Observation of Dynamical Fermionization in 1D Bose Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malvania, Neel; Xia, Lin; Xu, Wei; Wilson, Joshua M.; Zundel, Laura A.; Rigol, Marcos; Weiss, David S.
2016-05-01
The momentum distribution of a harmonically trapped 1D Bose gases in the Tonks-Girardeau limit is expected to undergo dynamical fermionization. That is, after the harmonic trap is suddenly turned off, the momentum distribution steadily transforms into that of an ideal Fermi gas in the same initial trap. We measure 1D momentum distributions at variable times after such a quench, and observe the predicted dynamical fermionization. In addition to working in the strong coupling limit, we also perform the experiment with intermediate coupling, where theoretical calculations are more challenging.
Strongly correlated Bose gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chevy, F.; Salomon, C.
2016-10-01
The strongly interacting Bose gas is one of the most fundamental paradigms of quantum many-body physics and the subject of many experimental and theoretical investigations. We review recent progress on strongly correlated Bose gases, starting with a description of beyond mean-field corrections. We show that the Efimov effect leads to non universal phenomena and to a metastability of the low temperature Bose gas through three-body recombination to deeply bound molecular states. We outline differences and similarities with ultracold Fermi gases, discuss recent experiments on the unitary Bose gas, and finally present a few perspectives for future research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ke, Ke; Radzihovsky, Leo
2009-10-01
We construct the large N model of bose gases. Using an artificial parameter 1/N to do the perturbative analysis to study two models: U(N) bose gases and U(1) xO(N) bose gases. We find that for the U(N) model we get the same Bogoliubov spectrum and LHY thermal dynamical relations with ordinary bose gases. For the U(1) xO(N) model, however, we calculate dispersion relation, chemical potential and free energy when N goes to infinity and find that every quantities depends on the ration of two scattering length and √(na^3).
Bose-Einstein condensation in binary mixture of Bose gases
Tran Huu Phat; Le Viet Hoa; Nguyen Tuan Anh Nguyen Van Long
2009-10-15
The Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in a binary mixture of Bose gases is studied by means of the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action approach. The equations of state (EoS) and various scenarios of phase transitions of the system are considered in detail, in particular, the numerical computations are carried out for symmetry restoration (SR), symmetry nonrestoration (SNR) and inverse symmetry breaking (ISB) for getting an insight into their physical nature. It is shown that due to the cross interaction between distinct components of mixture there occur two interesting phenomena: the high temperature BEC and the inverse BEC, which could be tested in experiments.
Quantum fluctuations in dipolar Bose gases
Lima, Aristeu R. P.; Pelster, Axel
2011-10-15
We investigate the influence of quantum fluctuations upon dipolar Bose gases by means of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory. Thereby, we make use of the local density approximation to evaluate the dipolar exchange interaction between the condensate and the excited particles. This allows to obtain the Bogoliubov spectrum analytically in the limit of large particle numbers. After discussing the condensate depletion and the ground-state energy correction, we derive quantum-corrected equations of motion for harmonically trapped dipolar Bose gases by using superfluid hydrodynamics. These equations are subsequently applied to analyze the equilibrium configuration, the low-lying oscillation frequencies, and the time-of-flight dynamics. We find that both atomic magnetic and molecular electric dipolar systems offer promising scenarios for detecting beyond mean-field effects.
Efimov correlations in strongly interacting Bose gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, Johannes; Barth, Marcus
A series of recent hallmark experiments have demonstrated that Bose gases can be created in the strongly interacting unitary limit in the non-degenerate high-temperature regime. These systems display the three-body Efimov effect, which poses a theoretical challenge to compute observables including these relevant three-body correlations. In this talk, I shall present our results for the virial coefficients, the contact parameters, and the momentum distribution of a strongly interacting three-dimensional Bose gas obtained by means of a virial expansion up to third order in the fugacity, which takes into account three-body correlations exactly. Our results characterize the non-degenerate regime of the interacting Bose gas, where the thermal wavelength is smaller than the interparticle spacing but the scattering length may be arbitrarily large. In addition, we provide a calculation of the momentum distribution at unitarity, which displays a universal high-momentum tail with a log-periodic momentum dependence - a direct signature of Efimov physics. In particular, we provide a quantitative description of the momentum distribution at high momentum as measured by the JILA group [Makotyn et al., Nat. Phys. 10, 116 (2014)]. Our results allow the spectroscopy of Efimov states at unitarity.
Dimensional phase transition from an array of 1D Luttinger liquids to a 3D Bose-Einstein condensate.
Vogler, Andreas; Labouvie, Ralf; Barontini, Giovanni; Eggert, Sebastian; Guarrera, Vera; Ott, Herwig
2014-11-21
We study the thermodynamic properties of a 2D array of coupled one-dimensional Bose gases. The system is realized with ultracold bosonic atoms loaded in the potential tubes of a two-dimensional optical lattice. For negligible coupling strength, each tube is an independent weakly interacting 1D Bose gas featuring Tomonaga Luttinger liquid behavior. By decreasing the lattice depth, we increase the coupling strength between the 1D gases and allow for the phase transition into a 3D condensate. We extract the phase diagram for such a system and compare our results with theoretical predictions. Because of the high effective mass across the periodic potential and the increased 1D interaction strength, the phase transition is shifted to large positive values of the chemical potential. Our results are prototypical to a variety of low-dimensional systems, where the coupling between the subsystems is realized in a higher spatial dimension such as coupled spin chains in magnetic insulators.
Higher-order local and non-local correlations for 1D strongly interacting Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandani, EJKP; Römer, Rudolf A.; Tan, Shina; Guan, Xi-Wen
2016-05-01
The correlation function is an important quantity in the physics of ultracold quantum gases because it provides information about the quantum many-body wave function beyond the simple density profile. In this paper we first study the M-body local correlation functions, g M , of the one-dimensional (1D) strongly repulsive Bose gas within the Lieb-Liniger model using the analytical method proposed by Gangardt and Shlyapnikov (2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 010401; 2003 New J. Phys. 5 79). In the strong repulsion regime the 1D Bose gas at low temperatures is equivalent to a gas of ideal particles obeying the non-mutual generalized exclusion statistics with a statistical parameter α =1-2/γ , i.e. the quasimomenta of N strongly interacting bosons map to the momenta of N free fermions via {k}i≈ α {k}iF with i=1,\\ldots ,N. Here γ is the dimensionless interaction strength within the Lieb-Liniger model. We rigorously prove that such a statistical parameter α solely determines the sub-leading order contribution to the M-body local correlation function of the gas at strong but finite interaction strengths. We explicitly calculate the correlation functions g M in terms of γ and α at zero, low, and intermediate temperatures. For M = 2 and 3 our results reproduce the known expressions for g 2 and g 3 with sub-leading terms (see for instance (Vadim et al 2006 Phys. Rev. A 73 051604(R); Kormos et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 210404; Wang et al 2013 Phys. Rev. A 87 043634). We also express the leading order of the short distance non-local correlation functions < {{{\\Psi }}}\\dagger ({x}1)\\cdots {{{\\Psi }}}\\dagger ({x}M){{\\Psi }}({y}M)\\cdots {{\\Psi }}({y}1)> of the strongly repulsive Bose gas in terms of the wave function of M bosons at zero collision energy and zero total momentum. Here {{\\Psi }}(x) is the boson annihilation operator. These general formulas of the higher-order local and non-local correlation functions of the 1D Bose gas provide new insights into the
Condensate fluctuations of interacting Bose gases within a microcanonical ensemble
Wang Jianhui; He Jizhou; Ma Yongli
2011-05-15
Based on counting statistics and Bogoliubov theory, we present a recurrence relation for the microcanonical partition function for a weakly interacting Bose gas with a finite number of particles in a cubic box. According to this microcanonical partition function, we calculate numerically the distribution function, condensate fraction, and condensate fluctuations for a finite and isolated Bose-Einstein condensate. For ideal and weakly interacting Bose gases, we compare the condensate fluctuations with those in the canonical ensemble. The present approach yields an accurate account of the condensate fluctuations for temperatures close to the critical region. We emphasize that the interactions between excited atoms turn out to be important for moderate temperatures.
Bose-Einstein condensation of dilute atomic gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Biao
The Bose-Einstein condensation of dilute atomic gases is studied. The focus is on the interesting properties and the dynamical behavior of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs1) under various external manipulations. We investigate how the interaction affects the interference pattern between two BEC clouds, and show how the interference pattern can be calculated. We then present a theory on the generation of dark solitons in BECs with a new experimental technique called phase imprint. By mapping this problem into a classic pendulum problem, we show how to design the phase step imprinted on a BEC cloud to generate desired dark solitons. We finally study the system of a BEC in an optical lattice, a nonlinear periodic system, which exhibits interesting new effects on the tunneling and superfluidity in terms of its Bloch bands and Bloch waves. 1In the dissertation, BEC stands for Bose-Einstein condensate, not Bose-Einstein condensation.
Spin Drag in Noncondensed Bose Gases
Duine, R. A.; Stoof, H. T. C.
2009-10-23
We show how time-dependent magnetic fields lead to spin motive forces and spin drag in a spinor Bose gas. We propose to observe these effects in a toroidal trap and analyze this particular proposal in some detail. In the linear-response regime we define a transport coefficient that is analogous to the usual drag resistivity in electron bilayer systems. Because of Bose enhancement of atom-atom scattering, this coefficient strongly increases as temperature is lowered. We also investigate the effects of heating.
Degenerate Bose gases with uniform loss
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grišins, Pjotrs; Rauer, Bernhard; Langen, Tim; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Mazets, Igor E.
2016-03-01
We theoretically investigate a weakly interacting degenerate Bose gas coupled to an empty Markovian bath. We show that in the universal phononic limit the system evolves towards an asymptotic state where an emergent temperature is set by the quantum noise of the outcoupling process. For situations typically encountered in experiments, this mechanism leads to significant cooling. Such dissipative cooling supplements conventional evaporative cooling and dominates in settings where thermalization is highly suppressed, such as in a one-dimensional quasicondensate.
C-Field Methods for Non-Equilibrium Bose Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davis, Matthew J.; Wright, Tod M.; Blakie, P. Blair; Bradley, Ashton S.; Ballagh, Rob J.; Gardiner, Crispin W.
2013-02-01
We review c-field methods for simulating the non-equilibrium dynamics of degenerate Bose gases beyond the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii approximation. We describe three separate approaches that utilise similar numerical methods, but have distinct regimes of validity. Systems at finite temperature can be treated with either the closed-system projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation (PGPE), or the open-system stochastic projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation (SPGPE). These are both applicable in quantum degenerate regimes in which thermal fluctuations are significant. At low or zero temperature, the truncated Wigner projected Gross Pitaevskii equation (TWPGPE) allows for the simulation of systems in which spontaneous collision processes seeded by quantum fluctuations are important. We describe the regimes of validity of each of these methods, and discuss their relationships to one another, and to other simulation techniques for the dynamics of Bose gases. The utility of the SPGPE formalism in modelling non-equilibrium Bose gases is illustrated by its application to the dynamics of spontaneous vortex formation in the growth of a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Bose gases near resonance: Renormalized interactions in a condensate
Zhou, Fei Mashayekhi, Mohammad S.
2013-01-15
Bose gases at large scattering lengths or beyond the usual dilute limit for a long time have been one of the most challenging problems in many-body physics. In this article, we investigate the fundamental properties of a near-resonance Bose gas and illustrate that three-dimensional Bose gases become nearly fermionized near resonance when the chemical potential as a function of scattering lengths reaches a maximum and the atomic condensates lose metastability. The instability and accompanying maximum are shown to be a precursor of the sign change of g{sub 2}, the renormalized two-body interaction between condensed atoms. g{sub 2} changes from effectively repulsive to attractive when approaching resonance from the molecular side, even though the scattering length is still positive. This occurs when dimers, under the influence of condensates, emerge at zero energy in the atomic gases at a finite positive scattering length. We carry out our studies of Bose gases via applying a self-consistent renormalization group equation which is further subject to a boundary condition. We also comment on the relation between the approach here and the diagrammatic calculation in an early article [D. Borzov, M.S. Mashayekhi, S. Zhang, J.-L. Song, F. Zhou, Phys. Rev. A 85 (2012) 023620]. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A Bose gas becomes nearly fermionized when its chemical potential approaches a maximum near resonance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At the maximum, an onset instability sets in at a positive scattering length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Condensates strongly influence the renormalization flow of few-body running coupling constants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effective two-body interaction constant changes its sign at a positive scattering length.
Spin transport in coupled spinor Bose gases
McGuirk, J. M.
2010-07-15
We report direct measurements of spin transport in a trapped, partially condensed spinor Bose gas. Detailed analyses of spin flux in this out-of-equilibrium quantum gas are performed by monitoring the flow of atoms in different hyperfine spin states. The main mechanisms for motion in this system are exchange scattering and potential energy inhomogeneity, which lead to spin waves in the normal component and domain formation in the condensate. We find a large discrepancy in domain formation time scales with those predicted by potential-driven formation, indicating strong coupling of the condensate to the normal component spin wave.
Efimov correlations in strongly interacting Bose gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barth, Marcus; Hofmann, Johannes
2015-12-01
We compute the virial coefficients, the contact parameters, and the momentum distribution of a strongly interacting three-dimensional Bose gas by means of a virial expansion up to third order in the fugacity, which takes into account three-body correlations exactly. Our results characterize the nondegenerate regime of the interacting Bose gas, where the thermal wavelength is smaller than the interparticle spacing but the scattering length may be arbitrarily large. We observe a rapid variation of the third virial coefficient as the scattering length is tuned across the three-atom and the atom-dimer thresholds. The momentum distribution at unitarity displays a universal high-momentum tail with a log-periodic momentum dependence, which is a direct signature of Efimov physics. We provide a quantitative description of the momentum distribution at high momentum as measured by P. Makotyn et al. [Nat. Phys. 10, 116 (2014), 10.1038/nphys2850], and our calculations indicate that the lowest trimer state might not be occupied in the experiment. Our results allow for a spectroscopy of Efimov states in the unitary limit.
Scanning Cryogenic Magnetometry with a 1D Bose Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Straquadine, Joshua; Yang, Fan; Lev, Benjamin
We present a novel scanning probe magnetometer suitable for cryogenic studies, in which the probe is a Bose-Einstein condensate of 87Rb. The system is designed for rapid sample changes and operation between 35 K and room temperature while remaining compatible with the UHV requirements of ultracold atom experiments. We demonstrate a spatial resolution (FWHM) of 2.6 μm and a repeatability of 1.9 +/- 1.0 nT. We also show that the system is operating close to the fundamental measurement limits set by photon shot noise and atom shot noise. Our scanning quantum cryogenic atom microscope is suitable for fundamental studies of transport and magnetism in condensed matter systems such as high-temperature superconductors and topological insulators. We discuss the advantages and applications of this magnetometry technique.
Universal low-energy physics in 1D strongly repulsive multi-component Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Yuzhu; He, Peng; Guan, Xi-Wen
2016-04-01
It has been shown (Yang and You 2011 Chin. Phys. Lett. 28 020503) that at zero temperature the ground state of the one-dimensional (1D) w-component Fermi gas coincides with that of the spinless Bose gas in the limit ω \\to ∞ . This behavior was experimentally evidenced through quasi-1D tightly trapping ultracold 173Yb atoms in a recent paper (Pagano et al 2014 Nat. Phys. 10 198). However, understanding of low-temperature behavior of Fermi gases with a repulsive interaction requires spin-charge separated conformal field theories of an effective Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid and an antiferromagnetic SU(w) Heisenberg spin chain. Here we analytically derive universal thermodynamics of 1D strongly repulsive fermionic gases with SU(w) symmetry via the Yang-Yang thermodynamic Bethe ansatz method. The analytical free energy and magnetic properties of the systems at low temperature in a weak magnetic field are obtained through the Wiener-Hopf method. In particular, the free energy essentially manifests the spin-charge separated conformal field theories for high-symmetry systems with arbitrary repulsive interaction strength. We also find that the sound velocity of the Fermi gases in the large w limit coincides with that for the spinless Bose gas, whereas the spin velocity vanishes quickly as w becomes large. This indicates strong suppression of the Fermi exclusion statistics by the commutativity feature among the w-component fermions with different spin states in the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid phase. Moreover, the equations of state and critical behavior of physical quantities at finite temperature are analytically derived in terms of the polylogarithm functions in the quantum critical region.
Persistent currents in Bose gases confined in annular traps
Bargi, S.; Malet, F.; Reimann, S. M.; Kavoulakis, G. M.
2010-10-15
We examine the problem of stability of persistent currents in a mixture of two Bose gases trapped in an annular potential. We evaluate the critical coupling for metastability in the transition from quasi-one- to two-dimensional motion. We also evaluate the critical coupling for metastability in a mixture of two species as a function of the population imbalance. The stability of the currents is shown to be sensitive to the deviation from one-dimensional motion.
Phase transitions in real gases and ideal Bose gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maslov, V. P.
2011-05-01
Based on number theory, we present a new concept of gas without the particle interaction taken into account in which there are first-order phase transitions for T < T cr on isotherms. We present formulas for new ideal gases, solving the Gibbs paradox, and also formulas for the transition to real gases based on the concept of the Zeno line.
Studying non-equilibrium many-body dynamics using one-dimensional Bose gases
Langen, Tim; Gring, Michael; Kuhnert, Maximilian; Rauer, Bernhard; Geiger, Remi; Mazets, Igor; Smith, David Adu; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Kitagawa, Takuya; Demler, Eugene
2014-12-04
Non-equilibrium dynamics of isolated quantum many-body systems play an important role in many areas of physics. However, a general answer to the question of how these systems relax is still lacking. We experimentally study the dynamics of ultracold one-dimensional (1D) Bose gases. This reveals the existence of a quasi-steady prethermalized state which differs significantly from the thermal equilibrium of the system. Our results demonstrate that the dynamics of non-equilibrium quantum many-body systems is a far richer process than has been assumed in the past.
Response functions and two-photon scattering in trapped atomic Bose gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luxat, David L.
In the first half of the thesis, we study the linear response of a trapped 3D Bose-condensed gas to a two-photon Raman scattering probe, in a manner analogous to the tunneling of electrons in metals. The tunneling current is given in terms of the normal and anomalous Green's functions describing atoms. We calculate these normal and anomalous Green's functions within the Bogoliubov-Popov approximation. Our analysis generalizes the work of Burnett and coworkers. We emphasize that "outcoupled" atoms from a Bose-condensed gas can be associated with the excitation (as well as the destruction) of a Bogoliubov excitation. We present a detailed numerical calculation of the different components of the tunneling current as a function of the photon energy, for various temperatures. We use the local density approximation (LDA) to treat the trapped gas. In the second half of the thesis, we extend the discussion of response functions to other trapped boson systems. We first study a 1D trapped Bose gas with quasi-long-range order, associated with a quasicondensate. With a Raman outcoupling experiment, we propose that the frequency dependence of the single-particle Green's function can be studied experimentally. This frequency dependent correlation function for the 1D quasicondensate exhibits the expected power law decay at long wavelengths and low energies, modified by the presence of the harmonic trapping potential. In all previous work on 1D trapped Bose gases, only the static (or zero frequency) correlation functions were studied. We next study single-particle and two-particle response functions of a Bose gas with two atomic hyperfine states in an optical lattice and show that these response functions are accessible using a Raman probe. Such a two species interacting Bose gas trapped in a periodic potential has been studied extensively in recent years, but only the thermodynamic properties were considered. Our work is done within a mean-field approximation but this is expected
Vortex Lattices in Rotating Atomic Bose Gases with Dipolar Interactions
Cooper, N.R.; Rezayi, E.H.; Simon, S.H.
2005-11-11
We show that dipolar interactions have dramatic effects on the ground states of rotating atomic Bose gases in the weak-interaction limit. With increasing dipolar interaction (relative to the net contact interaction), the mean field, or high filling factor, ground state undergoes a series of transitions between vortex lattices of different symmetries: triangular, square, 'stripe', and 'bubble' phases. We also study the effects of dipolar interactions on the quantum fluids at low filling factors. We show that the incompressible Laughlin state at filling factor {nu}=1/2 is replaced by compressible stripe and bubble phases.
Vortex pairing in two-dimensional Bose gases
Foster, Christopher J.; Davis, Matthew J.; Blakie, P. Blair
2010-02-15
Recent experiments on ultracold Bose gases in two dimensions have provided evidence for the existence of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase via analysis of the interference between two independent systems. In this work we study the two-dimensional quantum degenerate Bose gas at finite temperature using the projected Gross-Pitaevskii equation classical field method. Although this describes the highly occupied modes of the gas below a momentum cutoff, we have developed a method to incorporate the higher momentum states in our model. We concentrate on finite-sized homogeneous systems in order to simplify the analysis of the vortex pairing. We determine the dependence of the condensate fraction on temperature and compare this to the calculated superfluid fraction. By measuring the first order correlation function we determine the boundary of the Bose-Einstein condensate and BKT phases, and find it is consistent with the superfluid fraction decreasing to zero. We reveal the characteristic unbinding of vortex pairs above the BKT transition via a coarse-graining procedure. Finally, we model the procedure used in experiments to infer system correlations [Hadzibabic et al., Nature 441, 1118 (2006)], and quantify its level of agreement with directly calculated in situ correlation functions.
Loschmidt echo in one-dimensional interacting Bose gases
Lelas, K.; Seva, T.; Buljan, H.
2011-12-15
We explore Loschmidt echo in two regimes of one-dimensional interacting Bose gases: the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau (TG) regime, and the weakly interacting mean-field regime. We find that the Loschmidt echo of a TG gas decays as a Gaussian when small (random and time independent) perturbations are added to the Hamiltonian. The exponent is proportional to the number of particles and the magnitude of a small perturbation squared. In the mean-field regime the Loschmidt echo shows richer behavior: it decays faster for larger nonlinearity, and the decay becomes more abrupt as the nonlinearity increases; it can be very sensitive to the particular realization of the noise potential, especially for relatively small nonlinearities.
Microcanonical fluctuations of the condensate in weakly interacting Bose gases
Idziaszek, Zbigniew
2005-05-15
We study fluctuations of the number of Bose condensed atoms in a weakly interacting homogeneous and trapped gases. For a homogeneous system we apply the particle-number-conserving formulation of the Bogoliubov theory and calculate the condensate fluctuations within the canonical and the microcanonical ensembles. We demonstrate that, at least in the low-temperature regime, predictions of the particle-number-conserving and traditional, nonconserving theory are identical, and lead to the anomalous scaling of fluctuations. Furthermore, the microcanonical fluctuations differ from the canonical ones by a quantity which scales normally in the number of particles, thus predictions of both ensembles are equivalent in the thermodynamic limit. We observe a similar behavior for a weakly interacting gas in a harmonic trap. This is in contrast to the trapped, ideal gas, where microcanonical and canonical fluctuations are different in the thermodynamic limit.
Dynamical correlation functions of the 1D Bose gas (Lieb Liniger model)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caux, Jean-Sebastien; Calabrese, Pasquale
2007-03-01
The momentum- and frequency-dependent correlation functions (one-body and density-density) of the one-dimensional interacting Bose gas (Lieb-Liniger model) are obtained for any value (repulsive or attractive) of the interaction parameter. In the repulsive regime, we use the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz and the ABACUS method to reconstruct the correlators to high accuracy for systems with finite but large numbers of particles. For attractive interactions, the correlations are computed analytically. Our results are discussed, with particular emphasis on their applications to quasi-one-dimensional atomic gases.
Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics in one-dimensional bose gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baldovin, F.; Cappellaro, A.; Orlandini, E.; Salasnich, L.
2016-06-01
We study cold dilute gases made of bosonic atoms, showing that in the mean-field one-dimensional regime they support stable out-of-equilibrium states. Starting from the 3D Boltzmann-Vlasov equation with contact interaction, we derive an effective 1D Landau-Vlasov equation under the condition of a strong transverse harmonic confinement. We investigate the existence of out-of-equilibrium states, obtaining stability criteria similar to those of classical plasmas.
Decay of Bogoliubov excitations in one-dimensional Bose gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ristivojevic, Zoran; Matveev, K. A.
2016-07-01
We study the decay of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in one-dimensional Bose gases. Starting from the hydrodynamic Hamiltonian, we develop a microscopic theory that enables one to systematically study both the excitations and their decay. At zero temperature, the leading mechanism of decay of a quasiparticle is disintegration into three others. We find that low-energy quasiparticles (phonons) decay with the rate that scales with the seventh power of momentum, whereas the rate of decay of the high-energy quasiparticles does not depend on momentum. In addition, our approach allows us to study analytically the quasiparticle decay in the whole crossover region between the two limiting cases. When applied to integrable models, including the Lieb-Liniger model of bosons with contact repulsion, our theory confirms the absence of the decay of quasiparticle excitations. We account for two types of integrability-breaking perturbations that enable finite decay: three-body interaction between the bosons and two-body interaction of finite range.
Solid State Analogs in Bose-Condensed Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Gretchen
2008-05-01
Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices have proven to be a powerful tool for emulating a wide variety of physical systems. Although our Rubidium condensates are a million times less dense than air, in several regards they also act like solids. In this talk, I demonstrate this behavior in three different experiments. First, similar to a piece of glass, the refractive index of the condensate changes the momentum of a photon propagating through it. This systematic shift of the photon recoil momentum due to the index of refraction was measured with a two-pulse light grating interferometer, and has important ramifications for precision measurements of the fine structure constant, α. Second, a 1D light crystal is shown to create a lattice band structure that allows two atoms traveling at the same velocity to collide and scatter into two different velocity states (which is impossible in free space), allowing us to demonstrate parametric generation and amplification of ultracold atom pairs. Finally, the Superfluid-Mott Insulator transition was studied in a 3D lattice using microwave spectroscopy. Using a density dependent shift to the clock transition, we were able to spectroscopically distinguish sites with different occupation numbers, and to directly image sites with occupation number from 1 to 5, revealing the shell structure of the Mott Insulator phase. This work was performed at MIT, under the direction of David E. Pritchard and Wolfgang Ketterle
Dynamics of Two Dimensional Bose Gases and the Role of Scale Invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maki, Jeff
2016-05-01
The controllable study of dynamics has become commonplace in cold atom experiments. However, the theoretical exploration of dynamics has relied heavily on numerical simulations due to the vast complexity of dynamical many body problems. The situation is simplified in two dimensional Bose gases thanks to the presence of scale invariance. This symmetry is presumed to have an important effect on the dynamics of the system but has yet to be studied in the context of cold gases. In this talk we report a study of interacting two dimensional Bose gases and the role scale invariance plays on the system's dynamics.
Spectral functions in the 1D and 2D Bose Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivancic, Robert; Duchon, Eric; Trivedi, Nandini
2014-03-01
We use state of the art numerical techniques including quantum Monte Carlo and maximum entropy methods to obtain the low energy excitation spectra in the superfluid and Mott-insulator phases of the Bose Hubbard model. These results are checked in 1D against Bethe Ansatz and tDMRG results and extended to 2D where such approaches are impossible. In the superfluid, we find linearly dispersing Bogoliubov sound modes as well as additional gapped modes broadened by interaction effects. In the Mott insulator, we find evidence for a finite gap and well defined quasiparticle excitations. We examine properties such as the excitation lifetime, density of states, and speed of sound as the system is tuned across the quantum phase transition that separates the superfluid and Mott states. These results provide an important theoretical framework for upcoming ultracold atom experiments in one and two dimensions. We acknowledge support from the NSF DMR-0907275 (R.I., E.D. and N.T.).
Analytical approach to relaxation dynamics of condensed Bose gases
Escobedo, Miguel; Pezzotti, Federica; Valle, Manuel
2011-04-15
Research Highlights: > Time evolution of perturbations from equilibrium in a condensed Bose gas is studied. > Just below the critical temperature the perturbations vanish algebraically. > Anisotropic perturbations are unstable. > At very low temperature perturbations decay exponentially. - Abstract: The temporal evolution of a perturbation of the equilibrium distribution of a condensed Bose gas is investigated using the kinetic equation which describes collision between condensate and noncondensate atoms. The dynamics is studied in the low momentum limit where an analytical treatment is feasible. Explicit results are given for the behavior at large times in different temperature regimes.
Bose gases, Bose–Einstein condensation, and the Bogoliubov approximation
Seiringer, Robert
2014-07-15
We review recent progress towards a rigorous understanding of the Bogoliubov approximation for bosonic quantum many-body systems. We focus, in particular, on the excitation spectrum of a Bose gas in the mean-field (Hartree) limit. A list of open problems will be discussed at the end.
Density-functional theory of two-component Bose gases in one-dimensional harmonic traps
Hao Yajiang; Chen Shu
2009-10-15
We investigate the ground-state properties of two-component Bose gases confined in one-dimensional harmonic traps in the scheme of density-functional theory. The density-functional calculations employ a Bethe-ansatz-based local-density approximation for the correlation energy, which accounts for the correlation effect properly from the weakly interacting regime to the strongly interacting regime. For the binary Bose mixture with spin-independent interaction, the homogeneous reference system is exactly solvable by the Bethe-ansatz method. Within the local-density approximation, we determine the density distribution of each component and study its evolution from Bose distributions to Fermi-like distribution with the increase in interaction. For the binary mixture of Tonks-Girardeau gases with a tunable interspecies repulsion, with a generalized Bose-Fermi transformation we show that the Bose mixture can be mapped into a two-component Fermi gas, which corresponds to exact soluble Yang-Gaudin model for the homogeneous system. Based on the ground-state energy function of the Yang-Gaudin model, the ground-state density distributions are calculated for various interspecies interactions. It is shown that with the increase in interspecies interaction, the system exhibits composite-fermionization crossover.
A primary noise thermometer for ultracold Bose gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gati, R.; Esteve, J.; Hemmerling, B.; Ottenstein, T. B.; Appmeier, J.; Weller, A.; Oberthaler, M. K.
2006-09-01
We discuss in detail the experimental investigation of thermally induced fluctuations of the relative phase between two weakly coupled Bose Einstein condensates (BECs). In analogy to superconducting Josephson junctions, the weak coupling originates from a tunnelling process through a potential barrier which is obtained by trapping the condensates in an optical double-well potential. The observed fluctuations of the relative phase are in quantitative agreement with a many body two mode model at finite temperature. The agreement demonstrates the possibility of using the phase fluctuation measurements in a bosonic Josephson junction (BJJ) as a primary thermometer. This new method allows for measuring temperatures far below the critical temperature where standard methods based on time of flight measurements fail. We employ this new thermometer to probe the heat capacity of a degenerate Bose gas as a function of temperature.
Mixtures of Bose gases confined in concentrically coupled annular traps
Malet, F.; Reimann, S. M.; Kavoulakis, G. M.
2010-01-15
A two-component Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an axially symmetric potential with two local minima, resembling two concentric annular traps, is investigated. The system shows a number of phase transitions that result from the competition between phase coexistence and radial-azimuthal phase separation. The ground-state phase diagram, as well as the rotational properties, including the (meta)stability of currents in this system, is analyzed.
Comparison between microscopic methods for finite-temperature Bose gases
Cockburn, S. P.; Proukakis, N. P.; Negretti, A.; Henkel, C.
2011-04-15
We analyze the equilibrium properties of a weakly interacting, trapped quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas at finite temperatures and compare different theoretical approaches. We focus in particular on two stochastic theories: a number-conserving Bogoliubov (NCB) approach and a stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation (SGPE) that have been extensively used in numerical simulations. Equilibrium properties like density profiles, correlation functions, and the condensate statistics are compared to predictions based upon a number of alternative theories. We find that due to thermal phase fluctuations, and the corresponding condensate depletion, the NCB approach loses its validity at relatively low temperatures. This can be attributed to the change in the Bogoliubov spectrum, as the condensate gets thermally depleted, and to large fluctuations beyond perturbation theory. Although the two stochastic theories are built on different thermodynamic ensembles (NCB, canonical; SGPE, grand-canonical), they yield the correct condensate statistics in a large Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) (strong enough particle interactions). For smaller systems, the SGPE results are prone to anomalously large number fluctuations, well known for the grand-canonical, ideal Bose gas. Based on the comparison of the above theories to the modified Popov approach, we propose a simple procedure for approximately extracting the Penrose-Onsager condensate from first- and second-order correlation functions that is both computationally convenient and of potential use to experimentalists. This also clarifies the link between condensate and quasicondensate in the Popov theory of low-dimensional systems.
Dimensional phase transition from 1D behavior to a 3D Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelster, Axel; Morath, Denis; Straßel, Dominik; Eggert, Sebastian
The emergence of new properties from low-dimensional building blocks is a universal theme in different areas in physics. The investigation of transitions between isolated and coupled low-dimensional systems promises to reveal new phenomena and exotic phases. Interacting 1D bosons, which are coupled in a two-dimensional array, are maybe the most fundamental example of a system which illustrates the concept of a dimensional phase transition. However, recent experiments using ultracold gases have shown a surprising discrepancy between theory and experiment and it is far from obvious if the power laws from the underlying 1D theory can predict the transition temperature and order parameter correctly for all interaction strengths. Using a combination of large-scale Quantum Monte-Carlo simulations and chain mean-field calculations, we show that the behavior of the ordering temperature as a function of inter-chain coupling strength does not follow a universal powerlaw, but also depends strongly on the filling
Non-equilibrium disordered Bose gases: condensation, superfluidity and dynamical Bose glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Lei; Liang, Zhaoxin; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Zhidong
2016-01-01
In an equilibrium three-dimensional (3D) disordered condensate, it is well established that disorder can generate an amount of normal fluid ρ n equaling to 4/3 of ρ ex , where ρ ex is a sum of interaction-induced quantum depletion and disorder-induced condensate deformation. The concept that the superfluid is more volatile to the existence of disorder than the condensate is crucial to the understanding of the Bose glass phase. In this work, we show that, by bringing a weakly disordered 3D condensate to non-equilibrium regime via a quantum quench in the interaction, disorder can destroy superfluid significantly more, leading to a steady state of Hamiltonian H f in which the ρ n far exceeds 4/3 of the ρ ex . This suggests the possibility of engineering Bose glass in the dynamic regime. Here, we refer to the dynamical Bose glass as the case where in the steady state of quenched condensate, the superfluid density goes to zero while the condensate density remains finite. As both the ρ n and ρ ex are measurable quantities, our results allow an experimental demonstration of the dramatized interplay between the disorder and interaction in the non-equilibrium scenario.
Roberts, David; Sykes, Andrew
2009-01-01
We study the drag force acting on an impurity moving through a 1D Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of both quantum and thermal fluctuations. We are able to find exact analytical solutions of the partial differential equations to the level of the Bogoliubov approximation. At zero temperature, we find a nonzero force is exerted on the impurity at subcritical velocities, due to the scattering of quantum fluctuations. We make the following explicit assumptions: far from the impurity the system is in a quantum state given by that of a zero (or finite) temperature Bose-Einstein condensate, and the scattering process generates only causally related reflection/transmission. The results raise unanswered questions in the quantum dynamics associated with the formation of persistent currents.
Bose-Fermi mixtures of ultracold gases of dysprosium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Youn, Seo Ho
Laser cooling and trapping of the most magnetic fermionic atom, dysprosium (Dy), may provide a framework to explore quantum liquid crystal (QLC) theory (Chapter 1). This thesis presents details of the Dy laser cooling and trapping apparatus including the laser systems at 421, 741, and 1064 nm, the ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chamber, and the computer control that has produced a magneto-optically (MOT) and magnetostatically (MT) trapped Dy gas (Chapters 3, 4, 5). Despite the fact that Dy has a complex energy level structure with nearly 140 metastable states (Chapter 2), Dy MOT at 421-nm transition with 32-MHz linewidth was realized without any rempumper, exploiting its large magnetic moment, which brought a strong magnetic confinement of metastable states of Dy. This unique MOT/MT dynamics is discussed and its quantitative measurements are shown in Chapter 6. When the Dy atoms dropped from the MOT were adsorptively imaged, it was observed that Dy MOT had a bimodal temperature distribution in contrast to the usual MOT described by a single temperature (Chapter 7). Such novel anisotropic sub-Doppler laser cooling of Dy, which breaks the symmetry in cooling, is due to Dy's large magnetic spin aligned along a strong axis of the quadrupole field of the MOT, and we further support this plausible conjecture with the velocity selective resonance (VSR) theory. The MOT at ˜1 mK was cooled to ˜ 10 muK by narrow-line cooling at 741 nm with a linewidth of 2 kHz, and we were able to load the optical dipole trap (ODT) at 1064 nm. By loading two isotopes of 164Dy and 163Dy in sequence to the MOT and narrow-line cooling them simultaneously, ultracold Bose-Fermi mixtures of Dy in the ODT were realized (Chapter 8). This thesis is concluded with a discussion of prospect on the Bose-Fermi mixtures of Dy.
Double-quantum spin vortices in SU(3) spin-orbit-coupled Bose gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Song, Shu-Wei; Saito, Hiroki; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Wu-Ming; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2016-09-01
We show that double-quantum spin vortices, which are characterized by doubly quantized circulating spin currents and unmagnetized filled cores, can exist in the ground states of SU(3) spin-orbit-coupled Bose gases. It is found that the SU(3) spin-orbit coupling and spin-exchange interaction play important roles in determining the ground-state phase diagram. In the case of effective ferromagnetic spin interaction, the SU(3) spin-orbit coupling induces a threefold degeneracy to the magnetized ground state, while in the antiferromagnetic spin interaction case, the SU(3) spin-orbit coupling breaks the ordinary phase rule of spinor Bose gases and allows the spontaneous emergence of double-quantum spin vortices. This exotic topological defect is in stark contrast to the singly quantized spin vortices observed in existing experiments and can be readily observed by the current magnetization-sensitive phase-contrast imaging technique.
Beyond the Tonks-Girardeau Gas: Strongly Correlated Regime in Quasi-One-Dimensional Bose Gases
Astrakharchik, G.E.; Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.; Giorgini, S.
2005-11-04
We consider a homogeneous 1D Bose gas with contact interactions and a large attractive coupling constant. This system can be realized in tight waveguides by exploiting a confinement induced resonance of the effective 1D scattering amplitude. By using the diffusion Monte Carlo method we show that, for small densities, the gaslike state is well described by a gas of hard rods. The critical density for cluster formation is estimated using the variational Monte Carlo method. The behavior of the correlation functions and of the frequency of the lowest breathing mode for harmonically trapped systems shows that the gas is more strongly correlated than in the Tonks-Girardeau regime.
Prediction of the expansion velocity of ultracold 1D quantum gases for integrable models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Zhongtao; Vidmar, Lev; Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Bolech, Carlos
In the theory of Bethe-ansatz integrable quantum systems, rapidities play an important role as they are used to specify many-body states. The physical interpretation of rapidities going back to Sutherland is that they are the asymptotic momenta after letting a quantum gas expand into a larger volume rendering it dilute and noninteracting. We exploit this picture to calculate the expansion velocity of a one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model by using the distribution of rapidities defined by the initial state. Our results are consistent with the ones from time-dependent density-matrix renormalization. We show in addition that an approximate Bethe-ansatz solution works well also for the Bose-Hubbard model. Our results are of interests for future sudden-expansion experiments with ultracold quantum gases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourdel, Thomas
2012-12-01
We study superfluid transitions in bidimensional (2D) and tridimensional (3D) disordered and interacting Bose gases. We work in the limit of long-range correlated disorder such that it can be treated in the local density approximation. We present superfluid transition curves in both the disorder-temperature plane and the disorder-entropy plane in 2D and 3D Bose gases. Surprisingly, we find that a small amount of disorder is always favorable to the apparition of a superfluid. Our results offer a quantitative comparison with recent experiments in 2D disordered ultracold gases, for which no exact theory exists.
Quench-Induced Breathing Mode of One-Dimensional Bose Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Bess; Carleo, Giuseppe; Johnson, Aisling; Bouchoule, Isabelle
2014-07-01
We measure the position- and momentum-space breathing dynamics of trapped one-dimensional Bose gases at finite temperature. The profile in real space reveals sinusoidal width oscillations whose frequency varies continuously through the quasicondensate to ideal Bose gas crossover. A comparison with theoretical models taking temperature into account is provided. In momentum space, we report the first observation of a frequency doubling in the quasicondensate regime, corresponding to a self-reflection mechanism due to the repulsive interactions. Such a mechanism is predicted for a fermionized system, and has not been observed to date. The disappearance of the frequency doubling through the crossover is mapped out experimentally, giving insights into the dynamics of the breathing evolution.
Impurity driven diffusion and destruction of solitons in quasi-1D Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aycock, Lauren; Hurst, Hilary; Lu, Hsin-I.; Genkina, Dina; Spielman, Ian
2016-05-01
Current experimental research on solitons focuses on their collisions with each other and how dimensionality influences their stability and decay. Here, we investigate the effect of evenly distributed impurity atoms on soliton dynamics. We launch lone, long-lived solitons in highly elongated 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) by phase imprinting and observe oscillations stable over many seconds. We compare these long-lived solitons to those launched in BECs containing a few percent of impurity-the same atomic species in a different Zeeman sublevel-controllably introduced just before evaporation to degeneracy. These impurities - evenly distributed throughout the condensate - dramatically decrease the soliton lifetime and enhance Brownian-like diffusion in the soliton's trajectory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Yajiang
2016-05-01
We investigate the ground state density distributions of anti-ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose gases in a one dimensional harmonic potential in the full interacting regimes. The ground state is obtained by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian in the Hilbert space composed of the lowest eigenstates of noninteracting Bose gas and spin components. The study reveals that in the situation of a weak spin-dependent interaction the total density profiles evolve from a Gaussian-like distribution to a Fermi-like shell structure of N peaks with the increasing of spin-independent interaction. The increasing spin-exchange interaction always weakens the fermionization of the density distribution such that the total density profiles show the shell structure of less peaks and even show single peak structure in the limit of the strong spin-exchange interaction. The weakening of fermionization results from the formation of composite atoms induced by the spin-exchange interaction. It is also shown that phase separation occurs for the spinor Bose gas with a weak spin-exchange interaction, meanwhile the spin-independent interaction is strong.
Spin-heat relaxation and thermospin diffusion in atomic Bose and Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Clement H.; Stoof, H. T. C.; Duine, R. A.
2015-04-01
We study spin-dependent heat transport in quantum gases, focusing on transport phenomena related to pure spin currents and spin-dependent temperatures. Using the Boltzmann equation, we compute the coupled spin-heat transport coefficients as a function of temperature and interaction strength for energy-dependent s -wave scattering. We address the issue of whether spin-dependent temperatures can be sustained on a time and length scale relevant for experiments by computing the spin-heat relaxation time and diffusion length. We find that the time scale for spin-heat relaxation time diverges at low temperatures for both bosons and fermions, indicating that the concept of spin-heat accumulation is well defined for degenerate gases. For bosons, we find power-law behavior on approach to Bose condensation above the critical temperature, as expected from the theory of dynamical critical phenomena.
Bose and Fermi gases in the early Universe with self-gravitational effect
Niu Yuezhen; Huang Junwu; Ma Boqiang
2011-03-15
We study the self-gravitational effect on the equation of state (EoS) of Bose and Fermi gases in thermal equilibrium at the end of reheating, the period after quark-hadron transition and before big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). After introducing new grand canonical partition functions based on the work of Uhlenbeck and Gropper, we notice some interesting features of the newly developed EoSs with distinct behaviors of relativistic and nonrelativistic gases under self-gravity. The usual negligence of the self-gravitational effect when solving the background expansion of the early Universe is justified with numerical results, showing the magnitude of the self-gravitational modification of the state constant to be less than O(10{sup -78}). This helps us to clarify the background thermal evolution of the primordial patch. Such clarification is crucial in testing gravity theories, evaluating inflation models and determining element abundances in BBN.
Transport of an interacting Bose gas in 1D disordered lattices
D'Errico, C.; Chaudhuri, S.; Gori, L.; Kumar, A.; Lucioni, E.; Tanzi, L.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.
2014-08-20
We use ultracold atoms in a quasiperiodic lattice to study two outstanding problems in the physics of disordered systems: a) the anomalous diffusion of a wavepacket in the presence of disorder, interactions and noise; b) the transport of a disordered superfluid. a) Our results show that the subdiffusion, observed when interaction alone is present, can be modelled with a nonlinear diffusion equation and the peculiar shape of the expanding density profiles can be connected to the microscopic nonlinear diffusion coefficients. Also when noise alone is present we can describe the observed normal diffusion dynamics by existing microscopic models. In the unexplored regime in which noise and interaction are combined, instead, we observe an anomalous diffusion, that we model with a generalized diffusion equation, where noise- and interaction-induced contributions add each other. b) We find that an instability appearing at relatively large momenta can be employed to locate the fluid-insulator crossover driven by disorder. By investigating the momentum-dependent transport, we observe a sharp crossover from a weakly dissipative regime to a strongly unstable one at a disorder-dependent critical momentum. The set of critical disorder and interaction strengths for which such critical momentum vanishes, can be identified with the separation between a fluid regime and an insulating one and can be related to the predicted zero-temperature superfluid-Bose glass transition.
Quantum states of dark solitons in the 1D Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Jun; Kanamoto, Rina; Kaminishi, Eriko; Deguchi, Tetsuo
2016-07-01
We present a series of quantum states that are characterized by dark solitons of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (i.e. the Gross-Pitaevskii equation) for the one-dimensional Bose gas interacting through the repulsive delta-function potentials. The classical solutions satisfy the periodic boundary conditions and we simply call them classical dark solitons. Through exact solutions we show corresponding aspects between the states and the solitons in the weak coupling case: the quantum and classical density profiles completely overlap with each other not only at an initial time but also at later times over a long period of time, and they move together with the same speed in time; the matrix element of the bosonic field operator between the quantum states has exactly the same profiles of the square amplitude and the phase as the classical complex scalar field of a classical dark soliton not only at the initial time but also at later times, and the corresponding profiles move together for a long period of time. We suggest that the corresponding properties hold rigorously in the weak coupling limit. Furthermore, we argue that the lifetime of the dark soliton-like density profile in the quantum state becomes infinitely long as the coupling constant approaches zero, by comparing it with the quantum speed limit time. Thus, we call the quantum states quantum dark soliton states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da
2016-08-01
This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions.
Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da
2016-01-01
This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions. PMID:27545446
Quantum Correlations of Ideal Bose and Fermi Gases in the Canonical Ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsutsui, Kazumasa; Kita, Takafumi
2016-11-01
We derive an expression for the reduced density matrices of ideal Bose and Fermi gases in the canonical ensemble, which corresponds to the Bloch-De Dominicis (or Wick's) theorem in the grand canonical ensemble for normal-ordered products of operators. Using this expression, we study one- and two-body correlations of homogeneous ideal gases with N particles. The pair distribution function g(2)(r) of fermions clearly exhibits antibunching with g(2)(0) = 0 due to the Pauli exclusion principle at all temperatures, whereas that of normal bosons shows bunching with g(2)(0) ≈ 2, corresponding to the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect. For bosons below the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature T0, an off-diagonal long-range order develops in the one-particle density matrix to reach g(1)(r) = 1 at T = 0, and the pair correlation starts to decrease towards g(2)(r) ≈ 1 at T = 0. The results for N → ∞ are seen to converge to those of the grand canonical ensemble obtained by assuming the average < hat{ψ}(r)> of the field operator hat{ψ}(r) below T0. This fact justifies the introduction of the "anomalous" average < hat{ψ}(r)> ≠ 0 below T0 in the grand canonical ensemble as a mathematical means of removing unphysical particle-number fluctuations to reproduce the canonical results in the thermodynamic limit.
Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Jheng, Shih-Da
2016-01-01
This paper reports a novel type of vortex lattice, referred to as a bubble crystal, which was discovered in rapidly rotating Bose gases with long-range interactions. Bubble crystals differ from vortex lattices which possess a single quantum flux per unit cell, while atoms in bubble crystals are clustered periodically and surrounded by vortices. No existing model is able to describe the vortex structure of bubble crystals; however, we identified a mathematical lattice, which is a subset of coherent states and exists periodically in the physical space. This lattice is called a von Neumann lattice, and when it possesses a single vortex per unit cell, it presents the same geometrical structure as an Abrikosov lattice. In this report, we extend the von Neumann lattice to one with an integral number of flux quanta per unit cell and demonstrate that von Neumann lattices well reproduce the translational properties of bubble crystals. Numerical simulations confirm that, as a generalized vortex, a von Neumann lattice can be physically realized using vortex lattices in rapidly rotating Bose gases with dipole interatomic interactions. PMID:27545446
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Shao-Jian; Zhou, Fei
2015-07-01
The stability of Bose gases near resonance has been a puzzling problem in recent years. In this article, we demonstrate that in addition to generating thermal pressure, thermal atoms enhance the repulsiveness of the scale-dependent interactions between condensed atoms due to a renormalization effect and further stabilize the Bose gases. Consequently, we find that, as a precursor of instability, the compressibility develops an anomalous structure as a function of scattering length and is drastically reduced compared with the mean-field value. Furthermore, the density profile of a Bose gas in a harmonic trap is found to develop a flat top near the center. This is due to the anomalous behavior of compressibility and can be a potential smoking gun for probing such an effect.
Bose-Einstein condensation and critical behavior of two-component bosonic gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ceccarelli, Giacomo; Nespolo, Jacopo; Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore
2015-10-01
We study Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in three-dimensional two-component bosonic gases, characterizing the universal behaviors of the critical modes arising at the BEC transitions. For this purpose, we use field-theoretical (FT) renormalization-group (RG) methods and perform mean-field and numerical calculations. The FT RG analysis is based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson Φ4 theory with two complex scalar fields which has the same symmetry as the bosonic system. In particular, for identical bosons with exchange Z2 symmetry, coupled by effective density-density interactions, the global symmetry is Z2 ,e⊗U (1 ) ⊗U (1 ) . At the BEC transition, it may break into Z2 ,e⊗Z2⊗Z2 when both components condense simultaneously, or to U (1 ) ⊗Z2 when only one component condenses. This implies different universality classes for the corresponding critical behaviors. Numerical simulations of the two-component Bose-Hubbard model in the hard-core limit support the RG prediction: when both components condense simultaneously, the critical behavior is controlled by a decoupled XY fixed point, with unusual slowly decaying scaling corrections arising from the onsite interspecies interaction.
O(1D) kinetic study of key ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases.
Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Fleming, Eric L; Jackman, Charles H; Burkholder, James B
2013-03-28
A key stratospheric loss process for ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is reaction with the O((1)D) atom. In this study, rate coefficients, k, for the O((1)D) atom reaction were measured for the following key halocarbons: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CFCl2CF2Cl (CFC-113), CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115); hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b); and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) CHF3 (HFC-23), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CH3CF3 (HFC-143a), and CF3CHFCF3 (HFC-227ea). Total rate coefficients, kT, corresponding to the loss of the O((1)D) atom, were measured over the temperature range 217-373 K using a competitive reactive technique. kT values for the CFC and HCFC reactions were >1 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), except for CFC-115, and the rate coefficients for the HFCs were in the range (0.095-0.72) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Rate coefficients for the CFC-12, CFC-114, CFC-115, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea reactions were observed to have a weak negative temperature dependence, E/R ≈ -25 K. Reactive rate coefficients, kR, corresponding to the loss of the halocarbon, were measured for CFC-11, CFC-115, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea using a relative rate technique. The reactive branching ratio obtained was dependent on the composition of the halocarbon and the trend in O((1)D) reactivity with the extent of hydrogen and chlorine substitution is discussed. The present results are critically compared with previously reported kinetic data and the discrepancies are discussed. 2D atmospheric model calculations were used to evaluate the local and global annually averaged atmospheric lifetimes of the halocarbons and the contribution of O((1)D) chemistry to their atmospheric loss. The O((1)D) reaction was found to be a major global loss process for CFC-114 and CFC-115 and a secondary global loss process for the other molecules included
Universal phase structure of dilute Bose gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling
Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Lamacraft, Austen; Goldbart, Paul M.
2011-12-15
A Bose gas subject to a light-induced Rashba spin-orbit coupling possesses a dispersion minimum on a circle in momentum space; we show that kinematic constraints due to this dispersion cause interactions to renormalize to universal, angle-dependent values that govern the phase structure in the dilute-gas limit. We find that, regardless of microscopic interactions, (a) the ground state involves condensation at two opposite momenta and is, in finite systems, a fragmented condensate and and (b) there is a nonzero-temperature instability toward the condensation of pairs of bosons. We discuss how our results can be reconciled with the qualitatively different mean-field phase diagram, which is appropriate for dense gases.
Momentum-resolved study of an array of one-dimensional strongly phase-fluctuating Bose gases
Fabbri, N.; Clement, D.; Fallani, L.; Inguscio, M.; Fort, C.
2011-03-15
We investigate the coherence properties of an array of one-dimensional Bose gases with short-scale phase fluctuations. The momentum distribution is measured using Bragg spectroscopy, and an effective coherence length of the whole ensemble is defined. In addition, we propose and demonstrate that time-of-flight absorption imaging can be used as a simple probe to directly measure the coherence length of one-dimensional gases in the regime where phase fluctuations are strong. This method is suitable for future studies such as investigating the effect of disorder on the phase coherence.
Critical Temperature of Interacting Bose Gases in Two and Three Dimensions
Pilati, S.; Giorgini, S.; Prokof'ev, N.
2008-04-11
We calculate the superfluid transition temperature of homogeneous interacting Bose gases in three and two spatial dimensions using large-scale path integral Monte Carlo simulations (with up to N=10{sup 5} particles). In 3D we investigate the limits of the universal critical behavior in terms of the scattering length alone by using different models for the interatomic potential. We find that this type of universality sets in at small values of the gas parameter na{sup 3} < or approx. 10{sup -4}. This value is different from the estimate na{sup 3} < or approx. 10{sup -6} for the validity of the asymptotic expansion in the limit of vanishing na{sup 3}. In 2D we study the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition of a gas with hard-core interactions. For this system we find good agreement with the classical lattice |{psi}|{sup 4} model up to very large densities. We also explain the origin of the existing discrepancy between previous studies of the same problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minguzzi, A.; Succi, S.; Toschi, F.; Tosi, M. P.; Vignolo, P.
2004-06-01
The achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in ultra-cold vapours of alkali atoms has given enormous impulse to the study of dilute atomic gases in condensed quantum states inside magnetic traps and optical lattices. High-purity and easy optical access make them ideal candidates to investigate fundamental issues on interacting quantum systems. This review presents some theoretical issues which have been addressed in this area and the numerical techniques which have been developed and used to describe them, from mean-field models to classical and quantum simulations for equilibrium and dynamical properties. After an introductory overview on dilute quantum gases, both in the homogeneus state and under harmonic or periodic confinement, the article is organized in three main sections. The first concerns Bose-condensed gases at zero temperature, with main regard to the properties of the ground state in different confinements and to collective excitations and transport in the condensate. Bose-Einstein-condensed gases at finite temperature are addressed in the next section, the main emphasis being on equilibrium properties and phase transitions and on dynamical and transport properties associated with the presence of the thermal cloud. Finally, the last section is focused on theoretical and computational issues that have emerged from the efforts to drive gases of fermionic atoms and boson-fermion mixtures deep into the quantum degeneracy regime, with the aim of realizing novel superfluids from fermion pairing. The attention given in this article to methods beyond standard mean-field approaches should make it a useful reference point for future advances in these areas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Zeng-Qiang
2016-03-01
We study the ground-state phase diagram and the quantum phase transitions in spin-1 Bose gases with Raman-induced spin-orbit coupling. In addition to the Bose-Einstein condensates with uniform density, three types of stripe condensation phases that simultaneously break the U(1) symmetry and the translation symmetry are identified. The transitions between these phases are investigated, and the occurrences of the various tricritical points are predicted. The excitation spectra in the plane-wave phase and the zero-momentum phase show rich roton-maxon structures, and their instabilities indicate the tendency to develop the crystalline order. We propose the atomic gas of 23Na could be a candidate for observing the stripe condensate with high contrast fringes.
Symmetry-protected skyrmions in three-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled Bose gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Guanjun; Li, Tiantian; Zhang, Yunbo
2015-05-01
We present a variational study of pseudo-spin-1 /2 Bose gases in a harmonic trap with weak three-dimensional (3D) spin-orbit coupling of σ .p type. This spin-orbit coupling mixes states with different parities, which inspires us to approximate the single-particle state with the eigenstates of the total angular momentum, i.e., superposition of harmonic s -wave and p -wave states. As the time-reversal symmetry is protected by two-body interaction, we set the variational order parameter as the combination of two mutually time-reversal symmetric eigenstates of the total angular momentum. The variational results essentially reproduce the 3D skyrmionlike ground state recently identified by Kawakami et al. [T. Kawakami, T. Mizushima, M. Nitta, and K. Machida, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 015301 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.015301]. We show that these skyrmionlike ground states emerging in this model are primarily caused by the p -wave spatial mode involved in the variational order parameter that drives two spin components spatially separated. We find the ground state of this system falls into two phases with different density distribution symmetries depending on the relative magnitude of intraspecies and interspecies interaction: phase I has parity symmetric and axisymmetric density distributions, while phase II is featured with special joint symmetries of discrete rotational and time-reversal symmetry. With the increasing interaction strength the transition occurs between two phases with distinct density distributions, while the topological 3D skyrmionlike spin texture is symmetry protected.
Kain, Ben; Ling, Hong Y.
2011-06-15
We consider a mixture of two-component Fermi and (one-component) dipolar Bose gases in which both dipolar interaction and s-wave scattering between fermions of opposite spins are tunable. We show that in the long-wavelength limit, the anisotropy in the Fermi-Fermi interaction induced by phonons of the dipolar condensate can strongly enhance the scattering in the triplet channel. We investigate in detail the conditions for achieving optimal critical temperature at which the triplet superfluid begins to compete with the singlet superfluid.
Bloch oscillations and mean-field effects of Bose-Einstein condensates in 1D optical lattices.
Morsch, O; Müller, J H; Cristiani, M; Ciampini, D; Arimondo, E
2001-10-01
We have loaded Bose-Einstein condensates into one-dimensional, off-resonant optical lattices and accelerated them by chirping the frequency difference between the two lattice beams. For small values of the lattice well depth, Bloch oscillations were observed. Reducing the potential depth further, Landau-Zener tunneling out of the lowest lattice band, leading to a breakdown of the oscillations, was also studied and used as a probe for the effective potential resulting from mean-field interactions as predicted by Choi and Niu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2022 (1999)]. The effective potential was measured for various condensate densities and trap geometries, yielding good qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguilar-López, Ricardo; López-Pérez, Pablo A.; Lara-Cisneros, Gerardo; Femat, Ricardo
2016-09-01
In this paper, a robust nonlinear feedback control scheme with adaptive gain is proposed to control the chaotic behavior in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The control goal concerns the track or regulation purposes. The BEC system is represented as stochastic ordinary differential equations with measured output perturbed by Gaussian noise, which represents the nature of the quantum systems. The convergence of the BEC control law is analyzed under the frame of the Lyapunov stability theory. Numerical experiments show an adequate performance of the proposed methodology under the required conditions. The results are applicable when the shape of the condensate is sufficiently simple.
Mixtures of ultracold gases: Fermi sea and Bose-Einstein condensate of lithium isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreck, F.
2003-03-01
This thesis presents studies of quantum degenerate atomic gases of fermionic ^6Li and bosonic ^7Li. Degeneracy is reached by evaporative cooling of ^7Li in a strongly confining magnetic trap. Since at low temperatures direct evaporative cooling is not possible for a polarized fermionic gas, ^6Li is sympathetically cooled by thermal contact with ^7Li. In a first series of experiments both isotopes are trapped in their low-field seeking higher hyperfine states. A Fermi degeneracy of T/T_F=0.25(5) is achieved for 10^5 fermions. For more than 300 atoms, the ^7Li condensate collapses, due to the attractive interatomic interaction in this state. This limits the degeneracy reached for both species. To overcome this limit, in a second series of experiments ^7Li and ^6Li atoms are transferred to their low field seeking lower hyperfine states, where the boson-boson interaction is repulsive but weak. The inter-isotope collisions are used to thermalize the mixture. A ^7Li Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of 10^4 atoms immersed in a Fermi sea is produced. The BEC is quasi-one-dimensional and the thermal fraction can be negligible. The measured degeneracies are T/T_C=T/T_F=0.2(1). The temperature is measured using the bosonic thermal fraction, which vanishes at the lowest temperatures, limiting our measurement sensitivity. In a third series of experiments, the bosons are transferred into an optical trap and their internal state is changed to |F=1,m_F=1rangle, the lowest energy state. A Feshbach resonance is detected and used to produce a BEC with tunable atomic interactions. When the effective interaction between atoms is tuned to be small and attractive, we observe the formation of a matter-wave bright soliton. Propagation of the soliton without spreading over a macroscopic distance of 1.1 mm is observed. Mélanges de gaz ultrafroids: mer de Fermi et condensat de Bose-Einstein des isotopes du lithium Cette thèse décrit l'étude des gaz de fermions ^6Li et de bosons ^7Li dans le
Solitary waves in mixtures of Bose gases confined in annular traps
Smyrnakis, J.; Magiropoulos, M.; Kavoulakis, G. M.; Jackson, A. D.
2010-06-15
A two-component Bose-Einstein condensate that is confined in a one-dimensional ring potential supports solitary-wave solutions, which we evaluate analytically in the limit of a large ring. The derived solutions are shown to be unique. The corresponding dispersion relation that generalizes the case of a single-component system shows interesting features.
Universality far from equilibrium: From superfluid Bose gases to heavy-ion collisions
Schlichting, S.; Venugopalan, R.; Berges, J.; Boguslavski, K.
2015-02-10
Isolated quantum systems in extreme conditions can exhibit unusually large occupancies per mode. In addition, this over-population gives rise to new universality classes of many-body systems far from equilibrium. We present theoretical evidence that important aspects of non-Abelian plasmas in the ultra-relativistic limit admit a dual description in terms of a Bose condensed scalar field theory.
Lu Xiancong; Yu Yue; Li Jinbin
2006-04-15
By using slave particle (slave boson and slave fermion) techniques on the Bose-Hubbard model, we study the finite temperature properties of ultracold Bose gases in optical lattices. The phase diagrams at finite temperature are depicted by including different types of slave particles and the effect of the finite types of slave particles is estimated. The superfluid density is evaluated using the Landau second order phase transition theory. The atom density, excitation spectrum, and dispersion curve are also computed at various temperatures, and how the Mott-insulator evolves as the temperature increases is demonstrated. For most quantities to be calculated, we find that there are no qualitative differences in using the slave boson or the slave fermion approaches. However, when studying the stability of the mean field state, we find that in contrast to the slave fermion approach, the slave boson mean field state is not stable. Although the slave boson mean field theory gives a qualitatively correct phase boundary, it corresponds to a local maximum of Landau free energy and cannot describe the second order phase transition because the coefficient a{sub 4} of the fourth order term is always negative in the free energy expansion.
Interaction of a probe pulse with a 'dressed' Bose-Einstein condensate of rarefied atomic gases
Shamrov, N I
2008-01-31
Semiclassical equations describing the interaction of a probe pulse with a 'dressed' Bose-Einstein condensate of a rarefied atomic gas are proposed. The analytic solution of these equations is obtained for low-intensity pulses. The conditions of the appearance of a diffraction grating from recoil atoms are found. The existence of induced superradiance at the probe-beam frequency is predicted. The pulse propagation velocity in the condensate is determined as a function of its energy. The limits of the applicability of the two-level model of a 'dressed' atom are estimated. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Collective oscillations in trapped Bose-Einstein-condensed gases in the presence of weak disorder
Falco, G. M.; Pelster, A.; Graham, R.
2007-07-15
The influence of a weak random potential on the collective modes of a trapped interacting Bose-Einstein condensate at zero temperature is calculated in the limit when the correlation length of the disorder is smaller than the healing length of the superfluid. The problem is solved in the Thomas-Fermi limit by generalizing the superfluid hydrodynamic equations to allow for the presence of weak disorder. We find that the disorder-induced frequency shifts of the low-energy excitations can be of the same order of magnitude as the beyond mean-field corrections in the normal interaction recently observed experimentally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burkholder, J. B.; Baasandorj, M.; Fleming, E. L.; Jackman, C. H.
2012-12-01
A key stratospheric loss process for ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is their gas-phase reaction with electronically excited oxygen atoms, O(1D). Although numerous O(1D) reactions have been studied in the past, large uncertainties in the recommended rate coefficients and reactive yields, i.e., loss of ODS or GHG, for use in atmospheric modeling still exist for a number of key compounds. Our understanding of the coupling of atmospheric chemistry and climate-change requires the most accurate reaction rate coefficient data to be used in climate-change model calculations. In this presentation, results from an extensive laboratory study of the total reaction rate coefficient, corresponding to loss of O(1D), and reactive rate coefficients, corresponding to the loss of the reactant compound, will be presented for the ODSs: CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CFCl2CF2Cl (CFC-113), CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115), HClCF2 (HCFC-22), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b); GHGs: CHF3 (HFC-23), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CF3CHCF3 (HFC-227ea), and CF3CH3 (HFC-143a); and the persistent (long-lived) GHGs: NF3, SF5CF3, C2F6, c-C4F8, n-C5F12, and n-C6F14. The results from this work will be compared with results from previous studies and discrepancies discussed along with the atmospheric implications of the improved kinetic dataset on the atmospheric lifetimes of these compounds.
Magnetic phases of spin-1 spin–orbit-coupled Bose gases
Campbell, D. L.; Price, R. M.; Putra, A.; Valdés-Curiel, A.; Trypogeorgos, D.; Spielman, I. B.
2016-01-01
Phases of matter are characterized by order parameters describing the type and degree of order in a system. Here we experimentally explore the magnetic phases present in a near-zero temperature spin-1 spin–orbit-coupled atomic Bose gas and the quantum phase transitions between these phases. We observe ferromagnetic and unpolarized phases, which are stabilized by spin–orbit coupling's explicit locking between spin and motion. These phases are separated by a critical curve containing both first- and second-order transitions joined at a tricritical point. The first-order transition, with observed width as small as h × 4 Hz, gives rise to long-lived metastable states. These measurements are all in agreement with theory. PMID:27025562
Formation of Vortex Lattices in Superfluid Bose Gases at Finite Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arahata, E.; Nikuni, T.
2016-05-01
We study the dynamics of a rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at finite temperatures. Using the Zaremba-Nikuni-Griffin formalism, based on a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate coupled to a semiclassical kinetic equation for a thermal cloud, we numerically simulate vortex lattice formation in the presence of a time-dependent rotating trap potential. At low rotation frequency, the thermal cloud undergoes rigid body rotation, while the condensate exhibits irrotational flow. Above a certain threshold rotation frequency, vortices penetrate into the condensate and form a vortex lattice. Our simulation result clearly indicates a crucial role for the thermal cloud, which triggers vortex lattice formation in the rotating BEC.
Variational Monte Carlo study of soliton excitations in hard-sphere Bose gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rota, R.; Giorgini, S.
2015-10-01
By using a full many-body approach, we calculate the excitation energy, the effective mass, and the density profile of soliton states in a three-dimensional Bose gas of hard spheres at zero temperature. The many-body wave function used to describe the soliton contains a one-body term, derived from the solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, and a two-body Jastrow term, which accounts for the repulsive correlations between atoms. We optimize the parameters in the many-body wave function via a variational Monte Carlo procedure, calculating the grand-canonical energy and the canonical momentum of the system in a moving reference frame where the soliton is stationary. As the density of the gas is increased, significant deviations from the mean-field predictions are found for the excitation energy and the density profile of both dark and gray solitons. In particular, the soliton effective mass m* and the mass m Δ N of missing particles in the region of the density depression are smaller than the result from the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, their ratio, however, being well reproduced by this theory up to large values of the gas parameter. We also calculate the profile of the condensate density around the soliton notch, finding good agreement with the prediction of the local-density approximation.
Quasi-long-range order in trapped two-dimensional Bose gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boettcher, Igor; Holzmann, Markus
2016-07-01
We study the fate of algebraic decay of correlations in a harmonically trapped two-dimensional degenerate Bose gas. The analysis is inspired by recent experiments on ultracold atoms where power-law correlations have been observed despite the presence of the external potential. We generalize the spin wave description of phase fluctuations to the trapped case and obtain an analytical expression for the one-body density matrix within this approximation. We show that algebraic decay of the central correlation function persists to lengths of about 20% of the Thomas-Fermi radius. We establish that the trap-averaged correlation function decays algebraically with a strictly larger exponent weakly changing with trap size and find indications that the recently observed enhanced scaling exponents receive significant contributions from the normal component of the gas. We discuss radial and angular correlations and propose a local correlation approximation which captures the correlations very well. Our analysis goes beyond the usual local density approximation and the developed summation techniques constitute a powerful tool to investigate correlations in inhomogeneous systems.
Theoretical studies of Efimov states and dynamics in quenched unitary Bose gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Incao, Jose P.; Wang, Jia; Klauss, Cathy; Xie, Xin; Jin, Deborah S.; Cornell, Eric A.
2016-05-01
We study the three-body physics relevant for quenched unitary Bose gas experiments in order to determine the role of Efimov states on the dynamics of the atomic and molecular populations. Initially, the interatomic interactions are quenched from weak to infinitely strong. After some dwelling time, the interactions are slowly ramped back to some final weak value where a mixture of atoms, dimers, and Efimov trimers can exist and whose populations depend strongly on the dwell time. We model the problem using the adiabatic hyperspherical representation for three atoms assuming a local interaction model in which a harmonic potential mimics finite density effects. We also developed a novel Slow Variable Discretization (SVD) method to accurately determine the time evolution of the system, overcoming the difficulty of implementing diabatization schemes to minimize unwanted effects due to sharp-avoid crossings. This method also allows us to account for three-body losses during the time evolution. This research is supported by the U. S. National Science Foundation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Qijin
2016-05-01
BCS–Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor’kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories.
Chen, Qijin
2016-01-01
BCS–Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor’kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories. PMID:27183875
Chen, Qijin
2016-01-01
BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor'kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories.
Anisotropic pair superfluidity of trapped two-component Bose gases in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yongqiang; He, Liang; Hofstetter, Walter
2013-09-01
We theoretically investigate the pair-superfluid phase of two-component ultracold gases with attractive inter-species interactions in an optical lattice. We establish the phase diagram for filling n = 1 at zero and finite temperatures, by applying bosonic dynamical mean-field theory, and observe stable pair-superfluid and charge-density wave quantum phases for asymmetric hopping of the two species. While the pair superfluid is found to be robust in the presence of a harmonic trap, we observe that it is destroyed already by a small population imbalance of the two species.
Superfluid transition of homogeneous and trapped two-dimensional Bose gases
Holzmann, Markus; Baym, Gordon; Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Laloë, Franck
2007-01-01
Current experiments on atomic gases in highly anisotropic traps present the opportunity to study in detail the low temperature phases of two-dimensional inhomogeneous systems. Although, in an ideal gas, the trapping potential favors Bose–Einstein condensation at finite temperature, interactions tend to destabilize the condensate, leading to a superfluid Kosterlitz–Thouless–Berezinskii phase with a finite superfluid mass density but no long-range order, as in homogeneous fluids. The transition in homogeneous systems is conveniently described in terms of dissociation of topological defects (vortex–antivortex pairs). However, trapped two-dimensional gases are more directly approached by generalizing the microscopic theory of the homogeneous gas. In this paper, we first derive, via a diagrammatic expansion, the scaling structure near the phase transition in a homogeneous system, and then study the effects of a trapping potential in the local density approximation. We find that a weakly interacting trapped gas undergoes a Kosterlitz–Thouless–Berezinskii transition from the normal state at a temperature slightly below the Bose–Einstein transition temperature of the ideal gas. The characteristic finite superfluid mass density of a homogeneous system just below the transition becomes strongly suppressed in a trapped gas. PMID:17244706
Microscopic description of anisotropic low-density dipolar Bose gases in two dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macia, A.; Mazzanti, F.; Boronat, J.; Zillich, R. E.
2011-09-01
A microscopic description of the zero-energy two-body ground state and many-body static properties of anisotropic homogeneous gases of bosonic dipoles in two dimensions at low densities is presented and discussed. By changing the polarization angle with respect to the plane, we study the impact of the anisotropy, present in the dipole-dipole interaction, on the energy per particle, comparing the results with mean-field predictions. We restrict the analysis to the regime where the interaction is always repulsive, although the strength of the repulsion depends on the orientation with respect to the polarization field. We present a series expansion of the solution of the zero-energy two-body problem, which allows us to find the scattering length of the interaction and to build a suitable Jastrow factor that we use as a trial wave function for both a variational and diffusion Monte Carlo simulation of the infinite system. We find that the anisotropy has an almost negligible impact on the ground-state properties of the many-body system in the universal regime where the scattering length governs the physics of the system. We also show that scaling in the gas parameter persists in the dipolar case up to values where other isotropic interactions with the same scattering length yield different predictions.
Microscopic description of anisotropic low-density dipolar Bose gases in two dimensions
Macia, A.; Mazzanti, F.; Boronat, J.; Zillich, R. E.
2011-09-15
A microscopic description of the zero-energy two-body ground state and many-body static properties of anisotropic homogeneous gases of bosonic dipoles in two dimensions at low densities is presented and discussed. By changing the polarization angle with respect to the plane, we study the impact of the anisotropy, present in the dipole-dipole interaction, on the energy per particle, comparing the results with mean-field predictions. We restrict the analysis to the regime where the interaction is always repulsive, although the strength of the repulsion depends on the orientation with respect to the polarization field. We present a series expansion of the solution of the zero-energy two-body problem, which allows us to find the scattering length of the interaction and to build a suitable Jastrow factor that we use as a trial wave function for both a variational and diffusion Monte Carlo simulation of the infinite system. We find that the anisotropy has an almost negligible impact on the ground-state properties of the many-body system in the universal regime where the scattering length governs the physics of the system. We also show that scaling in the gas parameter persists in the dipolar case up to values where other isotropic interactions with the same scattering length yield different predictions.
Final LDRD report : the physics of 1D and 2D electron gases in III-nitride heterostructure NWs.
Armstrong, Andrew M.; Arslan, Ilke; Upadhya, Prashanth C.; Morales, Eugenia T.; Leonard, Francois Leonard; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Talin, Albert Alec; Prasankumar, Rohit P.; Lin, Yong
2009-09-01
The proposed work seeks to demonstrate and understand new phenomena in novel, freestanding III-nitride core-shell nanowires, including 1D and 2D electron gas formation and properties, and to investigate the role of surfaces and heterointerfaces on the transport and optical properties of nanowires, using a combined experimental and theoretical approach. Obtaining an understanding of these phenomena will be a critical step that will allow development of novel, ultrafast and ultraefficient nanowire-based electronic and photonic devices.
Dziarmaga, Jacek; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2014-01-01
Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) uses critical scaling to predict density of topological defects and other excitations created in second order phase transitions. We point out that simply inserting asymptotic critical exponents deduced from the immediate vicinity of the critical point to obtain predictions can lead to results that are inconsistent with a more careful KZM analysis based on causality – on the comparison of the relaxation time of the order parameter with the “time distance” from the critical point. As a result, scaling of quench-generated excitations with quench rates can exhibit behavior that is locally (i.e., in the neighborhood of any given quench rate) well approximated by the power law, but with exponents that depend on that rate, and that are quite different from the naive prediction based on the critical exponents relevant for asymptotically long quench times. Kosterlitz-Thouless scaling (that governs e.g. Mott insulator to superfluid transition in the Bose-Hubbard model in one dimension) is investigated as an example of this phenomenon. PMID:25091996
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shia, R.
2012-12-01
The haze layer in Titan's upper atmosphere absorbs 90% of the solar radiation, but is inefficient for trapping infrared radiation generated by the surface. Its existence partially compensates for the greenhouse warming and keeps the surface approximately 9°C cooler than would otherwise be expected from the greenhouse effect alone. This is the so called anti-greenhouse effect (McKay et al., 1991). This effect can be used to alleviate the warming caused by the increasing level of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. A one-dimensional radiative convective model (Kasting et al., 2009 and references listed there) is used to investigate the anti-greenhouse effect in the Earth atmosphere. Increasing of solar absorbers, e.g. aerosols and ozone, in the stratosphere reduces the surface solar flux and cool the surface. However, the absorption of the solar flux also increases the temperature in the upper atmosphere, while reduces the temperature at the surface. Thus, the temperature profile of the atmosphere changes and the regions with positive vertical temperature gradient are expanded. According to Shia (2010) the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases is directly related to the vertical temperature gradient. Under the new temperature profile increases of greenhouse gases should have less warming effect. When the solar absorbers keep increasing, eventually most of the atmosphere has positive temperature gradient and increasing greenhouse gases would cool the surface (Shia, 2011). The doubling CO2 scenario in the Earth atmosphere is simulated for different levels of solar absorbers using the 1-D RC model. The model results show that if the solar absorber increases to a certain level that less than 50% solar flux reaching the surface, doubling CO2 cools the surface by about 2 C. This means if the snowball Earth is generated by solar absorbers in the stratosphere, increasing greenhouse gases would make it freeze even more (Shia, 2011). References: Kasting, J. et al
Reactive and nonreactive quenching of O(1D) by the potent greenhouse gases SO2F2, NF3, and SF5CF3.
Zhao, Zhijun; Laine, Patrick L; Nicovich, J Michael; Wine, Paul H
2010-04-13
A laser flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique has been employed to measure rate coefficients and physical vs. reactive quenching branching ratios for O((1)D) deactivation by three potent greenhouse gases, SO(2)F(2)(k(1)), NF(3)(k(2)), and SF(5)CF(3)(k(3)). In excellent agreement with one published study, we find that k(1)(T) = 9.0 x 10(-11) exp(+98/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) and that the reactive quenching rate coefficient is k(1b) = (5.8 +/- 2.3) x 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) independent of temperature. We find that k(2)(T) = 2.0 x 10(-11) exp(+52/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with reaction proceeding almost entirely (approximately 99%) by reactive quenching. Reactive quenching of O((1)D) by NF(3) is more than a factor of two faster than reported in one published study, a result that will significantly lower the model-derived atmospheric lifetime and global warming potential of NF(3). Deactivation of O((1)D) by SF(5)CF(3) is slow enough (k(3) < 2.0 x 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at 298 K) that reaction with O((1)D) is unimportant as an atmospheric removal mechanism for SF(5)CF(3). The kinetics of O((1)D) reactions with SO(2) (k(4)) and CS(2) (k(5)) have also been investigated at 298 K. We find that k(4) = (2.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(-10) and k(5) = (4.6 +/- 0.6) x 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1); branching ratios for reactive quenching are 0.76 +/- 0.12 and 0.94 +/- 0.06 for the SO(2) and CS(2) reactions, respectively. All uncertainties reported above are estimates of accuracy (2sigma) and rate coefficients k(i)(T) (i = 1,2) calculated from the above Arrhenius expressions have estimated accuracies of +/- 15% (2sigma).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilchynskyy, S. I.; Yakimenko, A. I.; Isaieva, K. O.; Chumachenko, A. V.
2013-09-01
We present a brief overview of crucial historical stages in creation of superfluidity theory and of the current state of the microscopic theory of superfluid 4He. We pay special attention to the role of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in understanding of physical mechanisms of superfluidity and identification of quantum mechanical structure of 4He superfluid component below λ-point, in particular—the possibility that at least two types of condensates may appear and coexist simultaneously in superfluid 4He. In this context we discuss the properties of the binary mixtures of BECs and types of excitations, which may appear due to intercomponent interaction in such binary mixtures of condensates. We also discuss current status of investigations of persistent currents in toroidal optical traps and present an outlook of our recent findings on this subject.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiss, Christoph; Cornish, Simon L.; Gardiner, Simon A.; Breuer, Heinz-Peter
2016-01-01
We show that the spreading of the center-of-mass density of ultracold attractively interacting bosons can become superballistic in the presence of decoherence, via one-, two-, and/or three-body losses. In the limit of weak decoherence, we analytically solve the numerical model introduced in Weiss et al. [Phys. Rev. A 91, 063616 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.063616. The analytical predictions allow us to identify experimentally accessible parameter regimes for which we predict superballistic spreading of the center-of-mass density. Ultracold attractive Bose gases form weakly bound molecules, quantum matter-wave bright solitons. Our computer simulations combine ideas from classical field methods ("truncated Wigner") and piecewise deterministic stochastic processes. While the truncated Wigner approach to use an average over classical paths as a substitute for a quantum superposition is often an uncontrolled approximation, here it predicts the exact root-mean-square width when modeling an expanding Gaussian wave packet. In the superballistic regime, the leading order of the spreading of the center-of-mass density can thus be modeled as a quantum superposition of classical Gaussian random walks in velocity space.
Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Yabu, Hiroyuki
2009-10-15
We study quadrupole collective oscillations in the bose-fermi mixtures of ultracold atomic gases of Yb isotopes, which are realized by Kyoto group. Three kinds of combinations are chosen, {sup 170}Yb-{sup 171}Yb, {sup 170}Yb-{sup 173}Yb and {sup 174}Yb-{sup 173}Yb, where boson-fermion interactions are weakly repulsive, strongly attractive and strongly repulsive respectively. Collective oscillations in these mixtures are calculated in a dynamical time-evolution approach with the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii and the Vlasov equations. The boson oscillations are shown to have one collective mode, and the fermions are shown to have the boson-forced and two intrinsic modes, which correspond to the inside- and outside-fermion oscillations for the boson-distributed regions. The oscillations obtained in the dynamical approach show discrepancies from the results obtained in the small-amplitude approximations, e.g., the random phase approximation, except in the case of weak boson-fermion interactions. We also analyze these discrepancies, and show that they originated in the change of the fermion distributions through oscillation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faruk, Mir Mehedi
2015-11-01
A unified description for the Bose and Fermi gases trapped in an external generic power law potential U=sum _{i=1} ^d c_i |x_i/a_i|^{n_i} is presented using the grandpotential of the system in d dimensional space. The thermodynamic quantities of the quantum gases are derived from the grand potential. An equivalence between the trapped Bose and Fermi gases is constructed from the thermodynamic quantities in one dimension (d=1) using the Landen relation. It is also found that the established equivalence between the ideal free Bose and Fermi gases in d=2 (Lee in Phys Rev E 55:1518, 1997) is lost when external potential is applied.
Emergent phases in the spin orbit coupled spin-1 Bose Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Natu, Stefan; Pixley, Jedediah
2015-05-01
Motivated by recent experiments on spin orbit coupled, ultra-cold Bose gases, we theoretically study the spin-1 Bose Hubbard model in the presence and absence of spin orbit coupling (SOC). In the absence of SOC, using a spatially homogenous Gutzwiller mean field theory, we determine the phase diagram and excitation spectrum of the spin-1 Bose Hubbard model on a hyper-cubic lattice in both the polar and ferromagnetic phases. We focus on the evolution of various density, spin, and nematic order parameters across the phase diagram as a function of chemical potential and nearest neighbor hopping. We then generalize the Gutzwiller mean-field theory to incorporate spin-orbit coupling by allowing the mean-fields to be spatially inhomogeneous, which enable us to study spontaneous translational symmetry broken phases. To connect with ongoing experiments, we focus on the lattice generalization of the experimentally realized 1D spin-orbit coupling.
El-Sherbini, Th.M.
2005-03-17
This article gives a brief review of Bose-Einstein condensation. It is an exotic quantum phenomenon that was observed in dilute atomic gases for the first time in 1995. It exhibits a new state of matter in which a group of atoms behaves as a single particle. Experiments on this form of matter are relevant to many different areas of physics- from atomic clocks and quantum computing to super fluidity, superconductivity and quantum phase transition.
Hydrodynamics of a unitary Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man, Jay; Fletcher, Richard; Lopes, Raphael; Navon, Nir; Smith, Rob; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2016-05-01
In general, normal-phase Bose gases are well described by modelling them as ideal gases. In particular, hydrodynamic flow is usually not observed in the expansion dynamics of normal gases, and is more readily observable in Bose-condensed gases. However, by preparing strongly-interacting clouds, we observe hydrodynamic behaviour in normal-phase Bose gases, including the `maximally' hydrodynamic unitary regime. We avoid the atom losses that often hamper experimental access of this regime by using radio-frequency injection, which switches on interactions much faster than trap or loss timescales. At low phase-space densities, we find excellent agreement with a collisional model based on the Boltzmann equation. At higher phase-space densities our results show a deviation from this model in the vicinity of an Efimov resonance, which cannot be accounted for by measured losses.
Non-equilibrium scale invariance and shortcuts to adiabaticity in a one-dimensional Bose gas
Rohringer, W.; Fischer, D.; Steiner, F.; Mazets, I. E.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Trupke, M.
2015-01-01
We present experimental evidence for scale invariant behaviour of the excitation spectrum in phase-fluctuating quasi-1d Bose gases after a rapid change of the external trapping potential. Probing density correlations in free expansion, we find that the temperature of an initial thermal state scales with the spatial extension of the cloud as predicted by a model based on adiabatic rescaling of initial eigenmodes with conserved quasiparticle occupation numbers. Based on this result, we demonstrate that shortcuts to adiabaticity for the rapid expansion or compression of the gas do not induce additional heating. PMID:25867640
Non-equilibrium scale invariance and shortcuts to adiabaticity in a one-dimensional Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rohringer, W.; Fischer, D.; Steiner, F.; Mazets, I. E.; Schmiedmayer, J.; Trupke, M.
2015-04-01
We present experimental evidence for scale invariant behaviour of the excitation spectrum in phase-fluctuating quasi-1d Bose gases after a rapid change of the external trapping potential. Probing density correlations in free expansion, we find that the temperature of an initial thermal state scales with the spatial extension of the cloud as predicted by a model based on adiabatic rescaling of initial eigenmodes with conserved quasiparticle occupation numbers. Based on this result, we demonstrate that shortcuts to adiabaticity for the rapid expansion or compression of the gas do not induce additional heating.
Non-equilibrium scale invariance and shortcuts to adiabaticity in a one-dimensional Bose gas.
Rohringer, W; Fischer, D; Steiner, F; Mazets, I E; Schmiedmayer, J; Trupke, M
2015-04-13
We present experimental evidence for scale invariant behaviour of the excitation spectrum in phase-fluctuating quasi-1d Bose gases after a rapid change of the external trapping potential. Probing density correlations in free expansion, we find that the temperature of an initial thermal state scales with the spatial extension of the cloud as predicted by a model based on adiabatic rescaling of initial eigenmodes with conserved quasiparticle occupation numbers. Based on this result, we demonstrate that shortcuts to adiabaticity for the rapid expansion or compression of the gas do not induce additional heating.
Konkoli, Zoran
2004-01-01
Theoretical methods for dealing with diffusion-controlled reactions inevitably rely on some kind of approximation, and to find the one that works on a particular problem is not always easy. Here the approximation used by Bogolyubov to study a weakly nonideal Bose gas, referred to as the weakly nonideal Bose gas approximation (WBGA), is applied in the analysis of three reaction-diffusion models: (i) A+A-->Ø, (ii) A+B-->Ø, and (iii) A+A,B+B,A+B-->Ø (the ABBA model). Two types of WBGA are considered, the simpler WBGA-I and the more complicated WBGA-II. All models are defined on the lattice to facilitate comparison with computer experiment (simulation). It is found that the WBGA describes the A+B reaction well, it reproduces the correct d/4 density decay exponent. However, it fails in the case of the A+A reaction and the ABBA model. (To cure the deficiency of WBGA in dealing with the A+A model, a hybrid of the WBGA and Kirkwood superposition approximations is suggested.) It is shown that the WBGA-I is identical to the dressed-tree calculation suggested by Lee [J. Phys. A 27, 2633 (1994)], and that the dressed-tree calculation does not lead to the d/2 density decay exponent when applied to the A+A reaction, as normally believed, but it predicts the d/4 decay exponent. Last, the usage of the small n(0) approximation suggested by Mattis and Glasser [Rev. Mod. Phys. 70, 979 (1998)] is questioned if used beyond the A+B reaction-diffusion model. PMID:14995603
Bose-Einstein condensation. Twenty years after
Bagnato, V. S.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, B. A.; Mihalache, D.
2015-02-23
The aim of this introductory article is two-fold. First, we aim to offer a general introduction to the theme of Bose-Einstein condensates, and briefly discuss the evolution of a number of relevant research directions during the last two decades. Second, we introduce and present the articles that appear in this Special Volume of Romanian Reports in Physics celebrating the conclusion of the second decade since the experimental creation of Bose-Einstein condensation in ultracold gases of alkali-metal atoms.
Bose-Einstein condensation in complex networks.
Bianconi, G; Barabási, A L
2001-06-11
The evolution of many complex systems, including the World Wide Web, business, and citation networks, is encoded in the dynamic web describing the interactions between the system's constituents. Despite their irreversible and nonequilibrium nature these networks follow Bose statistics and can undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. Addressing the dynamical properties of these nonequilibrium systems within the framework of equilibrium quantum gases predicts that the "first-mover-advantage," "fit-get-rich," and "winner-takes-all" phenomena observed in competitive systems are thermodynamically distinct phases of the underlying evolving networks.
Anisotropic Expansion of a Thermal Dipolar Bose Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Y.; Sykes, A. G.; Burdick, N. Q.; DiSciacca, J. M.; Petrov, D. S.; Lev, B. L.
2016-10-01
We report on the anisotropic expansion of ultracold bosonic dysprosium gases at temperatures above quantum degeneracy and develop a quantitative theory to describe this behavior. The theory expresses the postexpansion aspect ratio in terms of temperature and microscopic collisional properties by incorporating Hartree-Fock mean-field interactions, hydrodynamic effects, and Bose-enhancement factors. Our results extend the utility of expansion imaging by providing accurate thermometry for dipolar thermal Bose gases. Furthermore, we present a simple method to determine scattering lengths in dipolar gases, including near a Feshbach resonance, through observation of thermal gas expansion.
Cold bose gases with large scattering lengths.
Cowell, S; Heiselberg, H; Mazets, I E; Morales, J; Pandharipande, V R; Pethick, C J
2002-05-27
We calculate the energy and condensate fraction for a dense system of bosons interacting through an attractive short range interaction with positive s-wave scattering length a. At high densities n>a(-3), the energy per particle, chemical potential, and square of the sound speed are independent of the scattering length and proportional to n(2/3), as in Fermi systems. The condensate is quenched at densities na(3) approximately 1. PMID:12059466
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahauddin, Shah Mohammad; Mehedi Faruk, Mir
2016-09-01
From the unified statistical thermodynamics of quantum gases, the virial coefficients of ideal Bose and Fermi gases, trapped under generic power law potential are derived systematically. From the general result of virial coefficients, one can produce the known results in d = 3 and d = 2. But more importantly we found that, the virial coefficients of Bose and Fermi gases become identical (except the second virial coefficient, where the sign is different) when the gases are trapped under harmonic potential in d = 1. This result suggests the equivalence between Bose and Fermi gases established in d = 1 (J. Stat. Phys. DOI 10.1007/s10955-015-1344-4). Also, it is found that the virial coefficients of two-dimensional free Bose (Fermi) gas are equal to the virial coefficients of one-dimensional harmonically trapped Bose (Fermi) gas.
Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases for the Entire Range of Temperature
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Biswas, Shyamal; Jana, Debnarayan
2012-01-01
We have analytically explored the thermodynamics of free Bose and Fermi gases for the entire range of temperature, and have extended the same for harmonically trapped cases. We have obtained approximate chemical potentials for the quantum gases in closed forms of temperature so that the thermodynamic properties of the quantum gases become…
Calorimetry of a Bose-Einstein-condensed photon gas.
Damm, Tobias; Schmitt, Julian; Liang, Qi; Dung, David; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin; Klaers, Jan
2016-01-01
Phase transitions, as the condensation of a gas to a liquid, are often revealed by a discontinuous behaviour of thermodynamic quantities. For liquid helium, for example, a divergence of the specific heat signals the transition from the normal fluid to the superfluid state. Apart from liquid helium, determining the specific heat of a Bose gas has proven to be a challenging task, for example, for ultracold atomic Bose gases. Here we examine the thermodynamic behaviour of a trapped two-dimensional photon gas, a system that allows us to spectroscopically determine the specific heat and the entropy of a nearly ideal Bose gas from the classical high temperature to the Bose-condensed quantum regime. The critical behaviour at the phase transition is clearly revealed by a cusp singularity of the specific heat. Regarded as a test of quantum statistical mechanics, our results demonstrate a quantitative agreement with its predictions at the microscopic level. PMID:27090978
Bose-Einstein-condensate heating by atomic losses
Dziarmaga, Jacek; Sacha, Krzysztof
2003-10-01
Atomic Bose-Einstein condensate is heated by atomic losses. The losses act as a heat reservoir for the condensate. The condensate is approaching a state of thermal equilibrium with a thermal depletion ranging from 1% for a uniform three-dimensional (3D) condensate to around 13% for a quasi-1D condensate in a harmonic trap.
Energy-pressure relation for low-dimensional gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mancarella, Francesco; Mussardo, Giuseppe; Trombettoni, Andrea
2014-10-01
A particularly simple relation of proportionality between internal energy and pressure holds for scale-invariant thermodynamic systems (with Hamiltonians homogeneous functions of the coordinates), including classical and quantum - Bose and Fermi - ideal gases. One can quantify the deviation from such a relation by introducing the internal energy shift as the difference between the internal energy of the system and the corresponding value for scale-invariant (including ideal) gases. After discussing some general thermodynamic properties associated with the scale-invariance, we provide criteria for which the internal energy shift density of an imperfect (classical or quantum) gas is a bounded function of temperature. We then study the internal energy shift and deviations from the energy-pressure proportionality in low-dimensional models of gases interpolating between the ideal Bose and the ideal Fermi gases, focusing on the Lieb-Liniger model in 1d and on the anyonic gas in 2d. In 1d the internal energy shift is determined from the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz integral equations and an explicit relation for it is given at high temperature. Our results show that the internal energy shift is positive, it vanishes in the two limits of zero and infinite coupling (respectively the ideal Bose and the Tonks-Girardeau gas) and it has a maximum at a finite, temperature-depending, value of the coupling. Remarkably, at fixed coupling the energy shift density saturates to a finite value for infinite temperature. In 2d we consider systems of Abelian anyons and non-Abelian Chern-Simons particles: as it can be seen also directly from a study of the virial coefficients, in the usually considered hard-core limit the internal energy shift vanishes and the energy is just proportional to the pressure, with the proportionality constant being simply the area of the system. Soft-core boundary conditions at coincident points for the two-body wavefunction introduce a length scale, and induce a
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sudarshan, E. C. G.
1975-01-01
Describes a four page paper written by S. Bose who helped found quantum statistics. The consequences of the paper to modern physics are presented. Contrasted are the scientific relationships of Einstein, Dirac, and Bose. (GH)
Universal properties of Fermi gases in one dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Shizhong; Guan, Xi-Wen
2016-09-01
In this Rapid Communication, we investigate the universal properties of a spin-polarized two-component Fermi gas in one dimension (1D) using the Bethe ansatz. We discuss the quantum phases and phase transitions by obtaining exact results for the equation of state, the contact, the magnetic susceptibility, and the contact susceptibility, giving a precise understanding of the 1D analog of the Bose-Einstein condensation and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer crossover in three dimensions (3D) and the associated universal magnetic properties. In particular, we obtain the exact form of the magnetic susceptibility χ ˜1 /√{T }exp(-Δ /T ) at low temperatures, where Δ is the energy gap and T is the temperature. Moreover, we establish exact upper and lower bounds for the relation between polarization P and the contact C for both repulsive and attractive Fermi gases. Our findings emphasize the role of pair fluctuations in strongly interacting 1D fermion systems that can shed light on higher dimensions.
Entanglement entropy and mutual information in Bose-Einstein condensates
Ding Wenxin; Yang Kun
2009-07-15
In this paper we study the entanglement properties of free nonrelativistic Bose gases. At zero temperature, we calculate the bipartite block entanglement entropy of the system and find that it diverges logarithmically with the particle number in the subsystem. For finite temperatures, we study the mutual information between the two blocks. We first analytically study an infinite-range hopping model, then numerically study a set of long-range hopping models in one dimension that exhibit Bose-Einstein condensation. In both cases we find that a Bose-Einstein condensate, if present, makes a divergent contribution to the mutual information which is proportional to the logarithm of the number of particles in the condensate in the subsystem. The prefactor of the logarithmic divergent term is model dependent.
Quantum filaments in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wächtler, F.; Santos, L.
2016-06-01
Collapse in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates may be arrested by quantum fluctuations. Due to the anisotropy of the dipole-dipole interactions, the dipole-driven collapse induced by soft excitations is compensated by the repulsive Lee-Huang-Yang contribution resulting from quantum fluctuations of hard excitations, in a similar mechanism as that recently proposed for Bose-Bose mixtures. The arrested collapse results in self-bound filamentlike droplets, providing an explanation for the intriguing results of recent dysprosium experiments. Arrested instability and droplet formation are general features directly linked to the nature of the dipole-dipole interactions, and should hence play an important role in all future experiments with strongly dipolar gases.
A review of Monte Carlo simulations for the Bose-Hubbard model with diagonal disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollet, Lode
2013-10-01
We review the physics of the Bose-Hubbard model with disorder in the chemical potential focusing on recently published analytical arguments in combination with quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Apart from the superfluid and Mott insulator phases that can occur in this system without disorder, disorder allows for an additional phase, called the Bose glass phase. The topology of the phase diagram is subject to strong theorems proving that the Bose Glass phase must intervene between the superfluid and the Mott insulator and implying a Griffiths transition between the Mott insulator and the Bose glass. The full phase diagrams in 3d and 2d are discussed, and we zoom in on the insensitivity of the transition line between the superfluid and the Bose glass in the close vicinity of the tip of the Mott insulator lobe. We briefly comment on the established and remaining questions in the 1d case, and give a short overview of numerical work on related models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Li; Shi, Yu
2012-10-01
Using the approach of low-energy effective field theory, the phase diagram is studied for a mixture of two species of pseudospin-\\frac{1}{2} Bose atoms with interspecies spin exchange. There are four mean-field regimes on the parameter plane of ge and gz, where ge is the interspecies spin-exchange interaction strength, while gz is the difference between the interaction strength of interspecies scattering without spin exchange of equal spins and that of unequal spins. Two regimes, with |gz| > |ge|, correspond to ground states with the total spins of the two species parallel or antiparallel along the z direction, and the low-energy excitations are equivalent to those of two-component spinless bosons. The other two regimes, with |ge| > |gz|, correspond to ground states with the total spins of the two species parallel or antiparallel on the xy plane, and the low-energy excitations are described by a sine-Gordon model coupled with a free scalar field, where the effective fields are combinations of the phases of the original four boson fields. In (1 + 1)-dimension, they are described by Kosterlitz-Thouless renormalization group (RG) equations, and there are three sectors in the phase plane of a scaling dimension and a dimensionless parameter proportional to the strength of the cosine interaction, both depending on the densities. The gaps of these elementary excitations are experimental probes of the underlying many-body ground states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rakhimov, Abdulla; Askerzade, Iman N.
2014-09-01
We have shown that the critical temperature of a Bose-Einstein condensate to a normal phase transition of noninteracting bosons in cubic optical lattices has a linear dependence on the filling factor, especially at large densities. The condensed fraction exhibits a linear power law dependence on temperature in contrast to the case of ideal homogeneous Bose gases.
Bose-Einstein Condensation in Extended Microgravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scharringhausen, Marco; Quantus Team; Rasel, Ernst Maria
2012-07-01
The setup and the envisaged experiment timeline of the QUANTUS-III experiment onboard a sounding rocket to be started in the near future are presented. The major intention of QUANTUS-III is the stable generation of a number of Bose-Einstein condensates as a source for atom interferometry during several minutes of microgravity onboard the sounding rocket. Later missions aim at the realization of atom interferoemeters as precursor satellite missions. These condesates will be generated serially, allowing a large number of repeatable tests. Within such Bose-Einstein condensates, millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. During the expansion over several seconds, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter. Cold quantum gases and, in particular, Bose-Einstein condensates represent a new state of matter which is nowadays established in many laboratories. They offer unique insights into a broad range of fundamental physics as well as prospects for novel quantum sensors. Microgravity will substantially extend the science of quantum gases towards nowadays inaccessible regimes at lowest temperatures, to macroscopic dimensions, and to unequalled durations of unperturbed evolution of these distinguished quantum objects. Right now, the QUANTUS-III experiment is in the development phase, taking heritage from QUANTUS-I and QUANTUS-II. Major components of the engineering model are available. Boundary conditions of the rocket, requirements of the experiment and interface considerations are presented. This include laser stabilization, vacuum technology and magnetic shielding. The planned trajectory of the rocket will have an apogee of 200 - 300 km and a total microgravity time of 4 - 7 minutes, both depending on the total experiment mass.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kristensen, Tom; Simoni, Andrea; Launay, Jean-Michel
2016-05-01
We compute scattering and bound state properties for two ultracold molecules in a pure 1D optical lattice. We introduce reference functions with complex quasi-momentum that naturally account for the effect of excited energy bands. Our exact results for a short-range interaction are first compared with the simplest version of the standard Bose-Hubbard (BH) model. Such comparison allows us to highlight the effect of the excited bands, of the non-on-site interaction and of tunneling with distant neighbor, that are not taken into account in the BH model. The effective interaction can depend strongly on the particle quasi-momenta and can present a resonant behavior even in a deep lattice. As a second step, we study scattering of two polar particles in the optical lattice. Peculiar Wigner threshold laws stem from the interplay of the long range dipolar interaction and the presence of the energy bands. We finally assess the validity of an extended Bose-Hubbard model for dipolar gases based on our exact two-body calculations. This work was supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Contract No. ANR-12-BS04-0020-01).
Density Fluctuations in Uniform Quantum Gases
Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.; Singh, G. S.
2011-12-12
Analytical expressions are given for the static structure factor S(k) and the pair correlation function g(r) for uniform ideal Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac gases for all temperatures. In the vicinity of Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) temperature, g(r) becomes long ranged and remains so in the condensed phase. In the dilute gas limit, g(r) of bosons and fermions do not coincide with Maxwell-Boltzmann gas but exhibit bunching and anti-bunching effect respectively. The width of these functions depends on the temperature and is scaled as {radical}(inverse atomic mass). Our numerical results provide the precise quantitative values of suppression/increase (antibunching and bunching) of the density fluctuations at small distances in ideal quantum gases in qualitative agreement with the experimental observation for almost non-trapped dilute gases.
Hard-core Bose-Fermi mixture in one-dimensional split traps
Lue Xiaolong; Zhang Yunbo; Yin Xiangguo
2010-04-15
We consider a strongly interacting one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Fermi mixture confined in a hard-wall trap or a harmonic oscillator trap with a tunable {delta}-function barrier at the trap center. The mixture consists of a 1D Bose gas with repulsive interactions and of a 1D noninteracting spin-aligned Fermi gas, with both species interacting through hard-core interactions. Using a generalized Bose-Fermi mapping, we calculate the reduced single-particle density matrix and the momentum distribution of the gas as a function of barrier strength and the parity of particle number. The secondary peaks in the momentum distribution show remarkable correlation between particles on the two sides of the split.
Thermalization and Bose-Einstein condensation of quantum light in bulk nonlinear media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiocchetta, A.; Larré, P.-É.; Carusotto, I.
2016-07-01
We study the thermalization and the Bose-Einstein condensation of a paraxial, spectrally narrow beam of quantum light propagating in a lossless bulk Kerr medium. The spatiotemporal evolution of the quantum optical field is ruled by a Heisenberg equation analogous to the quantum nonlinear Schrödinger equation of dilute atomic Bose gases. Correspondingly, in the weak-nonlinearity regime, the phase-space density evolves according to the Boltzmann equation. Expressions for the thermalization time and for the temperature and the chemical potential of the eventual Bose-Einstein distribution are found. After discussing experimental issues, we introduce an optical setup allowing the evaporative cooling of a guided beam of light towards Bose-Einstein condensation. This might serve as a novel source of coherent light.
Observation of Coupled Vortex Lattices in a Mass-Imbalance Bose and Fermi Superfluid Mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Xing-Can; Chen, Hao-Ze; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xiang-Pei; Wang, Xiao-Qiong; Jiang, Xiao; Deng, Youjin; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-09-01
Quantized vortices play an essential role in diverse superfluid phenomena. In a Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture, especially of two mass-imbalance species, such macroscopic quantum phenomena are particularly rich due to the interplay between the Bose and Fermi superfluidity. However, generating a Bose-Fermi two-species superfluid, producing coupled vortex lattices within, and further probing interspecies interaction effects remain challenging. Here, we experimentally realize a two-species superfluid with dilute gases of lithium-6 and potassium-41, having a mass ratio of about seven. By rotating the superfluid mixture, we simultaneously produce coupled vortex lattices of the two species and thus present a definitive visual evidence for the double superfluidity. Moreover, we report several unconventional behaviors, due to the Bose-Fermi interaction, on the formation and decay of two-species vortices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arkeryd, Leif; Nouri, Anne
2015-07-01
The paper considers a model for Bose gases in the so-called `high-temperature range' below the temperature where Bose-Einstein condensation sets in. The model is of non-linear two-component type, consisting of a kinetic equation with periodic boundary conditions for the distribution function of a gas of excitations interacting with a Bose condensate, which is described by a Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Results on well-posedness and long time behaviour are proved in a Sobolev space setting close to equilibrium.
Fodor, Michael; Ling, Hong Y.
2010-10-15
We consider a mixture of two-component Fermi and (one-component) Bose gases under the repulsive Bose-Fermi and attractive Fermi-Fermi interactions. We perform a systematic study of the finite-temperature phase diagrams in the chemical potential space, identifying, using the Landau-Ginzburg theory, the features generic to the phase diagrams within the validity of our model. We apply the theory to explore the physics of correlated BCS pairing among fermions in a tightly confined trap surrounded by a large Bose-Einstein condensate gas.
Dynamical transition from a quasi-one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate to a Tonks-Girardeau gas.
Ohberg, P; Santos, L
2002-12-01
We analyze in detail the expansion of a 1D Bose gas after removing the axial confinement. We show that during its one-dimensional expansion the density of the Bose gas does not follow a self-similar solution. Our analysis is based on a nonlinear Schrödinger equation with variable nonlinearity whose validity is discussed for the expansion problem, by comparing with an exact Bose-Fermi mapping for the case of an initial Tonks-Girardeau gas. For this case, the gas is shown to expand self-similarly, with a different scaling law compared to the one-dimensional Thomas-Fermi condensate.
Homogeneous one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate in the Bogoliubov’s regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellanos, Elías
2016-08-01
We analyze the corrections caused by finite size effects upon the ground state properties of a homogeneous one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Einstein condensate. We assume from the very beginning that the Bogoliubov’s formalism is valid and consequently, we show that in order to obtain a well-defined ground state properties, finite size effects of the system must be taken into account. Indeed, the formalism described in the present paper allows to recover the usual properties related to the ground state of a homogeneous 1D Bose-Einstein condensate but corrected by finite size effects of the system. Finally, this scenario allows us to analyze the sensitivity of the system when the Bogoliubov’s regime is valid and when finite size effects are present. These facts open the possibility to apply these ideas to more realistic scenarios, e.g. low-dimensional trapped Bose-Einstein condensates.
Christophorou, L.G.
1981-01-01
Recent knowledge on electronegative gases essential for the effective control of the number densities of free electrons in electrically stressed gases is highlighted. This knowledge aided the discovery of new gas dielectrics and the tailoring of gas dielectric mixtures. The role of electron attachment in the choice of unitary gas dielectrics or electronegative components in dielectric gas mixtures, and the role of electron scattering at low energies in the choice of buffer gases for such mixtures is outlined.
Bose and Mott glass phases in dimerized quantum antiferromagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomson, S. J.; Krüger, F.
2015-11-01
We examine the effects of disorder on dimerized quantum antiferromagnets in a magnetic field, using the mapping to a lattice gas of hard-core bosons with finite-range interactions. Combining a strong-coupling expansion, the replica method, and a one-loop renormalization-group analysis, we investigate the nature of the glass phases formed. We find that away from the tips of the Mott lobes, the transition is from a Mott insulator to a compressible Bose glass, however the compressibility at the tips is strongly suppressed. We identify this finding with the presence of a rare Mott glass phase and demonstrate that the inclusion of replica symmetry breaking is vital to correctly describe the glassy phases. This result suggests that the formation of Bose and Mott glass phases is not simply a weak localization phenomenon but is indicative of much richer physics. We discuss our results in the context of both ultracold atomic gases and spin-dimer materials.
Interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates in microgravity.
Müntinga, H; Ahlers, H; Krutzik, M; Wenzlawski, A; Arnold, S; Becker, D; Bongs, K; Dittus, H; Duncker, H; Gaaloul, N; Gherasim, C; Giese, E; Grzeschik, C; Hänsch, T W; Hellmig, O; Herr, W; Herrmann, S; Kajari, E; Kleinert, S; Lämmerzahl, C; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Malcolm, J; Meyer, N; Nolte, R; Peters, A; Popp, M; Reichel, J; Roura, A; Rudolph, J; Schiemangk, M; Schneider, M; Seidel, S T; Sengstock, K; Tamma, V; Valenzuela, T; Vogel, A; Walser, R; Wendrich, T; Windpassinger, P; Zeller, W; van Zoest, T; Ertmer, W; Schleich, W P; Rasel, E M
2013-03-01
Atom interferometers covering macroscopic domains of space-time are a spectacular manifestation of the wave nature of matter. Because of their unique coherence properties, Bose-Einstein condensates are ideal sources for an atom interferometer in extended free fall. In this Letter we report on the realization of an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer operated with a Bose-Einstein condensate in microgravity. The resulting interference pattern is similar to the one in the far field of a double slit and shows a linear scaling with the time the wave packets expand. We employ delta-kick cooling in order to enhance the signal and extend our atom interferometer. Our experiments demonstrate the high potential of interferometers operated with quantum gases for probing the fundamental concepts of quantum mechanics and general relativity. PMID:23496709
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ke, Ke; Radzihovsky, Leo
2010-03-01
We construct the large N model of bose gas. Using an artificial parameter 1/N to do the perturbative analysis to study two models: U(N) bose gas and U(1) xO(N) bose gas. We find that for U(N) bose gas we get Bogoliubov spectrum and LHY thermal dynamical relations which is the same as the usual weak coupling bose gas models. For U(1) xO(N) bose gas model, however, we calculate the non-perturbative quantum correction to the depletion, chemical potential, free energy and dispersion relations.
Observation of phase defects in quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates.
Stock, Sabine; Hadzibabic, Zoran; Battelier, Baptiste; Cheneau, Marc; Dalibard, Jean
2005-11-01
We have observed phase defects in quasi-2D Bose-Einstein condensates close to the condensation temperature. Either a single or several equally spaced condensates are produced by selectively evaporating the sites of a 1D optical lattice. When several clouds are released from the lattice and allowed to overlap, dislocation lines in the interference patterns reveal nontrivial phase defects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, Philip; Dalidovich, Denis
2003-10-01
The conventional theory of metals is in crisis. In the past 15 years, there has been an unexpected sprouting of metallic states in low-dimensional systems, directly contradicting conventional wisdom. For example, bosons are thought to exist in one of two ground states: condensed in a superconductor or localized in an insulator. However, several experiments on thin metal-alloy films have observed that a metallic phase disrupts the direct transition between the superconductor and the insulator. We analyze the experiments on the insulator-superconductor transition and argue that the intervening metallic phase is bosonic. All relevant theoretical proposals for the Bose metal are discussed, particularly the recent idea that the metallic phase is glassy. The implications for the putative vortex-glass state in the copper oxide superconductors are examined.
Scattering coefficients and gray-body factor for 1D BEC acoustic black holes: Exact results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabbri, Alessandro; Balbinot, Roberto; Anderson, Paul R.
2016-03-01
A complete set of exact analytic solutions to the mode equation is found in the region exterior to the acoustic horizon for a class of 1D Bose-Einstein condensate acoustic black holes. From these, analytic expressions for the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor are obtained. The results are used to verify previous predictions regarding the behaviors of the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor in the low-frequency limit.
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Momentum-Space Correlations of a One-Dimensional Bose Gas.
Fang, Bess; Johnson, Aisling; Roscilde, Tommaso; Bouchoule, Isabelle
2016-02-01
Analyzing the noise in the momentum profiles of single realizations of one-dimensional Bose gases, we present the experimental measurement of the full momentum-space density correlations ⟨δn_{p}δn_{p^{'}}⟩, which are related to the two-body momentum correlation function. Our data span the weakly interacting region of the phase diagram, going from the ideal Bose gas regime to the quasicondensate regime. We show experimentally that the bunching phenomenon, which manifests itself as super-Poissonian local fluctuations in momentum space, is present in all regimes. The quasicondensate regime is, however, characterized by the presence of negative correlations between different momenta, in contrast to the Bogolyubov theory for Bose condensates, predicting positive correlations between opposite momenta. Our data are in good agreement with ab initio calculations.
Nonlinear Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates with Long-Range Interactions
Wunner, G.; Cartarius, H.; Fabcic, T.; Koeberle, P.; Main, J.; Schwidder, T.
2008-11-13
The motto of this paper is: Let's face Bose-Einstein condensation through nonlinear dynamics. We do this by choosing variational forms of the condensate wave functions (of given symmetry classes), which convert the Bose-Einstein condensates via the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation into Hamiltonian systems that can be studied using the methods of nonlinear dynamics. We consider in particular cold quantum gases where long-range interactions between the neutral atoms are present, in addition to the conventional short-range contact interaction, viz. gravity-like interactions, and dipole-dipole interactions. The results obtained serve as a useful guide in the search for nonlinear dynamics effects in numerically exact quantum calculations for Bose-Einstein condensates. A main result is the prediction of the existence of stable islands as well as chaotic regions for excited states of dipolar condensates, which could be checked experimentally.
Quantum turbulence in trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsatsos, Marios C.; Tavares, Pedro E. S.; Cidrim, André; Fritsch, Amilson R.; Caracanhas, Mônica A.; dos Santos, F. Ednilson A.; Barenghi, Carlo F.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.
2016-03-01
Turbulence, the complicated fluid behavior of nonlinear and statistical nature, arises in many physical systems across various disciplines, from tiny laboratory scales to geophysical and astrophysical ones. The notion of turbulence in the quantum world was conceived long ago by Onsager and Feynman, but the occurrence of turbulence in ultracold gases has been studied in the laboratory only very recently. Albeit new as a field, it already offers new paths and perspectives on the problem of turbulence. Herein we review the general properties of quantum gases at ultralow temperatures paying particular attention to vortices, their dynamics and turbulent behavior. We review the recent advances both from theory and experiment. We highlight, moreover, the difficulties of identifying and characterizing turbulence in gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates compared to ordinary turbulence and turbulence in superfluid liquid helium and spotlight future possible directions.
Approaching Bose-Einstein Condensation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrari, Loris
2011-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed at the level of an advanced course of statistical thermodynamics, clarifying some formal and physical aspects that are usually not covered by the standard pedagogical literature. The non-conventional approach adopted starts by showing that the continuum limit, in certain cases, cancels out the crucial…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidson, J. A.; Sadowski, C. M.; Schiff, H. I.; Howard, C. J.; Schmeltekopf, A. L.; Jennings, D. A.; Streit, G. E.
1976-01-01
Absolute rate constants for the deactivation of O(1D) atoms by some atmospheric gases have been determined by observing the time-resolved emission of O(1D) at 630 nm. O(1D) atoms were produced by the dissociation of ozone via repetitive laser pulses at 266 nm. Absolute rate constants for the relaxation of O(1D) at 298 K are reported for N2, O2, CO2, O3, H2, D2, CH4, HCl, NH3, H2O, N2O, and Ne. The results obtained are compared with previous relative and absolute measurements reported in the literature.
Cooling Atomic Gases With Disorder.
Paiva, Thereza; Khatami, Ehsan; Yang, Shuxiang; Rousseau, Valéry; Jarrell, Mark; Moreno, Juana; Hulet, Randall G; Scalettar, Richard T
2015-12-11
Cold atomic gases have proven capable of emulating a number of fundamental condensed matter phenomena including Bose-Einstein condensation, the Mott transition, Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov pairing, and the quantum Hall effect. Cooling to a low enough temperature to explore magnetism and exotic superconductivity in lattices of fermionic atoms remains a challenge. We propose a method to produce a low temperature gas by preparing it in a disordered potential and following a constant entropy trajectory to deliver the gas into a nondisordered state which exhibits these incompletely understood phases. We show, using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, that we can approach the Néel temperature of the three-dimensional Hubbard model for experimentally achievable parameters. Recent experimental estimates suggest the randomness required lies in a regime where atom transport and equilibration are still robust.
Bose polarons in the strongly interacting regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kedar, Dhruv; Hu, Ming-Guang; van de Graaff, Michael; Corson, John; Cornell, Eric; Jin, Deborah
2016-05-01
Impurities immersed in and interacting with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) are predicted to form quasiparticle excitations called Bose polarons. I will present experimental evidence of Bose polarons in cold atoms obtained using radio-frequency spectroscopy to measure the excitation spectrum of fermionic K-40 impurities interacting with a BEC of Rb-87 atoms. We use an interspecies Feshbach resonance to tune the interactions between the impurities and the bosons, and we take data in the strongly interacting regime.
Matthews, G.
1989-01-01
An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given. PMID:2687827
Imbalanced Feshbach-resonant Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radzihovsky, Leo; Sheehy, Daniel E.
2010-07-01
We present an overview of recent developments in species-imbalanced ('polarized') Feshbach-resonant Fermi gases. We summarize the current status of thermodynamics of these systems in terms of a phase diagram as a function of the Feshbach resonance detuning, polarization and temperature. We review instabilities of the s-wave superfluidity across the Bose-Einstein condensation-to-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer crossover to phase separation, Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov states, polarized molecular superfluidity and the normal state, driven by the species imbalance. We discuss different models and approximations of this system and compare their predictions with current experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caux, Jean-Sébastien
2013-05-01
In this talk, we consider the out-of-equilibrium evolution of a one-dimensional bosonic gas (as described by the Lieb-Liniger model) after release from a parabolic trapping potential. We present a new method based on combining the theory of integrable models with numerical renormalization, which allows to reconstruct the post-quench dynamics of the gas all the way to infinite time. We also present a framework by which the generalized Gibbs ensemble, which has been suggested as the effective theory governing this dynamics, can be explicitly constructed. We compare predictions for reequilibration from this ensemble against the long-time dynamics observed using our method. Supported by FOM and NWO (Netherlands).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Podosek, F. A.
2003-12-01
The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the
'Cosmological' quasiparticle production in harmonically trapped superfluid gases
Fedichev, Petr O.; Fischer, Uwe R.
2004-03-01
We show that a variety of cosmologically motivated effective quasiparticle space-times can be produced in harmonically trapped superfluid Bose and Fermi gases. We study the analog of cosmological particle production in these effective space-times, induced by trapping potentials and coupling constants possessing an arbitrary time dependence. The WKB probabilities for phonon creation from the superfluid vacuum are calculated, and an experimental procedure to detect quasiparticle production by measuring density-density correlation functions is proposed.
Soliton resonance in bose-einstein condensate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail; Kulikov, I.
2002-01-01
A new phenomenon in nonlinear dispersive systems, including a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), has been described. It is based upon a resonance between an externally induced soliton and 'eigen-solitons' of the homogeneous cubic Schrodinger equation. There have been shown that a moving source of positive /negative potential induces bright /dark solitons in an attractive / repulsive Bose condensate.
Collision of Bose Condensate Dark Matter structures
Guzman, F. S.
2008-12-04
The status of the scalar field or Bose condensate dark matter model is presented. Results about the solitonic behavior in collision of structures is presented as a possible explanation to the recent-possibly-solitonic behavior in the bullet cluster merger. Some estimates about the possibility to simulate the bullet cluster under the Bose Condensate dark matter model are indicated.
Universality of nonthermal behavior in spinor Bose condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Shaffer, Airlia; Chen, Huiyao Y.; Vengalattore, Mukund
2016-05-01
Spinor Bose condensates exhibit a rich phase diagram with varied magnetic ordering and topological defects because of the close competition between their spin and charge dependent interactions. Quenching such a spinor condensate into a ferromagnetic state realizes robust non-equilibrium and prethermalized states whose macroscopic behavior differs from thermodynamic predictions. In previous work, we have identified the microscopic origin of prethermalization in Rubidium spinor gases as being the disparate energy scales of the phonon and magnon excitations in this gas. This identification of the microscopic origin enables us to broaden the scope of our studies to address fundamental questions regarding the equilibration of isolated quantum systems. We will discuss our recent results that suggest the universality of this coarsening behavior and evidence that this system can be mapped on to a non-thermal fixed point studied in high energy field theories. This work is supported by the ARO MURI on non-equilibrium dynamics.
Degenerate Bose-Fermi Mixture of Metastable Atoms
McNamara, J. M.; Jeltes, T.; Tychkov, A. S.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.
2006-08-25
We report the observation of simultaneous quantum degeneracy in a dilute gaseous Bose-Fermi mixture of metastable atoms. Sympathetic cooling of helium-3 (fermion) by helium-4 (boson), both in the lowest triplet state, allows us to produce ensembles containing more than 10{sup 6} atoms of each isotope at temperatures below 1 {mu}K, and achieve a fermionic degeneracy parameter of T/T{sub F}=0.45. Because of their high internal energy, the detection of individual metastable atoms with subnanosecond time resolution is possible, permitting the study of bosonic and fermionic quantum gases with unprecedented precision. This may lead to metastable helium becoming the mainstay of quantum atom optics.
Magnetization relaxation and geometric forces in a Bose ferromagnet.
Armaitis, J; Stoof, H T C; Duine, R A
2013-06-28
We construct the hydrodynamic theory for spin-1/2 Bose gases at arbitrary temperatures. This theory describes the coupling between the magnetization and the normal and superfluid components of the gas. In particular, our theory contains the geometric forces on the particles that arise from their spin's adiabatic following of the magnetization texture. The phenomenological parameters of the hydrodynamic theory are calculated in the Bogoliubov approximation and using the Boltzmann equation in the relaxation-time approximation. We consider the topological Hall effect due to the presence of a Skyrmion, and show that this effect manifests itself in the collective modes of the system. The dissipative coupling between the magnetization and the normal component is shown to give rise to magnetization relaxation that is fourth order in spatial gradients of the magnetization direction.
Entropy density of an adiabatic relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate star
Khaidir, Ahmad Firdaus; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza
2015-04-24
Inspired by recent works, we investigate how the thermodynamics parameters (entropy, temperature, number density, energy density, etc) of Bose-Einstein Condensate star scale with the structure of the star. Below the critical temperature in which the condensation starts to occur, we study how the entropy behaves with varying temperature till it reaches its own stability against gravitational collapse and singularity. Compared to photon gases (pressure is described by radiation) where the chemical potential, μ is zero, entropy of photon gases obeys the Stefan-Boltzmann Law for a small values of T while forming a spiral structure for a large values of T due to general relativity. The entropy density of Bose-Einstein Condensate is obtained following the similar sequence but limited under critical temperature condition. We adopt the scalar field equation of state in Thomas-Fermi limit to study the characteristics of relativistic Bose-Einstein condensate under varying temperature and entropy. Finally, we obtain the entropy density proportional to (σT{sup 3}-3T) which obeys the Stefan-Boltzmann Law in ultra-relativistic condition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stamper-Kurn, Dan M.
2000-12-01
Bose-Einstein condensates of a dilute atomic gas were explored as a testbed for theories of the weakly interacting Bose gas, as a source of coherent matter waves, and as a new quantum fluid. A dc magnetic trap, various optical probing and manipulation techniques and an optical trap were developed for this work. The density and momentum distributions and the interaction energies of ultra-cold Bose gases were measured and found to agree with mean-field theory. The reduction of the condensate fraction due to interactions was observed using a trapping potential created by magnetic and optical forces. The formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a super- cooled Bose gas was time resolved, and showed evidence for bosonic stimulation. The reversible formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate through an adiabatic change in the trapping potential was predicted and demonstrated. Excitations in a Bose gas were studied in various regimes. The speed of Bogoliubov sound was measured as a function of condensate density. The frequency and damping rates of collective excitations of both the condensate and the non-condensed cloud were measured over a wide temperature range, providing a critical test of mean- field theory and challenging finite-temperature descriptions. The onset of hydrodynamic oscillations was observed. The dynamic structure factor of a Bose-Einstein condensate was measured by stimulated light scattering. Excitations in the free-particle and phonon regime were accessed, allowing for a measurement of the coherence length, a spectroscopic determination of the excitation spectrum, and the observation of suppressed small-angle light scattering. The development of an all-optical trap for Bose-Einstein condensates led to the creation of spinor condensates, which are described by a vectorial order parameter. Ground-state spin structures were studied and a spin- domain diagram for their description was developed. Metastable Bose condensates were observed, caused by energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Kuei; Bolech, Carlos J.
2014-03-01
We study a Bose-Hubbard model with a nearest-neighbor occupation-parity coupling that can be considered as energy cost for a domain-wall link between two adjacent sites if their occupation parity is different (one even and the other odd). Our analysis shows that the parity coupling has non-trivial interplay with the tunneling and onsite repulsion, resulting in several exotic quantum phases. For example, a uniform system with zero tunneling can exhibit a pair-liquid phase or phase separation of two Mott insulators, while a trapped system with finite tunneling shows a wedding-cake structure of only even-filling Mott insulators or a structure of central regular superfluid and outer pair superfluid. In addition, we find similar physics in a recent experimental system of imbalanced Fermi gases in optical lattices producing a 2D array of 1D tubes, with the presence of an oscillatory superfluid order parameter (the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov or FFLO state). We show that the unpaired majority fermions on each tube have a bosonic behavior with cross-tube tunneling, on-tube repulsion, and interplay with the spatial parity of the FFLO order that contributes to the occupation-parity coupling. Therefore, such system provides a realization of our model in two dimensions. Supported by the DARPA-ARO Award No. W911NF-07-1-0464 and by the University of Cincinnati.
Full counting statistics of the interference contrast from independent Bose-Einstein condensates
Rath, Steffen Patrick; Zwerger, Wilhelm
2010-11-15
We show that the visibility in interference experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates is directly related to the condensate fraction. The probability distribution of the contrast over many runs of an interference experiment thus gives the full counting statistics of the condensed atom number. For two-dimensional Bose gases, we discuss the universal behavior of the probability distribution in the superfluid regime and provide analytical expressions for the distributions for both homogeneous and harmonically trapped samples. They are non-Gaussian and unimodal with a variance that is directly related to the superfluid density. In general, the visibility is a self-averaging observable only in the presence of long-range phase coherence. Close to the transition temperature, the visibility distribution reflects the universal order-parameter distribution in the vicinity of the critical point.
Superstripes and the excitation spectrum of a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate.
Li, Yun; Martone, Giovanni I; Pitaevskii, Lev P; Stringari, Sandro
2013-06-01
Using Bogoliubov theory we calculate the excitation spectrum of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensed gas with an equal Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in the stripe phase. The emergence of a double gapless band structure is pointed out as a key signature of Bose-Einstein condensation and of the spontaneous breaking of translational invariance symmetry. In the long wavelength limit the lower and upper branches exhibit, respectively, a clear spin and density nature. For wave vectors close to the first Brillouin zone, the lower branch acquires an important density character responsible for the divergent behavior of the structure factor and of the static response function, reflecting the occurrence of crystalline order. The sound velocities are calculated as functions of the Raman coupling for excitations propagating orthogonal and parallel to the stripes. Our predictions provide new perspectives for the identification of supersolid phenomena in ultracold atomic gases.
Recent developments in Bose-Einstein condensation
Kalman, G.
1997-09-22
This paper contains viewgraphs on developments on Bose-Einstein condensation. Some topics covered are: strongly coupled coulomb systems; standard response functions of the first and second kind; dynamical mean field theory; quasi localized charge approximation; and the main equations.
A Ring with a Spin: Superfluidity in a toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramanathan, Anand Krishnan
2011-12-01
Superfluidity is a remarkable phenomenon. Superfluidity was initially characterized by flow without friction, first seen in liquid helium in 1938, and has been studied extensively since. Superfluidity is believed to be related to, but not identical to Bose-Einstein condensation, a statistical mechanical phenomena predicted by Albert Einstein in 1924 based on the statistics of Satyendra Nath Bose, where bosonic atoms make a phase transition to form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), a gas which has macroscopic occupation of a single quantum state. Developments in laser cooling of neutral atoms and the subsequent realization of Bose-Einstein condensates in ultracold gases have opened a new window into the study of superfluidity and its relation to Bose-Einstein condensation. In our atomic sodium BEC experiment, we studied superfluidity and dissipationless flow in an all-optical toroidal trap, constructed using the combination of a horizontal "sheet"-like beam and vertical "ring"-like beam, which, like a circuit loop, allows flow around the ring. On inducing a single quantum of circulation in the condensate, the smoothness and uniformity of the toroidal BEC enabled the sustaining of a persistent current lasting 40 seconds, limited by the lifetime of the BEC due to background gas pressure. This success set the stage for further experiments studying superfluidity. In a first set of experiments, we studied the stability of the persistent current by inserting a barrier in the flow path of the ring. The superflow stopped abruptly at a barrier strength such that the local flow velocity at the barrier exceeded a critical velocity, which supported decay via the creation of a vortex-antivortex pair. Our precise control in inducing and arresting superflow in the BEC is a first step toward studying other aspects of superfluidity, such as the effect of temperature and dimensionality. This thesis discusses these experiments and also details partial-transfer absorption imaging, an
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state. PMID:26764644
D-Dimensional Ideal Quantum Gases in a Arn+Br-n Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
JELLAL, AHMED; DAOUD, MOHAMMED
This paper is concerned with thermostatistics of both D-dimensional Bose and Fermi ideal gases in a confining potential of type Arn+Br-n, where A, B are strictly positive constants and n is the power-law exponent. The investigation is performed in the framework of the semiclassical approximation. Some physical quantities for such systems are derived, like the density of states, density profiles and the number of particles. Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) is discussed in the high and low temperature limits corresponding to T→∞ and T→0, respectively.
An efficient numerical method for computing dynamics of spin F = 2 Bose-Einstein condensates
Wang Hanquan
2011-07-01
In this paper, we extend the efficient time-splitting Fourier pseudospectral method to solve the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations, which model the dynamics of spin F = 2 Bose-Einstein condensates at extremely low temperature. Using the time-splitting technique, we split the generalized GP equations into one linear part and two nonlinear parts: the linear part is solved with the Fourier pseudospectral method; one of nonlinear parts is solved analytically while the other one is reformulated into a matrix formulation and solved by diagonalization. We show that the method keeps well the conservation laws related to generalized GP equations in 1D and 2D. We also show that the method is of second-order in time and spectrally accurate in space through a one-dimensional numerical test. We apply the method to investigate the dynamics of spin F = 2 Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a uniform/nonuniform magnetic field.
Theoretical studies of Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Kunal Kashyap
This thesis is a theoretical study of Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) in harmonically-trapped, weakly-interacting dilute gases. The motivation for this study is the experimental realization of BEC in trapped alkali gases since 1995. The weak inter-particle interactions and diluteness of the gases allow for a fairly accurate mean-field treatment and justifies a discrete quasi-particle description as we use in this work. This thesis considers three specific topics in the rapidly growing field of BEC theory: (i) interference effects in BEC, (ii) interaction-induced energy shifts and damping of excitations of condensates and (iii) the properties of highly anisotropic condensates. The results are summarized here: i. We show that if two multiply occupied boson modes are in eigenstates of the Hermitian relative phase operator, then the visibility of fringes formed by the interference between the modes is necessarily less than unity. For large total occupation numbers the visibility V ≤ pi/4. States with definite relative phase and unit visibility do exist. They are related to coherent states and are not orthogonal (not eigenstates of a Hermitian phase operator). This visibility limitation may make it possible to investigate experimentally the physical role of the relative phase eigenstates in interference measurements on BEC. ii. We evaluate analytically the asymptotic energy shifts of the high energy Bogoliubov quasi-particle modes. In spherical geometry, those modes display a 1/ n dependence on their number of radial nodes n but only a weak dependence on their angular momenta l. We obtain similar results for cylindrical geometry. We derive an implicit equation for the widths or decay rates gamma of the modes from an assumption of exponential decay. We use the equation to do a detailed numerical study of the trends in the behavior of the widths as a function of temperature, energy, particle number and scattering lengths. In particular, we find that widths due to
Radouani, A.
2003-10-01
We numerically solve the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) that describes the evolution of an elongated dilute repulsive atomic Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a one-dimensional (1D) nonharmonic potential. We find that the gray solitons, which are propagative solutions of the 1D GPE, traveling at an initial constant velocity, smaller than the speed of sound, oscillate through the trapped condensate, but that this oscillatory motion is accompanied by a spontaneous emission of small sound waves. By examining the gray soliton trajectory and its velocity in the trapped repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate, we show that the oscillatory motion is uniform and nondissipative except at the returning points of the gray soliton, where it exhibits a slight radiative acceleration (antidamping). Our numerical results are in good agreement with previous theoretical predictions, but show the need to take radiation emission into account.
Bose-Einstein condensation of sodium atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mewes, Marc-Oliver
1997-10-01
Bose-Einstein Condensation in an ultracold gas of neutral sodium atoms has been observed and studied. This was achieved utilizing a combination of laser cooling techniques, magnetic trapping and evaporative cooling. A novel tightly confining dc magnetic trap was developed and demonstrated. This trap combines tight confinement with excellent optical access. Evaporative cooling in this trap produced Bose condensates of 5× 106 atoms, a tenfold improvement over previous results. The Bose-Einstein phase transition was studied and characterized by mapping out the condensed fraction as a function of temperature across the transition point. The characteristic mean-field interaction of particles in the condensate was investigated. Collective excitations of a dilute Bose condensate have been observed. These excitations are analogous to phonons in superfluid helium. The frequencies of the lowest modes were studied for a temperature close to 0 K and compared with theoretical predictions based on mean-field theory. The characteristic damping of one of the modes was measured and compared to damping of 'sound waves' in an ultra-cold gas above the Bose-Einstein transition. We have also demonstrated an output coupler for Bose condensed atoms in a magnetic trap. With short rf pulses Bose condensates were put into a superposition of trapped and untrapped hyperfine states. By varying the rf amplitude we could adjust the fraction of outcoupled atoms between 0 and 100%. This source produces pulses of coherent atoms and can be regarded as a pulsed 'atom laser'. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)
“Hard probes” of strongly-interacting atomic gases
Nishida, Yusuke
2012-06-18
We investigate properties of an energetic atom propagating through strongly interacting atomic gases. The operator product expansion is used to systematically compute a quasiparticle energy and its scattering rate both in a spin-1/2 Fermi gas and in a spinless Bose gas. Reasonable agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations even at a relatively small momentum k/kF > 1.5 indicates that our large-momentum expansions are valid in a wide range of momentum. We also study a differential scattering rate when a probe atom is shot into atomic gases. Because the number density and current density of the target atomic gas contribute to the forward scattering only, its contact density (measure of short-range pair correlation) gives the leading contribution to the backward scattering. Therefore, such an experiment can be used to measure the contact density and thus provides a new local probe of strongly interacting atomic gases.
Modugno, M.; Tozzo, C.; Dalfovo, F.
2004-10-01
The occurrence of energetic and dynamical instabilities in a Bose-Einstein condensate moving in a one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice is analyzed by means of the Gross-Pitaevskii theory. Results of full 3D calculations are compared with those of an effective 1D model, the nonpolynomial Schroedinger equation, pointing out the role played by transverse degrees of freedom. The instability thresholds are shown to be scarcely affected by transverse excitations, so that they can be accurately predicted by effective 1D models. Conversely, transverse excitations turn out to be important in characterizing the stability diagram and the occurrence of a complex radial dynamics above the threshold for dynamical instability. This analysis provides a realistic framework to discuss the dissipative dynamics observed in recent experiments.
Satyendranath Bose: Co-Founder of Quantum Statistics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blanpied, William A.
1972-01-01
Satyendranath Bose was first to prove Planck's Law by using ideal quantum gas. Einstein credited Bose for this first step in the development of quantum statistical mechanics. Bose did not realize the importance of his work, perhaps because of peculiar academic settings in India under British rule. (PS)
Superfluidity in ultracold gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Gretchen
2016-05-01
The study of superfluidity has a long and rich history. In Bose-Einstein condensate, superfluidity gives rise to a number of interesting effects, including quantized vortices and persistent currents. In this seminar I will give an introduction to superfluidity in ultracold atoms, including a discussion of the critical velocity and the spectrum of elementary excitations in superfluid systems.
Stability of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional lattice
Mueller, S.; Billy, J.; Henn, E. A. L.; Kadau, H.; Griesmaier, A.; Pfau, T.; Jona-Lasinio, M.; Santos, L.
2011-11-15
We show that in contrast with contact interacting gases, an optical lattice changes drastically the stability properties of a dipolar condensate, inducing a crossover from dipolar destabilization to dipolar stabilization for increasing lattice depths. Performing stability measurements on a {sup 52}Cr Bose-Einstein condensate in an interaction-dominated regime, repulsive dipolar interaction balances negative scattering lengths down to -17 Bohr radii. Our findings are in excellent agreement with mean-field calculations, revealing the important destabilizing role played by intersite dipolar interactions in deep lattices.
Magnetic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate
Bezett, A.; Bychkov, V.; Lundh, E.; Kobyakov, D.; Marklund, M.
2010-10-15
The magnetically induced Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is investigated. We construct and study analytical models describing the development of the instability at both the linear and nonlinear stages. The models indicate interesting features of the instability: surface tension implies departure from the linear growth of modes and separation of droplets, which are qualitatively different from the traditional RM case of classical gases, and the trapping potential affects the later stages of the instability. We perform numerical simulations of the instability in a trapped BEC using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and compare the simulation results to the model predictions.
From ultracold Fermi Gases to Neutron Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salomon, Christophe
2012-02-01
Ultracold dilute atomic gases can be considered as model systems to address some pending problem in Many-Body physics that occur in condensed matter systems, nuclear physics, and astrophysics. We have developed a general method to probe with high precision the thermodynamics of locally homogeneous ultracold Bose and Fermi gases [1,2,3]. This method allows stringent tests of recent many-body theories. For attractive spin 1/2 fermions with tunable interaction (^6Li), we will show that the gas thermodynamic properties can continuously change from those of weakly interacting Cooper pairs described by Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory to those of strongly bound molecules undergoing Bose-Einstein condensation. First, we focus on the finite-temperature Equation of State (EoS) of the unpolarized unitary gas. Surprisingly, the low-temperature properties of the strongly interacting normal phase are well described by Fermi liquid theory [3] and we localize the superfluid phase transition. A detailed comparison with theories including recent Monte-Carlo calculations will be presented. Moving away from the unitary gas, the Lee-Huang-Yang and Lee-Yang beyond-mean-field corrections for low density bosonic and fermionic superfluids are quantitatively measured for the first time. Despite orders of magnitude difference in density and temperature, our equation of state can be used to describe low density neutron matter such as the outer shell of neutron stars. [4pt] [1] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, K. Jiang, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Nature 463, 1057 (2010) [0pt] [2] N. Navon, S. Nascimbène, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Science 328, 729 (2010) [0pt] [3] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, S. Pilati, F. Chevy, S. Giorgini, A. Georges, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 215303 (2011)
Diquark Bose-Einstein condensation
Nawa, K.; Nakano, E.; Yabu, H.
2006-08-01
Bose-Einstein condensation of composite diquarks in quark matter (the color superconductor phase) is discussed using the quasichemical equilibrium theory at a relatively low-density region near the deconfinement phase transition, where dynamical quark-pair fluctuations are assumed to be described as bosonic degrees of freedom (diquarks). A general formulation is given for the diquark formation and particle-antiparticle pair-creation processes in the relativistic framework, and some interesting properties are shown, which are characteristic for the relativistic many-body system. Behaviors of transition temperature and phase diagram of the quark-diquark matter are generally presented in model parameter space, and their asymptotic behaviors are also discussed. As an application to the color superconductivity, the transition temperatures and the quark and diquark density profiles are calculated in case with constituent/current quarks, where the diquark is in the bound/resonant state. We obtained T{sub C}{approx}60-80 MeV for constituent quarks and T{sub C}{approx}130 MeV for current quarks at a moderate density ({rho}{sub b}{approx}3{rho}{sub 0}). The method is also developed to include interdiquark interactions into the quasichemical equilibrium theory within a mean-field approximation, and it is found that a possible repulsive diquark-diquark interaction lowers the transition temperature by {approx}50%.
Thermodynamics of a trapped Bose-Fermi mixture
Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia-Ji
2003-08-01
By using the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations within the Popov approximation, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of a dilute binary Bose-Fermi mixture confined in an isotropic harmonic trap. For mixtures with an attractive Bose-Fermi interaction, we find a sizable enhancement of the condensate fraction and of the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation with respect to the predictions for a pure interacting Bose gas. Conversely, the influence of the repulsive Bose-Fermi interaction is less pronounced. The possible relevance of our results in current experiments on trapped {sup 87}Rb-{sup 40}K mixtures is discussed.
Atomic Fermi gases in optical lattices
Modugno, G.; De Mirandes, E.; Ferlando, F.; Ott, H.; Roati, G.; Inguscio, M.
2005-05-05
We report on the first experiments with atomic Fermi gases in optical lattices. We have studied the properties of non interacting fermions and of an interacting boson-fermion mixture in a 1D lattice in presence of additional linear or harmonic potentials. These systems have allowed to study for the first time the fundamental quantum transport properties of a perfect crystal and to confirm the role of interactions in real crystals. We have found that the combination of Fermi gases and optical lattices can also have important applications, such as high-resolution force sensing.
Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in a 'white-wall' photon box
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klärs, Jan; Schmitt, Julian; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin
2011-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic ground state occupation of a system of bosonic particles below a critical temperature, has been observed in cold atomic gases and solid-state physics quasiparticles. In contrast, photons do not show this phase transition usually, because in Planck's blackbody radiation the particle number is not conserved and at low temperature the photons disappear in the walls of the system. Here we report on the realization of a photon Bose-Einstein condensate in a dye-filled optical microcavity, which acts as a "white-wall" photon box. The cavity mirrors provide a trapping potential and a non-vanishing effective photon mass, making the system formally equivalent to a two-dimensional gas of trapped massive bosons. Thermalization of the photon gas is reached in a number conserving way by multiple scattering off the dye molecules. Signatures for a BEC upon increased photon density are: a spectral distribution that shows Bose-Einstein distributed photon energies with a macroscopically populated peak on top of a broad thermal wing, the observed threshold of the phase transition showing the predicted absolute value and scaling with resonator geometry, and condensation appearing at the trap centre even for a spatially displaced pump spot.
Bose Polarons in the Strongly Interacting Regime.
Hu, Ming-Guang; Van de Graaff, Michael J; Kedar, Dhruv; Corson, John P; Cornell, Eric A; Jin, Deborah S
2016-07-29
When an impurity is immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate, impurity-boson interactions are expected to dress the impurity into a quasiparticle, the Bose polaron. We superimpose an ultracold atomic gas of ^{87}Rb with a much lower density gas of fermionic ^{40}K impurities. Through the use of a Feshbach resonance and radio-frequency spectroscopy, we characterize the energy, spectral width, and lifetime of the resultant polaron on both the attractive and the repulsive branches in the strongly interacting regime. The width of the polaron in the attractive branch is narrow compared to its binding energy, even as the two-body scattering length diverges. PMID:27517776
Bose-Einstein condensation of erbium.
Aikawa, K; Frisch, A; Mark, M; Baier, S; Rietzler, A; Grimm, R; Ferlaino, F
2012-05-25
We report on the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation of erbium atoms and on the observation of magnetic Feshbach resonances at low magnetic fields. By means of evaporative cooling in an optical dipole trap, we produce pure condensates of 168Er, containing up to 7×10(4) atoms. Feshbach spectroscopy reveals an extraordinary rich loss spectrum with six loss resonances already in a narrow magnetic-field range up to 3 G. Finally, we demonstrate the application of a low-field Feshbach resonance to produce a tunable dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate and we observe its characteristic d-wave collapse. PMID:23003221
Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian: Quantum chaos approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolovsky, Andrey R.
2016-03-01
We discuss applications of the theory of quantum chaos to one of the paradigm models of many-body quantum physics — the Bose-Hubbard (BH) model, which describes, in particular, interacting ultracold Bose atoms in an optical lattice. After preliminary, pure quantum analysis of the system we introduce the classical counterpart of the BH model and the governing semiclassical equations of motion. We analyze these equations for the problem of Bloch oscillations (BOs) of cold atoms where a number of experimental results are available. The paper is written for nonexperts and can be viewed as an introduction to the field.
Bose Polarons in the Strongly Interacting Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Ming-Guang; Van de Graaff, Michael J.; Kedar, Dhruv; Corson, John P.; Cornell, Eric A.; Jin, Deborah S.
2016-07-01
When an impurity is immersed in a Bose-Einstein condensate, impurity-boson interactions are expected to dress the impurity into a quasiparticle, the Bose polaron. We superimpose an ultracold atomic gas of 87Rb with a much lower density gas of fermionic 40 impurities. Through the use of a Feshbach resonance and radio-frequency spectroscopy, we characterize the energy, spectral width, and lifetime of the resultant polaron on both the attractive and the repulsive branches in the strongly interacting regime. The width of the polaron in the attractive branch is narrow compared to its binding energy, even as the two-body scattering length diverges.
Bose-Einstein condensation in dark power-law laser traps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaouadi, A.; Gaaloul, N.; Viaris de Lesegno, B.; Telmini, M.; Pruvost, L.; Charron, E.
2010-08-01
We investigate theoretically an original route to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation using dark power-law laser traps. We propose to create such traps with two crossing blue-detuned Laguerre-Gaussian optical beams. Controlling their azimuthal order ℓ allows for the exploration of a multitude of power-law trapping situations in one, two, and three dimensions, ranging from the usual harmonic trap to an almost square-well potential, in which a quasihomogeneous Bose gas can be formed. The usual cigar-shaped and disk-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates obtained in a 1D or 2D harmonic trap take the generic form of a “finger” or of a “hockey puck” in such Laguerre-Gaussian traps. In addition, for a fixed atom number, higher transition temperatures are obtained in such configurations when compared with a harmonic trap of the same volume. This effect, which results in a substantial acceleration of the condensation dynamics, requires a better but still reasonable focusing of the Laguerre-Gaussian beams.
Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases
Kulprathipanja, Santi
1986-01-01
The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.
Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases
Kulprathipanja, S.
1986-08-19
The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.
Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases
Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.
1986-01-01
Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.
Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases
Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.
1986-08-26
Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.
Matter-waves in Bose-Einstein condensates with spin-orbit and Rabi couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiquillo, Emerson
2015-11-01
We investigate the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) reduction of a quantum field theory starting from the three-dimensional (3D) many-body Hamiltonian of interacting bosons with spin-orbit (SO) and Rabi couplings. We obtain the effective time-dependent 1D and 2D nonpolynomial Heisenberg equations for both the repulsive and attractive signs of the inter-atomic interaction. Our findings show that in the case in which the many-body state coincides with the Glauber coherent state, the 1D and 2D Heisenberg equations become 1D and 2D nonpolynomial Schrödinger equations (NPSEs). These models were derived in a mean-field approximation from 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE), describing a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with SO and Rabi couplings. In the present work self-repulsive and self-attractive localized solutions of the 1D NPSE and the 1D GPE are obtained in a numerical form. The combined action of SO and Rabi couplings produces conspicuous sidelobes on the density profile, for both signs of the interaction. In the case of the attractive nonlinearity, an essential result is the possibility of getting an unstable condensate by the increasing of SO coupling.
Exploring matter-wave dynamics with a Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Rockson
Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute gases provide a rich and versatile platform to study both single-particle and many-body quantum phenomena. This thesis describes several experiments using a Bose-Einstein condensate of Rb-87 as a model system to study novel matter-wave effects that traditionally arise in vastly different systems, yet are difficult to access. We study the scattering of a particle from a repulsive potential barrier in the non-asymptotic regime, for which the collision dynamics are on-going. Using a Bose-Einstein condensate interacting with a sharp repulsive potential, two distinct transient scattering effects are observed: one due to the momentary deceleration of particles atop the barrier, and one due to the abrupt discontinuity in phase written on the wavepacket in position-space, akin to quantum reflection. Both effects lead to a redistribution of momenta, resulting in a rich interference pattern that may be used to reconstruct the single-particle wavefunction. In a second experiment, we study the response of a particle in a periodic potential to an applied force. By abruptly applying an external force to a Bose-Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional optical lattice, we show that the initial response of a particle in a periodic potential is in fact characterized by the bare mass, and only over timescales long compared to that of interband dynamics is the usual effective mass an appropriate description. This breakdown of the effective mass description on fast timescales is difficult to observe in traditional solid state systems due to their large bandgaps and fast timescale of interband dynamics. Both these experiments make use of the condensate's long coherence length, and the ability to shape and modulate the external potential on timescales fast compared to the particle dynamics, allowing for observation of novel matter-wave effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawada, Hiroyuki
Recently, engineering design environment of Japan is changing variously. Manufacturing companies are being challenged to design and bring out products that meet the diverse demands of customers and are competitive against those produced by rising countries(1). In order to keep and strengthen the competitiveness of Japanese companies, it is necessary to create new added values as well as conventional ones. It is well known that design at the early stages has a great influence on the final design solution. Therefore, design support tools for the upstream design is necessary for creating new added values. We have established a research society for 1D-CAE (1 Dimensional Computer Aided Engineering)(2), which is a general term for idea, methodology and tools applicable for the upstream design support, and discuss the concept and definition of 1D-CAE. This paper reports our discussion about 1D-CAE.
Excitation picture of an interacting Bose gas
Kira, M.
2014-12-15
Atomic Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) can be viewed as macroscopic objects where atoms form correlated atom clusters to all orders. Therefore, the presence of a BEC makes the direct use of the cluster-expansion approach–lucrative e.g. in semiconductor quantum optics–inefficient when solving the many-body kinetics of a strongly interacting Bose. An excitation picture is introduced with a nonunitary transformation that describes the system in terms of atom clusters within the normal component alone. The nontrivial properties of this transformation are systematically studied, which yields a cluster-expansion friendly formalism for a strongly interacting Bose gas. Its connections and corrections to the standard Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov approach are discussed and the role of the order parameter and the Bogoliubov excitations are identified. The resulting interaction effects are shown to visibly modify number fluctuations of the BEC. Even when the BEC has a nearly perfect second-order coherence, the BEC number fluctuations can still resolve interaction-generated non-Poissonian fluctuations. - Highlights: • Excitation picture expresses interacting Bose gas with few atom clusters. • Semiconductor and BEC many-body investigations are connected with cluster expansion. • Quantum statistics of BEC is identified in terms of atom clusters. • BEC number fluctuations show extreme sensitivity to many-body correlations. • Cluster-expansion friendly framework is established for an interacting Bose gas.
Quantum metrology with Bose-Einstein condensates
Boixo, Sergio; Datta, Animesh; Davis, Matthew J.; Flammia, Steven T.; Shaji, Anil; Tacla, Alexandre B.; Caves, Carlton M.
2009-04-13
We show how a generalized quantum metrology protocol can be implemented in a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate of n atoms, achieving a sensitivity that scales better than 1/n and approaches 1/n{sup 3/2} for appropriate design of the condensate.
Spin diffusion in trapped gases: Anisotropy in dipole and quadrupole modes
Mullin, W. J.; Ragan, R. J.
2006-10-15
Recent experiments in a mixture of two hyperfine states of trapped Bose gases show behavior analogous to a spin-(1/2) system, including transverse spin waves and other familiar Leggett-Rice-type effects. We have derived the kinetic equations applicable to these systems, including the spin dependence of interparticle interactions in the collision integral, and have solved for spin-wave frequencies and longitudinal and transverse diffusion constants in the Boltzmann limit. We find that, while the transverse and longitudinal collision times for trapped Fermi gases are identical, the Bose gas shows unusual diffusion anisotropy in both dipole and quadrupole modes. Moreover, the lack of spin isotropy in the interactions leads to the nonconservation of transverse spin, which in turn has significant effects on the hydrodynamic modes.
Quantum sine-Gordon dynamics on analogue curved spacetime in a weakly imperfect scalar Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkoff, T. J.; Fischer, Uwe R.
2016-07-01
Using the coherent state functional integral expression of the partition function, we show that the sine-Gordon model on an analogue curved spacetime arises as the effective quantum field theory for phase fluctuations of a weakly imperfect Bose gas on an incompressible background superfluid flow when these fluctuations are restricted to a subspace of the single-particle Hilbert space. We consider bipartitions of the single-particle Hilbert space relevant to experiments on ultracold bosonic atomic or molecular gases, including, e.g., restriction to high- or low-energy sectors of the dynamics and spatial bipartition corresponding to tunnel-coupled planar Bose gases. By assuming full unitary quantum control in the low-energy subspace of a trapped gas, we show that (1) appropriately tuning the particle number statistics of the lowest-energy mode partially decouples the low- and high-energy sectors, allowing any low-energy single-particle wave function to define a background for sine-Gordon dynamics on curved spacetime and (2) macroscopic occupation of a quantum superposition of two states of the lowest two modes produces an analogue curved spacetime depending on two background flows, with respective weights continuously dependent on the corresponding weights of the superposed quantum states.
DESIGN PACKAGE 1D SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS
L.R. Eisler
1995-02-02
The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1D, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1D system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations excluding hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations.
Theory of ultracold atomic Fermi gases
Giorgini, Stefano; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Stringari, Sandro
2008-10-15
The physics of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases in uniform as well as in harmonically trapped configurations is reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Emphasis is given to the effect of interactions that play a crucial role, bringing the gas into a superfluid phase at low temperature. In these dilute systems, interactions are characterized by a single parameter, the s-wave scattering length, whose value can be tuned using an external magnetic field near a broad Feshbach resonance. The BCS limit of ordinary Fermi superfluidity, the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dimers, and the unitary limit of large scattering length are important regimes exhibited by interacting Fermi gases. In particular, the BEC and the unitary regimes are characterized by a high value of the superfluid critical temperature, on the order of the Fermi temperature. Different physical properties are discussed, including the density profiles and the energy of the ground-state configurations, the momentum distribution, the fraction of condensed pairs, collective oscillations and pair-breaking effects, the expansion of the gas, the main thermodynamic properties, the behavior in the presence of optical lattices, and the signatures of superfluidity, such as the existence of quantized vortices, the quenching of the moment of inertia, and the consequences of spin polarization. Various theoretical approaches are considered, ranging from the mean-field description of the BCS-BEC crossover to nonperturbative methods based on quantum Monte Carlo techniques. A major goal of the review is to compare theoretical predictions with available experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hall, David
2012-06-01
Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases, with its myriad ramifications in fields as diverse as atomic, condensed-matter, cosmological, fluid, quantum, and statistical physics, offers unique possibilities for the synthesis of research and pedagogy. The highly visual nature of the experiments can make Bose-Einstein condensates a particularly compelling teaching instrument, particularly for those encountering these topics for the first time. The associated technological challenges provide copious opportunities for development of fundamental research skills while retaining the intimate context of tabletop research. Our program at Amherst College pursues studies of multicomponent condensates, tunable ultracold collisions (i.e., Feshbach resonances), and topological defects (e.g., vortices). In this talk I will describe our experimental efforts in these three principal directions, taken singly and in combination, with a nod to the peculiarities and opportunities inherent to an essentially undergraduate research program.
Motion of a heavy impurity through a Bose-Einstein condensate
Astrakharchik, G.E.; Pitaevskii, L.P.
2004-07-01
We study the motion of a pointlike impurity in a Bose-Einstein condensate at T=0. By solving the Guinier-Preston (GP) equation in a perturbative manner we calculate the induced mass of the impurity and the drag force on the impurity in three-, two-, and one-dimensional (1D) cases. The relationship between the induced mass and the normal mass of fluid is found, and coincides with the result of the Bogoliubov theory. The drag force appears for the supersonic motion of the impurity. In 1D the drag force is investigated also on the basis of the exact Lieb-Liniger theory, using the dynamic form factor, which has been evaluated by the Haldane method of the calculation of correlation functions. In this theory the force appears for an arbitrarily small velocity of the impurity. The possibility of measuring the form factor in existing experiments is noted.
Kottke, M.; Schulte, T.; Hellweg, D.; Drenkelforth, S.; Ertmer, W.; Arlt, J. J.; Cacciapuoti, L.
2005-11-15
We measure the frequency of the low m=0 quadrupolar excitation mode of weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in the transition region from the three-dimensional (3D) to the 1D mean-field regime. Various effects shifting the frequency of the mode are discussed. In particular we take the dynamic coupling of the condensate with the thermal component at finite temperature into account using a time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov treatment developed by Giorgini [Phys. Rev. A, 61, 063615 (2000)]. We show that the frequency rises in the transition from 3D to 1D, in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of Menotti and Stringari [Phys. Rev. A 66, 043610 (2002)].
Direct observation of the superfluid phase transition in ultracold Fermi gases.
Zwierlein, Martin W; Schunck, Christian H; Schirotzek, André; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2006-07-01
Phase transitions are dramatic phenomena: water freezes into ice, atomic spins spontaneously align in a magnet, and liquid helium becomes superfluid. Sometimes, such a drastic change in behaviour is accompanied by a visible change in appearance. The hallmark of Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity in trapped, weakly interacting Bose gases is the sudden formation of a dense central core inside a thermal cloud. However, in strongly interacting gases--such as the recently observed fermionic superfluids--there is no longer a clear separation between the superfluid and the normal parts of the cloud. The detection of fermion pair condensates has required magnetic field sweeps into the weakly interacting regime, and the quantitative description of these sweeps presents a major theoretical challenge. Here we report the direct observation of the superfluid phase transition in a strongly interacting gas of 6Li fermions, through sudden changes in the shape of the clouds--in complete analogy to the case of weakly interacting Bose gases. By preparing unequal mixtures of the two spin components involved in the pairing, we greatly enhance the contrast between the superfluid core and the normal component. Furthermore, the distribution of non-interacting excess atoms serves as a direct and reliable thermometer. Even in the normal state, strong interactions significantly deform the density profile of the majority spin component. We show that it is these interactions that drive the normal-to-superfluid transition at the critical population imbalance of 70 +/- 5 per cent (ref. 12).
Shock Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kulikov, Igor; Zak, Michail
2005-01-01
A paper presents a theoretical study of shock waves in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The mathematical model of the BEC in this study is a nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE) in which (1) the role of the wave function of a single particle in the traditional Schroedinger equation is played by a space- and time-dependent complex order parameter (x,t) proportional to the square root of the density of atoms and (2) the atoms engage in a repulsive interaction characterized by a potential proportional to | (x,t)|2. Equations that describe macroscopic perturbations of the BEC at zero temperature are derived from the NLSE and simplifying assumptions are made, leading to equations for the propagation of sound waves and the transformation of sound waves into shock waves. Equations for the speeds of shock waves and the relationships between jumps of velocity and density across shock fronts are derived. Similarities and differences between this theory and the classical theory of sound waves and shocks in ordinary gases are noted. The present theory is illustrated by solving the equations for the example of a shock wave propagating in a cigar-shaped BEC.
Spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates.
Lin, Y-J; Jiménez-García, K; Spielman, I B
2011-03-01
Spin-orbit (SO) coupling--the interaction between a quantum particle's spin and its momentum--is ubiquitous in physical systems. In condensed matter systems, SO coupling is crucial for the spin-Hall effect and topological insulators; it contributes to the electronic properties of materials such as GaAs, and is important for spintronic devices. Quantum many-body systems of ultracold atoms can be precisely controlled experimentally, and would therefore seem to provide an ideal platform on which to study SO coupling. Although an atom's intrinsic SO coupling affects its electronic structure, it does not lead to coupling between the spin and the centre-of-mass motion of the atom. Here, we engineer SO coupling (with equal Rashba and Dresselhaus strengths) in a neutral atomic Bose-Einstein condensate by dressing two atomic spin states with a pair of lasers. Such coupling has not been realized previously for ultracold atomic gases, or indeed any bosonic system. Furthermore, in the presence of the laser coupling, the interactions between the two dressed atomic spin states are modified, driving a quantum phase transition from a spatially spin-mixed state (lasers off) to a phase-separated state (above a critical laser intensity). We develop a many-body theory that provides quantitative agreement with the observed location of the transition. The engineered SO coupling--equally applicable for bosons and fermions--sets the stage for the realization of topological insulators in fermionic neutral atom systems.
Position swapping and pinching in Bose-Fermi mixtures with two-color optical Feshbach resonances
Gautam, S.; Angom, D.; Muruganandam, P.
2011-02-15
We examine the density profiles of the quantum degenerate Bose-Fermi mixture of {sup 174}Yb-{sup 173}Yb, experimentally observed recently, in the mean-field regime. In this mixture there is a possibility of tuning the Bose-Bose and Bose-Fermi interactions simultaneously using two well-separated optical Feshbach resonances, and it is a good candidate to explore phase separation in Bose-Fermi mixtures. Depending on the Bose-Bose scattering length a{sub BB}, as the Bose-Fermi interaction is tuned the density of the fermions is pinched or swapping with bosons occurs.
Effective microscopic models for sympathetic cooling of atomic gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Onofrio, Roberto; Sundaram, Bala
2015-09-01
Thermalization of a system in the presence of a heat bath has been the subject of many theoretical investigations especially in the framework of solid-state physics. In this setting, the presence of a large bandwidth for the frequency distribution of the harmonic oscillators schematizing the heat bath is crucial, as emphasized in the Caldeira-Leggett model. By contrast, ultracold gases in atomic traps oscillate at well-defined frequencies and therefore seem to lie outside the Caldeira-Leggett paradigm. We introduce interaction Hamiltonians which allow us to adapt the model to an atomic physics framework. The intrinsic nonlinearity of these models differentiates them from the original Caldeira-Leggett model and calls for a nontrivial stability analysis to determine effective ranges for the model parameters. These models allow for molecular-dynamics simulations of mixtures of ultracold gases, which is of current relevance for optimizing sympathetic cooling in degenerate Bose-Fermi mixtures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ehhalt, D. H.; Fraser, P. J.; Albritton, D.; Cicerone, R. J.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Legrand, M.; Makide, Y.; Rowland, F. S.; Steele, L. P.; Zander, R.
1989-01-01
Source gases are defined as those gases that, by their breakdown, introduce into the stratosphere halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen compounds that are important in stratospheric ozone destruction. Given here is an update of the existing concentration time series for chlorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane. Also reviewed is information on halogen containing species and the use of these data for establishing trends. Also reviewed is evidence on trends in trace gases that influence tropospheric chemistry and thus the tropospheric lifetimes of source gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen oxides. Much of the information is given in tabular form.
Mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects in Bose-Einstein-condensed systems
Marques, G.C.; Bagnato, V.S.; Muniz, S.R.; Spehler, D.
2004-05-01
In this paper we extend previous hydrodynamic equations, governing the motion of Bose-Einstein-condensed fluids, to include temperature effects. This allows us to analyze some differences between a normal fluid and a Bose-Einstein-condensed one. We show that, in close analogy with superfluid {sup 4}He, a Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid exhibits the mechanocaloric and thermomechanical effects. In our approach we can explain both effects without using the hypothesis that the Bose-Einstein-condensed fluid has zero entropy. Such ideas could be investigated in existing experiments.
Interacting Bose gas confined in a Kronig-Penney potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodríguez, O. A.; Solís, M. A.
We analyze the effect of the 1D periodic Kronig-Penney potential, composed of barriers of width b and separated a distance a, over an interacting Bose gas. At T = 0 , the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is solved analytically in terms of the Jacobi elliptic functions for repulsive or attractive interaction between bosons. By applying the boundary conditions for periodic solutions as well as the normalization of the wave function, we arrive to a set of nonlinear equations from which we obtain the density profile and the chemical potential of the condensate as a function of the particle momentum. The profiles for attractive and repulsive interactions are compared with that of the non-interacting case. For attractive interaction we are able to observe a pronounced spatial localization in the middle of every two barriers. We reproduce the well known results when the Kronig-Penney potential becomes a Dirac Comb. We acknowledge partial support from Grants PAPIIT IN111613 and CONACyT 221030.
Centrosome Positioning in 1D Cell Migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adlerz, Katrina; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim
During cell migration, the positioning of the centrosome and nucleus define a cell's polarity. For a cell migrating on a two-dimensional substrate the centrosome is positioned in front of the nucleus. Under one-dimensional confinement, however, the centrosome is positioned behind the nucleus in 60% of cells. It is known that the centrosome is positioned by CDC42 and dynein for cells moving on a 2D substrate in a wound-healing assay. It is currently unknown, however, if this is also true for cells moving under 1D confinement, where the centrosome position is often reversed. Therefore, centrosome positioning was studied in cells migrating under 1D confinement, which mimics cells migrating through 3D matrices. 3 to 5 μm fibronectin lines were stamped onto a glass substrate and cells with fluorescently labeled nuclei and centrosomes migrated on the lines. Our results show that when a cell changes directions the centrosome position is maintained. That is, when the centrosome is between the nucleus and the cell's trailing edge and the cell changes direction, the centrosome will be translocated across the nucleus to the back of the cell again. A dynein inhibitor did have an influence on centrosome positioning in 1D migration and change of directions.
Bose-Einstein condensation in microgravity.
van Zoest, T; Gaaloul, N; Singh, Y; Ahlers, H; Herr, W; Seidel, S T; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Eckart, M; Kajari, E; Arnold, S; Nandi, G; Schleich, W P; Walser, R; Vogel, A; Sengstock, K; Bongs, K; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Schiemangk, M; Schuldt, T; Peters, A; Könemann, T; Müntinga, H; Lämmerzahl, C; Dittus, H; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J
2010-06-18
Albert Einstein's insight that it is impossible to distinguish a local experiment in a "freely falling elevator" from one in free space led to the development of the theory of general relativity. The wave nature of matter manifests itself in a striking way in Bose-Einstein condensates, where millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. We combine these two topics and report the preparation and observation of a Bose-Einstein condensate during free fall in a 146-meter-tall evacuated drop tower. During the expansion over 1 second, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter.
Bose-Einstein condensation of chromium.
Griesmaier, Axel; Werner, Jörg; Hensler, Sven; Stuhler, Jürgen; Pfau, Tilman
2005-04-29
We report on the generation of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a gas of chromium atoms, which have an exceptionally large magnetic dipole moment and therefore underlie anisotropic long-range interactions. The preparation of the chromium condensate requires novel cooling strategies that are adapted to its special electronic and magnetic properties. The final step to reach quantum degeneracy is forced evaporative cooling of 52Cr atoms within a crossed optical dipole trap. At a critical temperature of T(c) approximately 700 nK, we observe Bose-Einstein condensation by the appearance of a two-component velocity distribution. We are able to produce almost pure condensates with more than 50,000 condensed 52Cr atoms.
Stability of a unitary Bose gas.
Fletcher, Richard J; Gaunt, Alexander L; Navon, Nir; Smith, Robert P; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2013-09-20
We study the stability of a thermal (39)K Bose gas across a broad Feshbach resonance, focusing on the unitary regime, where the scattering length a exceeds the thermal wavelength λ. We measure the general scaling laws relating the particle-loss and heating rates to the temperature, scattering length, and atom number. Both at unitarity and for positive a<λ we find agreement with three-body theory. However, for a<0 and away from unitarity, we observe significant four-body decay. At unitarity, the three-body loss coefficient, L(3) proportional λ(4), is 3 times lower than the universal theoretical upper bound. This reduction is a consequence of species-specific Efimov physics and makes (39)K particularly promising for studies of many-body physics in a unitary Bose gas.
Axions: Bose Einstein condensate or classical field?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, Sacha
2015-05-01
The axion is a motivated dark matter candidate, so it would be interesting to find features in Large Scale Structures specific to axion dark matter. Such features were proposed for a Bose Einstein condensate of axions, leading to confusion in the literature (to which I contributed) about whether axions condense due to their gravitational interactions. This note argues that the Bose Einstein condensation of axions is a red herring: the axion dark matter produced by the misalignment mechanism is already a classical field, which has the distinctive features attributed to the axion condensate (BE condensates are described as classical fields). This note also estimates that the rate at which axion particles condense to the field, or the field evaporates to particles, is negligible.
Astrophysical Bose-Einstein condensates and superradiance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kühnel, Florian; Rampf, Cornelius
2014-11-01
We investigate gravitational analogue models to describe slowly rotating objects (e.g., dark-matter halos, or boson stars) in terms of Bose-Einstein condensates, trapped in their own gravitational potentials. We begin with a modified Gross-Pitaevskii equation, and show that the resulting background equations of motion are stable, as long as the rotational component is treated as a small perturbation. The dynamics of the fluctuations of the velocity potential are effectively governed by the Klein-Gordon equation of an "Eulerian metric," where we derive the latter by the use of a relativistic Lagrangian extrapolation. Superradiant scattering on such objects is studied. We derive conditions for its occurrence and estimate its strength. Our investigations might give an observational handle to phenomenologically constrain Bose-Einstein condensates.
Bose condensates and the atom laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrews, Michael R.
In this thesis, I describe four classes of studies of cold, dilute vapors of atomic sodium. The in-situ nondestructive observation of a Bose condensate is presented in the broader context of imaging a cold polarized cloud. Two condensates were made to interfere, and a rudimentary ``atom laser'' was demonstrated. Excitations of a condensate were imaged in- situ and nondestructively, opening up the field of real- time dynamical studies. A related study attempting (unsuccessfully) to create and detect superfluid currents and vortices is discussed. Lastly, Feshbach resonances were used to modify the interactions in a Bose condensate, and the scattering length was observed to vary by over a factor of ten. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)
Bose-Einstein Condensation in Microgravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Zoest, T.; Gaaloul, N.; Singh, Y.; Ahlers, H.; Herr, W.; Seidel, S. T.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E.; Eckart, M.; Kajari, E.; Arnold, S.; Nandi, G.; Schleich, W. P.; Walser, R.; Vogel, A.; Sengstock, K.; Bongs, K.; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W.; Schiemangk, M.; Schuldt, T.; Peters, A.; Könemann, T.; Müntinga, H.; Lämmerzahl, C.; Dittus, H.; Steinmetz, T.; Hänsch, T. W.; Reichel, J.
2010-06-01
Albert Einstein’s insight that it is impossible to distinguish a local experiment in a “freely falling elevator” from one in free space led to the development of the theory of general relativity. The wave nature of matter manifests itself in a striking way in Bose-Einstein condensates, where millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. We combine these two topics and report the preparation and observation of a Bose-Einstein condensate during free fall in a 146-meter-tall evacuated drop tower. During the expansion over 1 second, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter.
Bose-Einstein condensation in microgravity.
van Zoest, T; Gaaloul, N; Singh, Y; Ahlers, H; Herr, W; Seidel, S T; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Eckart, M; Kajari, E; Arnold, S; Nandi, G; Schleich, W P; Walser, R; Vogel, A; Sengstock, K; Bongs, K; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, W; Schiemangk, M; Schuldt, T; Peters, A; Könemann, T; Müntinga, H; Lämmerzahl, C; Dittus, H; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J
2010-06-18
Albert Einstein's insight that it is impossible to distinguish a local experiment in a "freely falling elevator" from one in free space led to the development of the theory of general relativity. The wave nature of matter manifests itself in a striking way in Bose-Einstein condensates, where millions of atoms lose their identity and can be described by a single macroscopic wave function. We combine these two topics and report the preparation and observation of a Bose-Einstein condensate during free fall in a 146-meter-tall evacuated drop tower. During the expansion over 1 second, the atoms form a giant coherent matter wave that is delocalized on a millimeter scale, which represents a promising source for matter-wave interferometry to test the universality of free fall with quantum matter. PMID:20558713
Stability of a unitary Bose gas.
Fletcher, Richard J; Gaunt, Alexander L; Navon, Nir; Smith, Robert P; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2013-09-20
We study the stability of a thermal (39)K Bose gas across a broad Feshbach resonance, focusing on the unitary regime, where the scattering length a exceeds the thermal wavelength λ. We measure the general scaling laws relating the particle-loss and heating rates to the temperature, scattering length, and atom number. Both at unitarity and for positive a<λ we find agreement with three-body theory. However, for a<0 and away from unitarity, we observe significant four-body decay. At unitarity, the three-body loss coefficient, L(3) proportional λ(4), is 3 times lower than the universal theoretical upper bound. This reduction is a consequence of species-specific Efimov physics and makes (39)K particularly promising for studies of many-body physics in a unitary Bose gas. PMID:24093273
Schrodinger Leopards in Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, Lincoln D.; Dounas-Frazer, Dimitri R.
2008-03-01
We present the complex quantum dynamics of vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates in a double well via exact diagonalization of a discretized Hamiltonian. When the barrier is high, vortices evolve into macroscopic superposition (NOON) states of a vortex in either well -- a Schrodinger cat with spots. Such Schrodinger leopard states are more robust than previously proposed NOON states, which only use two single particle modes of the double well potential.
Bose-Einstein condensation of cesium.
Weber, Tino; Herbig, Jens; Mark, Michael; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph; Grimm, Rudolf
2003-01-10
Bose-Einstein condensation of cesium atoms is achieved by evaporative cooling using optical trapping techniques. The ability to tune the interactions between the ultracold atoms by an external magnetic field is crucial to obtain the condensate and offers intriguing features for potential applications. We explore various regimes of condensate self-interaction (attractive, repulsive, and null interaction strength) and demonstrate properties of imploding, exploding, and non-interacting quantum matter. PMID:12471267
Bose-Einstein correlations from 'within'
Utyuzh, O. V.; Wilk, G.; Wlodarczyk, Z.
2006-04-11
We describe an attempt to model numerically Bose-Einstein correlations (BEC) from 'within', i.e., by using them as the most fundamental ingredient of some Monte Carlo event generator (MC) rather than considering them as a kind of (more or less important, depending on the actual situation) 'afterburner', which inevitably changes original physical content of the MC code used to model multiparticle production process.
Collective mode damping and viscosity in a 1D unitary Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Punk, M.; Zwerger, W.
2006-08-01
We calculate the damping of the Bogoliubov Anderson mode in a one-dimensional (1D) two-component attractive Fermi gas for arbitrary coupling strength within a quantum hydrodynamic approach. Using the Bethe-ansatz solution of the 1D BCS-BEC crossover problem, we derive analytic results for the viscosity covering the full range from a Luther Emery liquid of weakly bound pairs to a Lieb Liniger gas of strongly bound bosonic dimers. At the unitarity point, the system is a Tonks Girardeau gas with a universal constant αζ = 0.38 in the viscosity ζ = αζplanck n for T = 0. For the trapped case, we calculate the Q-factor of the breathing mode and show that the damping provides a sensitive measure of temperature in 1D Fermi gases.
Kochereshko, Vladimir P.; Durnev, Mikhail V.; Besombes, Lucien; Mariette, Henri; Sapega, Victor F.; Askitopoulos, Alexis; Savenko, Ivan G.; Liew, Timothy C. H.; Shelykh, Ivan A.; Platonov, Alexey V.; Tsintzos, Simeon I.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Savvidis, Pavlos G.; Kalevich, Vladimir K.; Afanasiev, Mikhail M.; Lukoshkin, Vladimir A.; Schneider, Christian; Amthor, Matthias; Metzger, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Hoefling, Sven; Lagoudakis, Pavlos; Kavokin, Alexey
2016-01-01
Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, well-known for revolutionising photonic science, has been realised primarily in fermionic systems including widely applied diode lasers. The prerequisite for fermionic lasing is the inversion of electronic population, which governs the lasing threshold. More recently, bosonic lasers have also been developed based on Bose-Einstein condensates of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. These electrically neutral bosons coexist with charged electrons and holes. In the presence of magnetic fields, the charged particles are bound to their cyclotron orbits, while the neutral exciton-polaritons move freely. We demonstrate how magnetic fields affect dramatically the phase diagram of mixed Bose-Fermi systems, switching between fermionic lasing, incoherent emission and bosonic lasing regimes in planar and pillar microcavities with optical and electrical pumping. We collected and analyzed the data taken on pillar and planar microcavity structures at continuous wave and pulsed optical excitation as well as injecting electrons and holes electronically. Our results evidence the transition from a Bose gas to a Fermi liquid mediated by magnetic fields and light-matter coupling. PMID:26822483
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kochereshko, Vladimir P.; Durnev, Mikhail V.; Besombes, Lucien; Mariette, Henri; Sapega, Victor F.; Askitopoulos, Alexis; Savenko, Ivan G.; Liew, Timothy C. H.; Shelykh, Ivan A.; Platonov, Alexey V.; Tsintzos, Simeon I.; Hatzopoulos, Z.; Savvidis, Pavlos G.; Kalevich, Vladimir K.; Afanasiev, Mikhail M.; Lukoshkin, Vladimir A.; Schneider, Christian; Amthor, Matthias; Metzger, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Hoefling, Sven; Lagoudakis, Pavlos; Kavokin, Alexey
2016-01-01
Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, well-known for revolutionising photonic science, has been realised primarily in fermionic systems including widely applied diode lasers. The prerequisite for fermionic lasing is the inversion of electronic population, which governs the lasing threshold. More recently, bosonic lasers have also been developed based on Bose-Einstein condensates of exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. These electrically neutral bosons coexist with charged electrons and holes. In the presence of magnetic fields, the charged particles are bound to their cyclotron orbits, while the neutral exciton-polaritons move freely. We demonstrate how magnetic fields affect dramatically the phase diagram of mixed Bose-Fermi systems, switching between fermionic lasing, incoherent emission and bosonic lasing regimes in planar and pillar microcavities with optical and electrical pumping. We collected and analyzed the data taken on pillar and planar microcavity structures at continuous wave and pulsed optical excitation as well as injecting electrons and holes electronically. Our results evidence the transition from a Bose gas to a Fermi liquid mediated by magnetic fields and light-matter coupling.
Quantum phases of Bose-Bose mixtures on a triangular lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Liang; Li, Yongqiang; Altman, Ehud; Hofstetter, Walter
2012-10-01
We investigate the zero-temperature quantum phases of a Bose-Bose mixture on a triangular lattice using the bosonic dynamical mean-field theory (BDMFT). We consider the case of total filling where geometric frustration arises for asymmetric hopping. We map out a rich ground-state phase diagram including xy-ferromagnetic, spin-density wave, superfluid, and supersolid phases. In particular, we identify a stripe spin-density wave phase for highly asymmetric hopping. On top of the spin-density wave, we find that the system generically shows weak charge (particle) density wave order.
A 1-D dusty plasma photonic crystal
Mitu, M. L.; Ticoş, C. M.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.; Scurtu, A.
2013-09-21
It is demonstrated numerically that a 1-D plasma crystal made of micron size cylindrical dust particles can, in principle, work as a photonic crystal for terahertz waves. The dust rods are parallel to each other and arranged in a linear string forming a periodic structure of dielectric-plasma regions. The dispersion equation is found by solving the waves equation with the boundary conditions at the dust-plasma interface and taking into account the dielectric permittivity of the dust material and plasma. The wavelength of the electromagnetic waves is in the range of a few hundred microns, close to the interparticle separation distance. The band gaps of the 1-D plasma crystal are numerically found for different types of dust materials, separation distances between the dust rods and rod diameters. The distance between levitated dust rods forming a string in rf plasma is shown experimentally to vary over a relatively wide range, from 650 μm to about 1350 μm, depending on the rf power fed into the discharge.
Photon condensation: A new paradigm for Bose-Einstein condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajan, Renju; Ramesh Babu, P.; Senthilnathan, K.
2016-10-01
Bose-Einstein condensation is a state of matter known to be responsible for peculiar properties exhibited by superfluid Helium-4 and superconductors. Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in its pure form is realizable with alkali atoms under ultra-cold temperatures. In this paper, we review the experimental scheme that demonstrates the atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. We also elaborate on the theoretical framework for atomic Bose-Einstein condensation, which includes statistical mechanics and the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. As an extension, we discuss Bose-Einstein condensation of photons realized in a fluorescent dye filled optical microcavity. We analyze this phenomenon based on the generalized Planck's law in statistical mechanics. Further, a comparison is made between photon condensate and laser. We describe how photon condensate may be a possible alternative for lasers since it does not require an energy consuming population inversion process.
Topological objects in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
Cho, Y. M.; Khim, Hyojoong; Zhang, Pengming
2005-12-15
We study the topological objects in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. We compare two competing theories of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, the popular Gross-Pitaevskii theory, and the recently proposed gauge theory of two-component Bose-Einstein condensate which has an induced vorticity interaction. We show that two theories produce very similar topological objects, in spite of the obvious differences in dynamics. Furthermore we show that the gauge theory of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, with the U(1) gauge symmetry, is remarkably similar to the Skyrme theory. Just like the Skyrme theory this theory admits the non-Abelian vortex, the helical vortex, and the vorticity knot. We construct the lightest knot solution in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates numerically, and discuss how the knot can be constructed in the spin-(1/2) condensate of {sup 87}Rb atoms.
Spin-orbit-coupled quantum gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radic, Juraj
The dissertation explores the effects of synthetic spin-orbit coupling on the behaviour of quantum gases in several different contexts. We first study realistic methods to create vortices in spin-orbit-coupled (SOC) Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). We propose two different methods to induce thermodynamically stable static vortex configurations: (1) to rotate both the Raman lasers and the anisotropic trap; and (2) to impose a synthetic Abelian field on top of synthetic spin-orbit interactions. We solve the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for several experimentally relevant regimes and find new interesting effects such as spatial separation of left- and right-moving spin-orbit-coupled condensates, and the appearance of unusual vortex arrangements. Next we consider cold atoms in an optical lattice with synthetic SOC in the Mott-insulator regime. We calculate the parameters of the corresponding tight-binding model and derive the low-energy spin Hamiltonian which is a combination of Heisenberg model, quantum compass model and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. We find that the Hamiltonian supports a rich classical phase diagram with collinear, spiral and vortex phases. Next we study the time evolution of the magnetization in a Rashba spin-orbit-coupled Fermi gas, starting from a fully-polarized initial state. We model the dynamics using a Boltzmann equation, which we solve in the Hartree-Fock approximation. The resulting non-linear system of equations gives rise to three distinct dynamical regimes controlled by the ratio of interaction and spin-orbit-coupling strength lambda: for small lambda, the magnetization decays to zero. For intermediate lambda, it displays undamped oscillations about zero and for large lambda, a partially magnetized state is dynamically stabilized. Motivated by an interesting stripe phase which appears in BEC with SOC [Li et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 225301 (2011)], we study the finite-temperature phase diagram of a pseudospin-1/2 Bose gas with
Photochemistry of biogenic gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levine, Joel S.
1989-01-01
The relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere is examined, emphasizing the composition and photochemistry and chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere. The reactions of oxygen, ozone, and hydroxyl are reviewed and the fate of the biogenic gases ammonia, methane, reduced sulfur species, reduced halogen species, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide are described. A list is given of the concentration and sources of the various gases.
1D fast coded aperture camera.
Haw, Magnus; Bellan, Paul
2015-04-01
A fast (100 MHz) 1D coded aperture visible light camera has been developed as a prototype for imaging plasma experiments in the EUV/X-ray bands. The system uses printed patterns on transparency sheets as the masked aperture and an 80 channel photodiode array (9 V reverse bias) as the detector. In the low signal limit, the system has demonstrated 40-fold increase in throughput and a signal-to-noise gain of ≈7 over that of a pinhole camera of equivalent parameters. In its present iteration, the camera can only image visible light; however, the only modifications needed to make the system EUV/X-ray sensitive are to acquire appropriate EUV/X-ray photodiodes and to machine a metal masked aperture. PMID:25933861
1D fast coded aperture camera.
Haw, Magnus; Bellan, Paul
2015-04-01
A fast (100 MHz) 1D coded aperture visible light camera has been developed as a prototype for imaging plasma experiments in the EUV/X-ray bands. The system uses printed patterns on transparency sheets as the masked aperture and an 80 channel photodiode array (9 V reverse bias) as the detector. In the low signal limit, the system has demonstrated 40-fold increase in throughput and a signal-to-noise gain of ≈7 over that of a pinhole camera of equivalent parameters. In its present iteration, the camera can only image visible light; however, the only modifications needed to make the system EUV/X-ray sensitive are to acquire appropriate EUV/X-ray photodiodes and to machine a metal masked aperture.
1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen
2008-01-01
Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.
Orso, G.; Stringari, S.; Menotti, C.
2006-11-10
We use Bogoliubov theory to calculate the beyond mean field correction to the equation of state of a weakly interacting Bose gas in the presence of a tight 2D optical lattice. We show that the lattice induces a characteristic 3D to 1D crossover in the behavior of quantum fluctuations. Using the hydrodynamic theory of superfluids, we calculate the corresponding shift of the collective frequencies of a harmonically trapped gas. We find that this correction can be of the order of a few percent and hence easily measurable in current experiments. The behavior of the quantum depletion of the condensate is also discussed.
Magnetic and nematic phases in a Weyl type spin-orbit-coupled spin-1 Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Guanjun; Chen, Li; Zhang, Yunbo
2016-06-01
We present a variational study of the spin-1 Bose gases in a harmonic trap with three-dimensional spin-orbit (SO) coupling of Weyl type. For weak SO coupling, we treat the single-particle ground states as the form of perturbational harmonic oscillator states in the lowest total angular momentum manifold with j = 1, m j = 1, 0, -1. When the two-body interaction is considered, we set the trail order parameter as the superposition of three degenerate single-particle ground-states and the weight coefficients are determined by minimizing the energy functional. Two ground state phases, namely the magnetic and the nematic phases, are identified depending on the spin-independent and the spin-dependent interactions. Unlike the non-SO-coupled spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate for which the phase boundary between the magnetic and the nematic phase lies exactly at zero spin-dependent interaction, the boundary is modified by the SO-coupling. We find the magnetic phase is featured with phase-separated density distributions, 3D skyrmion-like spin textures and competing magnetic and biaxial nematic orders, while the nematic phase is featured with miscible density distributions, zero magnetization and spatially modulated uniaxial nematic order. The emergence of higher spin order creates new opportunities for exploring spin-tensor-related physics in SO coupled superfluid.
Many-body physics in the classical-field description of a degenerate Bose gas
Wright, T. M.; Davis, M. J.; Proukakis, N. P.
2011-08-15
The classical-field formalism has been widely applied in the calculation of normal correlation functions, and the characterization of condensation, in finite-temperature Bose gases. Here we discuss the extension of this method to the calculation of more general correlations, including the so-called anomalous correlations of the field, without recourse to symmetry-breaking assumptions. Our method is based on the introduction of U(1)-symmetric classical-field variables analogous to the modified quantum ladder operators of number-conserving approaches to the degenerate Bose gas, and allows us to rigorously quantify the anomalous and non-Gaussian character of the field fluctuations. We compare our results for anomalous correlation functions with the predictions of mean-field theories, and demonstrate that the nonlinear classical-field dynamics incorporate a full description of many-body processes which modify the effective mean-field potentials experienced by condensate and noncondensate atoms. We discuss the role of these processes in shaping the condensate mode, and thereby demonstrate the consistency of the Penrose-Onsager definition of the condensate orbital in the classical-field equilibrium. We consider the contribution of various noncondensate-field correlations to the overall suppression of density fluctuations and interactions in the field, and demonstrate the distinct roles of phase and density fluctuations in the transition of the field to the normal phase.
Anisotropic Superfluidity in a Dipolar Bose Gas
Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M.; Bohn, John L.
2011-02-11
We study the superfluid character of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate (DBEC) in a quasi-two dimensional geometry. We consider the dipole polarization to have some nonzero projection into the plane of the condensate so that the effective interaction is anisotropic in this plane, yielding an anisotropic dispersion relation. By performing direct numerical simulations of a probe moving through the DBEC, we observe the sudden onset of drag or creation of vortex-antivortex pairs at critical velocities that depend strongly on the direction of the probe's motion. This anisotropy emerges because of the anisotropic manifestation of a rotonlike mode in the system.
Quantum dynamics of a Bose superfluid vortex.
Thompson, L; Stamp, P C E
2012-05-01
We derive a fully quantum-mechanical equation of motion for a vortex in a 2-dimensional Bose superfluid in the temperature regime where the normal fluid density ρ(n)(T) is small. The coupling between the vortex "zero mode" and the quasiparticles has no term linear in the quasiparticle variables--the lowest-order coupling is quadratic. We find that as a function of the dimensionless frequency Ω=ℏΩ/k(B)T, the standard Hall-Vinen-Iordanskii equations are valid when Ω≪1 (the "classical regime"), but elsewhere, the equations of motion become highly retarded, with significant experimental implications when Ω≳1.
Properties of spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yongping; Mossman, Maren Elizabeth; Busch, Thomas; Engels, Peter; Zhang, Chuanwei
2016-06-01
The experimental and theoretical research of spin-orbit-coupled ultracold atomic gases has advanced and expanded rapidly in recent years. Here, we review some of the progress that either was pioneered by our own work, has helped to lay the foundation, or has developed new and relevant techniques. After examining the experimental accessibility of all relevant spin-orbit coupling parameters, we discuss the fundamental properties and general applications of spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) over a wide range of physical situations. For the harmonically trapped case, we show that the ground state phase transition is a Dicke-type process and that spin-orbit-coupled BECs provide a unique platform to simulate and study the Dicke model and Dicke phase transitions. For a homogeneous BEC, we discuss the collective excitations, which have been observed experimentally using Bragg spectroscopy. They feature a roton-like minimum, the softening of which provides a potential mechanism to understand the ground state phase transition. On the other hand, if the collective dynamics are excited by a sudden quenching of the spin-orbit coupling parameters, we show that the resulting collective dynamics can be related to the famous Zitterbewegung in the relativistic realm. Finally, we discuss the case of a BEC loaded into a periodic optical potential. Here, the spin-orbit coupling generates isolated flat bands within the lowest Bloch bands whereas the nonlinearity of the system leads to dynamical instabilities of these Bloch waves. The experimental verification of this instability illustrates the lack of Galilean invariance in the system.
Hybrid synchronization in coupled ultracold atomic gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Haibo; Zambrini, Roberta; Polls, Artur; Martorell, Joan; Juliá-Díaz, Bruno
2015-10-01
We study the time evolution of two coupled many-body quantum systems, one of which is assumed to be Bose condensed. Specifically, we consider two ultracold atomic clouds each populating two localized single-particle states, i.e., a two-component bosonic Josephson junction. The cold atom cloud can retain its coherence when coupled to the condensate and displays synchronization with the latter, differing from usual entrainment. We term this effect among the ultracold and the condensed clouds as hybrid synchronization. The onset of synchronization, which we observe in the evolution of average properties of both gases when increasing their coupling, is found to be related to the many-body properties of the quantum gas, e.g., condensed fraction quantum fluctuations of the particle number differences. We discuss the effects of different initial preparations and the influence of unequal particle numbers for the two clouds, and we explore the dependence on the initial quantum state, e.g., coherent state, squeezed state, and Fock state, finding essentially the same phenomenology in all cases.
Signals of Bose Einstein condensation and Fermi quenching in the decay of hot nuclear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marini, P.; Zheng, H.; Boisjoli, M.; Verde, G.; Chbihi, A.; Napolitani, P.; Ademard, G.; Augey, L.; Bhattacharya, C.; Borderie, B.; Bougault, R.; Frankland, J. D.; Fable, Q.; Galichet, E.; Gruyer, D.; Kundu, S.; La Commara, M.; Lombardo, I.; Lopez, O.; Mukherjee, G.; Parlog, M.; Rivet, M. F.; Rosato, E.; Roy, R.; Spadaccini, G.; Vigilante, M.; Wigg, P. C.; Bonasera, A.
2016-05-01
We report on first experimental observations of nuclear fermionic and bosonic components displaying different behaviours in the decay of hot Ca projectile-like sources produced in mid-peripheral collisions at sub-Fermi energies. The experimental setup, constituted by the coupling of the INDRA 4π detector array to the forward angle VAMOS magnetic spectrometer, allowed to reconstruct the mass, charge and excitation energy of the decaying hot projectile-like sources. By means of quantum-fluctuation analysis techniques, temperatures and local partial densities of bosons and fermions could be correlated to the excitation energy of the reconstructed system. The results are consistent with the production of dilute mixed systems of bosons and fermions, where bosons experience higher phase-space and energy density as compared to the surrounding fermionic gas. Our findings recall phenomena observed in the study of Bose condensates and Fermi gases in atomic traps despite the different scales.
Unusual vortex matter in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates with SU(2) broken symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galteland, Peder; Babaev, Egor; Sudbo, Asle
2015-03-01
We consider a Ginzburg-Landau model of a rotating two-component Bose-Einstein condensate with SU(2) broken symmetry through the use of numerical Monte Carlo techniques. We include the full spectrum of thermal amplitude- and phase-fluctuations. The model exhibits an unusual state of global phase coherence with no accompanying vortex line lattice. This state has no counterpart in single-component condensates. The conditions for such a state are experimentally realizable in, e.g., homonuclear mixes of atomic gases in separate hyperfine states, tuned to the SU(2) point with Feshbach resonance techniques. This work was supported by the Norwegian Research Council and the Norwegian Consortium for High-Performance Computing.
Vortices of a rotating two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lin-Xue; Dong, Biao; Chen, Guang-Ping; Han, Wei; Zhang, Shou-Gang; Shi, Yu-Ren; Zhang, Xiao-Fei
2016-01-01
We consider a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate, which consists of both dipolar and scalar bosonic atoms, in a confinement that is composed of a harmonic oscillator and an underlying optical lattice set rotation. When the dipoles are polarized along the symmetry axis of the harmonic potential, the ground-state density distributions of such a system are investigated as a function of the relative strength between the dipolar and contact interactions, and of the rotation frequency. Our results show that the number of vortices and its related vortex structures of such a system depend strongly on such system parameters. The special two-component system considered here opens up alternate ways for exploring the rich physics of dipolar quantum gases.
Spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates with Rydberg-dressing interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, Hao; Zhu, Shao-Bing; Qian, Jun; Wang, Yu-Zhu
2015-09-01
Interaction between Rydberg atoms can be used to control the properties of interatomic interaction in ultracold gases by weakly dressing the atoms with a Rydberg state. Here we investigate the effect of the Rydberg-dressing interaction on the ground-state properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate imposed by Raman-induced spin-orbit coupling. We find that, in the case of SU(2)-invariant s-wave interactions, the gas is only in the plane-wave phase and the zero-momentum phase is absent. In particular, we also predict an unexpected magnetic stripe phase composed of two plane-wave components with unequal weight when s-wave interactions are non-symmetric, which originates from the Rydberg-dressing interaction. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921504) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11104292).
Quantum Joule-Thomson effect in a saturated homogeneous Bose gas.
Schmidutz, Tobias F; Gotlibovych, Igor; Gaunt, Alexander L; Smith, Robert P; Navon, Nir; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2014-01-31
We study the thermodynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation in a weakly interacting quasihomogeneous atomic gas, prepared in an optical-box trap. We characterize the critical point for condensation and observe saturation of the thermal component in a partially condensed cloud, in agreement with Einstein's textbook picture of a purely statistical phase transition. Finally, we observe the quantum Joule-Thomson effect, namely isoenthalpic cooling of an (essentially) ideal gas. In our experiments this cooling occurs spontaneously, due to energy-independent collisions with the background gas in the vacuum chamber. We extract a Joule-Thomson coefficient μJT>10(9) K/bar, about 10 orders of magnitude larger than observed in classical gases.
Chiral magnetism and spontaneous spin Hall effect of interacting Bose superfluids.
Li, Xiaopeng; Natu, Stefan S; Paramekanti, Arun; Das Sarma, S
2014-01-01
Recent experiments on ultracold atoms in optical lattices have synthesized a variety of tunable bands with degenerate double-well structures in momentum space. Such degeneracies in the single-particle spectrum strongly enhance quantum fluctuations, and often lead to exotic many-body ground states. Here we consider weakly interacting spinor Bose gases in such bands, and discover a universal quantum 'order by disorder' phenomenon which selects a novel superfluid with chiral spin order displaying remarkable properties such as spontaneous spin Hall effect and momentum space antiferromagnetism. For bosons in the excited Dirac band of a hexagonal lattice, such a state supports staggered spin loop currents in real space. We show that Bloch oscillations provide a powerful dynamical route to quantum state preparation of such a chiral spin superfluid. Our predictions can be readily tested in spin-resolved time-of-flight experiments.
Bose-Einstein quantum phase transition in an optical lattice model
Aizenman, Michael; Lieb, Elliott H.; Seiringer, Robert; Solovej, Jan Philip; Yngvason, Jakob
2004-08-01
Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in cold gases can be turned on and off by an external potential, such as that presented by an optical lattice. We present a model of this phenomenon which we are able to analyze rigorously. The system is a hard core lattice gas at half of the maximum density and the optical lattice is modeled by a periodic potential of strength {lambda}. For small {lambda} and temperature, BEC is proved to occur, while at large {lambda} or temperature there is no BEC. At large {lambda} the low-temperature states are in a Mott insulator phase with a characteristic gap that is absent in the BEC phase. The interparticle interaction is essential for this transition, which occurs even in the ground state. Surprisingly, the condensation is always into the p=0 mode in this model, although the density itself has the periodicity of the imposed potential.
Quantum Joule-Thomson effect in a saturated homogeneous Bose gas.
Schmidutz, Tobias F; Gotlibovych, Igor; Gaunt, Alexander L; Smith, Robert P; Navon, Nir; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2014-01-31
We study the thermodynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation in a weakly interacting quasihomogeneous atomic gas, prepared in an optical-box trap. We characterize the critical point for condensation and observe saturation of the thermal component in a partially condensed cloud, in agreement with Einstein's textbook picture of a purely statistical phase transition. Finally, we observe the quantum Joule-Thomson effect, namely isoenthalpic cooling of an (essentially) ideal gas. In our experiments this cooling occurs spontaneously, due to energy-independent collisions with the background gas in the vacuum chamber. We extract a Joule-Thomson coefficient μJT>10(9) K/bar, about 10 orders of magnitude larger than observed in classical gases. PMID:24580421
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Biao; Wang, Lin-Xue; Chen, Guang-Ping; Han, Wei; Zhang, Shou-Gang; Zhang, Xiao-Fei
2016-10-01
We perform a detailed numerical study of the equilibrium ground-state structures of a binary rotating Bose-Einstein condensate with unequal atomic masses. Our results show that the ground-state distribution and its related vortex configurations are complex events that differ markedly depending strongly on the strength of rotation frequency, as well as on the ratio of atomic masses. We also discuss the structures and radii of the clouds, the number and the size of the core region of the vortices, as a function of the rotation frequency, and of the ratio of atomic masses, and the analytical results agree well with our numerical simulations. This work may open an alternate way in the quantum control of the binary rotating quantum gases with unequal atomic masses.
Quantum spin dynamics in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poon, Ting Fung Jeffrey; Liu, Xiong-Jun
2016-06-01
Spin-orbit-coupled bosons can exhibit rich equilibrium phases at low temperature and in the presence of particle-particle interactions. In the case with a 1D synthetic spin-orbit interaction, it has been observed that the ground state of a Bose gas can be a normal phase, stripe phase, or magnetized phase in different parameter regimes. The magnetized states are doubly degenerate and consist of a many-particle two-state system. In this work, we investigate the nonequilibrium quantum dynamics by switching on a simple one-dimensional optical lattice potential as external perturbation to induce resonant couplings between the magnetized phases, and predict a quantum spin dynamics which cannot be obtained in the single-particle systems. In particular, due to particle-particle interactions, the transition of the Bose condensate from one magnetized phase to the other is forbidden when the external perturbation strength is less than a critical value, and a full transition can occur only when the perturbation exceeds such critical strength. This phenomenon manifests itself a dynamical phase transition, with the order parameter defined by the time-averaged magnetization over an oscillation period, and the critical point behavior being exactly solvable. The thermal fluctuations are also considered in detail. From numerical simulations and exact analytic studies we show that the predicted many-body effects can be well observed with the current experiments.
Dynamic properties of dilute Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durfee, Dallin S.
In this thesis, a new apparatus for the study of Bose- Einstein condensation is described, and the first two experiments performed with the new device are discussed. The new instrument was constructed for the creation of dilute gas sodium Bose-Einstein condensates, and features an optical quality quartz cell, a high-flux spin-flip Zeeman slower, a tightly confining magnetic trap, and a high-resolution imaging system. The theory, design, and construction of each component is discussed, including a detailed explanation of non-destructive dispersive imaging. Bose-Einstein condensation was first achieved in the new apparatus in January of this year. Bose condensates consisting of 10 to 25 million atoms can be produced in this apparatus at a rate of two condensates per minute. The first two experiments performed with the new instrument probed the dynamic properties of dilute Bose condensates, allowing comparisons to be made with long standing theories of weakly-interacting degenerate Bose fluids. The first experiment was the study of ``surface wave'' excitations of Bose condensates. Standing and rotating quadrupole and octopole excitations were driven with a novel scanned optical dipole potential, a new tool which allows us to generate arbitrary two-dimensional perturbations to the trapping potential which confines the atoms. The second experiment studied the transition from dissipationless to dissipative flow in a Bose condensate. This study, performed by ``stirring'' the condensate with a focused laser, provided the first experimental evidence for the existence of a critical velocity for dissipation in dilute gas Bose condensates. This experiment is discussed in the context of earlier studies of the critical velocity of superfluid liquid helium. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)
Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Dilute Gas; the First 70 Years and Some Recent Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornell, E. A.; Wieman, C. E.
Bose-Einstein condensation, or BEC, has a long and rich history dating from the early 1920s. In this article we will trace briefly over this history and some of the developments in physics that made possible our successful pursuit of BEC in a gas. We will then discuss what was involved in this quest. In this discussion we will go beyond the usual technical description to try and address certain questions that we now hear frequently, but are not covered in our past research papers. These are questions along the lines of ``How did you get the idea and decide to pursue it? Did you know it was going to work? How long did it take you and why?'' We will review some of our favorites from among the experiments we have carried out with BEC. There will then be a brief encore on why we are optimistic that BEC can be created with nearly any species of magnetically trappable atom. Throughout this article we will try to explain what makes BEC in a dilute gas so interesting, unique, and experimentally challenging.
Vector azimuthons in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
Lashkin, Volodymyr M.; Ostrovskaya, Elena A.; Desyatnikov, Anton S.; Kivshar, Yuri S.
2009-07-15
We introduce matter-wave vector azimuthons, i.e., spatially localized vortex states with azimuthal modulations of density, in multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates. These localized states generalize spatially modulated vortex solitons introduced earlier in nonlinear optics [A. S. Desyatnikov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203904 (2005)] and Bose-Einstein condensates [V. M. Lashkin, Phys. Rev. A 77, 025602 (2008)]. We find, numerically, nonrotating and rotating two-component azimuthons in a Bose-Einstein condensate with a negative scattering length confined by a quasi-two-dimensional parabolic trap.
Spin-Drag Hall Effect in a Rotating Bose Mixture
Driel, H. J. van; Duine, R. A.; Stoof, H. T. C.
2010-10-08
We show that in a rotating two-component Bose mixture, the spin drag between the two different spin species shows a Hall effect. This spin-drag Hall effect can be observed experimentally by studying the out-of-phase dipole mode of the mixture. We determine the damping of this mode due to spin drag as a function of temperature. We find that due to Bose stimulation there is a strong enhancement of the damping for temperatures close to the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation.
Interference of Bose-Einstein condensates.
Band, Y B
2008-12-18
A formalism for describing the coherence and interference properties of two atomic clouds of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) is presented, which is applicable even in the opposite limits when the BEC clouds are initially coherent and when they are initially independent. First, we develop a mean-field theory wherein one mean-field mode is used, and then, for fragmented (i.e., independent) condensates, we use a mean-field theory with two modes. We then develop a full two-mode field theory, with a field operator composed of a sum of two terms containing matter wave mode functions phi1 and phi2, that multiply the destruction operators of the modes, a1 and a2. When atom-atom interactions are present and when the mode functions overlap, the matter wave mode functions phi1 and phi2 develop components moving to the right and left, and this results in interference fringes in the density. At the many-body level, another source of interference arises from expectation values of the form (a(i)+a(j)) with i double dagger j, which become nonzero due to tunneling and interactions. We detail how these two sources of interference affect the density profile and the density-density correlation functions of Bose-Einstein condensates in the coherent and in the fragmented regimes.
Rotating trapped Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fetter, A. L.
2008-01-01
Trapped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) differ considerably from the standard textbook example of a uniform Bose gas. In an isotropic harmonic potential V( r) = ½ Mω2 r 2, the single-particle ground state introduces a new intrinsic scale of length [the ground-state size d = √ ℏ/( Mω)] and energy [the ground-state energy E 0 = frac{3} {2} ℏω]. When the trap rotates at a low angular velocity, the behavior of a single vortex illustrates the crucial role of discrete quantized vorticity. For more rapid rotation, the condensate contains a vortex array. The resulting centrifugal forces expand the condensate radially and shrink it axially; thus, the condensate becomes effectively two dimensional. If the external rotation speed approaches the frequency of the radial harmonic confining potential, the condensate enters the "lowest-Landau-level" regime, and a simple description again becomes possible. Eventually, the system is predicted to make a quantum phase transition to a highly correlated state analogous to the fractional quantum Hall states of electrons in a strong magnetic field.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zahnle, Kevin
1993-01-01
An overview of the history and current status of research on planetary noble gases is presented. The discovery that neon and argon are vastly more abundant on Venus than on earth points to the solar wind rather than condensation as the fundamental process for placing noble gases in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets; however, solar wind implantation may not be able to fully reproduce the observed gradient, nor does it obviously account for similar planetary Ne/Ar ratios and dissimilar planetary Ar/Kr ratios. More recent studies have emphasized escape rather than accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, which is fractionating, readily accounts for the difference between atmospheric neon and isotopically light mantle neon. Atmospheric cratering, which is nearly nonfractionating, can account for the extreme scarcity of nonradiogenic noble gases (and other volatiles) on Mars.
Quantum liquid-crystal order in resonant atomic gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radzihovsky, Leo
2012-11-01
I review recent studies that predict a realization of quantum liquid-crystalline orders in resonant atomic gases. As examples of such putative systems I will discuss an s-wave resonant imbalanced Fermi gas and a p-wave resonant Bose gas. In the former, the liquid-crystalline smectic, nematic and rich variety of other descendant states emerge from strongly quantum- and thermally-fluctuating Fulde-Ferrell and Larkin-Ovchinnikov states, driven by a competition between resonant pairing and Fermi-surface mismatch. In the latter, at intermediate detuning the p-wave resonant interaction generically drives Bose-condensation at a finite momentum, set by a competition between atomic kinetic energy and atom-molecule hybridization. Because of the underlying rotationally-invariant environment of the atomic gas trapped isotropically, the putative striped superfluid is a realization of a quantum superfluid smectic, that can melt into a variety of interesting phases, such as a quantum nematic. I will discuss the corresponding rich phase diagrams and transitions, as well the low-energy properties of the phases and fractional topological defects generic to striped superfluids and their fluctuation-driven descendants.
Isothermal-sweep theorems for ultracold quantum gases in a canonical ensemble
Iskin, M.
2011-03-15
After deriving the isothermal Hellmann-Feynman theorem (IHFT) that is suitable for mixed states in a canonical ensemble, we use this theorem to obtain the isothermal magnetic-field sweep theorems for the free, average, and trapping energies and for the entropy, specific heat, pressure, and atomic compressibility of strongly correlated ultracold quantum gases. In particular, we apply the sweep theorems to two-component Fermi gases in the weakly interacting Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer and Bose-Einstein condensate limits, showing that the temperature dependence of the contact parameter can be determined by varying either the entropy or specific heat with respect to the scattering length. We also use the IHFT to obtain the virial theorem in a canonical ensemble and discuss its implications for quantum gases.
Semi-classical dynamics of superradiant Rayleigh scattering in a Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller, J. H.; Witthaut, D.; le Targat, R.; Arlt, J. J.; Polzik, E. S.; Hilliard, A. J.
2016-10-01
Due to its coherence properties and high optical depth, a Bose-Einstein condensate [BEC] provides an ideal setting to investigate collective atom-light interactions. Superradiant light scattering [SLS] in a BEC is a fascinating example of such an interaction. It is an analogous process to Dicke superradiance, in which an electronically inverted sample decays collectively, leading to the emission of one or more light pulses in a well-defined direction. Through time-resolved measurements of the superradiant light pulses emitted by an end-pumped BEC, we study the close connection of SLS with Dicke superradiance. A 1D model of the system yields good agreement with the experimental data and shows that the dynamics result from the structures that build up in the light and matter-wave fields along the BEC. This paves the way for exploiting the atom-photon correlations generated by the superradiance.
Dispersive and classical shock waves in Bose-Einstein condensates and gas dynamics
Hoefer, M. A.; Ablowitz, M. J.; Coddington, I.; Cornell, E. A.; Engels, P.; Schweikhard, V.
2006-08-15
A Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is a quantum fluid that gives rise to interesting shock-wave nonlinear dynamics. Experiments depict a BEC that exhibits behavior similar to that of a shock wave in a compressible gas, e.g., traveling fronts with steep gradients. However, the governing Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation that describes the mean field of a BEC admits no dissipation, hence classical dissipative shock solutions do not explain the phenomena. Instead, wave dynamics with small dispersion is considered and it is shown that this provides a mechanism for the generation of a dispersive shock wave (DSW). Computations with the GP equation are compared to experiment with excellent agreement. A comparison between a canonical one-dimensional (1D) dissipative and dispersive shock problem shows significant differences in shock structure and shock-front speed. Numerical results associated with the three-dimensional experiment show that three- and two-dimensional approximations are in excellent agreement and 1D approximations are in good qualitative agreement. Using 1D DSW theory, it is argued that the experimentally observed blast waves may be viewed as dispersive shock waves.
Bose-Bose mixtures with synthetic spin-orbit coupling in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Liang; Ji, Anchun; Hofstetter, Walter
2015-08-01
We investigate the ground-state properties of Bose-Bose mixtures with Rashba-type spin-orbit (SO) coupling in a square lattice. The system displays rich physics from the deep Mott insulator (MI) all the way to the superfluid (SF) regime. In the deep MI regime, exotic spin-ordered phases arise due to the effective Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya type of superexchange interactions. By employing the nonperturbative bosonic dynamical mean-field theory (BDMFT), we numerically study and establish the stability of these magnetic phases against increasing hopping amplitude. We show that as hopping is increased across the MI to SF transition, exotic superfluid phases with magnetic textures emerge. In particular, we identify an exotic spin-spiral magnetic texture with spatial period 3 in the superfluid close to the MI-SF transition.
Inter-species entanglement of Bose-Bose mixtures trapped in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
(王 巍, Wei Wang; Penna, Vittorio; Capogrosso-Sansone, Barbara
2016-06-01
In the present work we discuss inter-species entanglement in Bose-Bose mixtures trapped in optical lattices. This work is motivated by the observation that, in the presence of a second component, the MI lobe shifts differently on the hole- and particle-side with respect to the Mott lobe of the single species system (Guglielmino et al 2010 Phys. Rev. A 82 021601; Capogrosso-Sansone et al 2011 Laser Phys. 21 1443). We use perturbation theory, formulated in a Hilbert space decomposed by means of lattice symmetries, in order to show that the nonuniform shift of the Mott lobe is a manifestation of inter-species entanglement which differs in the lowest excited states to remove and add a particle. Our results indicate that inter-species entanglement in mixtures can provide a new perspective in understanding quantum phase transitions. To validate our approach, we compare our results from perturbation theory with quantum Monte Carlo simulations.
Measuring Spin-Charge Separation in a 1D Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fry, Jacob A.; Revelle, Melissa C.; Hulet, Randall G.
2016-05-01
We present progress on measurement of spin-charge separation in a two-component, strongly interacting, 1D gas of fermionic lithium. A characteristic feature of interacting 1D Fermi gases is that the velocity of a charge excitation propagates faster than a spin excitation. We create an excitation by applying a dipole force at the center of the cloud using a sheet of light. Depending on the detuning of this beam, we can either excite both spin species equally (charge excitation) or preferentially (spin excitation). Once this beam is turned off, the excitations propagate to the edges of the atomic cloud at a velocity determined by coupling strength. A magnetically tuned Feshbach resonance enables us to vary this coupling and map out the velocities of spin and charge excitations. Supported by an ARO MURI Grant, NSF, and The Welch Foundation
1D-1D Coulomb drag in a 6 Million Mobility Bi-layer Heterostructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilodeau, Simon; Laroche, Dominique; Xia, Jian-Sheng; Lilly, Mike; Reno, John; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Gervais, Guillaume
We report Coulomb drag measurements in vertically-coupled quantum wires. The wires are fabricated in GaAs/AlGaAs bilayer heterostructures grown from two different MBE chambers: one at Sandia National Laboratories (1.2M mobility), and the other at Princeton University (6M mobility). The previously observed positive and negative drag signals are seen in both types of devices, demonstrating the robustness of the result. However, attempts to determine the temperature dependence of the drag signal in the 1D regime proved challenging in the higher mobility heterostructure (Princeton), in part because of difficulties in aligning the wires within the same transverse subband configuration. Nevertheless, this work, performed at the Microkelvin laboratory of the University of Florida, is an important proof-of-concept for future investigations of the temperature dependence of the 1D-1D drag signal down to a few mK. Such an experiment could confirm the Luttinger charge density wave interlocking predicted to occur in the wires. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.
Grüneisen parameter for gases and superfluid helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Souza, Mariano; Menegasso, Paulo; Paupitz, Ricardo; Seridonio, Antonio; Lagos, Roberto E.
2016-09-01
The Grüneisen ratio (Γ), i.e. the ratio of the thermal expansivity to the specific heat at constant pressure, quantifies the degree of anharmonicity of the potential governing the physical properties of a system. While Γ has been intensively explored in solid state physics, very little is known about its behavior for gases. This is most likely due to the difficulties posed in carrying out both thermal expansion and specific heat measurements in gases with high accuracy as a function of pressure and temperature. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge a comprehensive discussion about the peculiarities of the Grüneisen ratio is still lacking in the literature. Here we report on a detailed and comprehensive overview of the Grüneisen ratio. Particular emphasis is placed on the analysis of Γ for gases. The main findings of this work are: (i) for the van der Waals gas Γ depends only on the co-volume b due to interaction effects, it is smaller than that for the ideal gas (Γ = 2/3) and diverges upon approaching the critical volume; (ii) for the Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal boson gas, assuming the transition as first-order, Γ diverges upon approaching a critical volume, similarly to the van der Waals gas; (iii) for 4He at the superfluid transition Γ shows a singular behavior. Our results reveal that Γ can be used as an appropriate experimental tool to explore pressure-induced critical points.
Synthetic spin and orbital angular momentum coupling in quantum gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Kuei; Qu, Chunlei; Zhang, Chuanwei
2015-05-01
The recent experimental realization of synthetic spin and linear momentum (SLM) coupling for ultracold atoms (both bosons and fermions) provides a completely new platform for exploring new quantum physics in spin-orbit coupled superfluids. Nowadays, spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) and degenerate Fermi gases have emerged as one of the most important frontiers of ultracold atomic physics. We pioneer the route and propose a scheme to realize another important and fundamental coupling between spin and orbital angular momentum (SOAM) in ultracold atoms using higher-order Laguerre-Gaussian laser beams. We study the ground state properties of SOAM coupled BEC in various natural geometries in experiments. We find rich phase diagrams reflecting the interplay between SOAM coupling, interaction, and external trapping. Our system, unlike the SLM coupled ones in current experiments, is naturally suited for exploring strong many-body effects with spin-orbit coupling.
Large- N expansion for unitary superfluid Fermi gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veillette, Martin Y.; Sheehy, Daniel E.; Radzihovsky, Leo
2007-04-01
We analyze strongly interacting Fermi gases in the unitary regime by considering the generalization to an arbitrary number N of spin- 1/2 fermion flavors with Sp(2N) symmetry. For N→∞ this problem is exactly solved by the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-Bose-Einstein condensate mean-field theory, with corrections small in the parameter 1/N . The large- N expansion provides a systematic way to determine corrections to mean-field predictions, allowing the calculation of a variety of thermodynamic quantities at (and in proximity to) unitarity, including the energy, the pairing gap, and the upper-critical polarization (in the case of a polarized gas) for the normal to superfluid instability. For the physical case of N=1 , among other quantities, we predict in the unitarity regime, the energy of the gas to be ξ=0.28 times that for the noninteracting gas and the pairing gap to be 0.52 times the Fermi energy.
Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. [thermodynamic properties of gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
The basic thermodynamic properties of gases are reviewed and the relations between them are derived from the first and second laws. The elements of statistical mechanics are then formulated and the partition function is derived. The classical form of the partition function is used to obtain the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energies in the gas phase and the equipartition of energy theorem is given in its most general form. The thermodynamic properties are all derived as functions of the partition function. Quantum statistics are reviewed briefly and the differences between the Boltzmann distribution function for classical particles and the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions for quantum particles are discussed.
Bose-Einstein Condensation and Bose Glasses in an S = 1 Organo-metallic quantum magnet
Zapf, Vivien
2012-06-01
I will speak about Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in quantum magnets, in particular the compound NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2. Here a magnetic field-induced quantum phase transition to XY antiferromagnetism can be mapped onto BEC of the spins. The tuning parameter for BEC transition is the magnetic field rather than the temperature. Some interesting phenomena arise, for example the fact that the mass of the bosons that condense can be strongly renormalized by quantum fluctuations. I will discuss the utility of this mapping for both understanding the nature of the quantum magnetism and testing the thermodynamic limit of Bose-Einstein Condensation. Furthermore we can dope the system in a clean and controlled way to create the long sought-after Bose Glass transition, which is the bosonic analogy of Anderson localization. I will present experiments and simulations showing evidence for a new scaling exponent, which finally makes contact between theory and experiments. Thus we take a small step towards the difficult problem of understanding the effect of disorder on bosonic wave functions.
Wu Rukuan; Shi Yu
2011-02-15
A mixture of two species of pseudospin-(1/2) Bose gases exhibits interesting interplay between spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Expectation values of various quantities of the collective spins of the two species play crucial roles in the Gross-Pitaevskii-like equations governing the four orbital wave functions in which Bose-Einstein condensation occurs. Consequently, the elementary excitations of these orbital wave functions reflect properties of the collective spins. When the coupling between the two collective spins is isotropic, the energy gap of the gapped orbital excitation peaks. There is a quantum phase transition in the ground state of the effective Hamiltonian of the two collective spins, which have previously been found to be maximally entangled.
Observing the 1D-3D Crossover in a Spin-Imbalanced Fermi Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Revelle, Melissa C.; Fry, Jacob A.; Olsen, Ben A.; Hulet, Randall G.
2016-05-01
Trapped two-component Fermi gases phase separate into superfluid and normal phases when their spin populations are imbalanced. In 3D, a balanced superfluid core is surrounded by shells of partially polarized and normal phases, while in 1D, the balanced superfluid occupies the low density wings. We explored the crossover from 3D to 1D using a two-spin component ultracold atomic gas of 6 Li prepared in the lowest two hyperfine sublevels, where the interactions are tuned by a Feshbach resonance. The atoms are confined to 1D tubes where the tunneling rate t between tubes is varied by changing the depth of a 2D optical lattice. We observe the transition from 1D to 3D-like phase separation by varying t and interaction strength which changes the pair binding energy ɛB. We find a universal scaling of the dimensional crossover with t /ɛB , in agreement with previous theory. The crossover region is believed to be the most promising to find the exotic FFLO superfluid phase. Supported by the NSF and the Welch Foundation.
O'keefe, J A; Lowman, P D; Dunning, K L
1962-07-20
Spectroscopic analysis of light produced by electrodeless discharge in a tektite bubble showed the main gases in the bubble to be neon, helium, and oxygen. The neon and helium have probably diffused in from the atmosphere, while the oxygen may be atmospheric gas incorporated in the tektite during its formation.
Likas, C; Exarchou, V; Gourgoulianis, K; Giaglaras, P; Gemptos, T; Kittas, K; Molyvdas, P A
2001-01-01
The concentration of NO(2) and SO(2) was measured in a commercial greenhouse from 23/9/1999 25/01/2000. The measurements showed that the level of the two gases is very high in the greenhouse atmosphere. Lung function tests in 42 workers showed that temporary work did not influence significantly the respiratory health status. PMID:11426932
O'keefe, J A; Lowman, P D; Dunning, K L
1962-07-20
Spectroscopic analysis of light produced by electrodeless discharge in a tektite bubble showed the main gases in the bubble to be neon, helium, and oxygen. The neon and helium have probably diffused in from the atmosphere, while the oxygen may be atmospheric gas incorporated in the tektite during its formation. PMID:17801113
Nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation of hot magnons
Vannucchi, Fabio Stucchi; Vasconcellos, Aurea Rosas; Luzzi, Roberto
2010-10-01
We present an analysis of the emergence of a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein-type condensation of magnons in radio-frequency pumped magnetic thin films, which has recently been experimentally observed. A complete description of all the nonequilibrium processes involved is given. It is demonstrated that the phenomenon is another example of the emergence of Bose-Einstein-type condensation in nonequilibrium many-boson systems embedded in a thermal bath, a phenomenon evidenced decades ago by the renowned late Herbert Froehlich.
Soliton Creation During a Bose-Einstein Condensation
Damski, Bogdan; Zurek, Wojciech H.
2010-04-23
We use the stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation to study dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation. We show that cooling into a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) can create solitons with density given by the cooling rate and by the critical exponents of the transition. Thus, counting solitons left in its wake should allow one to determine the critical exponents z and {nu} for a BEC phase transition. The same information can be extracted from two-point correlation functions.
Phase separation of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
Liu, Zuhan
2009-10-15
Recently, coupled systems of nonlinear Schroedinger equations have been used extensively to describe mixtures Bose-Einstein condensates. In this paper, we study the distribution of two different hyperfine spin states of a binary mixture of three dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates. In a double condensate, an interface may occur due to large intraspecies and interspecies scattering lengths. We prove that there is an asymptotic separation of different phases in the strong coupling (Thomas-Fermi) limit.
The shear viscosity of a trapped Bose-condensed gas
Shahzamanian, M.A.; Yavary, H. . E-mail: hs_yavary@yahoo.com
2006-05-15
By obtaining Kubo formula type and using nonequilibrium Green's functions, we calculate the shear viscosity of a trapped Bose-condensed gas below and above the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature (T {sub BEC}). The contributions of the interactions between condensate and noncondensate atoms and between noncondensate atoms take into account to the viscous relaxation time, by evaluating second order self-energies in Beliaev approximation.
A Deconstruction Lattice Description of the D1/D5 Brane World-Volume Gauge Theory
Giedt, Joel
2011-01-01
I genermore » alize the deconstruction lattice formulation of Endres and Kaplan to two-dimensional super-QCD with eight supercharges, denoted by (4,4), and bifundamental matter. I specialize to a particularly interesting (4,4) gauge theory, with gauge group U ( N c ) × U ( N f ) , and U ( N f ) being weakly gauged. It describes the infrared limit of the D1/D5 brane system, which has been studied extensively as an example of the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence. The construction here preserves two supercharges exactly and has a lattice structure quite similar to that which has previously appeared in the deconstruction approach, that is, site, link, and diagonal fields with both the Bose and Fermi statistics. I remark on possible applications of the lattice theory that would test the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence, particularly one that would exploit the recent worldsheet instanton analysis of Chen and Tong.« less
Quantum Dynamics of Ultracold Bose Polarons.
Shchadilova, Yulia E; Schmidt, Richard; Grusdt, Fabian; Demler, Eugene
2016-09-01
We analyze the dynamics of Bose polarons in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance between the impurity and host atoms. We compute the radio-frequency absorption spectra for the case when the initial state of the impurity is noninteracting and the final state is strongly interacting with the host atoms. We compare results of different theoretical approaches including a single excitation expansion, a self-consistent T-matrix method, and a time-dependent coherent state approach. Our analysis reveals sharp spectral features arising from metastable states with several Bogoliubov excitations bound to the impurity atom. This surprising result of the interplay of many-body and few-body Efimov type bound state physics can only be obtained by going beyond the commonly used Fröhlich model and including quasiparticle scattering processes. Close to the resonance we find that strong fluctuations lead to a broad, incoherent absorption spectrum where no quasiparticle peak can be assigned. PMID:27661684
Bose Condensation at He-4 Interfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Draeger, E. W.; Ceperley, D. M.
2003-01-01
Path Integral Monte Carlo was used to calculate the Bose-Einstein condensate fraction at the surface of a helium film at T = 0:77 K, as a function of density. Moving from the center of the slab to the surface, the condensate fraction was found to initially increase with decreasing density to a maximum value of 0.9, before decreasing. Long wavelength density correlations were observed in the static structure factor at the surface of the slab. A surface dispersion relation was calculated from imaginary-time density-density correlations. Similar calculations of the superfluid density throughout He-4 droplets doped with linear impurities (HCN)(sub n) are presented. After deriving a local estimator for the superfluid density distribution, we find a decreased superfluid response in the first solvation layer. This effective normal fluid exhibits temperature dependence similar to that of a two-dimensional helium system.
Coupling a Bose condensate to micromechanical oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kemp, Chandler; Fox, Eli; Flanz, Scott; Vengalattore, Mukund
2011-05-01
We describe the construction of a compact apparatus to investigate the interaction of a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate and a micromechanical oscillator. The apparatus uses a double magneto-optical trap, Raman sideband cooling, and evaporative cooling to rapidly produce a 87Rb BEC in close proximity to a high Q membrane. The micromotion of the membrane results in small Zeeman shifts at the location of the BEC due to a magnetic domain attached to the oscillator. Detection of this micromotion by the condensate results in a backaction on the membrane. We investigate prospects of using this backaction to generate nonclassical states of the mechanical oscillator. This work was funded by the DARPA ORCHID program.
Clock shifts in the Unitary Bose Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fletcher, Richard; Man, Jay; Lopes, Raphael; Navon, Nir; Smith, Robert; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2016-05-01
Clock shifts are interaction-induced changes in the transition frequency between atomic spin states. So-called because of their importance as systematic errors in atomic clocks, they reveal details of both the interaction energy within a gas and the particle correlations. In this work, we employ a RF-injection technique to rapidly project a thermal Bose gas into the unitary regime on a timescale much shorter than three-body losses. Working with a two-state system, one of which exhibits strong intrastate interactions, we carry out Ramsey spectroscopy to extract the variation in the clock shift across a Feshbach resonance. Thanks to the relationship between these shifts and particle correlations, we use our measurements to infer the contact as a function of both interaction strength and degeneracy. This quantity plays a central role in the many-body physics of strongly correlated systems, offering a link between few-body and thermodynamic behaviour.
Study of superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laurent, Sebastien; Delehaye, Marion; Jin, Shuwei; Pierce, Matthieu; Yefsah, Tarik; Chevy, Frederic; Salomon, Christophe
2016-05-01
Using fermionic and bosonic isotopes of lithium we produce and study ultracold Bose-Fermi mixtures. First in a low temperature counterflow experiment, we measure the critical velocity of the system in the BEC-BCS crossover. Around unitarity, we observe a remarkably high superfluid critical velocity which reaches the sound velocity of the strongly interacting Fermi gas. Second, when we increase the temperature of the system slightly above the superfluid transitions we observe an unexpected phase locking of the oscillations of the clouds induced by dissipation. Finally, as suggested in, we explore the nature of the superfluid phase when we impose a spin polarization in the situation where the mean field potential created by the bosons on the fermions tends to cancel out the trapping potential of the latter.
Quantum Dynamics of Ultracold Bose Polarons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shchadilova, Yulia E.; Schmidt, Richard; Grusdt, Fabian; Demler, Eugene
2016-09-01
We analyze the dynamics of Bose polarons in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance between the impurity and host atoms. We compute the radio-frequency absorption spectra for the case when the initial state of the impurity is noninteracting and the final state is strongly interacting with the host atoms. We compare results of different theoretical approaches including a single excitation expansion, a self-consistent T -matrix method, and a time-dependent coherent state approach. Our analysis reveals sharp spectral features arising from metastable states with several Bogoliubov excitations bound to the impurity atom. This surprising result of the interplay of many-body and few-body Efimov type bound state physics can only be obtained by going beyond the commonly used Fröhlich model and including quasiparticle scattering processes. Close to the resonance we find that strong fluctuations lead to a broad, incoherent absorption spectrum where no quasiparticle peak can be assigned.
Klein factors and Fermi-Bose equivalence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Taejin
2016-06-01
Generalizing the kink operator of the Heisenberg spin 1/2 model, we construct a set of Klein factors explicitly such that (1+1)-dimensional fermion theories with an arbitrary number of species are mapped onto the corresponding boson theories with the same number of species and vice versa. The actions for the resultant theories do not possess a nontrivial Klein factor. With this set of Klein factors, we are also able to map the simple boundary states, such as the Neumann and the Dirichlet boundary states, of the fermion (boson) theory onto those of the boson (fermion) theory. Applications of the Fermi-Bose equivalence with the constructed Klein factors to well-known (1+1)-dimensional theories have been discussed.
Nonlinear interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates
Tacla, Alexandre B.; Boixo, Sergio; Datta, Animesh; Shaji, Anil; Caves, Carlton M.
2010-11-15
We analyze a proposed experiment [Boixo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 040403 (2008)] for achieving sensitivity scaling better than 1/N in a nonlinear Ramsey interferometer that uses a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of N atoms. We present numerical simulations that confirm the analytical predictions for the effect of the spreading of the BEC ground-state wave function on the ideal 1/N{sup 3/2} scaling. Numerical integration of the coupled, time-dependent, two-mode Gross-Pitaevskii equations allows us to study the several simplifying assumptions made in the initial analytic study of the proposal and to explore when they can be justified. In particular, we find that the two modes share the same spatial wave function for a length of time that is sufficient to run the metrology scheme.
Hu Ying; Liang Zhaoxin; Hu Bambi
2010-05-15
We investigate the combined effects of weak disorder and a two-dimensional (2D) optical lattice on the collective excitations of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at zero temperature. Accordingly, we generalize the hydrodynamic equations of superfluid for a weakly interacting Bose gas in a 2D optical lattice to include the effects of weak disorder. Our analytical results for the collective frequencies beyond the mean-field approximation reveal the peculiar role of disorder, interplaying with the 2D optical lattice and interatomic interaction, on elementary excitations along the 3D to 1D crossover. In particular, consequences of disorder on the phonon propagation and surface modes are analyzed in detail. The experimental scenario is also proposed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
The theory, developed in the nineteenth century, notably by Rudolf Clausius (1822-88) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79), that the properties of a gas (temperature, pressure, etc) could be described in terms of the motions (and kinetic energy) of the molecules comprising the gases. The theory has wide implications in astrophysics. In particular, the perfect gas law, which relates the pressure, vol...
Terrill, J B; Montgomery, R R; Reinhardt, C F
1978-06-23
The major lethal factors in uncontrolled fires are toxic gases, heat, and oxygen deficiency. The predominant toxic gas is carbon monoxide, which is readily generated from the combusion of wood and other cellulosic materials. Increasing use of a variety of synthetic polymers has stimulated interest in screening tests to evaluated the toxicity of polymeric materials when thermally decomposed. As yet, this country lacks a standardized fire toxicity test protocol. PMID:208143
Weinshank, R L; Zgombick, J M; Macchi, M J; Branchek, T A; Hartig, P R
1992-01-01
The serotonin 1D (5-HT1D) receptor is a pharmacologically defined binding site and functional receptor site. Observed variations in the properties of 5-HT1D receptors in different tissues have led to the speculation that multiple receptor proteins with slightly different properties may exist. We report here the cloning, deduced amino acid sequences, pharmacological properties, and second-messenger coupling of a pair of human 5-HT1D receptor genes, which we have designated 5-HT1D alpha and 5-HT1D beta due to their strong similarities in sequence, pharmacological properties, and second-messenger coupling. Both genes are free of introns in their coding regions, are expressed in the human cerebral cortex, and can couple to inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. The pharmacological binding properties of these two human receptors are very similar, and match closely the pharmacological properties of human, bovine, and guinea pig 5-HT1D sites. Both receptors exhibit high-affinity binding of sumatriptan, a new anti-migraine medication, and thus are candidates for the pharmacological site of action of this drug. Images PMID:1565658
Exotic vortex lattices in a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wen, Lin; Dai, Cai-Qing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2016-01-01
In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases. PMID:26778736
Exotic vortex lattices in a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate.
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wen, Lin; Dai, Cai-Qing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2016-01-01
In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases. PMID:26778736
Exotic vortex lattices in a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wen, Lin; Dai, Cai-Qing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2016-01-01
In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases.
Exotic vortex lattices in a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate.
Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wen, Lin; Dai, Cai-Qing; Dong, Rui-Fang; Jiang, Hai-Feng; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Shou-Gang
2016-01-18
In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases.
Particle Correlations in Bose-Einstein Condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Zhang
The impact of interparticle correlations on the behavior of Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs) is discussed using two approaches. In the first approach, the wavefunction of a BEC is encoded in the N-particle sector of an extended "catalytic state". Going to a time-dependent interaction picture, we can organize the effective Hamiltonian by powers of N -1/2 . Requiring the terms of order N 1/2 to vanish, we get the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation. Going to the next order, N0, we obtain the number-conserving Bogoliubov approximation. Our approach allows one to stay in the Schrodinger picture and to apply many techniques from quantum optics. Moreover, it is easier to track different orders in the Hamiltonian and to generalize to the multi-component case. In the second approach, I consider a state of N = l x n bosons that is derived by symmetrizing the n-fold tensor product of an arbitrary l-boson state. Particularly, we are interested in the pure state case for l = 2, which we call the Pair-Correlated State (PCS). I show that PCS reproduces the number-conserving Bogoliubov approximation; moreover, it also works in the strong interaction regime where the Bogoliubov approximation fails. For the two-site Bose-Hubbard model, I find numerically that the error (measured by trace distance of the two-particle RDMs) of PCS is less than two percent over the entire parameter space, thus making PCS a bridge between the super uid and Mott insulating phases. Amazingly, the error of PCS does not increase, in the time-dependent case, as the system evolves for longer times. I derive both time-dependent and -independent equations for the ground state and the time evolution of the PCS ansatz. The time complexity of simulating PCS does not depend on N and is linear in the number of orbitals in use. Compared to other methods, e.g, the Jastrow wavefunction, the Gutzwiller wavefunction, and the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method, our approach does not require quantum Monte Carlo nor
Matter wave switching in Bose-Einstein condensates via intensity redistribution soliton interactions
Rajendran, S.; Lakshmanan, M.; Muruganandam, P.
2011-02-15
Using time dependent nonlinear (s-wave scattering length) coupling between the components of a weakly interacting two component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), we show the possibility of matter wave switching (fraction of atoms transfer) between the components via shape changing/intensity redistribution (matter redistribution) soliton interactions. We investigate the exact bright-bright N-soliton solution of an effective one-dimensional (1D) two component BEC by suitably tailoring the trap potential, atomic scattering length, and atom gain or loss. In particular, we show that the effective 1D coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations with time dependent parameters can be transformed into the well known completely integrable Manakov model described by coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations by effecting a change of variables of the coordinates and the wave functions under certain conditions related to the time dependent parameters. We obtain the one-soliton solution and demonstrate the shape changing/matter redistribution interactions of two and three-soliton solutions for the time-independent expulsive harmonic trap potential, periodically modulated harmonic trap potential, and kinklike modulated harmonic trap potential. The standard elastic collision of solitons occur only for a specific choice of soliton parameters.
Brady 1D seismic velocity model ambient noise prelim
Mellors, Robert J.
2013-10-25
Preliminary 1D seismic velocity model derived from ambient noise correlation. 28 Green's functions filtered between 4-10 Hz for Vp, Vs, and Qs were calculated. 1D model estimated for each path. The final model is a median of the individual models. Resolution is best for the top 1 km. Poorly constrained with increasing depth.
Equilibration of quantum gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farrelly, Terry
2016-07-01
Finding equilibration times is a major unsolved problem in physics with few analytical results. Here we look at equilibration times for quantum gases of bosons and fermions in the regime of negligibly weak interactions, a setting which not only includes paradigmatic systems such as gases confined to boxes, but also Luttinger liquids and the free superfluid Hubbard model. To do this, we focus on two classes of measurements: (i) coarse-grained observables, such as the number of particles in a region of space, and (ii) few-mode measurements, such as phase correlators. We show that, in this setting, equilibration occurs quite generally despite the fact that the particles are not interacting. Furthermore, for coarse-grained measurements the timescale is generally at most polynomial in the number of particles N, which is much faster than previous general upper bounds, which were exponential in N. For local measurements on lattice systems, the timescale is typically linear in the number of lattice sites. In fact, for one-dimensional lattices, the scaling is generally linear in the length of the lattice, which is optimal. Additionally, we look at a few specific examples, one of which consists of N fermions initially confined on one side of a partition in a box. The partition is removed and the fermions equilibrate extremely quickly in time O(1/N).
Ultracold Fermi gases with emergent SU(N) symmetry.
Cazalilla, Miguel A; Rey, Ana Maria
2014-12-01
We review recent experimental and theoretical progress on ultracold alkaline-earth Fermi gases with emergent SU(N) symmetry. Emphasis is placed on describing the ground-breaking experimental achievements of recent years. The latter include (1) the cooling to below quantum degeneracy of various isotopes of ytterbium and strontium, (2) the demonstration of optical Feshbach resonances and the optical Stern-Gerlach effect, (3) the realization of a Mott insulator of (173)Yb atoms, (4) the creation of various kinds of Fermi-Bose mixtures and (5) the observation of many-body physics in optical lattice clocks. On the theory side, we survey the zoo of phases that have been predicted for both gases in a trap and loaded into an optical lattice, focusing on two and three dimensional systems. We also discuss some of the challenges that lie ahead for the realization of such phases such as reaching the temperature scale required to observe magnetic and more exotic quantum orders. The challenge of dealing with collisional relaxation of excited electronic levels is also discussed. PMID:25429615
Ultracold Fermi gases with emergent SU(N) symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cazalilla, Miguel A.; Rey, Ana Maria
2014-12-01
We review recent experimental and theoretical progress on ultracold alkaline-earth Fermi gases with emergent SU(N) symmetry. Emphasis is placed on describing the ground-breaking experimental achievements of recent years. The latter include (1) the cooling to below quantum degeneracy of various isotopes of ytterbium and strontium, (2) the demonstration of optical Feshbach resonances and the optical Stern-Gerlach effect, (3) the realization of a Mott insulator of 173Yb atoms, (4) the creation of various kinds of Fermi-Bose mixtures and (5) the observation of many-body physics in optical lattice clocks. On the theory side, we survey the zoo of phases that have been predicted for both gases in a trap and loaded into an optical lattice, focusing on two and three dimensional systems. We also discuss some of the challenges that lie ahead for the realization of such phases such as reaching the temperature scale required to observe magnetic and more exotic quantum orders. The challenge of dealing with collisional relaxation of excited electronic levels is also discussed.
Dynamics of uniform quantum gases, I: Density and current correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.; Singh, G. S.
2010-02-01
A unified approach valid for any wavenumber q, frequency ω, and temperature T is presented for uniform ideal quantum gases allowing for a comprehensive study of number density and particle-current density response functions. Exact analytical expressions are obtained for spectral functions in terms of polylogarithms. Also, particle-number and particle-current static susceptibilities are presented which, for fugacity less than unity, additionally involve Kummer functions. The q- and T-dependent transverse-current static susceptibility is used to show explicitly that current correlations are of long range in a Bose-condensed uniform ideal gas but for bosons at T>Tc and for Fermi and Boltzmann gases at all temperatures these correlations are of short range. Contact repulsive interactions for systems of neutral quantum particles are considered within the random phase approximation. The expressions for particle-number and transverse-current susceptibilities are utilized to discuss the existence or nonexistence of superfluidity in the systems under consideration.
Bose condensates with strong anisotropic interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avdeenkov, Alexander; Bohn, John L.; Bortolotti, Daniele C. E.
2004-05-01
We theoretically investigate trapped Bose condensates with strong dipolar interactions, in the presence of an external electrostatic field. As a prototype we consider polar OH molecules. Previously such systems have been studied in the case of a very strong external field that aligns all the dipoles along the field axis[1,2]. Here we relax this assumption and investigate the influence of finite external field, also taking into account the internal fine structure of the molecules. As a first approximation we treat the intermolecular coordinates as adiabatic and construct an effective potential by diagonalizing Stark and dipole-dipole hamiltonians. The anisotropy of these adiabatic surfaces is a function of an external field, and does not always resemble the interaction between polarized dipoles. We discuss the implications of finite electric field on the stability and geometry of the condensate. [1] K.Goral, K.Rzazewski, and T.Pfau, Phys.Rev.A 61, 051601/1(2000) [2] L.Santos, G.V.Shlyapnikov, P.Zoller and M.Lewenstein, Phys.Rev.Lett.85,1791(2000)
Nonlinear phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, Lincoln D.
2008-05-01
We present a medley of results from the last three years on nonlinear phenomena in BECs [1]. These include exact dynamics of multi-component condensates in optical lattices [2], vortices and ring solitons [3], macroscopic quantum tunneling [4], nonlinear band theory [5], and a pulsed atomic soliton laser [6]. 1. Emergent Nonlinear Phenomena in Bose-Einstein Condensates: Theory and Experiment, ed. P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, and R. Carretero-Gonzalez (Springer-Verlag, 2008). 2. R. Mark Bradley, James E. Bernard, and L. D. Carr, e-print arXiv:0711.1896 (2007). 3. G. Herring, L. D. Carr, R. Carretero-Gonzalez, P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, Phys. Rev. A in press, e-print arXiv:0709.2193 (2007); L. D. Carr and C. W. Clark, Phys. Rev. A v. 74, p.043613 (2006); L. D. Carr and C. W. Clark, Phys. Rev. Lett. v. 97, p.010403 (2006). 4. L. D. Carr, M. J. Holland, and B. A. Malomed, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., v.38, p.3217 (2005) 5. B. T. Seaman, L. D. Carr, and M. J. Holland, Phys. Rev. A, v. 71, p.033622 (2005). 6. L. D. Carr and J. Brand, Phys. Rev. A, v.70, p.033607 (2004); L. D. Carr and J. Brand, Phys. Rev. Lett., v.92, p.040401 (2004).
Theory of cold atoms: Bose-Einstein statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yukalov, V. I.
2016-06-01
This tutorial is the continuation of the previous tutorial part, published in (2013 Laser Phys. 23 062001), where the basic mathematical techniques required for an accurate description of cold atoms for both types of quantum statistics are expounded. In the present part, the specifics of the correct theoretical description of atoms obeying Bose-Einstein statistics are explained, including trapped Bose atoms. In the theory of systems exhibiting the phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation, there exists a number of delicate mathematical points, whose misunderstanding often results in principally wrong conclusions. This is why the consideration in the present tutorial is sufficiently detailed in order that the reader could clearly understand the underlying mathematics and would avoid confusions.
Entanglement of two-mode Bose-Einstein condensates
Hines, Andrew P.; McKenzie, Ross H.; Milburn, Gerard J.
2003-01-01
We investigate the entanglement characteristics of two general bimodal Bose-Einstein condensates--a pair of tunnel-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates and the atom-molecule Bose-Einstein condensate. We argue that the entanglement is only physically meaningful if the system is viewed as a bipartite system, where the subsystems are the two modes. The indistinguishibility of the particles in the condensate means that the atomic constituents are physically inaccessible and, thus, the degree of entanglement between individual particles, unlike the entanglement between the modes, is not experimentally relevant so long as the particles remain in the condensed state. We calculate the entanglement between the two modes for the exact ground state of the two bimodal condensates and consider the dynamics of the entanglement in the tunnel-coupled cas000.
Vortex formation in a fast rotating Bose-Einstein condensate
Ghosh, Tarun Kanti
2004-04-01
We study rotational motion of an interacting atomic Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a quadratic-plus-quartic potential. We calculate the lowest energy surface mode frequency and show that a symmetric trapped (harmonic and quartic) Bose-Einstein condensate breaks the rotational symmetry of the Hamiltonian when rotational frequency is greater than one-half of the lowest energy surface mode frequency. We argue that the formation of a vortex is not possible in a noninteracting as well as in an attractive Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a harmonic trap due to the absence of the spontaneous shape deformation, but it can occur which leads to the vortex formation if we add an additional quartic potential. Moreover, the spontaneous shape deformation and consequently the formation of a vortex in an attractive system depends on the strengths of the two-body interaction and the quartic potential.
Probing of the optical properties of Bose-Einstein condensates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vestergaard Hau, Lene
1998-05-01
Interactions between photons and Bose-Einstein condensates are studied experimentally and theoretically. Our goal is to get a detailed understanding of the interactions themselves as well as to develop tools for probing Bose condensates. We routinely create million atom condensates of sodium in the '4D' magnetic bottle by using a combination of laser and evaporative cooling. We have used absorption of near resonant laser light to image condensate wavefunctions directly in the magnetic botttle. The method is sensitive to details of the wavefunction, in particular to the condensate surface. This is of importance, for example, in studies of interactions between condensates and thermal clouds at temperatures close to the transition temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
CotleÅ£, Ovidiu; ZeytinoÇ§lu, Sina; Sigrist, Manfred; Demler, Eugene; ImamoÇ§lu, Ataç
2016-02-01
Interacting Bose-Fermi systems play a central role in condensed matter physics. Here, we analyze a novel Bose-Fermi mixture formed by a cavity exciton-polariton condensate interacting with a two-dimensional electron system. We show that that previous predictions of superconductivity [F. P. Laussy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 106402 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.106402] and excitonic supersolid formation [I. A. Shelykh, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 140402 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.140402] in this system are closely intertwined, resembling the predictions for strongly correlated electron systems such as high-temperature superconductors. In stark contrast to a large majority of Bose-Fermi systems analyzed in solids and ultracold atomic gases, the renormalized interaction between the polaritons and electrons in our system is long-ranged and strongly peaked at a tunable wave vector, which can be rendered incommensurate with the Fermi momentum. We analyze the prospects for experimental observation of superconductivity and find that critical temperatures on the order of a few kelvins can be achieved in heterostructures consisting of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers that are embedded in an open cavity structure. All-optical control of superconductivity in semiconductor heterostructures could enable the realization of new device concepts compatible with semiconductor nanotechnology. In addition the possibility to interface quantum Hall physics, superconductivity, and nonequilibrium polariton condensates is likely to provide fertile ground for investigation of completely new physical phenomena.
Renormalization group analysis of ultracold Fermi gases with two-body attractive interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xiaoyong; Chi, Zimeng; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Zaijun
2016-01-01
We propose a new functional renormalization group (RG) strategy to investigate the many-body physics of interacting ultracold Fermi gases. By mapping the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) action of Fermi gases onto a complex φ4-model, we can obtain the closed flow equation in the one-loop approximation. An analysis of the emerging RG flow gives the ground state behavior. The Hamiltonian of a Fermi gas with a two-body attractive interaction is used as a demonstration to clarify our treatment. The fixed point structure reveals not only the condensation phase transition, but also the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover. The effect of the imaginary time renormalization is also discussed. It is shown that for the dynamical field configuration our RG procedure can reproduce the well known theoretical results of BCS-BEC crossover, while under a static approximation the phase transition takes place at a higher critical temperature.
Non-Conservation of Transverse Magnetization in Spin Diffusion in Trapped Boltzmann Gases
Ragan, R. J.; Mullin, W. J.
2006-09-07
Experiments in a mixture of two hyperfine states of trapped Bose gases show behavior analogous to a spin-1/2 system, including transverse spin waves and other familiar Leggett-Rice-type effects. We have derived the kinetic equations applicable to these systems, including the spin dependence of interparticle interactions in the collision integral. We find that the hydrodynamic diffusive modes cease to exist because interactions with different scattering lengths for up-up, up-down, and down-down spins lead to a spin-spin relaxation, that causes non-conservation of transverse magnetization. We give results for the quadrupole modes, the modes studied in experiments with equal scattering lengths. Instead of a linear dependence on relaxation time {tau} for the diffusive mode, we find a divergence at small {tau}. No such effect occurs in Fermi gases.
Trapped noble gases in meteorites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swindle, Timothy D.
1988-01-01
The trapped noble gases in meteorites come in two main varieties, usually referred to as solar and planetary. The solar noble gases are implanted solar-wind or solar-flare materials, and thus their relative elemental abundances provide a good estimate of those of the sun. The planetary noble gases have relative elemental abundances similar to those in the terrestrial atmosphere, but there are also important distinctions. At least one other elemental pattern (subsolar) and several isotopic patterns have also been identified.
Kunte, Amit; Zhang, Wei; Paduraru, Crina; Veerapen, Natacha; Cox, Liam R.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Cresswell, Peter
2013-01-01
The non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) homologue CD1d presents lipid antigens to innate-like lymphocytes called natural-killer T (NKT) cells. These cells, by virtue of their broad cytokine repertoire, shape innate and adaptive immune responses. Here, we have assessed the role of endoplasmic reticulum glycoprotein quality control in CD1d assembly and function, specifically the role of a key component of the quality control machinery, the enzyme UDP glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGT1). We observe that in UGT1-deficient cells, CD1d associates prematurely with β2-microglobulin (β2m) and is able to rapidly exit the endoplasmic reticulum. At least some of these CD1d-β2m heterodimers are shorter-lived and can be rescued by provision of a defined exogenous antigen, α-galactosylceramide. Importantly, we show that in UGT1-deficient cells the CD1d-β2m heterodimers have altered antigenicity despite the fact that their cell surface levels are unchanged. We propose that UGT1 serves as a quality control checkpoint during CD1d assembly and further suggest that UGT1-mediated quality control can shape the lipid repertoire of newly synthesized CD1d. The quality control process may play a role in ensuring stability of exported CD1d-β2m complexes, in facilitating presentation of low abundance high affinity antigens, or in preventing deleterious responses to self lipids. PMID:23615906
{sup 39}K Bose-Einstein Condensate with Tunable Interactions
Roati, G.; Zaccanti, M.; D'Errico, C.; Catani, J.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.; Modugno, M.; Simoni, A.
2007-07-06
We produce a Bose-Einstein condensate of {sup 39}K atoms. Condensation of this species with a naturally small and negative scattering length is achieved by a combination of sympathetic cooling with {sup 87}Rb and direct evaporation, exploiting the magnetic tuning of both inter- and intraspecies interactions at Feshbach resonances. We explore the tunability of the self-interactions by studying the expansion and the stability of the condensate. We find that a {sup 39}K condensate is interesting for future experiments requiring a weakly-interacting Bose gas.
Quantum and thermal fluctuations of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates
Kruglov, V.I.; Collett, M.J.; Olsen, M.K.
2005-09-15
We quantize a semiclassical system defined by the Hamiltonian obtained from the asymptotic self-similar solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate with a linear gain term. On the basis of a Schroedinger equation derived in a space of ellipsoidal parameters, we analytically calculate the quantum mechanical and thermal variance in the ellipsoidal parameters for Bose-Einstein condensates in various shapes of trap. We show that, except for temperatures close to zero, dimensionless dispersions do not depend on the frequencies of the trap and they have the same dependence on dimensionless temperatures.
Double Species Bose-Einstein Condensate with Tunable Interspecies Interactions
Thalhammer, G.; Barontini, G.; De Sarlo, L.; Catani, J.; Minardi, F.; Inguscio, M.
2008-05-30
We produce Bose-Einstein condensates of two different species, {sup 87}Rb and {sup 41}K, in an optical dipole trap in proximity of interspecies Feshbach resonances. We discover and characterize two Feshbach resonances, located around 35 and 79 G, by observing the three-body losses and the elastic cross section. The narrower resonance is exploited to create a double species condensate with tunable interactions. Our system opens the way to the exploration of double species Mott insulators and, more in general, of the quantum phase diagram of the two-species Bose-Hubbard model.
Role of Bose Statistics in Crystallization and Quantum Jamming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boninsegni, M.; Pollet, L.; Prokof'ev, N.; Svistunov, B.
2012-07-01
The indistinguishability of particles is a crucial factor destabilizing crystalline order in Bose systems. We describe this effect in terms of damped quasiparticle modes and in the dual language of Feynman paths, and illustrate it by first-principles simulations of dipolar bosons and bulk condensed He4. The first major implication is that, contrary to conventional wisdom, zero-point motion alone cannot prevent He4 He crystallization at near zero pressure. Second, Bose statistics leads to quantum jamming at finite temperature, dramatically enhancing the metastability of superfluid glasses. Only studies of indistinguishable particles can reliably address these issues.
Two-mode Bose gas: Beyond classical squeezing
Bodet, C.; Gasenzer, T.; Esteve, J.; Oberthaler, M. K.
2010-06-15
The dynamical evolution of squeezing correlations in an ultracold Bose-Einstein condensate distributed across two modes is investigated theoretically in the framework of the Bose-Hubbard model. It is shown that the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian do not exploit the full region allowed by Heisenberg's uncertainty relation for number and phase fluctuations. The development of nonclassical correlations and relative number squeezing is studied in the transition from the Josephson to the Fock regime. Comparing the full quantum evolution with classical statistical simulations allows us to identify quantum aspects of the squeezing formation. In the quantum regime, the measurement of squeezing allows us to distinguish even and odd total particle numbers.
Modeling Bose-Einstein correlations via elementary emitting cells
Utyuzh, Oleg; Wilk, Grzegorz; Wlodarczyk, Zbigniew
2007-04-01
We propose a method of numerical modeling Bose-Einstein correlations by using the notion of the elementary emitting cell (EEC). They are intermediary objects containing identical bosons and are supposed to be produced independently during the hadronization process. Only bosons in the EEC, which represents a single quantum state here, are subjected to the effects of Bose-Einstein (BE) statistics, which forces them to follow a geometrical distribution. There are no such effects between particles from different EECs. We illustrate our proposition by calculating a representative number of typical distributions and discussing their sensitivity to EECs and their characteristics.
From fractional exclusion statistics back to Bose and Fermi distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anghel, Dragoş-Victor
2013-12-01
Fractional exclusion statistics (FES) is a generalization of the Bose and Fermi statistics. Typically, systems of interacting particles are described as ideal FES systems and the properties of the FES systems are calculated from the properties of the interacting systems. In this Letter I reverse the process and I show that a FES system may be described in general as a gas of quasiparticles which obey Bose or Fermi distributions; the energies of the newly defined quasiparticles are calculated starting from the FES equations for the equilibrium particle distribution. In the end I use a system in the effective mass approximation as an example to show how the procedure works.
Impurities in Bose-Einstein Condensates: From Polaron to Soliton.
Shadkhoo, Shahriar; Bruinsma, Robijn
2015-09-25
We propose that impurities in a Bose-Einstein condensate which is coupled to a transversely laser-pumped multimode cavity form an experimentally accessible and analytically tractable model system for the study of impurities solvated in correlated liquids and the breakdown of linear-response theory [corrected]. As the strength of the coupling constant between the impurity and the Bose-Einstein condensate is increased, which is possible through Feshbach resonance methods, the impurity passes from a large to a small polaron state, and then to an impurity-soliton state. This last transition marks the breakdown of linear-response theory.
Space-time curvature signatures in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matos, Tonatiuh; Gomez, Eduardo
2015-05-01
We derive a generalized Gross-Pitaevski (GP) equation for a Bose Einstein Condensate (BEC) immersed in a weak gravitational field starting from the covariant Complex Klein-Gordon field in a curved space-time. We compare it with the traditional GP equation where the gravitational field is added by hand as an external potential. We show that there is a small difference of order gz/c2 between them that could be measured in the future using Bose-Einstein Condensates. This represents the next order correction to the Newtonian gravity in a curved space-time.
Noise thermometry with two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates.
Gati, Rudolf; Hemmerling, Börge; Fölling, Jonas; Albiez, Michael; Oberthaler, Markus K
2006-04-01
Here we report on the experimental investigation of thermally induced fluctuations of the relative phase between two Bose-Einstein condensates which are coupled via tunneling. The experimental control over the coupling strength and the temperature of the thermal background allows for the quantitative analysis of the phase fluctuations. Furthermore, we demonstrate the application of these measurements for thermometry in a regime where standard methods fail. With this we confirm that the heat capacity of an ideal Bose gas deviates from that of a classical gas as predicted by the third law of thermodynamics. PMID:16711972
Condensation and magnetization of the relativistic Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elmfors, Per; Liljenberg, Per; Persson, David; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture
1995-02-01
We show that the relativistic charged scalar boson gas exhibits a genuine Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect of the Schafroth form at fixed supercritical density. As in the well-known non-relativistic case, this total expulsion of a magnetic field is caused by the condensation of the Bose gas at vanishing magnetic field. In the course of these considerations, we present alternative proofs of the absence of Bose-Einstein condensation of a relativistic scalar boson gas, in any finite local magnetic field in less than five dimensions. The results are discussed in the context of kaon condensation in neutron stars.
Degenerate Bose-Fermi mixtures of rubidium and ytterbium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiamsuphat, Jiraphat; Vaidya, Varun; Rolston, Steven; Porto, James
2016-05-01
We report the realization of a quantum degenerate mixture of bosonic 87 Rb and fermionic 171 Yb atoms in a hybrid optical dipole trap with a tunable, species-dependent trapping potential. 87 Rb is shown to be a viable refrigerant for the non-interacting 171 Yb atoms, cooling up to 2. 4 × 105 Yb atoms to a temperature of T/ TF = 0.16(2) while simultaneously forming a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate of 3. 5 × 105 atoms. Furthermore we demonstrate our ability to independently tailor the potentials for each species, which paves the way for studying impurities immersed in a Bose gas.
Classical fields method for a relativistic interacting Bose gas
Witkowska, Emilia; Zin, Pawel; Gajda, Mariusz
2009-01-15
We formulate a classical fields method for the description of relativistic interacting bosonic particles at nonzero temperatures. The method relies on the assumption that at low temperatures the Bose field can be described by a c-number function. We discuss a very important role of the cutoff momentum which divides the field into a dominant classical part and a small quantum correction. We illustrate the method by studying the thermodynamics of a relativistic Bose field which is governed by the Klein-Gordon equation with a {lambda}{psi}{sup 4} term responsible for the interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berman, Oleg L.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.
2016-06-01
The high-temperature superfluidity of two-dimensional dipolar excitons in two parallel transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) layers is predicted. We study Bose-Einstein condensation in the two-component system of dipolar A and B excitons. The effective mass, energy spectrum of the collective excitations, the sound velocity, and critical temperature are obtained for different TMDC materials. It is shown that in the Bogoliubov approximation, the sound velocity in the two-component dilute exciton Bose gas is always larger than in any one-component exciton system. The difference between the sound velocities for two-component and one-component dilute gases is caused by the fact that the sound velocity for a two-component system depends on the reduced mass of A and B excitons, which is always smaller than the individual mass of A or B exciton. Due to this fact, the critical temperature Tc for superfluidity for the two-component exciton system in a TMDC bilayer is about one order of magnitude higher than Tc in any one-component exciton system. We propose to observe the superfluidity of two-dimensional dipolar excitons in two parallel TMDC layers, which causes two opposite superconducting currents in each TMDC layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Jian-Song; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Wei Yi Team; Wei Zhang Team
2016-05-01
In a recent experiment by Wu et al., a Raman-induced two-dimensional spin-orbit coupling has been realized for a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice potential. In light of this exciting progress, we investigate key properties of the system including single-particle spectrum, many-body phase diagram, and quasi-particle excitations. As the lasers generating the spin-orbit coupling inevitably couple atoms to high-lying bands, all of these properties can be greatly affected. In particular, we show that high-band induced ``roton'' gaps emerge in the quasi-particle excitation spectrum, which become softened as the system approaches the stripe phase. We also calculate the topological invariants of the lowest bands in both the single-particle and the quasi-particle spectra, from which high-band induced topological boundaries are identified. These non-trivial band topologies can give rise to topological transitions in Fermi systems or to chiral edge excitations in Bose gases. Our results can be readily observed in current experiments and provide valuable insights that are helpful for future exploration of this novel two-dimensional lattice spin-orbit coupling.
Liu, Xia-Ji Hu, Hui
2014-12-15
We theoretically investigate first and second sound of a two-dimensional (2D) atomic Bose gas in harmonic traps by solving Landau’s two-fluid hydrodynamic equations. For an isotropic trap, we find that first and second sound modes become degenerate at certain temperatures and exhibit typical avoided crossings in mode frequencies. At these temperatures, second sound has significant density fluctuation due to its hybridization with first sound and has a divergent mode frequency towards the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless (BKT) transition. For a highly anisotropic trap, we derive the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamic equations and discuss the sound-wave propagation along the weakly confined direction. Due to the universal jump of the superfluid density inherent to the BKT transition, we show that the first sound velocity exhibits a kink across the transition. These predictions might be readily examined in current experimental setups for 2D dilute Bose gases with a sufficiently large number of atoms, where the finite-size effect due to harmonic traps is relatively weak.
Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko
2014-10-01
Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos
Beau, Mathieu; Savoie, Baptiste
2014-05-15
In this paper, we rigorously investigate the reduced density matrix (RDM) associated to the ideal Bose gas in harmonic traps. We present a method based on a sum-decomposition of the RDM allowing to treat not only the isotropic trap, but also general anisotropic traps. When focusing on the isotropic trap, the method is analogous to the loop-gas approach developed by Mullin [“The loop-gas approach to Bose-Einstein condensation for trapped particles,” Am. J. Phys. 68(2), 120 (2000)]. Turning to the case of anisotropic traps, we examine the RDM for some anisotropic trap models corresponding to some quasi-1D and quasi-2D regimes. For such models, we bring out an additional contribution in the local density of particles which arises from the mesoscopic loops. The close connection with the occurrence of generalized-Bose-Einstein condensation is discussed. Our loop-gas-like approach provides relevant information which can help guide numerical investigations on highly anisotropic systems based on the Path Integral Monte Carlo method.
Superfluidity of Bose—Einstein condensates in ultracold atomic gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Qi-Zhong; Wu, Biao
2015-05-01
Liquid helium 4 had been the only bosonic superfluid available in experiments for a long time. This situation was changed in 1995, when a new superfluid was born with the realization of the Bose-Einstein condensation in ultracold atomic gases. The liquid helium 4 is strongly interacting and has no spin; there is almost no way to change its parameters, such as interaction strength and density. The new superfluid, Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), offers various advantages over liquid helium. On the one hand, BEC is weakly interacting and has spin degrees of freedom. On the other hand, it is convenient to tune almost all the parameters of a BEC, for example, the kinetic energy by spin-orbit coupling, the density by the external potential, and the interaction by Feshbach resonance. Great efforts have been devoted to studying these new aspects, and the results have greatly enriched our understanding of superfluidity. Here we review these developments by focusing on the stability and critical velocity of various superfluids. The BEC systems considered include a uniform superfluid in free space, a superfluid with its density periodically modulated, a superfluid with artificially engineered spin-orbit coupling, and a superfluid of pure spin current. Due to the weak interaction, these BEC systems can be well described by the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii theory and their superfluidity, in particular critical velocities, can be examined with the aid of Bogoliubov excitations. Experimental proposals to observe these new aspects of superfluidity are discussed. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB921903 and 2012CB921300) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274024, 11334001, and 11429402).
D1/D5 dopamine receptors modulate spatial memory formation.
da Silva, Weber C N; Köhler, Cristiano C; Radiske, Andressa; Cammarota, Martín
2012-02-01
We investigated the effect of the intra-CA1 administration of the D1/D5 receptor antagonist SCH23390 and the D1/D5 receptor agonist SKF38393 on spatial memory in the water maze. When given immediately, but not 3h after training, SCH23390 hindered long-term spatial memory formation without affecting non-spatial memory or the normal functionality of the hippocampus. On the contrary, post-training infusion of SKF38393 enhanced retention and facilitated the spontaneous recovery of the original spatial preference after reversal learning. Our findings demonstrate that hippocampal D1/D5 receptors play an essential role in spatial memory processing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehedi Faruk, Mir; Sazzad Hossain, Md.; Muktadir Rahman, Md.
2016-02-01
The changes in characteristics of Bose condensation of ideal Bose gas due to an external generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1dci\\vert xi/ai\\vertni are studied carefully. Detailed calculation of Kim et al. (J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11 (1999) 10269) yielded the hierarchy of condensation transitions with changing fractional dimensionality. In this manuscript, some theorems regarding specific heat at constant volume CV are presented. Careful examination of these theorems reveal the existence of hidden hierarchy of the condensation transition in trapped systems as well.
Cornell, Eric A; Wieman, Carl E
2002-06-17
Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute gases offer a rich field to study fundamental quantum-mechanical processes, manipulation of the speed at which light propogates, observation of atomic pair-formation and superfluidity, or even simulating white dwarf stars. Still more radical applications are on the horizon. However, their initial creation was a masterpiece of experimental physics. After an initial process of laser cooling (which itself won its developers the 1997 Nobel Prize), atoms in a magnetic-optical trap must be safely transferred into a purely magnetic trap, where the condensation process begins at 170 nK and 20 nK a pure condensate of 2000 atoms could be created. More astonishingly, Wieman and Cornell showed these low temperatures could be achieved in "bench scale" equipment rather than the massive pieces normally demanded by cryoscience. For their 1995 discovery of this new state of matter, they were awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics. PMID:12465486
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, A.; Anderson, N.; Phillips, W. D.; Eckel, S.; Campbell, G. K.; Stringari, S.
2016-02-01
The Doppler effect, the shift in the frequency of sound due to motion, is present in both classical gases and quantum superfluids. Here, we perform an in situ, minimally destructive measurement, of the persistent current in a ring-shaped, superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate using the Doppler effect. Phonon modes generated in this condensate have their frequencies Doppler shifted by a persistent current. This frequency shift will cause a standing-wave phonon mode to be ‘dragged’ along with the persistent current. By measuring this precession, one can extract the background flow velocity. This technique will find utility in experiments where the winding number is important, such as in emerging ‘atomtronic’ devices.
Cornell, Eric A; Wieman, Carl E
2002-06-17
Bose-Einstein condensates of dilute gases offer a rich field to study fundamental quantum-mechanical processes, manipulation of the speed at which light propogates, observation of atomic pair-formation and superfluidity, or even simulating white dwarf stars. Still more radical applications are on the horizon. However, their initial creation was a masterpiece of experimental physics. After an initial process of laser cooling (which itself won its developers the 1997 Nobel Prize), atoms in a magnetic-optical trap must be safely transferred into a purely magnetic trap, where the condensation process begins at 170 nK and 20 nK a pure condensate of 2000 atoms could be created. More astonishingly, Wieman and Cornell showed these low temperatures could be achieved in "bench scale" equipment rather than the massive pieces normally demanded by cryoscience. For their 1995 discovery of this new state of matter, they were awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Nonlinear Phenomena in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, Lincoln D.
2008-03-01
We present a medley of results from the last three years on nonlinear phenomena in BECs [1]. These include exact dynamics of multi-component condensates in optical lattices [2], vortices and ring solitons [3], macroscopic quantum tunneling [4], nonlinear band theory [5], and a pulsed atomic soliton laser [6]. 1. Emergent Nonlinear Phenomena in Bose-Einstein Condensates: Theory and Experiment, ed. P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, and R. Carretero-Gonzalez (Springer-Verlag, to appear, 2008) -- see L. D. Carr and Joachim Brand, e-print arXiv:0705.1139 (2007); Joachim Brand, L. D. Carr, B. P. Anderson, e-print arXiv:0705.1341 (2007). 2. R. Mark Bradley, James E. Bernard, and L. D. Carr, e-print arXiv:0711.1896 (2007). 3. G. Herring, L. D. Carr, R. Carretero-Gonzalez, P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, e-print arXiv:0709.2193 (2007); L. D. Carr and C. W. Clark, Phys. Rev. A v. 74, p.043613 (2006); L. D. Carr and C. W. Clark, Phys. Rev. Lett. v. 97, p.010403 (2006). 4. L. D. Carr, M. J. Holland, and B. A. Malomed, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., v.38, p.3217 (2005) 5. B. T. Seaman, L. D. Carr, and M. J. Holland, Phys. Rev. A, v. 71, p.033622 (2005). 6. L. D. Carr and J. Brand, Phys. Rev. A, v.70, p.033607 (2004); L. D. Carr and J. Brand, Phys. Rev. Lett., v.92, p.040401 (2004).
Precision measurements of momentum distribution of Tonks-Girardeau gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Joshua M.; Xia, Lin; Xu, Wei; Malvania, Neel; Zundel, Laura A.; Rigol, Marcos; Weiss, David S.
2016-05-01
We report on precision measurements of the momentum distributions of 1D Bose gases over a range of initial temperatures and coupling strengths. We compare our results with unbiased quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We use the comparison with theory to understand the nature of the adiabatic loading from a Bose-Einstein Condensate in 3D to an array of 1D tubes.
Ultralong-range Molecules in Strontium Rydberg Gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Killian, Thomas
2016-05-01
Alkaline-earth metal atoms are attracting increased attention for studies of ultracold Rydberg gases because of new opportunities created by strong core transitions accessible with visible light and the presence of excited triplet states. We have created and characterized ultralong-range Sr2 molecules formed from one ground-state 5 s21 S0 atom and one atom in a 5sns 3 S1 Rydberg state. Molecules are formed in a trapped ultracold atomic gas using two-photon excitation, near resonance with the 5s5p 3 P1 intermediate state. Spectra for both a thermal gas and a Bose-Einstein condensate have been studied, and highly structured vibrational spectra are obtained for molecular dimers, trimers, and tetramers. Measured lifetimes of Rydberg atoms and molecules in dense gases of ground state atoms show that, in marked contrast to earlier measurements involving rubidium Rydberg molecules, the lifetimes of the low-lying molecular vibrational states are very similar to those of the parent Rydberg atoms. This reflects the fact that in strontium there is no p-wave resonance for electron scattering in this energy regime, unlike the situation in rubidium. The absence of a resonance offers advantages for experiments involving strontium Rydberg atoms as impurities in quantum gases and for testing theories of molecular formation and decay. Research supported by the AFOSR under Grant No. FA9550-14-1-0007, the NSF under Grants No. 1301773 and No. 1205946, and the Robert A, Welch Foundation under Grants No. C-0734 and No. C-1844.
A human serotonin 1D receptor variant (5HT1D beta) encoded by an intronless gene on chromosome 6.
Demchyshyn, L; Sunahara, R K; Miller, K; Teitler, M; Hoffman, B J; Kennedy, J L; Seeman, P; Van Tol, H H; Niznik, H B
1992-01-01
An intronless gene encoding a serotonin receptor (5HT1D beta) has been cloned and functionally expressed in mammalian fibroblast cultures. Based on the deduced amino acid sequence, the gene encodes a 390-amino acid protein displaying considerable homology, within putative transmembrane domains (approximately 75% identity) to the canine and human 5HT1D receptors. Membranes prepared from CHO cells stably expressing the receptor bound [3H]serotonin with high affinity (Kd 4 nM) and displayed a pharmacological profile consistent, but not identical, with that of the characterized serotonin 5HT1D receptor. Most notably, metergoline and serotonergic piperazine derivatives, as a group, display 3- to 8-fold lower affinity for the 5HT1D beta receptor than for the 5HT1D receptor, whereas both receptors display similar affinities for tryptamine derivatives, including the antimigraine drug sumatriptan. Northern blot analysis revealed an mRNA of approximately 5.5 kilobases expressed in human and monkey frontal cortex, medulla, striatum, hippocampus and amygdala but not in cerebellum, olfactory tubercle, and pituitary. The 5HT1D beta gene maps to human chromosome 6. The existence of multiple neuronal 5HT1D-like receptors may help account for some of the complexities associated with [3H]serotonin binding patterns in native membranes. Images PMID:1351684
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nightingale, P. D.; Liss, P. S.
2003-12-01
The annual gross and net primary productivity of the surface oceans is similar in size to that on land (IPCC, 2001). Marine productivity drives the cycling of gases such as oxygen (O2), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methyl iodide (CH3I) which are of fundamental importance in studies of marine productivity, biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, climate, and human health, respectively. For example, ˜30% of the world's population (1,570 million) is thought to be at risk of iodine-deficiency disorders that impair mental development (WHO, 1996). The main source of iodine to land is the supply of volatile iodine compounds produced in the ocean and then transferred to the atmosphere via the air-surface interface. The flux of these marine iodine species to the atmosphere is also thought to be important in the oxidation capacity of the troposphere by the production of the iodine oxide radical ( Alicke et al., 1999). A further example is that the net flux of CO2 from the atmosphere to the ocean, ˜1.7±0.5 Gt C yr-1, represents ˜30% of the annual release of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere (IPCC, 2001). This net flux is superimposed on a huge annual flux (90 Gt C yr-1) of CO2 that is cycled "naturally" between the ocean and the atmosphere. The long-term sink for anthropogenic CO2 is recognized as transfer to the ocean from the atmosphere. A final example is the emission of volatile sulfur, in the form of DMS, from the oceans. Not only is an oceanic flux from the oceans needed to balance the loss of sulfur (a bioessential element) from the land via weathering, it has also been proposed as having a major control on climate due to the formation of cloud condensation nuclei (Charlson et al., 1987). Indeed, the existence of DMS and CH3I has been used as evidence in support of the Gaia hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979).There are at least four main processes that affect the concentration of gases in the water column: biological
60. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, D LOOP STEAM GENERATOR AND ...
60. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, D LOOP STEAM GENERATOR AND MAIN COOLANT PUMP LOOKING NORTHEAST (LOCATION OOO) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA
Severe Hypertriglyceridemia in Glut1D on Ketogenic Diet.
Klepper, Joerg; Leiendecker, Baerbel; Heussinger, Nicole; Lausch, Ekkehart; Bosch, Friedrich
2016-04-01
High-fat ketogenic diets are the only treatment available for Glut1 deficiency (Glut1D). Here, we describe an 8-year-old girl with classical Glut1D responsive to a 3:1 ketogenic diet and ethosuximide. After 3 years on the diet a gradual increase of blood lipids was followed by rapid, severe asymptomatic hypertriglyceridemia (1,910 mg/dL). Serum lipid apheresis was required to determine liver, renal, and pancreatic function. A combination of medium chain triglyceride-oil and a reduction of the ketogenic diet to 1:1 ratio normalized triglyceride levels within days but triggered severe myoclonic seizures requiring comedication with sultiam. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in children with Glut1D on ketogenic diets may be underdiagnosed and harmful. In contrast to congenital hypertriglyceridemias, children with Glut1D may be treated effectively by dietary adjustments alone. PMID:26902182
1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications
Hu, Michael Z.
2013-01-01
Jian Wei, Xuchun Song, Chunli Yang, and Michael Z. Hu, 1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications, Journal of Nanomaterials, published special issue (http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/si/197254/) (2013).
Bose-Einstein condensation in a two-component Bose gas with harmonic oscillator interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abulseoud, A. A.; Abbas, A. H.; Galal, A. A.; El-Sherbini, Th M.
2016-07-01
In this article a system containing two species of identical bosons interacting via a harmonic oscillator potential is considered. It is assumed that the number of bosons of each species is the same and that bosons belonging to the same species repel each other while those belonging to different species attract. The Hamiltonian is diagonalized and the energy spectrum of the system is written down. The behaviour of the system in the thermodynamic limit is studied within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble, and thermodynamic parameters, such as the internal energy, entropy and specific heat capacity are calculated. It is shown that the system exhibits a single species Bose-Einstein condensation when the coupling strengths are equal and a dual species condensation when they are different.
TBC1D24 genotype–phenotype correlation
Balestrini, Simona; Milh, Mathieu; Castiglioni, Claudia; Lüthy, Kevin; Finelli, Mattea J.; Verstreken, Patrik; Cardon, Aaron; Stražišar, Barbara Gnidovec; Holder, J. Lloyd; Lesca, Gaetan; Mancardi, Maria M.; Poulat, Anne L.; Repetto, Gabriela M.; Banka, Siddharth; Bilo, Leonilda; Birkeland, Laura E.; Bosch, Friedrich; Brockmann, Knut; Cross, J. Helen; Doummar, Diane; Félix, Temis M.; Giuliano, Fabienne; Hori, Mutsuki; Hüning, Irina; Kayserili, Hulia; Kini, Usha; Lees, Melissa M.; Meenakshi, Girish; Mewasingh, Leena; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Peluso, Silvio; Mey, Antje; Rice, Gregory M.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Taylor, Jenny C.; Troester, Matthew M.; Stanley, Christine M.; Ville, Dorothee; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Falace, Antonio; Fassio, Anna; Lemke, Johannes R.; Biskup, Saskia; Tardif, Jessica; Ajeawung, Norbert F.; Tolun, Aslihan; Corbett, Mark; Gecz, Jozef; Afawi, Zaid; Howell, Katherine B.; Oliver, Karen L.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; de Falco, Fabrizio A.; Oliver, Peter L.; Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico
2016-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in TBC1D24. Methods: We acquired new clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging data of 11 previously unreported and 37 published patients. TBC1D24 mutations, identified through various sequencing methods, can be found online (http://lovd.nl/TBC1D24). Results: Forty-eight patients were included (28 men, 20 women, average age 21 years) from 30 independent families. Eighteen patients (38%) had myoclonic epilepsies. The other patients carried diagnoses of focal (25%), multifocal (2%), generalized (4%), and unclassified epilepsy (6%), and early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (25%). Most patients had drug-resistant epilepsy. We detail EEG, neuroimaging, developmental, and cognitive features, treatment responsiveness, and physical examination. In silico evaluation revealed 7 different highly conserved motifs, with the most common pathogenic mutation located in the first. Neuronal outgrowth assays showed that some TBC1D24 mutations, associated with the most severe TBC1D24-associated disorders, are not necessarily the most disruptive to this gene function. Conclusions: TBC1D24-related epilepsy syndromes show marked phenotypic pleiotropy, with multisystem involvement and severity spectrum ranging from isolated deafness (not studied here), benign myoclonic epilepsy restricted to childhood with complete seizure control and normal intellect, to early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with severe developmental delay and early death. There is no distinct correlation with mutation type or location yet, but patterns are emerging. Given the phenotypic breadth observed, TBC1D24 mutation screening is indicated in a wide variety of epilepsies. A TBC1D24 consortium was formed to develop further research on this gene and its associated phenotypes. PMID:27281533
Entanglement Properties in Two-Component Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Di-You
2016-10-01
We investigate entanglement inseparability and bipartite entanglement of in two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of the nonlinear interatomic interaction, interspecies interaction. Entanglement inseparability and bipartite entanglement have the similar properties. More entanglement can be generated by adjusting the nonlinear interatomic interaction and control the time interval of the entanglement by adjusting interspecies interaction.
Stability analysis for n-component Bose-Einstein condensate
Roberts, David C.; Ueda, Masahito
2006-05-15
We derive the dynamic and thermodynamic stability conditions for dilute multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). These stability conditions, generalized for n-component BECs, are found to be equivalent and are shown to be consistent with the phase diagrams of two- and three-component condensates that are derived from energetic arguments.
Bose-Einstein correlation within the framework of hadronic mechanics
Burande, Chandrakant S.
2015-03-10
The Bose-Einstein correlation is the phenomenon in which protons and antiprotons collide at extremely high energies; coalesce one into the other resulting into the fireball of finite dimension. They annihilate each other and produces large number of mesons that remain correlated at distances very large compared to the size of the fireball. It was believed that Einstein’s special relativity and relativistic quantum mechanics are the valid frameworks to represent this phenomenon. Although, these frameworks are incomplete and require arbitrary parameters (chaoticity) to fit the experimental data which are prohibited by the basic axioms of relativistic quantum mechanics, such as that for the vacuum expectation values. Moreover, correlated mesons can not be treated as a finite set of isolated point-like particles because it is non-local event due to overlapping of wavepackets. Therefore, the Bose-Einstein correlation is incompatible with the axiom of expectation values of quantum mechanics. In contrary, relativistic hadronic mechanics constructed by Santilli allows an exact representation of the experimental data of the Bose-Einstein correlation and restore the validity of the Lorentz and Poincare symmetries under nonlocal and non-Hamiltonian internal effects. Further, F. Cardone and R. Mignani observed that the Bose-Einstein two-point correlation function derived by Santilli is perfectly matched with experimental data at high energy.
Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions.
Tripathi, R K; Townsend, L W
1994-07-01
Using a fully self-consistent quantum statistical model, we demonstrate the possibility of Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions. The most favorable conditions of high densities and low temperatures are usually associated with astrophysical processes and may be difficult to achieve in heavy ion collisions. Nonetheless, some suggestions for the possible experimental verification of the existence of this phenomenon are made.
Correlation functions of one-dimensional Bose-Fermi mixtures
Frahm, Holger; Palacios, Guillaume
2005-12-15
We calculate the asymptotic behavior of correlators as a function of the microscopic parameters for an integrable Bose-Fermi mixture with repulsive interaction in one dimension. For two cases, namely polarized and unpolarized fermions the singularities of the momentum distribution functions are characterized as a function of the coupling constant and the relative density of bosons.
Diffusion dynamics in the disordered Bose Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wadleigh, Laura; Russ, Philip; Demarco, Brian
2016-05-01
We explore the dynamics of diffusion for out-of-equilibrium superfluid, Mott insulator, and Bose glass states using an atomic realization of the disordered Bose Hubbard (DBH) model. Dynamics in strongly correlated systems, especially far from equilibrium, are not well understood. The introduction of disorder further complicates these systems. We realize the DBH model--which has been central to our understanding of quantum phase transitions in disordered systems--using ultracold Rubidium-87 atoms trapped in a cubic disordered optical lattice. By tightly focusing a beam into the center of the gas, we create a hole in the atomic density profile. We achieve Mott insulator, superfluid, or Bose glass states by varying the interaction and disorder strength, and measure the time evolution of the density profile after removing the central barrier. This allows us to infer diffusion rates from the velocities at the edge of the hole and to look for signatures of superfluid puddles in the Bose glass state. We acknowledge funding from NSF Grant PHY 15-05468, NSF Grant DGE-1144245, and ARO Grant W911NF-12-1-0462.
Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tripathi, Ram K.; Townsend, Lawrence W.
1994-01-01
Using a fully self-consistent quantum statistical model, we demonstrate the possibility of Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions. The most favorable conditions of high densities and low temperatures are usually associated with astrophysical processes and may be difficult to achieve in heavy ion collisions. Nonetheless, some suggestions for the possible experimental verification of the existence of this phenomenon are made.
Emergent Gravitational Dynamics in Bose-Einstein Condensates
Sindoni, Lorenzo; Liberati, Stefano; Girelli, Florian
2009-12-15
We discuss a toy model for an emergent non-relativistic gravitational theory. Within a certain class of Bose-Einstein condensates, it is possible to show that, in a suitable regime, a modified version of non-relativistic Newtonian gravity does effectively describes the low energy dynamics of the coupled system condensate/quasi-particles.
40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Analytical gases. 89.312 Section 89.312....312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The expiration date of the calibration gases stated by the gas manufacturer shall be recorded. (b) Pure gases....
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dujardin, Julien; Engl, Thomas; Schlagheck, Peter
2016-01-01
We study the transport of an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate through a 1D correlated disorder potential. We use for this purpose the truncated Wigner method, which is, as we show, corresponding to the diagonal approximation of a semiclassical van Vleck-Gutzwiller representation of this many-body transport process. We also argue that semiclassical corrections beyond this diagonal approximation are vanishing under disorder average, thus confirming the validity of the truncated Wigner method in this context. Numerical calculations show that, while for weak atom-atom interaction strengths Anderson localization is preserved with a slight modification of the localization length, for larger interaction strengths a crossover to a delocalized regime exists due to inelastic scattering. In this case, the transport is fully incoherent.
Tesfamariam, B.S.
1992-01-01
A chemical actinometer for measuring the solar photolysis frequency of ozone to [sup 1]D oxygen atoms, j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)], has been built. Ozone, generated by oxygen flowing through an electric discharge ozonizer, is mixed with helium and nitrous oxide. The mixture of gases passes through traps into an ozone meter and into a photolysis tube that can be exposed to sunlight. Sunlight in the wavelength region less than 320 nm, photolyzes ozone into oxygen molecules and excited oxygen atoms that are in [sup 1]D state. The [sup 1]D oxygen atoms formed react with N[sub 2]O and ozone to produce oxides of nitrogen. Computer model predictions show that NO[sub 2] is the major product. The gases after photolysis pass through an ozone removing trap into the detector. NO[sub 2] in the gas mixture is detected by its chemiluminescence reaction with luminol. The instrument is able to measure j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)] with a noise level less that 5 x 10[sup [minus]1] sec[sup [minus]1]. The instrument measures j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)] with a precision of [+-]10%. Sixty days of data are taken between February 19, 1991 and May 18, 1991 in Denver, Colorado. Over 400 clear day j[O[sub 3]-O(1D)] values are correlated with effective ozone column density. Seasonal variation of j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)] is calculated from the peak hourly average values near solar noon for the months February, March, April and May. j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)] increased by 34% from February to May. j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)] measured in this study is compared with previous measurements and model calculations. Three photometers with approximate cosine response have been built and compared to the j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)] actinometer. j[[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)] values are also compared to an output of a radiometer that measures global solar radiation. A new method to estimate j[O[sub 3]-O([sup 1]D)] on cloudy days using the global solar radiation is successfully tested.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhikari, S. K.
2016-08-01
We study the statics and dynamics of anisotropic, stable, bright and dark-in-bright dipolar quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons on a one-dimensional (1D) optical-lattice (OL) potential. These solitons mobile in a plane perpendicular to a 1D OL trap can have both repulsive and attractive contact interactions. Dark-in-bright solitons are the excited states of bright solitons. The solitons, when subjected to a small perturbation, exhibit sustained breathing oscillation. Dark-in-bright solitons can be created by phase imprinting a bright soliton. At medium velocities the collision between two solitons is found to be quasi-elastic. Results are demonstrated by a numerical simulation of the three-dimensional mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation in three spatial dimensions employing realistic interaction parameters for a dipolar 164Dy BEC.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manuel, O. K.; Srinivasan, B.; Hennecke, E. W.; Sinclair, D. E.
1972-01-01
The abundance and isotopic composition of helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon which were released by stepwise heating of lunar fines (15601.64) and (15271.65) were measured spectrometrically. The results of a composition of noble gases released from the lunar fines with noble gases in meteorites and in the earth are presented along with the isotopic composition of noble gases in lunar fines, in meteorites, and in the atmosphere. A study of two isotopically distinct components of trapped xenon in carbonaceous chondrites is also included.
Environmental implications of anesthetic gases.
Yasny, Jeffrey S; White, Jennifer
2012-01-01
For several decades, anesthetic gases have greatly enhanced the comfort and outcome for patients during surgery. The benefits of these agents have heavily outweighed the risks. In recent years, the attention towards their overall contribution to global climate change and the environment has increased. Anesthesia providers have a responsibility to minimize unnecessary atmospheric pollution by utilizing techniques that can lessen any adverse effects of these gases on the environment. Moreover, health care facilities that use anesthetic gases are accountable for ensuring that all anesthesia equipment, including the scavenging system, is effective and routinely maintained. Implementing preventive practices and simple strategies can promote the safest and most healthy environment.
Phase separation and dynamics of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kean Loon; Jørgensen, Nils B.; Liu, I.-Kang; Wacker, Lars; Arlt, Jan J.; Proukakis, Nick P.
2016-07-01
The miscibility of two interacting quantum systems is an important testing ground for the understanding of complex quantum systems. Two-component Bose-Einstein condensates enable the investigation of this scenario in a particularly well controlled setting. In a homogeneous system, the transition between mixed and separated phases is fully characterized by a miscibility parameter based on the ratio of intra- to interspecies interaction strengths. Here we show, however, that this parameter is no longer the optimal one for trapped gases, for which the location of the phase boundary depends critically on atom numbers. We demonstrate how monitoring of damping rates and frequencies of dipole oscillations enables the experimental mapping of the phase diagram by numerical implementation of a fully self-consistent finite-temperature kinetic theory for binary condensates. The change in damping rate is explained in terms of surface oscillation in the immiscible regime, and counterflow instability in the miscible regime, with collisions becoming only important in the long time evolution.
Critical Initial Slip Scaling for Driven-dissipative Bose-Einstein Condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Weigang; Tauber, Uwe
2015-03-01
We investigate the universal non-equilibrium critical behavior at the driven- dissipative Bose-Einstein condensation phase transition by means of the perturbative field-theoretic renormalization group method. Such criticality may be realized experimentally in driven open systems on the interface of quantum optics and many-body physics, ranging from exciton-polariton condensates in optically pumped semiconductor wells to cold atomic gases. We describe the critical dynamics through a noisy and dissipative Gross- Pitaevski or time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation with complex coefficients. We focus on the universal critical behavior of this system in the early stages of the relaxation process following a quench from an initially (Gaussian distributed) disordered state that is characterized by broken time translation invariance and governed by the ``initial slip'' exponent θ. We compute θ to first order in the dimensional ɛ = 4 - d expansion with respect to the upper critical dimension d =4, and find that its one-loop value is identical to that of the classical relaxational model A for a two-component non-conserved order parameter. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-FG02-09ER46613.
Phase Separation and Dynamics of Trapped Two-component Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Proukakis, Np; Lee, Kl; Edmonds, M.; Liu, I.-K.; Jorgensen, Nb; Wacker, L.; Arlt, Jj
2016-05-01
Two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are an attractive system to study the non-equilibrium dynamics of interacting quantum gases. We recently formulated a self-consistent kinetic model to study such systems at finite-temperature, where both components are partially-condensed. The BECs and the thermal atoms are coupled together through both the mean-field interactions and all possible collisional processes. We demonstrate the potential dominance of an energy-conserving exchange collision involving a BEC atom and a thermal atom from different components, and discuss the control of the hydrodynamicity through variations of temperature, trap frequencies and trap geometries. Numerically analysing the miscibility-immiscibility phase diagram for the trapped 87Rb-39K experimental system, we demonstrate deviations from the simple (homogeneous) interaction strength criterion (g122 /g11g22 = 1), with the transition boundary depending on the BEC atom numbers. We propose the experimental mapping of this boundary by monitoring the damping rate of the dipole oscillations, supported by detailed numerical simulations at zero and finite temperatures. Acknowledge: EPSRC (Grant No. EP/K03250X/1).
Enhanced stripe phases in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in ring cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mivehvar, Farokh; Feder, David L.
2015-08-01
The coupled dynamics of the atom and photon fields in optical ring cavities with two counterpropagating modes give rise to both spin-orbit interactions as well as long-ranged interactions between atoms of a many-body system. At zero temperature, the interplay between the two-body and cavity-mediated interactions determines the ground state of a Bose-Einstein condensate. In this work, we find that cavity quantum electrodynamics in the weak-coupling regime favors a stripe-phase state over a plane-wave phase as the strength of cavity-mediated interactions increases. Indeed, the stripe phase is energetically stabilized even for condensates with attractive intraspecies and interspecies interactions for sufficiently large cavity interactions. The elementary excitation spectra in both phases correspond to linear dispersion relation at long wavelengths, indicating that both phases exhibit superfluidity, although the plane-wave phase also displays a characteristic roton-type feature. The results suggest that even in the weak-coupling regime, cavities can yield interesting new physics in ultracold quantum gases.
A novel experiment for coupling a Bose-Einstein condensate with two crossed cavity modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donner, Tobias; Leonard, Julian; Lee, Moojnoo; Morales, Andrea; Karg, Thomas; Esslinger, Tilman
2014-05-01
Over the last decade, combining cavity quantum electrodynamics and quantum gases allowed to explore the coupling of quantized light fields to coherent matter waves, leading e.g. to new optomechanical phenomena and the realization of quantum phase transitions. Triggered by the interest to study setups with more complex cavity geometries, we built a novel, highly flexible experimental system for coupling a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with optical cavities, which allows to switch the cavity setups by means of an interchangeable science platform. The BEC is generated from a cloud of laser-cooled 87-Rb atoms which is first loaded into a hybrid trap, formed by a combined magnetic and optical potential, and then optically transported into the cavity setup, where it is cooled down to quantum degeneracy. At first we aim to explore the coupling of a BEC with two crossed cavity modes. We report on our progress on the implementation of a science setup involving two cavities intersecting under an angle of 60°. his setup will allow us to study the coherent interaction of a BEC and the two cavity modes both in internal lambda-level transitions and in spatial self-organization processes in dynamical hexagonal lattices.
Robust Supersolidity in the V1- V2 Extended Bose-Hubbard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greene, Nicole; Pixley, Jedediah
2016-05-01
Motivated by ultra-cold atomic gases with long-range interactions in an optical lattice we study the effects of the next-nearest neighbor interaction on the extended Bose-Hubbard model on a square lattice. Using the variational Gutzwiller approach with a four-site unit cell we determine the ground state phase diagrams as a function of the model parameters. We focus on the interplay of each interaction between the nearest neighbor (V1) , the next-nearest neighbor (V2) , and the onsite repulsion (U). We find various super-solid phases that can be described by one of the ordering wave-vectors (π, 0), (0, π) , and (π, π) . In the limits V1, V2 U we find phases reminiscent of the limit V2 = 0 but with a richer super solid structure. For V1
Nonequilibrium functional renormalization for driven-dissipative Bose-Einstein condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sieberer, L. Â. M.; Huber, S. Â. D.; Altman, E.; Diehl, S.
2014-04-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of critical behavior in the driven-dissipative Bose condensation transition in three spatial dimensions. The starting point is a microscopic description of the system in terms of a many-body quantum master equation, where coherent and driven-dissipative dynamics occur on an equal footing. An equivalent Keldysh real-time functional integral reformulation opens up the problem to a practical evaluation using the tools of quantum field theory. In particular, we develop a functional renormalization group approach to quantitatively explore the universality class of this stationary nonequilibrium system. Key results comprise the emergence of an asymptotic thermalization of the distribution function, while manifest nonequilibrium properties are witnessed in the response properties in terms of a new, independent critical exponent. Thus, the driven-dissipative microscopic nature is seen to bear observable consequences on the largest length scales. The absence of two symmetries present in closed equilibrium systems—underlying particle number conservation and detailed balance, respectively—is identified as the root of this new nonequilibrium critical behavior. Our results are relevant for broad ranges of open quantum systems on the interface of quantum optics and many-body physics, from exciton-polariton condensates to cold atomic gases.
Persistent currents supported by solitary waves in toroidal Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz Mateo, A.; Gallemí, A.; Guilleumas, M.; Mayol, R.
2015-06-01
We analyze the nucleation of persistent currents in Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold gases confined in a ring. This phenomenon has been recently investigated in an experiment [S. Eckel, J. G. Lee, F. Jendrzejewski, N. Murray, C. W. Clark, C. J. Lobb, W. D. Phillips, M. Edwards, and G. K. Campbell, Nature (London) 506, 200 (2014), 10.1038/nature12958], where hysteresis loops have been observed in the activation of quantized persistent currents by rotating weak links. In this work, we demonstrate the existence of three-dimensional stationary currents with nonquantized angular momentum. They are generated by families of solitary waves that exhibit a continuous variation in the angular momentum and provide a bridge between different winding numbers. We show that the size of hysteresis loops is determined by the range of existence within the weak link region of solitary waves which configure the energy barrier preventing phase slips. The barrier vanishes when the critical rotation leads winding number and solitonic states to a matching configuration. At this point, Landau and Feynman criteria for phase slips meet: the fluid flow reaches the local speed of sound, and stationary vortex lines (which are the building blocks of multidimensional solitons) can be excited inside the system.
1D nanocrystals with precisely controlled dimensions, compositions, and architectures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Xinchang; He, Yanjie; Jung, Jaehan; Lin, Zhiqun
2016-09-01
The ability to synthesize a diverse spectrum of one-dimensional (1D) nanocrystals presents an enticing prospect for exploring nanoscale size- and shape-dependent properties. Here we report a general strategy to craft a variety of plain nanorods, core-shell nanorods, and nanotubes with precisely controlled dimensions and compositions by capitalizing on functional bottlebrush-like block copolymers with well-defined structures and narrow molecular weight distributions as nanoreactors. These cylindrical unimolecular nanoreactors enable a high degree of control over the size, shape, architecture, surface chemistry, and properties of 1D nanocrystals. We demonstrate the synthesis of metallic, ferroelectric, upconversion, semiconducting, and thermoelectric 1D nanocrystals, among others, as well as combinations thereof.
The GIRAFFE Archive: 1D and 3D Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Royer, F.; Jégouzo, I.; Tajahmady, F.; Normand, J.; Chilingarian, I.
2013-10-01
The GIRAFFE Archive (http://giraffe-archive.obspm.fr) contains the reduced spectra observed with the intermediate and high resolution multi-fiber spectrograph installed at VLT/UT2 (ESO). In its multi-object configuration and the different integral field unit configurations, GIRAFFE produces 1D spectra and 3D spectra. We present here the status of the archive and the different functionalities to select and download both 1D and 3D data products, as well as the present content. The two collections are available in the VO: the 1D spectra (summed in the case of integral field observations) and the 3D field observations. These latter products can be explored using the VO Paris Euro3D Client (http://voplus.obspm.fr/ chil/Euro3D).
PC-1D installation manual and user's guide
Basore, P.A.
1991-05-01
PC-1D is a software package for personal computers that uses finite-element analysis to solve the fully-coupled two-carrier semiconductor transport equations in one dimension. This program is particularly useful for analyzing the performance of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, but can be applied to any bipolar device whose carrier flows are primarily one-dimensional. This User's Guide provides the information necessary to install PC-1D, define a problem for solution, solve the problem, and examine the results. Example problems are presented which illustrate these steps. The physical models and numerical methods utilized are presented in detail. This document supports version 3.1 of PC-1D, which incorporates faster numerical algorithms with better convergence properties than previous versions of the program. 51 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.
Pitch-based pattern splitting for 1D layout
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakayama, Ryo; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Mikami, Koji; Tsujita, Koichiro; Yaegashi, Hidetami; Oyama, Kenichi; Smayling, Michael C.; Axelrad, Valery
2015-07-01
The pattern splitting algorithm for 1D Gridded-Design-Rules layout (1D layout) for sub-10 nm node logic devices is shown. It is performed with integer linear programming (ILP) based on the conflict graph created from a grid map for each designated pitch. The relation between the number of times for patterning and the minimum pitch is shown systematically with a sample pattern of contact layer for each node. From the result, the number of times for patterning for 1D layout is fewer than that for conventional 2D layout. Moreover, an experimental result including SMO and total integrated process with hole repair technique is presented with the sample pattern of contact layer whose pattern density is relatively high among critical layers (fin, gate, local interconnect, contact, and metal).
1D nanocrystals with precisely controlled dimensions, compositions, and architectures.
Pang, Xinchang; He, Yanjie; Jung, Jaehan; Lin, Zhiqun
2016-09-16
The ability to synthesize a diverse spectrum of one-dimensional (1D) nanocrystals presents an enticing prospect for exploring nanoscale size- and shape-dependent properties. Here we report a general strategy to craft a variety of plain nanorods, core-shell nanorods, and nanotubes with precisely controlled dimensions and compositions by capitalizing on functional bottlebrush-like block copolymers with well-defined structures and narrow molecular weight distributions as nanoreactors. These cylindrical unimolecular nanoreactors enable a high degree of control over the size, shape, architecture, surface chemistry, and properties of 1D nanocrystals. We demonstrate the synthesis of metallic, ferroelectric, upconversion, semiconducting, and thermoelectric 1D nanocrystals, among others, as well as combinations thereof. PMID:27634531
Flexible Photodetectors Based on 1D Inorganic Nanostructures
Lou, Zheng
2015-01-01
Flexible photodetectors with excellent flexibility, high mechanical stability and good detectivity, have attracted great research interest in recent years. 1D inorganic nanostructures provide a number of opportunities and capabilities for use in flexible photodetectors as they have unique geometry, good transparency, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and excellent electronic/optoelectronic properties. This article offers a comprehensive review of several types of flexible photodetectors based on 1D nanostructures from the past ten years, including flexible ultraviolet, visible, and infrared photodetectors. High‐performance organic‐inorganic hybrid photodetectors, as well as devices with 1D nanowire (NW) arrays, are also reviewed. Finally, new concepts of flexible photodetectors including piezophototronic, stretchable and self‐powered photodetectors are examined to showcase the future research in this exciting field. PMID:27774404
Fermion-fermion interaction in a dilute gas-mixture Bose condensate
Mogilyuk, T. I.
2011-11-15
A mixture of a one-component Bose gas and two-component Fermi gas is considered at temperatures at which the Bose gas is completely condensed. Two fermions in such a mixture can interact with each other exchanging bosons from the condensate or supercondensate. The interaction potential, a change in the effective mass, the decay, and fermion spectrum are calculated in this quantum Fermi-Bose mixture.
GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL
KALYANAPU, ALFRED; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N.; BURIAN, STEVEN J.
2007-01-17
This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.
Jiang, Jian-Hua; John, Sajeev
2014-01-01
Semiconductor-microcavity polaritons are composite quasiparticles of excitons and photons, emerging in the strong coupling regime. As quantum superpositions of matter and light, polaritons have much stronger interparticle interactions compared with photons, enabling rapid equilibration and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). Current realizations based on 1D photonic structures, such as Fabry-Pérot microcavities, have limited light-trapping ability resulting in picosecond polariton lifetime. We demonstrate, theoretically, above-room-temperature (up to 590 K) BEC of long-lived polaritons in MoSe2 monolayers sandwiched by simple TiO2 based 3D photonic band gap (PBG) materials. The 3D PBG induces very strong coupling of 40 meV (Rabi splitting of 62 meV) for as few as three dichalcogenide monolayers. Strong light-trapping in the 3D PBG enables the long-lived polariton superfluid to be robust against fabrication-induced disorder and exciton line-broadening. PMID:25503586
Macroscopic quantum tunneling of a Bose-Einstein condensate through double Gaussian barriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maeda, Kenji; Urban, Gregor; Weidemüller, Matthias; Carr, Lincoln D.
2015-05-01
Macroscopic quantum tunneling is one of the great manifestations of quantum physics, not only showing passage through a potential barrier but also emerging in a many-body wave function. We study a quasi-1D Bose-Einstein condensate of Lithium, confined by two Gaussian barriers, and show that in an experimentally realistic potential tens of thousands of atoms tunnel on time scales of 10 to 100 ms. Using a combination of variational and WKB approximations based on the Gross-Pitaevskii or nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we show that many unusual tunneling features appear due to the nonlinearity, including the number of trapped atoms exhibiting non-exponential decay, severe distortion of the barriers by the mean field, and even formation of a triple barrier in certain regimes. In the first 10ms, nonlinear many-body effects make the tunneling rates significantly larger than background loss rates, from 10 to 70 Hz. Thus we conclude that macroscopic quantum tunneling can be observed on experimental time scales. Funded by NSF, AFOSR, the Alexander von Humboldt foundation, and the Heidelberg Center for Quantum Dynamics.
Critical point of a rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Badry, Azza M.; Soliman, Shemi S. M.; Hassan, Ahmed S.
2016-06-01
In this paper, we have considered the critical point (critical atoms' number and the corresponding critical temperature) of rotating condensate bosons trapped in optical lattices. Our system is formed by loading three dimensional harmonically trapped boson atoms into a 1D (axial direction) or 2D (radial direction) optical lattice. The system subjected to rotating with angular velocity Ω around to the axial direction z-axis. We employ the semiclassical approximation to calculate the critical point. Effects of the optical lattice depth, direction (axial or radial) and the rotation rate on the critical point are investigated using the semiclassical approximation. The calculated results showed that the temperature dependence of the critical point is changed in an optical lattice and depends crucially on the rotation rate. The effect of the finite size for one-dimensional optical lattice case, as required by experiment, is discussed. The outcome results furnish useful qualitatively theoretical results for the future Bose-Einstein condensation experiments in such traps.
Anisotropic superfluidity in a dipolar Bose gas
Ticknor, Christopher; Wilson, Ryan M; Bohn, John L
2010-11-04
A quintessential feature of superfluidity is the ability to support dissipationless flow, for example, when an object moves through a superfluid and experiences no drag. This, however, only occurs when the object is moving below a certain critical velocity; when it exceeds this critical velocity it dissipates energy into excitations of the superfluid, resulting in a net drag force on the object and the breakdown of superfluid flow. In many superfluids, such as dilute Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of atoms with contact interactions, this critical velocity is simply the speed of sound in the system, where the speed of sound is set by the density and the s-wave scattering length of the atoms. However, for other superfluids, such as liquid {sup 4}He, this is not the case. In {sup 4}He, the critical velocity is set by a roton mode, corresponding to a peak in the static structure factor of the system at some finite, non-zero momentum, with a characteristic velocity that is considerably less than the speed of sound in the liquid. This feature has been verified experimentally via measurements of ion-drift velocity in the fluid, thereby providing insight into the detailed structure of the system. Interestingly, a roton-like feature was predicted to exist in the dispersion relation of a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) dipolar BEC (DBEC) [16], or a BEC with dipole-dipole interactions. However, unlike the dispersion of {sup 4}He, the disperSion of a DBEC is highly tunable as a function of the condensate density or dipole-dipole interaction (ddi) strength. Additionally, the DBEC is set apart from liquid {sup 4}He in that its interactions depend on how the dipoles are oriented in space. Thus, the DBEC provides an ideal system to study the effects that anisotropies have on the bulk properties of a superfluid, such as the critical velocity. Here we consider a DBEC in a quasi-two-dimensional (q2D) geometry and allow for the dipoles to be polarized at a nonzero angle into the plane
Non-cooperative Brownian donkeys: A solvable 1D model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez de Cisneros, B.; Reimann, P.; Parrondo, J. M. R.
2003-12-01
A paradigmatic 1D model for Brownian motion in a spatially symmetric, periodic system is tackled analytically. Upon application of an external static force F the system's response is an average current which is positive for F < 0 and negative for F > 0 (absolute negative mobility). Under suitable conditions, the system approaches 100% efficiency when working against the external force F.
1D design style implications for mask making and CEBL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smayling, Michael C.
2013-09-01
At advanced nodes, CMOS logic is being designed in a highly regular design style because of the resolution limitations of optical lithography equipment. Logic and memory layouts using 1D Gridded Design Rules (GDR) have been demonstrated to nodes beyond 12nm.[1-4] Smaller nodes will require the same regular layout style but with multiple patterning for critical layers. One of the significant advantages of 1D GDR is the ease of splitting layouts into lines and cuts. A lines and cuts approach has been used to achieve good pattern fidelity and process margin to below 12nm.[4] Line scaling with excellent line-edge roughness (LER) has been demonstrated with self-aligned spacer processing.[5] This change in design style has important implications for mask making: • The complexity of the masks will be greatly reduced from what would be required for 2D designs with very complex OPC or inverse lithography corrections. • The number of masks will initially increase, as for conventional multiple patterning. But in the case of 1D design, there are future options for mask count reduction. • The line masks will remain simple, with little or no OPC, at pitches (1x) above 80nm. This provides an excellent opportunity for continual improvement of line CD and LER. The line pattern will be processed through a self-aligned pitch division sequence to divide pitch by 2 or by 4. • The cut masks can be done with "simple OPC" as demonstrated to beyond 12nm.[6] Multiple simple cut masks may be required at advanced nodes. "Coloring" has been demonstrated to below 12nm for two colors and to 8nm for three colors. • Cut/hole masks will eventually be replaced by e-beam direct write using complementary e-beam lithography (CEBL).[7-11] This transition is gated by the availability of multiple column e-beam systems with throughput adequate for high- volume manufacturing. A brief description of 1D and 2D design styles will be presented, followed by examples of 1D layouts. Mask complexity for 1
Thermal spin fluctuations in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melé-Messeguer, M.; Juliá-Díaz, B.; Polls, A.; Santos, L.
2013-03-01
We study the thermal activation of spin fluctuations in dynamically stable spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. We analyze the specific cases of a nondipolar spin-1 condensate in the state m=0, where thermal activation results from spin-changing collisions, and of a chromium condensate in the maximally stretched state m=-3, where thermal spin fluctuations are due to dipole-induced spin relaxation. In both cases, we show that the low energy associated to the spinor physics may be employed for thermometry purposes down to extremely low temperatures, typically impossible to measure in Bose-Einstein condensates with the usual thermometric techniques. Moreover, the peculiar dependence of the system's entropy with the applied Zeeman energy opens a possible route for adiabatic cooling.
Breakdown of Bose-Einstein Distribution in Photonic Crystals
Lo, Ping-Yuan; Xiong, Heng-Na; Zhang, Wei-Min
2015-01-01
In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced localized long-lived photon dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine the long-lived non-Markovain dynamics with thermal fluctuations together to form photon states that memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger or much larger than the cavity detuning energy. In this investigation, a crossover phenomenon from equilibrium to nonequilibrium steady states is also revealed. PMID:25822135
Breakdown of Bose-Einstein distribution in photonic crystals.
Lo, Ping-Yuan; Xiong, Heng-Na; Zhang, Wei-Min
2015-01-01
In the last two decades, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of nano-photonics in photonic crystals. Previous theoretical investigations of photon dynamics were carried out at zero temperature. Here, we investigate micro/nano cavity photonics in photonic crystals at finite temperature. Due to photonic-band-gap-induced localized long-lived photon dynamics, we discover that cavity photons in photonic crystals do not obey Bose-Einstein statistical distribution. Within the photonic band gap and in the vicinity of the band edge, cavity photons combine the long-lived non-Markovain dynamics with thermal fluctuations together to form photon states that memorize the initial cavity state information. As a result, Bose-Einstein distribution is completely broken down in these regimes, even if the thermal energy is larger or much larger than the cavity detuning energy. In this investigation, a crossover phenomenon from equilibrium to nonequilibrium steady states is also revealed.
Internal Josephson oscillations for distinct momenta Bose-Einstein condensates
Lim, Lih-King; Troppenz, T.; Morais Smith, C.
2011-11-15
The internal Josephson oscillations between an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and a molecular one are studied for atoms in a square optical lattice subjected to a staggered gauge field. The system is described by a Bose-Hubbard model with complex and anisotropic hopping parameters that are different for each species, i.e., atoms and molecules. When the flux per plaquette for each species is small, the system oscillates between two conventional zero-momentum condensates. However, there is a regime of parameters in which Josephson oscillations between a vortex-carrying atomic condensate (finite momentum BEC) and a conventional zero-momentum molecular condensate may be realized. The experimental observation of the oscillations between these qualitatively distinct BEC's is possible with state-of-the-art Ramsey interference techniques.
Magnetic Solitons in a Binary Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Qu, Chunlei; Pitaevskii, Lev P; Stringari, Sandro
2016-04-22
We study solitary waves of polarization (magnetic solitons) in a two-component Bose gas with slightly unequal repulsive intra- and interspin interactions. In experimentally relevant conditions we obtain an analytical solution which reveals that the width and the velocity of magnetic solitons are explicitly related to the spin healing length and the spin sound velocity of the Bose mixture, respectively. We calculate the profiles, the energy, and the effective mass of the solitons in the absence of external fields and investigate their oscillation in a harmonic trap where the oscillation period is calculated as a function of the oscillation amplitude. The stability of magnetic solitons in two dimensions and the conditions for their experimental observation are also briefly discussed.
Magnetic Solitons in a Binary Bose-Einstein Condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Chunlei; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Stringari, Sandro
2016-04-01
We study solitary waves of polarization (magnetic solitons) in a two-component Bose gas with slightly unequal repulsive intra- and interspin interactions. In experimentally relevant conditions we obtain an analytical solution which reveals that the width and the velocity of magnetic solitons are explicitly related to the spin healing length and the spin sound velocity of the Bose mixture, respectively. We calculate the profiles, the energy, and the effective mass of the solitons in the absence of external fields and investigate their oscillation in a harmonic trap where the oscillation period is calculated as a function of the oscillation amplitude. The stability of magnetic solitons in two dimensions and the conditions for their experimental observation are also briefly discussed.
Bose gas in disordered, finite-layered systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortes, Mauricio; Barragán, V. E.; Salas, P.; Solís, M. A.
2015-03-01
Disorder effects in the thermodynamic properties of a Bose gas are analyzed. The gas is confined within a layered box of size L in the z-direction and infinite in the other two directions. The layers are first modeled by a periodic array of M Dirac delta-functions of equal intensity. We investigate the effects on the specific heat, energy and entropy when a random set of vacancies is introduced in the layered array. A dramatic increase in the maximum of the specific heat is observed when the system has a 0 . 1 to 0 . 2 fraction of random vacancies compared to the original, periodic array and this maximum, which is reminiscent of a Bose-Einstein condensation for an infinite array, occurs at a higher temperature. We acknowledge support from Grant UNAM-PAPIIT IN111613.
Bose gas in disordered, finite-layered systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barragán, V. E.; Fortes, M.; Solís, M. A.; Salas, P.
2016-05-01
Disorder effects in the thermodynamic properties of an ideal Bose gas confined in a semi-infinite multi-layer structure within a box of thickness L and infinite lateral extent, are analyzed. The layers are first modeled by a periodic array of M Dirac-delta functions of equal intensity. Then, we introduce structural and compositional disorder, as well as a random set of layer vacancies in the system to calculate the internal energy, chemical potential and the specific heat for different configurations. Whereas structural and compositional disorder do not reveal a significant change, a dramatic increase in the maximum of the specific heat is observed when the system is depleted a fraction of the order of 0.1-0.2 of random layers compared to the original, fully periodic array. Furthermore, this maximum, which is reminiscent of a Bose-Einstein condensation for an infinite array, occurs at higher temperatures.
85Rb tunable-interaction Bose-Einstein condensate machine.
Altin, P A; Robins, N P; Döring, D; Debs, J E; Poldy, R; Figl, C; Close, J D
2010-06-01
We describe our experimental setup for creating stable Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of (85)Rb with tunable interparticle interactions. We use sympathetic cooling with (87)Rb in two stages, initially in a tight Ioffe-Pritchard magnetic trap and subsequently in a weak, large-volume, crossed optical dipole trap, using the 155 G Feshbach resonance to manipulate the elastic and inelastic scattering properties of the (85)Rb atoms. Typical (85)Rb condensates contain 4 x 10(4) atoms with a scattering length of a=+200a(0). Many aspects of the design presented here could be adapted to other dual-species BEC machines, including those involving degenerate Fermi-Bose mixtures. Our minimalist apparatus is well suited to experiments on dual-species and spinor Rb condensates, and has several simplifications over the (85)Rb BEC machine at JILA, which we discuss at the end of this article. PMID:20590221
Magnon edge states in the hardcore- Bose-Hubbard model.
Owerre, S A
2016-11-01
Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulation has uncovered nonzero Berry curvature and bosonic edge states in the hardcore-Bose-Hubbard model on the gapped honeycomb lattice. The competition between the chemical potential and staggered onsite potential leads to an interesting quantum phase diagram comprising the superfluid phase, Mott insulator, and charge density wave insulator. In this paper, we present a semiclassical perspective of this system by mapping to a spin-1/2 quantum XY model. We give an explicit analytical origin of the quantum phase diagram, the Berry curvatures, and the edge states using semiclassical approximations. We find very good agreement between the semiclassical analyses and the QMC results. Our results show that the topological properties of the hardcore-Bose-Hubbard model are the same as those of magnon in the corresponding quantum spin system. Our results are applicable to systems of ultracold bosonic atoms trapped in honeycomb optical lattices. PMID:27603092
Scalar field as a Bose-Einstein condensate?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellanos, Elías; Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Macías, Alfredo; Núñez, Darío
2014-11-01
We discuss the analogy between a classical scalar field with a self-interacting potential, in a curved spacetime described by a quasi-bounded state, and a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. In this context, we compare the Klein-Gordon equation with the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Moreover, the introduction of a curved background spacetime endows, in a natural way, an equivalence to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with an explicit confinement potential. The curvature also induces a position dependent self-interaction parameter. We exploit this analogy by means of the Thomas-Fermi approximation, commonly used to describe the Bose-Einstein condensate, in order to analyze the quasi bound scalar field distribution surrounding a black hole.
Mott Criticality and Pseudogap in Bose-Fermi Mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altman, Ehud; Demler, Eugene; Rosch, Achim
2012-12-01
We study the Mott transition of a mixed Bose-Fermi system of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice, where the number of (spinless) fermions and bosons adds up to one atom per lattice, nF+nB=1. For weak interactions, a Fermi surface coexists with a Bose-Einstein condensate while for strong interaction the system is incompressible but still characterized by a Fermi surface of composite fermions. At the critical point, the spectral function of the fermions A(k,ω) exhibits a pseudogapped behavior, rising as |ω| at the Fermi momentum, while in the Mott phase it is fully gapped. Taking into account the interaction between the critical modes leads at very low temperatures either to p-wave pairing or the transition is driven weakly first order. The same mechanism should also be important in antiferromagnetic metals with a small Fermi surface.
Magnetic Solitons in a Binary Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Qu, Chunlei; Pitaevskii, Lev P; Stringari, Sandro
2016-04-22
We study solitary waves of polarization (magnetic solitons) in a two-component Bose gas with slightly unequal repulsive intra- and interspin interactions. In experimentally relevant conditions we obtain an analytical solution which reveals that the width and the velocity of magnetic solitons are explicitly related to the spin healing length and the spin sound velocity of the Bose mixture, respectively. We calculate the profiles, the energy, and the effective mass of the solitons in the absence of external fields and investigate their oscillation in a harmonic trap where the oscillation period is calculated as a function of the oscillation amplitude. The stability of magnetic solitons in two dimensions and the conditions for their experimental observation are also briefly discussed. PMID:27152776
Internal Josephson effects in spinor dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates
Yasunaga, Masashi; Tsubota, Makoto
2010-02-15
We theoretically study the internal Josephson effect, which is driven by spin-exchange interactions and magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, in a three-level system for spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates, obtaining novel spin dynamics. We introduce single spatial mode approximations into the Gross-Pitaevskii equations and derive the Josephson-type equations, which are analogous to tunneling currents through three junctions between three superconductors. From an analogy with two interacting nonrigid pendulums, we identify unique varied oscillational modes, called the 0-{pi}, 0-running, running-running, 2n{pi} and running-2{pi}, single nonrigid pendulum, and two rigid pendulums phase modes. These Josephson modes in the three states are expected to be found in real atomic Bose gas systems.
Magnon edge states in the hardcore- Bose-Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Owerre, S. A.
2016-11-01
Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulation has uncovered nonzero Berry curvature and bosonic edge states in the hardcore-Bose-Hubbard model on the gapped honeycomb lattice. The competition between the chemical potential and staggered onsite potential leads to an interesting quantum phase diagram comprising the superfluid phase, Mott insulator, and charge density wave insulator. In this paper, we present a semiclassical perspective of this system by mapping to a spin-1/2 quantum XY model. We give an explicit analytical origin of the quantum phase diagram, the Berry curvatures, and the edge states using semiclassical approximations. We find very good agreement between the semiclassical analyses and the QMC results. Our results show that the topological properties of the hardcore-Bose-Hubbard model are the same as those of magnon in the corresponding quantum spin system. Our results are applicable to systems of ultracold bosonic atoms trapped in honeycomb optical lattices.
Squeezing in the weakly interacting uniform Bose-Einstein condensate
Haque, Masudul; Ruckenstein, Andrei E.
2006-10-15
We investigate the presence of squeezing in the weakly repulsive uniform Bose gas, in both the condensate mode and in the nonzero opposite-momenta mode pairs, using two different variational formulations. We explore the U(1) symmetry breaking and Goldstone's theorem in the context of a squeezed coherent variational wave function and present the associated Ward identity. We show that squeezing of the condensate mode is absent at the mean field Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov level and emerges as a result of fluctuations about mean field as a finite volume effect, which vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. On the other hand, the squeezing of the excitations about the condensate survives the thermodynamic limit and is interpreted in terms of density-phase variables using a number-conserving formulation of the interacting Bose gas.
Bloch oscillations of Bose-Einstein condensates: breakdown and revival.
Witthaut, D; Werder, M; Mossmann, S; Korsch, H J
2005-03-01
We investigate the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in a tilted one-dimensional periodic lattice within the mean-field (Gross-Pitaevskii) description. Unlike in the linear case the Bloch oscillations decay because of nonlinear dephasing. Pronounced revival phenomena are observed. These are analyzed in detail in terms of a simple integrable model constructed by an expansion in Wannier-Stark resonance states. We also briefly discuss the pulsed output of such systems for stronger static fields.
Controllable scattering of vector Bose-Einstein solitons
Babarro, Judit; Paz-Alonso, Maria J.; Michinel, Humberto; Salgueiro, Jose R.; Olivieri, David N.
2005-04-01
We show the possibility of producing matter-wave switching devices by using Manakov interactions between vector matter-wave solitons using two-species Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). Our results establish the experimental parameters for three interaction regimes in two-species BECs: symmetric and asymmetric splitting, down-switching, and up-switching. We have studied the dependence upon the initial conditions and the kind of interaction between the two matter-wave solitons.
Cooling of a One-Dimensional Bose Gas.
Rauer, B; Grišins, P; Mazets, I E; Schweigler, T; Rohringer, W; Geiger, R; Langen, T; Schmiedmayer, J
2016-01-22
We experimentally study the dynamics of a degenerate one-dimensional Bose gas that is subject to a continuous outcoupling of atoms. Although standard evaporative cooling is rendered ineffective by the absence of thermalizing collisions in this system, we observe substantial cooling. This cooling proceeds through homogeneous particle dissipation and many-body dephasing, enabling the preparation of otherwise unexpectedly low temperatures. Our observations establish a scaling relation between temperature and particle number, and provide insights into equilibration in the quantum world.
Anisotropic Solitons in Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates
Tikhonenkov, I.; Vardi, A.; Malomed, B. A.
2008-03-07
Starting with a Gaussian variational ansatz, we predict anisotropic bright solitons in quasi-2D Bose-Einstein condensates consisting of atoms with dipole moments polarized perpendicular to the confinement direction. Unlike isotropic solitons predicted for the moments aligned with the confinement axis [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 200404 (2005)], no sign reversal of the dipole-dipole interaction is necessary to support the solitons. Direct 3D simulations confirm their stability.
Rotating Bose-Einstein condensates with attractive interactions
Kavoulakis, G.M.; Jackson, A.D.; Baym, Gordon
2004-10-01
We examine the phase diagram of a Bose-Einstein condensate of atoms, interacting with an attractive pseudopotential, in a quadratic-plus-quartic potential trap rotating at a given rate. Investigating the behavior of the gas as a function of interaction strength and rotational frequency of the trap, we find that the phase diagram has three distinct phases: one with vortex excitation, one with center-of-mass excitation, and an unstable phase in which the gas collapses.
Spin Echo in Spinor Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensates
Yasunaga, Masashi; Tsubota, Makoto
2008-11-28
We theoretically propose and numerically realize spin echo in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). We investigate the influence on the spin echo of phase separation of the condensate. The equation of motion of the spin density exhibits two relaxation times. We use two methods to separate the relaxation times and hence demonstrate a technique to reveal magnetic dipole-dipole interactions in spinor BECs.
Texture Control in a Pseudospin Bose-Einstein Condensate
Ruben, Gary; Morgan, Michael J.; Paganin, David M.
2010-11-26
We describe a wave function engineering approach to the formation of textures in nonrotated multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates. With numerical simulations of a viable two-component condensate experiment, we demonstrate the formation of a ballistically expanding regular lattice texture, composed of half-quantum vortices and spin-2 textures. The formation is described by a linear interference process in which the geometry and phase of three initially separated wave packets provide deterministic control over the resulting lattice texture.
Electrostatic interaction in plasma with charged bose condensate
Lepidi, A.
2012-09-15
Screening in plasma with Bose-Einstein condensate is studied. Finite temperature effects are taken into account. It is shown that, due to condensate effects, the potential has several unusual features. It contains two oscillating terms, one of which is analogous to the fermionic Friedel oscillations in standard QED, and a power law decreasing term. In the T {yields} 0 limit, only one of the oscillating terms survives. On the whole, any charge impurity is screened more efficiently than in ordinary plasma.
Magnetic solitons in a binary Bose-Einstein condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Chunlei; Pitaevskii, Lev; Stringari, Sandro
2016-05-01
Solitons, the fascinating topological excitations of nonlinear systems, have drawn a considerable research interest in many physical branches. Here I will talk about a magnetic soliton solution to a two-component repulsive Bose gas. The properties of the soliton, including the wave function, the energy and the effective mass, will be presented. I will also discuss the oscillation behaviour of the magnetic solitons in a harmonic trap.
Beyond Spontaneously Broken Symmetry in Bose-Einstein Condensates
Mullin, W. J.; Laloee, F.
2010-04-16
Spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) for Bose-Einstein condensates cannot treat phase off-diagonal effects, and thus cannot explain Bell inequality violations. We describe another situation that is beyond a SSB treatment: an experiment where particles from two (possibly macroscopic) condensate sources are used for conjugate measurements of the relative phase and populations. Off-diagonal phase effects are characterized by a 'quantum angle' and observed via 'population oscillations', signaling quantum interference of macroscopically distinct states.
Dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates with weak disorder
Krumnow, Christian; Pelster, Axel
2011-08-15
A homogeneous polarized dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate is considered in the presence of weak quenched disorder within mean-field theory at zero temperature. By first solving perturbatively the underlying Gross-Pitaevskii equation and then performing disorder ensemble averages for physical observables, it is shown that the anisotropy of the two-particle interaction is passed on to both the superfluid density and the sound velocity.
Particles with small violations of Fermi or Bose statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenberg, O. W.
1991-06-01
I discuss the statistics of ``quons'' (pronounced to rhyme with muons), particles whose annihilation and creation operators obey the q-deformed commutation relation (the quon algebra or q-mutator) which interpolates between fermions and bosons. Topics discussed include representations of the quon algebra, proof of the TCP theorem, violation of the usual locality properties, and experimental constraints on violations of the Pauli exclusion principle (i.e., Fermi statistics) and of Bose statistics.
Bose-Einstein-condensate interferometer with macroscopic arm separation
Garcia, O.; Deissler, B.; Hughes, K. J.; Reeves, J. M.; Sackett, C. A.
2006-09-15
A Michelson interferometer using Bose-Einstein condensates is demonstrated with coherence times of up to 44 ms and arm separations up to 180 {mu}m. This arm separation is larger than that observed for any previous atom interferometer. The device uses atoms weakly confined in a magnetic guide and the atomic motion is controlled using Bragg interactions with an off-resonant standing-wave laser beam.
Magnons as a Bose-Einstein Condensate in Nanocrystalline Gadolinium
Kaul, S. N.; Mathew, S. P.
2011-06-17
The recent observation [S. P. Mathew et al., J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 200, 072047 (2010)] of the anomalous softening of spin-wave modes at low temperatures in nanocrystalline gadolinium is interpreted as a Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of magnons. A self-consistent calculation, based on the BEC picture, is shown to closely reproduce the observed temperature variations of magnetization and specific heat at constant magnetic fields.
Taming rogue waves in vector Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinayagam, P. S.; Radha, R.; Porsezian, K.
2013-10-01
Using gauge transformation method, we generate rogue waves for the two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) governed by the symmetric coupled Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations and study their dynamics. We also suggest a mechanism to tame the rogue waves either by manipulating the scattering length through Feshbach resonance or the trapping frequency, a phenomenon not witnessed in the domain of BECs, and we believe that these results may have wider ramifications in the management of rogons.
Controlling chaos in the Bose-Einstein condensate
Cong Fuzhong Wang Zhixia; Hua Hongtu; Pang Shichun; Tong Shouyu
2012-03-15
The spatial structure of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is investigated and spatially chaotic distributions of the condensates are revealed. By means of changing the s-wave scattering length with a Feshbach resonance, the chaotic behavior can be well controlled to enter into periodicity. Numerical simulation shows that there are different periodic orbits according to different s-wave scattering lengths only if the Lyapunov exponent of the system is negative.
Relaxation Dynamics Of Bose-Fermi Doublons In Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Gärttner, Martin; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Wall, Michael L.; Covey, Jacob P.; Moses, Steven A.; Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Fu, Zhengkun; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah S.; Ye, Jun
2016-05-01
Motivated by a recent experiment at JILA we investigate the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of a dilute Fermi-Bose mixture, starting from a well-defined initial state, where each lattice site is either empty or occupied by a Bose-Fermi doublon. Utilizing analytical techniques and numerical simulations using the t-DRMG method, we identify the leading relaxation mechanisms of the doublons. At short times strong interactions tend to hold the doublons together, as previously reported in similar type of experiments made with identical bosons or two component fermions. Since the fermions feel a much shallower lattice than the bosons, the bosons can be visualized as random localization centers for the fermions. However, at longer times the boson tunneling cannot be ignored and additional decay channels unique to Bose-Fermi mixtures become relevant. While cluster expansion allows us to characterize the short time dynamics for dilute arrays, the long time relaxation dynamics at higher densities is strongly correlated. In this regime exact numerical techniques are employed. JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF-1211914, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.
Path integral hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm for correlated Bose fluids.
Miura, Shinichi; Tanaka, Junji
2004-02-01
Path integral hybrid Monte Carlo (PIHMC) algorithm for strongly correlated Bose fluids has been developed. This is an extended version of our previous method [S. Miura and S. Okazaki, Chem. Phys. Lett. 308, 115 (1999)] applied to a model system consisting of noninteracting bosons. Our PIHMC method for the correlated Bose fluids is constituted of two trial moves to sample path-variables describing system coordinates along imaginary time and a permutation of particle labels giving a boundary condition with respect to imaginary time. The path-variables for a given permutation are generated by a hybrid Monte Carlo method based on path integral molecular dynamics techniques. Equations of motion for the path-variables are formulated on the basis of a collective coordinate representation of the path, staging variables, to enhance the sampling efficiency. The permutation sampling to satisfy Bose-Einstein statistics is performed using the multilevel Metropolis method developed by Ceperley and Pollock [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 351 (1986)]. Our PIHMC method has successfully been applied to liquid helium-4 at a state point where the system is in a superfluid phase. Parameters determining the sampling efficiency are optimized in such a way that correlation among successive PIHMC steps is minimized. PMID:15268354
Bose-Hubbard model on a checkerboard superlattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iskin, Menderes
2011-05-01
We study the ground-state phases of the Bose-Hubbard model on a checkerboard superlattice in two dimensions, including the superfluid phase and the Mott and charge-density-wave insulators. First, we discuss the single-particle Hofstadter problem, and show that the presence of a checkerboard superlattice gives rise to a magnetic flux-independent energy gap in the excitation spectrum. Then, we consider the many-particle problem, and derive an analytical mean-field expression for the superfluid-Mott and superfluid-charge-density-wave insulator phase transition boundaries. Finally, since the phase diagram of the Bose-Hubbard model on a checkerboard superlattice is in many ways similar to that of the extended Bose-Hubbard model, we comment on the effects of magnetic field on the latter model, and derive an analytical mean-field expression for the superfluid-insulator phase transition boundaries as well. This work is supported by Marie Curie International Reintegration Grant (FP7-PEOPLE-IRG-2010-268239).
Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip.
Hänsel, W; Hommelhoff, P; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J
2001-10-01
Although Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold atoms have been experimentally realizable for several years, their formation and manipulation still impose considerable technical challenges. An all-optical technique that enables faster production of Bose-Einstein condensates was recently reported. Here we demonstrate that the formation of a condensate can be greatly simplified using a microscopic magnetic trap on a chip. We achieve Bose-Einstein condensation inside the single vapour cell of a magneto-optical trap in as little as 700 ms-more than a factor of ten faster than typical experiments, and a factor of three faster than the all-optical technique. A coherent matter wave is emitted normal to the chip surface when the trapped atoms are released into free fall; alternatively, we couple the condensate into an 'atomic conveyor belt', which is used to transport the condensed cloud non-destructively over a macroscopic distance parallel to the chip surface. The possibility of manipulating laser-like coherent matter waves with such an integrated atom-optical system holds promise for applications in interferometry, holography, microscopy, atom lithography and quantum information processing.
Bose-Einstein condensation on a microelectronic chip
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hänsel, W.; Hommelhoff, P.; Hänsch, T. W.; Reichel, J.
2001-10-01
Although Bose-Einstein condensates of ultracold atoms have been experimentally realizable for several years, their formation and manipulation still impose considerable technical challenges. An all-optical technique that enables faster production of Bose-Einstein condensates was recently reported. Here we demonstrate that the formation of a condensate can be greatly simplified using a microscopic magnetic trap on a chip. We achieve Bose-Einstein condensation inside the single vapour cell of a magneto-optical trap in as little as 700ms-more than a factor of ten faster than typical experiments, and a factor of three faster than the all-optical technique. A coherent matter wave is emitted normal to the chip surface when the trapped atoms are released into free fall; alternatively, we couple the condensate into an `atomic conveyor belt', which is used to transport the condensed cloud non-destructively over a macroscopic distance parallel to the chip surface. The possibility of manipulating laser-like coherent matter waves with such an integrated atom-optical system holds promise for applications in interferometry, holography, microscopy, atom lithography and quantum information processing.
40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 89.312 Section 89... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The expiration date of the calibration gases stated by the gas manufacturer shall be recorded. (b) Pure...
40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 91.312 Section 91... Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date stated by the gas supplier for each calibration gas. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases...
40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 91.312 Section 91... Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date stated by the gas supplier for each calibration gas. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases...
40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...
40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...
40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...
40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 89.312 Section 89... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The expiration date of the calibration gases stated by the gas manufacturer shall be recorded. (b) Pure...
40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 91.312 Section 91... Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date stated by the gas supplier for each calibration gas. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases...
40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 89.312 Section 89... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The expiration date of the calibration gases stated by the gas manufacturer shall be recorded. (b) Pure...
40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 91.312 Section 91... Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date stated by the gas supplier for each calibration gas. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases...
40 CFR 92.112 - Analytical gases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Analytical gases. 92.112 Section 92.112... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.112 Analytical gases. (a) Gases for... as the diluent. (b) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be single blends of propane using...
40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analytical gases. 89.312 Section 89... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The expiration date of the calibration gases stated by the gas manufacturer shall be recorded. (b) Pure...
40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...
40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Analytical gases. 90.312 Section 90.312... § 90.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. The expiration date stated by the gas supplier must be recorded. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases...
The dissipative Bose-Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kordas, G.; Witthaut, D.; Buonsante, P.; Vezzani, A.; Burioni, R.; Karanikas, A. I.; Wimberger, S.
2015-11-01
Open many-body quantum systems have attracted renewed interest in the context of quantum information science and quantum transport with biological clusters and ultracold atomic gases. The physical relevance in many-particle bosonic systems lies in the realization of counter-intuitive transport phenomena and the stochastic preparation of highly stable and entangled many-body states due to engineered dissipation. We review a variety of approaches to describe an open system of interacting ultracold bosons which can be modeled by a tight-binding Hubbard approximation. Going along with the presentation of theoretical and numerical techniques, we present a series of results in diverse setups, based on a master equation description of the dissipative dynamics of ultracold bosons in a one-dimensional lattice. Next to by now standard numerical methods such as the exact unravelling of the master equation by quantum jumps for small systems and beyond mean-field expansions for larger ones, we present a coherent-state path integral formalism based on Feynman-Vernon theory applied to a many-body context.
Kaiglová, Jana; Langhammer, Jakub; Jiřinec, Petr; Janský, Bohumír; Chalupová, Dagmar
2015-03-01
This article used various hydrodynamic and sediment transport models to analyze the potential and the limits of different channel schematizations. The main aim was to select and evaluate the most suitable simulation method for fine-grained sediment remobilization assessment. Three types of channel schematization were selected to study the flow potential for remobilizing fine-grained sediment in artificially modified channels. Schematization with a 1D cross-sectional horizontal plan, a 1D+ approach, splitting the riverbed into different functional zones, and full 2D mesh, adopted in MIKE by the DHI modeling suite, was applied to the study. For the case study, a 55-km stretch of the Bílina River, in the Czech Republic, Central Europe, which has been heavily polluted by the chemical and coal mining industry since the mid-twentieth century, was selected. Long-term exposure to direct emissions of toxic pollutants including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) resulted in deposits of pollutants in fine-grained sediments in the riverbed. Simulations, based on three hydrodynamic model schematizations, proved that for events not exceeding the extent of the riverbed profile, the 1D schematization can provide comparable results to a 2D model. The 1D+ schematization can improve accuracy while keeping the benefits of high-speed simulation and low requirements of input DEM data, but the method's suitability is limited by the channel properties. PMID:25687259
1-D Numerical Analysis of ABCC Engine Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holden, Richard
1999-01-01
ABCC engine combines air breathing and rocket engine into a single engine to increase the specific impulse over an entire flight trajectory. Except for the heat source, the basic operation of the ABCC is similar to the basic operation of the RBCC engine. The ABCC is intended to have a higher specific impulse than the RBCC for single stage Earth to orbit vehicle. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a useful tool for the analysis of complex transport processes in various components in ABCC propulsion system. The objective of the present research was to develop a transient 1-D numerical model using conservation of mass, linear momentum, and energy equations that could be used to predict flow behavior throughout a generic ABCC engine following a flight path. At specific points during the development of the 1-D numerical model a myriad of tests were performed to prove the program produced consistent, realistic numbers that follow compressible flow theory for various inlet conditions.
Phase diagram of a bulk 1d lattice Coulomb gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Démery, V.; Monsarrat, R.; Dean, D. S.; Podgornik, R.
2016-01-01
The exact solution, via transfer matrix, of the simple one-dimensional lattice Coulomb gas (1d LCG) model can reproduce peculiar features of ionic liquid capacitors, such as overscreening, layering, and camel- and bell-shaped capacitance curves. Using the same transfer matrix method, we now compute the bulk properties of the 1d LCG in the constant voltage ensemble. We unveil a phase diagram with rich structure exhibiting low-density disordered and high-density ordered phases, separated by a first-order phase transition at low temperature; the solid state at full packing can be ordered or not, depending on the temperature. This phase diagram, which is strikingly similar to its three-dimensional counterpart, also sheds light on the behaviour of the confined system.
1D Josephson quantum interference grids: diffraction patterns and dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucci, M.; Badoni, D.; Corato, V.; Merlo, V.; Ottaviani, I.; Salina, G.; Cirillo, M.; Ustinov, A. V.; Winkler, D.
2016-02-01
We investigate the magnetic response of transmission lines with embedded Josephson junctions and thus generating a 1D underdamped array. The measured multi-junction interference patterns are compared with the theoretical predictions for Josephson supercurrent modulations when an external magnetic field couples both to the inter-junction loops and to the junctions themselves. The results provide a striking example of the analogy between Josephson phase modulation and 1D optical diffraction grid. The Fiske resonances in the current-voltage characteristics with voltage spacing {Φ0}≤ft(\\frac{{\\bar{c}}}{2L}\\right) , where L is the total physical length of the array, {Φ0} the magnetic flux quantum and \\bar{c} the speed of light in the transmission line, demonstrate that the discrete line supports stable dynamic patterns generated by the ac Josephson effect interacting with the cavity modes of the line.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauer, J. Wesley; Viparelli, Enrica; Piégay, Hervé
2016-07-01
Bed material transported in geomorphically active gravel bed rivers often has a local source at nearby eroding banks and ends up sequestered in bars not far downstream. However, most 1-D numerical models for gravel transport assume that gravel originates from and deposits on the channel bed. In this paper, we present a 1-D framework for simulating morphodynamic evolution of bed elevation and size distribution in a gravel-bed river that actively exchanges sediment with its floodplain, which is represented as an off-channel sediment reservoir. The model is based on the idea that sediment enters the channel at eroding banks whose elevation depends on total floodplain sediment storage and on the average elevation of the floodplain relative to the channel bed. Lateral erosion of these banks occurs at a specified rate that can represent either net channel migration or channel widening. Transfer of material out of the channel depends on a typical bar thickness and a specified lateral exchange rate due either to net channel migration or narrowing. The model is implemented using an object oriented framework that allows users to explore relationships between bank supply, bed structure, and lateral change rates. It is applied to a ∼50-km reach of the Ain River, France, that experienced significant reduction in sediment supply due to dam construction during the 20th century. Results are strongly sensitive to lateral exchange rates, showing that in this reach, the supply of sand and gravel at eroding banks and the sequestration of gravel in point bars can have strong influence on overall reach-scale sediment budgets.
Auxiliary field formalism for dilute fermionic atom gases with tunable interactions
Mihaila, Bogdan; Chien, Chih-Chun; Timmermans, Eddy; Dawson, John F.; Cooper, Fred
2011-05-15
We develop the auxiliary field formalism corresponding to a dilute system of spin-1/2 fermions. This theory represents the Fermi counterpart of the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) theory developed recently by F. Cooper et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 240402 (2010)] to describe a dilute gas of Bose particles. Assuming tunable interactions, this formalism is appropriate for the study of the crossover from the regime of Bardeen-Cooper-Schriffer (BCS) pairing to the regime of BEC in ultracold fermionic atom gases. We show that when applied to the Fermi case at zero temperature, the leading-order auxiliary field (LOAF) approximation gives the same equations as obtained in the standard BCS variational picture. At finite temperature, LOAF leads to the theory discussed by Sa de Melo, Randeria, and Engelbrecht [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3202 (1993); Phys. Rev. B 55, 15153 (1997)]. As such, LOAF provides a unified framework to study the interacting Fermi gas. The mean-field results discussed here can be systematically improved on by calculating the one-particle irreducible action corrections, order by order.
Mesoscopic effects in quantum phases of ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices
Carr, L. D.; Schirmer, D. G.; Wall, M. L.; Brown, R. C.; Williams, J. E.; Clark, Charles W.
2010-01-15
We present a wide array of quantum measures on numerical solutions of one-dimensional Bose- and Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonians for finite-size systems with open boundary conditions. Finite-size effects are highly relevant to ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, where an external trap creates smaller effective regions in the form of the celebrated 'wedding cake' structure and the local density approximation is often not applicable. Specifically, for the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian we calculate number, quantum depletion, local von Neumann entropy, generalized entanglement or Q measure, fidelity, and fidelity susceptibility; for the Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian we also calculate the pairing correlations, magnetization, charge-density correlations, and antiferromagnetic structure factor. Our numerical method is imaginary time propagation via time-evolving block decimation. As part of our study we provide a careful comparison of canonical versus grand canonical ensembles and Gutzwiller versus entangled simulations. The most striking effect of finite size occurs for bosons: we observe a strong blurring of the tips of the Mott lobes accompanied by higher depletion, and show how the location of the first Mott lobe tip approaches the thermodynamic value as a function of system size.
Coherence and Squeezing of Bose-Einstein Condensates in Double Wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Xiao-jie
2016-05-01
We investigate coherence and squeezing of a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a double-well potential. By analytically deriving the form of coherence and numerically calculating the squeezing parameter, we show that the coherence and the squeezing may be controlled by adjusting some parameters of the two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate.
Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiencies through 1-D Nanostructures
2009-01-01
The current global energy problem can be attributed to insufficient fossil fuel supplies and excessive greenhouse gas emissions resulting from increasing fossil fuel consumption. The huge demand for clean energy potentially can be met by solar-to-electricity conversions. The large-scale use of solar energy is not occurring due to the high cost and inadequate efficiencies of existing solar cells. Nanostructured materials have offered new opportunities to design more efficient solar cells, particularly one-dimensional (1-D) nanomaterials for enhancing solar cell efficiencies. These 1-D nanostructures, including nanotubes, nanowires, and nanorods, offer significant opportunities to improve efficiencies of solar cells by facilitating photon absorption, electron transport, and electron collection; however, tremendous challenges must be conquered before the large-scale commercialization of such cells. This review specifically focuses on the use of 1-D nanostructures for enhancing solar cell efficiencies. Other nanostructured solar cells or solar cells based on bulk materials are not covered in this review. Major topics addressed include dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells, and p-n junction solar cells.
Constructing 3D interaction maps from 1D epigenomes
Zhu, Yun; Chen, Zhao; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Mengchi; Medovoy, David; Whitaker, John W.; Ding, Bo; Li, Nan; Zheng, Lina; Wang, Wei
2016-01-01
The human genome is tightly packaged into chromatin whose functional output depends on both one-dimensional (1D) local chromatin states and three-dimensional (3D) genome organization. Currently, chromatin modifications and 3D genome organization are measured by distinct assays. An emerging question is whether it is possible to deduce 3D interactions by integrative analysis of 1D epigenomic data and associate 3D contacts to functionality of the interacting loci. Here we present EpiTensor, an algorithm to identify 3D spatial associations within topologically associating domains (TADs) from 1D maps of histone modifications, chromatin accessibility and RNA-seq. We demonstrate that active promoter–promoter, promoter–enhancer and enhancer–enhancer associations identified by EpiTensor are highly concordant with those detected by Hi-C, ChIA-PET and eQTL analyses at 200 bp resolution. Moreover, EpiTensor has identified a set of interaction hotspots, characterized by higher chromatin and transcriptional activity as well as enriched TF and ncRNA binding across diverse cell types, which may be critical for stabilizing the local 3D interactions. PMID:26960733
Constructing 3D interaction maps from 1D epigenomes.
Zhu, Yun; Chen, Zhao; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Mengchi; Medovoy, David; Whitaker, John W; Ding, Bo; Li, Nan; Zheng, Lina; Wang, Wei
2016-01-01
The human genome is tightly packaged into chromatin whose functional output depends on both one-dimensional (1D) local chromatin states and three-dimensional (3D) genome organization. Currently, chromatin modifications and 3D genome organization are measured by distinct assays. An emerging question is whether it is possible to deduce 3D interactions by integrative analysis of 1D epigenomic data and associate 3D contacts to functionality of the interacting loci. Here we present EpiTensor, an algorithm to identify 3D spatial associations within topologically associating domains (TADs) from 1D maps of histone modifications, chromatin accessibility and RNA-seq. We demonstrate that active promoter-promoter, promoter-enhancer and enhancer-enhancer associations identified by EpiTensor are highly concordant with those detected by Hi-C, ChIA-PET and eQTL analyses at 200 bp resolution. Moreover, EpiTensor has identified a set of interaction hotspots, characterized by higher chromatin and transcriptional activity as well as enriched TF and ncRNA binding across diverse cell types, which may be critical for stabilizing the local 3D interactions. PMID:26960733
Development of 1D Liner Compression Code for IDL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony
2015-11-01
A 1D liner compression code is developed to model liner implosion dynamics in the Inductively Driven Liner Experiment (IDL) where FRC plasmoid is compressed via inductively-driven metal liners. The driver circuit, magnetic field, joule heating, and liner dynamics calculations are performed at each time step in sequence to couple these effects in the code. To obtain more realistic magnetic field results for a given drive coil geometry, 2D and 3D effects are incorporated into the 1D field calculation through use of correction factor table lookup approach. Commercial low-frequency electromagnetic fields solver, ANSYS Maxwell 3D, is used to solve the magnetic field profile for static liner condition at various liner radius in order to derive correction factors for the 1D field calculation in the code. The liner dynamics results from the code is verified to be in good agreement with the results from commercial explicit dynamics solver, ANSYS Explicit Dynamics, and previous liner experiment. The developed code is used to optimize the capacitor bank and driver coil design for better energy transfer and coupling. FRC gain calculations are also performed using the liner compression data from the code for the conceptual design of the reactor sized system for fusion energy gains.
Radouani, Abdelaziz
2004-07-01
We use the one-dimensional (1D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation to investigate the dynamical evolution of a dilute repulsive Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) confined in an elongated static nonharmonic trap and stirred by an oscillating Gaussian obstacle moving at uniform speed in alternate direction. Direct numerical solutions of this equation show that above a critical obstacle velocity, the motion of the obstacle creates gray solitons and phonons. At first, when the velocity of the obstacle increases, the dissipation also increases. But the dissipation reaches a maximal value and then decreases dramatically and vanishes at high obstacle velocities. Our results at low obstacle velocities are similar to those previously obtained experimentally and by simulations in the case of vortice and phonon production in 3D and 2D trapped repulsive BEC's. But at high obstacle velocities, we show that the quasi-1D trapped repulsive BEC behaves as a quasisuperfluid medium with disappearance of gray soliton and phonon excitations. This extends previous results and provides the main dependence of the phenomenon on the obstacle characteristics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tacla, Alexandre B.; Caves, Carlton M.
2013-02-01
We study the mean-field dynamics and the reduced-dimension character of two-mode Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in highly anisotropic traps. By means of perturbative techniques, we show that the tightly confined (transverse) degrees of freedom can be decoupled from the dynamical equations at the expense of introducing additional effective three-body, attractive, intra- and inter-mode interactions into the dynamics of the loosely confined (longitudinal) degrees of freedom. These effective interactions are mediated by changes in the transverse wave function. The perturbation theory is valid as long as the nonlinear scattering energy is small compared to the transverse energy scales. This approach leads to reduced-dimension mean-field equations that optimally describe the evolution of a two-mode condensate in general quasi-one-dimensional (1D) and quasi-two-dimensional geometries. We use this model to investigate the relative phase and density dynamics of a two-mode, cigar-shaped 87Rb BEC. We study the relative-phase dynamics in the context of a nonlinear Ramsey interferometry scheme, which has recently been proposed as a novel platform for high-precision interferometry. Numerical integration of the coupled, time-dependent, three-dimensional, two-mode Gross-Pitaevskii equations for various atom numbers shows that this model gives a considerably more refined analytical account of the mean-field evolution than an idealized quasi-1D description.
Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko
2013-11-22
The organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily includes a group of polyspecific transporters that mediate transport of large amphipathic, mostly anionic molecules across cell membranes of eukaryotes. OATPs/Oatps are involved in the disposition and elimination of numerous physiological and foreign compounds. However, in non-mammalian species, the functional properties of Oatps remain unknown. We aimed to elucidate the role of Oatp1d1 in zebrafish to gain insights into the functional and structural evolution of the OATP1/Oatp1 superfamily. We show that diversification of the OATP1/Oatp1 family occurs after the emergence of jawed fish and that the OATP1A/Oatp1a and OATP1B/Oatp1b subfamilies appeared at the root of tetrapods. The Oatp1d subfamily emerged in teleosts and is absent in tetrapods. The zebrafish Oatp1d1 is similar to mammalian OATP1A/Oatp1a and OATP1B/Oatp1b members, with the main physiological role in transport and balance of steroid hormones. Oatp1d1 activity is dependent upon pH gradient, which could indicate bicarbonate exchange as a mode of transport. Our analysis of evolutionary conservation and structural properties revealed that (i) His-79 in intracellular loop 3 is conserved within OATP1/Oatp1 family and is crucial for the transport activity; (ii) N-glycosylation impacts membrane targeting and is conserved within the OATP1/Oatp1 family with Asn-122, Asn-133, Asn-499, and Asn-512 residues involved; (iii) the evolutionarily conserved cholesterol recognition interaction amino acid consensus motif is important for membrane localization; and (iv) Oatp1d1 is present in dimeric and possibly oligomeric form in the cell membrane. In conclusion, we describe the first detailed characterization of a new Oatp transporter in zebrafish, offering important insights into the functional evolution of the OATP1/Oatp1 family and the physiological role of Oatp1d1.
Superradiant phase transition of Fermi gases in a cavity across a Feshbach resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yu; Zhai, Hui; Yu, Zhenhua
2015-02-01
We consider the superradiant phase transition of a two-component Fermi gas in a cavity across a Feshbach resonance. It is known that quantum statistics plays a crucial role for the superradiant phase transition in atomic gases; in contrast to bosons, in a Fermi gas this transition exhibits strong density dependence. We show that across a Feshbach resonance, while the two-component Fermi gas passes through the BEC-BCS crossover, the superradiant phase transition undergoes a corresponding crossover from a fermionic behavior on the weakly interacting BCS side, to a bosonic behavior on the molecular Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) side. This intricate statistics crossover makes the superradiance maximally enhanced either in the unitary regime for low densities, in the BCS regime for moderate densities close to Fermi surface nesting, or in the BEC regime for high densities.
Stability of spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases with population imbalance.
Iskin, M; Subaşı, A L
2011-07-29
We use the self-consistent mean-field theory to analyze the effects of Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on the ground-state phase diagram of population-imbalanced Fermi gases throughout the BCS-Bose-Einstein condensate evolution. We find that the SOC and population imbalance are counteracting, and that this competition tends to stabilize the uniform superfluid phase against the phase separation. However, we also show that the SOC stabilizes (destabilizes) the uniform superfluid phase against the normal phase for low (high) population imbalances. In addition, we find topological quantum phase transitions associated with the appearance of momentum-space regions with zero quasiparticle energies, and study their signatures in the momentum distribution.
Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases
Ivory, M. K.; Ziltz, A. R.; Fancher, C. T.; Pyle, A. J.; Sensharma, A.; Chase, B.; Field, J. P.; Garcia, A.; Aubin, S.; Jervis, D.
2014-04-15
We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold {sup 87}Rb and {sup 39}K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 10{sup 4} {sup 87}Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold {sup 39}K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems.
Atom chip apparatus for experiments with ultracold rubidium and potassium gases.
Ivory, M K; Ziltz, A R; Fancher, C T; Pyle, A J; Sensharma, A; Chase, B; Field, J P; Garcia, A; Jervis, D; Aubin, S
2014-04-01
We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold (87)Rb and (39)K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 10(4) (87)Rb atoms in an atom chip trap that features a dimple and good optical access. We have also demonstrated production of ultracold (39)K and subsequent loading into the chip trap. We describe the details of the dual chamber vacuum system, the cooling lasers, the magnetic trap, the multicoil magnetic transport system, the atom chip, and two optical dipole traps. Due in part to the use of light-induced atom desorption, the laser cooling chamber features a sufficiently good vacuum to also support optical dipole trap-based experiments. The apparatus is well suited for studies of atom-surface forces, quantum pumping and transport experiments, atom interferometry, novel chip-based traps, and studies of one-dimensional many-body systems.
Interaction quenches of Fermi gases
Uhrig, Goetz S.
2009-12-15
It is shown that the jump in the momentum distribution of Fermi gases evolves smoothly for small and intermediate times once an interaction between the fermions is suddenly switched on. The jump does not vanish abruptly. The loci in momentum space where the jumps occur are those of the noninteracting Fermi sea. No relaxation of the Fermi surface geometry takes place.
New frontiers with ultracold gases
Ketterle, Wolfgang
2005-05-05
This article summarizes recent work at MIT, which was presented at ICAP 2004. These examples demonstrate the broad range of topics, which are covered by research on quantum-degenerate gases: boson and fermion mixtures, cold molecules, vortices, and interactions with surfaces.
Flexible hose for liquefied gases
Mead, H.B.
1984-05-01
Flexible hose for liquefied gases, comprising a tubular body of biaxially oriented polypropylene film (2) arranged between an inner helically wound wire (3) and an outer helically wound wire (4), said wires being wound at the same pitch but having the windings displaced by half a pitch width from each other.
Competing orders in a dipolar Bose-Fermi mixture on a square optical lattice: mean-field perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scaramazza, Jasen A.; Kain, Ben; Ling, Hong Y.
2016-07-01
We consider a mixture of a two-component Fermi gas and a single-component dipolar Bose gas in a square optical lattice and reduce it into an effective Fermi system where the Fermi-Fermi interaction includes the attractive interaction induced by the phonons of a uniform dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate. Focusing on this effective Fermi system in the parameter regime that preserves the symmetry of D4, the point group of a square, we explore, within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field theory, the phase competition among density wave orderings and superfluid pairings. We construct the matrix representation of the linearized gap equation in the irreducible representations of D4. We show that in the weak coupling regime, each matrix element, which is a four-dimensional (4D) integral in momentum space, can be put in a separable form involving a 1D integral, which is only a function of temperature and the chemical potential, and a pairing-specific "effective" interaction, which is an analytical function of the parameters that characterize the Fermi-Fermi interactions in our system. We analyze the critical temperatures of various competing orders as functions of different system parameters in both the absence and presence of the dipolar interaction. We find that close to half filling, the dx2 - y2-wave pairing with a critical temperature in the order of a fraction of Fermi energy (at half filling) may dominate all other phases, and at a higher filling factor, the p-wave pairing with a critical temperature in the order of a hundredth of Fermi energy may emerge as a winner. We find that tuning a dipolar interaction can dramatically enhance the pairings with dxy- and g-wave symmetries but not enough for them to dominate other competing phases.
Comparing and contrasting nuclei and cold atomic gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zinner, N. T.; Jensen, A. S.
2013-05-01
The experimental revolution in ultracold atomic gas physics over the past decades has brought tremendous amounts of new insight to the world of degenerate quantum systems. Here we compare and contrast the developments of cold atomic gases with the physics of nuclei since many concepts, techniques, and nomenclatures are common to both fields. However, nuclei are finite systems with interactions that are typically much more complicated than those of ultracold atomic gases. The similarities and differences must therefore be carefully addressed for a meaningful comparison and to facilitate fruitful crossdisciplinary activity. We first consider condensates of bosonic and paired systems of fermionic particles with the mean-field description, but take great care to point out potential problems in the limit of small particle numbers. Along the way we review some of the basic results of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory, as well as the BCS-BEC crossover and the Fermi gas in the unitarity limit, all within the context of ultracold atoms. Subsequently, we consider the specific example of an atomic Fermi gas from a nuclear physics perspective, comparing degrees of freedom, interactions, and relevant length and energy scales of cold atoms and nuclei. Next we address some attempts in nuclear physics to transfer the concepts of condensates in nuclei that can in principle be built from bosonic alpha-particle constituents. We also consider Efimov physics, a prime example of nuclear physics transferred to cold atoms, and consider which systems are more likely to show interesting bound state spectra. Finally, we address some recent studies of the BCS-BEC crossover in light nuclei and compare them to the concepts used in ultracold atomic gases. While many-body concepts such as BEC or BCS states are applicable in both subfields, we find that the interactions and finite particle numbers in nuclei can obscure the clear meaning they have in cold
Quantum fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases
He, Lianyi; Lu, Haifeng; Cao, Gaoqing; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia -Ji
2015-08-14
We present a theoretical study of the ground state of the BCS-BEC crossover in dilute two-dimensional Fermi gases. While the mean-field theory provides a simple and analytical equation of state, the pressure is equal to that of a noninteracting Fermi gas in the entire BCS-BEC crossover, which is not consistent with the features of a weakly interacting Bose condensate in the BEC limit and a weakly interacting Fermi liquid in the BCS limit. The inadequacy of the two-dimensional mean-field theory indicates that the quantum fluctuations are much more pronounced than those in three dimensions. In this work, we show thatmore » the inclusion of the Gaussian quantum fluctuations naturally recovers the above features in both the BEC and the BCS limits. In the BEC limit, the missing logarithmic dependence on the boson chemical potential is recovered by the quantum fluctuations. Near the quantum phase transition from the vacuum to the BEC phase, we compare our equation of state with the known grand canonical equation of state of two-dimensional Bose gases and determine the ratio of the composite boson scattering length aB to the fermion scattering length a2D. We find aB ≃ 0.56a2D, in good agreement with the exact four-body calculation. As a result, we compare our equation of state in the BCS-BEC crossover with recent results from the quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements and find good agreements.« less
Quantum fluctuations in the BCS-BEC crossover of two-dimensional Fermi gases
He, Lianyi; Lu, Haifeng; Cao, Gaoqing; Hu, Hui; Liu, Xia -Ji
2015-08-14
We present a theoretical study of the ground state of the BCS-BEC crossover in dilute two-dimensional Fermi gases. While the mean-field theory provides a simple and analytical equation of state, the pressure is equal to that of a noninteracting Fermi gas in the entire BCS-BEC crossover, which is not consistent with the features of a weakly interacting Bose condensate in the BEC limit and a weakly interacting Fermi liquid in the BCS limit. The inadequacy of the two-dimensional mean-field theory indicates that the quantum fluctuations are much more pronounced than those in three dimensions. In this work, we show that the inclusion of the Gaussian quantum fluctuations naturally recovers the above features in both the BEC and the BCS limits. In the BEC limit, the missing logarithmic dependence on the boson chemical potential is recovered by the quantum fluctuations. Near the quantum phase transition from the vacuum to the BEC phase, we compare our equation of state with the known grand canonical equation of state of two-dimensional Bose gases and determine the ratio of the composite boson scattering length a_{B} to the fermion scattering length a_{2D}. We find a_{B} ≃ 0.56a_{2D}, in good agreement with the exact four-body calculation. As a result, we compare our equation of state in the BCS-BEC crossover with recent results from the quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the experimental measurements and find good agreements.
Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, David Z.
2007-01-01
A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms (NPO-30232) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 10a. A photonic crystal is an optical component that has a periodic structure comprising two dielectric materials with high dielectric contrast (e.g., a semiconductor and air), with geometrical feature sizes comparable to or smaller than light wavelengths of interest. Experimental superprisms have been realized as photonic crystals having three-dimensional (3D) structures comprising regions of amorphous Si alternating with regions of SiO2, fabricated in a complex process that included sputtering. A photonic crystal of the type to be exploited according to the present proposal is said to be one-dimensional (1D) because its contrasting dielectric materials would be stacked in parallel planar layers; in other words, there would be spatial periodicity in one dimension only. The processes of designing and fabricating 1D photonic crystal superprisms would be simpler and, hence, would cost less than do those for 3D photonic crystal superprisms. As in 3D structures, 1D photonic crystals may be used in applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing. In the extended-range configuration, it is also suitable for spectrometry applications. As an engineered structure or artificially engineered material, a photonic crystal can exhibit optical properties not commonly found in natural substances. Prior research had revealed several classes of photonic crystal structures for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden in certain frequency ranges, denoted photonic bandgaps. It had also been found that in narrow frequency bands just outside the photonic bandgaps, the angular wavelength dispersion of electromagnetic waves propagating in photonic crystal superprisms is much stronger than is the angular wavelength dispersion obtained
Non-linearity in Bayesian 1-D magnetotelluric inversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Rongwen; Dosso, Stan E.; Liu, Jianxin; Dettmer, Jan; Tong, Xiaozhong
2011-05-01
This paper applies a Bayesian approach to examine non-linearity for the 1-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse problem. In a Bayesian formulation the posterior probability density (PPD), which combines data and prior information, is interpreted in terms of parameter estimates and uncertainties, which requires optimizing and integrating the PPD. Much work on 1-D MT inversion has been based on (approximate) linearized solutions, but more recently fully non-linear (numerical) approaches have been applied. This paper directly compares results of linearized and non-linear uncertainty estimation for 1-D MT inversion; to do so, advanced methods for both approaches are applied. In the non-linear formulation used here, numerical optimization is carried out using an adaptive-hybrid algorithm. Numerical integration applies Metropolis-Hastings sampling, rotated to a principal-component parameter space for efficient sampling of correlated parameters, and employing non-unity sampling temperatures to ensure global sampling. Since appropriate model parametrizations are generally not known a priori, both under- and overparametrized approaches are considered. For underparametrization, the Bayesian information criterion is applied to determine the number of layers consistent with the resolving power of the data. For overparametrization, prior information is included which favours simple structure in a manner similar to regularized inversion. The data variance and/or trade-off parameter regulating data and prior information are treated in several ways, including applying fixed optimal estimates (an empirical Bayesian approach) or including them as hyperparameters in the sampling (hierarchical Bayesian). The latter approach has the benefit of accounting for the uncertainty in the hyperparameters in estimating model parameter uncertainties. Non-linear and linearized inversion results are compared for synthetic test cases and for the measured COPROD1 MT data by considering marginal probability
Experiments on hydrodynamic transport in ultra-cold bose gasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koller, S. B.
2012-09-01
At temperatures near the absolut zero, a gas, here atomic sodium vapour, with high enough density cannot be described as tiny balls moving around as in classical physics. Since the temperature is low, the atoms are so slow that the matterwave of each atom starts to extend over the size of the atom and even over the interatomic distance. Therefore, they start to interfere like waves. Quantum mechanics start to dominate the physics in this regime. Further, depending on the sort of atoms (bosons or fermions) the atoms prefer to be in the same state or avoid to be in the same state. In the case of bosons as in the thesis, if the temperature is lowered to sub micro Kelvin temperature, a new state of matter appears after a phase transition - a macroscopic, standing wave, the Bose-Einstein condensate. This leads to a new phenomena: superfluidity - frictionless flow, second sound, vorticity and coherent scattering effects to name a few. The atoms are trapped in a elongated trap as in most of the experiments in ultra cold gasses. Usually experiments are done in a regime where the atoms seldomly collide with each other while travelling from one end to the other end of the cloud. In this experiment, however, the atoms collide many times with each other when they oscillate in the trap. This means that the cloud is hydrodynamic and leads to a very different behaviour. Two different sound waves (first and second sound), heat conduction, and collisional dominated transport can be observed in this case. The fact that the gas is weakly interacting allows comparison with current theory. At very low temperatures as in the experiments described in the thesis, the Bose character strongly alters the collisions of the atoms. The outcome of the collision does not only depend on the colliding atoms, but also on the atoms near by in phase space. The experiments outlined in this thesis cover some aspects of physics involved. Vortices have been created and observed in the Bose
Viscous behavior in a quasi-1D fractal cluster glass.
Etzkorn, S J; Hibbs, Wendy; Miller, Joel S; Epstein, A J
2002-11-11
The spin glass transition of a quasi-1D organic-based magnet ([MnTPP][TCNE]) is explored using both ac and dc measurements. A scaling analysis of the ac susceptibility shows a spin glass transition near 4 K, with a viscous decay of the thermoremanent magnetization recorded above 4 K. We propose an extension to a fractal cluster model of spin glasses that determines the dimension of the spin clusters (D) ranging from approximately 0.8 to over 1.5 as the glass transition is approached. Long-range dipolar interactions are suggested as the origin of this low value for the apparent lower critical dimension.
Practical variational tomography for critical 1D systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jong Yeon; Landon-Cardinal, Olivier
2015-03-01
We further investigate a recently introduced efficient quantum state reconstruction procedure targeted to states well-approximated by the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA). First, we introduce an improved optimization scheme that can be easily generalized for MERA states with larger bond dimension. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of the error propagation and quantify how it affects the distance between the experimental state and the reconstructed state. Third, we explain how to bound this distance using local data, providing an efficient scalable certification method. Fourth, we examine the performance of MERA tomography on the ground states of several 1D critical models.
Structural stability of a 1D compressible viscoelastic fluid model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huo, Xiaokai; Yong, Wen-An
2016-07-01
This paper is concerned with a compressible viscoelastic fluid model proposed by Öttinger. Although the model has a convex entropy, the Hessian matrix of the entropy does not symmetrize the system of first-order partial differential equations due to the non-conservative terms in the constitutive equation. We show that the corresponding 1D model is symmetrizable hyperbolic and dissipative and satisfies the Kawashima condition. Based on these, we prove the global existence of smooth solutions near equilibrium and justify the compatibility of the model with the Navier-Stokes equations.
Nonlocal Order Parameters for the 1D Hubbard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montorsi, Arianna; Roncaglia, Marco
2012-12-01
We characterize the Mott-insulator and Luther-Emery phases of the 1D Hubbard model through correlators that measure the parity of spin and charge strings along the chain. These nonlocal quantities order in the corresponding gapped phases and vanish at the critical point Uc=0, thus configuring as hidden order parameters. The Mott insulator consists of bound doublon-holon pairs, which in the Luther-Emery phase turn into electron pairs with opposite spins, both unbinding at Uc. The behavior of the parity correlators is captured by an effective free spinless fermion model.
Deconvolution/identification techniques for 1-D transient signals
Goodman, D.M.
1990-10-01
This paper discusses a variety of nonparametric deconvolution and identification techniques that we have developed for application to 1-D transient signal problems. These methods are time-domain techniques that use direct methods for matrix inversion. Therefore, they are not appropriate for large data'' problems. These techniques involve various regularization methods and permit the use of certain kinds of a priori information in estimating the unknown. These techniques have been implemented in a package using standard FORTRAN that should make the package readily transportable to most computers. This paper is also meant to be an instruction manual for the package. 25 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.
Coherent thermal conductance of 1-D photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tschikin, Maria; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age
2012-10-01
We present an exact calculation of coherent thermal conductance in 1-D multilayer photonic crystals using the S-matrix method. In particular, we study the thermal conductance in a bilayer structure of Si/vacuum or Al2O3/vacuum slabs by means of the exact radiative heat flux expression. Based on the results obtained for the Al2O3/vacuum structure we show by comparison with previous works that the material losses and (localized) surface modes supported by the inner layers play a fundamental role and cannot be omitted in the definition of thermal conductance. Our results could have significant implications in the conception of efficient thermal barriers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasilevskiy, Mikhail I.; Santiago-Pérez, Darío G.; Trallero-Giner, Carlos; Peres, Nuno M. R.; Kavokin, Alexey
2015-12-01
Exciton-polariton modes arising from interaction between bound excitons in monolayer thin semiconductor sheets and photons in a Fabry-Perot microcavity are considered theoretically. We calculate the dispersion curves, mode lifetimes, Rabi splitting, and Hopfield coefficients of these structures for two nearly 2D semiconductor materials, MoS2 and WS2, and suggest that they are interesting for studying the rich physics associated with the Bose-Einstein condensation of exciton polaritons. The large exciton binding energy and dipole allowed exciton transitions, in addition to the relatively easily controllable distance between the semiconductor sheets, are the advantages of this system in comparison with traditional GaAs or CdTe based semiconductor microcavities. In particular, in order to mimic the rich physical properties of the quantum degenerate mixture of two bosonic species of dilute atomic gases with tunable interspecies interaction, we put forward a structure containing two semiconductor sheets separated by some atomic-scale distance (l ) using a nearly 2D dielectric (e.g., h-BN), which offers the possibility of tuning the interaction between two exciton-polariton Bose-Enstein condensates. We show that the dynamics of this structure are ruled by two coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations with the coupling parameter ˜l-1 .
Investigation of Thermal Stress Convection in Nonisothermal Gases under Microgravity Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mackowski, Daniel W.
1999-01-01
The project has sought to ascertain the veracity of the Burnett relations, as applied to slow moving, highly nonisothermal gases, by comparison of convection and stress predictions with those generated by the DSMC method. The Burnett equations were found to provide reasonable descriptions of the pressure distribution and normal stress in stationary gases with a 1-D temperature gradient. Continuum/Burnett predictions of thermal stress convection in 2-D heated enclosures, however, are not quantitatively supported by DSMC results. For such situations, it appears that thermal creep flows, generated at the boundaries of the enclosure, will be significantly larger than the flows resulting from thermal stress in the gas.
Vortex formation during the growth of Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weiler, Chad; Neely, Tyler; Scherer, David; Anderson, Brian
2007-06-01
We experimentally study of the growth of Bose-Einstein condensates in harmonic trapping potentials with laser-induced perturbations to the potential well. We find that some time- independent perturbations can significantly impact the growth process and final state of the BEC. In particular, in numerical simulations and our experiments, we have observed the generation of vortices and vortex-antivortex pairs as a result of creating BECs in perturbed potentials. We will describe the results of our ongoing and completed experiments (D.R. Scherer, C.N. Weiler, T.W. Neely, B.P. Anderson, cond-mat/0610187, to be published in Phys. Rev. Lett.).
Hysteresis effects in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates
Jackson, B.; Barenghi, C. F.
2006-10-15
We study the formation of vortices in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a rotating anisotropic trap. We find that the number of vortices and angular momentum attained by the condensate depend upon the rotation history of the trap and on the number of vortices present in the condensate initially. A simplified model based on hydrodynamic equations is developed, and used to explain this effect in terms of a shift in the resonance frequency of the quadrupole mode of the condensate in the presence of a vortex lattice. Differences between the spin-up and spin-down response of the condensate are found, demonstrating hysteresis phenomena in this system.
Nonlinear beam splitter in Bose-Einstein-condensate interferometers
Pezze, L.; Smerzi, A.; Berman, G. P.; Bishop, A. R.; Collins, L. A.
2006-09-15
A beam splitter is an important component of an atomic/optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Here we study a Bose-Einstein condensate beam splitter, realized with a double well potential of tunable height. We analyze how the sensitivity of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is degraded by the nonlinear particle-particle interaction during the splitting dynamics. We distinguish three regimes, Rabi, Josephson and Fock, and associate to them a different scaling of the phase sensitivity with the total number of particles.
Bose-Einstein Condensation of Dark Matter Axions
Sikivie, P.; Yang, Q.
2009-09-11
We show that cold dark matter axions thermalize and form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). We obtain the axion state in a homogeneous and isotropic universe, and derive the equations governing small axion perturbations. Because they form a BEC, axions differ from ordinary cold dark matter in the nonlinear regime of structure formation and upon entering the horizon. Axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multipoles.
Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter axions.
Sikivie, P; Yang, Q
2009-09-11
We show that cold dark matter axions thermalize and form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). We obtain the axion state in a homogeneous and isotropic universe, and derive the equations governing small axion perturbations. Because they form a BEC, axions differ from ordinary cold dark matter in the nonlinear regime of structure formation and upon entering the horizon. Axion BEC provides a mechanism for the production of net overall rotation in dark matter halos, and for the alignment of cosmic microwave anisotropy multipoles.
Noise in Bose Josephson junctions: Decoherence and phase relaxation
Ferrini, G.; Minguzzi, A.; Hekking, F. W. J.; Spehner, D.
2010-09-15
Squeezed states and macroscopic superpositions of coherent states have been predicted to be generated dynamically in Bose Josephson junctions. We solve exactly the quantum dynamics of such a junction in the presence of a classical noise coupled to the population-imbalance number operator (phase noise), accounting for, for example, the experimentally relevant fluctuations of the magnetic field. We calculate the correction to the decay of the visibility induced by the noise in the non-Markovian regime. Furthermore, we predict that such a noise induces an anomalous rate of decoherence among the components of the macroscopic superpositions, which is independent of the total number of atoms, leading to potential interferometric applications.
Superfluidity of a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of polaritons
Wouters, Michiel; Savona, Vincenzo
2010-02-01
We study theoretically superfluidity in a driven-dissipative Bose gas out of thermal equilibrium, and discuss the relation with conventional superfluids. We show how the superfluid behavior is characterized by a dramatic increase in the lifetime of a quantized vortex and point out the influence of the spatial geometry of the condensate. We apply our study to a condensate of polaritons in a semiconductor microcavity, whose properties can be directly inferred from optical spectroscopy. We propose three different experimental schemes to measure the vorticity of the polariton condensate.
Geometrical Pumping with a Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Lu, H-I; Schemmer, M; Aycock, L M; Genkina, D; Sugawa, S; Spielman, I B
2016-05-20
We realized a quantum geometric "charge" pump for a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the lowest Bloch band of a novel bipartite magnetic lattice. Topological charge pumps in filled bands yield quantized pumping set by the global-topological-properties of the bands. In contrast, our geometric charge pump for a BEC occupying just a single crystal momentum state exhibits nonquantized charge pumping set by local-geometrical-properties of the band structure. Like topological charge pumps, for each pump cycle we observed an overall displacement (here, not quantized) and a temporal modulation of the atomic wave packet's position in each unit cell, i.e., the polarization. PMID:27258857
Pulse propagation in the interacting one-dimensional Bose liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarishvili, A. D.; Protopopov, I. V.; Gutman, D. B.
2016-07-01
We study wave propagation in interacting Bose liquid, where the short-range part of the interaction between atoms is of a hard-core type, and its long-range part scales with a distance as a power law. The cases of Coulomb, dipole-dipole and van der Waals interaction are considered. We employ a hydrodynamic approach, based on the exact solution of the Lieb-Liniger model, and study the evolution of a density pulse instantly released from a potential trap. We analyze semiclassical Euler and continuity equations and construct the corresponding Riemann invariants. We supplement our analysis with numerical calculations and discuss experimental applications for ultracold atom experiments.
Pairing and condensation in a resonant Bose-Fermi mixture
Fratini, Elisa; Pieri, Pierbiagio
2010-05-15
We study by diagrammatic means a Bose-Fermi mixture, with boson-fermion coupling tuned by a Fano-Feshbach resonance. For increasing coupling, the growing boson-fermion pairing correlations progressively reduce the boson condensation temperature and make it eventually vanish at a critical coupling. Such quantum critical point depends very weakly on the population imbalance and, for vanishing boson densities, coincides with that found for the polaron-molecule transition in a strongly imbalanced Fermi gas, thus bridging two quite distinct physical systems.
Three-vortex configurations in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates
Seman, J. A.; Henn, E. A. L.; Shiozaki, R. F.; Ramos, E. R. F.; Caracanhas, M.; Castilho, P.; Castelo Branco, C.; Tavares, P. E. S.; Poveda-Cuevas, F. J.; Magalhaes, K. M. F.; Bagnato, V. S.; Haque, M.; Roati, G.
2010-09-15
We report on the creation of three-vortex clusters in a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate by oscillatory excitation of the condensate. This procedure can create vortices of both circulations, so that we are able to create several types of vortex clusters using the same mechanism. The three-vortex configurations are dominated by two types, namely, an equilateral-triangle arrangement and a linear arrangement. We interpret these most stable configurations respectively as three vortices with the same circulation and as a vortex-antivortex-vortex cluster. The linear configurations are very likely experimental signatures of predicted stationary vortex clusters.
Ground state of a resonantly interacting Bose gas
Diederix, J. M.; Heijst, T. C. F. van; Stoof, H. T. C.
2011-09-15
We show that a two-channel mean-field theory for a Bose gas near a Feshbach resonance allows for an analytic computation of the chemical potential, and therefore the universal constant {beta}, at unitarity. To improve on this mean-field theory, which physically neglects condensate depletion, we study a variational Jastrow ansatz for the ground-state wave function and use the hypernetted-chain approximation to minimize the energy for all positive values of the scattering length. We also show that other important physical quantities such as Tan's contact and the condensate fraction can be directly obtained from this approach.
Transition temperature of a weakly interacting Bose gas
Kao, Yee-Mou; Jiang, T. F.
2006-04-15
We report a theoretical study of the transition temperature of a trapped interacting dilute Bose gas. The system is treated like a two-fluid model consisting of a thermal component and a condensate component. Through the calculation of the energy spectra, the origins of various effects on the transition temperature are derived. We found that the interactive shift is affected by both the thermal component and the condensate component. The latter effect, which is about 34% of the former, has never been reported so far. With these two effects, our calculated interactive shift agrees very well with the recent measurement.
Texture control in a pseudospin Bose-Einstein condensate.
Ruben, Gary; Morgan, Michael J; Paganin, David M
2010-11-26
We describe a wave function engineering approach to the formation of textures in nonrotated multicomponent Bose-Einstein condensates. With numerical simulations of a viable two-component condensate experiment, we demonstrate the formation of a ballistically expanding regular lattice texture, composed of half-quantum vortices and spin-2 textures. The formation is described by a linear interference process in which the geometry and phase of three initially separated wave packets provide deterministic control over the resulting lattice texture.
Bose-Einstein Condensates with Spin-Orbit Interaction
Ho Tinlun; Zhang Shizhong
2011-10-07
Motivated by recent experiments carried out by Spielman's group at NIST, we study a general scheme for generating families of gauge fields, spanning the scalar, spin-orbit, and non-Abelian regimes. The NIST experiments, which impart momentum to bosons while changing their spin state, can in principle realize all these. In the spin-orbit regime, we show that a Bose gas is a spinor condensate made up of two non-orthogonal dressed spin states carrying different momenta. As a result, its density shows a stripe structure with a contrast proportional to the overlap of the dressed states, which can be made very pronounced by adjusting the experimental parameters.
Fourier Spectroscopy of a Spin-Orbit Coupled Bose Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valdes-Curiel, Ana; Trypogeorgos, Dimitris; Marshall, Erin; Spielman, Ian
2016-05-01
We generate spin-orbit coupling in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate using Raman transitions. We are able to measure the system's spin and momentum dependent energy spectrum by looking at the time evolution of the three spin states. We drive transitions at different detunings from Raman resonance and extract the Fourier components of the time dependent evolution to reconstruct the spectrum. We also add a periodic modulation to one Raman field which allows us to have a fully tunable spin-orbit coupling dispersion that we can directly measure using our spectroscopy technique.
Excitation spectrum of Bose-Einstein Condensates with modified dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mossman, Maren; Khamehchi, M. A.; Engels, Peter
2015-05-01
Bose-Einstein Condensates provide a flexible platform to model a wide variety of condensed matter phenomena. To this goal, Raman dressing schemes and dynamical lattices have emerged as a premier tool, allowing for a modification of the dispersion relation leading to spin-orbit coupling and artificial gauge fields. Using Bragg spectroscopy, we investigate the collective excitation spectrum of BECs with engineered dispersion relations and study consequences of a roton-like minimum that can be softened by changing Raman dressing parameters. We report on the current status and future directions of our experiments. This work is supported by NSF.
Winding up superfluid in a torus via Bose Einstein condensation
Das, Arnab; Sabbatini, Jacopo; Zurek, Wojciech H
2010-12-16
We simulate Bose-Einstein condensation at finite temperature in a ring employing stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation and show that cooling through the critical point can generate topologically stable quantized circulation of the newborn condensate around the ring. The resulting winding numbers exhibiting Gaussian distribution with dispersion following scaling behavior predicted by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). This opens up possibilities for direct experimental study of the underlying phase transition and the basic principles of KZM extended to account for such circulations. We discuss the effect of inhomogeneity on the above phenomenon by considering the effect of tilting of the ring in the gravitational field.
Wave-function monopoles in Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Busch, Th.; Anglin, J. R.
1999-10-01
Experimental preparation of multispecies Bose-Einstein condensates should permit the creation of topologically stable defects beyond the superfluid vortex. But the coldness and isolation of condensates should also permit the survival for observable durations of ``pseudodefects,'' such as the one-dimensional dark soliton: localized structures related to a defect but not topologically stable. In this paper we investigate the viability of pseudodefects beyond one dimension, by examining ``wave-function monopoles'' in two-species condensates in two dimensions. We identify interesting instabilities, including a ``dancing mode'' for monopoles of higher winding number, and (in a one-dimensional limit) ``superfluid roulette.''
Composite nature of hadrons and Bose-Einstein correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bialas, A.
2016-07-01
I am reporting results of two papers, written together with W.Florkowski and K.Zalewski [1, 2], discussing the consequences of the observation [3] that, due to their composite nature and thus finite size, hadrons observed in the HBT measurements must be correlated in space-time. Using the blast-wave model [4] adjusted [1] to ALICE data on the measured HBT radii in pp collisions at 7 TeV [5], the full Bose-Einstein correlation functions in three direction (out, side, long) are evaluated. The results are presented together with some additional comments.
Entanglement generation in quantum networks of Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pyrkov, Alexey N.; Byrnes, Tim
2013-09-01
Two component (spinor) Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are considered as the nodes of an interconnected quantum network. Unlike standard single-system qubits, in a BEC the quantum information is duplicated in a large number of identical bosonic particles, thus can be considered to be a ‘macroscopic’ qubit. One of the difficulties with such a system is how to effectively interact such qubits together in order to transfer quantum information and create entanglement. Here we propose a scheme of cavities containing spinor BECs coupled by optical fiber in order to achieve this task. We discuss entanglement generation and quantum state transfer between nodes using such macroscopic BEC qubits.
Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices.
Cramer, M; Eisert, J; Illuminati, F
2004-11-01
We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices and parabolic confining potentials. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimension within mean-field and perturbation theory. The results are compared with a new numerical method that is based on a Gutzwiller variational approach for the bosons and an exact treatment for the fermions. The findings can be applied as a guideline for future experiments with trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices.
Isothermal compressibility determination across Bose-Einstein condensation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poveda-Cuevas, F. J.; Castilho, P. C. M.; Mercado-Gutierrez, E. D.; Fritsch, A. R.; Muniz, S. R.; Lucioni, E.; Roati, G.; Bagnato, V. S.
2015-07-01
We apply the global thermodynamic variables approach to experimentally determine the isothermal compressibility parameter κT of a trapped Bose gas across the phase transition. We demonstrate the behavior of κT around the critical pressure, revealing the second-order nature of the phase transition. Compressibility is the most important susceptibility to characterize the system. The use of global variables shows advantages with respect to the usual local density approximation method and can be applied to a broad range of situations.
Stability of self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroven, Kris; List, Meike; Lämmerzahl, Claus
2015-12-01
We study the ground state and the first three radially excited states of a self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensate with respect to the influence of two external parameters, the total mass and the strength of interactions between particles. For this we use the so-called Gross-Pitaevskii-Newton system. In this context we especially determine the case of very high total masses where the ground state solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii-Newton system can be approximated with the Thomas-Fermi limit. Furthermore, stability properties of the computed radially excited states are examined by applying arguments of the catastrophe theory.
Early stage of superradiance from Bose-Einstein condensates
Buchmann, L. F.; Lambropoulos, P.; Nikolopoulos, G. M.; Zobay, O.
2010-08-15
We investigate the dynamics of matter and optical waves at the early stage of superradiant Rayleigh scattering from Bose-Einstein condensates. Our analysis is within a spatially dependent quantum model which is capable of providing analytic solutions for the operators of interest. The predictions of the present model are compared to the predictions of a closely related mean-field model, and we provide a procedure that allows one to calculate quantum expectation values by averaging over semiclassical solutions. The coherence properties of the outgoing scattered light are also analyzed, and it is shown that the corresponding correlation functions may provide detailed information about the internal dynamics of the system.
Constructions of quantum Bose Chadhuri Hocquenghem code using spectral techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Ying; Zeng, Guihua; Lee, Moon Ho; Fan, Jianping
2007-08-01
A quantum Bose-Chadhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) code is constructed over Fnpm in the spectrum domain by employing Fourier transform. The constructed code may be employed to describe the characters of the quantum code over Fnp in the time domain. Each quantum state of the proposed code has certain specified consecutive spectral components equalling zeros, and the error-correcting ability of the code can hence be determined by the number of consecutive zeros in its parity spectrums. Moreover, the decoding process may be performed more efficiently by using the spectrum techniques rather than by using the traditional methods.