intriguing quantum dynamics in new regimes, highlighted by the formation of van der Waals molecules and localized collapse of a Bose condensate. PMID:26550731

  8. Collective Excitations of Bose-Einstein Condensates In Isotropic and Slightly Anisotropic Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barentine, Andrew; Lobser, Dan; Lewandowski, Heather; Cornell, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Boltzmann proved that the monopole mode of a thermal gas in an isotropic, harmonic and 3D trap is undamped. Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) are not classical gases and their weakly interacting nature causes damping at finite temperature in a 3D monopole mode. The large parameter space of the TOP (Time-averaged Orbiting Potential) trap allows for precise control of the trap geometry. Exciting a monopole mode in a BEC as well as its canonical thermal cloud in the hydrodynamic regime will allow us to investigate damping effects in isotropic and slightly anisotropic traps. Funding : NSF,NIST,ONR

  9. Diquark Bose-Einstein condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Nawa, K.; Nakano, E.; Yabu, H.

    2006-08-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation of composite diquarks in quark matter (the color superconductor phase) is discussed using the quasichemical equilibrium theory at a relatively low-density region near the deconfinement phase transition, where dynamical quark-pair fluctuations are assumed to be described as bosonic degrees of freedom (diquarks). A general formulation is given for the diquark formation and particle-antiparticle pair-creation processes in the relativistic framework, and some interesting properties are shown, which are characteristic for the relativistic many-body system. Behaviors of transition temperature and phase diagram of the quark-diquark matter are generally presented in model parameter space, and their asymptotic behaviors are also discussed. As an application to the color superconductivity, the transition temperatures and the quark and diquark density profiles are calculated in case with constituent/current quarks, where the diquark is in the bound/resonant state. We obtained T{sub C}{approx}60-80 MeV for constituent quarks and T{sub C}{approx}130 MeV for current quarks at a moderate density ({rho}{sub b}{approx}3{rho}{sub 0}). The method is also developed to include interdiquark interactions into the quasichemical equilibrium theory within a mean-field approximation, and it is found that a possible repulsive diquark-diquark interaction lowers the transition temperature by {approx}50%.

  10. From ultracold Fermi Gases to Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Ultracold dilute atomic gases can be considered as model systems to address some pending problem in Many-Body physics that occur in condensed matter systems, nuclear physics, and astrophysics. We have developed a general method to probe with high precision the thermodynamics of locally homogeneous ultracold Bose and Fermi gases [1,2,3]. This method allows stringent tests of recent many-body theories. For attractive spin 1/2 fermions with tunable interaction (^6Li), we will show that the gas thermodynamic properties can continuously change from those of weakly interacting Cooper pairs described by Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory to those of strongly bound molecules undergoing Bose-Einstein condensation. First, we focus on the finite-temperature Equation of State (EoS) of the unpolarized unitary gas. Surprisingly, the low-temperature properties of the strongly interacting normal phase are well described by Fermi liquid theory [3] and we localize the superfluid phase transition. A detailed comparison with theories including recent Monte-Carlo calculations will be presented. Moving away from the unitary gas, the Lee-Huang-Yang and Lee-Yang beyond-mean-field corrections for low density bosonic and fermionic superfluids are quantitatively measured for the first time. Despite orders of magnitude difference in density and temperature, our equation of state can be used to describe low density neutron matter such as the outer shell of neutron stars. [4pt] [1] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, K. Jiang, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Nature 463, 1057 (2010) [0pt] [2] N. Navon, S. Nascimbène, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Science 328, 729 (2010) [0pt] [3] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, S. Pilati, F. Chevy, S. Giorgini, A. Georges, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 215303 (2011)

  11. Bose polarons: Dynamical decay and RF signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corson, John; Bohn, John

    2016-05-01

    Interactions of a single impurity with a quantum many-body environment are known to alter the character of the impurity, thereby forming a ``quasiparticle''. The condensed matter tradition often identifies quasiparticles as poles of a Green function in the complex plane, a notion whose sophistication sometimes obscures the underlying physics. The problem of a single quantum impurity in a Bose condensate, or Bose polaron, is an illustrative example where the meaning of the impurity Green function, and hence the quasiparticle itself, becomes especially transparent. Using direct diagonalization in a truncated Hilbert space, we examine the dynamical evolution and quasiparticle decay of the repulsive Bose polaron. This approach also allows us to simulate RF spectroscopy across a Feshbach resonance and outside the linear regime, as well as account for motional and thermal effects in a harmonic trap.

  12. Two-dimensional expansion of a condensed dense Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annibale, E. S.; Gammal, A.; Ziegler, K.

    2015-07-01

    We study the expansion dynamics of a condensate in a strongly interacting Bose gas in the presence of an obstacle. Our focus is on the generation of shock waves after the Bose gas has passed the obstacle. The strongly interacting Bose gas is described in the slave-boson representation. A saddle-point approximation provides a nonlinear equation of motion for the macroscopic wave function, analogous to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation of a weakly interacting Bose gas but with different nonlinearity. We compare the results with the Gross-Pitaevskii dynamics of a weakly interacting Bose gas and find a similar behavior with a slower behavior of the strongly interacting system.

  13. Thermodynamics of a trapped Bose-Fermi mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia-Ji

    2003-08-01

    By using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations within the Popov approximation, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of a dilute binary Bose-Fermi mixture confined in an isotropic harmonic trap. For mixtures with an attractive Bose-Fermi interaction, we find a sizable enhancement of the condensate fraction and of the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation with respect to the predictions for a pure interacting Bose gas. Conversely, the influence of the repulsive Bose-Fermi interaction is less pronounced. The possible relevance of our results in current experiments on trapped {sup 87}Rb-{sup 40}K mixtures is discussed.

  14. Formation of granular structures in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates under oscillatory excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Novikov, A. N.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2014-09-01

    We present experimental observations and numerical simulations of nonequilibrium spatial structures in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate subject to oscillatory perturbations. In experiment, first, there appear collective excitations, followed by quantum vortices. Increasing the amount of the injected energy leads to the formation of vortex tangles representing quantum turbulence. We study what happens after the regime of quantum turbulence, with increasing further the amount of injected energy. In such a strongly nonequilibrium Bose-condensed system of trapped atoms, vortices become destroyed and there develops a new kind of spatial structure exhibiting essentially heterogeneous spatial density. The structure is reminiscent of fog consisting of high-density droplets, or grains, surrounded by the regions of low density. The grains are randomly distributed in space, where they move. They live for a sufficiently long time to be treated as a type of metastable object. Such structures have been observed in nonequilibrium trapped Bose gases of 87Rb, subject to the action of alternating fields. Here we present experimental results and support them by numerical simulation. The granular, or fog structure is essentially different from the state of wave turbulence that develops after increasing further the amount of injected energy.

  15. Bose Polarons in the Strongly Interacting Regime.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming-Guang; Van de Graaff, Michael J; Kedar, Dhruv; Corson, John P; Cornell, Eric A; Jin, Deborah S

    2016-07-29

    When an impurity is immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate, impurity-boson interactions are expected to dress the impurity into a quasiparticle, the Bose polaron. We superimpose an ultracold atomic gas of ^{87}Rb with a much lower density gas of fermionic ^{40}K impurities. Through the use of a Feshbach resonance and radio-frequency spectroscopy, we characterize the energy, spectral width, and lifetime of the resultant polaron on both the attractive and the repulsive branches in the strongly interacting regime. The width of the polaron in the attractive branch is narrow compared to its binding energy, even as the two-body scattering length diverges. PMID:27517776

  16. Bose Polarons in the Strongly Interacting Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming-Guang; Van de Graaff, Michael J.; Kedar, Dhruv; Corson, John P.; Cornell, Eric A.; Jin, Deborah S.

    2016-07-01

    When an impurity is immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate, impurity-boson interactions are expected to dress the impurity into a quasiparticle, the Bose polaron. We superimpose an ultracold atomic gas of 87Rb with a much lower density gas of fermionic 40 impurities. Through the use of a Feshbach resonance and radio-frequency spectroscopy, we characterize the energy, spectral width, and lifetime of the resultant polaron on both the attractive and the repulsive branches in the strongly interacting regime. The width of the polaron in the attractive branch is narrow compared to its binding energy, even as the two-body scattering length diverges.

  17. Investigating the Sliding Phase in Strongly and Randomly Coupled Quasi-2D Bose Gasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Matthew; Smith, Zack; Dewan, Aftaab; Rolston, Steve

    2014-05-01

    Asymptotic analytical [Mohan et al. 2010] functional RNG [Pekker et al. 2010] and Monte Carlo [Laflorencie 2012] methods identified an anomalous Griffiths phase in the 3D XY model in the presence of disorder. A stack of cold 2D Bose gasses with random nearest neighbor inter-planar couplings should pass through two phase transitions as one increases temperature, first from a 3D superfluid to a stack of 2D superfluids, and then to a thermal state. We discuss our investigation of this intermediate phase in a stack of strongly coupled quasi-2D Rb 87 pancakes generated by a truly disordered 1D optical potential.

  18. Bose-Einstein condensation in dark power-law laser traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaouadi, A.; Gaaloul, N.; Viaris de Lesegno, B.; Telmini, M.; Pruvost, L.; Charron, E.

    2010-08-01

    We investigate theoretically an original route to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation using dark power-law laser traps. We propose to create such traps with two crossing blue-detuned Laguerre-Gaussian optical beams. Controlling their azimuthal order ℓ allows for the exploration of a multitude of power-law trapping situations in one, two, and three dimensions, ranging from the usual harmonic trap to an almost square-well potential, in which a quasihomogeneous Bose gas can be formed. The usual cigar-shaped and disk-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates obtained in a 1D or 2D harmonic trap take the generic form of a “finger” or of a “hockey puck” in such Laguerre-Gaussian traps. In addition, for a fixed atom number, higher transition temperatures are obtained in such configurations when compared with a harmonic trap of the same volume. This effect, which results in a substantial acceleration of the condensation dynamics, requires a better but still reasonable focusing of the Laguerre-Gaussian beams.

  19. Bose-Einstein condensation in dark power-law laser traps

    SciTech Connect

    Jaouadi, A.; Gaaloul, N.; Viaris de Lesegno, B.; Pruvost, L.; Telmini, M.; Charron, E.

    2010-08-15

    We investigate theoretically an original route to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation using dark power-law laser traps. We propose to create such traps with two crossing blue-detuned Laguerre-Gaussian optical beams. Controlling their azimuthal order l allows for the exploration of a multitude of power-law trapping situations in one, two, and three dimensions, ranging from the usual harmonic trap to an almost square-well potential, in which a quasihomogeneous Bose gas can be formed. The usual cigar-shaped and disk-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates obtained in a 1D or 2D harmonic trap take the generic form of a 'finger' or of a 'hockey puck' in such Laguerre-Gaussian traps. In addition, for a fixed atom number, higher transition temperatures are obtained in such configurations when compared with a harmonic trap of the same volume. This effect, which results in a substantial acceleration of the condensation dynamics, requires a better but still reasonable focusing of the Laguerre-Gaussian beams.

  20. Matter-waves in Bose-Einstein condensates with spin-orbit and Rabi couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiquillo, Emerson

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) reduction of a quantum field theory starting from the three-dimensional (3D) many-body Hamiltonian of interacting bosons with spin-orbit (SO) and Rabi couplings. We obtain the effective time-dependent 1D and 2D nonpolynomial Heisenberg equations for both the repulsive and attractive signs of the inter-atomic interaction. Our findings show that in the case in which the many-body state coincides with the Glauber coherent state, the 1D and 2D Heisenberg equations become 1D and 2D nonpolynomial Schrödinger equations (NPSEs). These models were derived in a mean-field approximation from 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE), describing a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with SO and Rabi couplings. In the present work self-repulsive and self-attractive localized solutions of the 1D NPSE and the 1D GPE are obtained in a numerical form. The combined action of SO and Rabi couplings produces conspicuous sidelobes on the density profile, for both signs of the interaction. In the case of the attractive nonlinearity, an essential result is the possibility of getting an unstable condensate by the increasing of SO coupling.

  1. Cold Atomic Gases in Optical Lattices with Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, T.; Drenkelforth, S.; Kruse, J.; Ertmer, W.; Arlt, J. J.; Kantian, A.; Santos, L. Sanchez-Palencia L.; Sanpera, A.; Sacha, K.; Zoller, P.; Lewenstein, M.; Zakrzewski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Cold atomic gases placed in optical lattices enable studies of simple condensed matter theory models with parameters that may be tuned relatively easily. When the optical potential is randomized (e.g. using laser speckle to create a random intensity distribution) one may be able to observe Anderson localization of matter waves for non-interacting bosons, the so-called Bose glass in the presence of interactions, as well as the Fermi glass or quantum spin glass for mixtures of fermions and bosons.

  2. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  3. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.

    1986-01-01

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  4. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  5. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi

    1986-01-01

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  6. Quantum metrology with Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Boixo, Sergio; Datta, Animesh; Davis, Matthew J.; Flammia, Steven T.; Shaji, Anil; Tacla, Alexandre B.; Caves, Carlton M.

    2009-04-13

    We show how a generalized quantum metrology protocol can be implemented in a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate of n atoms, achieving a sensitivity that scales better than 1/n and approaches 1/n{sup 3/2} for appropriate design of the condensate.

  7. Excitation picture of an interacting Bose gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kira, M.

    2014-12-15

    Atomic Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) can be viewed as macroscopic objects where atoms form correlated atom clusters to all orders. Therefore, the presence of a BEC makes the direct use of the cluster-expansion approach–lucrative e.g. in semiconductor quantum optics–inefficient when solving the many-body kinetics of a strongly interacting Bose. An excitation picture is introduced with a nonunitary transformation that describes the system in terms of atom clusters within the normal component alone. The nontrivial properties of this transformation are systematically studied, which yields a cluster-expansion friendly formalism for a strongly interacting Bose gas. Its connections and corrections to the standard Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov approach are discussed and the role of the order parameter and the Bogoliubov excitations are identified. The resulting interaction effects are shown to visibly modify number fluctuations of the BEC. Even when the BEC has a nearly perfect second-order coherence, the BEC number fluctuations can still resolve interaction-generated non-Poissonian fluctuations. - Highlights: • Excitation picture expresses interacting Bose gas with few atom clusters. • Semiconductor and BEC many-body investigations are connected with cluster expansion. • Quantum statistics of BEC is identified in terms of atom clusters. • BEC number fluctuations show extreme sensitivity to many-body correlations. • Cluster-expansion friendly framework is established for an interacting Bose gas.

  8. Quantum sine-Gordon dynamics on analogue curved spacetime in a weakly imperfect scalar Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkoff, T. J.; Fischer, Uwe R.

    2016-07-01

    Using the coherent state functional integral expression of the partition function, we show that the sine-Gordon model on an analogue curved spacetime arises as the effective quantum field theory for phase fluctuations of a weakly imperfect Bose gas on an incompressible background superfluid flow when these fluctuations are restricted to a subspace of the single-particle Hilbert space. We consider bipartitions of the single-particle Hilbert space relevant to experiments on ultracold bosonic atomic or molecular gases, including, e.g., restriction to high- or low-energy sectors of the dynamics and spatial bipartition corresponding to tunnel-coupled planar Bose gases. By assuming full unitary quantum control in the low-energy subspace of a trapped gas, we show that (1) appropriately tuning the particle number statistics of the lowest-energy mode partially decouples the low- and high-energy sectors, allowing any low-energy single-particle wave function to define a background for sine-Gordon dynamics on curved spacetime and (2) macroscopic occupation of a quantum superposition of two states of the lowest two modes produces an analogue curved spacetime depending on two background flows, with respective weights continuously dependent on the corresponding weights of the superposed quantum states.

  9. 1D ferrimagnetism in homometallic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronado, E.; Gómez-García, C. J.; Borrás-Almenar, J. J.

    1990-05-01

    The magnetic properties of the cobalt zigzag chain Co(bpy)(NCS)2 (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) are discussed on the basis of an Ising-chain model that takes into account alternating Landé factors. It is emphasized, for the first time, that a homometallic chain containing only one type of site can give rise to a 1D ferrimagneticlike behavior.

  10. DESIGN PACKAGE 1D SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Eisler

    1995-02-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1D, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1D system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations excluding hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations.

  11. Particle creation in Bose-Einstein condensates: Theoretical formulation based on conserving gapless mean-field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, Yasunari; Kobayashi, Michikazu; Ishihara, Hideki; Tsubota, Makoto

    2010-11-15

    We formulate particle-creation phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates in terms of conserving gapless mean-field theory for weakly interacting Bose gases. The particle-creation spectrum is calculated by rediagonalizing the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) Hamiltonian in mean-field theory. The conservation implies that quasiparticle creation is accompanied by quantum back reaction to the condensates. Particle creation in this mean-field theory is found to be equivalent to that in quantum field theory (QFT) in curved space-time. An expression is obtained for an effective metric affected by quantum back reaction. The formula for the particle-creation spectrum obtained in terms of QFT in curved space-time is shown to be the same as that given by rediagonalizing the BdG Hamiltonian.

  12. Mott-insulator phase of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model: A high-order perturbative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damski, Bogdan; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2006-10-01

    The one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model at a unit filling factor is studied by means of a very high-order symbolic perturbative expansion. Analytical expressions are derived for the ground-state quantities such as energy per site, variance of on-site occupation, and correlation functions: ⟨âj†âj+r⟩ and ⟨n̂jn̂j+r⟩ . These findings are compared to numerics and good agreement is found in the Mott insulator phase. Our results provide analytical approximations to important observables in the Mott phase, and are also of direct relevance to future experiments with ultracold atomic gases placed in optical lattices. We also discuss the symmetry of the Bose-Hubbard model associated with the sign change of the tunneling coupling.

  13. Prize for a Faculty Member for Research in an Undergraduate Institution Lecture: Research (Teaching) with Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David

    2012-06-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases, with its myriad ramifications in fields as diverse as atomic, condensed-matter, cosmological, fluid, quantum, and statistical physics, offers unique possibilities for the synthesis of research and pedagogy. The highly visual nature of the experiments can make Bose-Einstein condensates a particularly compelling teaching instrument, particularly for those encountering these topics for the first time. The associated technological challenges provide copious opportunities for development of fundamental research skills while retaining the intimate context of tabletop research. Our program at Amherst College pursues studies of multicomponent condensates, tunable ultracold collisions (i.e., Feshbach resonances), and topological defects (e.g., vortices). In this talk I will describe our experimental efforts in these three principal directions, taken singly and in combination, with a nod to the peculiarities and opportunities inherent to an essentially undergraduate research program.

  14. Motion of a heavy impurity through a Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Astrakharchik, G.E.; Pitaevskii, L.P.

    2004-07-01

    We study the motion of a pointlike impurity in a Bose-Einstein condensate at T=0. By solving the Guinier-Preston (GP) equation in a perturbative manner we calculate the induced mass of the impurity and the drag force on the impurity in three-, two-, and one-dimensional (1D) cases. The relationship between the induced mass and the normal mass of fluid is found, and coincides with the result of the Bogoliubov theory. The drag force appears for the supersonic motion of the impurity. In 1D the drag force is investigated also on the basis of the exact Lieb-Liniger theory, using the dynamic form factor, which has been evaluated by the Haldane method of the calculation of correlation functions. In this theory the force appears for an arbitrarily small velocity of the impurity. The possibility of measuring the form factor in existing experiments is noted.

  15. Collective excitation of Bose-Einstein condensates in the transition region between three and one dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kottke, M.; Schulte, T.; Hellweg, D.; Drenkelforth, S.; Ertmer, W.; Arlt, J. J.; Cacciapuoti, L.

    2005-11-15

    We measure the frequency of the low m=0 quadrupolar excitation mode of weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in the transition region from the three-dimensional (3D) to the 1D mean-field regime. Various effects shifting the frequency of the mode are discussed. In particular we take the dynamic coupling of the condensate with the thermal component at finite temperature into account using a time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov treatment developed by Giorgini [Phys. Rev. A, 61, 063615 (2000)]. We show that the frequency rises in the transition from 3D to 1D, in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of Menotti and Stringari [Phys. Rev. A 66, 043610 (2002)].

  16. Ground-State of the Bose-Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, J. D.; Fessatidis, V.; Bowen, S. P.; Murawski, R. K.; Maly, J.

    The Bose-Hubbard Model represents a s simple theoretical model to describe the physics of interacting Boson systems. In particular it has proved to be an effective description of a number of physical systems such as arrays of Josephson arrays as well as dilute alkali gases in optical lattices. Here we wish to study the ground-state of this system using two disparate but related moments calculational schemes: the Lanczos (tridiagonal) method as well as a Generalized moments approach. The Hamiltonian to be studied is given by (in second-quantized notation): H = - t ∑ < i , j > bi†bj +U/2 ∑ inini - 1 - μ ∑ ini . Here i is summed over all lattice sites, and < i , j > denotes summation over all neighbhoring sites i and j, while bi† and bi are bosonic creation and annihilation operators. ni = bi†bi gives the number of particles on site i. Parameter t is the hopping amplitude, describing mobility of bosons in the lattice. Parameter U describes the on-site interaction, repulsive, if U > 0 , and attractive for U < 0 . μ is the chemical potential. Both the ground-state energy and energy gap are evaluated as a function of t, U and μ.

  17. Shock Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulikov, Igor; Zak, Michail

    2005-01-01

    A paper presents a theoretical study of shock waves in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The mathematical model of the BEC in this study is a nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE) in which (1) the role of the wave function of a single particle in the traditional Schroedinger equation is played by a space- and time-dependent complex order parameter (x,t) proportional to the square root of the density of atoms and (2) the atoms engage in a repulsive interaction characterized by a potential proportional to | (x,t)|2. Equations that describe macroscopic perturbations of the BEC at zero temperature are derived from the NLSE and simplifying assumptions are made, leading to equations for the propagation of sound waves and the transformation of sound waves into shock waves. Equations for the speeds of shock waves and the relationships between jumps of velocity and density across shock fronts are derived. Similarities and differences between this theory and the classical theory of sound waves and shocks in ordinary gases are noted. The present theory is illustrated by solving the equations for the example of a shock wave propagating in a cigar-shaped BEC.

  18. Quantum gases and white dwarfs with quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    This paper addresses the effect of a generalized uncertainty principle produced by different approaches of quantum gravity within the Planck scale on statistical and thermodynamical properties of ideal fermion and boson gases. The partition function and some thermodynamical properties are investigated. The Bose-Einstein condensation and the ground state properties of fermion gases are also considered. The target approach is extended to a white dwarf as an application. The modified mass-radius relation is calculated. A decrease in the pressure of degenerate fermions due to the presence of quantum gravity leads to a contraction in the star radius. It is also found that the gravity background does not result in any change in white dwarf stability.

  19. Fermion gases in magnetic fields: a semiclassical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, V. G.; Sumini, M.; Rocchi, F.

    The study of quantum degenerate gases has received much interest in these last years essentially thanks to the extremely important experimental results of the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation of atoms and, very recently, of almost complete degeneracy of atomic fermion gases. Here we want to present the results of a semi-analytical method for the study of an interacting degenerate fermion gas based on semiclassical kinetic theory; special care has been devoted to the study of a rotating electron gas, in a cylindrically symmetrical configuration, radially confined by a uniform magnetic field. The model will lead to a particular Thomas-Fermi equation which is generalized to take into account finite temperature and average velocity of the gas, and which is further developed to consider the effects of external fields.

  20. The asymptotics of the correlation functions in (1 + 1)d quantum field theory from finite size effects in conformal theories

    SciTech Connect

    Mironov, A. ); Zabrodin, A. )

    1992-06-30

    Using the finite-size effects, the scaling dimensions and correlation functions of the main operators in continuous and lattice models of 1d spinless Bose-gas with pairwise interaction of rather general form are obtained. The long-wave properties of these systems can be described by the Gaussian model with central charge c = 1. The disorder operators of the extended Gaussian model are found to correspond to some nonlocal operators in the XXZ Heisenberg antiferromagnet. This same approach is applicable to fermionic systems. Scaling dimensions of operators and correlation functions in the systems of interacting Fermi-particles are obtained. This paper presents a universal treatment for 1d systems of different kinds which is independent of the exact integrability and which gives universal expressions for critical exponents through the thermodynamic characteristics of the system.

  1. Phase diagrams of the Bose-Hubbard model and the Haldane-Bose-Hubbard model with complex hopping amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuno, Yoshihito; Nakafuji, Takashi; Ichinose, Ikuo

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study Bose-Hubbard models on square and honeycomb lattices with complex hopping amplitudes, which are feasible by recent experiments of cold atomic gases in optical lattices. To clarify phase diagrams, we use extended quantum Monte Carlo simulations (eQMC). For the system on the square lattice, the complex hopping is realized by an artificial magnetic field. We found that vortex-solid states form for certain set of magnetic field, i.e., the magnetic field with the flux quanta per plaquette f =p /q , where p and q are co-prime natural numbers. For the system on the honeycomb lattice, we add the next-nearest-neighbor complex hopping. The model is a bosonic analog of the Haldane-Hubbard model. By means of eQMC, we study the model with both weak and strong onsite repulsions. Numerical study shows that the model has a rich phase diagram. We also found that in the system defined on the honeycomb lattice of the cylinder geometry, an interesting edge state appears.

  2. Mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects in Bose-Einstein-condensed systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, G.C.; Bagnato, V.S.; Muniz, S.R.; Spehler, D.

    2004-05-01

    In this paper we extend previous hydrodynamic equations, governing the motion of Bose-Einstein-condensed fluids, to include temperature effects. This allows us to analyze some differences between a normal fluid and a Bose-Einstein-condensed one. We show that, in close analogy with superfluid {sup 4}He, a Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid exhibits the mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects. In our approach we can explain both effects without using the hypothesis that the Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid has zero entropy. Such ideas could be investigated in existing experiments.

  3. Interacting Bose gas confined in a Kronig-Penney potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, O. A.; Solís, M. A.

    We analyze the effect of the 1D periodic Kronig-Penney potential, composed of barriers of width b and separated a distance a, over an interacting Bose gas. At T = 0 , the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is solved analytically in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions for repulsive or attractive interaction between bosons. By applying the boundary conditions for periodic solutions as well as the normalization of the wave function, we arrive to a set of nonlinear equations from which we obtain the density profile and the chemical potential of the condensate as a function of the particle momentum. The profiles for attractive and repulsive interactions are compared with that of the non-interacting case. For attractive interaction we are able to observe a pronounced spatial localization in the middle of every two barriers. We reproduce the well known results when the Kronig-Penney potential becomes a Dirac Comb. We acknowledge partial support from Grants PAPIIT IN111613 and CONACyT 221030.

  4. Preparation of 1D nanostructures using biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruneanu, Stela; Olenic, Liliana; Barbu Tudoran, Lucian; Kacso, Irina; Farha Al-Said, Said A.; Hassanien, Reda; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we have shown that one-dimensional (1D) particle arrays can be obtained using biomolecules, like DNA or amino-acids. Nano-arrays of silver and gold were prepared in a single-step synthesis, by exploiting the binding abilities of λ-DNA and L-Arginine. The morphology and optical properties of these nanostructures were investigated using AFM, TEM and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy.

  5. Dynamical thermalization in Bose-Hubbard systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlagheck, Peter; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-01-01

    We numerically study a Bose-Hubbard ring of finite size with disorder containing a finite number of bosons that are subject to an on-site two-body interaction. Our results show that moderate interactions induce dynamical thermalization in this isolated system. In this regime the individual many-body eigenstates are well described by the standard thermal Bose-Einstein distribution for well-defined values of the temperature and the chemical potential, which depend on the eigenstate under consideration. We show that the dynamical thermalization conjecture works well at both positive and negative temperatures. The relations to quantum chaos, quantum ergodicity, and the Åberg criterion are also discussed.

  6. Spin Effects in Bose-Glass Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganelli, S.; ŁaÇki, M.; Ahufinger, V.; Zakrzewski, J.; Sanpera, A.

    2011-12-01

    We study the mechanism of formation of Bose glass (BG) phases in the spin-1 Bose Hubbard model when diagonal disorder is introduced. To this aim, we analyze first the phase diagram in the zero-hopping limit, there disorder induces superposition between Mott insulator (MI) phases with different filling numbers. Then BG appears as a compressible but still insulating phase. The phase diagram for finite hopping is also calculated with the Gutzwiller approximation. The bosons' spin degree of freedom introduces another scattering channel in the two-body interaction modifying the stability of MI regions with respect to the action of disorder. This leads to some peculiar phenomena such as the creation of BG of singlets, for very strong spin correlation, or the disappearance of BG phase in some particular cases where fluctuations are not able to mix different MI regions.

  7. Stability of a unitary Bose gas.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Richard J; Gaunt, Alexander L; Navon, Nir; Smith, Robert P; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2013-09-20

    We study the stability of a thermal (39)K Bose gas across a broad Feshbach resonance, focusing on the unitary regime, where the scattering length a exceeds the thermal wavelength λ. We measure the general scaling laws relating the particle-loss and heating rates to the temperature, scattering length, and atom number. Both at unitarity and for positive a<λ we find agreement with three-body theory. However, for a<0 and away from unitarity, we observe significant four-body decay. At unitarity, the three-body loss coefficient, L(3) proportional λ(4), is 3 times lower than the universal theoretical upper bound. This reduction is a consequence of species-specific Efimov physics and makes (39)K particularly promising for studies of many-body physics in a unitary Bose gas. PMID:24093273

  8. Bose-Einstein condensation in microgravity.

    PubMed

    van Zoest, T; Gaaloul, N; Singh, Y; Ahlers, H; Herr, W; Seidel, S T; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Eckart, M; Kajari, E; Arnold, S; Nandi, G; Schleich, W P; Walser, R; Vogel, A; Sengstock, K; Bongs, K; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Schiemangk, M; Schuldt, T; Peters, A; Könemann, T; Müntinga, H; Lämmerzahl, C; Dittus, H; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J

    2010-06-18

    Albert Einstein's insight that it is impossible to distinguish a local experiment in a "freely falling elevator" from one in free space led to the development of the theory of general relativity. The wave nature of matter manifests itself in a striking way in Bose-Einstein condensates, where millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. We combine these two topics and report the preparation and observation of a Bose-Einstein condensate during free fall in a 146-meter-tall evacuated drop tower. During the expansion over 1 second, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter. PMID:20558713

  9. Axions: Bose Einstein condensate or classical field?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Sacha

    2015-05-01

    The axion is a motivated dark matter candidate, so it would be interesting to find features in Large Scale Structures specific to axion dark matter. Such features were proposed for a Bose Einstein condensate of axions, leading to confusion in the literature (to which I contributed) about whether axions condense due to their gravitational interactions. This note argues that the Bose Einstein condensation of axions is a red herring: the axion dark matter produced by the misalignment mechanism is already a classical field, which has the distinctive features attributed to the axion condensate (BE condensates are described as classical fields). This note also estimates that the rate at which axion particles condense to the field, or the field evaporates to particles, is negligible.

  10. Centrosome Positioning in 1D Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlerz, Katrina; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    During cell migration, the positioning of the centrosome and nucleus define a cell's polarity. For a cell migrating on a two-dimensional substrate the centrosome is positioned in front of the nucleus. Under one-dimensional confinement, however, the centrosome is positioned behind the nucleus in 60% of cells. It is known that the centrosome is positioned by CDC42 and dynein for cells moving on a 2D substrate in a wound-healing assay. It is currently unknown, however, if this is also true for cells moving under 1D confinement, where the centrosome position is often reversed. Therefore, centrosome positioning was studied in cells migrating under 1D confinement, which mimics cells migrating through 3D matrices. 3 to 5 μm fibronectin lines were stamped onto a glass substrate and cells with fluorescently labeled nuclei and centrosomes migrated on the lines. Our results show that when a cell changes directions the centrosome position is maintained. That is, when the centrosome is between the nucleus and the cell's trailing edge and the cell changes direction, the centrosome will be translocated across the nucleus to the back of the cell again. A dynein inhibitor did have an influence on centrosome positioning in 1D migration and change of directions.

  11. Coalescence phenomena in 1D silver nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Wing, C.; Pérez-Alvarez, M.; Mondragón-Galicia, G.; Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Gutiérrez-Wing, M. T.; Henk, M. C.; Negulescu, I. I.; Rusch, K. A.

    2009-07-01

    Different coalescence processes on 1D silver nanostructures synthesized by a PVP assisted reaction in ethylene glycol at 160 °C were studied experimentally and theoretically. Analysis by TEM and HRTEM shows different defects found on the body of these materials, suggesting that they were induced by previous coalescence processes in the synthesis stage. TEM observations showed that irradiation with the electron beam eliminates the boundaries formed near the edges of the structures, suggesting that this process can be carried out by the application of other means of energy (i.e. thermal). These results were also confirmed by theoretical calculations by Monte Carlo simulations using a Sutton-Chen potential. A theoretical study by molecular dynamics simulation of the different coalescence processes on 1D silver nanostructures is presented, showing a surface energy driven sequence followed to form the final coalesced structure. Calculations were made at 1000-1300 K, which is near the melting temperature of silver (1234 K). Based on these results, it is proposed that 1D nanostructures can grow through a secondary mechanism based on coalescence, without losing their dimensionality.

  12. Hydrodynamic Modes in a Trapped Bose Gas above the Bose-Einstein Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, A.; Wu, W.; Stringari, S.

    1997-03-01

    We discuss the collective modes of a trapped Bose gas in the hydrodynamic regime where atomic collisions ensure local thermal equilibrium for the distribution function. Starting from the conservation laws, in the linearized limit we derive a closed equation for the velocity fluctuations in a trapped Bose gas above the Bose-Einstein transition temperature. Explicit solutions for a parabolic trap are given. We find that the surface modes above the transition have the same dispersion relation as the one recently obtained by Stringari for the oscillations of the condensate at T=0 within the Thomas-Fermi approximation. Results are also given for the monopole {open_quotes}breathing{close_quote}{close_quote} mode as well as for the m=0 excitations which result from the coupling of the monopole and quadrupole modes in an anisotropic parabolic well. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Equilibrium and off-equilibrium trap-size scaling in one-dimensional ultracold bosonic gases

    SciTech Connect

    Campostrini, Massimo; Vicari, Ettore

    2010-12-15

    We study some aspects of equilibrium and off-equilibrium quantum dynamics of dilute bosonic gases in the presence of a trapping potential. We consider systems with a fixed number of particles and study their scaling behavior with increasing the trap size. We focus on one-dimensional bosonic systems, such as gases described by the Lieb-Liniger model and its Tonks-Girardeau limit of impenetrable bosons, and gases constrained in optical lattices as described by the Bose-Hubbard model. We study their quantum (zero-temperature) behavior at equilibrium and off equilibrium during the unitary time evolution arising from changes of the trapping potential, which may be instantaneous or described by a power-law time dependence, starting from the equilibrium ground state for an initial trap size. Renormalization-group scaling arguments and analytical and numerical calculations show that the trap-size dependence of the equilibrium and off-equilibrium dynamics can be cast in the form of a trap-size scaling in the low-density regime, characterized by universal power laws of the trap size, in dilute gases with repulsive contact interactions and lattice systems described by the Bose-Hubbard model. The scaling functions corresponding to several physically interesting observables are computed. Our results are of experimental relevance for systems of cold atomic gases trapped by tunable confining potentials.

  14. Atomic phase conjugation from a Bose condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, E.V.; Plaettner, K.; Meystre, P.

    1996-08-01

    The authors discuss the possibility of observing atomic phase conjugation from Bose condensates, and using it as a diagnostic tool to access the spatial coherence properties and to measure the lifetime of the condensate. They argue that since phase conjugation results from the scattering of a partial matter wave off the spatial grating produced by two other waves, it offers a natural way to directly measure such properties, and as such provides an attractive alternative to the optical methods proposed in the past.

  15. Bose-Einstein correlations from 'within'

    SciTech Connect

    Utyuzh, O. V.; Wilk, G.; Wlodarczyk, Z.

    2006-04-11

    We describe an attempt to model numerically Bose-Einstein correlations (BEC) from 'within', i.e., by using them as the most fundamental ingredient of some Monte Carlo event generator (MC) rather than considering them as a kind of (more or less important, depending on the actual situation) 'afterburner', which inevitably changes original physical content of the MC code used to model multiparticle production process.

  16. Thermalization of Bipartite Bose-Hubbard Models.

    PubMed

    Khripkov, Christine; Cohen, Doron; Vardi, Amichay

    2016-05-19

    We study the time evolution of a bipartite Bose-Hubbard model prepared far from equilibrium. When the classical dynamics is chaotic, we observe ergodization of the number distribution and a constant increase of the entanglement entropy between the constituent subsystems until it saturates to thermal equilibrium values. No thermalization is obtained when the system is launched in quasi-integrable phase space regions. PMID:26701599

  17. Schrodinger Leopards in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Lincoln D.; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.

    2008-03-01

    We present the complex quantum dynamics of vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates in a double well via exact diagonalization of a discretized Hamiltonian. When the barrier is high, vortices evolve into macroscopic superposition (NOON) states of a vortex in either well -- a Schrodinger cat with spots. Such Schrodinger leopard states are more robust than previously proposed NOON states, which only use two single particle modes of the double well potential.

  18. Bose-Einstein condensation of 84Sr.

    PubMed

    Martinez de Escobar, Y N; Mickelson, P G; Yan, M; DeSalvo, B J; Nagel, S B; Killian, T C

    2009-11-13

    We report Bose-Einstein condensation of (84)Sr in an optical dipole trap. Efficient laser cooling on the narrow intercombination line and an ideal s-wave scattering length allow the creation of large condensates (N(0) approximately 3 x 10(5)) even though the natural abundance of this isotope is only 0.6%. Condensation is heralded by the emergence of a low-velocity component in time-of-flight images. PMID:20365965

  19. Lasing in Bose-Fermi mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Kochereshko, Vladimir P.; Durnev, Mikhail V.; Besombes, Lucien; Mariette, Henri; Sapega, Victor F.; Askitopoulos, Alexis; Savenko, Ivan G.; Liew, Timothy C. H.; Shelykh, Ivan A.; Platonov, Alexey V.; Tsintzos, Simeon I.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Savvidis, Pavlos G.; Kalevich, Vladimir K.; Afanasiev, Mikhail M.; Lukoshkin, Vladimir A.; Schneider, Christian; Amthor, Matthias; Metzger, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Hoefling, Sven; Lagoudakis, Pavlos; Kavokin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, well-known for revolutionising photonic science, has been realised primarily in fermionic systems including widely applied diode lasers. The prerequisite for fermionic lasing is the inversion of electronic population, which governs the lasing threshold. More recently, bosonic lasers have also been developed based on Bose-Einstein condensates of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. These electrically neutral bosons coexist with charged electrons and holes. In the presence of magnetic fields, the charged particles are bound to their cyclotron orbits, while the neutral exciton-polaritons move freely. We demonstrate how magnetic fields affect dramatically the phase diagram of mixed Bose-Fermi systems, switching between fermionic lasing, incoherent emission and bosonic lasing regimes in planar and pillar microcavities with optical and electrical pumping. We collected and analyzed the data taken on pillar and planar microcavity structures at continuous wave and pulsed optical excitation as well as injecting electrons and holes electronically. Our results evidence the transition from a Bose gas to a Fermi liquid mediated by magnetic fields and light-matter coupling. PMID:26822483

  20. Lasing in Bose-Fermi mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochereshko, Vladimir P.; Durnev, Mikhail V.; Besombes, Lucien; Mariette, Henri; Sapega, Victor F.; Askitopoulos, Alexis; Savenko, Ivan G.; Liew, Timothy C. H.; Shelykh, Ivan A.; Platonov, Alexey V.; Tsintzos, Simeon I.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Savvidis, Pavlos G.; Kalevich, Vladimir K.; Afanasiev, Mikhail M.; Lukoshkin, Vladimir A.; Schneider, Christian; Amthor, Matthias; Metzger, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Hoefling, Sven; Lagoudakis, Pavlos; Kavokin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, well-known for revolutionising photonic science, has been realised primarily in fermionic systems including widely applied diode lasers. The prerequisite for fermionic lasing is the inversion of electronic population, which governs the lasing threshold. More recently, bosonic lasers have also been developed based on Bose-Einstein condensates of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. These electrically neutral bosons coexist with charged electrons and holes. In the presence of magnetic fields, the charged particles are bound to their cyclotron orbits, while the neutral exciton-polaritons move freely. We demonstrate how magnetic fields affect dramatically the phase diagram of mixed Bose-Fermi systems, switching between fermionic lasing, incoherent emission and bosonic lasing regimes in planar and pillar microcavities with optical and electrical pumping. We collected and analyzed the data taken on pillar and planar microcavity structures at continuous wave and pulsed optical excitation as well as injecting electrons and holes electronically. Our results evidence the transition from a Bose gas to a Fermi liquid mediated by magnetic fields and light-matter coupling.

  1. Lasing in Bose-Fermi mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kochereshko, Vladimir P; Durnev, Mikhail V; Besombes, Lucien; Mariette, Henri; Sapega, Victor F; Askitopoulos, Alexis; Savenko, Ivan G; Liew, Timothy C H; Shelykh, Ivan A; Platonov, Alexey V; Tsintzos, Simeon I; Hatzopoulos, Z; Savvidis, Pavlos G; Kalevich, Vladimir K; Afanasiev, Mikhail M; Lukoshkin, Vladimir A; Schneider, Christian; Amthor, Matthias; Metzger, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Hoefling, Sven; Lagoudakis, Pavlos; Kavokin, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, well-known for revolutionising photonic science, has been realised primarily in fermionic systems including widely applied diode lasers. The prerequisite for fermionic lasing is the inversion of electronic population, which governs the lasing threshold. More recently, bosonic lasers have also been developed based on Bose-Einstein condensates of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. These electrically neutral bosons coexist with charged electrons and holes. In the presence of magnetic fields, the charged particles are bound to their cyclotron orbits, while the neutral exciton-polaritons move freely. We demonstrate how magnetic fields affect dramatically the phase diagram of mixed Bose-Fermi systems, switching between fermionic lasing, incoherent emission and bosonic lasing regimes in planar and pillar microcavities with optical and electrical pumping. We collected and analyzed the data taken on pillar and planar microcavity structures at continuous wave and pulsed optical excitation as well as injecting electrons and holes electronically. Our results evidence the transition from a Bose gas to a Fermi liquid mediated by magnetic fields and light-matter coupling. PMID:26822483

  2. Transport of Trace Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    Trace gases measurements are used to diagnose both the chemistry and transport of the atmosphere. These lectures emphasize the interpretation of trace gases measurements and techniques used to untangle chemistry and transport effects. I will discuss PV transform, trajectory techniques, and age-of-air as far as the circulation of the stratosphere.

  3. 1-D EQUILIBRIUM DISCRETE DIFFUSION MONTE CARLO

    SciTech Connect

    T. EVANS; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.

  4. A 1-D dusty plasma photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Mitu, M. L.; Ticoş, C. M.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.; Scurtu, A.

    2013-09-21

    It is demonstrated numerically that a 1-D plasma crystal made of micron size cylindrical dust particles can, in principle, work as a photonic crystal for terahertz waves. The dust rods are parallel to each other and arranged in a linear string forming a periodic structure of dielectric-plasma regions. The dispersion equation is found by solving the waves equation with the boundary conditions at the dust-plasma interface and taking into account the dielectric permittivity of the dust material and plasma. The wavelength of the electromagnetic waves is in the range of a few hundred microns, close to the interparticle separation distance. The band gaps of the 1-D plasma crystal are numerically found for different types of dust materials, separation distances between the dust rods and rod diameters. The distance between levitated dust rods forming a string in rf plasma is shown experimentally to vary over a relatively wide range, from 650 μm to about 1350 μm, depending on the rf power fed into the discharge.

  5. Topological objects in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y. M.; Khim, Hyojoong; Zhang, Pengming

    2005-12-15

    We study the topological objects in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. We compare two competing theories of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, the popular Gross-Pitaevskii theory, and the recently proposed gauge theory of two-component Bose-Einstein condensate which has an induced vorticity interaction. We show that two theories produce very similar topological objects, in spite of the obvious differences in dynamics. Furthermore we show that the gauge theory of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, with the U(1) gauge symmetry, is remarkably similar to the Skyrme theory. Just like the Skyrme theory this theory admits the non-Abelian vortex, the helical vortex, and the vorticity knot. We construct the lightest knot solution in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates numerically, and discuss how the knot can be constructed in the spin-(1/2) condensate of {sup 87}Rb atoms.

  6. Effect of long-range 1/r interactions on the Landau damping in a Bose-Fermi mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniri, S. Mostafa; Yavari, Heshmatollah; Darsheshdar, Elnaz

    2016-04-01

    By using the time-dependent mean-field approach based on the Popov approximation, the Landau damping in a Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture in the presence of a long-range 1/r interaction between bosons at finite temperature is studied. For a homogeneous three-dimension (3D) gas, we will show, since both Bose-Fermi and the 1/r interactions contributions are exponentially suppressed, the contact interaction has the dominant role to the low-temperature behavior of the Landau damping and the temperature behavior of the damping rate due to the 1/r and Bose-Fermi interactions similar to contact interaction is linear at high temperatures. In a two-dimension (2D) system, we will also show that the damping rate in a gas with the 1/r interaction has a minor role in comparison with contact and dipole-dipole interactions at all ranges of temperatures, and the low-temperatures behavior of the damping rate due to both the 1/r and dipole-dipole interactions scales as e^{-1/T} while the contact contribution changes as T2 . Our results have important consequences for ongoing experiments and theoretical researches on ultracold gases with repulsive or attractive long-range 1/r interaction.

  7. Spin-orbit-coupled quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radic, Juraj

    The dissertation explores the effects of synthetic spin-orbit coupling on the behaviour of quantum gases in several different contexts. We first study realistic methods to create vortices in spin-orbit-coupled (SOC) Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). We propose two different methods to induce thermodynamically stable static vortex configurations: (1) to rotate both the Raman lasers and the anisotropic trap; and (2) to impose a synthetic Abelian field on top of synthetic spin-orbit interactions. We solve the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for several experimentally relevant regimes and find new interesting effects such as spatial separation of left- and right-moving spin-orbit-coupled condensates, and the appearance of unusual vortex arrangements. Next we consider cold atoms in an optical lattice with synthetic SOC in the Mott-insulator regime. We calculate the parameters of the corresponding tight-binding model and derive the low-energy spin Hamiltonian which is a combination of Heisenberg model, quantum compass model and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. We find that the Hamiltonian supports a rich classical phase diagram with collinear, spiral and vortex phases. Next we study the time evolution of the magnetization in a Rashba spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gas, starting from a fully-polarized initial state. We model the dynamics using a Boltzmann equation, which we solve in the Hartree-Fock approximation. The resulting non-linear system of equations gives rise to three distinct dynamical regimes controlled by the ratio of interaction and spin-orbit-coupling strength lambda: for small lambda, the magnetization decays to zero. For intermediate lambda, it displays undamped oscillations about zero and for large lambda, a partially magnetized state is dynamically stabilized. Motivated by an interesting stripe phase which appears in BEC with SOC [Li et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 225301 (2011)], we study the finite-temperature phase diagram of a pseudospin-1/2 Bose gas with

  8. Photochemistry of biogenic gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere is examined, emphasizing the composition and photochemistry and chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere. The reactions of oxygen, ozone, and hydroxyl are reviewed and the fate of the biogenic gases ammonia, methane, reduced sulfur species, reduced halogen species, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide are described. A list is given of the concentration and sources of the various gases.

  9. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  10. Quantum fluctuations and Collective Oscillations of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a 2D Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Orso, G.; Stringari, S.; Menotti, C.

    2006-11-10

    We use Bogoliubov theory to calculate the beyond mean field correction to the equation of state of a weakly interacting Bose gas in the presence of a tight 2D optical lattice. We show that the lattice induces a characteristic 3D to 1D crossover in the behavior of quantum fluctuations. Using the hydrodynamic theory of superfluids, we calculate the corresponding shift of the collective frequencies of a harmonically trapped gas. We find that this correction can be of the order of a few percent and hence easily measurable in current experiments. The behavior of the quantum depletion of the condensate is also discussed.

  11. Striped ferronematic ground states in a spin-orbit coupled S = 1 Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, William; Natu, Stefan; Li, Xiaopeng

    2015-05-01

    We theoretically establish the mean-field phase diagram of a homogeneous spin-1, spin-orbit coupled Bose gas as a function of the spin-dependent interaction parameter, the Raman coupling strength and the quadratic Zeeman shift. We find that the interplay between spin-orbit coupling and spin-dependent interactions leads to the occurrence of ferromagnetic or ferronematic phases which also break translational symmetry. For weak Raman coupling, increasing attractive spin-dependent interactions induces a transition from a uniform to a stripe XY ferromagnet with no nematic order. For repulsive spin-dependent interactions, however, we find a transition from an XY spin spiral phase with uniaxial nematic order, to a biaxial ferronematic, where the total density, spin vector and nematic director oscillate in real space. We investigate the stability of these phases against the quadratic Zeeman effect, which generally tends to favor uniform phases with either ferromagnetic or nematic order but not both. We discuss the relevance of our results to ongoing experiments on spin-orbit coupled, spinor Bose gases. We gratefully acknowledge support from JQI-NSF-PFC, AFOSR-MURI, and ARO-MURI (Atomtronics).

  12. Many-body physics in the classical-field description of a degenerate Bose gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T. M.; Davis, M. J.; Proukakis, N. P.

    2011-08-15

    The classical-field formalism has been widely applied in the calculation of normal correlation functions, and the characterization of condensation, in finite-temperature Bose gases. Here we discuss the extension of this method to the calculation of more general correlations, including the so-called anomalous correlations of the field, without recourse to symmetry-breaking assumptions. Our method is based on the introduction of U(1)-symmetric classical-field variables analogous to the modified quantum ladder operators of number-conserving approaches to the degenerate Bose gas, and allows us to rigorously quantify the anomalous and non-Gaussian character of the field fluctuations. We compare our results for anomalous correlation functions with the predictions of mean-field theories, and demonstrate that the nonlinear classical-field dynamics incorporate a full description of many-body processes which modify the effective mean-field potentials experienced by condensate and noncondensate atoms. We discuss the role of these processes in shaping the condensate mode, and thereby demonstrate the consistency of the Penrose-Onsager definition of the condensate orbital in the classical-field equilibrium. We consider the contribution of various noncondensate-field correlations to the overall suppression of density fluctuations and interactions in the field, and demonstrate the distinct roles of phase and density fluctuations in the transition of the field to the normal phase.

  13. Path-Integral Monte Carlo and the Squeezed Trapped Bose-Einstein Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Juan Pablo; Mullin, William J.

    2006-09-07

    Bose-Einstein condensation has been experimentally found to take place in finite trapped systems when one of the confining frequencies is increased until the gas becomes effectively two-dimensional (2D). We confirm the plausibility of this result by performing path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations of trapped Bose gases of increasing anisotropy and comparing them to the predictions of finite-temperature many-body theory. PIMC simulations provide an essentially exact description of these systems; they yield the density profile directly and provide two different estimates for the condensate fraction. For the ideal gas, we find that the PIMC column density of the squeezed gas corresponds quite accurately to that of the exact analytic solution and, moreover, is well mimicked by the density of a 2D gas at the same temperature; the two estimates for the condensate fraction bracket the exact result. For the interacting case, we find 2D Hartree-Fock solutions whose density profiles coincide quite well with the PIMC column densities and whose predictions for the condensate fraction are again bracketed by the PIMC estimates.

  14. Two scales in Bose-Einstein correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoze, V. A.; Martin, A. D.; Ryskin, M. G.; Schegelsky, V. A.

    2016-04-01

    We argue that the secondaries produced in high-energy hadron collisions are emitted by small-size sources distributed over a much larger area in impact parameter space occupied by the interaction amplitude. That is, Bose-Einstein correlation of two emitted identical particles should be described by a `two-radii' parametrisation ansatz. We discuss the expected energy, charged multiplicity and transverse momentum of the pair (that is, √{s}, N_ch, k_t) behaviour of both the small and the large size components.

  15. Bose-Einstein Condensation of Yb atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Takasu, Y.; Maki, K.; Komori, K.; Takano, T.; Honda, K.; Kumakura, M.; Yabuzaki, T.; Takahashi, Y.

    2005-05-05

    We could recently achieve the Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) of Yb atoms. Yb differs from most of the elements that have previously been condensed, because it is a two-electron atom with the singlet S ground state. Furthermore the Bosonic isotopes of Yb, like 174Yb which we succeeded to condensate, has no nuclear spin, so that the ground state is completely spin-less state and hence insensitive to magnetic fields. Thus a new type of atom could join the group of atoms for BEC studies. We would like to report how we could achieve the BEC of Yb atoms.

  16. Hydrodynamic modes of partially condensed Bose mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaitis, J.; Stoof, H. T. C.; Duine, R. A.

    2015-04-01

    We generalize the Landau-Khalatnikov hydrodynamic theory for superfluid helium to two-component (binary) Bose mixtures at arbitrary temperatures. In particular, we include the spin-drag terms that correspond to viscous coupling between the clouds. Therefore, our theory not only describes the usual collective modes of the individual components, e.g., first and second sound, but also results in new collective modes, where both constituents participate. We study these modes in detail and present their dispersions using thermodynamic quantities obtained within the Popov approximation.

  17. Properties of spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongping; Mossman, Maren Elizabeth; Busch, Thomas; Engels, Peter; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2016-06-01

    The experimental and theoretical research of spin-orbit-coupled ultracold atomic gases has advanced and expanded rapidly in recent years. Here, we review some of the progress that either was pioneered by our own work, has helped to lay the foundation, or has developed new and relevant techniques. After examining the experimental accessibility of all relevant spin-orbit coupling parameters, we discuss the fundamental properties and general applications of spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) over a wide range of physical situations. For the harmonically trapped case, we show that the ground state phase transition is a Dicke-type process and that spin-orbit-coupled BECs provide a unique platform to simulate and study the Dicke model and Dicke phase transitions. For a homogeneous BEC, we discuss the collective excitations, which have been observed experimentally using Bragg spectroscopy. They feature a roton-like minimum, the softening of which provides a potential mechanism to understand the ground state phase transition. On the other hand, if the collective dynamics are excited by a sudden quenching of the spin-orbit coupling parameters, we show that the resulting collective dynamics can be related to the famous Zitterbewegung in the relativistic realm. Finally, we discuss the case of a BEC loaded into a periodic optical potential. Here, the spin-orbit coupling generates isolated flat bands within the lowest Bloch bands whereas the nonlinearity of the system leads to dynamical instabilities of these Bloch waves. The experimental verification of this instability illustrates the lack of Galilean invariance in the system.

  18. Bose-Einstein quantum phase transition in an optical lattice model

    SciTech Connect

    Aizenman, Michael; Lieb, Elliott H.; Seiringer, Robert; Solovej, Jan Philip; Yngvason, Jakob

    2004-08-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in cold gases can be turned on and off by an external potential, such as that presented by an optical lattice. We present a model of this phenomenon which we are able to analyze rigorously. The system is a hard core lattice gas at half of the maximum density and the optical lattice is modeled by a periodic potential of strength {lambda}. For small {lambda} and temperature, BEC is proved to occur, while at large {lambda} or temperature there is no BEC. At large {lambda} the low-temperature states are in a Mott insulator phase with a characteristic gap that is absent in the BEC phase. The interparticle interaction is essential for this transition, which occurs even in the ground state. Surprisingly, the condensation is always into the p=0 mode in this model, although the density itself has the periodicity of the imposed potential.

  19. Chiral magnetism and spontaneous spin Hall effect of interacting Bose superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Natu, Stefan; Paramekanti, Arun

    2015-03-01

    Recent experiments on ultracold atoms in optical lattices have synthesized a variety of tunable bands with degenerate double-well structures in momentum space. Such degeneracies in the single particle spectrum strongly enhance quantum fluctuations, and may lead to exotic many-body ground states. We consider weakly interacting spinor Bose gases in such bands, and discover a universal quantum ``order by disorder'' phenomenon which selects a novel chiral spin superfluid with remarkable properties such as spontaneous anomalous spin Hall effect and momentum space antiferromagnetism. For bosons in the excited Dirac band of a hexagonal lattice, such a state supports staggered spin loop currents in real space. We show that Bloch oscillations provide a powerful dynamical route to quantum state preparation of such a chiral spin superfluid. Our predictions can be readily tested in spin resolved time-of-flight experiments. JQI-NSF-PFC, ARO-Atomtronics-MURI, NSERC of Canada.

  20. Chiral magnetism and spontaneous spin Hall effect of interacting Bose superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Natu, Stefan S.; Paramekanti, Arun; Sarma, S. Das

    2014-10-01

    Recent experiments on ultracold atoms in optical lattices have synthesized a variety of tunable bands with degenerate double-well structures in momentum space. Such degeneracies in the single-particle spectrum strongly enhance quantum fluctuations, and often lead to exotic many-body ground states. Here we consider weakly interacting spinor Bose gases in such bands, and discover a universal quantum ‘order by disorder’ phenomenon which selects a novel superfluid with chiral spin order displaying remarkable properties such as spontaneous spin Hall effect and momentum space antiferromagnetism. For bosons in the excited Dirac band of a hexagonal lattice, such a state supports staggered spin loop currents in real space. We show that Bloch oscillations provide a powerful dynamical route to quantum state preparation of such a chiral spin superfluid. Our predictions can be readily tested in spin-resolved time-of-flight experiments.

  1. Quantum phase transitions of the Bose-Hubbard model inside a cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Yu, Zhenhua; Zhai, Hui

    2016-04-01

    The superfluid to Mott insulator transition and the superradiant transition are textbook examples of quantum phase transition and coherent quantum optics, respectively. Recent experiments in ETH and Hamburg have succeeded in loading degenerate bosonic atomic gases in optical lattices inside a cavity, which enables the first experimental study of the interplay between these two transitions. In this Rapid Communication we present the theoretical phase diagram for the ETH Zurich experimental setup, and determine the phase boundaries and the orders of the phase transitions between the normal superfluid phase, the superfluid with superradiant light, the normal Mott insulator, and the Mott insulator with superradiant light. We find that in contrast to the second-order superradiant transition in a weakly interacting Bose condensate, strong correlations in the superfluid nearby a Mott transition can render the superradiant transition to a first-order one. Our results will stimulate further experimental studies of interactions between cavity light and strongly interacting quantum matter.

  2. Visualizing edge states with an atomic Bose gas in the quantum Hall regime.

    PubMed

    Stuhl, B K; Lu, H-I; Aycock, L M; Genkina, D; Spielman, I B

    2015-09-25

    Bringing ultracold atomic gases into the quantum Hall regime is challenging. We engineered an effective magnetic field in a two-dimensional lattice with an elongated-strip geometry, consisting of the sites of an optical lattice in the long direction and of three internal atomic spin states in the short direction. We imaged the localized states of atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in this strip; via excitation dynamics, we further observed both the skipping orbits of excited atoms traveling down the system's edges, analogous to edge magnetoplasmons in two-dimensional electron systems, and a dynamical Hall effect for bulk excitations. Our technique involves minimal heating, which will be important for spectroscopic measurements of the Hofstadter butterfly and realizations of Laughlin's charge pump. PMID:26404830

  3. Vortices of a rotating two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Xue; Dong, Biao; Chen, Guang-Ping; Han, Wei; Zhang, Shou-Gang; Shi, Yu-Ren; Zhang, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    We consider a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate, which consists of both dipolar and scalar bosonic atoms, in a confinement that is composed of a harmonic oscillator and an underlying optical lattice set rotation. When the dipoles are polarized along the symmetry axis of the harmonic potential, the ground-state density distributions of such a system are investigated as a function of the relative strength between the dipolar and contact interactions, and of the rotation frequency. Our results show that the number of vortices and its related vortex structures of such a system depend strongly on such system parameters. The special two-component system considered here opens up alternate ways for exploring the rich physics of dipolar quantum gases.

  4. Signals of Bose Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in the decay of hot nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, P.; Zheng, H.; Boisjoli, M.; Verde, G.; Chbihi, A.; Napolitani, P.; Ademard, G.; Augey, L.; Bhattacharya, C.; Borderie, B.; Bougault, R.; Frankland, J. D.; Fable, Q.; Galichet, E.; Gruyer, D.; Kundu, S.; La Commara, M.; Lombardo, I.; Lopez, O.; Mukherjee, G.; Parlog, M.; Rivet, M. F.; Rosato, E.; Roy, R.; Spadaccini, G.; Vigilante, M.; Wigg, P. C.; Bonasera, A.

    2016-05-01

    We report on first experimental observations of nuclear fermionic and bosonic components displaying different behaviours in the decay of hot Ca projectile-like sources produced in mid-peripheral collisions at sub-Fermi energies. The experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the INDRA 4π detector array to the forward angle VAMOS magnetic spectrometer, allowed to reconstruct the mass, charge and excitation energy of the decaying hot projectile-like sources. By means of quantum-fluctuation analysis techniques, temperatures and local partial densities of bosons and fermions could be correlated to the excitation energy of the reconstructed system. The results are consistent with the production of dilute mixed systems of bosons and fermions, where bosons experience higher phase-space and energy density as compared to the surrounding fermionic gas. Our findings recall phenomena observed in the study of Bose condensates and Fermi gases in atomic traps despite the different scales.

  5. Collective Excitations of Bose­-Einstein Condensates In Isotropic and Slightly Anisotropic Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barentine, Andrew; Lobser, Dan; Lewandowski, Heather; Cornell, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Boltzmann proved that the monopole mode of a thermal gas in an isotropic, harmonic and 3D trap is undamped. Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) are not classical gases and their weakly interacting nature causes damping in a 3D monopole mode. The large parameter space of the TOP (Time-averaged Orbiting Potential) trap allows for precise control of the trap geometry. Exciting a monopole mode in a BEC as well as its canonical thermal cloud allows us to investigate damping effects in isotropic and slightly anisotropic traps for both hydrodynamic and collisionless regimes. We also hope to achieve a greater understanding of the frequency shifts due to anharmonicity in the trap in order to apply this to our research on quasi-2D monopole modes. Funding: NSF, NIST, ONR

  6. Quantum Joule-Thomson effect in a saturated homogeneous Bose gas.

    PubMed

    Schmidutz, Tobias F; Gotlibovych, Igor; Gaunt, Alexander L; Smith, Robert P; Navon, Nir; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2014-01-31

    We study the thermodynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation in a weakly interacting quasihomogeneous atomic gas, prepared in an optical-box trap. We characterize the critical point for condensation and observe saturation of the thermal component in a partially condensed cloud, in agreement with Einstein's textbook picture of a purely statistical phase transition. Finally, we observe the quantum Joule-Thomson effect, namely isoenthalpic cooling of an (essentially) ideal gas. In our experiments this cooling occurs spontaneously, due to energy-independent collisions with the background gas in the vacuum chamber. We extract a Joule-Thomson coefficient μJT>10(9)  K/bar, about 10 orders of magnitude larger than observed in classical gases. PMID:24580421

  7. Chiral magnetism and spontaneous spin Hall effect of interacting Bose superfluids.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaopeng; Natu, Stefan S; Paramekanti, Arun; Das Sarma, S

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments on ultracold atoms in optical lattices have synthesized a variety of tunable bands with degenerate double-well structures in momentum space. Such degeneracies in the single-particle spectrum strongly enhance quantum fluctuations, and often lead to exotic many-body ground states. Here we consider weakly interacting spinor Bose gases in such bands, and discover a universal quantum 'order by disorder' phenomenon which selects a novel superfluid with chiral spin order displaying remarkable properties such as spontaneous spin Hall effect and momentum space antiferromagnetism. For bosons in the excited Dirac band of a hexagonal lattice, such a state supports staggered spin loop currents in real space. We show that Bloch oscillations provide a powerful dynamical route to quantum state preparation of such a chiral spin superfluid. Our predictions can be readily tested in spin-resolved time-of-flight experiments. PMID:25300774

  8. Quantum spin dynamics in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ting Fung Jeffrey; Liu, Xiong-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Spin-orbit-coupled bosons can exhibit rich equilibrium phases at low temperature and in the presence of particle-particle interactions. In the case with a 1D synthetic spin-orbit interaction, it has been observed that the ground state of a Bose gas can be a normal phase, stripe phase, or magnetized phase in different parameter regimes. The magnetized states are doubly degenerate and consist of a many-particle two-state system. In this work, we investigate the nonequilibrium quantum dynamics by switching on a simple one-dimensional optical lattice potential as external perturbation to induce resonant couplings between the magnetized phases, and predict a quantum spin dynamics which cannot be obtained in the single-particle systems. In particular, due to particle-particle interactions, the transition of the Bose condensate from one magnetized phase to the other is forbidden when the external perturbation strength is less than a critical value, and a full transition can occur only when the perturbation exceeds such critical strength. This phenomenon manifests itself a dynamical phase transition, with the order parameter defined by the time-averaged magnetization over an oscillation period, and the critical point behavior being exactly solvable. The thermal fluctuations are also considered in detail. From numerical simulations and exact analytic studies we show that the predicted many-body effects can be well observed with the current experiments.

  9. Quantum gases in trimerized kagome lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Damski, B.; Fehrmann, H.; Everts, H.-U.; Baranov, M.; Santos, L.; Lewenstein, M.

    2005-11-15

    We study low-temperature properties of atomic gases in trimerized optical kagome lattices. The laser arrangements that can be used to create these lattices are briefly described. We also present explicit results for the coupling constants of the generalized Hubbard models that can be realized in such lattices. In the case of a single-component Bose gas the existence of a Mott insulator phase with fractional numbers of particles per trimer is verified in a mean-field approach. The main emphasis of the paper is on an atomic spinless interacting Fermi gas in the trimerized kagome lattice with two fermions per site. This system is shown to be described by a quantum spin-1/2 model on the triangular lattice with couplings that depend on the bond directions. We investigate this model by means of exact diagonalization. Our key finding is that the system exhibits nonstandard properties of a quantum spin-liquid crystal: it combines planar antiferromagnetic order in the ground state with an exceptionally large number of low-energy excitations. The possibilities of experimental verification of our theoretical results are critically discussed.

  10. Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Dilute Gas; the First 70 Years and Some Recent Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornell, E. A.; Wieman, C. E.

    Bose-Einstein condensation, or BEC, has a long and rich history dating from the early 1920s. In this article we will trace briefly over this history and some of the developments in physics that made possible our successful pursuit of BEC in a gas. We will then discuss what was involved in this quest. In this discussion we will go beyond the usual technical description to try and address certain questions that we now hear frequently, but are not covered in our past research papers. These are questions along the lines of ``How did you get the idea and decide to pursue it? Did you know it was going to work? How long did it take you and why?'' We will review some of our favorites from among the experiments we have carried out with BEC. There will then be a brief encore on why we are optimistic that BEC can be created with nearly any species of magnetically trappable atom. Throughout this article we will try to explain what makes BEC in a dilute gas so interesting, unique, and experimentally challenging. This article is our ``Nobel Lecture'' and as such takes a relatively personal approach to the story of the development of experimental Bose-Einstein condensation. For a somewhat more scholarly treatment of the history, the interested reader is referred to E. A. Cornell, J. R. Ensher and C. E. Wieman, ``Experiments in dilute atomic Bose-Einstein condensation in Bose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases, Proceedings of the International School of Physics ``Enrico Fermi'' Course CXL'' (M. Inguscio, S. Stringari and C. E. Wieman, Eds., Italian Physical Society, 1999), pp. 15-66, which is also available as cond-mat/9903109. For a reasonably complete technical review of the three years of explosive progress that immediately followed the first observation of BEC, we recommend reading the above article in combination with the corresponding review from Ketterle, cond-mat/9904034.

  11. Rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetter, A. L.

    2008-01-01

    Trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) differ considerably from the standard textbook example of a uniform Bose gas. In an isotropic harmonic potential V( r) = ½ Mω2 r 2, the single-particle ground state introduces a new intrinsic scale of length [the ground-state size d = √ ℏ/( Mω)] and energy [the ground-state energy E 0 = frac{3} {2} ℏω]. When the trap rotates at a low angular velocity, the behavior of a single vortex illustrates the crucial role of discrete quantized vorticity. For more rapid rotation, the condensate contains a vortex array. The resulting centrifugal forces expand the condensate radially and shrink it axially; thus, the condensate becomes effectively two dimensional. If the external rotation speed approaches the frequency of the radial harmonic confining potential, the condensate enters the "lowest-Landau-level" regime, and a simple description again becomes possible. Eventually, the system is predicted to make a quantum phase transition to a highly correlated state analogous to the fractional quantum Hall states of electrons in a strong magnetic field.

  12. Spontaneous creation of Kibble-Zurek solitons in a Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    The Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) describes the spontaneous formation of defects in systems that cross a second-order phase transition at a finite rate. The mechanism was first proposed in the context of cosmology to explain how, during the expansion of the early Universe, the rapid cooling below a critical temperature induced a cosmological phase transition resulting in the creation of domain structures. In fact, the KZM is ubiquitous in nature and regards both classical and quantum phase transitions. Experimental evidences have been observed in superfluid 3He, in superconducting films and rings and in ion chains. Bose-Einstein condensation in trapped dilute gases has been considered as an ideal platform for the KZM as the system is extremely clean, controllable and particularly suitable for the investigation of effects arising from the spatial inhomogeneities induced by the confinement. Quantized vortices produced in a pancake-shaped condensate by a fast quench across the transition temperature have been already observed, but their limited statistics prevented a test of the KZM scaling. The KZM has been studied across the quantum superfluid to Mott insulator transition with atomic gases trapped in optical lattices. Here we report on the observation of solitons resulting from phase defects of the order parameter, spontaneously created in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate of sodium atoms. We show that the number of solitons in the final condensate grows according to a power-law as a function of the rate at which the transition is crossed, consistent with the expectations of the KZM, and provide the first indication of the KZM scaling with the sonic horizon. We support our observations by comparing the estimated speed of the transition front in the gas to the speed of the sonic causal horizon, showing that solitons are produced in a regime of inhomogeneous Kibble-Zurek mechanism. We will address the role of vortex-solitons in our measurements.

  13. Spontaneous creation of Kibble-Zurek solitons in a Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Gabriele

    2014-03-01

    The Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) describes the spontaneous formation of defects in systems that cross a second-order phase transition at a finite rate. The mechanism was first proposed in the context of cosmology to explain how, during the expansion of the early Universe, the rapid cooling below a critical temperature induced a cosmological phase transition resulting in the creation of domain structures. In fact, the KZM is ubiquitous in nature and regards both classical and quantum phase transitions. Experimental evidences have been observed in superfluid 3He, in superconducting films and rings and in ion chains. Bose-Einstein condensation in trapped dilute gases has been considered as an ideal platform for the KZM as the system is extremely clean, controllable and particularly suitable for the investigation of effects arising from the spatial inhomogeneities induced by the confinement. Quantized vortices produced in a pancake-shaped condensate by a fast quench across the transition temperature have been already observed, but their limited statistics prevented a test of the KZM scaling. The KZM has been studied across the quantum superfluid to Mott insulator transition with atomic gases trapped in optical lattices. Here we report on the observation of solitons resulting from phase defects of the order parameter, spontaneously created in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate of sodium atoms. We show that the number of solitons in the final condensate grows according to a power-law as a function of the rate at which the transition is crossed, consistent with the expectations of the KZM, and provide the first indication of the KZM scaling with the sonic horizon. We support our observations by comparing the estimated speed of the transition front in the gas to the speed of the sonic causal horizon, showing that solitons are produced in a regime of inhomogeneous Kibble-Zurek mechanism.

  14. 1 and 2 Dimensional Bose Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogels, Johnny; Gorlitz, Axel; Raman, Chandra; Gustavson, Todd; Drndic, Marija; Leanhardt, Aaron; Abo-Shaeer, Jamil; Loew, Robert; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2001-05-01

    We have created condensates in which the zero point motion exceeds the mean field enegy in either 2 (1D-condensate) or 1 dimension (2D-condensate). We describe the optical traps and magnetic traps being used, their limitations, and the regimes that are accessible. Some of our 1D condensates should have limited coherence properties (quasi-condensates).

  15. Spin-Drag Hall Effect in a Rotating Bose Mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Driel, H. J. van; Duine, R. A.; Stoof, H. T. C.

    2010-10-08

    We show that in a rotating two-component Bose mixture, the spin drag between the two different spin species shows a Hall effect. This spin-drag Hall effect can be observed experimentally by studying the out-of-phase dipole mode of the mixture. We determine the damping of this mode due to spin drag as a function of temperature. We find that due to Bose stimulation there is a strong enhancement of the damping for temperatures close to the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation.

  16. Planetary noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the history and current status of research on planetary noble gases is presented. The discovery that neon and argon are vastly more abundant on Venus than on earth points to the solar wind rather than condensation as the fundamental process for placing noble gases in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets; however, solar wind implantation may not be able to fully reproduce the observed gradient, nor does it obviously account for similar planetary Ne/Ar ratios and dissimilar planetary Ar/Kr ratios. More recent studies have emphasized escape rather than accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, which is fractionating, readily accounts for the difference between atmospheric neon and isotopically light mantle neon. Atmospheric cratering, which is nearly nonfractionating, can account for the extreme scarcity of nonradiogenic noble gases (and other volatiles) on Mars.

  17. Isothermal-sweep theorems for ultracold quantum gases in a canonical ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskin, M.

    2011-03-01

    After deriving the isothermal Hellmann-Feynman theorem (IHFT) that is suitable for mixed states in a canonical ensemble, we use this theorem to obtain the isothermal magnetic-field sweep theorems for the free, average, and trapping energies and for the entropy, specific heat, pressure, and atomic compressibility of strongly correlated ultracold quantum gases. In particular, we apply the sweep theorems to two-component Fermi gases in the weakly interacting Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer and Bose-Einstein condensate limits, showing that the temperature dependence of the contact parameter can be determined by varying either the entropy or specific heat with respect to the scattering length. We also use the IHFT to obtain the virial theorem in a canonical ensemble and discuss its implications for quantum gases.

  18. Bose-Einstein Condensation and Bose Glasses in an S = 1 Organo-metallic quantum magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Zapf, Vivien

    2012-06-01

    I will speak about Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in quantum magnets, in particular the compound NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2. Here a magnetic field-induced quantum phase transition to XY antiferromagnetism can be mapped onto BEC of the spins. The tuning parameter for BEC transition is the magnetic field rather than the temperature. Some interesting phenomena arise, for example the fact that the mass of the bosons that condense can be strongly renormalized by quantum fluctuations. I will discuss the utility of this mapping for both understanding the nature of the quantum magnetism and testing the thermodynamic limit of Bose-Einstein Condensation. Furthermore we can dope the system in a clean and controlled way to create the long sought-after Bose Glass transition, which is the bosonic analogy of Anderson localization. I will present experiments and simulations showing evidence for a new scaling exponent, which finally makes contact between theory and experiments. Thus we take a small step towards the difficult problem of understanding the effect of disorder on bosonic wave functions.

  19. Measuring Spin-Charge Separation in a 1D Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Jacob A.; Revelle, Melissa C.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2016-05-01

    We present progress on measurement of spin-charge separation in a two-component, strongly interacting, 1D gas of fermionic lithium. A characteristic feature of interacting 1D Fermi gases is that the velocity of a charge excitation propagates faster than a spin excitation. We create an excitation by applying a dipole force at the center of the cloud using a sheet of light. Depending on the detuning of this beam, we can either excite both spin species equally (charge excitation) or preferentially (spin excitation). Once this beam is turned off, the excitations propagate to the edges of the atomic cloud at a velocity determined by coupling strength. A magnetically tuned Feshbach resonance enables us to vary this coupling and map out the velocities of spin and charge excitations. Supported by an ARO MURI Grant, NSF, and The Welch Foundation

  20. All-optical production of 6Li quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchianti, A.; Seman, J. A.; Valtolina, G.; Morales, A.; Inguscio, M.; Zaccanti, M.; Roati, G.

    2015-03-01

    We report efficient production of quantum gases of 6Li using a sub-Doppler cooling scheme based on the D1 transition. After loading in a standard magneto-optical trap, an atomic sample of 109 atoms is cooled at a temperature of 40 μK by a bichromatic D1 gray-molasses. More than 2×107 atoms are then transferred into a high-intensity optical dipole trap, where a two-spin state mixture is evaporatively cooled down to quantum degeneracy. We observe that D1 cooling remains effective in the deep trapping potential, allowing an effective increase of the atomic phase-space density before starting the evaporation. In a total experimental cycle of 11 s, we produce weakly-interacting degenerate Fermi gases of 7×105 atoms at T/TF < 0.1 and molecular Bose-Einstein condensates of up 5×105 molecules. We further describe a simple and compact optical system both for high-resolution imaging and for imprinting a thin optical barrier on the atomic cloud; this represents a first step towards the study of quantum tunneling in strongly interacting superfluid Fermi gases.

  1. Exact mapping between different dynamics of isotropically trapped quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamba, Etienne; Pelster, Axel; Anglin, James R.

    2016-05-01

    Experiments on trapped quantum gases can probe challenging regimes of quantum many-body dynamics, where strong interactions or non-equilibrium states prevent exact theoretical treatment. In this talk, we present a class of exact mappings between all the observables of different experiments, under the experimentally attainable conditions that the gas particles interact via a homogeneously scaling two-body potential which is in general time-dependent, and are confined in an isotropic harmonic trap. We express our result through an identity relating second-quantized field operators in the Heisenberg picture of quantum mechanics which makes it general. It applies to arbitrary measurements on possibly multi-component Bose or Fermi gases in arbitrary initial quantum states, no matter how highly excited or far from equilibrium. We use an example to show how the results of two different and currently feasible experiments can be mapped onto each other by our spacetime transformation. DAMOP sorting category: 6.11 Nonlinear dynamics and out-of-equilibrium trapped gases EW acknowledge the financial support from the Alexander von Humboldt foundation.

  2. 1D-1D Coulomb drag in a 6 Million Mobility Bi-layer Heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilodeau, Simon; Laroche, Dominique; Xia, Jian-Sheng; Lilly, Mike; Reno, John; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Gervais, Guillaume

    We report Coulomb drag measurements in vertically-coupled quantum wires. The wires are fabricated in GaAs/AlGaAs bilayer heterostructures grown from two different MBE chambers: one at Sandia National Laboratories (1.2M mobility), and the other at Princeton University (6M mobility). The previously observed positive and negative drag signals are seen in both types of devices, demonstrating the robustness of the result. However, attempts to determine the temperature dependence of the drag signal in the 1D regime proved challenging in the higher mobility heterostructure (Princeton), in part because of difficulties in aligning the wires within the same transverse subband configuration. Nevertheless, this work, performed at the Microkelvin laboratory of the University of Florida, is an important proof-of-concept for future investigations of the temperature dependence of the 1D-1D drag signal down to a few mK. Such an experiment could confirm the Luttinger charge density wave interlocking predicted to occur in the wires. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  3. Long-lived states with well-defined spins in spin-1 /2 homogeneous Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurovsky, Vladimir A.

    2016-02-01

    Many-body eigenfunctions of the total spin operator can be constructed from the spin and spatial wave functions with nontrivial permutation symmetries. Spin-dependent interactions can lead to relaxation of the spin eigenstates to the thermal equilibrium. A mechanism that stabilizes the many-body entangled states is proposed here. Surprisingly, despite coupling with the chaotic motion of the spatial degrees of freedom, the spin relaxations can be suppressed by destructive quantum interference due to spherical vector and tensor terms of the spin-dependent interactions. Tuning the scattering lengths by the method of Feshbach resonances, readily available in cold atomic laboratories, can enhance the relaxation time scales by several orders of magnitude.

  4. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. [thermodynamic properties of gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The basic thermodynamic properties of gases are reviewed and the relations between them are derived from the first and second laws. The elements of statistical mechanics are then formulated and the partition function is derived. The classical form of the partition function is used to obtain the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energies in the gas phase and the equipartition of energy theorem is given in its most general form. The thermodynamic properties are all derived as functions of the partition function. Quantum statistics are reviewed briefly and the differences between the Boltzmann distribution function for classical particles and the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions for quantum particles are discussed.

  5. Purification and many-body localization in cold atomic gases.

    PubMed

    Andraschko, Felix; Enss, Tilman; Sirker, Jesko

    2014-11-21

    We propose to observe many-body localization in cold atomic gases by realizing a Bose-Hubbard chain with binary disorder and studying its nonequilibrium dynamics. In particular, we show that measuring the difference in occupation between even and odd sites, starting from a prepared density-wave state, provides clear signatures of localization. Furthermore, we confirm as hallmarks of the many-body localized phase a logarithmic increase of the entanglement entropy in time and Poissonian level statistics. Our numerical density-matrix renormalization group calculations for infinite system size are based on a purification approach; this allows us to perform the disorder average exactly, thus producing data without any statistical noise and with maximal simulation times of up to a factor 10 longer than in the clean case. PMID:25479517

  6. Dynamics of uniform quantum gases, II: Magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.; Singh, G. S.

    2010-03-01

    A general expression for temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility of quantum gases composed of particles possessing both charge and spin degrees of freedom has been obtained within the framework of the generalized random phase approximation. The conditions for the existence of dia-, para-, and ferro-magnetism have been analyzed in terms of a parameter involving single-particle charge and spin. The limit T→0 retrieves the expressions for the Landau and the Pauli susceptibilities for an electron gas. It is found for a Bose gas that on decreasing the temperature, it passes either through a diamagnetic incomplete Meissner-effect regime or through a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic large magnetization fluctuation regime before going to the Meissner phase at T=T.

  7. From weakly to strongly interacting 2D Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, Paul; Fenech, Kristian; Lingham, Marcus; Peppler, Tyson; Hoinka, Sascha; Vale, Chris

    2014-05-01

    We study ultracold 2D Fermi gases of 6Li formed in a highly oblate trapping potential. The potential is generated by a cylindrically focused, blue detuned TEM01 mode laser beam. Weak magnetic field curvature provides highly harmonic confinement in the radial direction and we can readily produce single clouds with an aspect ratio of 230. Our experiments investigate the dimensional crossover from 3D to 2D for a two component Fermi gas in the Bose-Einstein Condensate to Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer crossover. Observation of an elbow in measurements of the cloud width vs. atom number is consistent with populating only the lowest transverse harmonic oscillator state for weak attractive interactions. This measurement is extended to the strongly interacting region using the broad Feshbach resonance at 832 G. We also report our progress towards measurement of the 2D equation of state for an interacting 2D Fermi gas via in-situ absorption imaging.

  8. Gases in Tektite Bubbles.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Lowman, P D; Dunning, K L

    1962-07-20

    Spectroscopic analysis of light produced by electrodeless discharge in a tektite bubble showed the main gases in the bubble to be neon, helium, and oxygen. The neon and helium have probably diffused in from the atmosphere, while the oxygen may be atmospheric gas incorporated in the tektite during its formation. PMID:17801113

  9. Nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation of hot magnons

    SciTech Connect

    Vannucchi, Fabio Stucchi; Vasconcellos, Aurea Rosas; Luzzi, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    We present an analysis of the emergence of a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein-type condensation of magnons in radio-frequency pumped magnetic thin films, which has recently been experimentally observed. A complete description of all the nonequilibrium processes involved is given. It is demonstrated that the phenomenon is another example of the emergence of Bose-Einstein-type condensation in nonequilibrium many-boson systems embedded in a thermal bath, a phenomenon evidenced decades ago by the renowned late Herbert Froehlich.

  10. Reexamination of the variational Bose-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Jan; Łącki, Mateusz; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2014-04-01

    For strongly interacting bosons in optical lattices, the standard description using the Bose-Hubbard model becomes questionable. The role of excited bands becomes important. In such a situation, we compare results of simulations using the multiband Bose-Hubbard model with a recent proposition based on a time-dependent variational approach. It is shown that the latter, in its original formulation, uses a too small variational space, often leading to spurious effects. Possible expansion of the variational approach is discussed.

  11. Inhibition of Coherence in Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Imamoglu, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    1997-03-01

    We analyze the dependence of the collapse and revival of many-atom coherence of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate on the trap potential, dimensionality of the gas, and atom number fluctuations. We show that in a class of experimentally relevant systems the collapse time vanishes in the limit of a large number of atoms, implying that the trapped Bose gas cannot sustain a well-defined quantum phase. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Observing the 1D-3D Crossover in a Spin-Imbalanced Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelle, Melissa C.; Fry, Jacob A.; Olsen, Ben A.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2016-05-01

    Trapped two-component Fermi gases phase separate into superfluid and normal phases when their spin populations are imbalanced. In 3D, a balanced superfluid core is surrounded by shells of partially polarized and normal phases, while in 1D, the balanced superfluid occupies the low density wings. We explored the crossover from 3D to 1D using a two-spin component ultracold atomic gas of 6 Li prepared in the lowest two hyperfine sublevels, where the interactions are tuned by a Feshbach resonance. The atoms are confined to 1D tubes where the tunneling rate t between tubes is varied by changing the depth of a 2D optical lattice. We observe the transition from 1D to 3D-like phase separation by varying t and interaction strength which changes the pair binding energy ɛB. We find a universal scaling of the dimensional crossover with t /ɛB , in agreement with previous theory. The crossover region is believed to be the most promising to find the exotic FFLO superfluid phase. Supported by the NSF and the Welch Foundation.

  13. Understanding 1D Electrostatic Dust Levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartzell, C. M.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Electrostatically-dominated dust motion has been hypothesized since the Lunar Horizon Glow was observed by the Surveyor spacecraft. The hypothesized occurence of this phenomenon was naturally extended to asteroids due to their small gravities. Additionally, it has been suggested that the dust ponds observed on Eros by the NEAR mission may be created by electrostatically-dominated dust transport. Previous attempts to numerically model dust motion on the Moon and Eros have been stymied by poorly understood dust launching mechanisms. As a result, the initial velocity and charge of dust particles used in numerical simulations may or may not have any relevance to the actual conditions occurring in situ. It has been seen that properly tuned initial states (velocity and charge) result in dust particles levitating above the surface in both 1D and 2D simulations. Levitation is of interest to planetary scientists since it provides a way to quickly redistribute the surface dust particles over a body. However, there is currently no method to predict whether or not a certain initial state will result in levitation. We have developed a method to provide constraints on the initial states that result in levitation as a function of dust particle size and central body gravity. Additionally, our method can be applied to several models of the plasma sheath. Thus, we limit the guesswork involved in determining which initial conditions result in levitation. We provide a more detailed understanding of levitation phenomena couched in terms of the commonly recognized spring-mass system. This method of understanding dust motion removes the dependency on the launching mechanism, which remains fraught with controversy. Once a feasible dust launching mechanism is identified (be it micrometeoroid bombardment or electrostatic lofting), our method will allow the community to quickly ascertain if dust levitation will occur in situ or if it is simply a numerical artifact. In addition to

  14. Bose Condensation at He-4 Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draeger, E. W.; Ceperley, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    Path Integral Monte Carlo was used to calculate the Bose-Einstein condensate fraction at the surface of a helium film at T = 0:77 K, as a function of density. Moving from the center of the slab to the surface, the condensate fraction was found to initially increase with decreasing density to a maximum value of 0.9, before decreasing. Long wavelength density correlations were observed in the static structure factor at the surface of the slab. A surface dispersion relation was calculated from imaginary-time density-density correlations. Similar calculations of the superfluid density throughout He-4 droplets doped with linear impurities (HCN)(sub n) are presented. After deriving a local estimator for the superfluid density distribution, we find a decreased superfluid response in the first solvation layer. This effective normal fluid exhibits temperature dependence similar to that of a two-dimensional helium system.

  15. Nonlinear interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Tacla, Alexandre B.; Boixo, Sergio; Datta, Animesh; Shaji, Anil; Caves, Carlton M.

    2010-11-15

    We analyze a proposed experiment [Boixo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 040403 (2008)] for achieving sensitivity scaling better than 1/N in a nonlinear Ramsey interferometer that uses a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of N atoms. We present numerical simulations that confirm the analytical predictions for the effect of the spreading of the BEC ground-state wave function on the ideal 1/N{sup 3/2} scaling. Numerical integration of the coupled, time-dependent, two-mode Gross-Pitaevskii equations allows us to study the several simplifying assumptions made in the initial analytic study of the proposal and to explore when they can be justified. In particular, we find that the two modes share the same spatial wave function for a length of time that is sufficient to run the metrology scheme.

  16. Study of superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Sebastien; Delehaye, Marion; Jin, Shuwei; Pierce, Matthieu; Yefsah, Tarik; Chevy, Frederic; Salomon, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Using fermionic and bosonic isotopes of lithium we produce and study ultracold Bose-Fermi mixtures. First in a low temperature counterflow experiment, we measure the critical velocity of the system in the BEC-BCS crossover. Around unitarity, we observe a remarkably high superfluid critical velocity which reaches the sound velocity of the strongly interacting Fermi gas. Second, when we increase the temperature of the system slightly above the superfluid transitions we observe an unexpected phase locking of the oscillations of the clouds induced by dissipation. Finally, as suggested in, we explore the nature of the superfluid phase when we impose a spin polarization in the situation where the mean field potential created by the bosons on the fermions tends to cancel out the trapping potential of the latter.

  17. Coupling a Bose condensate to micromechanical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Chandler; Fox, Eli; Flanz, Scott; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2011-05-01

    We describe the construction of a compact apparatus to investigate the interaction of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate and a micromechanical oscillator. The apparatus uses a double magneto-optical trap, Raman sideband cooling, and evaporative cooling to rapidly produce a 87Rb BEC in close proximity to a high Q membrane. The micromotion of the membrane results in small Zeeman shifts at the location of the BEC due to a magnetic domain attached to the oscillator. Detection of this micromotion by the condensate results in a backaction on the membrane. We investigate prospects of using this backaction to generate nonclassical states of the mechanical oscillator. This work was funded by the DARPA ORCHID program.

  18. Klein factors and Fermi-Bose equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taejin

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the kink operator of the Heisenberg spin 1/2 model, we construct a set of Klein factors explicitly such that (1+1)-dimensional fermion theories with an arbitrary number of species are mapped onto the corresponding boson theories with the same number of species and vice versa. The actions for the resultant theories do not possess a nontrivial Klein factor. With this set of Klein factors, we are also able to map the simple boundary states, such as the Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary states, of the fermion (boson) theory onto those of the boson (fermion) theory. Applications of the Fermi-Bose equivalence with the constructed Klein factors to well-known (1+1)-dimensional theories have been discussed.

  19. Clock shifts in the Unitary Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Richard; Man, Jay; Lopes, Raphael; Navon, Nir; Smith, Robert; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2016-05-01

    Clock shifts are interaction-induced changes in the transition frequency between atomic spin states. So-called because of their importance as systematic errors in atomic clocks, they reveal details of both the interaction energy within a gas and the particle correlations. In this work, we employ a RF-injection technique to rapidly project a thermal Bose gas into the unitary regime on a timescale much shorter than three-body losses. Working with a two-state system, one of which exhibits strong intrastate interactions, we carry out Ramsey spectroscopy to extract the variation in the clock shift across a Feshbach resonance. Thanks to the relationship between these shifts and particle correlations, we use our measurements to infer the contact as a function of both interaction strength and degeneracy. This quantity plays a central role in the many-body physics of strongly correlated systems, offering a link between few-body and thermodynamic behaviour.

  20. Phase ordering kinetics of the Bose gas

    SciTech Connect

    Damle, K.; Majumdar, S.N.; Sachdev, S.

    1996-12-01

    We study the approach to equilibrium of a Bose gas to a superfluid state. We point out that dynamic scaling, characteristic of far from equilibrium phase-ordering systems, should hold. We stress the importance of a nondissipative Josephson precession term in driving the system to a new universality class. A model of coarsening in dimension {ital d}=2, involving a quench between two temperatures below the equilibrium superfluid transition temperature ({ital T}{sub {ital c}}), is exactly solved and demonstrates the relevance of the Josephson term. Numerical results on quenches from above {ital T}{sub {ital c}} in {ital d}=2,3 provide evidence for the scaling picture postulated. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  1. Coarsening dynamics of binary Bose condensates.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Johannes; Natu, Stefan S; Das Sarma, S

    2014-08-29

    We study the dynamics of domain formation and coarsening in a binary Bose-Einstein condensate that is quenched across a miscible-immiscible phase transition. The late-time evolution of the system is universal and governed by scaling laws for the correlation functions. We numerically determine the scaling forms and extract the critical exponents that describe the growth rate of domain size and autocorrelations. Our data are consistent with inviscid hydrodynamic domain growth, which is governed by a universal dynamical critical exponent of 1/z=0.68(2). In addition, we analyze the effect of domain wall configurations which introduce a nonanalytic term in the short-distance structure of the pair correlation function, leading to a high-momentum "Porod" tail in the static structure factor, which can be measured experimentally. PMID:25215993

  2. A Deconstruction Lattice Description of the D1/D5 Brane World-Volume Gauge Theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Giedt, Joel

    2011-01-01

    I genermore » alize the deconstruction lattice formulation of Endres and Kaplan to two-dimensional super-QCD with eight supercharges, denoted by (4,4), and bifundamental matter. I specialize to a particularly interesting (4,4) gauge theory, with gauge group U ( N c ) × U ( N f ) , and U ( N f ) being weakly gauged. It describes the infrared limit of the D1/D5 brane system, which has been studied extensively as an example of the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence. The construction here preserves two supercharges exactly and has a lattice structure quite similar to that which has previously appeared in the deconstruction approach, that is, site, link, and diagonal fields with both the Bose and Fermi statistics. I remark on possible applications of the lattice theory that would test the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence, particularly one that would exploit the recent worldsheet instanton analysis of Chen and Tong.« less

  3. Collective excitations of a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of weak disorder and a two-dimensional optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Ying; Liang Zhaoxin; Hu Bambi

    2010-05-15

    We investigate the combined effects of weak disorder and a two-dimensional (2D) optical lattice on the collective excitations of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at zero temperature. Accordingly, we generalize the hydrodynamic equations of superfluid for a weakly interacting Bose gas in a 2D optical lattice to include the effects of weak disorder. Our analytical results for the collective frequencies beyond the mean-field approximation reveal the peculiar role of disorder, interplaying with the 2D optical lattice and interatomic interaction, on elementary excitations along the 3D to 1D crossover. In particular, consequences of disorder on the phonon propagation and surface modes are analyzed in detail. The experimental scenario is also proposed.

  4. Human serotonin 1D receptor is encoded by a subfamily of two distinct genes: 5-HT1D alpha and 5-HT1D beta.

    PubMed Central

    Weinshank, R L; Zgombick, J M; Macchi, M J; Branchek, T A; Hartig, P R

    1992-01-01

    The serotonin 1D (5-HT1D) receptor is a pharmacologically defined binding site and functional receptor site. Observed variations in the properties of 5-HT1D receptors in different tissues have led to the speculation that multiple receptor proteins with slightly different properties may exist. We report here the cloning, deduced amino acid sequences, pharmacological properties, and second-messenger coupling of a pair of human 5-HT1D receptor genes, which we have designated 5-HT1D alpha and 5-HT1D beta due to their strong similarities in sequence, pharmacological properties, and second-messenger coupling. Both genes are free of introns in their coding regions, are expressed in the human cerebral cortex, and can couple to inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. The pharmacological binding properties of these two human receptors are very similar, and match closely the pharmacological properties of human, bovine, and guinea pig 5-HT1D sites. Both receptors exhibit high-affinity binding of sumatriptan, a new anti-migraine medication, and thus are candidates for the pharmacological site of action of this drug. Images PMID:1565658

  5. Path-integral calculation of the third virial coefficient of quantum gases at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Garberoglio, Giovanni; Harvey, Allan H.

    2011-04-07

    We derive path-integral expressions for the second and third virial coefficients of monatomic quantum gases. Unlike previous work that considered only Boltzmann statistics, we include exchange effects (Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac statistics). We use state-of-the-art pair and three-body potentials to calculate the third virial coefficient of {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He in the temperature range 2.6-24.5561 K. We obtain uncertainties smaller than those of the limited experimental data. Inclusion of exchange effects is necessary to obtain accurate results below about 7 K.

  6. Alkali-metal gases in optical lattices: Possible new type of quantum crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerovich, A. E.

    2003-11-01

    Similarities between alkali-metal gases in optical lattices with noninteger occupation of the lattice sites and quantum crystals are explored. The analogy with the vacancy liquid (VL) provides an alternative explanation to the Mott transition for the recent experiment on the phase transition in the lattice. The VL can undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) with Tc within experimental reach. Direct and vacancy-assisted mechanisms of the band motion for hyperfine impurities are discussed. A large concentration of vacancies can result in the spatial decomposition of the system into pure hyperfine components. Below the vacancy condensation the impurity component resembles 3He in 3He He II mixtures.

  7. Exotic vortex lattices in a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wen, Lin; Dai, Cai-Qing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases.

  8. Exotic vortex lattices in a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wen, Lin; Dai, Cai-Qing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases. PMID:26778736

  9. Exotic vortex lattices in a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wen, Lin; Dai, Cai-Qing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases. PMID:26778736

  10. Particle Correlations in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhang

    The impact of interparticle correlations on the behavior of Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) is discussed using two approaches. In the first approach, the wavefunction of a BEC is encoded in the N-particle sector of an extended "catalytic state". Going to a time-dependent interaction picture, we can organize the effective Hamiltonian by powers of N -1/2 . Requiring the terms of order N 1/2 to vanish, we get the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation. Going to the next order, N0, we obtain the number-conserving Bogoliubov approximation. Our approach allows one to stay in the Schrodinger picture and to apply many techniques from quantum optics. Moreover, it is easier to track different orders in the Hamiltonian and to generalize to the multi-component case. In the second approach, I consider a state of N = l x n bosons that is derived by symmetrizing the n-fold tensor product of an arbitrary l-boson state. Particularly, we are interested in the pure state case for l = 2, which we call the Pair-Correlated State (PCS). I show that PCS reproduces the number-conserving Bogoliubov approximation; moreover, it also works in the strong interaction regime where the Bogoliubov approximation fails. For the two-site Bose-Hubbard model, I find numerically that the error (measured by trace distance of the two-particle RDMs) of PCS is less than two percent over the entire parameter space, thus making PCS a bridge between the super uid and Mott insulating phases. Amazingly, the error of PCS does not increase, in the time-dependent case, as the system evolves for longer times. I derive both time-dependent and -independent equations for the ground state and the time evolution of the PCS ansatz. The time complexity of simulating PCS does not depend on N and is linear in the number of orbitals in use. Compared to other methods, e.g, the Jastrow wavefunction, the Gutzwiller wavefunction, and the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method, our approach does not require quantum Monte Carlo nor

  11. Dynamics of impurities in ultracold Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchadilova, Yulia; Grusdt, Fabian; Rubtsov, Alexey; Demler, Eugene

    2015-05-01

    A system of an impurity immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) exhibits the polaronic effect, which is known to be an ubiquitous phenomenon in a wide range of physical systems including semiconductors, doped Mott insulators, and high-Tc superconductors. Recent analysis of the BEC-polaron problem showed that existing analytical approaches do not provide reliable results in the experimentally relevant range of parameters when tested against Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. In this contribution we demonstrate that the description of polarons at finite momentum can be done by employing an analytical class of wavefunctions based on the correlated Gaussian ansatz (CGWs). We show that CGWs show excellent agreement with known MC results for the polaron binding energy for a wide range of interactions. We discuss the properties of the polarons and atomic mixtures in systems of ultracold atoms in which polaronic effects can be observed with current experimental technology. Our CGWs predicts a specific pattern of correlations between host atoms that can be measured in time-of-flight experiments. Department of Physics, Harvard University.

  12. Bose condensation and the BTZ black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2010-03-01

    Although all popular approaches to quantum gravity are able to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area law in the thermodynamic limit, there are significant differences in their descriptions of the microstates and in the application of statistics. Therefore, they can have significantly different phenomenological implications. For example, requiring indistinguishability of the elementary degrees of freedom should lead to changes in the black hole's radiative properties away from the thermodynamic limit and at low temperatures. We demonstrate this for the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole. The energy eigenstates and statistical entropy in the thermodynamic limit of the BTZ black hole were obtained earlier by us via symmetry reduced canonical quantum gravity. In that model the BTZ black hole behaves as a system of Bosonic mass shells moving in a one-dimensional harmonic trap. Bose condensation does not occur in the thermodynamic limit but this system possesses a finite critical temperature, Tc, and exhibits a large condensate fraction below Tc when the number of shells is finite.

  13. Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism in economic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianping

    2015-06-01

    This paper starts from modifying the kinetic exchange model and ends with making a parallel between economic crisis and the Bose-Einstein condensation. By introducing a parameter δ, we incorporate the time influence into the Bose-Einstein statistics. And δ is found to represent the technology level in an economy. δ's growth in time enlarges the rich and poor gap and induces economic crisis in free market despite the fact that average living standard is raised. Then we find the “δ-Te-Entropy” dilemma which features a strong implication of the second law of thermodynamics. The dilemma means when an economy is isolated the entropy grows and synergetically Te and δ grow inducing the Bose-Einstein condensation, i.e., economic crisis while for open economy the dilemma breaks. Then we raise the question: What would happen if the world economy as a whole became isolated with ultimately omnibearing globalization?

  14. Bose gas in a single-beam optical dipole trap

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Lena; Strunz, Walter T.

    2010-06-15

    We study an ultracold Bose gas in an optical dipole trap consisting of one single focused laser beam. An analytical expression for the corresponding density of states beyond the usual harmonic approximation is obtained. We are thus able to discuss the existence of a critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation and find that the phase transition must be enabled by a cutoff near the threshold. Moreover, we study the dynamics of evaporative cooling and observe significant deviations from the findings for the well-established harmonic approximation. Furthermore, we investigate Bose-Einstein condensates in such a trap in Thomas-Fermi approximation and determine analytical expressions for chemical potential, internal energy, and Thomas-Fermi radii beyond the usual harmonic approximation.

  15. Long Time Convergence of the Bose-Einstein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xuguang

    2016-02-01

    We study long time behavior of the Bose-Einstein condensation of measure-valued solutions F_t of the space homogeneous and velocity isotropic Boltzmann equation for Bose-Einstein particles at low temperature. We prove that if F_0≥ 0 is a non-singular Borel measure on R_{≥ 0} satisfying a very low temperature condition and that the ratio F_0([0,\\varepsilon ])/\\varepsilon ^{α } is sufficiently large for all \\varepsilon in (0, R] for some constants 0<α <1, R>0, then there exists a solution F_t of the equation on [0,+∞) with the initial datum F_0 such that F_t({0}) converges to the expected Bose-Einstein condensation as t→ +∞. We also show that such initial data F_0 exist extensively.

  16. Optimization criteria of a Bose Brayton heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Wu, Guo-Xing

    2012-01-01

    An irreversible cycle model of the quantum Bose Brayton engine is established, in which finite-time processes and irreversibilities in two adiabatic processes are taken into account. Based on the model, expressions for the power output and the efficiency are derived. By using a numerical computation, the optimal relationship between the power output and the efficiency of an irreversible Bose Brayton engine is obtained. The optimal regions of the power output and the efficiency are determined. It is found that the influences of the irreversibility and the quantum degeneracy on the main performance parameters of the Bose Brayton engine are remarkable. The results obtained in the present paper can provide some new theoretical information for the optimal design and the performance improvement of a real Brayton engine.

  17. Phase Diagram of the Bose Hubbard Model with Weak Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettiarachchilage, Kalani; Rousseau, Valy; Tam, Ka-Ming; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark; Sheehy, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    We study the ground state phase diagram of strongly interacting ultracold Bose gas in a one-dimensional optical lattice with a tunable weak link, by means of Quantum Monte Carlo simulation. This model contains an on-site repulsive interaction (U) and two different near-neighbor hopping terms, J and t, for the weak link and the remainder of the chain, respectively. We show that by reducing the strength of J, a novel intermediate phase develops which is compressible and non-superfluid. This novel phase is identified as a Normal Bose Liquid (NBL) which does not appear in the phase diagram of the homogeneous bosonic Hubbard model. Further, we find a linear variation of the phase boundary of Normal Bose Liquid (NBL) to SuperFluid (SF) as a function of the strength of the weak link. These results may provide a new path to design advanced atomtronic devices in the future.

  18. Evidence of Bose-Einstein Condensation in solid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Moses H. W.

    2005-03-01

    The onset of superfluidity in liquid He-4 below 2.176K is associated with Bose-Einstein condensation where He-4 atoms condensed into a single momentum state and acquire quantum mechanical coherence over macroscopic length scales. Bose- Einstein condensation of alkali atoms in the vapor phase was achieved in 1995 and there is strong evidence for superfluidity in these systems. Perhaps counter to intuition, superfluid-like behavior is thought possible even in solid helium. Recent high Q torsional oscillator measurements found evidence of superflow in solid helium confined in porous media (1) and in bulk solid helium (2), indicating Bose-Einstein condensation very likely occurs in all three phases of matter. (1) E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Nature 427, 225 (2004) (2) E. Kim and M. H. W. Chan, Science 305, 1941 (2004).

  19. Vortex formation in a fast rotating Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Tarun Kanti

    2004-04-01

    We study rotational motion of an interacting atomic Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a quadratic-plus-quartic potential. We calculate the lowest energy surface mode frequency and show that a symmetric trapped (harmonic and quartic) Bose-Einstein condensate breaks the rotational symmetry of the Hamiltonian when rotational frequency is greater than one-half of the lowest energy surface mode frequency. We argue that the formation of a vortex is not possible in a noninteracting as well as in an attractive Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a harmonic trap due to the absence of the spontaneous shape deformation, but it can occur which leads to the vortex formation if we add an additional quartic potential. Moreover, the spontaneous shape deformation and consequently the formation of a vortex in an attractive system depends on the strengths of the two-body interaction and the quartic potential.

  20. Equilibration of quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrelly, Terry

    2016-07-01

    Finding equilibration times is a major unsolved problem in physics with few analytical results. Here we look at equilibration times for quantum gases of bosons and fermions in the regime of negligibly weak interactions, a setting which not only includes paradigmatic systems such as gases confined to boxes, but also Luttinger liquids and the free superfluid Hubbard model. To do this, we focus on two classes of measurements: (i) coarse-grained observables, such as the number of particles in a region of space, and (ii) few-mode measurements, such as phase correlators. We show that, in this setting, equilibration occurs quite generally despite the fact that the particles are not interacting. Furthermore, for coarse-grained measurements the timescale is generally at most polynomial in the number of particles N, which is much faster than previous general upper bounds, which were exponential in N. For local measurements on lattice systems, the timescale is typically linear in the number of lattice sites. In fact, for one-dimensional lattices, the scaling is generally linear in the length of the lattice, which is optimal. Additionally, we look at a few specific examples, one of which consists of N fermions initially confined on one side of a partition in a box. The partition is removed and the fermions equilibrate extremely quickly in time O(1/N).

  1. Brady 1D seismic velocity model ambient noise prelim

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mellors, Robert J.

    2013-10-25

    Preliminary 1D seismic velocity model derived from ambient noise correlation. 28 Green's functions filtered between 4-10 Hz for Vp, Vs, and Qs were calculated. 1D model estimated for each path. The final model is a median of the individual models. Resolution is best for the top 1 km. Poorly constrained with increasing depth.

  2. Dynamics of uniform quantum gases, I: Density and current correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.; Singh, G. S.

    2010-02-01

    A unified approach valid for any wavenumber q, frequency ω, and temperature T is presented for uniform ideal quantum gases allowing for a comprehensive study of number density and particle-current density response functions. Exact analytical expressions are obtained for spectral functions in terms of polylogarithms. Also, particle-number and particle-current static susceptibilities are presented which, for fugacity less than unity, additionally involve Kummer functions. The q- and T-dependent transverse-current static susceptibility is used to show explicitly that current correlations are of long range in a Bose-condensed uniform ideal gas but for bosons at T>Tc and for Fermi and Boltzmann gases at all temperatures these correlations are of short range. Contact repulsive interactions for systems of neutral quantum particles are considered within the random phase approximation. The expressions for particle-number and transverse-current susceptibilities are utilized to discuss the existence or nonexistence of superfluidity in the systems under consideration.

  3. Ultracold Fermi gases with emergent SU(N) symmetry.

    PubMed

    Cazalilla, Miguel A; Rey, Ana Maria

    2014-12-01

    We review recent experimental and theoretical progress on ultracold alkaline-earth Fermi gases with emergent SU(N) symmetry. Emphasis is placed on describing the ground-breaking experimental achievements of recent years. The latter include (1) the cooling to below quantum degeneracy of various isotopes of ytterbium and strontium, (2) the demonstration of optical Feshbach resonances and the optical Stern-Gerlach effect, (3) the realization of a Mott insulator of (173)Yb atoms, (4) the creation of various kinds of Fermi-Bose mixtures and (5) the observation of many-body physics in optical lattice clocks. On the theory side, we survey the zoo of phases that have been predicted for both gases in a trap and loaded into an optical lattice, focusing on two and three dimensional systems. We also discuss some of the challenges that lie ahead for the realization of such phases such as reaching the temperature scale required to observe magnetic and more exotic quantum orders. The challenge of dealing with collisional relaxation of excited electronic levels is also discussed. PMID:25429615

  4. Ultracold Fermi gases with emergent SU(N) symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazalilla, Miguel A.; Rey, Ana Maria

    2014-12-01

    We review recent experimental and theoretical progress on ultracold alkaline-earth Fermi gases with emergent SU(N) symmetry. Emphasis is placed on describing the ground-breaking experimental achievements of recent years. The latter include (1) the cooling to below quantum degeneracy of various isotopes of ytterbium and strontium, (2) the demonstration of optical Feshbach resonances and the optical Stern-Gerlach effect, (3) the realization of a Mott insulator of 173Yb atoms, (4) the creation of various kinds of Fermi-Bose mixtures and (5) the observation of many-body physics in optical lattice clocks. On the theory side, we survey the zoo of phases that have been predicted for both gases in a trap and loaded into an optical lattice, focusing on two and three dimensional systems. We also discuss some of the challenges that lie ahead for the realization of such phases such as reaching the temperature scale required to observe magnetic and more exotic quantum orders. The challenge of dealing with collisional relaxation of excited electronic levels is also discussed.

  5. Superconductivity and other collective phenomena in a hybrid Bose-Fermi mixture formed by a polariton condensate and an electron system in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CotleÅ£, Ovidiu; Zeytinoǧlu, Sina; Sigrist, Manfred; Demler, Eugene; Imamoǧlu, Ataç

    2016-02-01

    Interacting Bose-Fermi systems play a central role in condensed matter physics. Here, we analyze a novel Bose-Fermi mixture formed by a cavity exciton-polariton condensate interacting with a two-dimensional electron system. We show that that previous predictions of superconductivity [F. P. Laussy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 106402 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.106402] and excitonic supersolid formation [I. A. Shelykh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 140402 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.140402] in this system are closely intertwined, resembling the predictions for strongly correlated electron systems such as high-temperature superconductors. In stark contrast to a large majority of Bose-Fermi systems analyzed in solids and ultracold atomic gases, the renormalized interaction between the polaritons and electrons in our system is long-ranged and strongly peaked at a tunable wave vector, which can be rendered incommensurate with the Fermi momentum. We analyze the prospects for experimental observation of superconductivity and find that critical temperatures on the order of a few kelvins can be achieved in heterostructures consisting of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers that are embedded in an open cavity structure. All-optical control of superconductivity in semiconductor heterostructures could enable the realization of new device concepts compatible with semiconductor nanotechnology. In addition the possibility to interface quantum Hall physics, superconductivity, and nonequilibrium polariton condensates is likely to provide fertile ground for investigation of completely new physical phenomena.

  6. Space-time curvature signatures in Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Tonatiuh; Gomez, Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    We derive a generalized Gross-Pitaevski (GP) equation for a Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC) immersed in a weak gravitational field starting from the covariant Complex Klein-Gordon field in a curved space-time. We compare it with the traditional GP equation where the gravitational field is added by hand as an external potential. We show that there is a small difference of order gz/c2 between them that could be measured in the future using Bose-Einstein Condensates. This represents the next order correction to the Newtonian gravity in a curved space-time.

  7. Degenerate Bose-Fermi mixtures of rubidium and ytterbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiamsuphat, Jiraphat; Vaidya, Varun; Rolston, Steven; Porto, James

    2016-05-01

    We report the realization of a quantum degenerate mixture of bosonic 87 Rb and fermionic 171 Yb atoms in a hybrid optical dipole trap with a tunable, species-dependent trapping potential. 87 Rb is shown to be a viable refrigerant for the non-interacting 171 Yb atoms, cooling up to 2. 4 × 105 Yb atoms to a temperature of T/ TF = 0.16(2) while simultaneously forming a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate of 3. 5 × 105 atoms. Furthermore we demonstrate our ability to independently tailor the potentials for each species, which paves the way for studying impurities immersed in a Bose gas.

  8. Quantum and thermal fluctuations of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglov, V.I.; Collett, M.J.; Olsen, M.K.

    2005-09-15

    We quantize a semiclassical system defined by the Hamiltonian obtained from the asymptotic self-similar solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate with a linear gain term. On the basis of a Schroedinger equation derived in a space of ellipsoidal parameters, we analytically calculate the quantum mechanical and thermal variance in the ellipsoidal parameters for Bose-Einstein condensates in various shapes of trap. We show that, except for temperatures close to zero, dimensionless dispersions do not depend on the frequencies of the trap and they have the same dependence on dimensionless temperatures.

  9. Finite-temperature stability of a trapped dipolar Bose gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bisset, R. N.; Baillie, D.; Blakie, P. B.

    2011-06-15

    We calculate the stability diagram for a trapped normal Bose gas with dipole-dipole interactions. Our study characterizes the roles of trap geometry, temperature, and short-range interactions on the stability. We predict a robust double instability feature in oblate trapping geometries arising from the interplay of thermal gas saturation and the anisotropy of the interaction. Our results are relevant to current experiments with polar molecules and will be useful in developing strategies to obtain a polar molecule Bose-Einstein condensate.

  10. Effect of Quantum Correction in the Bose-Hubbard Model

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Ohashi, Yoji

    2006-09-07

    Effects of quantum correction in the Bose-Hubbard model at finite temperature are investigated for a homogeneous atomic Bose gas in an optical lattice near its superfluid-insulator transition. Starting from a strong coupling limit, higher order quantum corrections due to the hopping interaction is included in a local approximation (a dynamical mean field approximation) of the non-crossing approximation. When the upper or lower Hubbard band approaches zero energy, there appears a shallow band in the middle of the Hubbard gap due to a strong correlation in the system.

  11. Impurities in Bose-Einstein Condensates: From Polaron to Soliton.

    PubMed

    Shadkhoo, Shahriar; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2015-09-25

    We propose that impurities in a Bose-Einstein condensate which is coupled to a transversely laser-pumped multimode cavity form an experimentally accessible and analytically tractable model system for the study of impurities solvated in correlated liquids and the breakdown of linear-response theory [corrected]. As the strength of the coupling constant between the impurity and the Bose-Einstein condensate is increased, which is possible through Feshbach resonance methods, the impurity passes from a large to a small polaron state, and then to an impurity-soliton state. This last transition marks the breakdown of linear-response theory. PMID:26451565

  12. Renormalization group analysis of ultracold Fermi gases with two-body attractive interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoyong; Chi, Zimeng; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Zaijun

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new functional renormalization group (RG) strategy to investigate the many-body physics of interacting ultracold Fermi gases. By mapping the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) action of Fermi gases onto a complex φ4-model, we can obtain the closed flow equation in the one-loop approximation. An analysis of the emerging RG flow gives the ground state behavior. The Hamiltonian of a Fermi gas with a two-body attractive interaction is used as a demonstration to clarify our treatment. The fixed point structure reveals not only the condensation phase transition, but also the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover. The effect of the imaginary time renormalization is also discussed. It is shown that for the dynamical field configuration our RG procedure can reproduce the well known theoretical results of BCS-BEC crossover, while under a static approximation the phase transition takes place at a higher critical temperature.

  13. First and second sound in a two-dimensional harmonically trapped Bose gas across the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xia-Ji Hu, Hui

    2014-12-15

    We theoretically investigate first and second sound of a two-dimensional (2D) atomic Bose gas in harmonic traps by solving Landau’s two-fluid hydrodynamic equations. For an isotropic trap, we find that first and second sound modes become degenerate at certain temperatures and exhibit typical avoided crossings in mode frequencies. At these temperatures, second sound has significant density fluctuation due to its hybridization with first sound and has a divergent mode frequency towards the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless (BKT) transition. For a highly anisotropic trap, we derive the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamic equations and discuss the sound-wave propagation along the weakly confined direction. Due to the universal jump of the superfluid density inherent to the BKT transition, we show that the first sound velocity exhibits a kink across the transition. These predictions might be readily examined in current experimental setups for 2D dilute Bose gases with a sufficiently large number of atoms, where the finite-size effect due to harmonic traps is relatively weak.

  14. High-temperature superfluidity of the two-component Bose gas in a transition metal dichalcogenide bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Oleg L.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.

    2016-06-01

    The high-temperature superfluidity of two-dimensional dipolar excitons in two parallel transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) layers is predicted. We study Bose-Einstein condensation in the two-component system of dipolar A and B excitons. The effective mass, energy spectrum of the collective excitations, the sound velocity, and critical temperature are obtained for different TMDC materials. It is shown that in the Bogoliubov approximation, the sound velocity in the two-component dilute exciton Bose gas is always larger than in any one-component exciton system. The difference between the sound velocities for two-component and one-component dilute gases is caused by the fact that the sound velocity for a two-component system depends on the reduced mass of A and B excitons, which is always smaller than the individual mass of A or B exciton. Due to this fact, the critical temperature Tc for superfluidity for the two-component exciton system in a TMDC bilayer is about one order of magnitude higher than Tc in any one-component exciton system. We propose to observe the superfluidity of two-dimensional dipolar excitons in two parallel TMDC layers, which causes two opposite superconducting currents in each TMDC layer.

  15. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  16. Rigorous investigation of the reduced density matrix for the ideal Bose gas in harmonic traps by a loop-gas-like approach

    SciTech Connect

    Beau, Mathieu; Savoie, Baptiste

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, we rigorously investigate the reduced density matrix (RDM) associated to the ideal Bose gas in harmonic traps. We present a method based on a sum-decomposition of the RDM allowing to treat not only the isotropic trap, but also general anisotropic traps. When focusing on the isotropic trap, the method is analogous to the loop-gas approach developed by Mullin [“The loop-gas approach to Bose-Einstein condensation for trapped particles,” Am. J. Phys. 68(2), 120 (2000)]. Turning to the case of anisotropic traps, we examine the RDM for some anisotropic trap models corresponding to some quasi-1D and quasi-2D regimes. For such models, we bring out an additional contribution in the local density of particles which arises from the mesoscopic loops. The close connection with the occurrence of generalized-Bose-Einstein condensation is discussed. Our loop-gas-like approach provides relevant information which can help guide numerical investigations on highly anisotropic systems based on the Path Integral Monte Carlo method.

  17. Phosphorylation and desensitization of alpha1d-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    García-Sáinz, J A; Vázquez-Cuevas, F G; Romero-Avila, M T

    2001-01-01

    In rat-1 fibroblasts stably expressing rat alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors, noradrenaline and PMA markedly decreased alpha(1d)-adrenoceptor function (noradrenaline-elicited increases in calcium in whole cells and [(35)S]guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate binding in membranes), suggesting homologous and heterologous desensitizations. Photoaffinity labelling, Western blotting and immunoprecipitation identified alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors as a broad band of 70-80 kDa. alpha(1d)-Adrenoceptors were phosphorylated in the basal state and noradrenaline and PMA increased it. The effect of noradrenaline was concentration-dependent (EC(50) 75 nM), rapid (maximum at 1 min) and transient. Phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation was concentration-dependent (EC(50) 25 nM), slightly slower (maximum at 5 min) and stable for at least 60 min. Inhibitors of protein kinase C decreased the effect of phorbol esters but not that of noradrenaline. Evidence of cross-talk of alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors with receptors endogenously expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts was given by the ability of endothelin, lysophosphatidic acid and bradykinin to induce alpha(1d)-adrenoceptor phosphorylation. In summary, it is shown for the first time here that alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors are phosphoproteins and that receptor phosphorylation is increased by the natural ligand, noradrenaline, by direct activation of protein kinase C and via cross-talk with other receptors endogenously expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts. Receptor phosphorylation has functional repercussions. PMID:11171057

  18. Quantum fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lianyi; Lü, Haifeng; Cao, Gaoqing; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia-Ji

    2015-08-01

    We present a theoretical study of the ground state of the BCS-BEC crossover in dilute two-dimensional Fermi gases. While the mean-field theory provides a simple and analytical equation of state, the pressure is equal to that of a noninteracting Fermi gas in the entire BCS-BEC crossover, which is not consistent with the features of a weakly interacting Bose condensate in the BEC limit and a weakly interacting Fermi liquid in the BCS limit. The inadequacy of the two-dimensional mean-field theory indicates that the quantum fluctuations are much more pronounced than those in three dimensions. In this work, we show that the inclusion of the Gaussian quantum fluctuations naturally recovers the above features in both the BEC and the BCS limits. In the BEC limit, the missing logarithmic dependence on the boson chemical potential is recovered by the quantum fluctuations. Near the quantum phase transition from the vacuum to the BEC phase, we compare our equation of state with the known grand canonical equation of state of two-dimensional Bose gases and determine the ratio of the composite boson scattering length aB to the fermion scattering length a2 D. We find aB≃0.56 a2 D , in good agreement with the exact four-body calculation. We compare our equation of state in the BCS-BEC crossover with recent results from the quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements and find good agreements.

  19. Phase diagram and multicritical behaviors of mixtures of three-dimensional bosonic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccarelli, Giacomo; Nespolo, Jacopo; Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) patterns, the critical and multicritical behaviors of three-dimensional mixtures of bosonic gases with density-density interactions, characterized by a global U (1 )⊕U (1 ) symmetry [one U(1) transformation for each species]. In particular, we consider the three-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model for two lattice bosonic gases coupled by an on-site interspecies density-density interaction. We study the phase diagram and the critical behaviors along the transition lines of the BEC of one or both species. We present mean-field calculations and finite-size scaling analyses of quantum Monte Carlo data. We also investigate the nature of the multicritical points where the BEC transition lines of the two species meet. The corresponding universality classes are inferred from a renormalization-group analysis of the corresponding multicritical U (1 )⊕U (1 ) Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson Φ4 theory. We find two distinct critical behaviors, associated with bicritical and tetracritical points, respectively, depending on the relative strength of the interspecies and intraspecies interactions.

  20. Investigation of Bose Condensation in Ideal Bose Gas Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential in d Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir Mehedi, Faruk; Md. Sazzad, Hossain; Md. Muktadir, Rahman

    2016-02-01

    The changes in characteristics of Bose condensation of ideal Bose gas due to an external generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1dci\\vert xi/ai\\vertni are studied carefully. Detailed calculation of Kim et al. (J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11 (1999) 10269) yielded the hierarchy of condensation transitions with changing fractional dimensionality. In this manuscript, some theorems regarding specific heat at constant volume CV are presented. Careful examination of these theorems reveal the existence of hidden hierarchy of the condensation transition in trapped systems as well.

  1. Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute gas: the first 70 years and some recent experiments (Nobel Lecture).

    PubMed

    Cornell, Eric A; Wieman, Carl E

    2002-06-17

    Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute gases offer a rich field to study fundamental quantum-mechanical processes, manipulation of the speed at which light propogates, observation of atomic pair-formation and superfluidity, or even simulating white dwarf stars. Still more radical applications are on the horizon. However, their initial creation was a masterpiece of experimental physics. After an initial process of laser cooling (which itself won its developers the 1997 Nobel Prize), atoms in a magnetic-optical trap must be safely transferred into a purely magnetic trap, where the condensation process begins at 170 nK and 20 nK a pure condensate of 2000 atoms could be created. More astonishingly, Wieman and Cornell showed these low temperatures could be achieved in "bench scale" equipment rather than the massive pieces normally demanded by cryoscience. For their 1995 discovery of this new state of matter, they were awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics. PMID:12465486

  2. Minimally destructive, Doppler measurement of a quantized flow in a ring-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Anderson, N.; Phillips, W. D.; Eckel, S.; Campbell, G. K.; Stringari, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Doppler effect, the shift in the frequency of sound due to motion, is present in both classical gases and quantum superfluids. Here, we perform an in situ, minimally destructive measurement, of the persistent current in a ring-shaped, superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate using the Doppler effect. Phonon modes generated in this condensate have their frequencies Doppler shifted by a persistent current. This frequency shift will cause a standing-wave phonon mode to be ‘dragged’ along with the persistent current. By measuring this precession, one can extract the background flow velocity. This technique will find utility in experiments where the winding number is important, such as in emerging ‘atomtronic’ devices.

  3. Ultralong-range Molecules in Strontium Rydberg Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killian, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Alkaline-earth metal atoms are attracting increased attention for studies of ultracold Rydberg gases because of new opportunities created by strong core transitions accessible with visible light and the presence of excited triplet states. We have created and characterized ultralong-range Sr2 molecules formed from one ground-state 5 s21 S0 atom and one atom in a 5sns 3 S1 Rydberg state. Molecules are formed in a trapped ultracold atomic gas using two-photon excitation, near resonance with the 5s5p 3 P1 intermediate state. Spectra for both a thermal gas and a Bose-Einstein condensate have been studied, and highly structured vibrational spectra are obtained for molecular dimers, trimers, and tetramers. Measured lifetimes of Rydberg atoms and molecules in dense gases of ground state atoms show that, in marked contrast to earlier measurements involving rubidium Rydberg molecules, the lifetimes of the low-lying molecular vibrational states are very similar to those of the parent Rydberg atoms. This reflects the fact that in strontium there is no p-wave resonance for electron scattering in this energy regime, unlike the situation in rubidium. The absence of a resonance offers advantages for experiments involving strontium Rydberg atoms as impurities in quantum gases and for testing theories of molecular formation and decay. Research supported by the AFOSR under Grant No. FA9550-14-1-0007, the NSF under Grants No. 1301773 and No. 1205946, and the Robert A, Welch Foundation under Grants No. C-0734 and No. C-1844.

  4. Gases in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, P. D.; Liss, P. S.

    2003-12-01

    The annual gross and net primary productivity of the surface oceans is similar in size to that on land (IPCC, 2001). Marine productivity drives the cycling of gases such as oxygen (O2), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methyl iodide (CH3I) which are of fundamental importance in studies of marine productivity, biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, climate, and human health, respectively. For example, ˜30% of the world's population (1,570 million) is thought to be at risk of iodine-deficiency disorders that impair mental development (WHO, 1996). The main source of iodine to land is the supply of volatile iodine compounds produced in the ocean and then transferred to the atmosphere via the air-surface interface. The flux of these marine iodine species to the atmosphere is also thought to be important in the oxidation capacity of the troposphere by the production of the iodine oxide radical ( Alicke et al., 1999). A further example is that the net flux of CO2 from the atmosphere to the ocean, ˜1.7±0.5 Gt C yr-1, represents ˜30% of the annual release of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere (IPCC, 2001). This net flux is superimposed on a huge annual flux (90 Gt C yr-1) of CO2 that is cycled "naturally" between the ocean and the atmosphere. The long-term sink for anthropogenic CO2 is recognized as transfer to the ocean from the atmosphere. A final example is the emission of volatile sulfur, in the form of DMS, from the oceans. Not only is an oceanic flux from the oceans needed to balance the loss of sulfur (a bioessential element) from the land via weathering, it has also been proposed as having a major control on climate due to the formation of cloud condensation nuclei (Charlson et al., 1987). Indeed, the existence of DMS and CH3I has been used as evidence in support of the Gaia hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979).There are at least four main processes that affect the concentration of gases in the water column: biological

  5. Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1994-01-01

    Using a fully self-consistent quantum statistical model, we demonstrate the possibility of Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions. The most favorable conditions of high densities and low temperatures are usually associated with astrophysical processes and may be difficult to achieve in heavy ion collisions. Nonetheless, some suggestions for the possible experimental verification of the existence of this phenomenon are made.

  6. Bose-Einstein correlation within the framework of hadronic mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Burande, Chandrakant S.

    2015-03-10

    The Bose-Einstein correlation is the phenomenon in which protons and antiprotons collide at extremely high energies; coalesce one into the other resulting into the fireball of finite dimension. They annihilate each other and produces large number of mesons that remain correlated at distances very large compared to the size of the fireball. It was believed that Einstein’s special relativity and relativistic quantum mechanics are the valid frameworks to represent this phenomenon. Although, these frameworks are incomplete and require arbitrary parameters (chaoticity) to fit the experimental data which are prohibited by the basic axioms of relativistic quantum mechanics, such as that for the vacuum expectation values. Moreover, correlated mesons can not be treated as a finite set of isolated point-like particles because it is non-local event due to overlapping of wavepackets. Therefore, the Bose-Einstein correlation is incompatible with the axiom of expectation values of quantum mechanics. In contrary, relativistic hadronic mechanics constructed by Santilli allows an exact representation of the experimental data of the Bose-Einstein correlation and restore the validity of the Lorentz and Poincare symmetries under nonlocal and non-Hamiltonian internal effects. Further, F. Cardone and R. Mignani observed that the Bose-Einstein two-point correlation function derived by Santilli is perfectly matched with experimental data at high energy.

  7. Bose-Einstein condensates: BECs from the fridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Bretislav

    2009-10-01

    Large ensembles of atoms can be buffer-gas loaded into a magnetic trap and further evaporatively cooled all the way down to quantum degeneracy. The approach has now been shown to provide an alternative - and potentially general - route to Bose-Einstein condensation.

  8. Kinetic Evolution and Bose-Einstein Condensation in the Glasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jinfeng

    2013-10-01

    We study the evolution of a dense system of gluons, such as those produced in the early stages (the Glasma) of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. We describe the approach to thermal equilibrium using the small angle approximation for gluon scattering in a Boltzmann equation that includes the effects of Bose statistics. Simple power counting arguments indicate that the gluon system as in the Glasma is over-occupied and driven towards the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate. We derive and solve the transport equation for initial conditions that correspond to the overpopulated Glasma and present numerical evidence that such over-populated systems reach the onset of Bose-Einstein condensation in a finite time. The approach to condensation is characterized by a scaling behavior that we briefly analyze. Finally we analyze the effects of the inelastic, number changing, processes on the dynamical formation of the Bose-Einstein condensate by analytically deriving the 2 <--> 3 kernel under the collinear and small angle approximations and numerically solving it. References: J. Blaizot, J. Liao and L. McLerran, arXiv:1305.2119; X. Huang and J. Liao, arXiv:1303.7214; J. Blaizot, F. Gelis, J. Liao, L. McLerran and R. Venugopalan, arXiv:1107.5296. I thank the RIKEN BNL Research Center for partial support.

  9. Quantum Phase Diffusion of a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Lewenstein, M.; You, L.

    1996-10-01

    We discuss the quantum properties of the Bose-Einstein condensate of a dilute gas of atoms in a trap. We show that the phase of the condensate undergoes quantum diffusion which can be detected in far off-resonant light scattering experiments. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Feshbach resonance and growth of a Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Yuce, C.; Kilic, A.

    2006-09-15

    The Gross-Pitaevskii gain equation is used to model atom laser and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) fed by the surrounding thermal cloud. It is shown that the number of atoms continuously injected into BEC from the reservoir can be controlled by applying the external magnetic field via Feshbach resonance.

  11. Bose-Einstein condensates from scalar field dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2010-12-07

    We review the properties of astrophysical and cosmological relevance that may arise from the bosonic nature of scalar field dark matter models. The key property is the formation of Bose-Einstein condensates, but we also consider the presence of non-empty excited states that may be relevant for the description of scalar field galaxy halos and the properties of rotation curves.

  12. Symmetry and inert states of spin Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, S.-K.

    2007-02-15

    We construct the list of all possible inert states of spin Bose-Einstein condensates for S{<=}4. In doing so, we also obtain their symmetry properties. These results are applied to classify line defects of spin condensates in zero magnetic field.

  13. Results on Levy stable parametrizations of Bose-Einstein Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, Tamas

    2006-04-11

    Bose-Einstein correlations of identical charged-pion pairs produced in hadronic Z decays are analyzed in terms of various parametrizations. A good description is achieved using Levy stable distributions. The source function is reconstructed with the help of the {tau}-model.

  14. Diffusion dynamics in the disordered Bose Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadleigh, Laura; Russ, Philip; Demarco, Brian

    2016-05-01

    We explore the dynamics of diffusion for out-of-equilibrium superfluid, Mott insulator, and Bose glass states using an atomic realization of the disordered Bose Hubbard (DBH) model. Dynamics in strongly correlated systems, especially far from equilibrium, are not well understood. The introduction of disorder further complicates these systems. We realize the DBH model--which has been central to our understanding of quantum phase transitions in disordered systems--using ultracold Rubidium-87 atoms trapped in a cubic disordered optical lattice. By tightly focusing a beam into the center of the gas, we create a hole in the atomic density profile. We achieve Mott insulator, superfluid, or Bose glass states by varying the interaction and disorder strength, and measure the time evolution of the density profile after removing the central barrier. This allows us to infer diffusion rates from the velocities at the edge of the hole and to look for signatures of superfluid puddles in the Bose glass state. We acknowledge funding from NSF Grant PHY 15-05468, NSF Grant DGE-1144245, and ARO Grant W911NF-12-1-0462.

  15. Correlation functions of one-dimensional Bose-Fermi mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Frahm, Holger; Palacios, Guillaume

    2005-12-15

    We calculate the asymptotic behavior of correlators as a function of the microscopic parameters for an integrable Bose-Fermi mixture with repulsive interaction in one dimension. For two cases, namely polarized and unpolarized fermions the singularities of the momentum distribution functions are characterized as a function of the coupling constant and the relative density of bosons.

  16. Dancing the Bose-nova with a twirl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewenstein, Maciej

    2008-08-01

    A Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) can dramatically collapse and explode when the interactions between the atoms are sufficiently strong and attractive. Now, scientists have imaged the anisotropic, clover-leaf shape of such a collapsing gas when the attractive atomic interactions are strongly dipolar.

  17. Entanglement Properties in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Di-You

    2016-05-01

    We investigate entanglement inseparability and bipartite entanglement of in two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of the nonlinear interatomic interaction, interspecies interaction. Entanglement inseparability and bipartite entanglement have the similar properties. More entanglement can be generated by adjusting the nonlinear interatomic interaction and control the time interval of the entanglement by adjusting interspecies interaction.

  18. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia in Glut1D on Ketogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Klepper, Joerg; Leiendecker, Baerbel; Heussinger, Nicole; Lausch, Ekkehart; Bosch, Friedrich

    2016-04-01

    High-fat ketogenic diets are the only treatment available for Glut1 deficiency (Glut1D). Here, we describe an 8-year-old girl with classical Glut1D responsive to a 3:1 ketogenic diet and ethosuximide. After 3 years on the diet a gradual increase of blood lipids was followed by rapid, severe asymptomatic hypertriglyceridemia (1,910 mg/dL). Serum lipid apheresis was required to determine liver, renal, and pancreatic function. A combination of medium chain triglyceride-oil and a reduction of the ketogenic diet to 1:1 ratio normalized triglyceride levels within days but triggered severe myoclonic seizures requiring comedication with sultiam. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in children with Glut1D on ketogenic diets may be underdiagnosed and harmful. In contrast to congenital hypertriglyceridemias, children with Glut1D may be treated effectively by dietary adjustments alone. PMID:26902182

  19. 1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    Jian Wei, Xuchun Song, Chunli Yang, and Michael Z. Hu, 1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications, Journal of Nanomaterials, published special issue (http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/si/197254/) (2013).

  20. 60. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, D LOOP STEAM GENERATOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, D LOOP STEAM GENERATOR AND MAIN COOLANT PUMP LOOKING NORTHEAST (LOCATION OOO) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  1. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1).

    PubMed

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. PMID:25088042

  2. TBC1D24 genotype–phenotype correlation

    PubMed Central

    Balestrini, Simona; Milh, Mathieu; Castiglioni, Claudia; Lüthy, Kevin; Finelli, Mattea J.; Verstreken, Patrik; Cardon, Aaron; Stražišar, Barbara Gnidovec; Holder, J. Lloyd; Lesca, Gaetan; Mancardi, Maria M.; Poulat, Anne L.; Repetto, Gabriela M.; Banka, Siddharth; Bilo, Leonilda; Birkeland, Laura E.; Bosch, Friedrich; Brockmann, Knut; Cross, J. Helen; Doummar, Diane; Félix, Temis M.; Giuliano, Fabienne; Hori, Mutsuki; Hüning, Irina; Kayserili, Hulia; Kini, Usha; Lees, Melissa M.; Meenakshi, Girish; Mewasingh, Leena; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Peluso, Silvio; Mey, Antje; Rice, Gregory M.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Taylor, Jenny C.; Troester, Matthew M.; Stanley, Christine M.; Ville, Dorothee; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Falace, Antonio; Fassio, Anna; Lemke, Johannes R.; Biskup, Saskia; Tardif, Jessica; Ajeawung, Norbert F.; Tolun, Aslihan; Corbett, Mark; Gecz, Jozef; Afawi, Zaid; Howell, Katherine B.; Oliver, Karen L.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; de Falco, Fabrizio A.; Oliver, Peter L.; Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in TBC1D24. Methods: We acquired new clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging data of 11 previously unreported and 37 published patients. TBC1D24 mutations, identified through various sequencing methods, can be found online (http://lovd.nl/TBC1D24). Results: Forty-eight patients were included (28 men, 20 women, average age 21 years) from 30 independent families. Eighteen patients (38%) had myoclonic epilepsies. The other patients carried diagnoses of focal (25%), multifocal (2%), generalized (4%), and unclassified epilepsy (6%), and early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (25%). Most patients had drug-resistant epilepsy. We detail EEG, neuroimaging, developmental, and cognitive features, treatment responsiveness, and physical examination. In silico evaluation revealed 7 different highly conserved motifs, with the most common pathogenic mutation located in the first. Neuronal outgrowth assays showed that some TBC1D24 mutations, associated with the most severe TBC1D24-associated disorders, are not necessarily the most disruptive to this gene function. Conclusions: TBC1D24-related epilepsy syndromes show marked phenotypic pleiotropy, with multisystem involvement and severity spectrum ranging from isolated deafness (not studied here), benign myoclonic epilepsy restricted to childhood with complete seizure control and normal intellect, to early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with severe developmental delay and early death. There is no distinct correlation with mutation type or location yet, but patterns are emerging. Given the phenotypic breadth observed, TBC1D24 mutation screening is indicated in a wide variety of epilepsies. A TBC1D24 consortium was formed to develop further research on this gene and its associated phenotypes. PMID:27281533

  3. Phase separation and dynamics of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kean Loon; Jørgensen, Nils B.; Liu, I.-Kang; Wacker, Lars; Arlt, Jan J.; Proukakis, Nick P.

    2016-07-01

    The miscibility of two interacting quantum systems is an important testing ground for the understanding of complex quantum systems. Two-component Bose-Einstein condensates enable the investigation of this scenario in a particularly well controlled setting. In a homogeneous system, the transition between mixed and separated phases is fully characterized by a miscibility parameter based on the ratio of intra- to interspecies interaction strengths. Here we show, however, that this parameter is no longer the optimal one for trapped gases, for which the location of the phase boundary depends critically on atom numbers. We demonstrate how monitoring of damping rates and frequencies of dipole oscillations enables the experimental mapping of the phase diagram by numerical implementation of a fully self-consistent finite-temperature kinetic theory for binary condensates. The change in damping rate is explained in terms of surface oscillation in the immiscible regime, and counterflow instability in the miscible regime, with collisions becoming only important in the long time evolution.

  4. Persistent currents supported by solitary waves in toroidal Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Mateo, A.; Gallemí, A.; Guilleumas, M.; Mayol, R.

    2015-06-01

    We analyze the nucleation of persistent currents in Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold gases confined in a ring. This phenomenon has been recently investigated in an experiment [S. Eckel, J. G. Lee, F. Jendrzejewski, N. Murray, C. W. Clark, C. J. Lobb, W. D. Phillips, M. Edwards, and G. K. Campbell, Nature (London) 506, 200 (2014), 10.1038/nature12958], where hysteresis loops have been observed in the activation of quantized persistent currents by rotating weak links. In this work, we demonstrate the existence of three-dimensional stationary currents with nonquantized angular momentum. They are generated by families of solitary waves that exhibit a continuous variation in the angular momentum and provide a bridge between different winding numbers. We show that the size of hysteresis loops is determined by the range of existence within the weak link region of solitary waves which configure the energy barrier preventing phase slips. The barrier vanishes when the critical rotation leads winding number and solitonic states to a matching configuration. At this point, Landau and Feynman criteria for phase slips meet: the fluid flow reaches the local speed of sound, and stationary vortex lines (which are the building blocks of multidimensional solitons) can be excited inside the system.

  5. Magnetic and nematic phases in a Weyl type spin–orbit-coupled spin-1 Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guanjun; Chen, Li; Zhang, Yunbo

    2016-06-01

    We present a variational study of the spin-1 Bose gases in a harmonic trap with three-dimensional spin–orbit (SO) coupling of Weyl type. For weak SO coupling, we treat the single-particle ground states as the form of perturbational harmonic oscillator states in the lowest total angular momentum manifold with j = 1, m j = 1, 0, ‑1. When the two-body interaction is considered, we set the trail order parameter as the superposition of three degenerate single-particle ground-states and the weight coefficients are determined by minimizing the energy functional. Two ground state phases, namely the magnetic and the nematic phases, are identified depending on the spin-independent and the spin-dependent interactions. Unlike the non-SO-coupled spin-1 Bose–Einstein condensate for which the phase boundary between the magnetic and the nematic phase lies exactly at zero spin-dependent interaction, the boundary is modified by the SO-coupling. We find the magnetic phase is featured with phase-separated density distributions, 3D skyrmion-like spin textures and competing magnetic and biaxial nematic orders, while the nematic phase is featured with miscible density distributions, zero magnetization and spatially modulated uniaxial nematic order. The emergence of higher spin order creates new opportunities for exploring spin-tensor-related physics in SO coupled superfluid.

  6. Robust Supersolidity in the V1- V2 Extended Bose-Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Nicole; Pixley, Jedediah

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by ultra-cold atomic gases with long-range interactions in an optical lattice we study the effects of the next-nearest neighbor interaction on the extended Bose-Hubbard model on a square lattice. Using the variational Gutzwiller approach with a four-site unit cell we determine the ground state phase diagrams as a function of the model parameters. We focus on the interplay of each interaction between the nearest neighbor (V1) , the next-nearest neighbor (V2) , and the onsite repulsion (U). We find various super-solid phases that can be described by one of the ordering wave-vectors (π, 0), (0, π) , and (π, π) . In the limits V1, V2 U we find phases reminiscent of the limit V2 = 0 but with a richer super solid structure. For V1

  7. Phase Separation and Dynamics of Trapped Two-component Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proukakis, Np; Lee, Kl; Edmonds, M.; Liu, I.-K.; Jorgensen, Nb; Wacker, L.; Arlt, Jj

    2016-05-01

    Two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are an attractive system to study the non-equilibrium dynamics of interacting quantum gases. We recently formulated a self-consistent kinetic model to study such systems at finite-temperature, where both components are partially-condensed. The BECs and the thermal atoms are coupled together through both the mean-field interactions and all possible collisional processes. We demonstrate the potential dominance of an energy-conserving exchange collision involving a BEC atom and a thermal atom from different components, and discuss the control of the hydrodynamicity through variations of temperature, trap frequencies and trap geometries. Numerically analysing the miscibility-immiscibility phase diagram for the trapped 87Rb-39K experimental system, we demonstrate deviations from the simple (homogeneous) interaction strength criterion (g122 /g11g22 = 1), with the transition boundary depending on the BEC atom numbers. We propose the experimental mapping of this boundary by monitoring the damping rate of the dipole oscillations, supported by detailed numerical simulations at zero and finite temperatures. Acknowledge: EPSRC (Grant No. EP/K03250X/1).

  8. Physics of Hyperpolarized Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Happer, William

    1999-11-01

    The production of highly spin-polarized (hyperpolarized) gases by optical pumping with lasers involves spin-dependent interactions of atoms in gases, liquids, solids and on surfaces. Although enough is understood about these interactions to allow large quantities of hyperpolarized gas to be prepared, some of the basic physics is still mysterious. A better understanding of the physics would lead to worthwhile improvements in the performance of polarization systems. The most important physics involved in the production of hyperpolarized gases will be reviewed, with particular emphasis on areas where the physics is still not understood.

  9. Environmental implications of anesthetic gases.

    PubMed

    Yasny, Jeffrey S; White, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    For several decades, anesthetic gases have greatly enhanced the comfort and outcome for patients during surgery. The benefits of these agents have heavily outweighed the risks. In recent years, the attention towards their overall contribution to global climate change and the environment has increased. Anesthesia providers have a responsibility to minimize unnecessary atmospheric pollution by utilizing techniques that can lessen any adverse effects of these gases on the environment. Moreover, health care facilities that use anesthetic gases are accountable for ensuring that all anesthesia equipment, including the scavenging system, is effective and routinely maintained. Implementing preventive practices and simple strategies can promote the safest and most healthy environment. PMID:23241038

  10. Noble gases in the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, O. K.; Srinivasan, B.; Hennecke, E. W.; Sinclair, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    The abundance and isotopic composition of helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon which were released by stepwise heating of lunar fines (15601.64) and (15271.65) were measured spectrometrically. The results of a composition of noble gases released from the lunar fines with noble gases in meteorites and in the earth are presented along with the isotopic composition of noble gases in lunar fines, in meteorites, and in the atmosphere. A study of two isotopically distinct components of trapped xenon in carbonaceous chondrites is also included.

  11. First- and second-sound-like modes at finite temperature in trapped Fermi gases from BCS to BEC

    SciTech Connect

    He Yan; Chen Qijin; Chien, C.-C.; Levin, K.

    2007-11-15

    We determine the temperature (T) dependence of first- and second-sound-like mode frequencies for trapped Fermi gases undergoing the BCS to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover. Our results are based on numerical solution of the two-fluid equations in conjunction with a microscopic calculation of thermodynamical variables. As in experiment and at unitarity, we show that the lowest radial breathing mode is T independent. At finite T, higher-order breathing modes strongly mix with second sound. Their complex T dependence should provide an alternative way of measuring the transition temperature T{sub c}.

  12. Polar discontinuities and 1D interfaces in monolayered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Gordillo, Rafael; Pruneda, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Interfaces are the birthplace of a multitude of fascinating discoveries in fundamental science, and have enabled modern electronic devices, from transistors, to lasers, capacitors or solar cells. These interfaces between bulk materials are always bi-dimensional (2D) 'surfaces'. However the advent of graphene and other 2D crystals opened up a world of possibilities, as in this case the interfaces become one-dimensional (1D) lines. Although the properties of 1D nanoribbons have been extensively discussed in the last few years, 1D interfaces within infinite 2D systems had remained mostly unexplored until very recently. These include grain boundaries in polycrystalline samples, or interfaces in hybrid 2D sheets composed by segregated domains of different materials (as for example graphene/BN hybrids, or chemically different transition metal dichalcogenides). As for their 2D counterparts, some of these 1D interfaces exhibit polar characteristics, and can give rise to fascinating new physical properties. Here, recent experimental discoveries and theoretical predictions on the polar discontinuities that arise at these 1D interfaces will be reviewed, and the perspectives of this new research topic, discussed.

  13. Fermion-fermion interaction in a dilute gas-mixture Bose condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Mogilyuk, T. I.

    2011-11-15

    A mixture of a one-component Bose gas and two-component Fermi gas is considered at temperatures at which the Bose gas is completely condensed. Two fermions in such a mixture can interact with each other exchanging bosons from the condensate or supercondensate. The interaction potential, a change in the effective mass, the decay, and fermion spectrum are calculated in this quantum Fermi-Bose mixture.

  14. PC-1D installation manual and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    PC-1D is a software package for personal computers that uses finite-element analysis to solve the fully-coupled two-carrier semiconductor transport equations in one dimension. This program is particularly useful for analyzing the performance of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, but can be applied to any bipolar device whose carrier flows are primarily one-dimensional. This User's Guide provides the information necessary to install PC-1D, define a problem for solution, solve the problem, and examine the results. Example problems are presented which illustrate these steps. The physical models and numerical methods utilized are presented in detail. This document supports version 3.1 of PC-1D, which incorporates faster numerical algorithms with better convergence properties than previous versions of the program. 51 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. The GIRAFFE Archive: 1D and 3D Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, F.; Jégouzo, I.; Tajahmady, F.; Normand, J.; Chilingarian, I.

    2013-10-01

    The GIRAFFE Archive (http://giraffe-archive.obspm.fr) contains the reduced spectra observed with the intermediate and high resolution multi-fiber spectrograph installed at VLT/UT2 (ESO). In its multi-object configuration and the different integral field unit configurations, GIRAFFE produces 1D spectra and 3D spectra. We present here the status of the archive and the different functionalities to select and download both 1D and 3D data products, as well as the present content. The two collections are available in the VO: the 1D spectra (summed in the case of integral field observations) and the 3D field observations. These latter products can be explored using the VO Paris Euro3D Client (http://voplus.obspm.fr/ chil/Euro3D).

  16. Resonant indirect exchange in 1D semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhansky, I. V.; Krainov, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S.; Lähderanta, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider resonant indirect exchange interaction between magnetic centers in 1D nanostructures. The magnetic centers are assumed to be coupled to the 1D conducting channel by the quantum tunneling which can be of resonant character. The indirect exchange between the centers is mediated by the free carriers of the channel. The two cases of quadratic and linear energy dispersion of the 1D free carriers are considered. The former case is attributed to conventional semiconductor (InGaAs based to be concrete) nanowires or nanowhiskers, while the latter case is associated with carbon nanotubes with magnetic adatoms. We demonstrate that whenever the energy of a bound state at the magnetic center lies within the continuum energy spectra of the delocalized carriers in the channel the indirect exchange is strongly enhanced due to effective tunnel hybridization of the bound states with the continuum.

  17. Anisotropic superfluidity in a dipolar Bose gas

    SciTech Connect

    Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M; Bohn, John L

    2010-11-04

    A quintessential feature of superfluidity is the ability to support dissipationless flow, for example, when an object moves through a superfluid and experiences no drag. This, however, only occurs when the object is moving below a certain critical velocity; when it exceeds this critical velocity it dissipates energy into excitations of the superfluid, resulting in a net drag force on the object and the breakdown of superfluid flow. In many superfluids, such as dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of atoms with contact interactions, this critical velocity is simply the speed of sound in the system, where the speed of sound is set by the density and the s-wave scattering length of the atoms. However, for other superfluids, such as liquid {sup 4}He, this is not the case. In {sup 4}He, the critical velocity is set by a roton mode, corresponding to a peak in the static structure factor of the system at some finite, non-zero momentum, with a characteristic velocity that is considerably less than the speed of sound in the liquid. This feature has been verified experimentally via measurements of ion-drift velocity in the fluid, thereby providing insight into the detailed structure of the system. Interestingly, a roton-like feature was predicted to exist in the dispersion relation of a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) dipolar BEC (DBEC) [16], or a BEC with dipole-dipole interactions. However, unlike the dispersion of {sup 4}He, the disperSion of a DBEC is highly tunable as a function of the condensate density or dipole-dipole interaction (ddi) strength. Additionally, the DBEC is set apart from liquid {sup 4}He in that its interactions depend on how the dipoles are oriented in space. Thus, the DBEC provides an ideal system to study the effects that anisotropies have on the bulk properties of a superfluid, such as the critical velocity. Here we consider a DBEC in a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) geometry and allow for the dipoles to be polarized at a nonzero angle into the plane

  18. Bose-Fermi solid and its quantum melting in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Bin; Das Sarma, S.; Wang, Daw-Wei

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the quantum phase diagram of Bose-Fermi mixtures of ultracold dipolar particles trapped in one-dimensional optical lattices in the thermodynamic limit. With the presence of nearest-neighbor (NN) interactions, a long-ranged ordered crystalline phase (Bose-Fermi solid) is found stabilized in the limit of weak intersite tunneling (J). When J is increased, such a Bose-Fermi solid can be quantum melted into a Bose-Fermi liquid through different procedures, depending on whether the crystalline order is dominated by the NN interaction between fermions or bosons. These properties are qualitatively different from the classical picture of solid-liquid phase transition.

  19. GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    KALYANAPU, ALFRED; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N.; BURIAN, STEVEN J.

    2007-01-17

    This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.

  20. On stability of vortices in three-dimensional self-attractive Bose Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malomed, Boris A.; Lederer, Falk; Mazilu, Dumitru; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2007-02-01

    Results of accurate analysis of stability are reported for localized vortices in the Bose Einstein condensate (BEC) with the negative scattering length, trapped in an anisotropic potential with the aspect ratio Ω. The cases of Ω≫1 and Ω≪1 correspond to the “pancake” (nearly-2D) and “cigar-shaped” (nearly-1D) configurations, respectively (in the latter limit, the vortices become “tubular” solitons). The analysis is based on the 3D Gross Pitaevskii equation. The family of solutions with vorticity S=1 is accurately predicted by the variational approximation. The relative size of the stability area for the vortices with S=1 (which was studied, in a part, before) increases with the decrease of Ω in terms of the number of atoms, but decreases in terms of the chemical potential. All states with S⩾2 are unstable, while the stability of the ordinary solitons (S=0) obeys the Vakhitov Kolokolov criterion. The stability predictions are verified by direct simulations of the full 3D equation.

  1. Quantum Critical Behavior of the Bose-Fermi Kondo Model with Ising Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Tae-Ho

    2005-03-01

    The existence of a continous quantum phase transition of the Bose-Fermi Kondo Model (BFKM) with a self-consistently determined bosonic bath has been demonstrated within the Extended Dynamical Mean Field Approach to the anisotropic Kondo lattice model and φ/T-scaling near the quantum critical point(QCP)was found[1,2]. We study the quantum critical properties of the anisotropic BFKM with specified bath spectral function, where the spectrum of the bosonic bath vanishes in a power-law fashion with exponent γ for small frequencies. Motivated by very recent results that the quantum to classical mapping for a related class of models fails[3,4]. We determine the critical local susceptibility using both the classical and quantum Monte Carlo approaches of Ref.5. Our results cover several values of γ below and above the upper critical dimension of the classical model for temperatures down to 1% of the bare Kondo scale. [1]D. Grempel and Q. Si, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 026402 (2003). [2]J.Zhu, D. Grempel, and Q. Si, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 156404 (2003). [3]L. Zhu, S. Kirchner, Q. Si nad A. Georges, Phys. Rev. Lett. in press (cond-mat/0406293). [4]M. Vojta, N. Tong, and R. Bulla, cond-mat/0410132. [5]D. Grempel and M. Rozenberg, Phys. Rev. B 60, 4702 (1999).

  2. Photonic Architectures for Equilibrium High-Temperature Bose-Einstein Condensation in Dichalcogenide Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jian-Hua; John, Sajeev

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor-microcavity polaritons are composite quasiparticles of excitons and photons, emerging in the strong coupling regime. As quantum superpositions of matter and light, polaritons have much stronger interparticle interactions compared with photons, enabling rapid equilibration and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). Current realizations based on 1D photonic structures, such as Fabry-Pérot microcavities, have limited light-trapping ability resulting in picosecond polariton lifetime. We demonstrate, theoretically, above-room-temperature (up to 590 K) BEC of long-lived polaritons in MoSe2 monolayers sandwiched by simple TiO2 based 3D photonic band gap (PBG) materials. The 3D PBG induces very strong coupling of 40 meV (Rabi splitting of 62 meV) for as few as three dichalcogenide monolayers. Strong light-trapping in the 3D PBG enables the long-lived polariton superfluid to be robust against fabrication-induced disorder and exciton line-broadening. PMID:25503586

  3. Macroscopic quantum tunneling of a Bose-Einstein condensate through double Gaussian barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Kenji; Urban, Gregor; Weidemüller, Matthias; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2015-05-01

    Macroscopic quantum tunneling is one of the great manifestations of quantum physics, not only showing passage through a potential barrier but also emerging in a many-body wave function. We study a quasi-1D Bose-Einstein condensate of Lithium, confined by two Gaussian barriers, and show that in an experimentally realistic potential tens of thousands of atoms tunnel on time scales of 10 to 100 ms. Using a combination of variational and WKB approximations based on the Gross-Pitaevskii or nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we show that many unusual tunneling features appear due to the nonlinearity, including the number of trapped atoms exhibiting non-exponential decay, severe distortion of the barriers by the mean field, and even formation of a triple barrier in certain regimes. In the first 10ms, nonlinear many-body effects make the tunneling rates significantly larger than background loss rates, from 10 to 70 Hz. Thus we conclude that macroscopic quantum tunneling can be observed on experimental time scales. Funded by NSF, AFOSR, the Alexander von Humboldt foundation, and the Heidelberg Center for Quantum Dynamics.

  4. Critical point of a rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Badry, Azza M.; Soliman, Shemi S. M.; Hassan, Ahmed S.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we have considered the critical point (critical atoms' number and the corresponding critical temperature) of rotating condensate bosons trapped in optical lattices. Our system is formed by loading three dimensional harmonically trapped boson atoms into a 1D (axial direction) or 2D (radial direction) optical lattice. The system subjected to rotating with angular velocity Ω around to the axial direction z-axis. We employ the semiclassical approximation to calculate the critical point. Effects of the optical lattice depth, direction (axial or radial) and the rotation rate on the critical point are investigated using the semiclassical approximation. The calculated results showed that the temperature dependence of the critical point is changed in an optical lattice and depends crucially on the rotation rate. The effect of the finite size for one-dimensional optical lattice case, as required by experiment, is discussed. The outcome results furnish useful qualitatively theoretical results for the future Bose-Einstein condensation experiments in such traps.

  5. Quantum magnetism without lattices in strongly interacting one-dimensional spinor gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuretzbacher, F.; Becker, D.; Bjerlin, J.; Reimann, S. M.; Santos, L.

    2014-07-01

    We show that strongly interacting multicomponent gases in one dimension realize an effective spin chain, offering an alternative simple scenario for the study of one-dimensional (1D) quantum magnetism in cold gases in the absence of an optical lattice. The spin-chain model allows for an intuitive understanding of recent experiments and for a simple calculation of relevant observables. We analyze the adiabatic preparation of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic ground states, and show that many-body spin states may be efficiently probed in tunneling experiments. The spin-chain model is valid for more than two components, opening the possibility of realizing SU(N) quantum magnetism in strongly interacting 1D alkaline-earth-metal or ytterbium Fermi gases.

  6. Quantum Phase Transitions in a Bose-Fermi Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchon, Eric; Zhang, Shizhong; Chang, Soon-Yong; Randeria, Mohit; Trivedi, Nandini

    2013-03-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental realization of stable Bose-Fermi mixtures with broad Feshbach resonances, we investigate possible quantum phases and phase transitions in this system using variational Monte Carlo. Within a single-channel model appropriate near broad Feshbach resonances, we show that as the boson-fermion coupling increases, the Bose-Einstein condensate disappears and the atomic Fermi surface is destroyed while the Fermi surface of the composite molecules emerges. We calculate the momentum distribution of atomic and molecular fermions and demonstrate that the atomic fermion's quasi-particle weight Z vanishes at a critical coupling. We would like to acknowledge support from NSF DMR-0907275 (E.D., N.T.) and NSF DMR-1006532 (M.R.).

  7. Thermal spin fluctuations in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melé-Messeguer, M.; Juliá-Díaz, B.; Polls, A.; Santos, L.

    2013-03-01

    We study the thermal activation of spin fluctuations in dynamically stable spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. We analyze the specific cases of a nondipolar spin-1 condensate in the state m=0, where thermal activation results from spin-changing collisions, and of a chromium condensate in the maximally stretched state m=-3, where thermal spin fluctuations are due to dipole-induced spin relaxation. In both cases, we show that the low energy associated to the spinor physics may be employed for thermometry purposes down to extremely low temperatures, typically impossible to measure in Bose-Einstein condensates with the usual thermometric techniques. Moreover, the peculiar dependence of the system's entropy with the applied Zeeman energy opens a possible route for adiabatic cooling.

  8. Casimir force induced by an imperfect Bose gas.

    PubMed

    Napiórkowski, Marek; Piasecki, Jarosław

    2011-12-01

    We present a study of the Casimir effect in an imperfect (mean-field) Bose gas contained between two infinite parallel plane walls. The derivation of the Casimir force follows from the calculation of the excess grand-canonical free energy density under periodic, Dirichlet, and Neumann boundary conditions with the use of the steepest descent method. In the one-phase region, the force decays exponentially fast when distance D between the walls tends to infinity. When the Bose-Einstein condensation point is approached, the decay length in the exponential law diverges with critical exponent ν(IMP) = 1, which differs from the perfect gas case where ν(P) = 1/2. In the two-phase region, the Casimir force is long range and decays following the power law D(-3), with the same amplitude as in the perfect gas. PMID:22304038

  9. Generating functional approach to Bose-Einstein correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, N.; Biyajima, M.; Andreev, I.V.

    1997-11-01

    Bose-Einstein correlations are considered in the presence of M independent chaotic sources and a coherent source. Our approach is an extension of the formulation in the quantum optics given by Glauber and Lachs. The generating functional (GF) of Bose-Einstein correlation (BEC) functions is derived, and higher order BEC functions are obtained from the GF. A diagrammatic representation for cumulants is made. The number M is explicitly contained in our formulation, which is different from that given by Cramer {ital et al.} The possibility of estimating the number M from the analysis of BEC functions and cumulants is pointed out. Moreover, source size dependence of multiplicity distributions is shown in a simplified case. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Magnon edge states in the hardcore- Bose-Hubbard model.

    PubMed

    Owerre, S A

    2016-11-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulation has uncovered nonzero Berry curvature and bosonic edge states in the hardcore-Bose-Hubbard model on the gapped honeycomb lattice. The competition between the chemical potential and staggered onsite potential leads to an interesting quantum phase diagram comprising the superfluid phase, Mott insulator, and charge density wave insulator. In this paper, we present a semiclassical perspective of this system by mapping to a spin-1/2 quantum XY model. We give an explicit analytical origin of the quantum phase diagram, the Berry curvatures, and the edge states using semiclassical approximations. We find very good agreement between the semiclassical analyses and the QMC results. Our results show that the topological properties of the hardcore-Bose-Hubbard model are the same as those of magnon in the corresponding quantum spin system. Our results are applicable to systems of ultracold bosonic atoms trapped in honeycomb optical lattices. PMID:27603092

  11. Magnetic Solitons in a Binary Bose-Einstein Condensate.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chunlei; Pitaevskii, Lev P; Stringari, Sandro

    2016-04-22

    We study solitary waves of polarization (magnetic solitons) in a two-component Bose gas with slightly unequal repulsive intra- and interspin interactions. In experimentally relevant conditions we obtain an analytical solution which reveals that the width and the velocity of magnetic solitons are explicitly related to the spin healing length and the spin sound velocity of the Bose mixture, respectively. We calculate the profiles, the energy, and the effective mass of the solitons in the absence of external fields and investigate their oscillation in a harmonic trap where the oscillation period is calculated as a function of the oscillation amplitude. The stability of magnetic solitons in two dimensions and the conditions for their experimental observation are also briefly discussed. PMID:27152776

  12. Magnetic Solitons in a Binary Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chunlei; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Stringari, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    We study solitary waves of polarization (magnetic solitons) in a two-component Bose gas with slightly unequal repulsive intra- and interspin interactions. In experimentally relevant conditions we obtain an analytical solution which reveals that the width and the velocity of magnetic solitons are explicitly related to the spin healing length and the spin sound velocity of the Bose mixture, respectively. We calculate the profiles, the energy, and the effective mass of the solitons in the absence of external fields and investigate their oscillation in a harmonic trap where the oscillation period is calculated as a function of the oscillation amplitude. The stability of magnetic solitons in two dimensions and the conditions for their experimental observation are also briefly discussed.

  13. Internal Josephson effects in spinor dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Yasunaga, Masashi; Tsubota, Makoto

    2010-02-15

    We theoretically study the internal Josephson effect, which is driven by spin-exchange interactions and magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, in a three-level system for spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates, obtaining novel spin dynamics. We introduce single spatial mode approximations into the Gross-Pitaevskii equations and derive the Josephson-type equations, which are analogous to tunneling currents through three junctions between three superconductors. From an analogy with two interacting nonrigid pendulums, we identify unique varied oscillational modes, called the 0-{pi}, 0-running, running-running, 2n{pi} and running-2{pi}, single nonrigid pendulum, and two rigid pendulums phase modes. These Josephson modes in the three states are expected to be found in real atomic Bose gas systems.

  14. Bose-Einstein condensates and scalar fields; exploring the similitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, E.; Macías, A.; Núñez, D.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the the remarkable analogy between the classical Klein-Gordon equation for a test scalar field in a flat and also in a curved background, and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped by an external potential. We stress here that the solution associated with the Klein-Gordon equation (KG) in a flat space time has the same mathematical structure, under certain circumstances, to those obtained for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, that is, a static soliton solution. Additionally, Thomas-Fermi approximation is applied to the 3-dimensional version of this equation, in order to calculate some thermodynamical properties of the system in curved a space-time back ground. Finally, we stress the fact that a gravitational background provides, in some cases, a kind of confining potential for the scalar field, allowing us to remarks even more the possible connection between scalar fields and the phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation.

  15. Scalar field as a Bose-Einstein condensate?

    SciTech Connect

    Castellanos, Elías; Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Macías, Alfredo; Núñez, Darío E-mail: cescamilla@mctp.mx E-mail: nunez@nucleares.unam.mx

    2014-11-01

    We discuss the analogy between a classical scalar field with a self-interacting potential, in a curved spacetime described by a quasi-bounded state, and a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. In this context, we compare the Klein-Gordon equation with the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Moreover, the introduction of a curved background spacetime endows, in a natural way, an equivalence to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with an explicit confinement potential. The curvature also induces a position dependent self-interaction parameter. We exploit this analogy by means of the Thomas-Fermi approximation, commonly used to describe the Bose-Einstein condensate, in order to analyze the quasi bound scalar field distribution surrounding a black hole.

  16. Landau damping in a collisionless dipolar Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natu, Stefan S.; Wilson, Ryan M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a theory for the Landau damping of low-energy quasiparticles in a collisionless, quasi-two-dimensional dipolar Bose gas and produce expressions for the damping rate in uniform and nonuniform systems. Using simple energy-momentum conservation arguments, we show that in the homogeneous system, the nature of the low-energy dispersion in a dipolar Bose gas severely inhibits Landau damping of long wavelength excitations. For a gas with contact and dipolar interactions, the damping rate for phonons tends to decrease with increasing dipolar interactions; for strong dipole-dipole interactions, phonons are virtually undamped over a broad range of temperature. The damping rate for maxon-roton excitations is found to be significantly larger than the damping rate for phonons.

  17. BCS to Bose crossover: Broken-symmetry state

    SciTech Connect

    Engelbrecht, J.R. |; Randeria, M. |; Sa de Melo, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    A functional integral formulation, used previously to calculate T{sub c} and describe normal state properties of the BCS-Bose crossover, is extended to T{lt}T{sub c}. The saddle point approximation is shown to be qualitatively correct for T{lt}T{sub c} for {ital all} couplings, in contrast to the situation above T{sub c}. Several features of the crossover are described. The difference between the T=0 {open_quotes}pair size{close_quotes} and the (prefactor of the T dependent) Ginzburg-Landau coherence length is pointed out: the two quantities are the same only in the BCS limit. The evolution of the collective modes from the BCS to the Bose regime is discussed together with the mixing of the amplitude and phase in the absence of a particle-hole symmetry. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Internal Josephson oscillations for distinct momenta Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Lih-King; Troppenz, T.; Morais Smith, C.

    2011-11-15

    The internal Josephson oscillations between an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and a molecular one are studied for atoms in a square optical lattice subjected to a staggered gauge field. The system is described by a Bose-Hubbard model with complex and anisotropic hopping parameters that are different for each species, i.e., atoms and molecules. When the flux per plaquette for each species is small, the system oscillates between two conventional zero-momentum condensates. However, there is a regime of parameters in which Josephson oscillations between a vortex-carrying atomic condensate (finite momentum BEC) and a conventional zero-momentum molecular condensate may be realized. The experimental observation of the oscillations between these qualitatively distinct BEC's is possible with state-of-the-art Ramsey interference techniques.

  19. Bose gas in disordered, finite-layered systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, Mauricio; Barragán, V. E.; Salas, P.; Solís, M. A.

    2015-03-01

    Disorder effects in the thermodynamic properties of a Bose gas are analyzed. The gas is confined within a layered box of size L in the z-direction and infinite in the other two directions. The layers are first modeled by a periodic array of M Dirac delta-functions of equal intensity. We investigate the effects on the specific heat, energy and entropy when a random set of vacancies is introduced in the layered array. A dramatic increase in the maximum of the specific heat is observed when the system has a 0 . 1 to 0 . 2 fraction of random vacancies compared to the original, periodic array and this maximum, which is reminiscent of a Bose-Einstein condensation for an infinite array, occurs at a higher temperature. We acknowledge support from Grant UNAM-PAPIIT IN111613.

  20. Electronic pumping of quasiequilibrium Bose-Einstein-condensed magnons.

    PubMed

    Bender, Scott A; Duine, Rembert A; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav

    2012-06-15

    We theoretically investigate spin transfer between a system of quasiequilibrated Bose-Einstein-condensed magnons in an insulator in direct contact with a conductor. While charge transfer is prohibited across the interface, spin transport arises from the exchange coupling between insulator and conductor spins. In a normal insulator phase, spin transport is governed solely by the presence of thermal and spin-diffusive gradients; the presence of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), meanwhile, gives rise to a temperature-independent condensate spin current. Depending on the thermodynamic bias of the system, spin may flow in either direction across the interface, engendering the possibility of a dynamical phase transition of magnons. We discuss the experimental feasibility of observing a BEC steady state (fomented by a spin Seebeck effect), which is contrasted to the more familiar spin-transfer-induced classical instabilities. PMID:23004301

  1. Percolation analysis of a disordered spinor Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Sk Noor; Basu, Saurabh

    2016-06-01

    We study the effects of an on-site disorder potential in a gas of spinor (spin-1) ultracold atoms loaded in an optical lattice corresponding to both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic spin-dependent interactions. Starting with a disordered spinor Bose–Hubbard model (SBHM) on a two-dimensional square lattice, we observe the appearance of a Bose glass phase using the fraction of the lattice sites having finite superfluid order parameter and non integer local densities as an indicator. A precise distinction between three different types of phases namely, superfluid, Mott insulator and Bose glass is done via a percolation analysis thereby demonstrating that a reliable enumeration of phases is possible at particular values of the parameters of the SBHM. Finally, we present the phase diagram based on the above information for both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic interactions.

  2. Quantum phase transitions in the Fermi-Bose Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, L.D.; Holland, M.J.

    2005-09-15

    We propose a multiband Fermi-Bose Hubbard model with on-site fermion-boson conversion and general filling factor in three dimensions. Such a Hamiltonian models an atomic Fermi gas trapped in a lattice potential and subject to a Feshbach resonance. We solve this model in the two-state approximation for paired fermions at zero temperature. The problem then maps onto a coupled Heisenberg spin model. In the limit of large positive and negative detuning, the quantum phase transitions in the Bose Hubbard and paired-Fermi Hubbard models are correctly reproduced. Near resonance, the Mott states are given by a superposition of the paired-fermion and boson fields and the Mott-superfluid borders go through an avoided crossing in the phase diagram.

  3. Breakdown of Bose-Einstein Distribution in Photonic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Ping-Yuan; Xiong, Heng-Na; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced localized long-lived photon dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine the long-lived non-Markovain dynamics with thermal fluctuations together to form photon states that memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger or much larger than the cavity detuning energy. In this investigation, a crossover phenomenon from equilibrium to nonequilibrium steady states is also revealed. PMID:25822135

  4. Bose Fluids Above Tc: Incompressible Vortex Fluids and ``Supersolidity''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, P. W.

    2008-05-01

    This Letter emphasizes that nonlinear rotational or diamagnetic susceptibility is characteristic of Bose fluids above their superfluid TC’s. For sufficiently slow rotation or, for superconductors, weak B fields, this amounts to an incompressible response to vorticity. The cause is that there are terms missing in the conventionally accepted model Hamiltonian for quantized vortices in the Bose fluid. The resulting susceptibility can account for recent observations of Chan et al. [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-0836 427, 225 (2004); 10.1038/nature02220ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 305, 1941 (2004)10.1126/science.1101501] on solid He and Ong et al. [Europhys. Lett.EULEEJ0295-5075 72, 451 (2005)10.1209/epl/i2005-10254-4] on cuprate superconductors.

  5. Controlling chaos in the Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Cong Fuzhong Wang Zhixia; Hua Hongtu; Pang Shichun; Tong Shouyu

    2012-03-15

    The spatial structure of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is investigated and spatially chaotic distributions of the condensates are revealed. By means of changing the s-wave scattering length with a Feshbach resonance, the chaotic behavior can be well controlled to enter into periodicity. Numerical simulation shows that there are different periodic orbits according to different s-wave scattering lengths only if the Lyapunov exponent of the system is negative.

  6. Symbiotic solitons in heteronuclear multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Beitia, Juan Belmonte

    2005-09-15

    We show that bright solitons exist in quasi-one-dimensional heteronuclear multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates with repulsive self-interaction and attractive interspecies interaction. They are remarkably robust to perturbations of initial data and collisions and can be generated by the mechanism of modulational instability. Some possibilities for control and the behavior of the system in fully three-dimensional scenarios are also discussed.

  7. Electrostatic interaction in plasma with charged bose condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Lepidi, A.

    2012-09-15

    Screening in plasma with Bose-Einstein condensate is studied. Finite temperature effects are taken into account. It is shown that, due to condensate effects, the potential has several unusual features. It contains two oscillating terms, one of which is analogous to the fermionic Friedel oscillations in standard QED, and a power law decreasing term. In the T {yields} 0 limit, only one of the oscillating terms survives. On the whole, any charge impurity is screened more efficiently than in ordinary plasma.

  8. Cooling of a One-Dimensional Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauer, B.; Grišins, P.; Mazets, I. E.; Schweigler, T.; Rohringer, W.; Geiger, R.; Langen, T.; Schmiedmayer, J.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally study the dynamics of a degenerate one-dimensional Bose gas that is subject to a continuous outcoupling of atoms. Although standard evaporative cooling is rendered ineffective by the absence of thermalizing collisions in this system, we observe substantial cooling. This cooling proceeds through homogeneous particle dissipation and many-body dephasing, enabling the preparation of otherwise unexpectedly low temperatures. Our observations establish a scaling relation between temperature and particle number, and provide insights into equilibration in the quantum world.

  9. Bose-Einstein-condensate interferometer with macroscopic arm separation

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, O.; Deissler, B.; Hughes, K. J.; Reeves, J. M.; Sackett, C. A.

    2006-09-15

    A Michelson interferometer using Bose-Einstein condensates is demonstrated with coherence times of up to 44 ms and arm separations up to 180 {mu}m. This arm separation is larger than that observed for any previous atom interferometer. The device uses atoms weakly confined in a magnetic guide and the atomic motion is controlled using Bragg interactions with an off-resonant standing-wave laser beam.

  10. Magnons as a Bose-Einstein Condensate in Nanocrystalline Gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, S. N.; Mathew, S. P.

    2011-06-17

    The recent observation [S. P. Mathew et al., J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 200, 072047 (2010)] of the anomalous softening of spin-wave modes at low temperatures in nanocrystalline gadolinium is interpreted as a Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of magnons. A self-consistent calculation, based on the BEC picture, is shown to closely reproduce the observed temperature variations of magnetization and specific heat at constant magnetic fields.

  11. Spin-Mixing Interferometry with Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabbrielli, Marco; Pezzè, Luca; Smerzi, Augusto

    2015-10-01

    Unstable spinor Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal candidates to create nonlinear three-mode interferometers. Our analysis goes beyond the standard SU(1,1) parametric approach and therefore provides the regime of parameters where sub-shot-noise sensitivities can be reached with respect to the input total average number of particles. Decoherence due to particle losses and finite detection efficiency are also considered.

  12. Bose-condensed atomic systems with nonlocal interaction potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.

    2016-04-01

    The general approach for describing systems with a Bose-Einstein condensate, where atoms interact through nonlocal pair potentials, is presented. Special attention is paid to nonintegrable potentials, such as the dipolar interaction potential. The potentials that are not absolutely integrable can have not well-defined Fourier transforms. Using formally these not defined Fourier transforms leads to unphysical conclusions. To make the Fourier transform well defined, the interaction potential has to be regularised. This is illustrated by the example of dipolar interactions.

  13. Observation of Vortex Phase Singularities in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Inouye, S.; Gupta, S.; Rosenband, T.; Chikkatur, A. P.; Goerlitz, A.; Gustavson, T. L.; Leanhardt, A. E.; Pritchard, D. E.; Ketterle, W.

    2001-08-20

    We have observed phase singularities due to vortex excitation in Bose-Einstein condensates. Vortices were created by moving a laser beam through a condensate. They were observed as dislocations in the interference fringes formed by the stirred condensate and a second unperturbed condensate. The velocity dependence for vortex excitation and the time scale for re-establishing a uniform phase across the condensate were determined.

  14. Spin-Mixing Interferometry with Bose-Einstein Condensates.

    PubMed

    Gabbrielli, Marco; Pezzè, Luca; Smerzi, Augusto

    2015-10-16

    Unstable spinor Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal candidates to create nonlinear three-mode interferometers. Our analysis goes beyond the standard SU(1,1) parametric approach and therefore provides the regime of parameters where sub-shot-noise sensitivities can be reached with respect to the input total average number of particles. Decoherence due to particle losses and finite detection efficiency are also considered. PMID:26550872

  15. Double-degenerate Bose-Fermi mixture of strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Tey, Meng Khoon; Schreck, Florian; Stellmer, Simon; Grimm, Rudolf

    2010-07-15

    We report on the attainment of a spin-polarized Fermi sea of {sup 87}Sr in thermal contact with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of {sup 84}Sr. Interisotope collisions thermalize the fermions with the bosons during evaporative cooling. A degeneracy with T/T{sub F}=0.30(5) is reached for a {sup 87}Sr Fermi sea of 2x10{sup 4} atoms together with an almost pure {sup 84}Sr BEC of 10{sup 5} atoms.

  16. Bose-Einstein Condensation of {sup 84}Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez de Escobar, Y. N.; Mickelson, P. G.; Yan, M.; DeSalvo, B. J.; Nagel, S. B.; Killian, T. C.

    2009-11-13

    We report Bose-Einstein condensation of {sup 84}Sr in an optical dipole trap. Efficient laser cooling on the narrow intercombination line and an ideal s-wave scattering length allow the creation of large condensates (N{sub 0}approx3x10{sup 5}) even though the natural abundance of this isotope is only 0.6%. Condensation is heralded by the emergence of a low-velocity component in time-of-flight images.

  17. Bose-Einstein condensation of {sup 86}Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Stellmer, Simon; Grimm, Rudolf; Tey, Meng Khoon; Schreck, Florian

    2010-10-15

    We report on the attainment of Bose-Einstein condensation of {sup 86}Sr. This isotope has a scattering length of about +800a{sub 0} and thus suffers from fast three-body losses. To avoid detrimental atom loss, evaporative cooling is performed at low densities around 3x10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} in a large volume optical dipole trap. We obtain almost pure condensates of 5x10{sup 3} atoms.

  18. Beyond Spontaneously Broken Symmetry in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, W. J.; Laloee, F.

    2010-04-16

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) for Bose-Einstein condensates cannot treat phase off-diagonal effects, and thus cannot explain Bell inequality violations. We describe another situation that is beyond a SSB treatment: an experiment where particles from two (possibly macroscopic) condensate sources are used for conjugate measurements of the relative phase and populations. Off-diagonal phase effects are characterized by a 'quantum angle' and observed via 'population oscillations', signaling quantum interference of macroscopically distinct states.

  19. Anisotropic Solitons in Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhonenkov, I.; Vardi, A.; Malomed, B. A.

    2008-03-07

    Starting with a Gaussian variational ansatz, we predict anisotropic bright solitons in quasi-2D Bose-Einstein condensates consisting of atoms with dipole moments polarized perpendicular to the confinement direction. Unlike isotropic solitons predicted for the moments aligned with the confinement axis [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 200404 (2005)], no sign reversal of the dipole-dipole interaction is necessary to support the solitons. Direct 3D simulations confirm their stability.

  20. Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, R K; Townsend, L W

    1994-07-01

    Using a fully self-consistent quantum statistical model, we demonstrate the possibility of Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions. The most favorable conditions of high densities and low temperatures are usually associated with astrophysical processes and may be difficult to achieve in heavy ion collisions. Nonetheless, some suggestions for the possible experimental verification of the existence of this phenomenon are made. PMID:9969695

  1. Magnetic solitons in a binary Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chunlei; Pitaevskii, Lev; Stringari, Sandro

    2016-05-01

    Solitons, the fascinating topological excitations of nonlinear systems, have drawn a considerable research interest in many physical branches. Here I will talk about a magnetic soliton solution to a two-component repulsive Bose gas. The properties of the soliton, including the wave function, the energy and the effective mass, will be presented. I will also discuss the oscillation behaviour of the magnetic solitons in a harmonic trap.

  2. Quantum Optomechanics of a Bose-Einstein Antiferromagnet

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, H.; Goldbaum, D. S.; Buchmann, L.; Meystre, P.

    2011-06-03

    We investigate the cavity optomechanical properties of an antiferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate, where the role of the mechanical element is played by spin-wave excitations. We show how this system can be described by a single rotor that can be prepared deep in the quantum regime under realizable experimental conditions. This system provides a bottom-up realization of dispersive rotational optomechanics, and opens the door to the direct observation of quantum spin fluctuations.

  3. Stable Hopf solitons in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidasyuk, Y. M.; Chumachenko, A. V.; Prikhodko, O. O.; Vilchinskii, S. I.; Weyrauch, M.; Yakimenko, A. I.

    2015-11-01

    We reveal that Hopf solitons can be stabilized in rotating atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. The Hopfion is a matter-wave vortex complex which carries two independent winding numbers. Such a topological solitonic structure results from a superfluid flow of atoms simultaneously quantized in poloidal and toroidal directions. In the framework of a dissipative mean-field model we observe different unstable evolution scenarios of the Hopfions. We demonstrate energetic and dynamical stability of the Hopf solitons under experimentally feasible conditions.

  4. Optical properties of LEDs with patterned 1D photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hronec, P.; Kuzma, A.; Å kriniarová, J.; Kováč, J.; Benčurová, A.; Haščík, Å.; Nemec, P.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we focus on the application of the one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PhC) structures on the top of Al0.295Ga0.705As/GaAs multi-quantum well light emitting diode (MQW LED). 1D PhC structures with periods of 600 nm, 700 nm, 800 nm, and 900 nm were fabricated by the E-Beam Direct Write (EBDW) Lithography. Effect of 1D PhC period on the light extraction enhancement was studied. 1D PhC LED radiation profiles were obtained from Near Surface Light Emission Images (NSLEI). Measurements showed the strongest light extraction enhancement using 800 nm period of PhC. Investigation of PhC LED radiation profiles showed strong light decoupling when light reaches PhC structure. Achieved LEE was from 22.6% for 600 nm PhC LED to 47.0% for 800 nm PhC LED. LED with PhC structure at its surface was simulated by FDTD simulation method under excitation of appropriate launch field.

  5. NEW FEATURES OF HYDRUS-1D, VERSION 3.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper briefly summarizes new features in version 3.0 of HYDRUS-1D, released in May 2005, as compared to version 2.1. The new features are a) new approaches to simulate preferential and nonequilibrium water flow and solute transport, b) a new hysteresis module that avoids the effects of pumpin...

  6. A 1D wavelet filtering for ultrasound images despeckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Dubois, Mathieu; Frenoux, Emmanuelle; Osorio, Angel

    2010-03-01

    Ultrasound images appearance is characterized by speckle, shadows, signal dropout and low contrast which make them really difficult to process and leads to a very poor signal to noise ratio. Therefore, for main imaging applications, a denoising step is necessary to apply successfully medical imaging algorithms on such images. However, due to speckle statistics, denoising and enhancing edges on these images without inducing additional blurring is a real challenging problem on which usual filters often fail. To deal with such problems, a large number of papers are working on B-mode images considering that the noise is purely multiplicative. Making such an assertion could be misleading, because of internal pre-processing such as log compression which are done in the ultrasound device. To address those questions, we designed a novel filtering method based on 1D Radiofrequency signal. Indeed, since B-mode images are initially composed of 1D signals and since the log compression made by ultrasound devices modifies noise statistics, we decided to filter directly the 1D Radiofrequency signal envelope before log compression and image reconstitution, in order to conserve as much information as possible. A bi-orthogonal wavelet transform is applied to the log transform of each signal and an adaptive 1D split and merge like algorithm is used to denoise wavelet coefficients. Experiments were carried out on synthetic data sets simulated with Field II simulator and results show that our filter outperforms classical speckle filtering methods like Lee, non-linear means or SRAD filters.

  7. Non-cooperative Brownian donkeys: A solvable 1D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez de Cisneros, B.; Reimann, P.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    A paradigmatic 1D model for Brownian motion in a spatially symmetric, periodic system is tackled analytically. Upon application of an external static force F the system's response is an average current which is positive for F < 0 and negative for F > 0 (absolute negative mobility). Under suitable conditions, the system approaches 100% efficiency when working against the external force F.

  8. 1D design style implications for mask making and CEBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smayling, Michael C.

    2013-09-01

    At advanced nodes, CMOS logic is being designed in a highly regular design style because of the resolution limitations of optical lithography equipment. Logic and memory layouts using 1D Gridded Design Rules (GDR) have been demonstrated to nodes beyond 12nm.[1-4] Smaller nodes will require the same regular layout style but with multiple patterning for critical layers. One of the significant advantages of 1D GDR is the ease of splitting layouts into lines and cuts. A lines and cuts approach has been used to achieve good pattern fidelity and process margin to below 12nm.[4] Line scaling with excellent line-edge roughness (LER) has been demonstrated with self-aligned spacer processing.[5] This change in design style has important implications for mask making: • The complexity of the masks will be greatly reduced from what would be required for 2D designs with very complex OPC or inverse lithography corrections. • The number of masks will initially increase, as for conventional multiple patterning. But in the case of 1D design, there are future options for mask count reduction. • The line masks will remain simple, with little or no OPC, at pitches (1x) above 80nm. This provides an excellent opportunity for continual improvement of line CD and LER. The line pattern will be processed through a self-aligned pitch division sequence to divide pitch by 2 or by 4. • The cut masks can be done with "simple OPC" as demonstrated to beyond 12nm.[6] Multiple simple cut masks may be required at advanced nodes. "Coloring" has been demonstrated to below 12nm for two colors and to 8nm for three colors. • Cut/hole masks will eventually be replaced by e-beam direct write using complementary e-beam lithography (CEBL).[7-11] This transition is gated by the availability of multiple column e-beam systems with throughput adequate for high- volume manufacturing. A brief description of 1D and 2D design styles will be presented, followed by examples of 1D layouts. Mask complexity for 1

  9. Relaxation Dynamics Of Bose-Fermi Doublons In Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Gärttner, Martin; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Wall, Michael L.; Covey, Jacob P.; Moses, Steven A.; Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Fu, Zhengkun; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah S.; Ye, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment at JILA we investigate the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of a dilute Fermi-Bose mixture, starting from a well-defined initial state, where each lattice site is either empty or occupied by a Bose-Fermi doublon. Utilizing analytical techniques and numerical simulations using the t-DRMG method, we identify the leading relaxation mechanisms of the doublons. At short times strong interactions tend to hold the doublons together, as previously reported in similar type of experiments made with identical bosons or two component fermions. Since the fermions feel a much shallower lattice than the bosons, the bosons can be visualized as random localization centers for the fermions. However, at longer times the boson tunneling cannot be ignored and additional decay channels unique to Bose-Fermi mixtures become relevant. While cluster expansion allows us to characterize the short time dynamics for dilute arrays, the long time relaxation dynamics at higher densities is strongly correlated. In this regime exact numerical techniques are employed. JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF-1211914, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.

  10. Phase diagram of the disordered Bose-Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Gurarie, V.; Pollet, L.; Prokof'ev, N. V.; Svistunov, B. V.; Troyer, M.

    2009-12-01

    We establish the phase diagram of the disordered three-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model at unity filling which has been controversial for many years. The theorem of inclusions, proven by Pollet et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 140402 (2009)] states that the Bose-glass phase always intervenes between the Mott insulating and superfluid phases. Here, we note that assumptions on which the theorem is based exclude phase transitions between gapped (Mott insulator) and gapless phases (Bose glass). The apparent paradox is resolved through a unique mechanism: such transitions have to be of the Griffiths type when the vanishing of the gap at the critical point is due to a zero concentration of rare regions where extreme fluctuations of disorder mimic a regular gapless system. An exactly solvable random transverse field Ising model in one dimension is used to illustrate the point. A highly nontrivial overall shape of the phase diagram is revealed with the worm algorithm. The phase diagram features a long superfluid finger at strong disorder and on-site interaction. Moreover, bosonic superfluidity is extremely robust against disorder in a broad range of interaction parameters; it persists in random potentials nearly 50 ({exclamation_point}) times larger than the particle half-bandwidth. Finally, we comment on the feasibility of obtaining this phase diagram in cold-atom experiments, which work with trapped systems at finite temperature.

  11. Bose-Hubbard model on a checkerboard superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskin, Menderes

    2011-05-01

    We study the ground-state phases of the Bose-Hubbard model on a checkerboard superlattice in two dimensions, including the superfluid phase and the Mott and charge-density-wave insulators. First, we discuss the single-particle Hofstadter problem, and show that the presence of a checkerboard superlattice gives rise to a magnetic flux-independent energy gap in the excitation spectrum. Then, we consider the many-particle problem, and derive an analytical mean-field expression for the superfluid-Mott and superfluid-charge-density-wave insulator phase transition boundaries. Finally, since the phase diagram of the Bose-Hubbard model on a checkerboard superlattice is in many ways similar to that of the extended Bose-Hubbard model, we comment on the effects of magnetic field on the latter model, and derive an analytical mean-field expression for the superfluid-insulator phase transition boundaries as well. This work is supported by Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant (FP7-PEOPLE-IRG-2010-268239).

  12. The effect of adiabaticity on strongly quenched Bose Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hong; Kain, Ben

    2015-05-01

    We study the properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate following a deep quench to a large scattering length during which the condensate fraction nc changes with time. We construct a closed set of equations that highlight the role of the adiabaticity or equivalently, dnc/dt, the rate change of nc, which is to induce an (imaginary) effective interaction between quasiparticles. We show analytically that such a system supports a steady state characterized by a constant condensate density and a steady but periodically changing momentum distribution, whose time average is described exactly by the generalized Gibbs ensemble. We discuss how the nc -induced effective interaction, which cannot be ignored on the grounds of the adiabatic approximation for modes near the gapless Goldstone mode, can significantly affect condensate populations and Tan's contact for a Bose gas that has undergone a deep quench. In particular, we find that even when the Bose gas is quenched to unitarity, nc(t) does not completely deplete, approaching, instead, to a steady state with a finite condensate fraction. ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; KITP, University of Santa Barbara.

  13. Quantum gases in trimerized kagomé lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damski, B.; Fehrmann, H.; Everts, H.-U.; Baranov, M.; Santos, L.; Lewenstein, M.

    2005-11-01

    We study low-temperature properties of atomic gases in trimerized optical kagomé lattices. The laser arrangements that can be used to create these lattices are briefly described. We also present explicit results for the coupling constants of the generalized Hubbard models that can be realized in such lattices. In the case of a single-component Bose gas the existence of a Mott insulator phase with fractional numbers of particles per trimer is verified in a mean-field approach. The main emphasis of the paper is on an atomic spinless interacting Fermi gas in the trimerized kagomé lattice with two fermions per site. This system is shown to be described by a quantum spin- 1/2 model on the triangular lattice with couplings that depend on the bond directions. We investigate this model by means of exact diagonalization. Our key finding is that the system exhibits nonstandard properties of a quantum spin-liquid crystal: it combines planar antiferromagnetic order in the ground state with an exceptionally large number of low-energy excitations. The possibilities of experimental verification of our theoretical results are critically discussed.

  14. Numerical simulations of heavily polluted fine-grained sediment remobilization using 1D, 1D+, and 2D channel schematization.

    PubMed

    Kaiglová, Jana; Langhammer, Jakub; Jiřinec, Petr; Janský, Bohumír; Chalupová, Dagmar

    2015-03-01

    This article used various hydrodynamic and sediment transport models to analyze the potential and the limits of different channel schematizations. The main aim was to select and evaluate the most suitable simulation method for fine-grained sediment remobilization assessment. Three types of channel schematization were selected to study the flow potential for remobilizing fine-grained sediment in artificially modified channels. Schematization with a 1D cross-sectional horizontal plan, a 1D+ approach, splitting the riverbed into different functional zones, and full 2D mesh, adopted in MIKE by the DHI modeling suite, was applied to the study. For the case study, a 55-km stretch of the Bílina River, in the Czech Republic, Central Europe, which has been heavily polluted by the chemical and coal mining industry since the mid-twentieth century, was selected. Long-term exposure to direct emissions of toxic pollutants including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) resulted in deposits of pollutants in fine-grained sediments in the riverbed. Simulations, based on three hydrodynamic model schematizations, proved that for events not exceeding the extent of the riverbed profile, the 1D schematization can provide comparable results to a 2D model. The 1D+ schematization can improve accuracy while keeping the benefits of high-speed simulation and low requirements of input DEM data, but the method's suitability is limited by the channel properties. PMID:25687259

  15. Efficient all-optical production of large Li6 quantum gases using D1 gray-molasses cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchianti, A.; Valtolina, G.; Seman, J. A.; Pace, E.; De Pas, M.; Inguscio, M.; Zaccanti, M.; Roati, G.

    2014-10-01

    We use a gray molasses operating on the D1 atomic transition to produce degenerate quantum gases of Li6 with a large number of atoms. This sub-Doppler cooling phase allows us to lower the initial temperature of 109 atoms from 500 to 40 μK in 2 ms. We observe that D1 cooling remains effective into a high-intensity infrared dipole trap where two-state mixtures are evaporated to reach the degenerate regime. We produce molecular Bose-Einstein condensates of up to 5 × 105 molecules and weakly interacting degenerate Fermi gases of 7×105 atoms at T /TF<0.1 with a typical experimental duty cycle of 11 s.

  16. Abating environmentally harmful waste gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, S.; Sichen, Du; Pal, U. B.; Seetharaman, S.

    2002-05-01

    A gas-purification method, based on the condensation of nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon-containing environmentally hazardous gases produced from industrial processes, is proposed in this article. The method, which utilizes the cooling capacity of waste nitrogen in the oxygen plant to condense the hazardous gases, is capable of removing hazardous impurities up to 99.98%. Theoretical calculations underlying the condensation process are presented employing gases produced in a blast furnace and coke oven in an integrated steel plant. The cooling power required for the condensation process is calculated using the waste nitrogen generated from an oxygen plant that generates captive oxygen for the steel plant. Design modifications that need to be made to the oxygen plant in order to utilize the cooling power of the waste nitrogen gas are also presented. As a case study, the advantages of the method are illustrated with purification of coke-oven gas. The economic impact and the investment aspects are also discussed.

  17. Coherence and Squeezing of Bose-Einstein Condensates in Double Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiao-jie

    2016-05-01

    We investigate coherence and squeezing of a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a double-well potential. By analytically deriving the form of coherence and numerically calculating the squeezing parameter, we show that the coherence and the squeezing may be controlled by adjusting some parameters of the two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate.

  18. 1D Josephson quantum interference grids: diffraction patterns and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucci, M.; Badoni, D.; Corato, V.; Merlo, V.; Ottaviani, I.; Salina, G.; Cirillo, M.; Ustinov, A. V.; Winkler, D.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the magnetic response of transmission lines with embedded Josephson junctions and thus generating a 1D underdamped array. The measured multi-junction interference patterns are compared with the theoretical predictions for Josephson supercurrent modulations when an external magnetic field couples both to the inter-junction loops and to the junctions themselves. The results provide a striking example of the analogy between Josephson phase modulation and 1D optical diffraction grid. The Fiske resonances in the current-voltage characteristics with voltage spacing {Φ0}≤ft(\\frac{{\\bar{c}}}{2L}\\right) , where L is the total physical length of the array, {Φ0} the magnetic flux quantum and \\bar{c} the speed of light in the transmission line, demonstrate that the discrete line supports stable dynamic patterns generated by the ac Josephson effect interacting with the cavity modes of the line.

  19. A Bayesian Algorithm for Reading 1D Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Ender; Coughlan, James

    2010-01-01

    The 1D barcode is a ubiquitous labeling technology, with symbologies such as UPC used to label approximately 99% of all packaged goods in the US. It would be very convenient for consumers to be able to read these barcodes using portable cameras (e.g. mobile phones), but the limited quality and resolution of images taken by these cameras often make it difficult to read the barcodes accurately. We propose a Bayesian framework for reading 1D barcodes that models the shape and appearance of barcodes, allowing for geometric distortions and image noise, and exploiting the redundant information contained in the parity digit. An important feature of our framework is that it doesn’t require that every barcode edge be detected in the image. Experiments on a publicly available dataset of barcode images explore the range of images that are readable, and comparisons with two commercial readers demonstrate the superior performance of our algorithm. PMID:20428491

  20. Morphodynamics and sediment tracers in 1-D (MAST-1D): 1-D sediment transport that includes exchange with an off-channel sediment reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, J. Wesley; Viparelli, Enrica; Piégay, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Bed material transported in geomorphically active gravel bed rivers often has a local source at nearby eroding banks and ends up sequestered in bars not far downstream. However, most 1-D numerical models for gravel transport assume that gravel originates from and deposits on the channel bed. In this paper, we present a 1-D framework for simulating morphodynamic evolution of bed elevation and size distribution in a gravel-bed river that actively exchanges sediment with its floodplain, which is represented as an off-channel sediment reservoir. The model is based on the idea that sediment enters the channel at eroding banks whose elevation depends on total floodplain sediment storage and on the average elevation of the floodplain relative to the channel bed. Lateral erosion of these banks occurs at a specified rate that can represent either net channel migration or channel widening. Transfer of material out of the channel depends on a typical bar thickness and a specified lateral exchange rate due either to net channel migration or narrowing. The model is implemented using an object oriented framework that allows users to explore relationships between bank supply, bed structure, and lateral change rates. It is applied to a ∼50-km reach of the Ain River, France, that experienced significant reduction in sediment supply due to dam construction during the 20th century. Results are strongly sensitive to lateral exchange rates, showing that in this reach, the supply of sand and gravel at eroding banks and the sequestration of gravel in point bars can have strong influence on overall reach-scale sediment budgets.

  1. Damping of condensate oscillations of a trapped Bose gas in a one-dimensional optical lattice at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arahata, Emiko; Nikuni, Tetsuro

    2008-03-01

    We study damping of the dipole oscillation in a Bose-condensed gas in a combined cigar-shaped harmonic trap and one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice potential at finite temperatures. In order to include the effect of thermal excitations in the radial direction, we derive a quasi-1D model of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and the Bogoliubov equations. We use the Popov approximation to calculate the temperature dependence of the condensate fraction with varying lattice depth. We then calculate the Landau damping rate of the dipole oscillation as a function of the lattice depth and temperature. The damping rate increases with increasing lattice depth, which is consistent with experimental observations. The magnitude of the damping rate is in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We also find that the damping rate has a strong temperature dependence, showing a sharp increase with increasing temperature. Finally, we emphasize the importance of the radial thermal excitations in both equilibrium properties and the Landau damping.

  2. Soliton and phonon production by an oscillating obstacle in a quasi-one-dimensional trapped repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Radouani, Abdelaziz

    2004-07-01

    We use the one-dimensional (1D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation to investigate the dynamical evolution of a dilute repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) confined in an elongated static nonharmonic trap and stirred by an oscillating Gaussian obstacle moving at uniform speed in alternate direction. Direct numerical solutions of this equation show that above a critical obstacle velocity, the motion of the obstacle creates gray solitons and phonons. At first, when the velocity of the obstacle increases, the dissipation also increases. But the dissipation reaches a maximal value and then decreases dramatically and vanishes at high obstacle velocities. Our results at low obstacle velocities are similar to those previously obtained experimentally and by simulations in the case of vortice and phonon production in 3D and 2D trapped repulsive BEC's. But at high obstacle velocities, we show that the quasi-1D trapped repulsive BEC behaves as a quasisuperfluid medium with disappearance of gray soliton and phonon excitations. This extends previous results and provides the main dependence of the phenomenon on the obstacle characteristics.

  3. Mesoscopic effects in quantum phases of ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, L. D.; Schirmer, D. G.; Wall, M. L.; Brown, R. C.; Williams, J. E.; Clark, Charles W.

    2010-01-15

    We present a wide array of quantum measures on numerical solutions of one-dimensional Bose- and Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonians for finite-size systems with open boundary conditions. Finite-size effects are highly relevant to ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, where an external trap creates smaller effective regions in the form of the celebrated 'wedding cake' structure and the local density approximation is often not applicable. Specifically, for the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian we calculate number, quantum depletion, local von Neumann entropy, generalized entanglement or Q measure, fidelity, and fidelity susceptibility; for the Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian we also calculate the pairing correlations, magnetization, charge-density correlations, and antiferromagnetic structure factor. Our numerical method is imaginary time propagation via time-evolving block decimation. As part of our study we provide a careful comparison of canonical versus grand canonical ensembles and Gutzwiller versus entangled simulations. The most striking effect of finite size occurs for bosons: we observe a strong blurring of the tips of the Mott lobes accompanied by higher depletion, and show how the location of the first Mott lobe tip approaches the thermodynamic value as a function of system size.

  4. Auxiliary field formalism for dilute fermionic atom gases with tunable interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaila, Bogdan; Chien, Chih-Chun; Timmermans, Eddy; Dawson, John F.; Cooper, Fred

    2011-05-15

    We develop the auxiliary field formalism corresponding to a dilute system of spin-1/2 fermions. This theory represents the Fermi counterpart of the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) theory developed recently by F. Cooper et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 240402 (2010)] to describe a dilute gas of Bose particles. Assuming tunable interactions, this formalism is appropriate for the study of the crossover from the regime of Bardeen-Cooper-Schriffer (BCS) pairing to the regime of BEC in ultracold fermionic atom gases. We show that when applied to the Fermi case at zero temperature, the leading-order auxiliary field (LOAF) approximation gives the same equations as obtained in the standard BCS variational picture. At finite temperature, LOAF leads to the theory discussed by Sa de Melo, Randeria, and Engelbrecht [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3202 (1993); Phys. Rev. B 55, 15153 (1997)]. As such, LOAF provides a unified framework to study the interacting Fermi gas. The mean-field results discussed here can be systematically improved on by calculating the one-particle irreducible action corrections, order by order.

  5. Mesoscopic effects in quantum phases of ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, L. D.; Wall, M. L.; Schirmer, D. G.; Brown, R. C.; Williams, J. E.; Clark, Charles W.

    2010-01-01

    We present a wide array of quantum measures on numerical solutions of one-dimensional Bose- and Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonians for finite-size systems with open boundary conditions. Finite-size effects are highly relevant to ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, where an external trap creates smaller effective regions in the form of the celebrated “wedding cake” structure and the local density approximation is often not applicable. Specifically, for the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian we calculate number, quantum depletion, local von Neumann entropy, generalized entanglement or Q measure, fidelity, and fidelity susceptibility; for the Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian we also calculate the pairing correlations, magnetization, charge-density correlations, and antiferromagnetic structure factor. Our numerical method is imaginary time propagation via time-evolving block decimation. As part of our study we provide a careful comparison of canonical versus grand canonical ensembles and Gutzwiller versus entangled simulations. The most striking effect of finite size occurs for bosons: we observe a strong blurring of the tips of the Mott lobes accompanied by higher depletion, and show how the location of the first Mott lobe tip approaches the thermodynamic value as a function of system size.

  6. Waves in a 1D electrorheological dusty plasma lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M.

    2015-08-01

    The behavior of waves in a one-dimensional (1D) dusty plasma lattice where the dust interacts via Yukawa and electric dipole interactions is discussed theoretically. This study is motivated by recent reports on electrorheological dusty plasmas (e.g. Ivlev et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 095003) where the dipole interaction arises due to an external uniaxial AC electric field that distorts the Debye sphere surrounding each grain. Application to possible dusty plasma experimental parameters is discussed.

  7. Nonreciprocity of edge modes in 1D magnonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenkov, I.; Kalyabin, D.; Osokin, S.; Klos, J. W.; Krawczyk, M.; Nikitov, S.

    2015-03-01

    Spin waves propagation in 1D magnonic crystals is investigated theoretically. Mathematical model based on plane wave expansion method is applied to different types of magnonic crystals, namely bi-component magnonic crystal with symmetric/asymmetric boundaries and ferromagnetic film with periodically corrugated top surface. It is shown that edge modes in magnonic crystals may exhibit nonreciprocal behaviour at much lower frequencies than in homogeneous films.

  8. Isothermal compressors for process gases

    SciTech Connect

    Wiederuh, E.; Meinhart, D. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports on isothermal compressors which are more efficient for all gases. The study of several representative gases considered stage efficiencies, pressure ratios and pressure losses of the intercoolers. Generally there are two ways to reduce power consumption of a gas compression process: minimize losses of the compressor or improve the thermodynamics of the process. But there are some new ways to reduce losses of turbocompressors. Losses of the impeller labyrinth seals and the balance piston labyrinth seal can be reduced by optimizing the labyrinth geometry and minimizing labyrinth clearances. Therefore, conventional labyrinth seals are still being studied and will be improved.

  9. Conduction of Electricity through Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, J. J.; Thomson, G. P.

    2013-06-01

    1. Electrical conductivity of gases in a normal state; 2. Properties of a gas when in a conducting state; 3. Mobility of ions; 4. Mathematical theory of the conduction of electricity through a gas containing ions; 5. Effect produced by a magnetic field on the motion of the ions; 6. Determination of the ratio of the charge to the mass of an ion; 7. Determination of the charge carried by the negative ion; 8. On some physical properties of gaseous ions; 9. Ionisation by incandescent solids; 10. Ionisation in gases from flames; 11. Ionisation by light. Photo-electric effects; Name index; Subject index.

  10. Quantum Gases in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmettler, Peter; Kollath, Corinna

    2015-09-01

    The experimental realization of correlated quantum phases with ultracold gases in optical lattices and their theoretical understanding has witnessed remarkable progress during the last decade. In this review we introduce basic concepts and tools to describe the many-body physics of quantum gases in optical lattices. This includes the derivation of effective lattice Hamiltonians from first principles and an overview of the emerging quantum phases. Additionally, state-of-the-art numerical tools to quantitatively treat bosons or fermions on different lattices are introduced.

  11. Constructing 3D interaction maps from 1D epigenomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun; Chen, Zhao; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Mengchi; Medovoy, David; Whitaker, John W.; Ding, Bo; Li, Nan; Zheng, Lina; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The human genome is tightly packaged into chromatin whose functional output depends on both one-dimensional (1D) local chromatin states and three-dimensional (3D) genome organization. Currently, chromatin modifications and 3D genome organization are measured by distinct assays. An emerging question is whether it is possible to deduce 3D interactions by integrative analysis of 1D epigenomic data and associate 3D contacts to functionality of the interacting loci. Here we present EpiTensor, an algorithm to identify 3D spatial associations within topologically associating domains (TADs) from 1D maps of histone modifications, chromatin accessibility and RNA-seq. We demonstrate that active promoter–promoter, promoter–enhancer and enhancer–enhancer associations identified by EpiTensor are highly concordant with those detected by Hi-C, ChIA-PET and eQTL analyses at 200 bp resolution. Moreover, EpiTensor has identified a set of interaction hotspots, characterized by higher chromatin and transcriptional activity as well as enriched TF and ncRNA binding across diverse cell types, which may be critical for stabilizing the local 3D interactions. PMID:26960733

  12. Development of 1D Liner Compression Code for IDL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    A 1D liner compression code is developed to model liner implosion dynamics in the Inductively Driven Liner Experiment (IDL) where FRC plasmoid is compressed via inductively-driven metal liners. The driver circuit, magnetic field, joule heating, and liner dynamics calculations are performed at each time step in sequence to couple these effects in the code. To obtain more realistic magnetic field results for a given drive coil geometry, 2D and 3D effects are incorporated into the 1D field calculation through use of correction factor table lookup approach. Commercial low-frequency electromagnetic fields solver, ANSYS Maxwell 3D, is used to solve the magnetic field profile for static liner condition at various liner radius in order to derive correction factors for the 1D field calculation in the code. The liner dynamics results from the code is verified to be in good agreement with the results from commercial explicit dynamics solver, ANSYS Explicit Dynamics, and previous liner experiment. The developed code is used to optimize the capacitor bank and driver coil design for better energy transfer and coupling. FRC gain calculations are also performed using the liner compression data from the code for the conceptual design of the reactor sized system for fusion energy gains.

  13. Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiencies through 1-D Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The current global energy problem can be attributed to insufficient fossil fuel supplies and excessive greenhouse gas emissions resulting from increasing fossil fuel consumption. The huge demand for clean energy potentially can be met by solar-to-electricity conversions. The large-scale use of solar energy is not occurring due to the high cost and inadequate efficiencies of existing solar cells. Nanostructured materials have offered new opportunities to design more efficient solar cells, particularly one-dimensional (1-D) nanomaterials for enhancing solar cell efficiencies. These 1-D nanostructures, including nanotubes, nanowires, and nanorods, offer significant opportunities to improve efficiencies of solar cells by facilitating photon absorption, electron transport, and electron collection; however, tremendous challenges must be conquered before the large-scale commercialization of such cells. This review specifically focuses on the use of 1-D nanostructures for enhancing solar cell efficiencies. Other nanostructured solar cells or solar cells based on bulk materials are not covered in this review. Major topics addressed include dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells, and p-n junction solar cells.

  14. Examining Prebiotic Chemistry Using O(^1D) Insertion Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Brian M.; Laas, Jacob C.; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus

    2013-06-01

    Aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol are all prebiotic molecules expected to form via photo-driven grain surface chemistry in the interstellar medium (ISM). These molecules are expected to be precursors for larger, biologically-relevant molecules in the ISM such as sugars and amino acids. These three molecules have not yet been detected in the ISM because of the lack of available rotational spectra. A high resolution (sub)millimeter spectrometer coupled to a molecular source is being used to study these molecules using O(^1D) insertion reactions. The O(^1D) chemistry is initiated using an excimer laser, and the products of the insertion reactions are adiabatically cooled using a supersonic expansion. Experimental parameters are being optimized by examination of methanol formed from O(^1D) insertion into methane. Theoretical studies of the structure and reaction energies for aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol have been conducted to guide the laboratory studies once the methanol experiment has been optimized. The results of the calculations and initial experimental results will be presented.

  15. Localization of a Bose-Fermi mixture in a bichromatic optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yongshan; Adhikari, S. K.

    2011-08-01

    We study the localization of a cigar-shaped superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture in a quasiperiodic bichromatic optical lattice (OL) for interspecies attraction and intraspecies repulsion. The mixture is described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the bosons, coupled to a hydrodynamic mean-field equation for fermions at unitarity. We confirm the existence of the symbiotic localized states in the Bose-Fermi mixture and Anderson localization of the Bose component in the interacting Bose-Fermi mixture on a bichromatic OL. The phase diagram in boson and fermion numbers showing the regions of the symbiotic and Anderson localization of the Bose component is presented. Finally, the stability of symbiotic and Anderson localized states is established under small perturbations.

  16. Localization of a Bose-Fermi mixture in a bichromatic optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Yongshan; Adhikari, S. K.

    2011-08-15

    We study the localization of a cigar-shaped superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture in a quasiperiodic bichromatic optical lattice (OL) for interspecies attraction and intraspecies repulsion. The mixture is described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the bosons, coupled to a hydrodynamic mean-field equation for fermions at unitarity. We confirm the existence of the symbiotic localized states in the Bose-Fermi mixture and Anderson localization of the Bose component in the interacting Bose-Fermi mixture on a bichromatic OL. The phase diagram in boson and fermion numbers showing the regions of the symbiotic and Anderson localization of the Bose component is presented. Finally, the stability of symbiotic and Anderson localized states is established under small perturbations.

  17. Competing orders in a dipolar Bose-Fermi mixture on a square optical lattice: mean-field perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaramazza, Jasen A.; Kain, Ben; Ling, Hong Y.

    2016-07-01

    We consider a mixture of a two-component Fermi gas and a single-component dipolar Bose gas in a square optical lattice and reduce it into an effective Fermi system where the Fermi-Fermi interaction includes the attractive interaction induced by the phonons of a uniform dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate. Focusing on this effective Fermi system in the parameter regime that preserves the symmetry of D4, the point group of a square, we explore, within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field theory, the phase competition among density wave orderings and superfluid pairings. We construct the matrix representation of the linearized gap equation in the irreducible representations of D4. We show that in the weak coupling regime, each matrix element, which is a four-dimensional (4D) integral in momentum space, can be put in a separable form involving a 1D integral, which is only a function of temperature and the chemical potential, and a pairing-specific "effective" interaction, which is an analytical function of the parameters that characterize the Fermi-Fermi interactions in our system. We analyze the critical temperatures of various competing orders as functions of different system parameters in both the absence and presence of the dipolar interaction. We find that close to half filling, the dx2 - y2-wave pairing with a critical temperature in the order of a fraction of Fermi energy (at half filling) may dominate all other phases, and at a higher filling factor, the p-wave pairing with a critical temperature in the order of a hundredth of Fermi energy may emerge as a winner. We find that tuning a dipolar interaction can dramatically enhance the pairings with dxy- and g-wave symmetries but not enough for them to dominate other competing phases.

  18. Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases.

    PubMed

    Ivory, M K; Ziltz, A R; Fancher, C T; Pyle, A J; Sensharma, A; Chase, B; Field, J P; Garcia, A; Jervis, D; Aubin, S

    2014-04-01

    We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold (87)Rb and (39)K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 10(4) (87)Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold (39)K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems. PMID:24784588

  19. Trap losses induced by near-resonant Rydberg dressing of cold atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aman, J. A.; DeSalvo, B. J.; Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2016-04-01

    The near-resonant dressing of cold strontium gases and Bose-Einstein condensates contained in an optical dipole trap (ODT) with the 5 s 30 s S31 Rydberg state is investigated as a function of the effective two-photon Rabi frequency, detuning, and dressing time. The measurements demonstrate that a rapid decrease in the ground-state atom population in the ODT occurs even for weak dressing and when well detuned from resonance. This decrease is attributed to Rydberg atom excitation, which can lead to direct escape from the trap and to population of very long-lived 5 s 5 p 0, 2 3P metastable states. The effects of interactions between Rydberg atoms, including those populated by blackbody radiation, are analyzed. The work has important implications when considering the use of Rydberg dressing to control the interactions between dressed ground-state atoms.

  20. Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ivory, M. K.; Ziltz, A. R.; Fancher, C. T.; Pyle, A. J.; Sensharma, A.; Chase, B.; Field, J. P.; Garcia, A.; Aubin, S.; Jervis, D.

    2014-04-15

    We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold {sup 87}Rb and {sup 39}K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 10{sup 4} {sup 87}Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold {sup 39}K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems.

  1. Magnetic properties of spin-1/2 Fermi gases with ferromagnetic interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baobao; Qin, Jihong; Guo, Huaiming

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of spin-1/2 charged Fermi gases with ferromagnetic coupling via mean-field theory, and find the interplay among the paramagnetism, diamagnetism and ferromagnetism. Paramagnetism and diamagnetism compete with each other. When increasing the ferromagnetic coupling the spontaneous magnetization occurs in a weak magnetic field. The critical ferromagnetic coupling constant of the paramagnetic phase to ferromagnetic phase transition increases linearly with the temperature. Both the paramagnetism and diamagnetism increase when the magnetic field increases. It reveals the magnetization density bar M increases firstly as the temperature increases, and then reaches a maximum. Finally the magnetization density bar M decreases smoothly in the high temperature region. The domed shape of the magnetization density bar M variation is different from the behavior of Bose gas with ferromagnetic coupling. We also find the curve of susceptibility follows the Curie-Weiss law, and for a given temperature the susceptibility is directly proportional to the Landé factor.

  2. Interaction quenches of Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, Goetz S.

    2009-12-15

    It is shown that the jump in the momentum distribution of Fermi gases evolves smoothly for small and intermediate times once an interaction between the fermions is suddenly switched on. The jump does not vanish abruptly. The loci in momentum space where the jumps occur are those of the noninteracting Fermi sea. No relaxation of the Fermi surface geometry takes place.

  3. Comparing and contrasting nuclei and cold atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinner, N. T.; Jensen, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    The experimental revolution in ultracold atomic gas physics over the past decades has brought tremendous amounts of new insight to the world of degenerate quantum systems. Here we compare and contrast the developments of cold atomic gases with the physics of nuclei since many concepts, techniques, and nomenclatures are common to both fields. However, nuclei are finite systems with interactions that are typically much more complicated than those of ultracold atomic gases. The similarities and differences must therefore be carefully addressed for a meaningful comparison and to facilitate fruitful crossdisciplinary activity. We first consider condensates of bosonic and paired systems of fermionic particles with the mean-field description, but take great care to point out potential problems in the limit of small particle numbers. Along the way we review some of the basic results of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory, as well as the BCS-BEC crossover and the Fermi gas in the unitarity limit, all within the context of ultracold atoms. Subsequently, we consider the specific example of an atomic Fermi gas from a nuclear physics perspective, comparing degrees of freedom, interactions, and relevant length and energy scales of cold atoms and nuclei. Next we address some attempts in nuclear physics to transfer the concepts of condensates in nuclei that can in principle be built from bosonic alpha-particle constituents. We also consider Efimov physics, a prime example of nuclear physics transferred to cold atoms, and consider which systems are more likely to show interesting bound state spectra. Finally, we address some recent studies of the BCS-BEC crossover in light nuclei and compare them to the concepts used in ultracold atomic gases. While many-body concepts such as BEC or BCS states are applicable in both subfields, we find that the interactions and finite particle numbers in nuclei can obscure the clear meaning they have in cold

  4. Experiments on hydrodynamic transport in ultra-cold bose gasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, S. B.

    2012-09-01

    At temperatures near the absolut zero, a gas, here atomic sodium vapour, with high enough density cannot be described as tiny balls moving around as in classical physics. Since the temperature is low, the atoms are so slow that the matterwave of each atom starts to extend over the size of the atom and even over the interatomic distance. Therefore, they start to interfere like waves. Quantum mechanics start to dominate the physics in this regime. Further, depending on the sort of atoms (bosons or fermions) the atoms prefer to be in the same state or avoid to be in the same state. In the case of bosons as in the thesis, if the temperature is lowered to sub micro Kelvin temperature, a new state of matter appears after a phase transition - a macroscopic, standing wave, the Bose-Einstein condensate. This leads to a new phenomena: superfluidity - frictionless flow, second sound, vorticity and coherent scattering effects to name a few. The atoms are trapped in a elongated trap as in most of the experiments in ultra cold gasses. Usually experiments are done in a regime where the atoms seldomly collide with each other while travelling from one end to the other end of the cloud. In this experiment, however, the atoms collide many times with each other when they oscillate in the trap. This means that the cloud is hydrodynamic and leads to a very different behaviour. Two different sound waves (first and second sound), heat conduction, and collisional dominated transport can be observed in this case. The fact that the gas is weakly interacting allows comparison with current theory. At very low temperatures as in the experiments described in the thesis, the Bose character strongly alters the collisions of the atoms. The outcome of the collision does not only depend on the colliding atoms, but also on the atoms near by in phase space. The experiments outlined in this thesis cover some aspects of physics involved. Vortices have been created and observed in the Bose

  5. Quantum fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    DOE PAGESBeta

    He, Lianyi; Lu, Haifeng; Cao, Gaoqing; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia -Ji

    2015-08-14

    We present a theoretical study of the ground state of the BCS-BEC crossover in dilute two-dimensional Fermi gases. While the mean-field theory provides a simple and analytical equation of state, the pressure is equal to that of a noninteracting Fermi gas in the entire BCS-BEC crossover, which is not consistent with the features of a weakly interacting Bose condensate in the BEC limit and a weakly interacting Fermi liquid in the BCS limit. The inadequacy of the two-dimensional mean-field theory indicates that the quantum fluctuations are much more pronounced than those in three dimensions. In this work, we show thatmore » the inclusion of the Gaussian quantum fluctuations naturally recovers the above features in both the BEC and the BCS limits. In the BEC limit, the missing logarithmic dependence on the boson chemical potential is recovered by the quantum fluctuations. Near the quantum phase transition from the vacuum to the BEC phase, we compare our equation of state with the known grand canonical equation of state of two-dimensional Bose gases and determine the ratio of the composite boson scattering length aB to the fermion scattering length a2D. We find aB ≃ 0.56a2D, in good agreement with the exact four-body calculation. As a result, we compare our equation of state in the BCS-BEC crossover with recent results from the quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements and find good agreements.« less

  6. Quantum fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    He, Lianyi; Lu, Haifeng; Cao, Gaoqing; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia -Ji

    2015-08-14

    We present a theoretical study of the ground state of the BCS-BEC crossover in dilute two-dimensional Fermi gases. While the mean-field theory provides a simple and analytical equation of state, the pressure is equal to that of a noninteracting Fermi gas in the entire BCS-BEC crossover, which is not consistent with the features of a weakly interacting Bose condensate in the BEC limit and a weakly interacting Fermi liquid in the BCS limit. The inadequacy of the two-dimensional mean-field theory indicates that the quantum fluctuations are much more pronounced than those in three dimensions. In this work, we show that the inclusion of the Gaussian quantum fluctuations naturally recovers the above features in both the BEC and the BCS limits. In the BEC limit, the missing logarithmic dependence on the boson chemical potential is recovered by the quantum fluctuations. Near the quantum phase transition from the vacuum to the BEC phase, we compare our equation of state with the known grand canonical equation of state of two-dimensional Bose gases and determine the ratio of the composite boson scattering length aB to the fermion scattering length a2D. We find aB ≃ 0.56a2D, in good agreement with the exact four-body calculation. As a result, we compare our equation of state in the BCS-BEC crossover with recent results from the quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements and find good agreements.

  7. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms (NPO-30232) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 10a. A photonic crystal is an optical component that has a periodic structure comprising two dielectric materials with high dielectric contrast (e.g., a semiconductor and air), with geometrical feature sizes comparable to or smaller than light wavelengths of interest. Experimental superprisms have been realized as photonic crystals having three-dimensional (3D) structures comprising regions of amorphous Si alternating with regions of SiO2, fabricated in a complex process that included sputtering. A photonic crystal of the type to be exploited according to the present proposal is said to be one-dimensional (1D) because its contrasting dielectric materials would be stacked in parallel planar layers; in other words, there would be spatial periodicity in one dimension only. The processes of designing and fabricating 1D photonic crystal superprisms would be simpler and, hence, would cost less than do those for 3D photonic crystal superprisms. As in 3D structures, 1D photonic crystals may be used in applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing. In the extended-range configuration, it is also suitable for spectrometry applications. As an engineered structure or artificially engineered material, a photonic crystal can exhibit optical properties not commonly found in natural substances. Prior research had revealed several classes of photonic crystal structures for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden in certain frequency ranges, denoted photonic bandgaps. It had also been found that in narrow frequency bands just outside the photonic bandgaps, the angular wavelength dispersion of electromagnetic waves propagating in photonic crystal superprisms is much stronger than is the angular wavelength dispersion obtained

  8. Non-linearity in Bayesian 1-D magnetotelluric inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rongwen; Dosso, Stan E.; Liu, Jianxin; Dettmer, Jan; Tong, Xiaozhong

    2011-05-01

    This paper applies a Bayesian approach to examine non-linearity for the 1-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse problem. In a Bayesian formulation the posterior probability density (PPD), which combines data and prior information, is interpreted in terms of parameter estimates and uncertainties, which requires optimizing and integrating the PPD. Much work on 1-D MT inversion has been based on (approximate) linearized solutions, but more recently fully non-linear (numerical) approaches have been applied. This paper directly compares results of linearized and non-linear uncertainty estimation for 1-D MT inversion; to do so, advanced methods for both approaches are applied. In the non-linear formulation used here, numerical optimization is carried out using an adaptive-hybrid algorithm. Numerical integration applies Metropolis-Hastings sampling, rotated to a principal-component parameter space for efficient sampling of correlated parameters, and employing non-unity sampling temperatures to ensure global sampling. Since appropriate model parametrizations are generally not known a priori, both under- and overparametrized approaches are considered. For underparametrization, the Bayesian information criterion is applied to determine the number of layers consistent with the resolving power of the data. For overparametrization, prior information is included which favours simple structure in a manner similar to regularized inversion. The data variance and/or trade-off parameter regulating data and prior information are treated in several ways, including applying fixed optimal estimates (an empirical Bayesian approach) or including them as hyperparameters in the sampling (hierarchical Bayesian). The latter approach has the benefit of accounting for the uncertainty in the hyperparameters in estimating model parameter uncertainties. Non-linear and linearized inversion results are compared for synthetic test cases and for the measured COPROD1 MT data by considering marginal probability

  9. Spatial coherence of polaritons in a 1D channel

    SciTech Connect

    Savenko, I. G.; Iorsh, I. V.; Kaliteevski, M. A.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2013-01-15

    We analyze time evolution of spatial coherence of a polariton ensemble in a quantum wire (1D channel) under constant uniform resonant pumping. Using the theoretical approach based on the Lindblad equation for a one-particle density matrix, which takes into account the polariton-phonon and excitonexciton interactions, we study the behavior of the first-order coherence function g{sup 1} for various pump intensities and temperatures in the range of 1-20 K. Bistability and hysteresis in the dependence of the first-order coherence function on the pump intensity is demonstrated.

  10. Structural stability of a 1D compressible viscoelastic fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Xiaokai; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with a compressible viscoelastic fluid model proposed by Öttinger. Although the model has a convex entropy, the Hessian matrix of the entropy does not symmetrize the system of first-order partial differential equations due to the non-conservative terms in the constitutive equation. We show that the corresponding 1D model is symmetrizable hyperbolic and dissipative and satisfies the Kawashima condition. Based on these, we prove the global existence of smooth solutions near equilibrium and justify the compatibility of the model with the Navier-Stokes equations.

  11. Phthalocyanine based 1D nanowires for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Rajan; Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.

    2012-06-01

    1D nanowires (NWs) of Cu (II) 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-Phthalocyanine (CuPc(OBu)8) molecule have been grown on different substrates by cost effective solution processing technique. The density of NWs is found to be strongly dependent on the concentration of solution. The possible formation mechanism of these structures is π-π interaction between phthalocyanine molecules. The improved conductivity of these NWs as compared to spin coated film indicates their potential for molecular device applications.

  12. Coherent thermal conductance of 1-D photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschikin, Maria; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2012-10-01

    We present an exact calculation of coherent thermal conductance in 1-D multilayer photonic crystals using the S-matrix method. In particular, we study the thermal conductance in a bilayer structure of Si/vacuum or Al2O3/vacuum slabs by means of the exact radiative heat flux expression. Based on the results obtained for the Al2O3/vacuum structure we show by comparison with previous works that the material losses and (localized) surface modes supported by the inner layers play a fundamental role and cannot be omitted in the definition of thermal conductance. Our results could have significant implications in the conception of efficient thermal barriers.

  13. Deconvolution/identification techniques for 1-D transient signals

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, D.M.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses a variety of nonparametric deconvolution and identification techniques that we have developed for application to 1-D transient signal problems. These methods are time-domain techniques that use direct methods for matrix inversion. Therefore, they are not appropriate for large data'' problems. These techniques involve various regularization methods and permit the use of certain kinds of a priori information in estimating the unknown. These techniques have been implemented in a package using standard FORTRAN that should make the package readily transportable to most computers. This paper is also meant to be an instruction manual for the package. 25 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Winding up superfluid in a torus via Bose Einstein condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Arnab; Sabbatini, Jacopo; Zurek, Wojciech H

    2010-12-16

    We simulate Bose-Einstein condensation at finite temperature in a ring employing stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation and show that cooling through the critical point can generate topologically stable quantized circulation of the newborn condensate around the ring. The resulting winding numbers exhibiting Gaussian distribution with dispersion following scaling behavior predicted by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). This opens up possibilities for direct experimental study of the underlying phase transition and the basic principles of KZM extended to account for such circulations. We discuss the effect of inhomogeneity on the above phenomenon by considering the effect of tilting of the ring in the gravitational field.

  15. Degenerate approach to the mean field Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belemuk, Alexander M.; Ryzhov, Valentin N.

    2016-04-01

    A degenerate variant of mean field perturbation theory for the on-site Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian is presented. We split the perturbation into two terms and perform exact diagonalization in the two-dimensional subspace corresponding to the degenerate states. The final relations for the second order ground state energy and first order wave function do not contain singularities at integer values of the chemical potentials. The resulting equation for the phase boundary between superfluid and Mott states coincides with the prediction from the conventional mean field perturbation approach.

  16. Dirac Monopoles in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, David

    2014-05-01

    Over eighty years ago, Dirac established a theory of magnetic monopoles consistent with both classical electrodynamics and quantum mechanics. I will discuss Dirac's theory and a recent realization of its essential features, including a monopole, in the context of the synthetic electric and magnetic fields supported by a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under grants nos. PHY-0855475 and PHY-1205822, by the Academy of Finland through its Centres of Excellence Program (grant no. 251748) and grants nos. 135794, 272806 and 141015.

  17. Observation of Solitonic Vortices in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donadello, Simone; Serafini, Simone; Tylutki, Marek; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Dalfovo, Franco; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Gabriele

    2014-08-01

    We observe solitonic vortices in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) after free expansion. Clear signatures of the nature of such defects are the twisted planar density depletion around the vortex line, observed in absorption images, and the double dislocation in the interference pattern obtained through homodyne techniques. Both methods allow us to determine the sign of the quantized circulation. Experimental observations agree with numerical simulations. These solitonic vortices are the decay product of phase defects of the BEC order parameter spontaneously created after a rapid quench across the BEC transition in a cigar-shaped harmonic trap and are shown to have a very long lifetime.

  18. Observation of Faraday Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, Peter; Atherton, Collin; Hoefer, Mark

    2007-06-01

    Faraday waves in a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate are created. It is shown that periodically modulating the transverse confinement, and thus the nonlinear interactions in the BEC, excites small amplitude longitudinal oscillations through a parametric resonance. It is also demonstrated that even without the presence of a continuous drive, an initial transverse breathing mode excitation of the condensate leads to spontaneous pattern formation in the longitudinal direction. Finally, the effects of strongly driving the transverse breathing mode with large amplitude are investigated. In this case, impact-oscillator behavior and intriguing nonlinear dynamics, including the gradual emergence of multiple longitudinal modes, are observed.

  19. Observation of Faraday Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, P.; Atherton, C.; Hoefer, M. A.

    2007-03-01

    Faraday waves in a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate are created. It is shown that periodically modulating the transverse confinement, and thus the nonlinear interactions in the BEC, excites small amplitude longitudinal oscillations through a parametric resonance. It is also demonstrated that even without the presence of a continuous drive, an initial transverse breathing mode excitation of the condensate leads to spontaneous pattern formation in the longitudinal direction. Finally, the effects of strongly driving the transverse breathing mode with large amplitude are investigated. In this case, impact-oscillator behavior and intriguing nonlinear dynamics, including the gradual emergence of multiple longitudinal modes, are observed.

  20. Parametric-squeezing amplification of Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Georg; Berrada, Tarik; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Schumm, Thorsten; Hohenester, Ulrich

    2015-11-01

    We theoretically investigate the creation of squeezed states of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a magnetic double-well potential. The number or phase squeezed states are created by modulating the tunnel coupling between the two wells periodically with twice the Josephson frequency, i.e., through parametric amplification. Simulations are performed with the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree method for bosons. We employ optimal control theory to bring the condensate to a complete halt at a final time, thus creating a highly squeezed state (squeezing factor of 0.12, ξS2=-18 dB) suitable for atom interferometry.