Science.gov

Sample records for 1d cds nanostructures

  1. Electrochemical template-assisted fabrication of CdS micro/nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Zinki; Verma, N. K.

    2009-10-01

    One-dimensional (1D) cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanostructures, including micro/nanorods, and nanostructures resembling flowers and cactus have been synthesized by electrochemical template deposition technique, using polycarbonate membranes, by controlling various reaction parameters. These 1D CdS nanostructures were characterized structurally through the X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies and morphologically through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that apart from the dimensions of the pores of the templates, the geometrical morphologies of the CdS 1D nanostructures were significantly influenced by the synthesizing parameters also. The optical characterization has been done by UV-visible absorption and room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) studies.

  2. Preparation of 1D nanostructures using biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruneanu, Stela; Olenic, Liliana; Barbu Tudoran, Lucian; Kacso, Irina; Farha Al-Said, Said A.; Hassanien, Reda; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we have shown that one-dimensional (1D) particle arrays can be obtained using biomolecules, like DNA or amino-acids. Nano-arrays of silver and gold were prepared in a single-step synthesis, by exploiting the binding abilities of λ-DNA and L-Arginine. The morphology and optical properties of these nanostructures were investigated using AFM, TEM and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy.

  3. Coalescence phenomena in 1D silver nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Wing, C.; Pérez-Alvarez, M.; Mondragón-Galicia, G.; Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Gutiérrez-Wing, M. T.; Henk, M. C.; Negulescu, I. I.; Rusch, K. A.

    2009-07-01

    Different coalescence processes on 1D silver nanostructures synthesized by a PVP assisted reaction in ethylene glycol at 160 °C were studied experimentally and theoretically. Analysis by TEM and HRTEM shows different defects found on the body of these materials, suggesting that they were induced by previous coalescence processes in the synthesis stage. TEM observations showed that irradiation with the electron beam eliminates the boundaries formed near the edges of the structures, suggesting that this process can be carried out by the application of other means of energy (i.e. thermal). These results were also confirmed by theoretical calculations by Monte Carlo simulations using a Sutton-Chen potential. A theoretical study by molecular dynamics simulation of the different coalescence processes on 1D silver nanostructures is presented, showing a surface energy driven sequence followed to form the final coalesced structure. Calculations were made at 1000-1300 K, which is near the melting temperature of silver (1234 K). Based on these results, it is proposed that 1D nanostructures can grow through a secondary mechanism based on coalescence, without losing their dimensionality.

  4. 1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    Jian Wei, Xuchun Song, Chunli Yang, and Michael Z. Hu, 1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications, Journal of Nanomaterials, published special issue (http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/si/197254/) (2013).

  5. Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiencies through 1-D Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The current global energy problem can be attributed to insufficient fossil fuel supplies and excessive greenhouse gas emissions resulting from increasing fossil fuel consumption. The huge demand for clean energy potentially can be met by solar-to-electricity conversions. The large-scale use of solar energy is not occurring due to the high cost and inadequate efficiencies of existing solar cells. Nanostructured materials have offered new opportunities to design more efficient solar cells, particularly one-dimensional (1-D) nanomaterials for enhancing solar cell efficiencies. These 1-D nanostructures, including nanotubes, nanowires, and nanorods, offer significant opportunities to improve efficiencies of solar cells by facilitating photon absorption, electron transport, and electron collection; however, tremendous challenges must be conquered before the large-scale commercialization of such cells. This review specifically focuses on the use of 1-D nanostructures for enhancing solar cell efficiencies. Other nanostructured solar cells or solar cells based on bulk materials are not covered in this review. Major topics addressed include dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells, and p-n junction solar cells.

  6. Resonant indirect exchange in 1D semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhansky, I. V.; Krainov, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S.; Lähderanta, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider resonant indirect exchange interaction between magnetic centers in 1D nanostructures. The magnetic centers are assumed to be coupled to the 1D conducting channel by the quantum tunneling which can be of resonant character. The indirect exchange between the centers is mediated by the free carriers of the channel. The two cases of quadratic and linear energy dispersion of the 1D free carriers are considered. The former case is attributed to conventional semiconductor (InGaAs based to be concrete) nanowires or nanowhiskers, while the latter case is associated with carbon nanotubes with magnetic adatoms. We demonstrate that whenever the energy of a bound state at the magnetic center lies within the continuum energy spectra of the delocalized carriers in the channel the indirect exchange is strongly enhanced due to effective tunnel hybridization of the bound states with the continuum.

  7. High-Performance Fully Nanostructured Photodetector with Single-Crystalline CdS Nanotubes as Active Layer and Very Long Ag Nanowires as Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    An, Qinwei; Meng, Xianquan; Sun, Pan

    2015-10-21

    Long and single-crystalline CdS nanotubes (NTs) have been prepared via a physical evaporation process. A metal-semiconductor-metal full-nanostructured photodetector with CdS NTs as active layer and Ag nanowires (NWs) of low resistivity and high transmissivity as electrodes has been fabricated and characterized. The CdS NTs-based photodetectors exhibit high performance, such as lowest dark currents (0.19 nA) and high photoresponse ratio (Ilight/Idark ≈ 4016) (among CdS nanostructure network photodetectors and NTs netwok photodetectors reported so far) and very low operation voltages (0.5 V). The photoconduction mechanism, including the formation of a Schottky barrier at the interface of Ag NW and CdS NTs and the effect of oxygen adsorption process on the Schottky barrier has also been provided in detail based on the studies of CdS NTs photodetector in air and vacuum. Furthermore, CdS NTs photodetector exhibits an enhanced photosensitivity as compared with CdS NWs photodetector. The enhancement in performance is dependent on the larger surface area of NTs adsorbing more oxygen in air and the microcavity structure of NTs with higher light absorption efficiency and external quantum efficiency. It is believed that CdS NTs can potentially be useful in the designs of 1D CdS-based optoelectronic devices and solar cells. PMID:26457660

  8. Carbon-assisted morphological manipulation of CdS nanostructures and their cathodoluminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Meng; Zhai, Tianyou; Wang Xi; Liao Qing; Ma Ying; Yao, Jiannian

    2009-11-15

    CdS nanostructures with different morphologies and sizes were successfully fabricated through a facile and effective carbon-assisted thermal evaporation method. Through simply changing the positions of silicon substrates, the temperatures and the effects of carbon in different zones were modified, and thus the morphologies of CdS nanostructures were varied from multipods to nanobrushes to nanocups. These nanostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Cathodoluminescence (CL) measurement shows that the as-grown CdS nanostructures display different luminescent properties. CdS multipods and nanocups show mainly green emission centered at {approx}496 nm. However, nanobrushes exhibit predominant red emission band peaking at {approx}711 nm. These interesting results show that carbon not only affected the growth process but also influenced the properties of CdS nanostructures. - Graphical abstract: A facile and effective carbon-assisted thermal evaporation method is explored to synthesize CdS multipods, nanobrushes and nanocups. These CdS nanostructures display very different optical properties.

  9. Mixed-solvothermal synthesis of CdS micro/nanostructures and their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shengliang; Zhang, Linfei; Huang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Shangping

    2011-01-01

    Several novel cadmium sulfide (CdS) micro/nanostructures, including cauliflower-like microspheres, football-like microspheres, tower-like microrods, and dendrites were controllably prepared via an oxalic acid-assisted solvothermal route using ethylene glycol (EG) and H2O as pure and mixed solvents with different S sources. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometer (UV). It was found that CdS micro/nanostructures can be selectively obtained by varying the composition of solvent, concentration of oxalic acid, and sulfur sources. UV-vis absorption spectra reveal that their absorption properties are shape-dependent. The possible formation process of the CdS micro/nanostructures was briefly discussed. This route provides a facile way to tune the morphologies of CdS over a wide range.

  10. One-dimensional CdS nanostructures: a promising candidate for optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiqiao; Wang, Xi; Xu, Junqi; Zhang, Qi; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Ma, Ying; Zhai, Tianyou

    2013-06-11

    As a promising candidate for optoelectronics, one-dimensional CdS nanostructures have drawn great scientific and technical interest due to their interesting fundamental properties and possibilities of utilization in novel promising optoelectronical devices with augmented performance and functionalities. This progress report highlights a selection of important topics pertinent to optoelectronical applications of one-dimensional CdS nanostructures over the last five years. This article begins with the description of rational design and controlled synthesis of CdS nanostructure arrays, alloyed nanostructucures and kinked nanowire superstructures, and then focuses on the optoelectronical properties, and applications including cathodoluminescence, lasers, light-emitting diodes, waveguides, field emitters, logic circuits, memory devices, photodetectors, gas sensors, photovoltaics and photoelectrochemistry. Finally, the general challenges and the potential future directions of this exciting area of research are highlighted. PMID:23629853

  11. Synthesis of CdS nanostructures using template-assisted ammonia-free chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preda, N.; Enculescu, M.; Gherendi, F.; Matei, E.; Toimil-Molares, M. E.; Enculescu, I.

    2012-09-01

    CdS micro- and nano-structures (micro/nanotubes and nanostructured films) were obtained by ammonia-free chemical bath deposition using polymer templates (ion track-etched polycarbonate membranes and poly(styrene-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) nanosphere arrays). The semiconductor structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption, photoluminescence and electrical measurements. The diameters of CdS tubes are between 300 nm and few microns and the lengths are up to tens of micrometers. The SEM images prove that the CdS films are nanostructured due to the deposition on the polymer nanosphere arrays. For both CdS structures (tubes and films) the XRD patterns show a hexagonal phase. The optical studies reveal a band gap value of about 2.5-2.6 eV and a red luminescence at ˜1.77 eV. A higher increase of conductivity is observed for illuminating the CdS nanostructured film when compared to the simple semiconductor film. This is a consequence of the periodic patterning induced by the polymer nanosphere array.

  12. Solution precursor plasma deposition of nanostructured CdS thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tummala, Raghavender; Guduru, Ramesh K.; Mohanty, Pravansu S.

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inexpensive process with capability to produce large scale nanostructured coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Technique can be employed to spray the coatings on any kind of substrates including polymers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CdS coatings developed have good electrical conductivity and optical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coatings possess large amount of particulate boundaries and nanostructured grains. -- Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are used in solar cells, sensors and microelectronics. A variety of techniques, such as vapor based techniques, wet chemical methods and spray pyrolysis are frequently employed to develop adherent CdS films. In the present study, rapid deposition of CdS thin films via plasma spray route using a solution precursor was investigated, for the first time. Solution precursor comprising cadmium chloride, thiourea and distilled water was fed into a DC plasma jet via an axial atomizer to create ultrafine droplets for instantaneous and accelerated thermal decomposition in the plasma plume. The resulting molten/semi-molten ultrafine/nanoparticles of CdS eventually propel toward the substrate to form continuous CdS films. The chemistry of the solution precursor was found to be critical in plasma pyrolysis to control the stoichiometry and composition of the films. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed hexagonal {alpha}-CdS structure. Surface morphology and microstructures were investigated to compare with other synthesis techniques in terms of process mechanism and structural features. Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed nanostructures in the atomized particulates. Optical measurements indicated a decreasing transmittance in the visible light with increasing the film thickness and band gap was calculated to be {approx}2.5 eV. The electrical resistivity of the films (0.243 {+-} 0.188 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} {Omega} cm) was comparable with the literature

  13. Quasi-one dimensional (Q1D) nanostructures: Synthesis, integration and device application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Chung-Jen

    Quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) nanostructures such as nanotubes and nanowires have been widely regarded as the potential building blocks for nanoscale electronic, optoelectronic and sensing devices. In this work, the content can be divided into three categories: Nano-material synthesis and characterizations, alignment and integration, physical properties and application. The dissertation consists of seven chapters as following. Chapter 1 will give an introduction to low dimensional nano-materials. Chapter 2 explains the mechanism how Q1D nanostructure grows. Chapter 3 describes the methods how we horizontally and vertically align the Q1D nanostructure. Chapter 4 and 5 are the electrical and optical device characterization respectively. Chapter 6 demonstrates the integration of Q1D nanostructures and the device application. The last chapter will discuss the future work and conclusion of the thesis.

  14. CdSe-sensitized branched CdS hierarchical nanostructures for efficient photoelectrochemical solar hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Han, Zonghu; Wang, Meng; Chen, Xiangyan; Shen, Shaohua

    2016-04-28

    A two-step hydrothermal process was used to synthesize branched CdS hierarchical nanostructures, which were then sensitized by CdSe via a chemical bath deposition method. CdS nanorods grew on the surface of the existing CdS nanorods to form hierarchical assemblies. After the chemical bath deposition process, core-shell structures of branched CdS nanorods covered by a uniform CdSe overlayer were formed. The branched hierarchical nanostructure improved the optical absorption by increasing the optical path via additional light trapping, as well as increasing the contact area between the electrode and electrolyte for more reactive sites, contributing to the higher photoelectrochemical performance than that obtained for the rod-like nanostructures. After CdSe sensitization, with the optical absorption greatly extended to longer wavelengths and the photoexcited charge carriers efficiently separated at the type II CdS/CdSe interface, the branched CdS/CdSe hierarchical nanostructures showed considerably increased photoelectrochemical performance compared with the CdS/CdSe nanorods, with a photoconversion efficiency for solar hydrogen generation of 2.7%. PMID:27058590

  15. Bonding, vibrational, and electrical characteristics of CdS nanostructures embedded in polyvinyl alcohol matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, S. P.; Dhar, A.; Ray, S. K.; Chakraborty, A. K.

    2009-04-15

    CdS nanocomposites have been grown in polyvinyl alcohol matrix by a chemical synthesis process. The transmission electron micrographs of nanocomposites synthesized at 70-90 deg. C temperature showed the growth of needlelike and junctionlike nanostructures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed the growth of stoichiometric CdS without the formation of any intermediate phases at the CdS-polyvinyl alcohol interface. Raman spectra of first order longitudinal optical phonon peak has been analyzed using phonon dispersion model to detect the surface phonon modes in CdS nanoneedles and wires. The origin of negative differential resistance behavior in current-voltage characteristics for junctionlike CdS nanocomposites has been discussed.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of 1D TiO2 nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Julieta; Alarcón, Hugo; López, Alcides; Candal, Roberto; Acosta, Dwight; Rodriguez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Nanowire/nanorod TiO(2) structures of approximately 8 nm in diameter and around 1,000 nm long were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of two different TiO(2) nanopowders. The first precursor was TiO(2) obtained by the sol-gel process (SG-TiO(2)); the second was the well-known commercial TiO(2) P-25 (P25-TiO(2)). Anatase-like 1D TiO(2) nanostructures were obtained in both cases. The one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures synthesized from SG-TiO(2) powders turned into rod-like nanostructures after annealing at 400 °C for 2 h. Conversely, the nanostructures synthesized from P25-TiO(2) preserved the tubular structure after annealing, displaying a higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area than the first system (279 and 97 m²/g, respectively). Despite the higher surface area shown by the 1D nanostructures, in both cases the photocatalytic activity was lower than for the P25-TiO(2) powder. However, the rod-like nanostructures obtained from SG-TiO(2) displayed slightly higher efficiency than the sol-gel prepared powders. The lower photocatalytic activity of the nanostructures with respect to P-25 can be associated with the lower crystallinity of 1D TiO(2) in both materials. PMID:25259484

  17. Effects of Carbon Allotrope Interface on the Photoactivity of Rutile One-Dimensional (1D) TiO2 Coated with Anatase TiO2 and Sensitized with CdS Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Pawan; Israel, Luis Henrique; Pereira, Ellen Jessica Monterio; Subramanian, Vaidyanathan Ravi

    2016-06-01

    The assembly of a large-bandgap one-dimensional (1D) oxide-conductive carbon-chalcogenide nanocomposite and its surface, optical, and photoelectrochemical properties are presented. Microscopy, surface analysis, and optical spectroscopy results are reported to provide insights into the assembly of the nanostructure. We have investigated (i) how the various carbon allotropes (C60), reduced graphene oxide (RGO), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) can be integrated at the interface of the 1D TiO2 and zero-dimensional (0D) CdS nanocrystals; (ii) the carbon allotrope and CdS loading effects; (iii) the impact of the carbon allotrope presence on 0D CdS nanocrystals; and (iv) how they promote light absorbance. Subsequently, the functioning of the integrated nanostructured assembly in a photoelectrochemical cell has been systematically investigated. These studies include (i) chronoamperometry, (ii) impedance measurements or EIS, and (iii) linear sweep voltammetry. The results indicate that the presence of a GQD interface shows the most enhancement in the photoelectrochemical properties. The optimized photocurrent values were respectively noted to be 2.8, 2.2, 1.9, and 1.6 mA/cm(2), indicating JGQD > JRGO > JCNT > Jfullerene. Furthermore, the annealing conditions have indicated that ammonia treatment leads to an increase in the photoelectrochemical responses when using any form of the carbon allotropes. PMID:27121182

  18. Electrochemical biosensor based on CdS nanostructure surfaces.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jiqing; Yan, Shancheng; Xiao, Zhongdang

    2012-01-15

    Well-defined hexangularly faced CdS nanorod arrays have been grown directly on a conductive ITO glass via a facile one-step and non-template hydrothermal approach. Gold nanoparticles were decorated onto the nanorods to enhance the electron transfer process of electrode. Glucose oxidase (GOD) was then immobilized on the CdS through crosslinking with chitosan (CS), which resulted in a glucose biosensor with high enzyme loading and excellent sensitivity. Such a chitosan-encapsulated GOD-based biosensor revealed a relatively rapid response time of less than 50s, and an approximate linear detection range of glucose concentration, from 50 to 500 μmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 38 μmol L(-1) and an electrode sensitivity of 5.9 μA mM(-1). PMID:22018624

  19. CDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The Centre de Donnees de Strasbourg (CDS) is a reference data centre for Astronomy. The CDS services; SIMBAD, Vizier, Aladin and X-Match, provide added value to scientific content in order to support the astronomy research community. Data and information are curated from refereed journals, major surveys, observatories and missions with a strong emphasis on maintaining a high level of quality. The current status and plans of the CDS will be presented, highlighting how the recent innovations of the HiPS (Hierarchical Progressive surveys) and MOC (Multi-Order Coverage map) systems enable the visualisation of hundreds of surveys and data sets, and brings new levels of interoperability between catalogues, surveys images and data cubes.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and physical properties of 1D nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, Peter Mchael

    The roster of materials exhibiting metal---insulator transitions with sharply discontinuous switching of electrical conductivity close to room temperature remains rather sparse despite the fundamental interest in the electronic instabilities manifested in such materials and the plethora of potential technological applications, ranging from frequency-agile metamaterials to electrochromic coatings and Mott field-effect transistors. Vanadium oxide bronzes with the general formula MxV2O 5, provide a wealth of compositions and frameworks where strong electron correlation can be systematically (albeit thus far only empirically) tuned. Charge fluctuations along the quasi-1D frameworks of MxV 2O5 bronzes have evinced much recent interest owing to the manifestation of colossal metal---insulator transitions and superconductivity. We start with a general review on the phase transitions, both electronic and structural, of vanadium oxide bronzes in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, we demonstrate an unprecedented reversible transformation between double-layered (delta) and tunnel (beta) quasi-1D geometries for nanowires of a divalent vanadium bronze CaxV2O5 (x ˜0.23) upon annealing-induced dehydration and hydrothermally-induced hydration. Such a facile hydration/dehydration-induced interconversion between two prominent quasi-1D structures (accompanied by a change in charge ordering motifs) has not been observed in the bulk and is posited to result from the ease of propagation of crystallographic slip processes across the confined nanowire widths for the delta→beta conversion and the facile diffusion of water molecules within the tunnel geometries for the beta→delta reversion. We demonstrate in Chapter 3 unprecedented pronounced metal-insulator transitions induced by application of a voltage for nanowires of a vanadium oxide bronze with intercalated divalent cations, beta-PbxV 2O5 (x ˜0.33). The induction of the phase transition through application of an electric field at room

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and physical properties of 1D nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, Peter Mchael

    The roster of materials exhibiting metal---insulator transitions with sharply discontinuous switching of electrical conductivity close to room temperature remains rather sparse despite the fundamental interest in the electronic instabilities manifested in such materials and the plethora of potential technological applications, ranging from frequency-agile metamaterials to electrochromic coatings and Mott field-effect transistors. Vanadium oxide bronzes with the general formula MxV2O 5, provide a wealth of compositions and frameworks where strong electron correlation can be systematically (albeit thus far only empirically) tuned. Charge fluctuations along the quasi-1D frameworks of MxV 2O5 bronzes have evinced much recent interest owing to the manifestation of colossal metal---insulator transitions and superconductivity. We start with a general review on the phase transitions, both electronic and structural, of vanadium oxide bronzes in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, we demonstrate an unprecedented reversible transformation between double-layered (delta) and tunnel (beta) quasi-1D geometries for nanowires of a divalent vanadium bronze CaxV2O5 (x ˜0.23) upon annealing-induced dehydration and hydrothermally-induced hydration. Such a facile hydration/dehydration-induced interconversion between two prominent quasi-1D structures (accompanied by a change in charge ordering motifs) has not been observed in the bulk and is posited to result from the ease of propagation of crystallographic slip processes across the confined nanowire widths for the delta→beta conversion and the facile diffusion of water molecules within the tunnel geometries for the beta→delta reversion. We demonstrate in Chapter 3 unprecedented pronounced metal-insulator transitions induced by application of a voltage for nanowires of a vanadium oxide bronze with intercalated divalent cations, beta-PbxV 2O5 (x ˜0.33). The induction of the phase transition through application of an electric field at room

  2. Scalable economic extracellular synthesis of CdS nanostructured particles by a non-pathogenic thermophile.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Won; Ivanov, Ilia N; Duty, Chad E; Love, Lonnie J; Rondinone, Adam J; Wang, Wei; Li, Yi-Liang; Madden, Andrew S; Mosher, Jennifer J; Hu, Michael Z; Suresh, Anil K; Rawn, Claudia J; Jung, Hyunsung; Lauf, Robert J; Phelps, Tommy J

    2013-11-01

    We report microbially facilitated synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanostructured particles (NP) using anaerobic, metal-reducing Thermoanaerobacter sp. The extracellular CdS crystallites were <10 nm in size with yields of ~3 g/L of growth medium/month with demonstrated reproducibility and scalability up to 24 L. During synthesis, Thermoanaerobacter cultures reduced thiosulfate and sulfite salts to H₂S, which reacted with Cd²⁺ cations to produce thermodynamically favored NP in a single step at 65 °C with catalytic nucleation on the cell surfaces. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis of dry CdS NP revealed an exciton-dominated PL peak at 440 nm, having a narrow full width at half maximum of 10 nm. A PL spectrum of CdS NP produced by dissimilatory sulfur reducing bacteria was dominated by features associated with radiative exciton relaxation at the surface. High reproducibility of CdS NP PL features important for scale-up conditions was confirmed from test tubes to 24 L batches at a small fraction of the manufacturing cost associated with conventional inorganic NP production processes. PMID:24005990

  3. Scalable economic extracellular synthesis of CdS nanostructured particles by a non-pathogenic thermophile

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Ji Won; Ivanov, Ilia N; Duty, Chad E; Love, Lonnie J; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Wang, Wei; Li, Dr. Yi-Liang; Madden, Andrew; Mosher, Jennifer J; Hu, Michael Z.; Suresh, Anil K; Rawn, Claudia J; Jung, Hyunsung; Lauf, Robert J; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2013-01-01

    We report microbially facilitated synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanostructured particles (NP) using anaerobic, metal-reducing Thermoanaerobacter sp. The extracellular CdS crystallites were <10 nm in size with yields of ~3 g/L of growth medium/month with demonstrated reproducibility and scalability up to 24 L. During synthesis, Thermoanaerobacter cultures reduced thiosulfate and sulfite salts to H2S, which reacted with Cd2+ cations to produce thermodynamically favored NP in a single step at 65oC with catalytic nucleation on the cell surfaces. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis of dry CdS NP revealed an exciton-dominated PL peak at 440 nm, having a narrow full width at half maximum of 10 nm. A PL spectrum of CdS NP produced by dissimilatory sulfur reducing bacteria was dominated by features associated with radiative exciton relaxation at the surface. High reproducibility of CdS NP PL features important for scale-up conditions was confirmed from test tubes to 24L batches at a small fraction of the manufacturing cost associated with conventional inorganic NP production processes.

  4. Self-assembly of functional molecules into 1D crystalline nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanbing; Xu, Liang; Liu, Huibiao; Li, Yongjun; Che, Chi-Ming; Li, Yuliang

    2015-02-01

    Self-assembled functional nanoarchitectures are employed as important nanoscale building blocks for advanced materials and smart miniature devices to fulfill the increasing needs of high materials usage efficiency, low energy consumption, and high-performance devices. One-dimensional (1D) crystalline nanostructures, especially molecule-composed crystalline nanostructures, attract significant attention due to their fascinating infusion structure and functionality which enables the easy tailoring of organic molecules with excellent carrier mobility and crystal stability. In this review, we discuss the recent progress of 1D crystalline self-assembled nanostructures of functional molecules, which include both a small molecule-derived and a polymer-based crystalline nanostructure. The basic principles of the molecular structure design and the process engineering of 1D crystalline nanostructures are also discussed. The molecular building blocks, self-assembly structures, and their applications in optical, electrical, and photoelectrical devices are overviewed and we give a brief outlook on crucial issues that need to be addressed in future research endeavors. PMID:25523368

  5. Localized self-heating in large arrays of 1D nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Monereo, O; Illera, S; Varea, A; Schmidt, M; Sauerwald, T; Schütze, A; Cirera, A; Prades, J D

    2016-03-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer a promising path towards highly efficient heating and temperature control in integrated microsystems. The so called self-heating effect can be used to modulate the response of solid state gas sensor devices. In this work, efficient self-heating was found to occur at random networks of nanostructured systems with similar power requirements to highly ordered systems (e.g. individual nanowires, where their thermal efficiency was attributed to the small dimensions of the objects). Infrared thermography and Raman spectroscopy were used to map the temperature profiles of films based on random arrangements of carbon nanofibers during self-heating. Both the techniques demonstrate consistently that heating concentrates in small regions, the here-called "hot-spots". On correlating dynamic temperature mapping with electrical measurements, we also observed that these minute hot-spots rule the resistance values observed macroscopically. A physical model of a random network of 1D resistors helped us to explain this observation. The model shows that, for a given random arrangement of 1D nanowires, current spreading through the network ends up defining a set of spots that dominate both the electrical resistance and power dissipation. Such highly localized heating explains the high power savings observed in larger nanostructured systems. This understanding opens a path to design highly efficient self-heating systems, based on random or pseudo-random distributions of 1D nanostructures. PMID:26868599

  6. Recombinant Phage Coated 1D Al2O3 Nanostructures for Controlling the Adhesion and Proliferation of Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juseok; Jeon, Hojeong; Haidar, Ayman; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Veith, Michael; Kim, Youngjun

    2015-01-01

    A novel synthesis of a nanostructured cell adhesive surface is investigated for future stent developments. One-dimensional (1D) Al2O3 nanostructures were prepared by chemical vapor deposition of a single source precursor. Afterwards, recombinant filamentous bacteriophages which display a short binding motif with a cell adhesive peptide (RGD) on p3 and p8 proteins were immobilized on these 1D Al2O3 nanostructures by a simple dip-coating process to study the cellular response of human endothelial EA hy.926. While the cell density decreased on as-deposited 1D Al2O3 nanostructures, we observed enhanced cell proliferation and cell-cell interaction on recombinant phage overcoated 1D Al2O3 nanostructures. The recombinant phage overcoating also supports an isotropic cell spreading rather than elongated cell morphology as we observed on as-deposited Al2O3 1D nanostructures. PMID:26090458

  7. Hyperbranched quasi-1D TiO2 nanostructure for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ghadirzadeh, Ali; Passoni, Luca; Grancini, Giulia; Terraneo, Giancarlo; Li Bassi, Andrea; Petrozza, Annamaria; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2015-04-15

    The performance of hybrid solar cells is strongly affected by the device morphology. In this work, we demonstrate a poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/TiO2 hybrid solar cell where the TiO2 photoanode comprises an array of tree-like hyperbranched quasi-1D nanostructures self-assembled from the gas phase. This advanced architecture enables us to increase the power conversion efficiency to over 1%, doubling the efficiency with respect to state of the art devices employing standard mesoporous titania photoanodes. This improvement is attributed to several peculiar features of this array of nanostructures: high interfacial area; increased optical density thanks to the enhanced light scattering; and enhanced crystallization of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) inside the quasi-1D nanostructure. PMID:25822757

  8. Quantitative 3D electromagnetic field determination of 1D nanostructures from single projection.

    PubMed

    Phatak, C; de Knoop, L; Houdellier, F; Gatel, C; Hÿtch, M J; Masseboeuf, A

    2016-05-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures have been regarded as the most promising building blocks for nanoelectronics and nanocomposite material systems as well as for alternative energy applications. Although they result in confinement of a material, their properties and interactions with other nanostructures are still very much three-dimensional (3D) in nature. In this work, we present a novel method for quantitative determination of the 3D electromagnetic fields in and around 1D nanostructures using a single electron wave phase image, thereby eliminating the cumbersome acquisition of tomographic data. Using symmetry arguments, we have reconstructed the 3D magnetic field of a nickel nanowire as well as the 3D electric field around a carbon nanotube field emitter, from one single projection. The accuracy of quantitative values determined here is shown to be a better fit to the physics at play than the value obtained by conventional analysis. Moreover the 3D reconstructions can then directly be visualized and used in the design of functional 3D architectures built using 1D nanostructures. PMID:26998702

  9. Application of a CdS nanostructured layer in inverted solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grynko, D. O.; Fedoryak, O. M.; Smertenko, P. S.; Ogurtsov, N. A.; Pud, A. A.; Noskov, Yu V.; Dimitriev, O. P.

    2013-12-01

    An inverted solar cell has been constructed by the growth of a CdS layer on an indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass substrate followed by spin-coating of organic poly(3-hexylthiophene) : [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT : PCBM) or a zinc phthalocyanine derivative (ZnPc-4R): PCBM composite layer and using a free-standing PEDOT : PSS composite film as the top electrode. It has been found that CdS plays the role of an electron-selective (hole-blocking) layer to rectify the electron flow from the P3HT : PCBM or ZnPc-4R : PCBM bulk heterojunction to the ITO electrode. By changing the morphology of the CdS layer from a textured continuous film to a nanowire array we demonstrate an improved collection efficiency of charge carriers due to the increased organic-inorganic interface area. Thus, a bifunctional role of the CdS nanostructured layer as a bottom electrode with better electron affinity than ITO and as a means to increase the interface for better electron collection from the organic active layer has been demonstrated.

  10. Localized self-heating in large arrays of 1D nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monereo, O.; Illera, S.; Varea, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sauerwald, T.; Schütze, A.; Cirera, A.; Prades, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer a promising path towards highly efficient heating and temperature control in integrated microsystems. The so called self-heating effect can be used to modulate the response of solid state gas sensor devices. In this work, efficient self-heating was found to occur at random networks of nanostructured systems with similar power requirements to highly ordered systems (e.g. individual nanowires, where their thermal efficiency was attributed to the small dimensions of the objects). Infrared thermography and Raman spectroscopy were used to map the temperature profiles of films based on random arrangements of carbon nanofibers during self-heating. Both the techniques demonstrate consistently that heating concentrates in small regions, the here-called ``hot-spots''. On correlating dynamic temperature mapping with electrical measurements, we also observed that these minute hot-spots rule the resistance values observed macroscopically. A physical model of a random network of 1D resistors helped us to explain this observation. The model shows that, for a given random arrangement of 1D nanowires, current spreading through the network ends up defining a set of spots that dominate both the electrical resistance and power dissipation. Such highly localized heating explains the high power savings observed in larger nanostructured systems. This understanding opens a path to design highly efficient self-heating systems, based on random or pseudo-random distributions of 1D nanostructures.One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer a promising path towards highly efficient heating and temperature control in integrated microsystems. The so called self-heating effect can be used to modulate the response of solid state gas sensor devices. In this work, efficient self-heating was found to occur at random networks of nanostructured systems with similar power requirements to highly ordered systems (e.g. individual nanowires, where their thermal

  11. Development of CdS Nanostructures by Thermal Decomposition of Aminocaproic Acid-Mixed Cd-Thiourea Complex Precursor: Structural, Optical and Photocatalytic Characterization.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayesh D; Mighri, Frej; Ajji, Abdellah; Chaudhuri, Tapas K

    2015-04-01

    The present work deals with two different CdS nanostructures produced via hydrothermal and solvothermal decompositions of aminocaproic acid (ACA)-mixed Cd-thiourea complex precursor at 175 °C. Both nanostructures were extensively characterized for their structural, morphological and optical properties. The powder X-ray diffraction characterization showed that the two CdS nanostructures present a wurtzite morphology. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray characterizations revealed that the hydrothermal decomposition produced well-shaped CdS flowers composed of six dendritic petals, and the solvothermal decomposition produced CdS microspheres with close stoichiometric chemical composition. The UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra of CdS dendritic flowers and microsphere nanostructures showed that both nanostructures present a broad absorption between 200 and 700 nm and exhibit strong green emissions at 576 and 520 nm upon excitations at 290 nm and 260 nm, respectively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) characterizations confirmed that CdS microspheres were mesoporous and were composed of small nanocrystals. A possible growth mechanism in the formation of the CdS nanostructures was proposed based on morphology evolution as a function of the reaction time. Furthermore, the as-synthesized CdS nanostructures were found to exhibit highly efficient photocatalytic activities for the degradation of methyl orange (MeO) and rhodamine B (RhB) dyes. PMID:26353487

  12. Sonochemically grown 1D ZnO nanostructures and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayam, Yavuz; Rodrigues, Debora; Atalay, Ramazan; Zafer, Ceylan; Okur, Salih; Bala, Rukayya K.; Okyay, Tugba O.; Gültekin, Burak; Caha, Ihsan; Tural, Enis E.; Duyar, Sinem; Özbek, Cebrail; Guler, Telat

    2015-08-01

    Sonochemical growth technique is based upon the chemical effect of ultrasound on chemical reactions. This process is carried out at an ambient atmosphere without the need for a complex experimental set up and additional heating. This method is of significant importance because of it's vital application in various fields. ZnO nanorods were grown on glass substrates without any additional heat or surfactance by sonochemical growth technique. The grown nanostructures were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Sonochemically grown ZnO nanorod networks were characterized for their antibacterial properties toward B.subtilis. These structures were also characterized for their CO sensing properties and photovoltaic performances for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. All material characterization and device performances suggest that sonochemsitry can be utilized as an alternative growth method for 1D ZnO nanostructures.

  13. Characterization and thermal stability of cobalt-modified 1-D nanostructured trititanates

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, Edisson; Abreu, Marco A.S. de

    2009-01-15

    One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructured sodium trititanates were obtained via alkali hydrothermal method and modified with cobalt via ion exchange at different Co concentrations. The resulting cobalt-modified trititanate nanostructures (Co-TTNS) were characterized by TGA, XRD, TEM/SAED, DRS-UV-Vis and N{sub 2} adsorption techniques. Their general chemical formula was estimated as Na{sub x}Co{sub y/2}H{sub 2-x-y}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}.nH{sub 2}O and they maintained the same nanostructured and multilayered nature of the sodium precursor, with the growth direction of nanowires and nanotubes along [010]. As a consequence of the Co{sup 2+} incorporation replacing sodium between trititanate layers, two new diffraction lines became prominent and the interlayer distance was reduced with respect to that of the precursor sodium trititanate. Surface area was slightly increased with cobalt intake whereas pore size distribution was hardly affected. Besides, Co{sup 2+} incorporation in trititanate crystal structure also resulted in enhanced visible light photon absorption as indicated by a strong band-gap narrowing. Morphological and structural thermal transformations of Co-TTNS started nearly 400 deg. C in air and the final products after calcination at 800 deg. C were found to be composed of TiO{sub 2}-rutile, CoTiO{sub 3} and a bronze-like phase with general formula Na{sub 2x}Ti{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Co{sup 2+} incorporation in 1D-trititanate crystal nanostructure (Co-TTNS) causes reduction in interlayer distance by comparison with its sodium precursor (Na-TTNS) and leads to enhanced visible light photon absorption efficiency due to a strong band-gap narrowing.

  14. Superior photoluminescence and photocatalytic activity of CdS (core)-SiO2 (shell) nanostructures obtained by CdS photoetching and Au deposition.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-07-01

    Core-shell morphology of silica (SiO2) coated CdS nanocomposites (SiO2@CdS) of different shapes have been made for better stability, luminescence and photochemical activity of CdS nanoparticles. A thin layer (thickness 1-1.4 nm) of SiO2 shell is deposited over CdS nanorods (CdS-NR) of aspect ratio = 21 and CdS nanospheres (CdS-NS) of size 6-8 nm by alkyl silane agents. Synthesized nanostructures were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectra, HR-TEM, BET surface measurement, LB surface film, and absorption and photoluminescence analysis. Photoetching (PE) of CdS core led to blue shift of the absorbance onset of SiO2@CdS-NR along with the appearance of an exciton band at 485 nm due to the quantum confinement effect. Photodissolution of CdS core shifts the band gap energy from initial 2.4 to 2.6 eV for CdS-NR and 2.5 to 2.67 eV for CdS-NS. TEM images reveal the increase in aspect ratio of NR from 21 to 31 and decrease in the spherical core to 2.5 nm from 6-8 nm after PE. Photoetched SiO2@CdS-NC displayed highly intense fluorescence emission (SiO2@CdS-NS > SiO2@CdS-NR) than unetched SiO2@CdS-NC at 488 nm corresponding to band edge position. The Au (0.5 wt.%) deposition onto photoetched SiO2@CdS-NR(PE) composites highly enhanced the fluorescence intensity in comparison to 1 wt.% of Au and Ag loading. SiO2@CdS-NC(PE) displayed improved photocatalytic activity during benzaldehyde photooxidation under UV (125 W, Hg-arc, 10.4 mW/cm2) irradiation. Silica coating onto CdS particles improves the photostability and photoactivity of CdS upon long UV irradiation. PMID:23901532

  15. Optical properties of graphene nanostructures from first-principles: from 1D to 0D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varsano, Daniele; Prezzi, Deborah; Ruini, Alice; Molinari, Elisa

    2010-03-01

    The possibility of patterning graphene sheets in a controllable manner to design semiconducting low-dimensional nanostructures opens exciting opportunities also in view of novel phenomena occurring under light excitation as well as nanoscale optoelectronics applications. We discuss the main characteristics of optical excitations in quasi-1D armchair graphene nanoribbons (A-GNRs) by means of ab-initio many-body calculations [1]. Our theoretical approach includes both self-energy corrections and excitonic effects through the GW-BSE formalism, providing full understanding of excited-state properties. Electron-hole interaction is found to suppress the van Hove singularities -as known for other 1D systems- and introduces strongly bound excitonic peaks. Starting from these ideal structures, we discuss the effect of width modulation on confinement and optical response [2]. Our results show that edge-modulated A-GNRs are efficient systems for the creation of carbon-based QD structures with prominent exciton localization features. [1] D. Prezzi, D. Varsano, A. Ruini, A. Marini, and E. Molinari, Phys. Rev. B 77, 041404 (2008). [2] D. Prezzi, D. Varsano, A. Ruini, and E. Molinari, to be published (2009)

  16. Experimental demonstration of anomalous nonreciprocal optical response of 1D periodic magnetoplasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halagačka, L.; Vanwolleghem, M.; Vaurette, F.; Ben-Youssef, J.; Gogol, P.; Yam, N.; Postava, K.; Dagens, B.; Pištora, J.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we analyze the optical and transversal magnetooptical (MO) response of magnetoplasmonic (MP) nanostructures. The MP structure is a 1D periodic gold grating fabricated by lift-off technique on the MO dielectric substrate (Bi-substituted yttrium iron garnet BixY3-xFe5O12). Following our recent theoretical work (Opt. Express 21, pp. 2174121755, Sep 2013.), we confirm here experimentally the predicted dependence of the MO response on the geometry of the grating, that is directly attributed to the anticrossing behavior of the Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance in the grating's slits and the surface plasmon resonances (SPPs) at its interfaces. The experimental results were achieved by Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry. Observed fine tuning of the transverse magneto-optic Kerr opens up new possibilities for the design of compact nonreciprocal devices.

  17. Photodeposition of Pt on Colloidal CdS and CdSe/CdS Semiconductor Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Dukovic, Gordana; Merkle, Maxwell G.; Nelson, James H.; Hughes, Steven M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-08-06

    colloidal CdS and CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals. Among the II-VI semiconductors, CdS is of particular interest because it has the correct band alignment for water photolysis[2] and has been demonstrated to be photocatalytically active.[11-16] We have found that the photoexcitation of CdS and CdSe/CdS in the presence of an organometallic Pt precursor leads to deposition of Pt nanoparticles on the semiconductor surface. Stark differences are observed in the Pt nanoparticle location on the two substrates, and the photodeposition can be completely inhibited by the modification of the semiconductor surface. Our results suggest that tuning of the semiconductor band structure, spatial organization and surface chemistry should be crucial in the design of photocatalytic nanostructures.

  18. The excitonic photoluminescence mechanism and lasing action in band-gap-tunable CdS(1-x)Se(x) nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jun; Zhou, Pengxia; Lu, Junfeng; Zheng, Hongge; Guo, Jiyuan; Wang, Fang; Gu, Ning; Xu, Chunxiang

    2016-01-14

    Bandgap tunable semiconductor materials have wide application in integrated-optoelectronic and communication devices. The CdS1-xSex ternary semiconductor materials covering green-red bands have been reported previously, but their basic band-gap and optical properties crucial to the performance of the CdS1-xSex-based optoelectronic devices have not been deeply understood. In this paper, we theoretically simulated and discussed the feasibility of bandgap-tunable CdS1-xSex nanomaterials for designing wavelength tunable microlasers. Then we fabricated the CdS1-xSex nanobelts with their band gap ranging from 2.4 to 1.74 eV by adjusting the composition ratio x in the vapor-phase-transport growth process. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence and exciton-related optical constants of the CdS1-xSex nanobelts were carefully demonstrated. Finally, the wavelength-tunable Fabry-Perot lasing in CdS1-xSex nanobelts was obtained, and the Fabry-Perot lasing mechanism was numerically simulated by the FDTD method. The systematic results on the mechanism of the tunable band gap, exciton properties and lasing of the CdS1-xSex nanostructure help us deeply understand the intrinsic optical properties of this material, and will build a strong foundation for future application of green-red wavelength-tunable CdS1-xSex microlasers. PMID:26488436

  19. Significant enhancement of power conversion efficiency for dye sensitized solar cell using 1D/3D network nanostructures as photoanodes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Baoyuan; Yu, Jichao; Hu, Yunxia; Xia, Chen; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The single–crystalline TiO2 nanorod arrays with rutile phase have attracted much attention in the dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications because of their superior chemical stability, better electron transport properties, higher refractive index and low production cost. However, it suffers from a low surface area as compared with TiO2 nanoparticle films. In order to enlarge the surface area of TiO2 nanorod arrays, the 1D nanorods/3D nanotubes sample was synthesized using a facile two-step hydrothermal process involving hydrothermal growth 1D/3D nanorods and followed by post-etching treatment. In such bi-layer structure, the oriented TiO2 nanorods layer could provide direct pathway for fast electron transportation, and the 3D nanotubes layer offers a higher surface area for dye loading, therefore, the 1D nanorods/3D nanotubes photoanode exhibited faster electron transport and higher surface area than either 1D or 3D nanostructures alone, and an highest efficiency of 7.68% was achieved for the DSSCs based on 1D nanorods/3D nanotubes photoanode with further TiCl4 treatment. PMID:25800933

  20. Significant enhancement of power conversion efficiency for dye sensitized solar cell using 1D/3D network nanostructures as photoanodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Baoyuan; Yu, Jichao; Hu, Yunxia; Xia, Chen; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Rong

    2015-03-01

    The single-crystalline TiO2 nanorod arrays with rutile phase have attracted much attention in the dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications because of their superior chemical stability, better electron transport properties, higher refractive index and low production cost. However, it suffers from a low surface area as compared with TiO2 nanoparticle films. In order to enlarge the surface area of TiO2 nanorod arrays, the 1D nanorods/3D nanotubes sample was synthesized using a facile two-step hydrothermal process involving hydrothermal growth 1D/3D nanorods and followed by post-etching treatment. In such bi-layer structure, the oriented TiO2 nanorods layer could provide direct pathway for fast electron transportation, and the 3D nanotubes layer offers a higher surface area for dye loading, therefore, the 1D nanorods/3D nanotubes photoanode exhibited faster electron transport and higher surface area than either 1D or 3D nanostructures alone, and an highest efficiency of 7.68% was achieved for the DSSCs based on 1D nanorods/3D nanotubes photoanode with further TiCl4 treatment.

  1. Significant enhancement of power conversion efficiency for dye sensitized solar cell using 1D/3D network nanostructures as photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Baoyuan; Yu, Jichao; Hu, Yunxia; Xia, Chen; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The single-crystalline TiO2 nanorod arrays with rutile phase have attracted much attention in the dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications because of their superior chemical stability, better electron transport properties, higher refractive index and low production cost. However, it suffers from a low surface area as compared with TiO2 nanoparticle films. In order to enlarge the surface area of TiO2 nanorod arrays, the 1D nanorods/3D nanotubes sample was synthesized using a facile two-step hydrothermal process involving hydrothermal growth 1D/3D nanorods and followed by post-etching treatment. In such bi-layer structure, the oriented TiO2 nanorods layer could provide direct pathway for fast electron transportation, and the 3D nanotubes layer offers a higher surface area for dye loading, therefore, the 1D nanorods/3D nanotubes photoanode exhibited faster electron transport and higher surface area than either 1D or 3D nanostructures alone, and an highest efficiency of 7.68% was achieved for the DSSCs based on 1D nanorods/3D nanotubes photoanode with further TiCl4 treatment. PMID:25800933

  2. Simulating the focusing of light onto 1D nanostructures with a B-spline modal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchon, P.; Chevalier, P.; Héron, S.; Pardo, F.; Pelouard, J.-L.; Haïdar, R.

    2015-03-01

    Focusing the light onto nanostructures thanks to spherical lenses is a first step to enhance the field, and is widely used in applications, in particular for enhancing non-linear effects like the second harmonic generation. Nonetheless, the electromagnetic response of such nanostructures, which have subwavelength patterns, to a focused beam can not be described by the simple ray tracing formalism. Here, we present a method to compute the response to a focused beam, based on the B-spline modal method. The simulation of a gaussian focused beam is obtained thanks to a truncated decomposition on plane waves computed on a single period, which limits the computation burden.

  3. Multifunctional Role of Nanostructured CdS Interfacial Layers in Hybrid Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Grynko, D O; Fedoryak, O M; Smertenko, P S; Ogurtsov, N A; Pud, A A; Noskov, Yu V; Dimitriev, O P

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate here a multifunctional application of CdS layers with nanotextured and nanowire morphology in four types of hybrid solar cells, i.e., (i) nanocrystal-polymer cell, (ii) nanocrystal-organic donor-acceptor bulk heterojunction (BHJ) inverted cell, (iii) nanocrystal-dye sensitized solid state cell and (iv) nanocrystal-dye sensitized electrochemical cell. The role of CdS layer in each type of the above cells has been elucidated and the photovoltaic (PV) performance of the PV cells has been compared. It is shown that CdS acts as acceptor in the cells of types (i) and (iii), while it plays the role of an electron-selective (hole-blocking) layer to direct electrons from the organic counterpart to anode in the cases (ii) and (iv). Morphology of the CdS layer makes a noticeable effect on the PV performance. In particular, the nanowire array demonstrated an improved efficiency of collection of charge carriers as compared with the continuous textured surface due to the increased organic-CdS interface area in PV cells of practically all types. It is demonstrated that the same nanocrystal-dye structure can operate either as PV cell of type (iii) or PV cell of type (iv). PMID:26328438

  4. Fabrication of ZnO nanostructures sensitized with CdS quantum dots for photovoltaic application using a convenient solution method

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Gengmin; Yin, Jianbo; Liang, Jia; Sun, Wentao; Shen, Ziyong

    2015-01-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures sensitized with cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) were fabricated using a simple and inexpensive solution method. ZnO nanostructures, in the form of either nanocones or nanorods, were first grown directly from fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates in aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA, C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}) under external voltages. Then, CdS QDs were attached to these ZnO nanostructures via reactions in the mixed aqueous solutions of cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) and thioacetamide (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NS). Photovoltaic responses were obtained from the quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) in which these CdS QD-covered ZnO nanostructures were employed as the photoanodes. The morphologies of the ZnO nanostructures, which could be effectively modulated via the substrate location in the solutions during the fabrication, were found to have played an important role in determining the properties of the QDSSCs.

  5. Ag plasmonic nanostructures and a novel gel electrolyte in a high efficiency TiO2/CdS solar cell.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Naresh; Deepa, Melepurath; Srivastava, Avanish Kumar

    2015-04-21

    A novel photoanode architecture with plasmonic silver (Ag) nanostructures embedded in titania (TiO2), which served as the wide band gap semiconducting support and CdS quantum dots (QDs), as light absorbers, is presented. Ag nanostructures were prepared by a polyol method and are comprised of clumps of nanorods, 15-35 nm wide, interspersed with globular nanoparticles and they were characterized by a face centered cubic lattice. Optimization of Ag nanostructures was achieved on the basis of a superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) obtained for the cell with a Ag/TiO2/CdS electrode encompassing a mixed morphology of Ag nano-rods and particles, relative to analogous cells with either Ag nanoparticles or Ag nanorods. Interfacial charge transfer kinetics was unraveled by fluorescence quenching and lifetime studies. Ag nanostructures improve the light harvesting ability of the TiO2/CdS photoanode via (a) plasmonic and scattering effects, which induce both near- and far-field enhancements which translate to higher photocurrent densities and (b) charging effects, whereby, photoexcited electron transfer from TiO2 to Ag is facilitated by Fermi level equilibration. Owing to the spectacular ability of Ag nanostructures to increase light absorption, a greatly increased PCE of 4.27% and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 55% (at 440 nm) was achieved for the cell based on Ag/TiO2/CdS, greater by 42 and 66%, respectively, compared to the TiO2/CdS based cell. In addition, the liquid S(2-) electrolyte was replaced by a S(2-) gel containing fumed silica, and the redox potential, conductivity and p-type conduction of the two were deduced to be comparable. Although the gel based cells showed diminished solar cell performances compared to their liquid counterparts, nonetheless, the Ag/TiO2/CdS electrode continued to outperform the TiO2/CdS electrode. Our studies demonstrate that Ag nanostructures effectively capture a significant chunk of the electromagnetic spectrum and aid QD

  6. On the self-assembly of TiOx into 1D NP network nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redel, Engelbert; Sai Kiran Chakravadhanula, Venkata; Lan, Yanhua; Natzeck, Carsten; Heissler, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Here, we report for the first time a ‘ligand free’ method of designing 1D TiOx supramolecular network materials, which starts from Ti bare metal powder. Each TiOx oxidation step has been carefully investigated with different analytical techniques, including high resolution transmission electron microscopy/high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRTEM/HRSEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements. The self-assembly of TiOx nanoparticles (NPs) into 1D supramolecular nanoparticle networks is induced by the formation of mixed valent TiII,III species. The synthesis starts with etching a bare Ti surface, followed by a continuous oxidation of TiOx clusters and NPs, and it finally ends with the self-assembly into rigid 1D NPs chains. Today, such self-assembled 1D NP TiOx network materials are bridging the gap between the nanoscale and the macroscopic material world and will further provide interesting research opportunities.

  7. Solution-processed, barrier-confined, and 1D nanostructure supported quasi-quantum well with large photoluminescence enhancement.

    PubMed

    Yan, Keyou; Zhang, Lixia; Kuang, Qin; Wei, Zhanhua; Yi, Ya; Wang, Jiannong; Yang, Shihe

    2014-04-22

    Planar substrate supported semiconductor quantum well (QW) structures are not amenable to manipulation in miniature devices, while free-standing QW nanostructures, e.g., ultrathin nanosheets and nanoribbons, suffer from mechanical and environmental instability. Therefore, it is tempting to fashion high-quality QW structures on anisotropic and mechanically robust supporting nanostructures such as nanowires and nanoplates. Herein, we report a solution quasi-heteroepitaxial route for growing a barrier-confined quasi-QW structure (ZnSe/CdSe/ZnSe) on the supporting arms of ZnO nanotetrapods, which have a 1D nanowire structure, through the combination of ion exchange and successive deposition assembly. This resulted in highly crystalline and highly oriented quasi-QWs along the whole axial direction of the arms of the nanotetrapod because a transition buffer layer (Zn(x)Cd(1-x)Se) was formed and in turn reduced the lattice mismatch and surface defects. Significantly, such a barrier-confined QW emits excitonic light ∼17 times stronger than the heterojunction (HJ)-type structure (ZnSe/CdSe, HJ) at the single-particle level. Time-resolved photoluminescence from ensemble QWs exhibits a lifetime of 10 ns, contrasting sharply with ∼300 ps for the control HJ sample. Single-particle PL and Raman spectra suggest that the barrier layer of QW has completely removed the surface trap states on the HJ and restored or upgraded the photoelectric properties of the semiconductor layer. Therefore, this deliberate heteroepitaxial growth protocol on the supporting nanotetrapod has realized a several micrometer long QW structure with high mechanical robustness and high photoelectric quality. We envision that such QWs integrated on 1D nanostructures will largely improve the performance of solar cells and bioprobes, among others. PMID:24580094

  8. A facile route for 3D aerogels from nanostructured 1D and 2D materials

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Mi; Jung, Hyun Young; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Jung, Yung Joon; Kong, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Aerogels have numerous applications due to their high surface area and low densities. However, creating aerogels from a large variety of materials has remained an outstanding challenge. Here, we report a new methodology to enable aerogel production with a wide range of materials. The method is based on the assembly of anisotropic nano-objects (one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes, nanowires, or two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets) into a cross-linking network from their colloidal suspensions at the transition from the semi-dilute to the isotropic concentrated regime. The resultant aerogels have highly porous and ultrafine three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of 1D (Ag, Si, MnO2, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)) and 2D materials (MoS2, graphene, h-BN) with high surface areas, low densities, and high electrical conductivities. This method opens up a facile route for aerogel production with a wide variety of materials and tremendous opportunities for bio-scaffold, energy storage, thermoelectric, catalysis, and hydrogen storage applications. PMID:23152940

  9. Engineering of lead chalcogenide nanostructures for carrier multiplication: Core/shell, 1D, and 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qianglu

    Near infrared emitting semiconductors have been used widely in industry especially in solar-cell fabrications. The efficiency of single junction solar-cell can reach the Shockley-Queisser limit by using optimum band gap material such as silicon and cadmium telluride. The theoretical efficiency can be further enhanced through carrier multiplication, in which a high energy photon is absorbed and more than one electron-hole pair can be generated, reaching more than 100% quantum efficiency in the high energy region of sunlight. The realization of more than unity external quantum efficiency in lead selenide quantum dots solar cell has motivated vast investigation on lowering the carrier multiplication threshold and further improving the efficiency. This dissertation focuses on synthesis of lead chalcogenide nanostructures for their optical spectroscopy studies. PbSe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots were synthesized by cation exchange to obtain thick shells (up to 14 monolayers) for studies of visible and near infrared dual band emissions and carrier multiplication efficiency. By examining the reaction mechanism, a thermodynamic and a kinetic model are introduced to explain the vacancy driven cation exchange. As indicated by the effective mass model, PbSe/CdSe core/shell quantum dots has quasi-type-II band alignment, possessing electron delocalized through the entire quantum dot and hole localized in the core, which breaks down the symmetry of energy levels in the conduction and valence band, leading to hot-hole-assisted efficient multi-exciton generation and a lower carrier multiplication threshold to the theoretical value. For further investigation of carrier multiplication study, PbTe, possessing the highest efficiency among lead chalcogenides due to slow intraband cooling, is synthesized in one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanostructures. By using dodecanethiol as the surfactant, PbTe NRs can be prepared with high uniformity in width and resulted in fine quantum

  10. Synthesis of 1D Silica Nanostructures with Controllable Sizes Based on Short Anionic Peptide Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shengjie; Cai, Qingwei; Du, Mingxuan; Xue, Junyi; Xu, Hai

    2015-09-10

    Artificial synthesis of silica under benign conditions is usually achieved by using cationic organic matrices as templates while the anionic analogues have not received enough consideration, albeit they are also functioning in biosilica formation. In this work, we report the design and self-assembly of an anionic peptide amphiphile (I3E) and the use of its self-assemblies as templates to synthesize 1D silica nanostructures with tunable sizes. We show that short I3E readily formed long nanofibrils in aqueous solution via a hierarchical self-assembly process. By using APTES and TEOS as silica precursors, we found that the I3E nanofibrils templated the production of silica nanotubes with a wide size distribution, in which the silica size regulation was achieved by tuning the interactions among the peptide template and silicon species. These results clearly illustrate a facile method for generating silica nanomaterials based on anionic matrices. PMID:26301578

  11. Light-directing chiral liquid crystal nanostructures: from 1D to 3D.

    PubMed

    Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Li, Quan

    2014-10-21

    Endowing external, remote, and dynamic control to self-organized superstructures with desired functionalities is a principal driving force in the bottom-up nanofabrication of molecular devices. Light-driven chiral molecular switches or motors in liquid crystal (LC) media capable of self-organizing into optically tunable one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) superstructures represent such an elegant system. As a consequence, photoresponsive cholesteric LCs (CLCs), i.e., self-organized 1D helical superstructures, and LC blue phases (BPs), i.e., self-organized 3D periodic cubic lattices, are emerging as a new generation of multifunctional supramolecular 1D and 3D photonic materials in their own right because of their fundamental academic interest and technological significance. These smart stimuli-responsive materials can be facilely fabricated from achiral LC hosts by the addition of a small amount of a light-driven chiral molecular switch or motor. The photoresponsiveness of these materials is a result of both molecular interaction and geometry changes in the chiral molecular switch upon light irradiation. The doped photoresponsive CLCs undergo light-driven pitch modulation and/or helix inversion, which has many applications in color filters, polarizers, all-optical displays, optical lasers, sensors, energy-saving smart devices, and so on. Recently, we have conceptualized and rationally synthesized different light-driven chiral molecular switches that have very high helical twisting powers (HTPs) and exhibit large changes in HTP in different states, thereby enabling wide phototunability of the systems by the addition of very small amounts of the molecular switches into commercially available achiral LCs. The light-driven chiral molecular switches are based on well-recognized azobenzene, dithienylcyclopentene, and spirooxazine derivatives. We have demonstrated high-resolution and lightweight photoaddressable displays without patterned electronics on

  12. Apoferritin fibers: a new template for 1D fluorescent hybrid nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Rocío; Castello, Fabio; Bondia, Patricia; Casado, Santiago; Flors, Cristina; Cuesta, Rafael; Domínguez-Vera, José M; Orte, Angel; Gálvez, Natividad

    2016-05-01

    Recently, research in the field of protein amyloid fibers has gained great attention due to the use of these materials as nanoscale templates for the construction of functional hybrid materials. The formation of apoferritin amyloid-like protein fibers is demonstrated herein for the first time. The morphology, size and stiffness of these one-dimensional structures are comparable to the fibers formed by β-lactoglobulin, a protein frequently used as a model in the study of amyloid-like fibrillar proteins. Nanometer-sized globular apoferritin is capable of self-assembling to form 1D micrometer-sized structures after being subjected to a heating process. Depending on the experimental conditions, fibers with different morphologies and sizes are obtained. The wire-like protein structure is rich in functional groups and allows chemical functionalization with diverse quantum dots (QD), as well as with different Alexa Fluor (AF) dyes, leading to hybrid fluorescent fibers with variable emission wavelengths, from green to near infrared, depending on the QD and AFs coupled. For fibers containing the pair AF488 and AF647, efficient fluorescence energy transfer from the covalently coupled donor (AF488) to acceptor tags (AF647) takes place. Apoferritin fibers are proposed here as a new promising template for obtaining hybrid functional materials. PMID:27103107

  13. Apoferritin fibers: a new template for 1D fluorescent hybrid nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Rocío; Castello, Fabio; Bondia, Patricia; Casado, Santiago; Flors, Cristina; Cuesta, Rafael; Domínguez-Vera, José M.; Orte, Angel; Gálvez, Natividad

    2016-05-01

    Recently, research in the field of protein amyloid fibers has gained great attention due to the use of these materials as nanoscale templates for the construction of functional hybrid materials. The formation of apoferritin amyloid-like protein fibers is demonstrated herein for the first time. The morphology, size and stiffness of these one-dimensional structures are comparable to the fibers formed by β-lactoglobulin, a protein frequently used as a model in the study of amyloid-like fibrillar proteins. Nanometer-sized globular apoferritin is capable of self-assembling to form 1D micrometer-sized structures after being subjected to a heating process. Depending on the experimental conditions, fibers with different morphologies and sizes are obtained. The wire-like protein structure is rich in functional groups and allows chemical functionalization with diverse quantum dots (QD), as well as with different Alexa Fluor (AF) dyes, leading to hybrid fluorescent fibers with variable emission wavelengths, from green to near infrared, depending on the QD and AFs coupled. For fibers containing the pair AF488 and AF647, efficient fluorescence energy transfer from the covalently coupled donor (AF488) to acceptor tags (AF647) takes place. Apoferritin fibers are proposed here as a new promising template for obtaining hybrid functional materials.Recently, research in the field of protein amyloid fibers has gained great attention due to the use of these materials as nanoscale templates for the construction of functional hybrid materials. The formation of apoferritin amyloid-like protein fibers is demonstrated herein for the first time. The morphology, size and stiffness of these one-dimensional structures are comparable to the fibers formed by β-lactoglobulin, a protein frequently used as a model in the study of amyloid-like fibrillar proteins. Nanometer-sized globular apoferritin is capable of self-assembling to form 1D micrometer-sized structures after being subjected to a

  14. Structural and optical properties of nano-structured CdS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Rekha; Kumar, Dinesh; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been deposited on conducting glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effect of precursor concentration on the structural, morphological, compositional, and optical properties of the CdS films has been studied. Crystal structure of these CdS films is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it reveals polycrystalline structure with mixture of cubic and wurtzite phases with grain size decreasing as precursor concentration is increased. Optical studies reveal that the CdS thin films have high transmittance in visible spectral region reaching 90% and the films possess direct optical band gap that decreases from 2.46 to 2.39 eV with decreasing bath concentration. Our study suggests that growth is nucleation controlled.

  15. PVP Assisted Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Self-Assembled 1D ZnO and 3D CuO Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Fozia Z.; Parra, Mohammad Ramzan; Siddiqui, Hafsa; Singh, Neha; Singh, Nitu; Pandey, Padmini; Mishra, K. M.

    2016-03-01

    Self-assembled one-dimensional (1D) zinc oxide (ZnO) rods and three-dimensional (3D) cupric oxide (CuO) cubes like nanostructures with a mean crystallite size of approximately 33 and 32 nm were synthesized through chemical route in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) under mild synthesis conditions. The technique used for the synthesis of nanoparticles seems to be an efficient, inexpensive and easy method. X-Ray diffraction patterns confirmed well crystallinity and phase purity of the as prepared samples, followed by the compositional investigation using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The formation of ZnO nanorods and CuO nanocubes like structures were through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. The mechanism and the formation factors of the self-assembly were discussed in detail. It was clearly observed from results that the concentration of precursors and PVP were important factors in the synthesis of self-assembly ZnO and CuO nanostructures. These self-assembly nanostructures maybe used as novel materials in various potential applications.

  16. Continuous fabrication of scalable 2-dimensional (2D) micro- and nanostructures by sequential 1D mechanical patterning processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ok, Jong G.; Panday, Ashwin; Lee, Taehwa; Jay Guo, L.

    2014-11-01

    We present a versatile and simple methodology for continuous and scalable 2D micro/nano-structure fabrication via sequential 1D patterning strokes enabled by dynamic nano-inscribing (DNI) and vibrational indentation patterning (VIP) as well as a `single-stroke' 2D patterning using a DNI tool in VIP.

  17. Continuous fabrication of scalable 2-dimensional (2D) micro- and nanostructures by sequential 1D mechanical patterning processes.

    PubMed

    Ok, Jong G; Panday, Ashwin; Lee, Taehwa; Jay Guo, L

    2014-12-21

    We present a versatile and simple methodology for continuous and scalable 2D micro/nano-structure fabrication via sequential 1D patterning strokes enabled by dynamic nano-inscribing (DNI) and vibrational indentation patterning (VIP) as well as a 'single-stroke' 2D patterning using a DNI tool in VIP. PMID:25363145

  18. Solvothermal Process Assisted Sensitization of 1D Anodized TiO2 Nanotubes with 0D Cadmium Chalcogenides (CdTe, CdS) for Efficient Solar to Clean Energy Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarker, Swagotom

    The creation of an n-n heterojunction between TiO2 nanotubes (T_NT) and CdTe nanocrystals (which mostly exist as p-type) is crucial for realizing the benefits of efficient directional charge transport in a photoanode of 1D/0D architecture. The presented one-pot solvothermal approach leverages temperature control to achieve linker-free spatial distribution of CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) on T_NT resulting in highly efficient optical and photoelectrochemical responses. As a result of this positive outcome, a comparative study between the solvothermal approach and the linker mediated approach was performed on water oxidation with CdS NC decorated T_NT. Solvothermally synthesized T_NT/CdS photoelectrode presents ˜600% higher value of short-circuit current density (Isc) than that of the plain T_NT (0.95 mA/cm2); in addition, it demonstrates 4.20-fold increased applied-bias-to photoconversion efficiency (ABPE) in comparison with the lone T_NT (0.77%). However, linker mediated T_NT/MPA-CdS photoelectrode exhibits relatively lower value of I sc (2.51 mA/cm2) and ABPE (1.79 %).

  19. Facile synthesis of {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure and energy storage ability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yousefi, Taher; Golikand, Ahmad Nozad; Hossein Mashhadizadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mustafa

    2012-06-15

    The dense manganese oxide nanorods with an extremely narrow distribution are synthesized at a low temperature using first cathodic electrodeposition subsequently heat treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the nanorods have bar shapes, and their average diameter is less than 50 nm. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) study, the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern in TEM images and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) result show that the nanorods are {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} single crystal. The results of N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption analysis indicate that the BET surface area of the {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanorods is 93 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. By recording the potential-time curve during the electrodeposition process, it is revealed that water reduction reaction has a major role in the electrogeneration of base at the cathode surface under the applied electrochemical conditions. Finally, based on the H{sub 2} bubbling on the cathode surface, the mechanism of the formation and the growth of {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanorods are proposed and discussed. For the electrochemical supercapacitor application, electrochemically prepared {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} is found to be stable for a large number of cycles with high specific capacitance, 338 F g{sup -1} at a scan rate of 10 mV s{sup -1}. Finally, the charge-discharge mechanism is discussed. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New nanostructures of MnO{sub 2} is synthesized by simple method of cathodicelectrodeposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The product has unique one-dimensional morphology with average diameter size of 50 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The experiment conditions (temperature, current density) has not been reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The one-nanostructures obtained without using of hard template or surfactant.

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis of Mn(OH)O nanowires and their thermal conversion to (1D)-manganese oxides nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed Ahmed, Khalid Abdelazez; Abbood, Hayder A.; Huang, Kaixun

    2012-11-01

    Manganite Mn(OH)O nanowires were successfully synthesized using a hydrothermal method based on a mild and direct reaction between potassium permanganate and ethylene glycol. Subsequent heat treatment of Mn(OH)O nanowires in air at 400 °C for 4 h and 900 °C for 2 h, was conducted to prepare pyrolusite MnO2 nanobelts and necklace-like bixbyite-C Mn2O3 nanowires, respectively. A variety of techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SA-ED), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analyzer (TG-DTA), were employed to characterize the resulting materials. The ethylene glycol and heating furnace imposed an effect on the morphology evolution of one dimensional (1D) manganese oxides nanocrystals.

  1. ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructure Photoanode in a CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Gengmin; Sun, Wentao; Shen, Ziyong; Shi, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical array of ZnO nanocones covered with ZnO nanospikes was hydrothermally fabricated and employed as the photoanode in a CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC). This QDSSC outperformed the QDSSC based on a simple ZnO nanocone photoanode in all the four principal photovoltaic parameters. Using the hierarchical photoanode dramatically increased the short circuit current density and also slightly raised the open circuit voltage and the fill factor. As a result, the conversion efficiency of the QDSSC based on the hierarchical photoanode was more than twice that of the QDSSC based on the simple ZnO nanocone photoanode. This improvement is attributable to both the enlarged specific area of the photoanode and the reduction in the recombination of the photoexcited electrons. PMID:26379268

  2. ZnO Hierarchical Nanostructure Photoanode in a CdS Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Gengmin; Sun, Wentao; Shen, Ziyong; Shi, Mingji

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical array of ZnO nanocones covered with ZnO nanospikes was hydrothermally fabricated and employed as the photoanode in a CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC). This QDSSC outperformed the QDSSC based on a simple ZnO nanocone photoanode in all the four principal photovoltaic parameters. Using the hierarchical photoanode dramatically increased the short circuit current density and also slightly raised the open circuit voltage and the fill factor. As a result, the conversion efficiency of the QDSSC based on the hierarchical photoanode was more than twice that of the QDSSC based on the simple ZnO nanocone photoanode. This improvement is attributable to both the enlarged specific area of the photoanode and the reduction in the recombination of the photoexcited electrons. PMID:26379268

  3. CdS sensitized 3D hierarchical TiO2/ZnO heterostructure for efficient solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhaoke; Xie, Wen; Lim, Zhi Shiuh; You, Lu; Wang, Junling

    2014-01-01

    For conventional dye or quantum dot sensitized solar cells, which are fabricated using mesoporous films, the inefficient electron transport due to defects such as grain boundaries and surface traps is a major drawback. To simultaneously increase the carrier transport efficiency as well as the surface area, optimal-assembling of hierarchical nanostructures is an attractive approach. Here, a three dimensional (3D) hierarchical heterostructure, consisting of CdS sensitized one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods deposited on two dimensional (2D) TiO2 (001) nanosheet, is prepared via a solution-process method. Such heterstructure exhibits significantly enhanced photoelectric and photocatalytic H2 evolution performance compared with CdS sensitized 1D ZnO nanorods/1D TiO2 nanorods photoanode, as a result of the more efficient light harvesting over the entire visible light spectrum and the effective electron transport through a highly connected 3D network. PMID:25030846

  4. CdS sensitized 3D hierarchical TiO2/ZnO heterostructure for efficient solar energy conversion

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhaoke; Xie, Wen; Lim, Zhi Shiuh; You, Lu; Wang, Junling

    2014-01-01

    For conventional dye or quantum dot sensitized solar cells, which are fabricated using mesoporous films, the inefficient electron transport due to defects such as grain boundaries and surface traps is a major drawback. To simultaneously increase the carrier transport efficiency as well as the surface area, optimal-assembling of hierarchical nanostructures is an attractive approach. Here, a three dimensional (3D) hierarchical heterostructure, consisting of CdS sensitized one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanorods deposited on two dimensional (2D) TiO2 (001) nanosheet, is prepared via a solution-process method. Such heterstructure exhibits significantly enhanced photoelectric and photocatalytic H2 evolution performance compared with CdS sensitized 1D ZnO nanorods/1D TiO2 nanorods photoanode, as a result of the more efficient light harvesting over the entire visible light spectrum and the effective electron transport through a highly connected 3D network. PMID:25030846

  5. Spatially branched hierarchical ZnO nanorod-TiO2 nanotube array heterostructures for versatile photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic applications: towards intimate integration of 1D-1D hybrid nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fang-Xing; Hung, Sung-Fu; Tao, Hua Bing; Miao, Jianwei; Yang, Hong Bin; Liu, Bin

    2014-12-21

    Hierarchically ordered ZnO nanorods (NRs) decorated nanoporous-layer-covered TiO2 nanotube array (ZnO NRs/NP-TNTAs) nanocomposites have been prepared by an efficient, two-step anodization route combined with an electrochemical deposition strategy, by which monodispersed one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NRs were uniformly grown on the framework of NP-TNTAs. The crystal phases, morphologies, optical properties, photocatalytic as well as photoelectrocatalytic performances of the well-defined ZnO NRs/NP-TNTAs heterostructures were systematically explored to clarify the structure-property correlation. It was found that the ZnO NRs/NP-TNTAs heterostructure exhibits significantly enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic performances, along with favorable photostability toward degradation of organic pollutants under UV light irradiation, as compared to the single component counterparts. The remarkably enhanced photoactivity of ZnO NRs/NP-TNTAs heterostructure is ascribed to the intimate interfacial integration between ZnO NRs and NP-TNTAs substrate imparted by the unique spatially branched hierarchical structure, thereby contributing to the efficient transfer and separation of photogenerated electron-hole charge carriers. Moreover, the specific active species during the photocatalytic process was unambiguously determined and photocatalytic mechanism was tentatively presented. It is anticipated that our work could provide new insights for the construction of various hierarchical 1D-1D hybrid nanocomposites for extensive photocatalytic applications. PMID:25363649

  6. Controlled growth of 1D and 2D ZnO nanostructures on 4H-SiC using Au catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A perfect control of nanostructure growth is a prerequisite for the development of electronic and optoelectronic device/systems. In this article, we demonstrate the growth of various ZnO-derived nanostructures, including well-ordered arrays of high aspect ratio single crystalline nanowires with preferred growth direction along the [0001] axis, nanowalls, and hybrid nanowire-nanowall structures. The growths of the various ZnO nanostructures have been carried out on SiC substrates in a horizontal furnace, using Au thin film as catalyst. From experimental observations, we have ascribed the growth mechanisms of the different ZnO nanostructures to be a combination of catalytic-assisted and non-catalytic-assisted vapor–liquid-solid (VLS) processes. We have also found that the different ZnO nanoarchitectures' material evolution is governed by a Zn cluster drift effects on the SiC surface mainly driven by growth temperature. Au thin film thickness, growth time, and temperature are the parameters to optimize in order to obtain the different ZnO nanoarchitectures. PMID:25136283

  7. Optical Properties of CdS Nanobelts and Nanosaws Synthesized by Thermal Evaporation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhi-wei; Zou, Bing-suo

    2012-04-01

    By a simple one-step H2-assisted thermal evaporation method, high quality CdS nanostructures have been successfully fabricated on Au coated Si substrates in large scale. The as-synthesized CdS nanostructures consisted of sword-like nanobelts and toothed nanosaws with a single-crystal hexagonal wurtzite structure. The deposition temperature played an important role in determining the size and morphology of the CdS nanostructures. A combination of vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-solid growth mechanisms were proposed to interpret the formation of CdS nanostructures. Photoluminescence measurement indicated that the nanobelts and nanosaws have a prominent green emission at about 512 nm, which is the band-to-band emission of CdS. The waveguide characteristics of both types of CdS nanostructures were observed and discussed.

  8. From sheets to fibers: A novel approach to gamma-AlOOH and gamma-A12O3 1D nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Rui; Xi, Guangcheng; Liu, Yi; Qian, Yitai

    2006-05-01

    The gamma-AIOOH (boehmite) nanofiber bundles have been synthesized via a convenient quencher method. Most nanofibers contain even smaller nanowires with an average diameter of 5 nm. A series of contrast experiments reveal that the evolvement from nanosheets to nanofibers occurs in the quencher process. gamma-Al2O3 nanofiber bundles with mesoporous character can be obtained by calcining relevant gamma-AlOOH nanostructures at 500 degrees C. PMID:16792377

  9. CDS - Database Administrator's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. P.

    This guide aims to instruct the CDS database administrator in: o The CDS file system. o The CDS index files. o The procedure for assimilating a new CDS tape into the database. It is assumed that the administrator has read SUN/79.

  10. Solution-phase synthesis and high photocatalytic activity of wurtzite ZnSe ultrathin nanobelts: a general route to 1D semiconductor nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shenglin; Xi, Baojuan; Wang, Chengming; Xi, Guangcheng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Qian, Yitai

    2007-01-01

    A general and facile synthetic route has been developed to prepare 1D semiconductor nanomaterials in a binary solution of distilled water and ethanol amine. The influence of the volume ratio of mixed solvents and reaction temperature on the yield and final morphology of products was investigated. Significantly, this is the first time that wurtzite ZnSe ultrathin nanobelts have been synthesized in solution. It has been confirmed that the photocatalytic activity of ZnSe nanobelts in the photodegradation of the fuchsine acid is higher than that of TiO(2) nanoparticles. The present work shows that the solvothermal route is facile, cheap, and versatile. Thus, it is very easy to realize scaled-up production, and brings new light on the synthesis and self-assembly of functional materials. PMID:17616961

  11. Nanostructures having high performance thermoelectric properties

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arunava; Hochbaum, Allon I.; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz

    2015-12-22

    The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  12. Nanostructures having high performance thermoelectric properties

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arunava; Hochbaum, Allon I; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  13. Preparation and characterization of photocatalytic carbon dots-sensitized electrospun titania nanostructured fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Haopeng; Zhu, Yihua; Cao, Huimin; Yang, Xiaoling; Li, Chunzhong

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► The TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers are fabricated by using APS combining the electrospinning TiO{sub 2} nanostructured fibers and CDs. ► The CD can work as a photosensitizer in the degradation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. ► The TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers exhibit enhanced photocatalytic efficiency and can be easily handled and recycled. -- Abstract: The carbon dots (CDs) are new functional carbon-aceous materials. Compared to conventional dye molecules and semiconductor quantum dots, CDs are superior in chemical inertness and low toxicity. The TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers were fabricated by combining the electrospinning technique and reflux method. Compared with the pure TiO{sub 2} nanostructured fibers and P25, the TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers exhibited enhanced photocatalytic efficiency of photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers could be attributed to the presence of CDs embedded in TiO{sub 2} nanostructured fibers. The CD can work as a photosensitizer in the degradation. Furthermore, the TiO{sub 2}-CDs nanostructured fibers could be easily handled and recycled due to their one-dimensional nanostructural property.

  14. Controlled growth of high-density CdS and CdSe nanorod arrays on selective facets of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Junze; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2016-05-01

    The rational synthesis of hierarchical three-dimensional nanostructures with specific compositions, morphologies and functionalities is important for applications in a variety of fields ranging from energy conversion and electronics to biotechnology. Here, we report a seeded growth approach for the controlled epitaxial growth of three types of hierarchical one-dimensional (1D)/two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, where nanorod arrays of II-VI semiconductor CdS or CdSe are grown on the selective facets of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates, either on the two basal facets of the nanoplate, or on one basal facet, or on the two basal facets and six side facets. The seed engineering of 2D hexagonal-shaped nanoplates is the key factor for growth of the three resulting types of 1D/2D nanostructures. The wurtzite- and zinc-blende-type polymorphs of semiconductors are used to determine the facet-selective epitaxial growth of 1D nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of different hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures. PMID:27102681

  15. Controlled growth of high-density CdS and CdSe nanorod arrays on selective facets of two-dimensional semiconductor nanoplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue-Jun; Chen, Junze; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhu, Yihan; Han, Yu; Zhang, Hua

    2016-05-01

    The rational synthesis of hierarchical three-dimensional nanostructures with specific compositions, morphologies and functionalities is important for applications in a variety of fields ranging from energy conversion and electronics to biotechnology. Here, we report a seeded growth approach for the controlled epitaxial growth of three types of hierarchical one-dimensional (1D)/two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures, where nanorod arrays of II–VI semiconductor CdS or CdSe are grown on the selective facets of hexagonal-shaped nanoplates, either on the two basal facets of the nanoplate, or on one basal facet, or on the two basal facets and six side facets. The seed engineering of 2D hexagonal-shaped nanoplates is the key factor for growth of the three resulting types of 1D/2D nanostructures. The wurtzite- and zinc-blende-type polymorphs of semiconductors are used to determine the facet-selective epitaxial growth of 1D nanorod arrays, resulting in the formation of different hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures.

  16. Facile microwave-assisted aqueous synthesis of CdS nanocrystals with their photocatalytic activities under visible lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Chonghai; Tian, Xiaobo

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three kinds of CdS nanostructures have been controllably synthesized. • Ethanediamine acts as a phase and morphology controlling reagent. • Three CdS nanostructures display high visible light photocatalytic activities. • Cubic CdS-3 shows superior photocatalytic activity to the other hexagonal CdS. • The growth processes for fabrication of CdS nanocrystals are also discussed. - Abstract: Three kinds of CdS nanostructures, that is, hexagonal nanospheres (CdS-1), hierarchical caterpillar-fungus-like hexagonal nanorods (CdS-2) and hierarchical cubic microspheres (CdS-3), were controllably synthesized by a facile and one-pot microwave-assisted aqueous chemical method using ethanediamine as a phase and morphology controlling reagent. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The results show that CdS-1 is mainly composed of monodispersed hexagonal nanospheres with average diameters of about 100 nm; hexagonal CdS-2 has lengths in the range of 600–800 nm and diameters of 40–60 nm, assembled by nanoparticles about 20 nm in diameter; and CdS-3 is pure cubic microspheres with diameters in the range of 0.8–1.3 μm, aggregated by tiny nanograins with size of 5.8 nm. The band gap energies of CdS products were calculated to be 2.30, 2.31 and 2.24 eV observed from UV–vis DRS for CdS-1, CdS-2 and CdS-3, respectively. PL spectra of CdS samples showed that sphalerite CdS-3 possesses a very weak fluorescence, while wurtzite CdS-2 has a strongest green near-band edge emission (NBE) at 550 nm. The visible light photodegradation of methylene blue and rhodamine B in the presence of CdS photocatalysts illustrates that all of them display high photocatalytic activities. Significantly, the cubic CdS-3 exhibits more excellent photocatalytic

  17. One dimensional CdS nanowire@TiO2 nanoparticles core-shell as high performance photocatalyst for fast degradation of dye pollutants under visible and sunlight irradiation.

    PubMed

    Arabzadeh, Abbas; Salimi, Abdollah

    2016-10-01

    In this study, one-dimensional CdS nanowires@TiO2 nanoparticles core-shell structures (1D CdS NWs@TiO2 NPs) were synthesized by a facile wet chemical-solvothermal method. The different aspects of the properties of CdS NWs@TiO2 NPs were surveyed by using a comprehensive range of characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. The as-prepared nanostructure was applied as an effective photocatalyst for degradation of methyl orange (MO), methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (Rh B) under visible and sunlight irradiation. The results indicated significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity of CdS NWs@TiO2 NPs for degradation of MO, MB and Rh B compared to CdS NWs. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the enhanced sunlight absorbance and the efficient charge separation of the formed heterostructure between CdS NWs and TiO2. The results showed that MO, Rh B and MB were almost completely degraded after 2, 2 and 3min of exposure to sunlight, respectively; while under visible light irradiation (3W blue LED lamp) the dyes were decomposed with less half degradation rate. The catalytic activity was retained even after three degradation cycles of organic dyes, demonstrating that the proposed nanocomposite can be effectively used as efficient photocatalyst for removal of environmental pollutions caused by organic dyes under sunlight irradiation and it could be an important addition to the field of wastewater treatment. We hope the present study may open a new window of such 1-D semiconductor nanocomposites to be used as visible light photocatalysts in the promising field of organic dyes degradation. PMID:27348482

  18. A Second Life for CDs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snoderly, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Cutting a few CDs apart with scissors, the author found that the process created somewhat brittle shards. As a result, she started to paint a few with acrylic, finding to her amazement that the paint gave the CDs a leathery, more manageable texture. Upon further experimentation, she found that if the CDs are painted somewhat translucently in…

  19. Ultrasonic/surfactant assisted of CdS nano hollow sphere synthesis and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Rafati, Amir Abbas; Borujeni, Ahmad Reza Afraz; Najafi, Mojgan; Bagheri, Ahmad

    2011-01-15

    CdS hollow nanospheres with diameters ranging from 40 to 150 nm have been synthesized by a surfactant-assisted sonochemical route. The successful vesicle templating indicates that the outer leaflet of the bilayer is the receptive surface in the controlled growth of CdS nanoparticles which provide the unique reactor for the nucleation and mineralization growth of CdS nanoparticles. The CdS nanostructures obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Structural characterization of hollow CdS nanospheres indicates that these products packed with square subunits having sizes between 5 and 7 nm in diameter. The formation of the hollow nanostructure was explained by a vesicle template mechanism, in which sonication and surfactant play important roles. The band-edge emission and surface luminescence of the CdS nanoparticles were observed. -Research Highlights: {yields} CdS hollow nanospheres with diameters of 40-150 nm were synthesized. {yields} Nanoparticles were characterized by UV/Vis and photoluminescence. {yields} Nanospheres are composed of smaller nanocrystals with the average size of 6.8 nm. {yields} The band gap energy of the CdS nanoparticles is higher than its bulk value.

  20. Rational design of hierarchical ZnO superstructures for efficient charge transfer: mechanistic and photovoltaic studies of hollow, mesoporous, cage-like nanostructures with compacted 1D building blocks.

    PubMed

    Chetia, Tridip Ranjan; Ansari, Mohammad Shaad; Qureshi, Mohammad

    2016-02-21

    Mesoporous and hollow zinc oxide (ZnO) hierarchical superstructures assembled with compact 1D building blocks that provide an efficient and faster transport pathway for photo-generated charge carriers have been synthesized using a biomass derived polysaccharide "alginic acid". To understand the interactions between the organic bio-template and inorganic growth units of ZnO in aqueous medium, the effects of additives such as the alginate ion (ALGI) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), along with the controlled reaction conditions, are investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and powder X-ray diffraction. Dynamic and steady-state photoluminescence measurements are carried out to understand the charge transfer processes in the compact 1D superstructures. Experimental analyses reveal that the alginate ions, under hydrothermal reaction conditions, act as a structure directing agent and assemble 1D ZnO nanorods (NRs) hierarchically while NH4OH assists the formation of ZnO growth units. A plausible mechanism for ZnO cage formation is proposed based on the experimental observations. Morphology dependent photovoltaic properties of ZnO heterostructures, i.e., for ZnO cages, ZnO NRs and ZnO PNPs, have been studied along with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Enhancement of ∼ 60% and ∼ 35% in power conversion efficiency (PCE) is observed in ZnO cage based devices as compared to ZnO NR- and ZnO PNP-based devices, respectively. PMID:26818181

  1. Preparation and Structural Analysis of CdS Nanoparticle Embedded Polyurethane Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Indolia, Ajay Pal; Kumar, Purushottam; Gaur, M. S.

    2011-07-15

    Polymer nanocomposite samples of different weight ratio of CdS were developed by solution embedding of nanoparticles in polyurethane. XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to understand the structural properties of polymer nanocomposite samples. SEM micrograph demonstrates the dispersion of CdS nanoparticles in polymer matrix. It has been observed that crystallinity of PU decreases with increase in concentration of CdS nanoparticles. The XRD data show the characteristic peaks of nanoparticles (i.e.CdS) in nanocomposite samples, which confirm the nanostructure formation in polymer matrix.

  2. CdS nanoparticles sensitization of Al-doped ZnO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode for solar water splitting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment possesses the functions of transparent conducting oxide thin film and 1-D nanostructured semiconductor simultaneously. To enhance the absorption in the visible light region, it is sensitized by cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles which efficiently increase the absorption around 460 nm. The CdS nanoparticles-sensitized AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment exhibits significantly improved photoelectrochemical property. After further heat treatment, a maximum short current density of 5.03 mA cm−2 is obtained under illumination. They not only are much higher than those without CdS nanoparticles sensitization and those without Al-doping and/or hydrogen treatment, but also comparable and even slightly superior to some earlier works for the CdS-sensitized zinc oxide nanorod array thin films with indium tin oxide (ITO) or fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) as substrates. This demonstrated successfully that the AZO nanorod array thin film with hydrogen treatment is quite suitable as an ITO/FTO-free photoanode and has great potentials in solar water splitting after sensitization by quantum dots capable of visible light absorption. PMID:23098050

  3. Single-Source Molecular Precursor for Synthesis of CdS Nanoparticles and Nanoflowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Sobhani, Azam

    2012-04-01

    CdS Semiconductor nanostructures were synthesized by using two different methods. Using triphenylphosphine (C18H15P) and oleylamine (C18H37N) as surfactant, CdS semiconductor nanocrystals with a size ranging from 30 to 90 nm can be synthesized by thermal decomposition of precursor [bis(thiosemicarbazide)cadmium(II)]. CdS nanoflowers were synthesized via hydrothermal decomposition of [bis(thiosemicarbazide) cadmium(II)] without any surfactant. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirm that the resulting samples were a pure hexagonal phase of CdS. The optical property test indicates that the absorption peak of the samples shifts towards short wavelength, and the blue shift phenomenon might be ascribed to the quantum effect.

  4. Hexagonal pencil-like CdS nanorods: Facile synthesis and enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Liang; Wang, Guanghui; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Yong; Gao, Fang; Cheng, Yang

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, hexagonal pencil-like CdS nanorods have been successfully synthesized through a typical facile and economical one-step hydrothermal method without using any surfactant or template. The product was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX). The results revealed that the prepared CdS photocatalyst consisted of a large quantity of straight and smooth solid hexagonal nanorods and a few nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activities of CdS nanorods and commercial CdS powders were investigated by the photodegradation of Orange II (OII) in aqueous solution under visible light, and the CdS nanorods presented the highest photocatalytic activity. Its photocatalytic efficiency enhancement was attributed to the improved transmission of photogenerated electron-hole pairs in the CdS nanostructures. The present findings may provide a facile approach to synthesize high efficient CdS photocatalysts.

  5. Broad spectral response photodetector based on individual tin-doped CdS nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weichang; Peng, Yuehua; Yin, Yanling; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Yong; Tang, Dongsheng

    2014-12-01

    High purity and tin-doped 1D CdS micro/nano-structures were synthesized by a convenient thermal evaporation method. SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM were used to examine the morphology, composition, phase structure and crystallinity of as-prepared samples. Raman spectrum was used to confirm tin doped into CdS effectively. The effect of impurity on the photoresponse properties of photodetectors made from these as-prepared pure and tin-doped CdS micro/nano-structures under excitation of light with different wavelength was investigated. Various photoconductive parameters such as responsivity, external quantum efficiency, response time and stability were analyzed to evaluate the advantage of doped nanowires and the feasibility for photodetector application. Comparison with pure CdS nanobelt, the tin-doped CdS nanowires response to broader spectral range while keep the excellect photoconductive parameters. Both trapped state induced by tin impurity and optical whispering gallery mode microcavity effect in the doped CdS nanowires contribute to the broader spectral response. The micro-photoluminescence was used to confirm the whispering gallery mode effect and deep trapped state in the doped CdS nanowires.

  6. Broad spectral response photodetector based on individual tin-doped CdS nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Weichang E-mail: dstang@hunnu.edu.cn; Peng, Yuehua; Yin, Yanling; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Yong; Tang, Dongsheng E-mail: dstang@hunnu.edu.cn

    2014-12-15

    High purity and tin-doped 1D CdS micro/nano-structures were synthesized by a convenient thermal evaporation method. SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM were used to examine the morphology, composition, phase structure and crystallinity of as-prepared samples. Raman spectrum was used to confirm tin doped into CdS effectively. The effect of impurity on the photoresponse properties of photodetectors made from these as-prepared pure and tin-doped CdS micro/nano-structures under excitation of light with different wavelength was investigated. Various photoconductive parameters such as responsivity, external quantum efficiency, response time and stability were analyzed to evaluate the advantage of doped nanowires and the feasibility for photodetector application. Comparison with pure CdS nanobelt, the tin-doped CdS nanowires response to broader spectral range while keep the excellect photoconductive parameters. Both trapped state induced by tin impurity and optical whispering gallery mode microcavity effect in the doped CdS nanowires contribute to the broader spectral response. The micro-photoluminescence was used to confirm the whispering gallery mode effect and deep trapped state in the doped CdS nanowires.

  7. Using Photo CDs for Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeamans, George T.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of Kodak's Photo CD for teaching, testing, and practicing basic concepts of photography and composition based on experiences at Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana. The use of practice disks is explained, learning outcomes and student attitudes are discussed, and a sidebar describes new software for use with Photo CDs. (LRW)

  8. Hierarchical CdS Nanowires Based Rigid and Flexible Photodetectors with Ultrahigh Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Ludong; Lou, Zheng; Shen, Guozhen

    2015-10-28

    Hierarchical CdS nanowires were synthesized via a facile vapor transport method, which were used to fabricate both rigid and flexible visible-light photodetectors. Studies found that the rigid photodetectors on SiO2/Si substrate showed ultrahigh photo-dark current ratio up to 1.96 × 10(4), several orders of magnitude higher than previously reported CdS nanostructures, as well as high specific detectivity (4.27 × 10(12) Jones), fast response speed and excellent environmental stability. Highly flexible photodetectors were also fabricated on polyimide substrate, which exhibited comparable photoresponse performance as the rigid one. In addition, the as-prepared flexible devices displayed excellent mechanical flexibility, electrical stability and folding endurance. The results indicate that the hierarchical CdS nanowires may be good candidates for nanoscale optoelectronic devices such as high-efficiency photoswitches and highly photosensitive detectors. PMID:26439364

  9. Fabrication and characterization of nanostructured Mg-doped CdS/AAO nanoporous membrane for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaban, Mohamed; Mustafa, Mona; Hamdy, Hany

    2016-04-01

    In this study, Mg-doped CdS nanostructure was deposited onto anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane substrate using sol-gel spin coating method. The AAO membrane was prepared by a two-step anodization process combined with pore widening process. The morphology, chemical composition, and structure of the spin- coated CdS nanostructure have been studied. The morphology of the fabricated AAO membrane and the deposited Mg-doped CdS nanostructure was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM of AAO illustrates a typical hexagonal and smooth nanoporous alumina membrane with interpore distance of ~ 100 nm, the pore diameter of ~ 60 nm. SEM of Mgdoped CdS shows porous nanostructured film of CdS nanoparticles. This film well adherents and covers the AAO substrate. The energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) pattern exhibits the signals of Al, O from AAO membrane and Mg, Cd, and S from the deposited CdS. This indicates the high purity of the fabricated membrane and the deposited Mg-doped CdS nanostructure. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Scherrer equation was used to calculate the average crystallite size. Additionally, the texture coefficients and density of dislocations were calculated. The fabricated CdS/AAO was applied to detect glucose of different concentrations. The proposed method has some advantages such as simple technology, low cost of processing, and high throughput. All of these factors facilitate the use of the prepared films in sensing applications.

  10. Electron Microscopy Study of Exotic Nanostructures of Cadmium Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lifeng; Jiao, Jun

    2005-04-01

    In this article, two simple methods, evaporation-condensation and catalytic thermal evaporation, were used to investigate the synthesis of CdS nanostructures for nanoscale optoelectronic applications. To understand their growth mechanisms, various electron microscopy and microanalysis techniques were utilized in characterizing their morphologies, internal structures, growth directions and elemental compositions. The electron microscopy study reveals that when using the evaporation-condensation method, branched CdS nanorods and self-assembled arrays of CdS nanorods were synthesized at 800°C and 1000°C, respectively. Instead of morphological differences, both types of CdS nanorods grew along the [0001] direction. However, when using the catalytic thermal evaporation method (Au as the catalyst), patterned CdS nanowires and nanobelts were formed at the temperature region of 500 600°C and 600 750°C, respectively. Their growth direction was along the direction [1010] instead of [0001]. Based on the microscopy and microanalysis results, we propose some growth mechanisms in relation to the growth processes of those exotic CdS nanostructures.

  11. An improved pyrolysis route to synthesize carbon-coated CdS quantum dots with fluorescence enhancement effect

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Kejie; Liu Xiaoheng

    2011-10-15

    Well-dispersed carbon-coated CdS (CdS-C) quantum dots were successfully prepared via the improved pyrolysis of bis(1-dodecanethiol)-cadmium(II) under nitrogen atmosphere. This simple method effectively solved the sintered problem resulted from conventional pyrolysis process. The experimental results indicated that most of the as-prepared nanoparticles displayed well-defined core-shell structures. The CdS cores with diameter of {approx}5 nm exhibited hexagonal crystal phase, the carbon shells with thickness of {approx}2 nm acted as a good dispersion medium to prevent CdS particles from aggregation, and together with CdS effectively formed a monodisperse CdS-Carbon nanocomposite. This composite presented a remarkable fluorescence enhancement effect, which indicated that the prepared nanoparticles might be a promising photoresponsive material or biosensor. This improved pyrolysis method might also offer a facile way to prepare other carbon-coated semiconductor nanostructures. - Graphical abstract: We demonstrated a facile approach to synthesize well-dispersed carbon-coated CdS quantum dots. The as-prepared nanoparticles presented remarkable fluorescence enhancement effect. Highlights: > Carbon-coated CdS quantum dots were synthesized by an one-step pyrolysis method. > Well-dispersed CdS-carbon nanoparticles were obtained by an acid treatment process. > As-prepared nanoparticles presented remarkable fluorescence enhancement effect.

  12. Enhanced visible light photocatalytic performance of ZnO nanowires integrated with CdS and Ag2S.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chienhua; Li, Zhengcao; Lin, Hehnan; Wang, Guojing; Liao, Jiecui; Li, Mingyang; Lv, Shasha; Li, Wei

    2016-02-18

    A series of ZnO-CdS-Ag2S ternary nanostructures with different amounts of Ag2S were prepared using simple and low-cost successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) and a chemical precipitation method. The ZnO nanowires, with a diameter of ∼100 nm and a length of ∼1 μm, were modified by coating CdS and Ag2S. CdS has a high absorption coefficient and can efficiently match with the energy levels of ZnO, which can enhance the light absorption ability of the nanostructures. In addition, Ag2S with a narrow band gap was used as the main light absorber and played an important role in increasing the light absorption in the visible light region. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnO-CdS-Ag2S ternary nanostructures was investigated using the degradation of methyl orange (MO) in an aqueous solution under visible light. The ZnO-CdS-Ag2S ternary nanostructures were found to be more efficient than ZnO nanowires, ZnO-CdS nanowires, and ZnO-Ag2S nanowires. There is 7.68 times more photocatalytic activity for MO degradation in terms of the rate constant for ZnO-CdS-Ag2S 15-cycle ternary nanostructure compared to the as-grown ZnO. Furthermore, the effect of the amount of Ag2S and CdS on the ZnO surface on the photocatalytic activity was analyzed. The superior photo-absorption properties and photocatalytic performance of the ZnO-CdS-Ag2S ternary nanostructures can be ascribed to the heterostructure, which enhanced the separation of the photo-induced electron-hole pairs. In addition, visible light could be absorbed by ZnO-CdS-Ag2S ternary nanostructures rather than by ZnO. PMID:26815888

  13. Hydrogen Gas Sensors Based on Semiconductor Oxide Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Haoshuang; Wang, Zhao; Hu, Yongming

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the hydrogen gas sensing properties of semiconductor oxide (SMO) nanostructures have been widely investigated. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the research progress in the last five years concerning hydrogen gas sensors based on SMO thin film and one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures. The hydrogen sensing mechanism of SMO nanostructures and some critical issues are discussed. Doping, noble metal-decoration, heterojunctions and size reduction have been investigated and proved to be effective methods for improving the sensing performance of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures. The effect on the hydrogen response of SMO thin films and 1D nanostructures of grain boundary and crystal orientation, as well as the sensor architecture, including electrode size and nanojunctions have also been studied. Finally, we also discuss some challenges for the future applications of SMO nanostructured hydrogen sensors. PMID:22778599

  14. Superhydrophilic nanostructure

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Zormpa, Vasileia; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-05-12

    An embodiment of a superhydrophilic nanostructure includes nanoparticles. The nanoparticles are formed into porous clusters. The porous clusters are formed into aggregate clusters. An embodiment of an article of manufacture includes the superhydrophilic nanostructure on a substrate. An embodiment of a method of fabricating a superhydrophilic nanostructure includes applying a solution that includes nanoparticles to a substrate. The substrate is heated to form aggregate clusters of porous clusters of the nanoparticles.

  15. Functionalized CdS nanospheres and nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeokjin; Yang, Heesun; Holloway, Paul H.

    2009-12-01

    Functionalized nanoparticles are discussed. Surfaces of CdS:Mn/ZnS core/shell nanospheres (Qdots) were converted from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by growth of a SiO 2 shell. The colloidal dispersion was stabilize by adding a surfactant with a negative surface charge, and a cell-penetrating-peptide, TAT, was attached through a primary amine group. The TAT functionalized Qdots were shown to pass the blood-brain-barrier and luminescence in the infused half of the brain. In addition, nanorods of S 2- rich CdS were synthesized by reaction of excess S with Cd precursors in the presence of ethylene diamine. The photoluminescence (PL) peak from the S 2- rich CdS nanorods was broad with a maximum at ∼710 nm, which was 40 nm longer in wavelength than the PL peak from Cd 2+ rich CdS (∼670 nm) nanorods. The influence of surface electron or hole trap states on the luminescent pathway of CdS nanorods were used to explain these shifts in wavelength. Nanocrystals of Au with ∼2 nm diameters were grown on S 2- rich surfaces of CdS nanorods. Significant quenching of photoluminescence was observed from Au nanocrystals on CdS nanorods due to interfacial charge separation. Charge separation by Au nanocrystals on CdS resulted in enhanced UV photocatalytic degradation of Procion red mix-5B (PRB) dye in aqueous solution.

  16. One-Dimensional Oxide Nanostructures as Gas-Sensing Materials: Review and Issues

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung Jin; Jang, Ho Won

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we review gas sensor application of one-dimensional (1D) metal-oxide nanostructures with major emphases on the types of device structure and issues for realizing practical sensors. One of the most important steps in fabricating 1D-nanostructure devices is manipulation and making electrical contacts of the nanostructures. Gas sensors based on individual 1D nanostructure, which were usually fabricated using electron-beam lithography, have been a platform technology for fundamental research. Recently, gas sensors with practical applicability were proposed, which were fabricated with an array of 1D nanostructures using scalable micro-fabrication tools. In the second part of the paper, some critical issues are pointed out including long-term stability, gas selectivity, and room-temperature operation of 1D-nanostructure-based metal-oxide gas sensors. PMID:22319343

  17. Visible Light Photocatalysis via CdS/ TiO 2 Nanocomposite Materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Wade, Jeremy; Stefanakos, Elias K.

    2006-01-01

    Nmore » anostructured colloidal semiconductors with heterogeneous photocatalytic behavior have drawn considerable attention over the past few years. This is due to their large surface area, high redox potential of the photogenerated charge carriers, and selective reduction/oxidation of different classes of organic compounds. In the present paper, we have carried out a systematic synthesis of nanostructured CdS- TiO 2 via reverse micelle process. The structural and microstructural characterizations of the as-prepared CdS- TiO 2 nanocomposites are determined using XRD and SEM-EDS techniques. The visible light assisted photocatalytic performance is monitored by means of degradation of phenol in water suspension.« less

  18. Efficient photon management with nanostructures for photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Bo; Lin, Qingfeng; Zhang, Qianpeng; Fan, Zhiyong

    2013-07-01

    Efficient photon management schemes are crucial for improving the energy conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices; they can lead potentially to reduced material usage and cost for these devices. In this review, photon trapping mechanisms are discussed briefly in the beginning, followed by a summary of recent progress on a number of major categories of nanostructures with intriguing photon management properties. Specifically, nanostructures including nanowires, nanopillars, nanopyramids, nanocones, nanospikes, and so forth, have been reviewed comprehensively with materials including Si, Ge, CdS, CIGS, ZnO, etc. It is found that these materials with diverse configurations have tunable photon management properties, namely, optical reflectance, transmittance and absorption. Investigations on these nanostructures have not only shed light on the fundamental interplay between photons and materials at the nanometer scale, but also suggested a potential pathway for a new generation of photovoltaic devices.

  19. Management of Catalogs at CDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landais, G.; Boch, T.; Brouty, M.; Guéhenneux, S.; Genova, F.; Lesteven, S.; Ochsenbein, F.; Ocvirk, P.; Perret, E.; Pineau, F.-X.; Simon, A.-C.; Vannier, P.

    2015-04-01

    VizieR (Ochsenbein et al. 2000) provides access to the most complete library of published astronomical catalogs (data tables and associated data) available online and organized in a self-documented database. (There were 11769 catalogs in November 2013.) Indexing the metadata in the VizieR search engine requires the expertise of scientists and documentalists for each catalog ingested. The metadata go into an efficient position search engine that is adapted to big data. (For instance, the GAIA simulation catalog has more than two billion objects). Information in VizieR tables is well described and can be retrieved easily. The search results provide visibility to catalogs with tools and protocols to disseminate data to the Virtual Observatory, thus giving scientists data that is reusable by dedicated tools (e.g. image vizualisation tools). Also, new functionality allows users to extract all photometric data in catalogs for a given position. Finally, it is also through cross-identification tools that the CDS becomes a partner in producing large data sets, such as GAIA.

  20. Constructing one-dimensional silver nanowire-doped reduced graphene oxide integrated with CdS nanowire network hybrid structures toward artificial photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siqi; Weng, Bo; Tang, Zi-Rong; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2014-12-01

    A ternary hybrid structure of one-dimensional (1D) silver nanowire-doped reduced graphene oxide (RGO) integrated with a CdS nanowire (NW) network has been fabricated via a simple electrostatic self-assembly method followed by a hydrothermal reduction process. The electrical conductivity of RGO can be significantly enhanced by opening up new conduction channels by bridging the high resistance grain-boundaries (HGBs) with 1D Ag nanowires, which results in a prolonged lifetime of photo-generated charge carriers excited from the CdS NW network, thus making Ag NW-RGO an efficient co-catalyst with the CdS NW network toward artificial photosynthesis.A ternary hybrid structure of one-dimensional (1D) silver nanowire-doped reduced graphene oxide (RGO) integrated with a CdS nanowire (NW) network has been fabricated via a simple electrostatic self-assembly method followed by a hydrothermal reduction process. The electrical conductivity of RGO can be significantly enhanced by opening up new conduction channels by bridging the high resistance grain-boundaries (HGBs) with 1D Ag nanowires, which results in a prolonged lifetime of photo-generated charge carriers excited from the CdS NW network, thus making Ag NW-RGO an efficient co-catalyst with the CdS NW network toward artificial photosynthesis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, photographs of the experimental setups for photocatalytic activity testing, SEM images of Ag NWs and CdS NWs, Zeta potential, Raman spectra, DRS spectra, PL spectra and PL decay time evolution, and photocatalytic performances of samples for reduction of 4-NA and recycling test. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04229h

  1. EPR and photoluminescence properties of Mn2+ doped CdS nanoparticles synthesized via co-precipitation method.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Atul K; Kripal, Ram

    2012-10-01

    The structural properties of Mn doped CdS (Mn:CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) are studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Photoluminescence (PL), Raman and Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. XRD analysis shows the nanostructure with 2-4 nm of average crystallite size. The planes (110), (103) and (112) in XRD pattern distinguish the wurtzite structure of the Mn:CdS NPs. The intensity of the plane (102) increases as the doping concentration of Mn(2+) increases. UV-vis absorption spectra show blue shift as compared to bulk CdS. The optical band gap energy of Mn(2+) (0, 0.35, 0.70 and 1.35 at.%) doped CdS NPs corresponding to absorption edge are found to be 5.29, 5.28, 5.25 and 5.21 eV, respectively. The intensity of luminescence is changing with the concentration of Mn(2+) doped in CdS NPs. Raman spectra show blue shift in fundamental optical phonon mode (1LO) as well as second optical phonon mode (2LO) as compared to bulk CdS. The intensity ratio of the 2LO to 1LO modes slightly decreases as Mn(2+) concentration increases. EPR shows the existence of Mn(2+) with different local structures in CdS nanoparticles. The values of spectroscopic splitting factor (g) and hyperfine interaction constant (A) decrease as Mn(2+) concentration increases in CdS NPs. PMID:22868335

  2. Tunable Design of Structural Colors Produced by Pseudo-1D Photonic Crystals of Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Tong, Liping; Qi, Wei; Wang, Mengfan; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2016-07-01

    It is broadly observed that graphene oxide (GO) films appear transparent with a thickness of about several nanometers, whereas they appear dark brown or almost black with thickness of more than 1 μm. The basic color mechanism of GO film on a sub-micrometer scale, however, is not well understood. This study reports on GO pseudo-1D photonic crystals (p1D-PhCs) exhibiting tunable structural colors in the visible wavelength range owing to its 1D Bragg nanostructures. Striking structural colors of GO p1D-PhCs could be tuned by simply changing either the volume or concentration of the aqueous GO dispersion during vacuum filtration. Moreover, the quantitative relationship between thickness and reflection wavelength of GO p1D-PhCs has been revealed, thereby providing a theoretical basis to rationally design structural colors of GO p1D-PhCs. The spectral response of GO p1D-PhCs to humidity is also obtained clearly showing the wavelength shift of GO p1D-PhCs at differently relative humidity values and thus encouraging the integration of structural color printing and the humidity-responsive property of GO p1D-PhCs to develop a visible and fast-responsive anti-counterfeiting label. The results pave the way for a variety of potential applications of GO in optics, structural color printing, sensing, and anti-counterfeiting. PMID:27171200

  3. High precision differential measurement of surface photovoltage transients on ultrathin CdS layers.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Th; Bönisch, S; Zabel, P; Dube, S

    2008-11-01

    Time-resolved surface photovoltage (SPV) is an important method for studying charge separation, for example, in nanostructured semiconductors. High precision differential measurement of SPV transients was realized with two identical measurement capacitors and high-impedance buffers. In addition, logarithmic readout and averaging procedures were implemented for single transients over eight magnitudes in time. As a model system ultrathin CdS layers were investigated. The thickness dependencies of the SPV amplitudes and that of the dominating relaxation mechanisms are demonstrated and discussed. PMID:19045899

  4. Color-tunable photoluminescence from In-doped CdS nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinyou; Quan, Songli; Zou, Zhijun; Guo, Pengfei; Lu, Yang; Yan, Hailong; Luo, Yongsong

    2016-05-01

    Color-tunable emission from semiconductor nanostructures holds promising applications in developing multi-color/color-tunable nano-devices. Herein, we reported the growth of In-doped CdS nanowires with various dopant concentrations via a thermal evaporation method. Optical measurement revealed the photoluminescence of these doped nanowires consists of a narrow bandedge emission and a broad trap-state emission, and the intensity ratio between them is tunable depending on excitation laser intensities and trap-state concentrations. On the basis of this variable intensity ratio, a tunable photoluminescent color from red to green was demonstrated. Our work indicates that trap-state emission from doped nanostructures might be useful for color-tunable emissions.

  5. Vought F4U-1D Corsair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    Vought F4U-1D Corsair: In February and March of 1945 this Corsair was examined in the NACA's 30 x 60 Full Scale Tunnel at Langley Field. The F4U-1D has rockets mounted on its wings for this test. After installation and during testing, the wings would be lowered to their flight position.

  6. Ferroelectric gated electrical transport in CdS nanotetrapods.

    PubMed

    Fu, Wangyang; Qin, Shengyong; Liu, Lei; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Hellstrom, Sondra; Wang, Wenlong; Liang, Wenjie; Bai, Xuedong; Li, An-Ping; Wang, Enge

    2011-05-11

    Complex nanostructures such as branched semiconductor nanotetrapods are promising building blocks for next-generation nanoelectronics. Here we report on the electrical transport properties of individual CdS tetrapods in a field effect transistor (FET) configuration with a ferroelectric Ba(0.7)Sr(0.3)TiO(3) film as high-k, switchable gate dielectric. A cryogenic four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) is used to probe the electrical transport through individual nanotetrapods at different temperatures. A p-type field effect is observed at room temperature, owing to the enhanced gate capacitance coupling. And the reversible remnant polarization of the ferroelectric gate dielectric leads to a well-defined nonvolatile memory effect. The field effect is shown to originate from the channel tuning in the arm/core/arm junctions of nanotetrapods. At low temperature (8.5 K), the nanotetrapod devices exhibit a ferroelectric-modulated single-electron transistor (SET) behavior. The results illustrate how the characteristics of a ferroelectric such as switchable polarization and high dielectric constant can be exploited to control the functionality of individual three-dimensional nanoarchitectures. PMID:21513340

  7. Structural transformation in monolayer materials: a 2D to 1D transformation.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Kasra; Attariani, Hamed; LeSar, Richard A

    2016-07-20

    Reducing the dimensions of materials to atomic scales results in a large portion of atoms being at or near the surface, with lower bond order and thus higher energy. At such scales, reduction of the surface energy and surface stresses can be the driving force for the formation of new low-dimensional nanostructures, and may be exhibited through surface relaxation and/or surface reconstruction, which can be utilized for tailoring the properties and phase transformation of nanomaterials without applying any external load. Here we used atomistic simulations and revealed an intrinsic structural transformation in monolayer materials that lowers their dimension from 2D nanosheets to 1D nanostructures to reduce their surface and elastic energies. Experimental evidence of such transformation has also been revealed for one of the predicted nanostructures. Such transformation plays an important role in bi-/multi-layer 2D materials. PMID:27388501

  8. Cooperative Enhancement of Second-Harmonic Generation from a Single CdS Nanobelt-Hybrid Plasmonic Structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinfeng; Zhang, Qing; Chong, Wee Kiang; Yip, Jing Ngei; Wen, Xinglin; Li, Zhenpeng; Wei, Fengxia; Yu, Guannan; Xiong, Qihua; Sum, Tze Chien

    2015-05-26

    Semiconductor nanostructures (e.g., nanowires and nanobelts) hold great promise as subwavelength coherent light sources, nonlinear optical frequency converters, and all-optical signal processors for optoelectronic applications. However, at such small scales, optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) is generally inefficient. Herein, we report on a straightforward strategy using a thin Au layer to enhance the SHG from a single CdS nanobelt by 3 orders of magnitude. Through detailed experimental and theoretical analysis, we validate that the augmented SHG originates from the mutual intensification of the local fields induced by the plasmonic nanocavity and by the reflections within the CdS Fabry-Pérot resonant cavity in this hybrid semiconductor-metal system. Polarization-dependent SHG measurements can be employed to determine and distinguish the contributions of SH signals from the CdS nanobelt and gold film, respectively. When the thickness of gold film becomes comparable to the skin depth, SHG from the gold film can be clearly observed. Our work demonstrates a facile approach for tuning the nonlinear optical properties of mesoscopic, nanostructured, and layered semiconductor materials. PMID:25905978

  9. Synthesis and characterization of CdS nanoparticle based multiwall carbon nanotube-maleic anhydride-1-octene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malikov, E. Y.; Altay, M. C.; Muradov, M. B.; Akperov, O. H.; Eyvazova, G. M.; Puskás, R.; Madarász, D.; Kukovecz, Á.; Kónya, Z.

    2015-05-01

    CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by sonication from cadmium chloride and thiourea using a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-maleic anhydride (MA)-1-octene system as the matrix. The matrix was obtained by the "grafting from" approach from oxidized carbon nanotubes and maleic anhydride-1-octene. Multiwall carbon nanotubes used for reinforcing the matrix were synthesized by Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition using Fe-Co/Al2O3 as the catalyst. The obtained nanostructures were characterized by FTIR, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, SEM and UV-vis spectroscopy. The average CdS particle diameter was 7.9 nm as confirmed independently by TEM and XRD. UV-vis spectroscopy revealed that the obtained nanostructure is an appropriate base material for making optical devices. The novelty of this work is the use of the MWCNT-MA-1-octene matrix obtained via the "grafting from" approach for the synthesis of uniformly dispersed CdS nanocrystals by ultrasonic cavitation to obtain a polymer nanocomposite.

  10. Stable hydrogen generation from Ni- and Co-based co-catalysts in supported CdS PEC cell.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Alka; Paik, Pradip; Borse, Pramod H

    2016-07-01

    To improve the limited efficiency and stability of CdS photoanodes in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell, the nanostructured CdS photoanode was modified with Ni(OH)2, NiO, Co(OH)2, and Co3O4 water-oxidation-nano co-catalysts (WOC). Co(OH)2 nanorice and Ni(OH)2 nanosheet co-catalysts were obtained by a simple chemical precipitation method. Modification by the co-catalysts gives longer stability (>8 h) to CdS electrodes, and facilitates impulsive H2 evolution in PEC cells. Nano-NiO modification yields a two-fold increase in photocurrent density and the highest H2 evolution of 2.5 mmol h(-1). A dual role for Ni related co-catalysts over CdS surface, that is forming a p-n junction and acting as an effective co-catalyst, improves the photocurrent and hydrogen evolution rate, respectively. Improvement in stability was measured using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and prolong chronoamperometry measurements. The present report focuses on exploration of chemically synthesized earth-abundant and cost-effective co-catalysts for PEC H2 generation. PMID:27327992

  11. Mining the CDS Collection: A Learning Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Patricio F.; Ochsenbein, François

    The experiences gained as a result of the CDS/ESO Datamining project are described in this paper as well as a brief outline of the tools developed (described in Ortiz et al. 1998 and Ortiz, 2000). Important issues about datamining and the exchange of information in the context of the Virtual Observatory are described and discussed, emphasizing the need of consistent meta-information for the exchange of data amongst servers and institutions.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonally patterned quasi-1D ZnO nanowire arrays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) ZnO nanowire arrays with hexagonal pattern have been successfully synthesized via the vapor transport process without any metal catalyst. By utilizing polystyrene microsphere self-assembled monolayer, sol–gel-derived ZnO thin films were used as the periodic nucleation sites for the growth of ZnO nanowires. High-quality quasi-1D ZnO nanowires were grown from nucleation sites, and the original hexagonal periodicity is well-preserved. According to the experimental results, the vapor transport solid condensation mechanism was proposed, in which the sol–gel-derived ZnO film acting as a seed layer for nucleation. This simple method provides a favorable way to form quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures applicable to diverse fields such as two-dimensional photonic crystal, nanolaser, sensor arrays, and other optoelectronic devices. PMID:24521308

  13. Nanostructured photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Lan; Tan, H. Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Energy and the environment are two of the most important global issues that we currently face. The development of clean and sustainable energy resources is essential to reduce greenhouse gas emission and meet our ever-increasing demand for energy. Over the last decade photovoltaics, as one of the leading technologies to meet these challenges, has seen a continuous increase in research, development and investment. Meanwhile, nanotechnology, which is considered to be the technology of the future, is gradually revolutionizing our everyday life through adaptation and incorporation into many traditional technologies, particularly energy-related technologies, such as photovoltaics. While the record for the highest efficiency is firmly held by multijunction III-V solar cells, there has never been a shortage of new research effort put into improving the efficiencies of all types of solar cells and making them more cost effective. In particular, there have been extensive and exciting developments in employing nanostructures; features with different low dimensionalities, such as quantum wells, nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles and quantum dots, have been incorporated into existing photovoltaic technologies to enhance their performance and/or reduce their cost. Investigations into light trapping using plasmonic nanostructures to effectively increase light absorption in various solar cells are also being rigorously pursued. In addition, nanotechnology provides researchers with great opportunities to explore the new ideas and physics offered by nanostructures to implement advanced solar cell concepts such as hot carrier, multi-exciton and intermediate band solar cells. This special issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains selected papers on nanostructured photovoltaics written by researchers in their respective fields of expertise. These papers capture the current excitement, as well as addressing some open questions in the field, covering topics including the

  14. 1D ferrimagnetism in homometallic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronado, E.; Gómez-García, C. J.; Borrás-Almenar, J. J.

    1990-05-01

    The magnetic properties of the cobalt zigzag chain Co(bpy)(NCS)2 (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) are discussed on the basis of an Ising-chain model that takes into account alternating Landé factors. It is emphasized, for the first time, that a homometallic chain containing only one type of site can give rise to a 1D ferrimagneticlike behavior.

  15. DESIGN PACKAGE 1D SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Eisler

    1995-02-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1D, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1D system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations excluding hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations.

  16. The genomic CDS sandbox: An assessment among domain experts.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Ayesha; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Eilbeck, Karen; Williams, Marc S; Freimuth, Robert R; Hoffman, Mark A; Rasmussen, Luke V; Overby, Casey L; Shirts, Brian H; Hoffman, James M; Welch, Brandon M

    2016-04-01

    Genomics is a promising tool that is becoming more widely available to improve the care and treatment of individuals. While there is much assertion, genomics will most certainly require the use of clinical decision support (CDS) to be fully realized in the routine clinical setting. The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) of the National Institutes of Health recently convened an in-person, multi-day meeting on this topic. It was widely recognized that there is a need to promote the innovation and development of resources for genomic CDS such as a CDS sandbox. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a proposed approach for such a genomic CDS sandbox among domain experts and potential users. Survey results indicate a significant interest and desire for a genomic CDS sandbox environment among domain experts. These results will be used to guide the development of a genomic CDS sandbox. PMID:26778834

  17. The Genomic CDS Sandbox: An Assessment Among Domain Experts

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Ayesha; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Eilbeck, Karen; Williams, Marc S.; Freimuth, Robert R.; Hoffman, Mark A.; Rasmussen, Luke V.; Overby, Casey L.; Shirts, Brian H.; Hoffman, James M.; Welch, Brandon M.

    2016-01-01

    Genomics is a promising tool that is becoming more widely available to improve the care and treatment of individuals. While there is much assertion, genomics will most certainly require the use of clinical decision support (CDS) to be fully realized in the routine clinical setting. The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) of the National Institutes of Health recently convened an in-person, multi-day meeting on this topic. It was widely recognized that there is a need to promote the innovation and development of resources for genomic CDS such as a CDS sandbox. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a proposed approach for such a genomic CDS sandbox among domain experts and potential users. Survey results indicate a significant interest and desire for a genomic CDS sandbox environment among domain experts. These results will be used to guide the development of a genomic CDS sandbox. PMID:26778834

  18. Turning “on” and “off” nucleation and growth: Microwave assisted synthesis of CdS clusters and nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer, Edmy; Nater, Sariann; Rivera, Daniel; Colon, Jean Marie; Zayas, Francisco; Gonzalez, Miguel; Castro, Miguel E.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Cadmium acetate and DMSO were employed as ion precursors. ► New approach to controlled CdS nanoparticle synthesis. ► CdS clusters and nanoparticles synthesis achieved using microwave irradiation. ► Microwave irradiation turns on and off nanoparticle growth. ► The formation of clusters, embryos and nanoparticles studied with optical spectroscopy. -- Abstract: We report here on the formation of CdS NP from the microwave assisted reaction of Cd(CH{sub 3}CO{sub 2}){sub 2} with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). DMSO serves as the solvent and a controlled source of sulfide ions to form (CdS){sub 1≤n≤5} clusters at the early stages of the process. The clusters grow into CdS nanoparticles, with diameters that range from 1.6 nm up to over 250 nm, with microwave heating. The time dependence of the onset of light absorption and absorbance are consistent with a concurrent nucleation and growth processes. The formation of clusters and nuclei and their subsequent reactions is controlled by turning on and off the energy supply consistent with an energy barrier to the formation of CdS nanostructures.

  19. Plasmonic Au nanoparticles embedding enhances the activity and stability of CdS for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Guiyang; Wang, Xiang; Cao, Jungang; Wu, Shujie; Yan, Wenfu; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A composite photocatalyst of embedding plasmonic Au nanoparticle into CdS (Au@CdS) was prepared with a cysteine-assisted hydrothermal approach. This structure could take fully advantage of electromagnetic fields at the surface of the Au nanoparticles under visible light illumination. The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of CdS could be significantly improved. Without the use of any other metal or metal oxide as cocatalysts, the quantum efficiency can reach 12.1 % over 0.5%Au@CdS at 420 nm. When using 0.1%Pt as a cocatalyst, the quantum efficiency of 0.5%Au@CdS can be further improved to 45.6%. This efficiency can be maintained more than 100 h in the test 12 days, exhibiting a relatively high stability. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization shows that the formation rate of photoexcited e-/h+ was dramatically increased when Au nanoparticles were embedded into CdS. Time-resolved PL measurement shows that Au@CdS also has a longer luminescence lifetime than that of CdS, reflecting that the photoexcited electrons in Au@CdS be with much longer lifetime to reduce H+ forming H2. All these enhancements can be attributed to the effective energy transfer between the Au surface and CdS due to the well matched composite nanostructure. Dr. Xiang Wang gratefully acknowledges the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division for the support of this work.

  20. Room-temperature synthesis of nanoporous 1D microrods of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, Rajendra C.; Kang, Suhee; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jong-Ho; Ahn, Sunghoon; Lee, Caroline S.

    2016-08-01

    A one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure having a porous network is an exceptional photocatalytic material to generate hydrogen (H2) and decontaminate wastewater using solar energy. In this report, we synthesized nanoporous 1D microrods of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) via a facile and template-free chemical approach at room temperature. The use of concentrated acids induced etching and lift-off because of strong oxidation and protonation. Compared with the bulk g-C3N4, the porous 1D microrod structure showed five times higher photocatalytic degradation performance toward methylene blue dye (MB) under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic H2 evolution of the 1D nanostructure (34 μmol g‑1) was almost 26 times higher than that of the bulk g-C3N4 structure (1.26 μmol g‑1). Additionally, the photocurrent stability of this nanoporous 1D morphology over 24 h indicated remarkable photocorrosion resistance. The improved photocatalytic activities were attributed to prolonged carrier lifetime because of its quantum confinement effect, effective separation and transport of charge carriers, and increased number of active sites from interconnected nanopores throughout the microrods. The present 1D nanostructure would be highly suited for photocatalytic water purification as well as water splitting devices. Finally, this facile and room temperature strategy to fabricate the nanostructures is very cost-effective.

  1. Room-temperature synthesis of nanoporous 1D microrods of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rajendra C; Kang, Suhee; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jong-Ho; Ahn, Sunghoon; Lee, Caroline S

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure having a porous network is an exceptional photocatalytic material to generate hydrogen (H2) and decontaminate wastewater using solar energy. In this report, we synthesized nanoporous 1D microrods of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) via a facile and template-free chemical approach at room temperature. The use of concentrated acids induced etching and lift-off because of strong oxidation and protonation. Compared with the bulk g-C3N4, the porous 1D microrod structure showed five times higher photocatalytic degradation performance toward methylene blue dye (MB) under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic H2 evolution of the 1D nanostructure (34 μmol g(-1)) was almost 26 times higher than that of the bulk g-C3N4 structure (1.26 μmol g(-1)). Additionally, the photocurrent stability of this nanoporous 1D morphology over 24 h indicated remarkable photocorrosion resistance. The improved photocatalytic activities were attributed to prolonged carrier lifetime because of its quantum confinement effect, effective separation and transport of charge carriers, and increased number of active sites from interconnected nanopores throughout the microrods. The present 1D nanostructure would be highly suited for photocatalytic water purification as well as water splitting devices. Finally, this facile and room temperature strategy to fabricate the nanostructures is very cost-effective. PMID:27498979

  2. Room-temperature synthesis of nanoporous 1D microrods of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Rajendra C.; Kang, Suhee; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jong-ho; Ahn, Sunghoon; Lee, Caroline S.

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure having a porous network is an exceptional photocatalytic material to generate hydrogen (H2) and decontaminate wastewater using solar energy. In this report, we synthesized nanoporous 1D microrods of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) via a facile and template-free chemical approach at room temperature. The use of concentrated acids induced etching and lift-off because of strong oxidation and protonation. Compared with the bulk g-C3N4, the porous 1D microrod structure showed five times higher photocatalytic degradation performance toward methylene blue dye (MB) under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic H2 evolution of the 1D nanostructure (34 μmol g−1) was almost 26 times higher than that of the bulk g-C3N4 structure (1.26 μmol g−1). Additionally, the photocurrent stability of this nanoporous 1D morphology over 24 h indicated remarkable photocorrosion resistance. The improved photocatalytic activities were attributed to prolonged carrier lifetime because of its quantum confinement effect, effective separation and transport of charge carriers, and increased number of active sites from interconnected nanopores throughout the microrods. The present 1D nanostructure would be highly suited for photocatalytic water purification as well as water splitting devices. Finally, this facile and room temperature strategy to fabricate the nanostructures is very cost-effective. PMID:27498979

  3. From 1D chain to 3D network: A theoretical study on TiO2 low dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ling-ju; Zeng, Zhi; He, Tao

    2015-06-01

    We have performed a systematic study on a series of low dimensional TiO2 nanostructures under density functional theory methods. The geometries, stabilities, growth mechanism, and electronic structures of 1D chain, 2D ring, 2D ring array, and 3D network of TiO2 nanostructures are analyzed. Based on the Ti2O4 building unit, a series of 1D TiO2 nano chains and rings can be built. Furthermore, 2D ring array and 3D network nanostructures can be constructed from 1D chains and rings. Among non-periodic TiO2 chain and ring structures, one series of ring structures is found to be more stable. The geometry model of the 2D ring arrays and 3D network structures in this work has provided a theoretical understanding on the structure information in experiments. Based on these semiconductive low dimensional structures, moreover, it can help to understand and design new hierarchical TiO2 nanostructure in the future.

  4. From 1D chain to 3D network: A theoretical study on TiO{sub 2} low dimensional structures

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Ling-ju; He, Tao; Zeng, Zhi

    2015-06-14

    We have performed a systematic study on a series of low dimensional TiO{sub 2} nanostructures under density functional theory methods. The geometries, stabilities, growth mechanism, and electronic structures of 1D chain, 2D ring, 2D ring array, and 3D network of TiO{sub 2} nanostructures are analyzed. Based on the Ti{sub 2}O{sub 4} building unit, a series of 1D TiO{sub 2} nano chains and rings can be built. Furthermore, 2D ring array and 3D network nanostructures can be constructed from 1D chains and rings. Among non-periodic TiO{sub 2} chain and ring structures, one series of ring structures is found to be more stable. The geometry model of the 2D ring arrays and 3D network structures in this work has provided a theoretical understanding on the structure information in experiments. Based on these semiconductive low dimensional structures, moreover, it can help to understand and design new hierarchical TiO{sub 2} nanostructure in the future.

  5. Centrosome Positioning in 1D Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlerz, Katrina; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    During cell migration, the positioning of the centrosome and nucleus define a cell's polarity. For a cell migrating on a two-dimensional substrate the centrosome is positioned in front of the nucleus. Under one-dimensional confinement, however, the centrosome is positioned behind the nucleus in 60% of cells. It is known that the centrosome is positioned by CDC42 and dynein for cells moving on a 2D substrate in a wound-healing assay. It is currently unknown, however, if this is also true for cells moving under 1D confinement, where the centrosome position is often reversed. Therefore, centrosome positioning was studied in cells migrating under 1D confinement, which mimics cells migrating through 3D matrices. 3 to 5 μm fibronectin lines were stamped onto a glass substrate and cells with fluorescently labeled nuclei and centrosomes migrated on the lines. Our results show that when a cell changes directions the centrosome position is maintained. That is, when the centrosome is between the nucleus and the cell's trailing edge and the cell changes direction, the centrosome will be translocated across the nucleus to the back of the cell again. A dynein inhibitor did have an influence on centrosome positioning in 1D migration and change of directions.

  6. Crystal orbital studies on the 1D silic-diyne nanoribbons and nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Bai, Hongcun; Huang, Yuanhe

    2016-02-01

    This work presents crystal orbital studies on novel one-dimensional (1D) nanoscale materials derived from a Si-diyne sheet, based on the density functional theory. The two-dimensional (2D) Si-diyne layer is observed to be carbo-merized silicene, with a similar structure to graphdiyne. The 2D Si-diyne and its 1D ribbons and tubes, of different size and chirality, have been addressed systematically. The low dimensional Si-diyne materials studied exhibit relatively high stability, according to phonon-frequency calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. With comparable diameters, the Si-diyne tubes have lower strain energies than silicene and silicon carbide nanotubes. The Si-diyne layer and its 1D derivatives are all semiconductors, regardless of the size and chirality of the strips and tubes. In addition, the band gaps of the 1D Si-diyne nanoribbons and nanotubes with different chirality, always monotonically decrease as their sizes increases. A quantitative relationship between the band gap and the size of the ribbons and tubes was obtained. The mobility of charge carriers for the 1D Si-diyne structures was also investigated. It was found that both hole and electron mobility of the ribbons and tubes exhibit linear increase with increasing size. The electrons have greater mobility than the holes for each strip and tube. In addition, the mechanical properties of the Si-diyne nanostructures were also investigated by calculation of the Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio. PMID:26744378

  7. One-Dimensional Nanostructure Field-Effect Sensors for Gas Detection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Cai, Bin; Tang, Qingxin; Tong, Yanhong; Liu, Yichun

    2014-01-01

    Recently; one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure field-effect transistors (FETs) have attracted much attention because of their potential application in gas sensing. Micro/nanoscaled field-effect sensors combine the advantages of 1D nanostructures and the characteristic of field modulation. 1D nanostructures provide a large surface area-volume ratio; which is an outstanding advantage for gas sensors with high sensitivity and fast response. In addition; the nature of the single crystals is favorable for the studies of the response mechanism. On the other hand; one main merit of the field-effect sensors is to provide an extra gate electrode to realize the current modulation; so that the sensitivity can be dramatically enhanced by changing the conductivity when operating the sensors in the subthreshold regime. This article reviews the recent developments in the field of 1D nanostructure FET for gas detection. The sensor configuration; the performance as well as their sensing mechanism are evaluated. PMID:25090418

  8. Unesco Integrated Documentation Network; Computerized Documentation System (CDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Dept. of Documentation, Libraries, and Archives.

    Intended for use by the Computerized Documentation System (CDS), the Unesco version of ISIS (Integrated Set of Information Systems)--originally developed by the International Labour Organization--was developed in 1975 and named CDS/ISIS. This system has a comprehensive collection of programs for input, management, and output, running in batch or…

  9. Study on structural, optical properties of solvothermally synthesized Ni doped CdS nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Kamaldeep Verma, N. K.

    2015-05-15

    Undoped and alkali metal i.e Ni doped CdS nanorods (Cd{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x}S) with (x = 0.0, 0.3,) has been synthesized by using a convenient solvothermal technique. In order to confirm the structure of the synthesized nanorods X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been done which reveals the formation of hexagonal phase of the dilute magnetic semiconducting nanorods having size of undoped 27.79nm and doped 17.49nm. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis depicts the presence of elements Cd, Ni and S in their stoichiometric ratio. Optical behavior of undoped and doped nanorods has been investigated. UV-visible spectra show the blue shift in the band gap, as compared to the bulk CdS which may be due the quantum confinement occurs in the nanostructures. Morphological analysis has been done with the help of Transmission electron microscope which confirms the polycrystalline nature of the synthesized nanorods.

  10. Thermal Analysis of CDS Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, J. A.; Schmelz, J. T.; Nasraoui, K.; Rightmire, L. A.; Andrews, J. M.; Cirtain, J. W.

    2008-05-01

    The coronal loop data used for this analysis was obtained using the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory on 2003 January 17 at 14:24:43 UT. We use the Chianti atomic physics database and the hybrid coronal abundances to determine temperatures and densities for positions along several loops. We chose six pixels along each loop as well as background pixels. The intensities of the background pixels are subtracted from each loop pixel to isolate the emission from the loop pixel, and then spectral lines with significant contributions to the loop intensities are selected. The loops were then analyzed with a forward folding process to produce differential emission measure (DEM) curves. Emission measure loci plots and DEM automatic inversions are then used to verify those conclusions. We find different results for each of these loops. One appears to be isothermal at each loop position, and the temperature does not change with height. The second appears to be multithermal at each position and the third seems to be consistent with two DEM spikes, which might indicate that there are two isothermal loops so close together, that they are not resolved by CDS. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by a Hinode subcontract from NASA/SAO as well as NSF ATM-0402729.

  11. Optical characterization of CdS nanorods capped with starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, J. S.; Pal Majumder, T.; Schick, C.

    2015-05-01

    Well crystalline uniform CdS nanorods were grown by changing the concentration of maize starch. The highly polymeric (branched) structure of starch enhances the growth of CdS nanorods. The average diameter of the nanorods is 20-25 nm while length is of 500-600 nm as verified from SEM and XRD observations. The optical band gaps of the CdS nanorods are varying from 2.66 eV to 2.52 eV depending on concentration of maize starch. The photoluminescence (PL) emission bands are shifted from 526 nm to 529 nm with concentration of maize starch. We have also observed the enhanced PL intensity in CdS nanorods capped with starch. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy shows the significant effect of starch on CdS nanorods.

  12. Spectroscopic Analysis of Impurity Precipitates in CdS Films

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, J. D.; Keane, J.; Ribelin, R.; Gedvilas, L.; Swartzlander, A.; Ramanathan, K.; Albin, D. S.; Noufi, R.

    1999-10-31

    Impurities in cadmium sulfide (CdS) films are a concern in the fabrication of copper (indium, gallium) diselenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) photovoltaic devices. Devices incorporating chemical-bath-deposited (CBD) CdS are comparable in quality to devices incorporating purer CdS films grown using vacuum deposition techniques, despite the higher impurity concentrations typically observed in the CBD CdS films. In this paper, we summarize and review the results of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Auger, electron microprobe, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analyses of the impurities in CBD CdS films. We show that these impurities differ as a function of substrate type and film deposition conditions. We also show that some of these impurities exist as 10{sup 2} micron-scale precipitates.

  13. Biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles in banana peel extract.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang Ju; Li, Shuo Hao; Zhang, Yu Cang; Fu, Yun Zhi

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using banana peel extract as a convenient, non-toxic, eco-friendly 'green' capping agent. Cadmium nitrate and sodium sulfide are main reagents. A variety of CdS NPs are prepared through changing reaction conditions (banana extracts, the amount of banana peel extract, solution pH, concentration and reactive temperature). The prepared CdS colloid displays strong fluorescence spectrum. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates the successful formation of CdS NPs. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrogram indicates the involvement of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the formation of CdS NPs. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) result reveals that the average size of the NPs is around 1.48 nm. PMID:24738409

  14. 1-D EQUILIBRIUM DISCRETE DIFFUSION MONTE CARLO

    SciTech Connect

    T. EVANS; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.

  15. A Comprehensive Review of One-Dimensional Metal-Oxide Nanostructure Photodetectors

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Tianyou; Fang, Xiaosheng; Liao, Meiyong; Xu, Xijin; Zeng, Haibo; Yoshio, Bando; Golberg, Dmitri

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) metal-oxide nanostructures are ideal systems for exploring a large number of novel phenomena at the nanoscale and investigating size and dimensionality dependence of nanostructure properties for potential applications. The construction and integration of photodetectors or optical switches based on such nanostructures with tailored geometries have rapidly advanced in recent years. Active 1D nanostructure photodetector elements can be configured either as resistors whose conductions are altered by a charge-transfer process or as field-effect transistors (FET) whose properties can be controlled by applying appropriate potentials onto the gates. Functionalizing the structure surfaces offers another avenue for expanding the sensor capabilities. This article provides a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art research activities in the photodetector field. It mainly focuses on the metal oxide 1D nanostructures such as ZnO, SnO2, Cu2O, Ga2O3, Fe2O3, In2O3, CdO, CeO2, and their photoresponses. The review begins with a survey of quasi 1D metal-oxide semiconductor nanostructures and the photodetector principle, then shows the recent progresses on several kinds of important metal-oxide nanostructures and their photoresponses and briefly presents some additional prospective metal-oxide 1D nanomaterials. Finally, the review is concluded with some perspectives and outlook on the future developments in this area. PMID:22454597

  16. Enhanced Hydrogen Production from DNA-Assembled Z-Scheme TiO2-CdS Photocatalyst Systems.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke; Yehezkeli, Omer; Domaille, Dylan W; Funke, Hans H; Cha, Jennifer N

    2015-09-21

    A wide range of inorganic nanostructures have been used as photocatalysts for generating H2. To increase activity, Z-scheme photocatalytic systems have been implemented that use multiple types of photoactive materials and electron mediators. Optimal catalysis has previously been obtained by interfacing different materials through aggregation or epitaxial nucleation, all of which lowers the accessible active surface area. DNA has now been used as a structure-directing agent to organize TiO2 and CdS nanocrystals. A significant increase in H2 production compared to CdS or TiO2 alone was thus observed directly in solution with no sacrificial donors or applied bias. The inclusion of benzoquinone (BQ) equidistant between the TiO2 and CdS through DNA assembly further increased H2 production. While the use of a second quinone in conjunction with BQ showed no more improvement, its location within the Z-scheme was found to strongly influence catalysis. PMID:26136433

  17. A 1-D dusty plasma photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Mitu, M. L.; Ticoş, C. M.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.; Scurtu, A.

    2013-09-21

    It is demonstrated numerically that a 1-D plasma crystal made of micron size cylindrical dust particles can, in principle, work as a photonic crystal for terahertz waves. The dust rods are parallel to each other and arranged in a linear string forming a periodic structure of dielectric-plasma regions. The dispersion equation is found by solving the waves equation with the boundary conditions at the dust-plasma interface and taking into account the dielectric permittivity of the dust material and plasma. The wavelength of the electromagnetic waves is in the range of a few hundred microns, close to the interparticle separation distance. The band gaps of the 1-D plasma crystal are numerically found for different types of dust materials, separation distances between the dust rods and rod diameters. The distance between levitated dust rods forming a string in rf plasma is shown experimentally to vary over a relatively wide range, from 650 μm to about 1350 μm, depending on the rf power fed into the discharge.

  18. Injectable composites via functionalization of 1D nanoclays and biodegradable coupling with a polysaccharide hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Del Buffa, Stefano; Rinaldi, Elia; Carretti, Emiliano; Ridi, Francesca; Bonini, Massimo; Baglioni, Piero

    2016-09-01

    The use of injectable materials in minimally invasive surgical procedures could help in facing the bone diseases connected to the ageing of world population. To this aim, materials integrating the rheological properties of biocompatible polymers with the mechanical properties of 1D inorganic nanostructures represent promising scaffolds. Here we describe the preparation of hydrogel composites made of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and halloysite nanotubes (HNT) as injectable materials for the local treatment of bone defects. The rheology and injectability of the materials reflects their structural properties, showing the possibility of successfully injecting the prepared composites over a large range of operative conditions. PMID:27281242

  19. Nanoscale stabilization of zintl compounds: 1D ionic Li-P double helix confined inside a carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexander S.; Kar, Tapas; Boldyrev, Alexander I.

    2016-02-01

    One-dimensional (1D) ionic nanowires are extremely rare materials due to the difficulty in stabilizing 1D chains of ions under ambient conditions. We demonstrate here a theoretical prediction of a novel hybrid material, a nanotube encapsulated 1D ionic lithium monophosphide (LiP) chain, featuring a unique double-helix structure, which is very unusual in inorganic chemistry. This nanocomposite has been investigated with density functional theory, including molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations. We find that the formation of the LiP double-helical nanowire is facilitated by strong interactions between LiP and CNTs resulting in a charge transfer. This work suggests that nanostructured confinement may be used to stabilize other polyphosphide 1D chains, thus opening new ways to study the chemistry of zintl compounds at the nanoscale.One-dimensional (1D) ionic nanowires are extremely rare materials due to the difficulty in stabilizing 1D chains of ions under ambient conditions. We demonstrate here a theoretical prediction of a novel hybrid material, a nanotube encapsulated 1D ionic lithium monophosphide (LiP) chain, featuring a unique double-helix structure, which is very unusual in inorganic chemistry. This nanocomposite has been investigated with density functional theory, including molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations. We find that the formation of the LiP double-helical nanowire is facilitated by strong interactions between LiP and CNTs resulting in a charge transfer. This work suggests that nanostructured confinement may be used to stabilize other polyphosphide 1D chains, thus opening new ways to study the chemistry of zintl compounds at the nanoscale. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional DOS, band structures, and Bader charges for LiP@SWCNTs. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07713c

  20. Directed self-assembly of CdS quantum dots on bacteriophage P22 coat protein templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Anup; Bao, Yuping; Zhou, Ziyou; Prevelige, Peter E.; Gupta, Arunava

    2013-02-01

    The hierarchical organization of inorganic nanostructures has potential applications in diverse areas such as photocatalytic systems, composites, drug delivery and biomedicine. An attractive approach for this purpose is the use of biological organisms as templates since they often possess highly ordered arrays of protein molecules that can be genetically engineered for specific binding. Indeed, recent studies have shown that viruses can be used as versatile templates for the assembly of a variety of nanostructured materials because of their unique structural and chemical diversity. These highly ordered protein templates can be employed or adapted for specific binding interactions. Herein we report the directed self-assembly of independently synthesized 5 nm CdS nanocrystal quantum dots on ˜60 nm procapsid shells derived from wild-type P22 bacteriophage. The bacteriophage P22 shell is comprised of hexameric and pentameric clusters of subunits known as capsomeres. The pre-synthesized CdS QDs show the corresponding hexameric and pentameric patterns of assembly on these P22 shells, possibly by interacting with particular protein pockets.

  1. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  2. Magnetic field induced controllable self-assembly of maghemite nanocrystals: From 3D arrays to 1D nanochains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan; Chen, Qianwang; Chen, Rongsheng

    2015-08-01

    A hydrothermal process has been used to synthesize walnut-like maghemite superstructures which can be further self-assembled in a controllable manner into ordered three-dimensional (3D) architectures and one-dimensional (1D) nanochains in the presence of different external magnetic field. The assembly behavior of the maghemite nanoparticles isclosely related to the van der Waals interactions and external-field-induced magnetic dipole interactions. The magnetic properties of these nanostructures are also investigated.

  3. Configuration space method for calculating binding energies of exciton complexes in quasi-1D/2D semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarev, Igor

    A configuration space method, pioneered by Landau and Herring in studies of molecular binding and magnetism, is developed to obtain universal asymptotic relations for lowest energy exciton complexes (trion, biexciton) in confined semiconductor nanostructures such as nanowires and nanotubes, as well as coupled quantum wells. Trions are shown to be more stable (have greater binding energy) than biexcitons in strongly confined quasi-1D structures with small reduced electron-hole masses. Biexcitons are more stable in less confined quasi-1D structures with large reduced electron-hole masses. The theory predicts a crossover behavior, whereby trions become less stable than biexcitons as the transverse size of the quasi-1D nanostructure increases, which might be observed on semiconducting carbon nanotubes of increasing diameters. This method is also efficient in calculating binding energies for trion-type electron-hole complexes formed by indirect excitons in double coupled quantum wells, quasi-2D nanostructures that show new interesting electroabsorption/refraction phenomena. Supported by DOE-DE-SC0007117.

  4. Hot electron induced NIR detection in CdS films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Alka; Kumar, Rahul; Bhattacharyya, Biplab; Husale, Sudhir

    2016-03-01

    We report the use of random Au nanoislands to enhance the absorption of CdS photodetectors at wavelengths beyond its intrinsic absorption properties from visible to NIR spectrum enabling a high performance visible-NIR photodetector. The temperature dependent annealing method was employed to form random sized Au nanoparticles on CdS films. The hot electron induced NIR photo-detection shows high responsivity of ~780 mA/W for an area of ~57 μm2. The simulated optical response (absorption and responsivity) of Au nanoislands integrated in CdS films confirms the strong dependence of NIR sensitivity on the size and shape of Au nanoislands. The demonstration of plasmon enhanced IR sensitivity along with the cost-effective device fabrication method using CdS film enables the possibility of economical light harvesting applications which can be implemented in future technological applications.

  5. Hot electron induced NIR detection in CdS films.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alka; Kumar, Rahul; Bhattacharyya, Biplab; Husale, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    We report the use of random Au nanoislands to enhance the absorption of CdS photodetectors at wavelengths beyond its intrinsic absorption properties from visible to NIR spectrum enabling a high performance visible-NIR photodetector. The temperature dependent annealing method was employed to form random sized Au nanoparticles on CdS films. The hot electron induced NIR photo-detection shows high responsivity of ~780 mA/W for an area of ~57 μm(2). The simulated optical response (absorption and responsivity) of Au nanoislands integrated in CdS films confirms the strong dependence of NIR sensitivity on the size and shape of Au nanoislands. The demonstration of plasmon enhanced IR sensitivity along with the cost-effective device fabrication method using CdS film enables the possibility of economical light harvesting applications which can be implemented in future technological applications. PMID:26965055

  6. Enhanced electron spin rotation in CdS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Yasuaki; Umino, Hikaru; Sun, Jianhui; Suzumura, Eri

    2015-10-14

    We studied the spin rotation of electrons in CdS quantum dots (QDs) and CdS QDs with charge acceptors by means of time-resolved Faraday rotation (TRFR) at room temperature. The electron spin rotation had an oscillatory component in the TRFR signal and the oscillation frequency proportional to the magnetic field gave a g-factor of the electrons of 1.965 ± 0.006. The non-oscillatory component came from the population of excitons and showed an additional decay in CdS QDs with hole acceptors. The electron spin rotation signal was largely enhanced and lasted for a spin coherence time of T2* = 450 ps in CdS QDs tethered to TiO2 electron acceptors, where the spin initialization was triggered by the positive trion transition. These results give clear evidence that the electron spin rotation signal in QDs can be enhanced by transient p-doping. PMID:26352679

  7. Hot electron induced NIR detection in CdS films

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Alka; Kumar, Rahul; Bhattacharyya, Biplab; Husale, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    We report the use of random Au nanoislands to enhance the absorption of CdS photodetectors at wavelengths beyond its intrinsic absorption properties from visible to NIR spectrum enabling a high performance visible-NIR photodetector. The temperature dependent annealing method was employed to form random sized Au nanoparticles on CdS films. The hot electron induced NIR photo-detection shows high responsivity of ~780 mA/W for an area of ~57 μm2. The simulated optical response (absorption and responsivity) of Au nanoislands integrated in CdS films confirms the strong dependence of NIR sensitivity on the size and shape of Au nanoislands. The demonstration of plasmon enhanced IR sensitivity along with the cost-effective device fabrication method using CdS film enables the possibility of economical light harvesting applications which can be implemented in future technological applications. PMID:26965055

  8. Preparation and optical properties of CdS nanoparticles dispersed in poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) co-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trandafilović, L. V.; Djoković, V.; Bibić, N.; Georges, M. K.; Radhakrishnan, T.

    2008-03-01

    CdS/poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposites were prepared and characterized using structural, optical and thermal methods. Co-polymers used as the matrices were synthesized by radical polymerization of the co-monomers in different mol ratios (1:1, 2:1 and 1:2, DMAEMA:acrylic acid). The presence of the nanostructured CdS was confirmed by TEM analysis as well as by the shift of the onset of the optical absorption towards lower wavelengths. XRD spectra showed the cubic crystal phase of the obtained CdS nanoparticles. TGA measurements revealed improved thermal stability of the nanocomposite with respect to pure co-polymer matrix.

  9. Synthesis of MoS(2)-C one-dimensional nanostructures with improved lithium storage properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaofeng; Wang, Zhiyu; Guo, Zaiping; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-07-25

    Uniform one-dimensional (1D) MoS2-C composite nanostructures including nanorods and nanotubes have been produced through a sulfidation reaction in H2S flow using MoOx/polyaniline hybrid nanostructures as the precursor. These MoS2-C 1D nanostructures exhibit greatly enhanced electrochemical performance as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Typically, stable capacity retention of 776 mA h g(-1) can be achieved after 100 cycles for MoS2-C nanotubes. Even cycled at a high current density of 1000 mA g(-1), these structures can still deliver high capacities of 450-600 mA h g(-1). The unique 1D nanostructure and the extra carbon in the hybrid structure are beneficial to the greatly improved electrochemical performance of these MoS2-C nanocomposites. PMID:22757965

  10. Facile Synthesis of Monodisperse CdS Nanocrystals via Microreaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zhen; Yang, Hongwei; Luan, Weiling; Tu, Shan-Tung; Zhou, Xinggui

    2010-01-01

    CdS-based nanocrystals (NCs) have attracted extensive interest due to their potential application as key luminescent materials for blue and white LEDs. In this research, the continuous synthesis of monodisperse CdS NCs was demonstrated utilizing a capillary microreactor. The enhanced heat and mass transfer in the microreactor was useful to reduce the reaction temperature and residence time to synthesize monodisperse CdS NCs. The superior stability of the microreactor and its continuous operation allowed the investigation of synthesis parameters with high efficiency. Reaction temperature was found to be a key parameter for balancing the reactivity of CdS precursors, while residence time was shown to be an important factor that governs the size and size distribution of the CdS NCs. Furthermore, variation of OA concentration was demonstrated to be a facile tuning mechanism for controlling the size of the CdS NCs. The variation of the volume percentage of OA from 10.5 to 51.2% and the variation of the residence time from 17 to 136 s facilitated the synthesis of monodisperse CdS NCs in the size range of 3.0-5.4 nm, and the NCs produced photoluminescent emissions in the range of 391-463 nm.

  11. Arbitrary Multicolor Photodetection by Hetero-integrated Semiconductor Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Liwen; Hu, Junqing; Zou, Rujia; Koide, Yasuo; Liao, Meiyong

    2013-01-01

    The typical photodetectors can only detect one specific optical spectral band, such as InGaAs and graphene-PbS quantum dots for near-infrared (NIR) light detection, CdS and Si for visible light detection, and ZnO and III-nitrides for UV light detection. So far, none of the developed photodetector can achieve the multicolor detection with arbitrary spectral selectivity, high sensitivity, high speed, high signal-to-noise ratio, high stability, and simplicity (called 6S requirements). Here, we propose a universal strategy to develop multicolor photodetectors with arbitrary spectral selectivity by integrating various semiconductor nanostructures on a wide-bandgap semiconductor or an insulator substrate. Because the photoresponse of each spectral band is determined by each semiconductor nanostructure or the semiconductor substrate, multicolor detection satisfying 6S requirements can be readily satisfied by selecting the right semiconductors. PMID:23917790

  12. 1D-1D Coulomb drag in a 6 Million Mobility Bi-layer Heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilodeau, Simon; Laroche, Dominique; Xia, Jian-Sheng; Lilly, Mike; Reno, John; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Gervais, Guillaume

    We report Coulomb drag measurements in vertically-coupled quantum wires. The wires are fabricated in GaAs/AlGaAs bilayer heterostructures grown from two different MBE chambers: one at Sandia National Laboratories (1.2M mobility), and the other at Princeton University (6M mobility). The previously observed positive and negative drag signals are seen in both types of devices, demonstrating the robustness of the result. However, attempts to determine the temperature dependence of the drag signal in the 1D regime proved challenging in the higher mobility heterostructure (Princeton), in part because of difficulties in aligning the wires within the same transverse subband configuration. Nevertheless, this work, performed at the Microkelvin laboratory of the University of Florida, is an important proof-of-concept for future investigations of the temperature dependence of the 1D-1D drag signal down to a few mK. Such an experiment could confirm the Luttinger charge density wave interlocking predicted to occur in the wires. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  13. Photocurrent spectroscopy of CdS nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Wade, A.; Jackson, H. E.; Smith, L. M.; Rice, J. Yarrison; Choi, Y.-J.; Park, J.-G.

    2011-03-01

    We study the photocurrent from photoexcited charge carriers in CdS nanosheet (NS) structures. Metal-semiconductor-metal nanodevices are made with both Schottky and Ohmic contacts using photolithography followed by Ti/Al (20nm/200nm) metal evaporation and lift-off. Ohmic contacts are formed by Ar ion bombardment before the metal deposition to create donor sulfur vacancies which increases the electron concentration. Photocurrent spectra using a white light source filtered by a monochrometer show excitonic resonances at low temperatures corresponding to each of the A, B, and C hole bands. The photocurrent increases linearly with power for above gap excitation, and nonlinearly (quadratic) with laser power for below gap excitation, consistent with two-photon absorption with a nonlinear coefficient of β = 2 cm/GW. A wavelength dependence of the photocurrent with sub-band gap excitation to find the resonances and hence band structure is in progress. We acknowledge the financial support of the National Science Foundation through grants DMR-0806700, 0806572 and ECCS-0701703, and the KIST institutional research program 2E21060R.

  14. Understanding 1D Electrostatic Dust Levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartzell, C. M.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Electrostatically-dominated dust motion has been hypothesized since the Lunar Horizon Glow was observed by the Surveyor spacecraft. The hypothesized occurence of this phenomenon was naturally extended to asteroids due to their small gravities. Additionally, it has been suggested that the dust ponds observed on Eros by the NEAR mission may be created by electrostatically-dominated dust transport. Previous attempts to numerically model dust motion on the Moon and Eros have been stymied by poorly understood dust launching mechanisms. As a result, the initial velocity and charge of dust particles used in numerical simulations may or may not have any relevance to the actual conditions occurring in situ. It has been seen that properly tuned initial states (velocity and charge) result in dust particles levitating above the surface in both 1D and 2D simulations. Levitation is of interest to planetary scientists since it provides a way to quickly redistribute the surface dust particles over a body. However, there is currently no method to predict whether or not a certain initial state will result in levitation. We have developed a method to provide constraints on the initial states that result in levitation as a function of dust particle size and central body gravity. Additionally, our method can be applied to several models of the plasma sheath. Thus, we limit the guesswork involved in determining which initial conditions result in levitation. We provide a more detailed understanding of levitation phenomena couched in terms of the commonly recognized spring-mass system. This method of understanding dust motion removes the dependency on the launching mechanism, which remains fraught with controversy. Once a feasible dust launching mechanism is identified (be it micrometeoroid bombardment or electrostatic lofting), our method will allow the community to quickly ascertain if dust levitation will occur in situ or if it is simply a numerical artifact. In addition to

  15. Crystal orbital studies on the 1D silic-diyne nanoribbons and nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ying; Bai, Hongcun; Huang, Yuanhe

    2016-02-01

    This work presents crystal orbital studies on novel one-dimensional (1D) nanoscale materials derived from a Si-diyne sheet, based on the density functional theory. The two-dimensional (2D) Si-diyne layer is observed to be carbo-merized silicene, with a similar structure to graphdiyne. The 2D Si-diyne and its 1D ribbons and tubes, of different size and chirality, have been addressed systematically. The low dimensional Si-diyne materials studied exhibit relatively high stability, according to phonon-frequency calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. With comparable diameters, the Si-diyne tubes have lower strain energies than silicene and silicon carbide nanotubes. The Si-diyne layer and its 1D derivatives are all semiconductors, regardless of the size and chirality of the strips and tubes. In addition, the band gaps of the 1D Si-diyne nanoribbons and nanotubes with different chirality, always monotonically decrease as their sizes increases. A quantitative relationship between the band gap and the size of the ribbons and tubes was obtained. The mobility of charge carriers for the 1D Si-diyne structures was also investigated. It was found that both hole and electron mobility of the ribbons and tubes exhibit linear increase with increasing size. The electrons have greater mobility than the holes for each strip and tube. In addition, the mechanical properties of the Si-diyne nanostructures were also investigated by calculation of the Young’s modulus and the Poisson’s ratio.

  16. Bacterium Escherichia coli- and phage P22-templated synthesis of semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Liming

    The properties of inorganic materials in the nanoscale are found to be size- and shape-dependent due to quantum confinement effects, and thereby nanomaterials possess properties very different from those of single molecules as well as those of bulk materials. Assembling monodispersed nanoparticles into highly ordered hierarchical architectures is expected to generate novel collective properties for potential applications in catalysis, energy, biomedicine, etc. The major challenge in the assembly of nanoparticles lies in the development of controllable synthetic strategies that enable the growth and assembly of nanoparticles with high selectivity and good controllability. Biological matter possesses robust and precisely ordered structures that exist in a large variety of shapes and sizes, providing an ideal platform for synthesizing high-performance nanostructures. The primary goal of this thesis work has been to develop rational synthetic strategies for high-performance nanostructured materials using biological templates, which are difficult to achieve through traditional chemical synthetic methods. These approaches can serve as general bio-inspired approaches for synthesizing nanoparticle assemblies with desired components and architectures. CdS- and TiO2-binding peptides have been identified using phage display biopanning technique and the mechanism behind the specific affinity between the selected peptides and inorganic substrates are analyzed. The ZnS- and CdS-binding peptides, identified by the phage display biopanning, are utilized for the selective nucleation and growth of sulfides over self-assembled genetically engineered P22 coat proteins, resulting in ordered nanostructures of sulfide nanocrystal assemblies. The synthetic strategy can be extended to the fabrication of a variety of other nanostructures. A simple sonochemical route for the synthesis and assembly of CdS nanostructures with high yield under ambient conditions has been developed by exploiting

  17. One-dimensional embedded cluster approach to modeling CdS nanowires.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, J; Bromley, S T; Walsh, A; Woodley, S M; Catlow, C R A; Sokol, A A

    2013-09-28

    We present an embedded cluster model to treat one-dimensional nanostructures, using a hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach. A segment of the nanowire (circa 50 atoms) is treated at a QM level of theory, using density functional theory (DFT) with a hybrid exchange-correlation functional. This segment is then embedded in a further length of wire, treated at an MM level of theory. The interaction between the QM and MM regions is provided by an embedding potential located at the interface. Point charges are placed beyond the ends of the wire segment in order to reproduce the Madelung potential of the infinite system. We test our model on the ideal system of a CdS linear chain, benchmarking our results against calculations performed on a periodic system using a plane-wave DFT approach, with electron exchange and correlation treated at the same level of approximation in both methods. We perform our tests on pure CdS and, importantly, the system containing a single In or Cu impurity. We find excellent agreement in the determined electronic structure using the two approaches, validating our embedded cluster model. As the hybrid QM/MM model avoids spurious interactions between charged defects, it will be of benefit to the analysis of the role of defects in nanowire materials, which is currently a major challenge using a plane-wave DFT approach. Other advantages of the hybrid QM/MM approach over plane-wave DFT include the ability to calculate ionization energies with an absolute reference and access to high levels of theory for the QM region which are not incorporated in most plane-wave codes. Our results concur with available experimental data. PMID:24089744

  18. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  19. Synthesis of hybrid CdS-Au colloidal nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Aaron E; Popov, Inna; Banin, Uri

    2006-12-21

    We explore the growth mechanism of gold nanocrystals onto preformed cadmium sulfide nanorods to form hybrid metal nanocrystal/semiconductor nanorod colloids. By manipulating the growth conditions, it is possible to obtain nanostructures exhibiting Au nanocrystal growth at only one nanorod tip, at both tips, or at multiple locations along the nanorod surface. Under anaerobic conditions, Au growth occurs only at one tip of the nanorods, producing asymmetric structures. In contrast, the presence of oxygen and trace amounts of water during the reaction promotes etching of the nanorod surface, providing additional sites for metal deposition. Three growth stages are observed when Au growth is performed under air: (1) Au nanocrystal formation at both nanorod tips, (2) growth onto defect sites on the nanorod surface, and finally (3) a ripening process in which one nanocrystal tip grows at the expense of the other particles present on the nanorod. Analysis of the hybrid nanostructures by high-resolution TEM shows that there is no preferred orientation between the Au nanocrystal and the CdS nanorod, indicating that growth is nonepitaxial. The optical signatures of the nanocrystals and the nanorods (i.e., the surface plasmon and first exciton transition peaks, respectively) are spectrally distinct, allowing the different stages of the growth process to be easily monitored. The initial CdS nanorods exhibit band gap and trap state emission, both of which are quenched during Au growth. PMID:17165989

  20. Human serotonin 1D receptor is encoded by a subfamily of two distinct genes: 5-HT1D alpha and 5-HT1D beta.

    PubMed Central

    Weinshank, R L; Zgombick, J M; Macchi, M J; Branchek, T A; Hartig, P R

    1992-01-01

    The serotonin 1D (5-HT1D) receptor is a pharmacologically defined binding site and functional receptor site. Observed variations in the properties of 5-HT1D receptors in different tissues have led to the speculation that multiple receptor proteins with slightly different properties may exist. We report here the cloning, deduced amino acid sequences, pharmacological properties, and second-messenger coupling of a pair of human 5-HT1D receptor genes, which we have designated 5-HT1D alpha and 5-HT1D beta due to their strong similarities in sequence, pharmacological properties, and second-messenger coupling. Both genes are free of introns in their coding regions, are expressed in the human cerebral cortex, and can couple to inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. The pharmacological binding properties of these two human receptors are very similar, and match closely the pharmacological properties of human, bovine, and guinea pig 5-HT1D sites. Both receptors exhibit high-affinity binding of sumatriptan, a new anti-migraine medication, and thus are candidates for the pharmacological site of action of this drug. Images PMID:1565658

  1. Optical sensor based on a single CdS nanobelt.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Yang, Shuming; Han, Feng; Wang, Liangjun; Zhang, Xiaotong; Jiang, Zhuangde; Pan, Anlian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an optical sensor based on a cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanobelt has been developed. The CdS nanobelt was synthesized by the vapor phase transportation (VPT) method. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results revealed that the nanobelt had a hexagonal wurtzite structure of CdS and presented good crystal quality. A single nanobelt Schottky contact optical sensor was fabricated by the electron beam lithography (EBL) technique, and the device current-voltage results showed back-to-back Schottky diode characteristics. The photosensitivity, dark current and the decay time of the sensor were 4 × 10⁴, 31 ms and 0.2 pA, respectively. The high photosensitivity and the short decay time were because of the exponential dependence of photocurrent on the number of the surface charges and the configuration of the back to back Schottky junctions. PMID:24763211

  2. Light-assisted deposition of CdS thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacaksiz, E.; Novruzov, V.; Karal, H.; Yanmaz, E.; Altunbas, M.; Kopya, A. I.

    2001-11-01

    The effects of white light illumination during the deposition of CdS thin films in a quasi-closed volume on the structural, photoelectrical and optical properties are investigated. The films were highly c-axis oriented with an increasing intensity of (002) reflection as the illumination increases. The room temperature resistivity values of the CdS films decreased in the range of 107-104 Ω cm. The photosensitivity in the fundamental absorption region and the transparency in the transmission region considerably increased as the illumination increased. Under 100 mW cm-2 insolation, the efficiencies of the CdS/CdTe solar cells based on CdS window materials which were deposited: (1) in the dark; and (2) under an illumination of 150 mW cm-2 were found to be 1.8% and 7.3%, respectively.

  3. Photoelectrochemical properties of chemosynthesized CdS thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawar, S. B.; Pawar, S. A.; Bhosale, P. N.; Patil, P. S.

    2012-06-01

    Thin film of cadmium sulphide (CdS) consisting cabbage like morphology was chemically synthesized at room temperature from an aqueous alkaline bath onto soda lime glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates. The synthesized cabbages of CdS were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD pattern revealed the formation of CdS particles with a cubic crystal structure. SEM micrographs show that the cabbage like morphology is composed of nanopetals. Further, the photoelectochemical (PEC) performance was tested in Na2S-NaOH-S electrolyte which has maximum short circuit current of (Isc) 359μA/cm2.

  4. Tuning the Properties of Nanocrystalline CdS Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikhmayies, Shadia J.

    2014-01-01

    Tuning the properties of nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films is very important in the technology of photonics, detectors, and computing devices. This can be achieved through the appropriate selection of the synthesis techniques, types and concentrations of the chemicals, deposition parameters, and postdeposition heat treatments. In addition, control of the properties can be achieved by controlling the size, structure type, and surface states of the nanocrystallites without altering the chemical composition of the films. A review of the experimental methods for tuning the properties of nanocrystalline CdS thin films is performed. Although control of these variables is a complicated process, high-quality nanocrystalline CdS thin films with optimum structural, morphological, and optical properties have been produced by different authors.

  5. Automated quantification of one-dimensional nanostructure alignment on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jianjin; Goldthorpe, Irene A; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin

    2016-06-10

    A method for automated quantification of the alignment of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures from microscopy imaging is presented. Nanostructure alignment metrics are formulated and shown to be able to rigorously quantify the orientational order of nanostructures within a two-dimensional domain (surface). A complementary image processing method is also presented which enables robust processing of microscopy images where overlapping nanostructures might be present. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of nanowire-covered surfaces are analyzed using the presented methods and it is shown that past single parameter alignment metrics are insufficient for highly aligned domains. Through the use of multiple parameter alignment metrics, automated quantitative analysis of SEM images is shown to be possible and the alignment characteristics of different samples are able to be quantitatively compared using a similarity metric. The results of this work provide researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology with a rigorous method for the determination of structure/property relationships, where alignment of 1D nanostructures is significant. PMID:27119552

  6. Mg-catalyzed autoclave synthesis of aligned silicon carbide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Xi, Guangcheng; Liu, Yankuan; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xiaoqing; Qian, Yitai

    2006-07-27

    In this article, a novel magnesium-catalyzed co-reduction route was developed for the large-scale synthesis of aligned beta-SiC one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures at relative lower temperature (600 degrees C). By carefully controlling the reagent concentrations, we could synthesize beta-SiC rodlike and needlelike nanostructures. The possible growth mechanism of the as-synthesized beta-SiC 1D nanostructures has been investigated. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized beta-SiC nanostructures are characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared absorption, and scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Raman and photoluminescence properties are also investigated at room temperature. The as-synthesized beta-SiC nanostructures exhibit strong shape-dependent field emission properties. Corresponding to their shapes, the as-synthesized nanorods and nanoneedles display the turn-on fields of 12, 8.4, and 1.8 V/microm, respectively. PMID:16854116

  7. Automated quantification of one-dimensional nanostructure alignment on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jianjin; Goldthorpe, Irene A.; Mohieddin Abukhdeir, Nasser

    2016-06-01

    A method for automated quantification of the alignment of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures from microscopy imaging is presented. Nanostructure alignment metrics are formulated and shown to be able to rigorously quantify the orientational order of nanostructures within a two-dimensional domain (surface). A complementary image processing method is also presented which enables robust processing of microscopy images where overlapping nanostructures might be present. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of nanowire-covered surfaces are analyzed using the presented methods and it is shown that past single parameter alignment metrics are insufficient for highly aligned domains. Through the use of multiple parameter alignment metrics, automated quantitative analysis of SEM images is shown to be possible and the alignment characteristics of different samples are able to be quantitatively compared using a similarity metric. The results of this work provide researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology with a rigorous method for the determination of structure/property relationships, where alignment of 1D nanostructures is significant.

  8. Recent developments in testing techniques for elastic mechanical properties of 1-D nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weidong; Li, Shuai; Zhang, Hongti; Lu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) nanomaterials exhibit great potentials in their applications to functional materials, nano-devices and systems owing to their excellent properties. In the past decade, considerable studies have been done, with new patents being developed, on these 1-D building blocks for for their mechanical properties, especially elastic properties, which provide a solid foundation for the design of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and predictions of reliability and longevity for their devices. This paper reviews some of the recent investigations on techniques as well as patents available for the quantitative characterization of the elastic behaviors of various 1-D nanomaterials, with particular focus on on-chip testing system. The review begins with an overview of major testing methods for 1-D nanostructures' elastic properties, including nanoindentation testing, AFM (atomic force microscopy) testing, in situ SEM (scanning electron microscopy) testing, in situ TEM (transmission electron microscopy) testing and the testing system on the basis of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) technology, followed by advantages and challenges of each testing approach. This review also focuses on the MEMS-based testing apparatus, which can be actuated and measured inside SEM and TEM with ease, allowing users to highly magnify the continuous images of the specimen while measuring load electronically and independently. The combination of on-chip technologies and the in situ electron microscopy is expected to be a potential testing technique for nanomechanics. Finally, details are presented on the key challenges and possible solutions in the implementation of the testing techniques referred above. PMID:25986228

  9. New method for the controlled creation of sub-15 nm aluminum nanowires to probe the 1D superconductor-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan-Wall, Tyler; Hughes, Hannah; Hartman, Nik; McQueen, Tyrell; Markovic, Nina

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a new method for the creation of sub-15 nm aluminum nanostructures using a sodium bicarbonate solution. Using PMMA masks patterned with e-beam lithography, we can controllably etch lithographically-produced nanostructures while measuring their resistances in-situ using a 4-probe measurement. This technique allows for precise control over the final resistance and thus can be used to create a wide variety of nanodevices. In particular, this technique allows for the creation of nanowires to probe the superconductor-insulator transition in 1D.

  10. The nanostructure problem

    SciTech Connect

    Billinge, S.

    2010-03-22

    multitude of Bragg peak intensities, providing ample redundant intensity information to make up for the lost phases. Finally, there are highly efficient algorithms, such as 'direct methods,' that make excellent use of the available information and constraints to find the solution quickly from a horrendously large search space. The problem is often so overconstrained that we can cavalierly throw away lots of directional information. In particular, even though Bragg peaks are orientationally averaged to a 1D function in a powder diffraction measurement, we still can get a 3D structural solution. Now it becomes easy to understand the enormous challenge of solving nanostructures: the information content in the data is degraded while the complexity of the model is much greater.

  11. CdS quantum dots in colloids and polymer matrices: electronic structure and photochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurin, V. S.; Artemyev, M. V.

    1994-04-01

    We have studied the optical properties and electronic structures of quantum-confined CdS particles (Q-particles, quantum dots) prepared as CdS colloids in different solvents, CdS particles embedded in polymer matrices and vacuum evaporated island films of CdS. Due to the quantum-confined effect, the optical spectra of these systems exhibit the explicit blue shift of fundamental interband absorption and the appearance of well-pronounced exciton peaks at room temperature. The electronic structure of CdS quantum dots was examined by X-ray photoeletron spectroscopy and semi-empirical quantum-chemical calculations were performed. Both XRS data and results of calculations reveal the clear difference in valence band density of states for CdS Q-particles with respect to bulk CdS. Semiconductor-like electronic structure, especially for d-band, appears for CdS clusters containing more than 100 atoms. We also compare the relative stability of CdS clusters of different structure. Additionally, we studied the photochemical properties of CdS Q-particles and observed the effect of spectral hole burning in the absorption spectra of CdS colloids in 2-propanol during UV laser irradiation. This phenomenon results probably from selective photo-oxidation of CdS Q-particles, whose exciton absorption bands are close to irradiation wavelength.

  12. Brady 1D seismic velocity model ambient noise prelim

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mellors, Robert J.

    2013-10-25

    Preliminary 1D seismic velocity model derived from ambient noise correlation. 28 Green's functions filtered between 4-10 Hz for Vp, Vs, and Qs were calculated. 1D model estimated for each path. The final model is a median of the individual models. Resolution is best for the top 1 km. Poorly constrained with increasing depth.

  13. Conductance fluctuations in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ningjia

    1997-12-01

    In this Ph.D thesis the conductance fluctuations of different physical origins in semi-conductor nanostructures were studied using both diagrammatic analytical methods and large scale numerical techniques. In the "mixed" transport regime where both mesoscopic and ballistic features play a role, for the first time I have analytically calculated the non-universal conductance fluctuations. This mixed regime is reached when impurities are distributed near the walls of a quantum wire, leaving the center region ballistic. I have discovered that the existence of a ballistic region destroys the universal conductance fluctuations. The crossover behavior of the fluctuation amplitude from the usual quasi-1D situation to that of the mixed regime is clearly revealed, and the role of various length scales are identified. My analytical predictions were confirmed by a direct numerical simulation by evaluating the Landauer formula. In another direction, I have made several studies of conductance or resistance oscillations and fluctuations in systems with artificial impurities in the ballistic regime. My calculation gave explanations of all the experimental results concerning the classical focusing peaks of the resistance versus magnetic field, the weak localization peak in a Sinai billiard system, the formation of a chaotic billiard, and predicted certain transport features which were indeed found experimentally. I have further extended the calculation to study the Hall resistance in a four-terminal quantum dot in which there is an antidot array. From my numerical data I analyzed the classical paths of electron motion and its quantum oscillations. The results compare well with recent experimental studies on similar systems. Since these billiard systems could provide quantum chaotic dynamics, I have made a detailed study of the consequence of such dynamics. In particular I have investigated the resonant transmission of electrons in these chaotic systems, and found that the level

  14. The Learning Management System Evolution. CDS Spotlight Report. Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Leah; Pirani, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This Spotlight focuses on data from the 2013 Core Data Service (CDS) to better understand how higher education institutions approach learning management systems (LMSs). Information provided for this Spotlight was derived from Module 8 of the Core Data Service, which contains several questions regarding information systems and applications.…

  15. Options for Putting CDS/ISIS Databases on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To review the variety of software solutions available for putting CDS/ISIS databases on the internet. To help anyone considering which route to take. Design/methodology/approach: Briefly describes the characteristics, history, origin and availability of each package. Identifies the type of skills required to implement the package and the…

  16. A composite CdS thin film/TiO2 nanotube structure by ultrafast successive electrochemical deposition toward photovoltaic application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fabricating functional compounds on substrates with complicated morphology has been an important topic in material science and technology, which remains a challenging issue to simultaneously achieve a high growth rate for a complex nanostructure with simple controlling factors. Here, we present a novel simple and successive method based on chemical reactions in an open reaction system manipulated by an electric field. A uniform CdS/TiO2 composite tubular structure has been fabricated in highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays in a very short time period (~90 s) under room temperature (RT). The content of CdS in the resultant and its crystalline structure was tuned by the form and magnitude of external voltage. The as-formed structure has shown a quite broad and bulk-like light absorption spectrum with the absorption of photon energy even below that of the bulk CdS. The as-fabricated-sensitized solar cell based on this composite structure has achieved an efficiency of 1.43% without any chemical doping or co-sensitizing, 210% higher than quantum dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) under a similar condition. Hopefully, this method can also easily grow nanostructures based on a wide range of compound materials for energy science and electronic technologies, especially for fast-deploying devices. PMID:25520588

  17. Functionalization of gold nanoparticles and CdS quantum dots with cell penetrating peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Catherine C.; de la Fuente, Jesus M.

    2009-02-01

    During the last decade, there has been great deal of interest in the self-assembly fabrication of hybrid materials from inorganic nanoparticles and biomolecules. Nanoparticles are similar in size range to many common biomolecules, thus, nanoparticles appear to be natural companions in hybrid systems. At present, it is straightforward to control and modify properties of nanostructures to better suit their integration with biological systems; for example, controlling their size, modifying their surface layer for enhanced aqueous solubility, biocompatibility, or biorecognition. A particularly desirable target for therapeutic uses is the cell nucleus, because the genetic information is there. We review in this article the synthesis developed by our research group of water-soluble gold nanoparticles and CdS nanocrystals functionalized with a Tat protein-derived peptide sequence by straightforward and economical methodologies. The particles were subsequently tested in vitro with a human fibroblast cell line using optical and transmission electron microscopy to determine the biocompatibility of these nanoparticles and whether the functionalization with the cell penetrating peptide allowed particles to transfer across the cell membrane and locate into the nucleus.

  18. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  19. Atomic layer deposition on phase-shift lithography generated photoresist patterns for 1D nanochannel fabrication.

    PubMed

    Güder, Firat; Yang, Yang; Krüger, Michael; Stevens, Gregory B; Zacharias, Margit

    2010-12-01

    A versatile, low-cost, and flexible approach is presented for the fabrication of millimeter-long, sub-100 nm wide 1D nanochannels with tunable wall properties (wall thickness and material) over wafer-scale areas on glass, alumina, and silicon surfaces. This approach includes three fabrication steps. First, sub-100 nm photoresist line patterns were generated by near-field contact phase-shift lithography (NFC-PSL) using an inexpensive homemade borosilicate mask (NFC-PSM). Second, various metal oxides were directly coated on the resist patterns with low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD). Finally, the remaining photoresist was removed via an acetone dip, and then planar nanochannel arrays were formed on the substrate. In contrast to all the previous fabrication routes, the sub-100 nm photoresist line patterns produced by NFC-PSL are directly employed as a sacrificial layer for the creation of nanochannels. Because both the NFC-PSL and the ALD deposition are highly reproducible processes, the strategy proposed here can be regarded as a general route for nanochannel fabrication in a simplified and reliable manner. In addition, the fabricated nanochannels were used as templates to synthesize various organic and inorganic 1D nanostructures on the substrate surface. PMID:21047101

  20. Phosphorylation and desensitization of alpha1d-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    García-Sáinz, J A; Vázquez-Cuevas, F G; Romero-Avila, M T

    2001-01-01

    In rat-1 fibroblasts stably expressing rat alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors, noradrenaline and PMA markedly decreased alpha(1d)-adrenoceptor function (noradrenaline-elicited increases in calcium in whole cells and [(35)S]guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate binding in membranes), suggesting homologous and heterologous desensitizations. Photoaffinity labelling, Western blotting and immunoprecipitation identified alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors as a broad band of 70-80 kDa. alpha(1d)-Adrenoceptors were phosphorylated in the basal state and noradrenaline and PMA increased it. The effect of noradrenaline was concentration-dependent (EC(50) 75 nM), rapid (maximum at 1 min) and transient. Phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation was concentration-dependent (EC(50) 25 nM), slightly slower (maximum at 5 min) and stable for at least 60 min. Inhibitors of protein kinase C decreased the effect of phorbol esters but not that of noradrenaline. Evidence of cross-talk of alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors with receptors endogenously expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts was given by the ability of endothelin, lysophosphatidic acid and bradykinin to induce alpha(1d)-adrenoceptor phosphorylation. In summary, it is shown for the first time here that alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors are phosphoproteins and that receptor phosphorylation is increased by the natural ligand, noradrenaline, by direct activation of protein kinase C and via cross-talk with other receptors endogenously expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts. Receptor phosphorylation has functional repercussions. PMID:11171057

  1. Bioinspired chemistry: Rewiring nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulijn, Rein V.; Caponi, Pier-Francesco

    2010-07-01

    The cell's dynamic skeleton, a tightly regulated network of protein fibres, continues to provide inspiration for the design of synthetic nanostructures. Genetic engineering has now been used to encode non-biological functionality within these structures.

  2. Measuring Strong Nanostructures

    ScienceCinema

    Andy Minor

    2010-01-08

    Andy Minor of Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy explains measuring stress and strain on nanostructures with the In Situ Microscope. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-relea...

  3. Measuring Strong Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Andy Minor

    2008-10-16

    Andy Minor of Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy explains measuring stress and strain on nanostructures with the In Situ Microscope. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-relea...

  4. Hydrothermally processed 1D hydroxyapatite: Mechanism of formation and biocompatibility studies.

    PubMed

    Stojanović, Zoran S; Ignjatović, Nenad; Wu, Victoria; Žunič, Vojka; Veselinović, Ljiljana; Škapin, Srečo; Miljković, Miroslav; Uskoković, Vuk; Uskoković, Dragan

    2016-11-01

    Recent developments in bone tissue engineering have led to an increased interest in one-dimensional (1D) hydroxyapatite (HA) nano- and micro-structures such as wires, ribbons and tubes. They have been proposed for use as cell substrates, reinforcing phases in composites and carriers for biologically active substances. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 1D HA structures using an optimized, urea-assisted, high-yield hydrothermal batch process. The one-pot process, yielding HA structures composed of bundles of ribbons and wires, was typified by the simultaneous occurrence of a multitude of intermediate reactions, failing to meet the uniformity criteria over particle morphology and size. To overcome these issues, the preparation procedure was divided to two stages: dicalcium phosphate platelets synthesized in the first step were used as a precursor for the synthesis of 1D HA in the second stage. Despite the elongated particle morphologies, both the precursor and the final product exhibited excellent biocompatibility and caused no reduction of viability when tested against osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in 2D culture up to the concentration of 2.6mg/cm(2). X-ray powder diffraction combined with a range of electron microscopies and laser diffraction analyses was used to elucidate the formation mechanism and the microstructure of the final particles. The two-step synthesis involved a more direct transformation of DCP to 1D HA with the average diameter of 37nm and the aspect ratio exceeding 100:1. The comparison of crystalline domain sizes along different crystallographic directions showed no signs of significant anisotropy, while indicating that individual nanowires are ordered in bundles in the b crystallographic direction of the P63/m space group of HA. Intermediate processes, e.g., dehydration of dicalcium phosphate, are critical for the formation of 1D HA alongside other key aspects of this phase transformation, it must be investigated in more detail in the continuous

  5. Low-dimensional hyperthin FeS2 nanostructures for efficient and stable hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jasion, Daniel; Qiao, Qiao; Barforoush, Joseph M.; Zhu, Yimei; Ren, Shenqiang; Leonard, Kevin C.

    2015-10-05

    We report a scalable, solution-processing method for synthesizing low-dimensional hyperthin FeS2 nanostructures, and we show that 2D FeS2 disc nanostructures are an efficient and stable hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst. By changing the Fe:S ratio in the precursor solution, we were able to preferentially synthesize either 1D wire or 2D disc nanostructures. The 2D FeS2 disc structure has the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction, comparable to platinum in neutral pH conditions. Moreover, the ability of the FeS2 nanostructures to generate hydrogen was confirmed by scanning electrochemical microscopy, and the 2D disc nanostructures were able to generate hydrogen for overmore » 125 h.« less

  6. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. PMID:27389477

  7. Architectures for Nanostructured Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubloff, Gary

    2013-03-01

    Heterogeneous nanostructures offer profound opportunities for advancement in electrochemical energy storage, particularly with regard to power. However, their design and integration must balance ion transport, electron transport, and stability under charge/discharge cycling, involving fundamental physical, chemical and electrochemical mechanisms at nano length scales and across disparate time scales. In our group and in our DOE Energy Frontier Research Center (www.efrc.umd.edu) we have investigated single nanostructures and regular nanostructure arrays as batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and electrostatic capacitors to understand limiting mechanisms, using a variety of synthesis and characterization strategies. Primary lithiation pathways in heterogeneous nanostructures have been observed to include surface, interface, and both isotropic and anisotropic diffusion, depending on materials. Integrating current collection layers at the nano scale with active ion storage layers enhances power and can improve stability during cycling. For densely packed nanostructures as required for storage applications, we investigate both ``regular'' and ``random'' architectures consistent with transport requirements for spatial connectivity. Such configurations raise further important questions at the meso scale, such as dynamic ion and electron transport in narrow and tortuous channels, and the role of defect structures and their evolution during charge cycling. Supported as part of the Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DESC0001160

  8. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia in Glut1D on Ketogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Klepper, Joerg; Leiendecker, Baerbel; Heussinger, Nicole; Lausch, Ekkehart; Bosch, Friedrich

    2016-04-01

    High-fat ketogenic diets are the only treatment available for Glut1 deficiency (Glut1D). Here, we describe an 8-year-old girl with classical Glut1D responsive to a 3:1 ketogenic diet and ethosuximide. After 3 years on the diet a gradual increase of blood lipids was followed by rapid, severe asymptomatic hypertriglyceridemia (1,910 mg/dL). Serum lipid apheresis was required to determine liver, renal, and pancreatic function. A combination of medium chain triglyceride-oil and a reduction of the ketogenic diet to 1:1 ratio normalized triglyceride levels within days but triggered severe myoclonic seizures requiring comedication with sultiam. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in children with Glut1D on ketogenic diets may be underdiagnosed and harmful. In contrast to congenital hypertriglyceridemias, children with Glut1D may be treated effectively by dietary adjustments alone. PMID:26902182

  9. 60. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, D LOOP STEAM GENERATOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, D LOOP STEAM GENERATOR AND MAIN COOLANT PUMP LOOKING NORTHEAST (LOCATION OOO) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  10. Short peptide-directed synthesis of one-dimensional platinum nanostructures with controllable morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Kai; Wang, Jiqian; Li, Yanpeng; Xia, Daohong; Shan, Honghong; Xu, Hai; Lu, Jian R.

    2013-01-01

    Although one dimensional (1D) Pt nanostructures with well-defined sizes and shapes have fascinating physiochemical properties, their preparation remains a great challenge. Here we report an easy and novel synthesis of 1D Pt nanostructures with controllable morphologies, through the combination of designer self-assembling I3K and phage-displayed P7A peptides. The nanofibrils formed via I3K self-assembly acted as template. Pt precursors ((PtCl4)2− and (PtCl6)2−) were immobilized by electrostatic interaction on the positively charged template surface and subsequent reduction led to the formation of 1D Pt nanostructures. P7A was applied to tune the continuity of the Pt nanostructures. Here, the electrostatic repulsion between the deprotonated C-terminal carboxyl groups of P7A molecules was demonstrated to play a key role. We finally showed that continuous and ordered 1D Pt morphology had a significantly improved electrochemical performance for the hydrogen and methanol electro-oxidation in comparison with either 1D discrete Pt nanoparticle assemblies or isolated Pt nanoparticles. PMID:23995118

  11. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1).

    PubMed

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. PMID:25088042

  12. TBC1D24 genotype–phenotype correlation

    PubMed Central

    Balestrini, Simona; Milh, Mathieu; Castiglioni, Claudia; Lüthy, Kevin; Finelli, Mattea J.; Verstreken, Patrik; Cardon, Aaron; Stražišar, Barbara Gnidovec; Holder, J. Lloyd; Lesca, Gaetan; Mancardi, Maria M.; Poulat, Anne L.; Repetto, Gabriela M.; Banka, Siddharth; Bilo, Leonilda; Birkeland, Laura E.; Bosch, Friedrich; Brockmann, Knut; Cross, J. Helen; Doummar, Diane; Félix, Temis M.; Giuliano, Fabienne; Hori, Mutsuki; Hüning, Irina; Kayserili, Hulia; Kini, Usha; Lees, Melissa M.; Meenakshi, Girish; Mewasingh, Leena; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Peluso, Silvio; Mey, Antje; Rice, Gregory M.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Taylor, Jenny C.; Troester, Matthew M.; Stanley, Christine M.; Ville, Dorothee; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Falace, Antonio; Fassio, Anna; Lemke, Johannes R.; Biskup, Saskia; Tardif, Jessica; Ajeawung, Norbert F.; Tolun, Aslihan; Corbett, Mark; Gecz, Jozef; Afawi, Zaid; Howell, Katherine B.; Oliver, Karen L.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; de Falco, Fabrizio A.; Oliver, Peter L.; Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in TBC1D24. Methods: We acquired new clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging data of 11 previously unreported and 37 published patients. TBC1D24 mutations, identified through various sequencing methods, can be found online (http://lovd.nl/TBC1D24). Results: Forty-eight patients were included (28 men, 20 women, average age 21 years) from 30 independent families. Eighteen patients (38%) had myoclonic epilepsies. The other patients carried diagnoses of focal (25%), multifocal (2%), generalized (4%), and unclassified epilepsy (6%), and early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (25%). Most patients had drug-resistant epilepsy. We detail EEG, neuroimaging, developmental, and cognitive features, treatment responsiveness, and physical examination. In silico evaluation revealed 7 different highly conserved motifs, with the most common pathogenic mutation located in the first. Neuronal outgrowth assays showed that some TBC1D24 mutations, associated with the most severe TBC1D24-associated disorders, are not necessarily the most disruptive to this gene function. Conclusions: TBC1D24-related epilepsy syndromes show marked phenotypic pleiotropy, with multisystem involvement and severity spectrum ranging from isolated deafness (not studied here), benign myoclonic epilepsy restricted to childhood with complete seizure control and normal intellect, to early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with severe developmental delay and early death. There is no distinct correlation with mutation type or location yet, but patterns are emerging. Given the phenotypic breadth observed, TBC1D24 mutation screening is indicated in a wide variety of epilepsies. A TBC1D24 consortium was formed to develop further research on this gene and its associated phenotypes. PMID:27281533

  13. Low-temperature synthesis of ZnO/CdS hierarchical nanostructure for photovoltaic application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue-Yan; Ling, Tao; Du, Xi-Wen

    2012-09-21

    Hierarchical nanostructures involving primary wide-band-gap nanowires and secondary narrow-band-gap branches are promising for photovoltaic application due to their excellent properties for light harvesting and fast carrier transport. In the present work, we developed a low-temperature process for facile synthesis of ZnO/CdS hierarchical nanowires, where the primary ZnO nanowires were first prepared via a hydrothermal route and then the secondary single-crystal CdS tips were grown on the ZnO nanowires by electrochemical deposition. The as-grown hierarchical ZnO/CdS nanowires are superior in charge separation as well as carrier transport, thus achieving higher open circuit voltage, short circuit current and final conversion efficiency than the common coaxial nanocables with CdS nanocrystal shell on core ZnO nanowires. PMID:22743779

  14. A simple route to vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanofilms on FTO surfaces: 1D-crystal growth of nanoseeds under ammonia-assisted hydrolysis process

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A simple method for the synthesis of ZnO nanofilms composed of vertical array of quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures (quasi-NRs) on the surface was demonstrated via a 1D crystal growth of the attached nanoseeds under a rapid hydrolysis process of zinc salts in the presence of ammonia at room temperature. In a typical procedure, by simply controlling the concentration of zinc acetate and ammonia in the reaction, a high density of vertically oriented nanorod-like morphology could be successfully obtained in a relatively short growth period (approximately 4 to 5 min) and at a room-temperature process. The average diameter and the length of the nanostructures are approximately 30 and 110 nm, respectively. The as-prepared quasi-NRs products were pure ZnO phase in nature without the presence of any zinc complexes as confirmed by the XRD characterisation. Room-temperature optical absorption spectroscopy exhibits the presence of two separate excitonic characters inferring that the as-prepared ZnO quasi-NRs are high-crystallinity properties in nature. The mechanism of growth for the ZnO quasi-NRs will be proposed. Due to their simplicity, the method should become a potential alternative for a rapid and cost-effective preparation of high-quality ZnO quasi-NRs nanofilms for use in photovoltaic or photocatalytics applications. PACS: 81.07.Bc; 81.16.-c; 81.07.Gf. PMID:22027275

  15. Photoconductivity of CdS under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savić, Pavle; Urošević, Vladeta

    1987-04-01

    The photoconductivity of the high-pressure (rocksalt) phase of CdS has been investigated over the 30-120 kbar pressure range. A decrease of the photo-threshold from 1.60 eV (at 30 kbar) to 1.49 eV (at 120 kbar) indicates an indirect gap semiconductor. The values obtained have been compared with the Savić-Kašanin theory.

  16. A simple route to shape controlled CdS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejo, Ayorinde O.; Nejo, Adeola A.; Pullabhotla, Rajasekhar V. S. R.; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2013-02-01

    We report the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles in the form of spheres, triangles and wire-like structures. The method involves the reaction of reduced sulfur with a cadmium salt followed by thermolysis in hexadecylamine (HDA). The different shapes were obtained by variation of reaction conditions such as reaction time, temperature and cadmium source. The optical studies show the particles to be quantum confined and luminescent at room temperature.

  17. Preliminary Results from Coordinated UVCS-CDS-Ulysses Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parenti, S.; Bromage, B. J.; Poletto, G.; Suess, S. T.; Raymond, J. C.; Noci, G.; Bromage, G. E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The June 2000 quadrature between the Sun, Earth, and Ulysses took place with Ulysses at a distance of 3.35 AU from the Sun and at heliocentric latitude 58.2 deg south, in the southeast quadrant. This provided an opportunity to observe the corona close to the Sun with Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) and Ultraviolet Coronograph Spectrometer (UVCS) and, subsequently, to sample the same plasma when it reached Ulysses. Here we focus on simultaneous observations of UVCS and CDS made on June 12, 13, 16 and 17. The UVCS data were acquired at heliocentric altitudes ranging from 1.6 to 2.2 solar radii, using different grating positions, in order to get a wide wavelength range. CDS data consisted of Normal Incidence Spectrometer (NIS) full wavelength rasters of 120" x 150" centered at altitudes up to 1.18 solar radii, together with Grazing Incidence Spectrometer (GIS) 4" x 4" rasters within the same field of view, out to 1.2 solar radii. The radial direction to Ulysses passed through a high latitude streamer, throughout the 4 days of observations, Analysis of the spectra taken by UVCS shows a variation of the element abundances in the streamer over our observing interval: however, because the observations were in slightly different parts of the streamer on different days, the variation could be ascribed either to a temporal or spatial effect. The oxygen abundance, however, seems to increase at the edge of the streamer, as indicated by previous analyses. This suggests the variation may be a function of position within the streamer, rather than a temporal effect. Oxygen abundances measured by SWICS on Ulysses are compared with the CDS and UVCS results to see whether changes measured in situ follow the same pattern.

  18. Glasses and Ceramics as Templates for Generating Nanostructures and Novel Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravorty, Dipankar

    2006-03-01

    --semiconductor junctions. A diode like voltage current characteristic was observed in these nanocomposites.^5 Silver nanowires were grown by electrodeposition within gel--derived silica glasses containing pores having diameters in the nanometre range. After suitable treatment to these nanowires these exhibited single electron tunnelling property^6. Silver nanowires were grown within the channels of fluorophlogopite mica crystals precipitated within a suitably chosen glass composition. The nanocomposites exhibited giant dielectric permittivity (˜10^7) which were explained on the basis of Gorkov-Eliashberg and Rice--Bernasconi model^7. Na-4mica structure was used to grow CdS nanowire^8. The former was also used to prepare films of BaTiO3 with a thickness of 1.2 nm. These films did not show any ferroelectric behaviour which was consistent with recent theoretical prediction^9. [1] D.Das and D.Chakravorty , Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1273 (2000). [2] K.Chatterjee,S.Banerjee and D . Chakravorty, Phys. Rev. B66, 085421 (2002). [3] K.Chatterjee, D.Das and D.Chakravorty, J.Phys .D : Appl. Phys. 38 451 (2005) [4] B.N.Pal ,S.Basuand D.Chakravorty, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 034311 (2005). [5] A.Dan,B.Satpati,P. V.Satyam and D.Chakravorty, J.Appl. Phys. 93, 4794 (2003). [6] S.Bhattacharyya,S.K.Saha and D.Chakravorty, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3770 (2000). [7] P.K.Mukherjee and D.Chakravorty, J. Mater. Res. 17 3127 (2002). [8] P.K.Mukherjee and D.Chakravorty, J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3164 (2004). A.Dan,P.K.Mukherjee and D.Chakravorty, J. Mater. Chemistry 15, 1477 (2005)..

  19. Surface modification of cadmium sulfide thin film honey comb nanostructures: Effect of in situ tin doping using chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, K. C.; Basheer Ahamed, M.

    2016-01-01

    Even though nanostructures possess large surface to volume ratio compared to their thin film counterpart, the complicated procedure that demands for the deposition on a substrate kept them back foot in device fabrication techniques. In this work, a honey comb like cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films nanostructure are deposited on glass substrates using simple chemical bath deposition technique at 65 °C. Energy band gaps, film thickness and shell size of the honey comb nanostructures are successfully controlled using tin (Sn) doping and number of shells per unit area is found to be maximum for 5% Sn doped (in the reaction mixture) sample. X-ray diffraction and optical absorption analysis showed that cadmium sulfide and cadmium hydroxide coexist in the samples. TEM measurements showed that CdS nanostructures are embedded in cadmium hydroxide just like "plum pudding". Persistent photoconductivity measurements of the samples are also carried out. The decay constants found to be increased with increases in Sn doping.

  20. Nanostructured Semiconductor Device Design in Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Hongmei

    We demonstrate the use of embedded CdS nanowires in improving spectral transmission loss and the low mechanical and electrical robustness of planar CdS window layer and thus enhancing the quantum efficiency and the reliability of the CdS-CdTe solar cells. CdS nanowire window layer enables light transmission gain at 300nm-550nm. A nearly ideal spectral response of quantum efficiency at a wide spectrum range provides an evidence for improving light transmission in the window layer and enhancing absorption and carrier generation in absorber. Nanowire CdS/CdTe solar cells with Cu/graphite/silver paste as back contacts, on SnO2/ITO-soda lime glass substrates, yield the highest efficiency of 12% in nanostructured CdS-CdTe solar cells. Reliability is improved by approximately 3 times over the cells with the traditional planar CdS counterpart. Junction transport mechanisms are delineated for advancing the basic understanding of device physics at the interface. Our results prove the efficacy of this nanowire approach for enhancing the quantum efficiency and the reliability in windowabsorber type solar cells (CdS-CdTe, CdS-CIGS and CdS-CZTSSe etc) and other optoelectronic devices. We further introduce MoO3-x as a transparent, low barrier back contact. We design nanowire CdS-CdTe solar cells on flexible foils of metals in a superstrate device structure, which makes low-cost roll-to-roll manufacturing process feasible and greatly reduces the complexity of fabrication. The MoO3 layer reduces the valence band offset relative to the CdTe, and creates improved cell performance. Annealing as-deposited MoO3 in N 2 reduces series resistance from 9.98 O/cm2 to 7.72 O/cm2, and hence efficiency of the nanowire solar cell is improved from 9.9% to 11%, which efficiency comparable to efficiency of planar counterparts. When the nanowire solar cell is illuminated from MoO 3-x /Au side, it yields an efficiency of 8.7%. This reduction in efficiency is attributed to decrease in Jsc from 25.5m

  1. Nanostructures for enzyme stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jungbae; Grate, Jay W.; Wang, Ping

    2006-02-02

    The last decade has witnessed notable breakthroughs in nanotechnology with development of various nanostructured materials such as mesoporous materials and nanoparticles. These nanostructures have been used as a host for enzyme immobilization via various approaches, such as enzyme adsorption, covalent attachment, enzyme encapsulation, and sophisticated combinations of methods. This review discusses the stabilization mechanisms behind these diverse approaches; such as confinement, pore size and volume, charge interaction, hydrophobic interaction, and multipoint attachment. In addition, we will introduce recent rigorous approaches to improve the enzyme stability in these nanostructures or develop new nanostructures for the enzyme stabilization. Especially, we will introduce our recent invention of a nanostructure, called single enzyme nanoparticles (SENs). In the form of SENs, each enzyme molecule is surrounded with a nanometer scale network, resulting in stabilization of enzyme activity without any serious limitation for the substrate transfer from solution to the active site. SENs can be further immobilized into mesoporous silica with a large surface area, providing a hierarchical approach for stable, immobilized enzyme systems for various applications, such as bioconversion, bioremediation, and biosensors.

  2. Polar discontinuities and 1D interfaces in monolayered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Gordillo, Rafael; Pruneda, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Interfaces are the birthplace of a multitude of fascinating discoveries in fundamental science, and have enabled modern electronic devices, from transistors, to lasers, capacitors or solar cells. These interfaces between bulk materials are always bi-dimensional (2D) 'surfaces'. However the advent of graphene and other 2D crystals opened up a world of possibilities, as in this case the interfaces become one-dimensional (1D) lines. Although the properties of 1D nanoribbons have been extensively discussed in the last few years, 1D interfaces within infinite 2D systems had remained mostly unexplored until very recently. These include grain boundaries in polycrystalline samples, or interfaces in hybrid 2D sheets composed by segregated domains of different materials (as for example graphene/BN hybrids, or chemically different transition metal dichalcogenides). As for their 2D counterparts, some of these 1D interfaces exhibit polar characteristics, and can give rise to fascinating new physical properties. Here, recent experimental discoveries and theoretical predictions on the polar discontinuities that arise at these 1D interfaces will be reviewed, and the perspectives of this new research topic, discussed.

  3. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM and TEM images, and digital photographs. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04429h

  4. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOEpatents

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  5. Probing 1D super-strongly correlated dipolar quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citro, R.; de Palo, S.; Orignac, E.; Pedri, P.; Chiofalo, M.-L.

    2009-04-01

    One-dimensional (1D) dipolar quantum gases are characterized by a very special condition where super-strong correlations occur to significantly affect the static and dynamical low-energy behavior. This behavior is accurately described by the Luttinger Liquid theory with parameter K < 1. Dipolar Bose gases are routinely studied in laboratory with Chromium atoms. On the other hand, 1D realizations with molecular quantum gases can be at reach of current experimental expertises, allowing to explore such extreme quantum degenerate conditions which are the bottom line for designing technological devices. Aim of the present contribution is to focus on the possible probes expected to signal the reach of Luttinger-Liquid behavior in 1D dipolar gases.

  6. PC-1D installation manual and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    PC-1D is a software package for personal computers that uses finite-element analysis to solve the fully-coupled two-carrier semiconductor transport equations in one dimension. This program is particularly useful for analyzing the performance of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, but can be applied to any bipolar device whose carrier flows are primarily one-dimensional. This User's Guide provides the information necessary to install PC-1D, define a problem for solution, solve the problem, and examine the results. Example problems are presented which illustrate these steps. The physical models and numerical methods utilized are presented in detail. This document supports version 3.1 of PC-1D, which incorporates faster numerical algorithms with better convergence properties than previous versions of the program. 51 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. The GIRAFFE Archive: 1D and 3D Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, F.; Jégouzo, I.; Tajahmady, F.; Normand, J.; Chilingarian, I.

    2013-10-01

    The GIRAFFE Archive (http://giraffe-archive.obspm.fr) contains the reduced spectra observed with the intermediate and high resolution multi-fiber spectrograph installed at VLT/UT2 (ESO). In its multi-object configuration and the different integral field unit configurations, GIRAFFE produces 1D spectra and 3D spectra. We present here the status of the archive and the different functionalities to select and download both 1D and 3D data products, as well as the present content. The two collections are available in the VO: the 1D spectra (summed in the case of integral field observations) and the 3D field observations. These latter products can be explored using the VO Paris Euro3D Client (http://voplus.obspm.fr/ chil/Euro3D).

  8. Nanodamage and Nanofailure of 1d Zno Nanomaterials and Nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peifeng; Yang, Ya; Huang, Yunhua; Zhang, Yue

    2012-08-01

    One-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanomaterials include nanowires, nanobelts, and nanorods etc. The extensive applied fields and excellent properties of 1D ZnO nanomaterials can meet the requests of the electronic and electromechanical devices for "smaller, faster and colder", and would be applied in new energy convention, environmental protection, information science and technology, biomedical, security and defense fields. While micro porous, etching pits nanodamage and brittle fracture, dissolving, functional failure nanofailure phenomena of 1D ZnO nanomaterials and nanodevices are observed in some practical working environments like illumination, currents or electric fields, external forces, and some chemical gases or solvents. The more important thing is to discuss the mechanism and reduce or prohibit their generation.

  9. Altered Secretory Activity of APE1/Ref-1 D148E Variants Identified in Human Patients With Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in DNA repair and redox modulation. Recently, serum and urinary APE1/Ref-1 levels were reported to be increased in patients with bladder cancer. Genetic variations of APE/Ref-1 are associated with the risk of cancer. However, the effect of APE1/Ref-1 variants on its secretory activity is yet unknown. Methods: APE1/Ref-1 variants were evaluated by DNA sequencing analysis of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction products in coding DNA sequences (CDS) of APE1/Ref-1 in bladder tissue samples from patients with bladder cancer (n=10). Secretory activity of APE1/Ref-1 variants was evaluated with immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the culture medium supernatants. Results: Four different substitution mutants (D148E, I64V/D148E, W67R/D148E, and E86G/D148E) of APE1/Ref-1 were identified in bladder cancer specimens. However, deletion mutants of APE1/Ref-1 CDS were not found. The secretory activity of the APE1/Ref-1 variants (D148E, I64V/D148E, and E86G/D148E) was increased compared to that of wild type APE1/Ref-1. Furthermore, the secretory activity in basal or hyperacetylated conditions was much higher than that in APE1/Ref-1 D148E-transfected HEK293 cells. Conclusions: Taken together, our data suggest that the increased secretory activity of D148E might contribute to increased serum levels of APE1/Ref-1 in patients with bladder cancer. PMID:27230458

  10. Synthesis of porphyrin nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Hongyou; Bai, Feng

    2014-10-28

    The present disclosure generally relates to self-assembly methods for generating porphyrin nanostructures. For example, in one embodiment a method is provided that includes preparing a porphyrin solution and a surfactant solution. The porphyrin solution is then mixed with the surfactant solution at a concentration sufficient for confinement of the porphyrin molecules by the surfactant molecules. In some embodiments, the concentration of the surfactant is at or above its critical micelle concentration (CMC), which allows the surfactant to template the growth of the nanostructure over time. The size and morphology of the nanostructures may be affected by the type of porphyrin molecules used, the type of surfactant used, the concentration of the porphyrin and surfactant the pH of the mixture of the solutions, and the order of adding the reagents to the mixture, to name a few variables.

  11. Nanostructured Biomaterials for Regeneration**

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guobao; Ma, Peter X.

    2009-01-01

    Biomaterials play a pivotal role in regenerative medicine, which aims to regenerate and replace lost/dysfunctional tissues or organs. Biomaterials (scaffolds) serve as temporary 3D substrates to guide neo tissue formation and organization. It is often beneficial for a scaffolding material to mimic the characteristics of extracellular matrix (ECM) at the nanometer scale and to induce certain natural developmental or/and wound healing processes for tissue regeneration applications. This article reviews the fabrication and modification technologies for nanofibrous, nanocomposite, and nanostructured drug-delivering scaffolds. ECM-mimicking nanostructured biomaterials have been shown to actively regulate cellular responses including attachment, proliferation, differentiation and matrix deposition. Nano-scaled drug delivery systems can be successfully incorporated into a porous 3D scaffold to enhance the tissue regeneration capacity. In conclusion, nano-structured biomateials are a very exciting and rapidly expanding research area, and are providing new enabling technologies for regenerative medicine. PMID:19946357

  12. Extracellular Synthesis of Luminescent CdS Quantum Dots Using Plant Cell Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovaya, Mariya N.; Burlaka, Olga M.; Naumenko, Antonina P.; Blume, Yaroslav B.; Yemets, Alla I.

    2016-02-01

    The present study describes a novel method for preparation of water-soluble CdS quantum dots, using bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cell suspension culture. Acting as a stabilizing and capping agent, the suspension cell culture mediates the formation of CdS nanoparticles. These semiconductor nanoparticles were determined by means of an UV-visible spectrophotometer, photoluminescence, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and XRD. Followed by the electron diffraction analysis of a selected area, transmission electron microscopy indicated the formation of spherical, crystalline CdS ranging in diameter from 3 to 7 nm and showed wurtzite CdS quantum dots. In the present work, the toxic effect of synthesized CdS quantum dots on Nicotiana tabacum protoplasts as a very sensitive model was under study. The results of this research revealed that biologically synthesized CdS nanoparticles in low concentrations did not induce any toxic effects.

  13. Extracellular Synthesis of Luminescent CdS Quantum Dots Using Plant Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Borovaya, Mariya N; Burlaka, Olga M; Naumenko, Antonina P; Blume, Yaroslav B; Yemets, Alla I

    2016-12-01

    The present study describes a novel method for preparation of water-soluble CdS quantum dots, using bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cell suspension culture. Acting as a stabilizing and capping agent, the suspension cell culture mediates the formation of CdS nanoparticles. These semiconductor nanoparticles were determined by means of an UV-visible spectrophotometer, photoluminescence, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and XRD. Followed by the electron diffraction analysis of a selected area, transmission electron microscopy indicated the formation of spherical, crystalline CdS ranging in diameter from 3 to 7 nm and showed wurtzite CdS quantum dots. In the present work, the toxic effect of synthesized CdS quantum dots on Nicotiana tabacum protoplasts as a very sensitive model was under study. The results of this research revealed that biologically synthesized CdS nanoparticles in low concentrations did not induce any toxic effects. PMID:26909780

  14. Photo current generation in RGO - CdS nanorod thin film device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Koushik; Chakrabarty, Sankalpita; Ibrahim, Sk.; Pal, Tanusri; Ghosh, Surajit

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) - cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanocomposite materials. The reduction of GO, formation of CdS and decoration of CdS onto RGO sheets were done in a one- pot solvothermal process. We have observed that the PL intensity for CdS nanorods remarkably quenched after the attachment of RGO, which established the photo induced charge transformation from the CdS nanorod to RGO sheets through the RGO-CdS interface. The optoelectronic transport properties of our fabricated large area thin film device exhibits excellent photo induced charge generation under simulated solar light illumination. The photo sensitivity of the device increases linearly with the increase of illuminated light intensity. The RGO-CdS composite exhibits enhance photocatalytic dye degradation efficiency in compare to control CdS under simulated solar light illumination.

  15. GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    KALYANAPU, ALFRED; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N.; BURIAN, STEVEN J.

    2007-01-17

    This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.

  16. Simulation of Semiconductor Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, A J; Grossman, J C; Puzder, A; Benedict, L X; Galli, G

    2001-07-19

    The field of research into the optical properties of silicon nanostructures has seen enormous growth over the last decade. The discovery that silicon nanoparticles exhibit visible photoluminescence (PL) has led to new insights into the mechanisms responsible for such phenomena. The importance of understanding and controlling the PL properties of any silicon based material is of paramount interest to the optoelectronics industry where silicon nanoclusters could be embedded into existing silicon based circuitry. In this talk, we present a combination of quantum Monte Carlo and density functional approaches to the calculation of the electronic, structural, and optical properties of silicon nanostructures.

  17. Plasmonic nanostructures: artificial molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Brandl, Daniel W; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2007-01-01

    This Account describes a new paradigm for the relationship between the geometry of metallic nanostructures and their optical properties. While the interaction of light with metallic nanoparticles is determined by their collective electronic or plasmon response, a compelling analogy exists between plasmon resonances of metallic nanoparticles and wave functions of simple atoms and molecules. Based on this insight, an entire family of plasmonic nanostructures, artificial molecules, has been developed whose optical properties can be understood within this picture: nanoparticles (nanoshells, nanoeggs, nanomatryushkas, nanorice), multi-nanoparticle assemblies (dimers, trimers, quadrumers), and a nanoparticle-over-metallic film, an electromagnetic analog of the spinless Anderson model. PMID:17226945

  18. Photocatalytic metal-organic framework from CdS quantum dot incubated luminescent metallohydrogel.

    PubMed

    Saha, Subhadeep; Das, Gobinda; Thote, Jayshri; Banerjee, Rahul

    2014-10-22

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (<10 nm in size) have been successfully synthesized in situ without any capping agent in a Zn(II)-based low-molecular-weight metallohydrogel (ZAVA). Pristine ZAVA hydrogel shows blue luminescence, but the emission can be tuned upon encapsulation of the CdS quantum dots. Time-dependent tunable emission (white to yellow to orange) of the CdS incubated gel (CdS@ZAVA gel) can be attributed to sluggish growth of the quantum dots inside the gel matrix. Once CdS quantum dots are entrapped, their augmentation can be stopped by converting the gel into xerogel, wherein the quantum dots remains embedded in the solid xerogel matrix. Similar size stabilization of CdS quantum dots can be achieved by means of a unique room-temperature conversion of the CdS incubated ZAVA gel to CdS incubated MOF (CdS@ZAVCl) crystals. This in turn arrests the tunability in emission owing to the restriction in the growth of CdS quantum dots inside xerogel and MOF. These CdS embedded MOFs have been utilized as a catalyst for water splitting under visible light. PMID:25279940

  19. Electrical conductivity of single CdS nanowire synthesized by aqueous chemical growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yunze; Chen, Zhaojia; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Fenglian; Jin, Aizi; Gu, Changzhi

    2005-04-01

    In this Letter, we report on the temperature-dependent conductivity and current-voltage curve of a single CdS nanowire, which was synthesized by a simple aqueous chemical growth method. A pair of platinum microleads was fabricated on the single CdS nanowire by focused ion-beam deposition. The room-temperature conductivity and the band gap of the single CdS wire are 0.82Ω-1cm-1 and 0.055eV, respectively. When the applied electric field is larger than 1090Vcm-1, the CdS nanowire shows a nonlinear I-V curve at room temperature.

  20. Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized hierarchical TiO2 flower-rod for solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Libo; Li, Zhen; Liu, Yingbo; Cheng, Fa; Sun, Shuqing

    2014-06-01

    A double-layered TiO2 film which three dimensional (3D) flowers grown on highly ordered self-assembled one dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanorods was synthesized directly on transparent fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrate by a facile hydrothermal method and was applied as photoanode in Mn-doped CdS quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). The 3D TiO2 flowers with the increased surface areas can adsorb more QDs, which increased the absorption of light; meanwhile 1D TiO2 nanorods beneath the flowers offered a direct electrical pathway for photogenerated electrons, accelerating the electron transfer rate. A typical type II band alignment which can effectively separate photogenerated excitons and reduce recombination of electrons and holes was constructed by Mn-doped CdS QDs and TiO2 flower-rod. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the Mn-doped CdS/TiO2 flower-rod solar cell reached to 40% with the polysulfide electrolyte filled in the solar cell. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.09% was obtained with the Mn-doped CdS/TiO2 flower-rod solar cell under one sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm2), which is 105.7% higher than that of the CdS/TiO2 nanorod solar cell (0.53%).

  1. Gas sensors based on one dimensional nanostructured metal-oxides: a review.

    PubMed

    Arafat, M M; Dinan, B; Akbar, Sheikh A; Haseeb, A S M A

    2012-01-01

    Recently one dimensional (1-D) nanostructured metal-oxides have attracted much attention because of their potential applications in gas sensors. 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides provide high surface to volume ratio, while maintaining good chemical and thermal stabilities with minimal power consumption and low weight. In recent years, various processing routes have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides such as hydrothermal, ultrasonic irradiation, electrospinning, anodization, sol-gel, molten-salt, carbothermal reduction, solid-state chemical reaction, thermal evaporation, vapor-phase transport, aerosol, RF sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition, gas-phase assisted nanocarving, UV lithography and dry plasma etching. A variety of sensor fabrication processing routes have also been developed. Depending on the materials, morphology and fabrication process the performance of the sensor towards a specific gas shows a varying degree of success. This article reviews and evaluates the performance of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxide gas sensors based on ZnO, SnO(2), TiO(2), In(2)O(3), WO(x), AgVO(3), CdO, MoO(3), CuO, TeO(2) and Fe(2)O(3). Advantages and disadvantages of each sensor are summarized, along with the associated sensing mechanism. Finally, the article concludes with some future directions of research. PMID:22969344

  2. Gas Sensors Based on One Dimensional Nanostructured Metal-Oxides: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Arafat, M. M.; Dinan, B.; Akbar, Sheikh A.; Haseeb, A. S. M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently one dimensional (1-D) nanostructured metal-oxides have attracted much attention because of their potential applications in gas sensors. 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides provide high surface to volume ratio, while maintaining good chemical and thermal stabilities with minimal power consumption and low weight. In recent years, various processing routes have been developed for the synthesis of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxides such as hydrothermal, ultrasonic irradiation, electrospinning, anodization, sol-gel, molten-salt, carbothermal reduction, solid-state chemical reaction, thermal evaporation, vapor-phase transport, aerosol, RF sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition, gas-phase assisted nanocarving, UV lithography and dry plasma etching. A variety of sensor fabrication processing routes have also been developed. Depending on the materials, morphology and fabrication process the performance of the sensor towards a specific gas shows a varying degree of success. This article reviews and evaluates the performance of 1-D nanostructured metal-oxide gas sensors based on ZnO, SnO2, TiO2, In2O3, WOx, AgVO3, CdO, MoO3, CuO, TeO2 and Fe2O3. Advantages and disadvantages of each sensor are summarized, along with the associated sensing mechanism. Finally, the article concludes with some future directions of research. PMID:22969344

  3. Construction and optoelectronic properties of organic one-dimensional nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong Sheng; Fu, Hongbing; Peng, Aidong; Ma, Ying; Liao, Qing; Yao, Jiannian

    2010-03-16

    In the last 10 years, nanomaterials based on small organic molecules have attracted increasing attention. Such materials have unique optical and electronic properties, which could lead to new applications in nanoscale devices. Zero-dimensional (0D) organic nanoparticles with amorphous structures have been widely studied; however, the systematic investigation of crystalline one-dimensional (1D) organic nanostructures has only emerged in recent years. Researchers have used inorganic 1D nanomaterials, such as wires, tubes, and belts, as building blocks in optoelectronic nanodevices. We expect that their organic counterparts will also play an important role in this field. Because organic nanomaterials are composed of molecular units with weaker intermolecular interactions, they allow for higher structural tunability, reactivity, and processability. In addition, organic materials usually possess higher luminescence efficiency and can be grown on almost any solid substrate. In this Account, we describe recent progress in our group toward the construction of organic 1D nanomaterials and studies of their unique optical and electronic properties. First, we introduce the techniques for synthesizing 1D organic nanostructures. Because this strategy is both facile and reliable, liquid phase synthesis is most commonly used. More importantly, this method allows researchers to produce composite materials, including core/sheath and uniformly doped structures, which allow to investigate the interactions between different components in the nanomaterials, including fluorescent resonance energy transfer and photoinduced electron transfer. Physical vapor deposition allows for the synthesis of organic 1D nanomaterials with high crystallinity. Nanomaterials produced with this method offer improved charge transport properties and better optoelectronic performance in areas including multicolor emission, tunable emission, optical waveguide, and lasing. Although inorganic nanomaterials have

  4. Optical properties of LEDs with patterned 1D photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hronec, P.; Kuzma, A.; Å kriniarová, J.; Kováč, J.; Benčurová, A.; Haščík, Å.; Nemec, P.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we focus on the application of the one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PhC) structures on the top of Al0.295Ga0.705As/GaAs multi-quantum well light emitting diode (MQW LED). 1D PhC structures with periods of 600 nm, 700 nm, 800 nm, and 900 nm were fabricated by the E-Beam Direct Write (EBDW) Lithography. Effect of 1D PhC period on the light extraction enhancement was studied. 1D PhC LED radiation profiles were obtained from Near Surface Light Emission Images (NSLEI). Measurements showed the strongest light extraction enhancement using 800 nm period of PhC. Investigation of PhC LED radiation profiles showed strong light decoupling when light reaches PhC structure. Achieved LEE was from 22.6% for 600 nm PhC LED to 47.0% for 800 nm PhC LED. LED with PhC structure at its surface was simulated by FDTD simulation method under excitation of appropriate launch field.

  5. NEW FEATURES OF HYDRUS-1D, VERSION 3.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper briefly summarizes new features in version 3.0 of HYDRUS-1D, released in May 2005, as compared to version 2.1. The new features are a) new approaches to simulate preferential and nonequilibrium water flow and solute transport, b) a new hysteresis module that avoids the effects of pumpin...

  6. A 1D wavelet filtering for ultrasound images despeckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Dubois, Mathieu; Frenoux, Emmanuelle; Osorio, Angel

    2010-03-01

    Ultrasound images appearance is characterized by speckle, shadows, signal dropout and low contrast which make them really difficult to process and leads to a very poor signal to noise ratio. Therefore, for main imaging applications, a denoising step is necessary to apply successfully medical imaging algorithms on such images. However, due to speckle statistics, denoising and enhancing edges on these images without inducing additional blurring is a real challenging problem on which usual filters often fail. To deal with such problems, a large number of papers are working on B-mode images considering that the noise is purely multiplicative. Making such an assertion could be misleading, because of internal pre-processing such as log compression which are done in the ultrasound device. To address those questions, we designed a novel filtering method based on 1D Radiofrequency signal. Indeed, since B-mode images are initially composed of 1D signals and since the log compression made by ultrasound devices modifies noise statistics, we decided to filter directly the 1D Radiofrequency signal envelope before log compression and image reconstitution, in order to conserve as much information as possible. A bi-orthogonal wavelet transform is applied to the log transform of each signal and an adaptive 1D split and merge like algorithm is used to denoise wavelet coefficients. Experiments were carried out on synthetic data sets simulated with Field II simulator and results show that our filter outperforms classical speckle filtering methods like Lee, non-linear means or SRAD filters.

  7. Non-cooperative Brownian donkeys: A solvable 1D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez de Cisneros, B.; Reimann, P.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    A paradigmatic 1D model for Brownian motion in a spatially symmetric, periodic system is tackled analytically. Upon application of an external static force F the system's response is an average current which is positive for F < 0 and negative for F > 0 (absolute negative mobility). Under suitable conditions, the system approaches 100% efficiency when working against the external force F.

  8. 1D design style implications for mask making and CEBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smayling, Michael C.

    2013-09-01

    At advanced nodes, CMOS logic is being designed in a highly regular design style because of the resolution limitations of optical lithography equipment. Logic and memory layouts using 1D Gridded Design Rules (GDR) have been demonstrated to nodes beyond 12nm.[1-4] Smaller nodes will require the same regular layout style but with multiple patterning for critical layers. One of the significant advantages of 1D GDR is the ease of splitting layouts into lines and cuts. A lines and cuts approach has been used to achieve good pattern fidelity and process margin to below 12nm.[4] Line scaling with excellent line-edge roughness (LER) has been demonstrated with self-aligned spacer processing.[5] This change in design style has important implications for mask making: • The complexity of the masks will be greatly reduced from what would be required for 2D designs with very complex OPC or inverse lithography corrections. • The number of masks will initially increase, as for conventional multiple patterning. But in the case of 1D design, there are future options for mask count reduction. • The line masks will remain simple, with little or no OPC, at pitches (1x) above 80nm. This provides an excellent opportunity for continual improvement of line CD and LER. The line pattern will be processed through a self-aligned pitch division sequence to divide pitch by 2 or by 4. • The cut masks can be done with "simple OPC" as demonstrated to beyond 12nm.[6] Multiple simple cut masks may be required at advanced nodes. "Coloring" has been demonstrated to below 12nm for two colors and to 8nm for three colors. • Cut/hole masks will eventually be replaced by e-beam direct write using complementary e-beam lithography (CEBL).[7-11] This transition is gated by the availability of multiple column e-beam systems with throughput adequate for high- volume manufacturing. A brief description of 1D and 2D design styles will be presented, followed by examples of 1D layouts. Mask complexity for 1

  9. Nanostructured catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

    2015-09-29

    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  10. Atomically Traceable Nanostructure Fabrication.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Josh B; Dick, Don D; McDonnell, Stephen J; Bischof, Maia; Fu, Joseph; Owen, James H G; Owen, William R; Alexander, Justin D; Jaeger, David L; Namboodiri, Pradeep; Fuchs, Ehud; Chabal, Yves J; Wallace, Robert M; Reidy, Richard; Silver, Richard M; Randall, John N; Von Ehr, James

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the scale of etched nanostructures below the 10 nm range eventually will require an atomic scale understanding of the entire fabrication process being used in order to maintain exquisite control over both feature size and feature density. Here, we demonstrate a method for tracking atomically resolved and controlled structures from initial template definition through final nanostructure metrology, opening up a pathway for top-down atomic control over nanofabrication. Hydrogen depassivation lithography is the first step of the nanoscale fabrication process followed by selective atomic layer deposition of up to 2.8 nm of titania to make a nanoscale etch mask. Contrast with the background is shown, indicating different mechanisms for growth on the desired patterns and on the H passivated background. The patterns are then transferred into the bulk using reactive ion etching to form 20 nm tall nanostructures with linewidths down to ~6 nm. To illustrate the limitations of this process, arrays of holes and lines are fabricated. The various nanofabrication process steps are performed at disparate locations, so process integration is discussed. Related issues are discussed including using fiducial marks for finding nanostructures on a macroscopic sample and protecting the chemically reactive patterned Si(100)-H surface against degradation due to atmospheric exposure. PMID:26274555

  11. Nanostructured catalyst supports

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

    2012-10-02

    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  12. Emerging double helical nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Wei, Fei

    2014-07-01

    As one of the most important and land-mark structures found in nature, a double helix consists of two congruent single helices with the same axis or a translation along the axis. This double helical structure renders the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the crucial biomolecule in evolution and metabolism. DNA-like double helical nanostructures are probably the most fantastic yet ubiquitous geometry at the nanoscale level, which are expected to exhibit exceptional and even rather different properties due to the unique organization of the two single helices and their synergistic effect. The organization of nanomaterials into double helical structures is an emerging hot topic for nanomaterials science due to their promising exceptional unique properties and applications. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art research progress for the fabrication of double-helical nanostructures based on `bottom-up' and `top-down' strategies. The relevant nanoscale, mesoscale, and macroscopic scale fabrication methods, as well as the properties of the double helical nanostructures are included. Critical perspectives are devoted to the synthesis principles and potential applications in this emerging research area. A multidisciplinary approach from the scope of nanoscience, physics, chemistry, materials, engineering, and other application areas is still required to the well-controlled and large-scale synthesis, mechanism, property, and application exploration of double helical nanostructures.

  13. Experimental and theoretical XANES of CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Yiu, Y. M.; Sham, T. K.; Murphy, M. W.; Liu, L.; Hu, Y.

    2014-03-31

    The morphology and electronic properties of the CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} nanostructures with varying alloy compositions have been acquired experimentally by X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structures (XANES) at the Cd, Se and S K-edge and L{sub 3,2}-edges. The theoretical XANES spectra have been calculated using the density functional approach. It is found that the optical band-gap emission of these CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} nano-ribbons can be tuned to the range between that of pure CdS (2.43 eV) and CdSe (1.74 eV) by changing the S and Se ratio. This gradual shift in (optical and structural) properties from CdS character to CdSe character is also seen in the electronic structures. The densities of states and band structures show that with the addition of Se replacing S in CdS, the band gap shrinks. The K and L{sub 3,2} edges of Cd, Se, and S of the XANES structures of both the CdS and CdSe in B4 (wurtzite) and B3 (cubic zinc-blende) structures have been calculated and compared.

  14. Surface photovoltage in exciton absorption range in CdS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morawski, A.; Banisch, R.; Lagowski, J.

    1977-01-01

    The high resolution, intrinsic spectra of surface photovoltage are reported for semiconducting n-type CdS single crystals. At reduced temperatures (120-160 K) the spectra exhibit three sharp maxima due to A, B and C free exciton transitions. Energy positions of these lines and valence band parameters (spin-orbit and crystal field splittings) estimated from surface photovoltage are in good agreement with values obtained by other methods. The excitonic transitions are very sensitive to surface treatment, i.e. polishing, etching, background illumination and surface doping. The mechanism of direct interaction of free excitons with surface states is proposed to explain exciton lines in surface photovoltage.

  15. Numerical simulations of heavily polluted fine-grained sediment remobilization using 1D, 1D+, and 2D channel schematization.

    PubMed

    Kaiglová, Jana; Langhammer, Jakub; Jiřinec, Petr; Janský, Bohumír; Chalupová, Dagmar

    2015-03-01

    This article used various hydrodynamic and sediment transport models to analyze the potential and the limits of different channel schematizations. The main aim was to select and evaluate the most suitable simulation method for fine-grained sediment remobilization assessment. Three types of channel schematization were selected to study the flow potential for remobilizing fine-grained sediment in artificially modified channels. Schematization with a 1D cross-sectional horizontal plan, a 1D+ approach, splitting the riverbed into different functional zones, and full 2D mesh, adopted in MIKE by the DHI modeling suite, was applied to the study. For the case study, a 55-km stretch of the Bílina River, in the Czech Republic, Central Europe, which has been heavily polluted by the chemical and coal mining industry since the mid-twentieth century, was selected. Long-term exposure to direct emissions of toxic pollutants including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) resulted in deposits of pollutants in fine-grained sediments in the riverbed. Simulations, based on three hydrodynamic model schematizations, proved that for events not exceeding the extent of the riverbed profile, the 1D schematization can provide comparable results to a 2D model. The 1D+ schematization can improve accuracy while keeping the benefits of high-speed simulation and low requirements of input DEM data, but the method's suitability is limited by the channel properties. PMID:25687259

  16. Electrical transport in doped one-dimensional nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Tan; Wang, Jianning; Zhang, Yumin

    2005-09-01

    Mobility and noise are two important issues for electronic devices, and they have many new features in one-dimensional (1D) doped nanostructures. For the convenience of readers the background of solid state physics is reviewed first, and then the transport process in 3D crystal material is introduced. Velocity saturation is an important phenomenon in modern electronic devices, and it is analyzed in an intuitive approach. It is predicted FinFET will be the next generation MOSFET, and its structure and characteristics are introduced. With the reduction of device dimensions the mesoscopic phenomena begin to show up. A simple way to treat transport problem in this domain is the Landauer-Büttiker formula, and the basic equation is derived. Finally the 1D quantum wire structure grown from a bottom-up approach is reviewed. Owing to the good material quality the scattering is very weak, and the wave properties of the coherent transport are discussed. Engineering applications of nanostructures in electronic information processing that manipulates time varying signals often involve device characterizations in the time domain. Since carrier transport in nanostructures is inherently a random process and it causes random fluctuations in quantities like current and voltage, so background knowledge in the microscopic origins of noise and other related practical issues is important to identify enough noise margins for reliable system design. This subject is the focus of the second part of the review article. PMID:16193956

  17. 1D Josephson quantum interference grids: diffraction patterns and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucci, M.; Badoni, D.; Corato, V.; Merlo, V.; Ottaviani, I.; Salina, G.; Cirillo, M.; Ustinov, A. V.; Winkler, D.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the magnetic response of transmission lines with embedded Josephson junctions and thus generating a 1D underdamped array. The measured multi-junction interference patterns are compared with the theoretical predictions for Josephson supercurrent modulations when an external magnetic field couples both to the inter-junction loops and to the junctions themselves. The results provide a striking example of the analogy between Josephson phase modulation and 1D optical diffraction grid. The Fiske resonances in the current-voltage characteristics with voltage spacing {Φ0}≤ft(\\frac{{\\bar{c}}}{2L}\\right) , where L is the total physical length of the array, {Φ0} the magnetic flux quantum and \\bar{c} the speed of light in the transmission line, demonstrate that the discrete line supports stable dynamic patterns generated by the ac Josephson effect interacting with the cavity modes of the line.

  18. A Bayesian Algorithm for Reading 1D Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Ender; Coughlan, James

    2010-01-01

    The 1D barcode is a ubiquitous labeling technology, with symbologies such as UPC used to label approximately 99% of all packaged goods in the US. It would be very convenient for consumers to be able to read these barcodes using portable cameras (e.g. mobile phones), but the limited quality and resolution of images taken by these cameras often make it difficult to read the barcodes accurately. We propose a Bayesian framework for reading 1D barcodes that models the shape and appearance of barcodes, allowing for geometric distortions and image noise, and exploiting the redundant information contained in the parity digit. An important feature of our framework is that it doesn’t require that every barcode edge be detected in the image. Experiments on a publicly available dataset of barcode images explore the range of images that are readable, and comparisons with two commercial readers demonstrate the superior performance of our algorithm. PMID:20428491

  19. Morphodynamics and sediment tracers in 1-D (MAST-1D): 1-D sediment transport that includes exchange with an off-channel sediment reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, J. Wesley; Viparelli, Enrica; Piégay, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Bed material transported in geomorphically active gravel bed rivers often has a local source at nearby eroding banks and ends up sequestered in bars not far downstream. However, most 1-D numerical models for gravel transport assume that gravel originates from and deposits on the channel bed. In this paper, we present a 1-D framework for simulating morphodynamic evolution of bed elevation and size distribution in a gravel-bed river that actively exchanges sediment with its floodplain, which is represented as an off-channel sediment reservoir. The model is based on the idea that sediment enters the channel at eroding banks whose elevation depends on total floodplain sediment storage and on the average elevation of the floodplain relative to the channel bed. Lateral erosion of these banks occurs at a specified rate that can represent either net channel migration or channel widening. Transfer of material out of the channel depends on a typical bar thickness and a specified lateral exchange rate due either to net channel migration or narrowing. The model is implemented using an object oriented framework that allows users to explore relationships between bank supply, bed structure, and lateral change rates. It is applied to a ∼50-km reach of the Ain River, France, that experienced significant reduction in sediment supply due to dam construction during the 20th century. Results are strongly sensitive to lateral exchange rates, showing that in this reach, the supply of sand and gravel at eroding banks and the sequestration of gravel in point bars can have strong influence on overall reach-scale sediment budgets.

  20. Synthesis of monodispersed CdS nanoballs through {gamma}-irradiation route and building core-shell structure CdS SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhaoxu; Chen Jiafu Xue Xuan; Hu Yong

    2007-12-04

    Monodispersed CdS nanoballs were synthesized through {gamma}-irradiating CdCl{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} and polyvinylpyrrolidone aqueous solution at room temperature. With these well monodispersed CdS nanoballs, CdS SiO{sub 2} core-shell structures were prepared under hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate without adding a coupling agent. Field emission scanning electron micrograph, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. It is hoped that the core-shell CdS SiO{sub 2} nanoballs would be used as good luminescence detecting material for biological systems, so this may stimulate technological interest and prospect many other applications in materials related fields.

  1. Waves in a 1D electrorheological dusty plasma lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M.

    2015-08-01

    The behavior of waves in a one-dimensional (1D) dusty plasma lattice where the dust interacts via Yukawa and electric dipole interactions is discussed theoretically. This study is motivated by recent reports on electrorheological dusty plasmas (e.g. Ivlev et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 095003) where the dipole interaction arises due to an external uniaxial AC electric field that distorts the Debye sphere surrounding each grain. Application to possible dusty plasma experimental parameters is discussed.

  2. Nonreciprocity of edge modes in 1D magnonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenkov, I.; Kalyabin, D.; Osokin, S.; Klos, J. W.; Krawczyk, M.; Nikitov, S.

    2015-03-01

    Spin waves propagation in 1D magnonic crystals is investigated theoretically. Mathematical model based on plane wave expansion method is applied to different types of magnonic crystals, namely bi-component magnonic crystal with symmetric/asymmetric boundaries and ferromagnetic film with periodically corrugated top surface. It is shown that edge modes in magnonic crystals may exhibit nonreciprocal behaviour at much lower frequencies than in homogeneous films.

  3. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was <1% of that from flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It

  4. Manganese Nanostructures and Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simov, Kirie Rangelov

    The primary goal of this study is to incorporate adatoms with large magnetic moment, such as Mn, into two technologically significant group IV semiconductor (SC) matrices, e.g. Si and Ge. For the first time in the world, we experimentally demonstrate Mn doping by embedding nanostructured thin layers, i.e. delta-doping. The growth is observed by in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), which combines topographic and electronic information in a single image. We investigate the initial stages of Mn monolayer growth on a Si(100)(2x1) surface reconstruction, develop methods for classification of nanostructure types for a range of surface defect concentrations (1.0 to 18.2%), and subsequently encapsulate the thin Mn layer in a SC matrix. These experiments are instrumental in generating a surface processing diagram for self-assembly of monoatomic Mn-wires. The role of surface vacancies has also been studied by kinetic Monte Carlo modeling and the experimental observations are compared with the simulation results, leading to the conclusion that Si(100)(2x1) vacancies serve as nucleation centers in the Mn-Si system. Oxide formation, which happens readily in air, is detrimental to ferromagnetism and lessens the magnetic properties of the nanostructures. Therefore, the protective SC cap, composed of either Si or Ge, serves a dual purpose: it is both the embedding matrix for the Mn nanostructured thin film and a protective agent for oxidation. STM observations of partially deposited caps ensure that the nanostructures remain intact during growth. Lastly, the relationship between magnetism and nanostructure types is established by an in-depth study using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). This sensitive method detects signals even at coverages less than one atomic layer of Mn. XMCD is capable of discerning which chemical compounds contribute to the magnetic moment of the system, and provides a ratio between the orbital and spin contributions. Depending on the amount

  5. Constructing 3D interaction maps from 1D epigenomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun; Chen, Zhao; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Mengchi; Medovoy, David; Whitaker, John W.; Ding, Bo; Li, Nan; Zheng, Lina; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The human genome is tightly packaged into chromatin whose functional output depends on both one-dimensional (1D) local chromatin states and three-dimensional (3D) genome organization. Currently, chromatin modifications and 3D genome organization are measured by distinct assays. An emerging question is whether it is possible to deduce 3D interactions by integrative analysis of 1D epigenomic data and associate 3D contacts to functionality of the interacting loci. Here we present EpiTensor, an algorithm to identify 3D spatial associations within topologically associating domains (TADs) from 1D maps of histone modifications, chromatin accessibility and RNA-seq. We demonstrate that active promoter–promoter, promoter–enhancer and enhancer–enhancer associations identified by EpiTensor are highly concordant with those detected by Hi-C, ChIA-PET and eQTL analyses at 200 bp resolution. Moreover, EpiTensor has identified a set of interaction hotspots, characterized by higher chromatin and transcriptional activity as well as enriched TF and ncRNA binding across diverse cell types, which may be critical for stabilizing the local 3D interactions. PMID:26960733

  6. Development of 1D Liner Compression Code for IDL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    A 1D liner compression code is developed to model liner implosion dynamics in the Inductively Driven Liner Experiment (IDL) where FRC plasmoid is compressed via inductively-driven metal liners. The driver circuit, magnetic field, joule heating, and liner dynamics calculations are performed at each time step in sequence to couple these effects in the code. To obtain more realistic magnetic field results for a given drive coil geometry, 2D and 3D effects are incorporated into the 1D field calculation through use of correction factor table lookup approach. Commercial low-frequency electromagnetic fields solver, ANSYS Maxwell 3D, is used to solve the magnetic field profile for static liner condition at various liner radius in order to derive correction factors for the 1D field calculation in the code. The liner dynamics results from the code is verified to be in good agreement with the results from commercial explicit dynamics solver, ANSYS Explicit Dynamics, and previous liner experiment. The developed code is used to optimize the capacitor bank and driver coil design for better energy transfer and coupling. FRC gain calculations are also performed using the liner compression data from the code for the conceptual design of the reactor sized system for fusion energy gains.

  7. Examining Prebiotic Chemistry Using O(^1D) Insertion Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Brian M.; Laas, Jacob C.; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus

    2013-06-01

    Aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol are all prebiotic molecules expected to form via photo-driven grain surface chemistry in the interstellar medium (ISM). These molecules are expected to be precursors for larger, biologically-relevant molecules in the ISM such as sugars and amino acids. These three molecules have not yet been detected in the ISM because of the lack of available rotational spectra. A high resolution (sub)millimeter spectrometer coupled to a molecular source is being used to study these molecules using O(^1D) insertion reactions. The O(^1D) chemistry is initiated using an excimer laser, and the products of the insertion reactions are adiabatically cooled using a supersonic expansion. Experimental parameters are being optimized by examination of methanol formed from O(^1D) insertion into methane. Theoretical studies of the structure and reaction energies for aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol have been conducted to guide the laboratory studies once the methanol experiment has been optimized. The results of the calculations and initial experimental results will be presented.

  8. BI Reporting, Data Warehouse Systems, and Beyond. CDS Spotlight Report. Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Leah; Pirani, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This Spotlight focuses on data from the 2013 Core Data Service [CDS] to better understand how higher education institutions approach business intelligence (BI) reporting and data warehouse systems (see the Sidebar for definitions). Information provided for this Spotlight was derived from Module 8 of CDS, which contains several questions regarding…

  9. Surface modification of CdS quantum dots using thiols—structural and photophysical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangadurai, P.; Balaji, S.; Manoharan, P. T.

    2008-10-01

    This study is aimed at identifying a suitable organic thiol for CdS by studying its structural, thermal and photophysical characteristics. Quantum dots of the II-VI semiconductor CdS, in the size regime of 2.0-3.3 nm, were prepared in the cubic phase by a wet chemical method. Five organic thiols were used for capping: (i) 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT), (ii) 2-mercaptoethanol (ME), (iii) cysteine (Cys), (iv) methionine (Meth), and (v) glutathione (GSH). Structural studies were carried out by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed the cubic phase of CdS. Optical properties were studied by FT-IR, UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques, and a comparison was made between uncapped and capped CdS. FT-IR studies suggested two different bonding mechanisms of the capping agents with the CdS. GSH and DTT capped CdS showed significant decrease in absorption wavelengths. An increase in band gap was observed in two cases: when (i) capped and (ii) decreased in size. The band gap was increased from 2.50 eV for the uncapped to 2.77 eV for the DTT capped CdS. DTT was found to be the best capping agent for CdS among these five organic thiols in two aspects: (i) yielding lower grain size in cubic phase, and (ii) good fluorescence properties with efficient quenching of the surface traps.

  10. White luminescence from CdS nanocrystals under the blue light excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Xiaosong Li, Lan; Li, Mengzhen; Xu, Jianping; Hong, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Trap-rich CdS nanocrystals were synthesized by employing CdSt{sub 2} and sulfur as precursors via thermal decomposition. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize structure, morphology and luminescence properties of CdS nanocrystals (NCs). CdS NCs have a broad emission across 500–700 nm under the excitation of blue light with 460 nm, consequently, white light can be produced by mixing broad emission from CdS NCs excited by blue light, with the remaining blue light. In addition, the broad emission generation is closely and inseparably related to surface defects. Moreover, LaMer model was used to explain the phenomenon that the intensity of the trap emission gradually decreases as the reaction time increases in contrast with that of the band-edge emission. - Graphical abstract: Trap-rich CdS nanocrystals were synthesized. Furthermore, white light is produced by mixing broad emission across 500–700 nm from CdS NCs excited by blue light, in combination with the remaining blue light. - Highlights: • Trap-rich CdS nanocrystals were synthesized. • CdS NCs have a broad emission across 500–700 nm under the excitation of blue light. • White light can be produced by mixing broad emission with the remaining blue light.

  11. The Financial Management System: A Pivotal Tool for Fiscal Viability. CDS Spotlight. ECAR Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Leah; Pirani, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This spotlight focuses on data from the 2013 CDS to better understand how higher education institutions approach financial management systems. Information provided for this spotlight was derived from Module 8 of Core Data Service (CDS), which asked several questions regarding information systems and applications. Responses from 525 institutions…

  12. A new synthesis strategy for chiral CdS nanotubes based on a homochiral MOF template.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Xuan; Ma, Yu; Zhang, Caiyun; Su, Hao; Zhang, Jine; Tang, Bo

    2015-04-01

    We describe for the first time a convenient technique to prepare helical CdS nanotubes, with a MOF as the template. The prepared helical CdS nanotubes were remarkably sensitive to D/L-aspartic acid (Asp) and can be used as a potential sensor for enantioselective recognition of D/L-Asp. PMID:25735867

  13. The Ever-Present Demand for Public Computing Resources. CDS Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirani, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This Core Data Service (CDS) Spotlight focuses on public computing resources, including lab/cluster workstations in buildings, virtual lab/cluster workstations, kiosks, laptop and tablet checkout programs, and workstation access in unscheduled classrooms. The findings are derived from 758 CDS 2012 participating institutions. A dataset of 529…

  14. Mechanistic aspects of biogenic synthesis of CdS nanoparticles using Bacillus licheniformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. M.; Singh Bhadwal, Akhshay; Singh, Priti; Shrivastav, Archana; Singh, M. P.; Shrivastav, B. R.

    2014-06-01

    A novel eco-friendly effort has been made for the synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles using bacterial biomass. Although some articles have been reported on CdS nanoparticles synthesis by bacteria, here we have synthesized CdS nanoparticles using non-pathogenic bacteria Bacillus licheniformis MTCC 9555. UV-Vis spectroscopy was carried out to confirm the formation of CdS nanoparticles; the peak occurring at 368 nm gives the indication of synthesis of CdS nanoparticles. The size and morphology of the synthesized CdS nanoparticles were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the nanoparticles are found to have a narrow size of 5.1 ± 0.5 nm with spherical morphology. Further, the nanoparticles were examined by energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy to identify the presence of elements and confirmed the existence of Cd and S in single nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis exhibited 2θ values corresponding to CdS nanocrystals. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) provides the evidence for the presence of proteins as possible biomolecules responsible for the stabilization of the synthesized CdS nanoparticles.

  15. Preparation of CdS Nanoparticles by First-Year Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Noviello, Thomas; Brooks, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The first year undergraduates use a simple method to synthesize 5-nm CdS nanoparticles in a water-in-oil microemulsion. The quantum size effect, the relationship between colors, optical absorbance, band-gap energy and the CdS particles affected by the formation of micelles are observed.

  16. Isolation and characterization of murine Cds (CDP-diacylglycerol synthase) 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Inglis-Broadgate, Suzanne L; Ocaka, Louise; Banerjee, Ruby; Gaasenbeek, Michelle; Chapple, J Paul; Cheetham, Michael E; Clark, Brian J; Hunt, David M; Halford, Stephanie

    2005-08-15

    Phototransduction in Drosophila is a phosphoinositide-mediated signalling pathway. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) plays a central role in this process, and its levels are tightly regulated. A photoreceptor-specific form of the enzyme CDP-diacylglycerol synthase (CDS), which catalyzes the formation of CDP-diacylglycerol from phosphatidic acid, is a key regulator of the amount of PIP2 available for signalling. cds mutants develop light-induced retinal degeneration. We report here the isolation and characterization of two murine genes encoding this enzyme, Cds1 and Cds2. The genes encode proteins that are 73% identical and 92% similar but exhibit very different expression patterns. Cds1 shows a very restricted expression pattern but is expressed in the inner segments of the photoreceptors whilst Cds2 shows a ubiquitous pattern of expression. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization we have mapped Cds1 and Cds2 to chromosomes 5E3 and 2G1 respectively. These are regions of synteny with the corresponding human gene localization (4q21 and 20p13). Transient transfection experiments with epitope tagged proteins have also demonstrated that both are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:16023307

  17. Optical dimensional metrology at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) on deep sub-wavelength nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodermann, B.; Ehret, G.; Endres, J.; Wurm, M.

    2016-06-01

    The dark-field microscopy method with alternating grazing incidence UV illumination (UV-AGID) developed at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt offers the possibility of measuring individual isolated line structures with linewidths down to the sub-wavelength regime. In contrast, scatterometry is able and already widely used to measure average dimensional parameters of periodic structures down to the deep sub-wavelength regime. Both methods can be used for dimensional measurements of micro- and nanostructures, in particular the critical dimensions (CDs) on wafers or photomasks in the semiconductor industry, complementing each other favourably. Based on numerical simulations, we have investigated the ultimate limits of these two methods in the deep sub-wavelength regime. It has been shown that AGID microscopy in the DUV spectral range is in principle capable of measuring line structures with CDs down to a few 10 nm, depending on the structure material. For scatterometry, no fundamental limit has been observed. In practice, a technical limit due to the limited signal-to-noise ratio is expected for CDs of a few nm in width.

  18. Effect of photoanode surface coverage by a sensitizer on the photovoltaic performance of titania based CdS quantum dot sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Prasad M B, Rajendra; Pathan, Habib M

    2016-04-01

    In spite of the promising design and architecture, quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) have a long way to go before they attain the actual projected photoconversion efficiencies. Such an inferior performance displayed by QDSSCs is primarily because of many unwanted recombination losses of charge carriers at various interfaces of the cell. Electron recombination due to back electron transfer at the photoanode/electrolyte interface is an important one that needs to be addressed, to improve the efficiency of these third generation nanostructured solar cells. The present work highlights the importance of conformal coverage of CdS quantum dots (QDs) on the surface of the nanocrystalline titania photoanode in arresting such recombinations, leading to improvement in the performance of the cells. Using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process, photoanodes are subjected to different amounts of CdS QD sensitization by varying the number of cycles of deposition. The sensitized electrodes are characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and transmission electron microscopy to evaluate the extent of surface coverage of titania electrodes by QDs. Sandwich solar cells are then fabricated using these electrodes and characterized employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and J-V characteristics. It is observed that maximum solar cell efficiency is obtained for photoanodes with conformal coating of QDs and any further deposition of sensitizer leads to QD aggregation and so reduces the performance of the solar cells. PMID:26916535

  19. Low-dimensional hyperthin FeS2 nanostructures for efficient and stable hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jasion, Daniel; Qiao, Qiao; Barforoush, Joseph M.; Zhu, Yimei; Ren, Shenqiang; Leonard, Kevin C.

    2015-10-05

    We report a scalable, solution-processing method for synthesizing low-dimensional hyperthin FeS2 nanostructures, and we show that 2D FeS2 disc nanostructures are an efficient and stable hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst. By changing the Fe:S ratio in the precursor solution, we were able to preferentially synthesize either 1D wire or 2D disc nanostructures. The 2D FeS2 disc structure has the highest electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction, comparable to platinum in neutral pH conditions. Moreover, the ability of the FeS2 nanostructures to generate hydrogen was confirmed by scanning electrochemical microscopy, and the 2D disc nanostructures were able to generate hydrogen for over 125 h.

  20. Low-Cost Copper Nanostructures Impart High Efficiencies to Quantum Dot Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Naresh; Deepa, Melepurath; Ghosal, Partha

    2015-06-24

    Quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) were fabricated using low-cost Cu nanostructures and a carbon fabric as a counter electrode for the first time. Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and nanoneedles (NNs) with a face-centered cubic structure were synthesized by a hydrothermal method and electrophoretically deposited over a CdS QD sensitized titania (TiO2) electrode. Compared to Cu NPs, which increase the light absorption of a TiO2/CdS photoanode via scattering effects only in the visible region, Cu NNs are more effective for efficient far-field light scattering; they enhance the light absorption of the TiO2/CdS assembly beyond the visible to near-infrared (NIR) regions as well. The highest fluorescence quenching, lowest excited electron lifetime, and a large surface potential (deduced from Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM)) observed for the TiO2/CdS/Cu NN electrode compared to TiO2/CdS and TiO2/CdS/Cu NP electrodes confirm that Cu NNs also facilitate charge transport. KPFM studies also revealed a larger shift of the apparent Fermi level to more negative potentials in the TiO2/CdS/Cu NN electrode, compared to the other two electrodes (versus NHE), which results in a higher open-circuit voltage for the Cu NN based electrode. The best performing QDSC based on the TiO2/CdS/Cu NN electrode delivers a stellar power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.36%, greater by 56.8% and 32.1% than the PCEs produced by the cells based on TiO2/CdS and TiO2/CdS/Cu NPs, respectively. A maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 58% obtained for the cell with the TiO2/CdS/Cu NN electrode and a finite EQE in the NIR region which the other two cells do not deliver are clear indicators of the enormous promise this cheap, earth-abundant Cu nanostructure holds for amplifying the solar cell response in both the visible and near-infrared regions through scattering enhancements. PMID:26000891

  1. Optical properties of colloidal aqueous synthesized 3 mercaptopropionic acid stabilized CdS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumanth Kumar, D.; Jai Kumar, B.; Mahesh H., M.

    2016-05-01

    We have explored an easiest and simplest aqueous route to synthesize bright green luminescent CdS QDs using 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a stabilizer in air ambient for solar cell applications. The CdS quantum dots showed a strong quantum confinement effect with good stability, size and excellent photoluminescence. MPA Capping on CdS QDs was confirmed through FTIR. The Optical absorption spectrum revealed the CdS quantum dots are highly transparent in the visible region with absorption peak at 380 nm, confirming the quantum confinement. Photoluminescence showed an emission peak at 525 nm wavelength. The optical band gap energy was found to be 3.19 eV and CdS quantum dots radius calculated using Brus equation is 1.5 nm. The results are presented and discussed in detail.

  2. Mesoporous structured MIPs@CDs fluorescence sensor for highly sensitive detection of TNT.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shoufang; Lu, Hongzhi

    2016-11-15

    A facile strategy was developed to prepare mesoporous structured molecularly imprinted polymers capped carbon dots (M-MIPs@CDs) fluorescence sensor for highly sensitive and selective determination of TNT. The strategy using amino-CDs directly as "functional monomer" for imprinting simplify the imprinting process and provide well recognition sites accessibility. The as-prepared M-MIPs@CDs sensor, using periodic mesoporous silica as imprinting matrix, and amino-CDs directly as "functional monomer", exhibited excellent selectivity and sensitivity toward TNT with detection limit of 17nM. The recycling process was sustainable for 10 times without obvious efficiency decrease. The feasibility of the developed method in real samples was successfully evaluated through the analysis of TNT in soil and water samples with satisfactory recoveries of 88.6-95.7%. The method proposed in this work was proved to be a convenient and practical way to prepare high sensitive and selective fluorescence MIPs@CDs sensors. PMID:27315521

  3. A biocatalytic approach towards synthesis of polymer CdS nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Premchandran, R.; Baumgartner, T.

    1996-10-01

    Copolymers of hydroxythiophenol and ethylphenol have been prepared using a biocatalytic route. Specifically, the method utilizes an oxidative enzyme, horseradish peroxidase, solubilized within the aqueous phase of a AOT/isooctane microemulsion. The monomers are oil soluble and are thus present in the organic phase. High conversions are obtained upto 1:1 molar ratio of the two monomers. The resulting polymers have the overall morphology of interconnected submicron spheres and are soluble in common organic solvents. Following their synthesis these copolymers have been derivatized by attaching Q-sized CdS particles. Though the copolymer itself is nonfluorescent, the CdS nanoclusters within it can be selectively excited and made to fluoresce. The fluorescent properties of the polymer CdS composite are distinctive from underivatized CdS or hydroxythiophenol monomer capped CdS.

  4. Planar plasmonic chiral nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zu, Shuai; Bao, Yanjun; Fang, Zheyu

    2016-02-21

    A strong chiral optical response induced at a plasmonic Fano resonance in a planar Au heptamer nanostructure was experimentally and theoretically demonstrated. The scattering spectra show the characteristic narrow-band feature of Fano resonances for both left and right circular polarized lights, with a chiral response reaching 30% at the Fano resonance. Specifically, we systematically investigate the chiral response of planar heptamers with gradually changing the inter-particle rotation angles and separation distance. The chiral spectral characteristics clearly depend on the strength of Fano resonances and the associated near-field optical distributions. Finite element method simulations together with a multipole expansion method demonstrate that the enhanced chirality is caused by the excitation of magnetic quadrupolar and electric toroidal dipolar modes. Our work provides an effective method for the design of 2D nanostructures with a strong chiral response. PMID:26818746

  5. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi

    2013-04-01

    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. PMID:23325336

  6. Two-dimensional nanostructure-reinforced biodegradable polymeric nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Gaurav; Henslee, Allan M; Farshid, Behzad; Lin, Liangjun; Kasper, F Kurtis; Qin, Yi-Xian; Mikos, Antonios G; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2013-03-11

    This study investigates the efficacy of two-dimensional (2D) carbon and inorganic nanostructures as reinforcing agents for cross-linked composites of the biodegradable and biocompatible polymer polypropylene fumarate (PPF) as a function of nanostructure concentration. PPF composites were reinforced using various 2D nanostructures: single- and multiwalled graphene oxide nanoribbons (SWGONRs, MWGONRs), graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs), and molybdenum disulfide nanoplatelets (MSNPs) at 0.01-0.2 weight% concentrations. Cross-linked PPF was used as the baseline control, and PPF composites reinforced with single- or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, MWCNTs) were used as positive controls. Compression and flexural testing show a significant enhancement (i.e., compressive modulus = 35-108%, compressive yield strength = 26-93%, flexural modulus = 15-53%, and flexural yield strength = 101-262% greater than the baseline control) in the mechanical properties of the 2D-reinforced PPF nanocomposites. MSNP nanocomposites consistently showed the highest values among the experimental or control groups in all the mechanical measurements. In general, the inorganic nanoparticle MSNP showed a better or equivalent mechanical reinforcement compared to carbon nanomaterials, and 2D nanostructures (GONPs, MSNPs) are better reinforcing agents compared to one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures (e.g., SWCNTs). The results also indicated that the extent of mechanical reinforcement is closely dependent on the nanostructure morphology and follows the trend nanoplatelets > nanoribbons > nanotubes. Transmission electron microscopy of the cross-linked nanocomposites indicated good dispersion of nanomaterials in the polymer matrix without the use of a surfactant. The sol-fraction analysis showed significant changes in the polymer cross-linking in the presence of MSNP (0.01-0.2 wt %) and higher loading concentrations of GONP and MWGONR (0.1-0.2 wt %). The analysis of surface area and aspect ratio

  7. Two-Dimensional Nanostructure- Reinforced Biodegradable Polymeric Nanocomposites for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lalwani, Gaurav; Henslee, Allan M.; Farshid, Behzad; Lin, Liangjun; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Qin, Yi-Xian; Mikos, Antonios G.; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of two dimensional (2D) carbon and inorganic nanostructures as reinforcing agents of crosslinked composites of the biodegradable and biocompatible polymer polypropylene fumarate (PPF) as a function of nanostructure concentration. PPF composites were reinforced using various 2D nanostructures: single- and multi-walled graphene oxide nanoribbons (SWGONRs, MWGONRs), graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs), and molybdenum di-sulfite nanoplatelets (MSNPs) at 0.01–0.2 weight% concentrations. Cross-linked PPF was used as the baseline control, and PPF composites reinforced with single- or multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT, MWCNT) were used as positive controls. Compression and flexural testing show a significant enhancement (i.e., compressive modulus = 35–108%, compressive yield strength = 26–93%, flexural modulus = 15–53%, and flexural yield strength = 101–262% greater than the baseline control) in the mechanical properties of the 2D-reinforced PPF nanocomposites. MSNPs nanocomposites consistently showed the highest values among the experimental or control groups in all the mechanical measurements. In general, the inorganic nanoparticle MSNPs showed a better or equivalent mechanical reinforcement compared to carbon nanomaterials, and 2-D nanostructures (GONP, MSNP) are better reinforcing agents compared to 1-D nanostructures (e.g. SWCNTs). The results also indicate that the extent of mechanical reinforcement is closely dependent on the nanostructure morphology and follows the trend nanoplatelets > nanoribbons > nanotubes. Transmission electron microscopy of the cross-linked nanocomposites indicates good dispersion of nanomaterials in the polymer matrix without the use of a surfactant. The sol-fraction analysis showed significant changes in the polymer cross-linking in the presence of MSNP (0.01–0.2 wt %) and higher loading concentrations of GONP and MWGONR (0.1–0.2 wt%). The analysis of surface area and aspect ratio of

  8. One-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures prepared by spray-pyrolysis-assisted thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Cai, Wei

    2008-03-01

    One-dimensional (1D) and quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures have been fabricated by a kind of new spray-pyrolysis-assisted thermal evaporation method. Pure ZnO powder serves as an evaporation source. Thus-obtained products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM). The room temperature photoluminescence spectrum of these ZnO nanostructures is presented. The results show that as-grown ZnO nanomaterials have a hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure. Besides nanosaws, nanobelts and nanowires, complex ZnO nanotrees have also been observed in synthesized products. The study provides a new simple route to construct 1D and quasi-1D ZnO nanomaterials, which can probably be extended to fabricate other oxide nanomaterials with high melting point and doped oxide nanomaterials.

  9. Bismuth telluride nanostructures: preparation, thermoelectric properties and topological insulating effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashalley, Eric; Chen, Haiyuan; Tong, Xin; Li, Handong; Wang, Zhiming M.

    2015-05-01

    Bismuth telluride is known to wield unique properties for a wide range of device applications. However, as devices migrate to the nanometer scale, significant amount of studies are being conducted to keep up with the rapidly growing nanotechnological field. Bi2Te3 possesses distinctive properties at the nanometer level from its bulk material. Therefore, varying synthesis and characterization techniques are being employed for the realization of various Bi2Te3 nanostructures in the past years. A considerable number of these works have aimed at improving the thermoelectric (TE) figure-of-merit (ZT) of the Bi2Te3 nanostructures and drawing from their topological insulating properties. This paper reviews the various Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te3-based nanostructures realized via theoretical and experimental procedures. The study probes the preparation techniques, TE properties and the topological insulating effects of 0D, 1D, 2D and Bi2Te3 nanocomposites. With several applications as a topological insulator (TI), the topological insulating effect of the Bi2Te3 is reviewed in detail with the time reversal symmetry (TRS) and surface state spins which characterize TIs. Schematics and preparation methods for the various nanostructural dimensions are accordingly categorized.

  10. Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that deals with the nanostructured superhydrophobic (SH) powders developed at ORNL. This project seeks to (1) improve powder quality; (2) identify binders for plastics, fiberglass, metal (steel being the first priority), wood, and other products such as rubber and shingles; (3) test the coated product for coating quality and durability under operating conditions; and (4) application testing and production of powders in quantity.

  11. Pickled luminescent silicon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukherroub, R.; Morin, S.; Wayner, D. D. M.; Lockwood, D. J.

    2001-05-01

    In freshly prepared porous Si, the newly exposed silicon-nanostructure surface is protected with a monolayer of hydrogen, which is very reactive and oxidizes in air leading to a loss of luminescence intensity and a degradation of the electronic properties. We report a surface passivation approach based on organic modification that stabilizes the luminescence. This novel 'pickling' process not only augments the desired optoelectronic properties, but also is adaptable to further chemical modification for integration into chemical and biophysical sensors.

  12. NANOSTRUCTURE PATTERNING UNDER ENERGETIC PARTICLE BEAM IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lumin; Lu, Wei

    2013-01-31

    Energetic ion bombardment can lead to the development of complex and diverse nanostructures on or beneath the material surface through induced self-organization processes. These self-organized structures have received particular interest recently as promising candidates as simple, inexpensive, and large area patterns, whose optical, electronic and magnetic properties are different from those in the bulk materials [1-5]. Compared to the low mass efficiency production rate of lithographic methods, these self-organized approaches display new routes for the fabrication of nanostructures over large areas in a short processing time at the nanoscale, beyond the limits of lithography [1,4]. Although it is believed that surface nanostructure formation is based on the morphological instability of the sputtered surface, driven by a kinetic balance between roughening and smoothing actions [6,7], the fundamental mechanisms and experimental conditions for the formation of these nanostructures has still not been well established, the formation of the 3-D naopatterns beneath the irradiated surface especially needs more exploration. During the last funding period, we have focused our efforts on irradiation-induced nanostructures in a broad range of materials. These structures have been studied primarily through in situ electron microscopy during electron or ion irradiation. In particular, we have performed studies on 3-D void/bubble lattices (in metals and CaF2), embedded sponge-like porous structure with uniform nanofibers in irradiated semiconductors (Ge, GaSb, and InSb), 2-D highly ordered pattern of nanodroplets (on the surface of GaAs), hexagonally ordered nanoholes (on the surface of Ge), and 1-D highly ordered ripple and periodic arrays (of Cu nanoparticles) [3,8-11]. The amazing common feature in those nanopatterns is the uniformity of the size of nanoelements (nanoripples, nanodots, nanovoids or nanofibers) and the distance separating them. Our research focuses on the

  13. High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrode Based on Cobalt Oxide-Manganese Dioxide-Nickel Oxide Ternary 1D Hybrid Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashutosh K; Sarkar, Debasish; Karmakar, Keshab; Mandal, Kalyan; Khan, Gobinda Gopal

    2016-08-17

    We report a facile method to design Co3O4-MnO2-NiO ternary hybrid 1D nanotube arrays for their application as active material for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This as-prepared novel supercapacitor electrode can store charge as high as ∼2020 C/g (equivalent specific capacitance ∼2525 F/g) for a potential window of 0.8 V and has long cycle stability (nearly 80% specific capacitance retains after successive 5700 charge/discharge cycles), significantly high Coulombic efficiency, and fast response time (∼0.17s). The remarkable electrochemical performance of this unique electrode material is the outcome of its enormous reaction platform provided by its special nanostructure morphology and conglomeration of the electrochemical properties of three highly redox active materials in a single unit. PMID:27430868

  14. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-02-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was <1% of that from flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies. PMID:26648134

  15. A novel ozone gas sensor based on one-dimensional (1D) α-Ag₂WO₄ nanostructures.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luís F; Catto, Ariadne C; Avansi, Waldir; Cavalcante, Laécio S; Andrés, Juan; Aguir, Khalifa; Mastelaro, Valmor R; Longo, Elson

    2014-04-21

    This paper reports on a new ozone gas sensor based on α-Ag₂WO₄ nanorod-like structures. Electrical resistance measurements proved the efficiency of α-Ag₂WO₄ nanorods, which rendered good sensitivity even for a low ozone concentration (80 ppb), a fast response and a short recovery time at 300 °C, demonstrating great potential for a variety of applications. PMID:24609437

  16. Coherent control near metallic nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Efimov, Ilya; Efimov, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    We study coherent control in the vicinity of metallic nanostructures. Unlike in the case of control in gas or liquid phase, the collective response of electrons in a metallic nanostructure can significantly enhance different frequency components of the control field. This enhancement strongly depends on the geometry of the nanostructure and can substantially modify the temporal profile of the local control field. The changes in the amplitude and phase of the control field near the nanostructure are studied using linear response theory. The inverse problem of finding the external electromagnetic field to generate the desired local control field is considered and solved.

  17. Self-assembling endohedrally doped CdS nanoclusters: new porous solid phases of CdS.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Izal, Elisa; Matxain, Jon M; Piris, Mario; Ugalde, Jesus M

    2012-07-21

    Hollow CdS nanoclusters were predicted to trap alkali metals and halogen atoms inside their cavity. Furthermore, electron affinities (EA) of endohedrally halogen doped clusters and ionization potentials (IE) of endohedrally alkali doped clusters were predicted to be very similar. This makes them suitable to build cluster-assembled materials, in the same vein as do related ZnO, ZnS and MgO nanoclusters, which yield porous solid materials. With this aim in mind, we have focused on the assembly of bare Cd(i)S(i) and endohedral K@Cd(i)S(i)-X@Cd(i)S(i) (i = 12, 16, X = Cl, Br) clusters in order to obtain solids with tailored semiconducting and structural properties. Since these hollow nanoclusters possess square and hexagonal faces, three different orientations have to be considered, namely, edge-to-edge (E-E), square-to-square (S-S) and hexagon-to-hexagon (H-H). These three orientations lead to distinct zeolite-like nanoporous bulk CdS solid phases denoted as SOD, LTA and FAU. These solids are low-density crystalline nanoporous materials that might be useful in a wide range of applications ranging from molecular sieves for heterogeneous catalysis to gas storage templates. PMID:22684728

  18. nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashad, M. M.; Shalan, A. E.

    2014-08-01

    Hierarchical architectures consisting of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures are of great interest for potential use in energy and environmental applications in recent years. In this work, hierarchical tungsten oxide (WO3) has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route from ammonium metatungstate hydrate and implemented as photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The urchin-like WO3 micro-patterns are constructed by self-organized nanoscale length 1D building blocks, which are single crystalline in nature, grown along (001) direction and confirm an orthorhombic crystal phase. The obtained powders were investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on WO3 photoanodes was investigated. With increasing the calcination temperature of the prepared nanopowders, the light-electricity conversion efficiency ( η) was increased. The results were attributed to increase the crystallinity of the particles and ease of electron movement. The DSSC based on hierarchical WO3 showed a short-circuit current, an open-circuit voltage, a fill factor, and a conversion efficiency of 4.241 mA/cm2, 0.656 V, 66.74, and 1.85 %, respectively.

  19. Tailoring properties and functionalities of nanostructures through compositions, components and morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Lin

    The field of nanoscience and nanotechnology has made significant progresses over the last thirty years. Sophisticated nanostructures with tunable properties for novel physics and applications have been successfully fabricated, characterized and underwent practical test. In this thesis, I will focus on our recent efforts to develop new strategies to manipulate the properties of nanostructures. Particularly, three questions have been answered from our perspective, based on the nanomaterials synthesized: (1) How does the composition affect a novel nanostructure? We started from single-molecule precursors to reach nanostructures whose bulk counterparts only exist under extreme conditions. Fe3S and Fe3S2 are used as examples to demonstrate this synthetic strategy. Their potential magnetic properties have been measured, which may lead to interesting findings in astronomy and materials science. (2) How to achieve modularity control at nanoscale by a general bottom-up approach? Starting with reviewing the current status of this field, our recent experimental progresses towards delicate modularity control are presented by abundant novel heteronanostructures. An interesting catalytic mechanism of these nanostructures has also been verified, which involves the interaction between phonons, photons, plasmons, and excitons. (3) What can the morphology difference tell us about the inside of nanostructures? By comparing a series of data from three types of CdSe/CdS core-shell structures, a conclusion has been reached on the CdS growth mechanism on CdSe under different conditions, which also may lead to a solution to the asymmetry problem in the synthesis of CdSe/CdS nanorods. Finally this thesis is concluded by a summary and future outlook.

  20. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms (NPO-30232) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 10a. A photonic crystal is an optical component that has a periodic structure comprising two dielectric materials with high dielectric contrast (e.g., a semiconductor and air), with geometrical feature sizes comparable to or smaller than light wavelengths of interest. Experimental superprisms have been realized as photonic crystals having three-dimensional (3D) structures comprising regions of amorphous Si alternating with regions of SiO2, fabricated in a complex process that included sputtering. A photonic crystal of the type to be exploited according to the present proposal is said to be one-dimensional (1D) because its contrasting dielectric materials would be stacked in parallel planar layers; in other words, there would be spatial periodicity in one dimension only. The processes of designing and fabricating 1D photonic crystal superprisms would be simpler and, hence, would cost less than do those for 3D photonic crystal superprisms. As in 3D structures, 1D photonic crystals may be used in applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing. In the extended-range configuration, it is also suitable for spectrometry applications. As an engineered structure or artificially engineered material, a photonic crystal can exhibit optical properties not commonly found in natural substances. Prior research had revealed several classes of photonic crystal structures for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden in certain frequency ranges, denoted photonic bandgaps. It had also been found that in narrow frequency bands just outside the photonic bandgaps, the angular wavelength dispersion of electromagnetic waves propagating in photonic crystal superprisms is much stronger than is the angular wavelength dispersion obtained

  1. Non-linearity in Bayesian 1-D magnetotelluric inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rongwen; Dosso, Stan E.; Liu, Jianxin; Dettmer, Jan; Tong, Xiaozhong

    2011-05-01

    This paper applies a Bayesian approach to examine non-linearity for the 1-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse problem. In a Bayesian formulation the posterior probability density (PPD), which combines data and prior information, is interpreted in terms of parameter estimates and uncertainties, which requires optimizing and integrating the PPD. Much work on 1-D MT inversion has been based on (approximate) linearized solutions, but more recently fully non-linear (numerical) approaches have been applied. This paper directly compares results of linearized and non-linear uncertainty estimation for 1-D MT inversion; to do so, advanced methods for both approaches are applied. In the non-linear formulation used here, numerical optimization is carried out using an adaptive-hybrid algorithm. Numerical integration applies Metropolis-Hastings sampling, rotated to a principal-component parameter space for efficient sampling of correlated parameters, and employing non-unity sampling temperatures to ensure global sampling. Since appropriate model parametrizations are generally not known a priori, both under- and overparametrized approaches are considered. For underparametrization, the Bayesian information criterion is applied to determine the number of layers consistent with the resolving power of the data. For overparametrization, prior information is included which favours simple structure in a manner similar to regularized inversion. The data variance and/or trade-off parameter regulating data and prior information are treated in several ways, including applying fixed optimal estimates (an empirical Bayesian approach) or including them as hyperparameters in the sampling (hierarchical Bayesian). The latter approach has the benefit of accounting for the uncertainty in the hyperparameters in estimating model parameter uncertainties. Non-linear and linearized inversion results are compared for synthetic test cases and for the measured COPROD1 MT data by considering marginal probability

  2. Spatial coherence of polaritons in a 1D channel

    SciTech Connect

    Savenko, I. G.; Iorsh, I. V.; Kaliteevski, M. A.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2013-01-15

    We analyze time evolution of spatial coherence of a polariton ensemble in a quantum wire (1D channel) under constant uniform resonant pumping. Using the theoretical approach based on the Lindblad equation for a one-particle density matrix, which takes into account the polariton-phonon and excitonexciton interactions, we study the behavior of the first-order coherence function g{sup 1} for various pump intensities and temperatures in the range of 1-20 K. Bistability and hysteresis in the dependence of the first-order coherence function on the pump intensity is demonstrated.

  3. Structural stability of a 1D compressible viscoelastic fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Xiaokai; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with a compressible viscoelastic fluid model proposed by Öttinger. Although the model has a convex entropy, the Hessian matrix of the entropy does not symmetrize the system of first-order partial differential equations due to the non-conservative terms in the constitutive equation. We show that the corresponding 1D model is symmetrizable hyperbolic and dissipative and satisfies the Kawashima condition. Based on these, we prove the global existence of smooth solutions near equilibrium and justify the compatibility of the model with the Navier-Stokes equations.

  4. Phthalocyanine based 1D nanowires for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Rajan; Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.

    2012-06-01

    1D nanowires (NWs) of Cu (II) 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-Phthalocyanine (CuPc(OBu)8) molecule have been grown on different substrates by cost effective solution processing technique. The density of NWs is found to be strongly dependent on the concentration of solution. The possible formation mechanism of these structures is π-π interaction between phthalocyanine molecules. The improved conductivity of these NWs as compared to spin coated film indicates their potential for molecular device applications.

  5. Coherent thermal conductance of 1-D photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschikin, Maria; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2012-10-01

    We present an exact calculation of coherent thermal conductance in 1-D multilayer photonic crystals using the S-matrix method. In particular, we study the thermal conductance in a bilayer structure of Si/vacuum or Al2O3/vacuum slabs by means of the exact radiative heat flux expression. Based on the results obtained for the Al2O3/vacuum structure we show by comparison with previous works that the material losses and (localized) surface modes supported by the inner layers play a fundamental role and cannot be omitted in the definition of thermal conductance. Our results could have significant implications in the conception of efficient thermal barriers.

  6. Deconvolution/identification techniques for 1-D transient signals

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, D.M.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses a variety of nonparametric deconvolution and identification techniques that we have developed for application to 1-D transient signal problems. These methods are time-domain techniques that use direct methods for matrix inversion. Therefore, they are not appropriate for large data'' problems. These techniques involve various regularization methods and permit the use of certain kinds of a priori information in estimating the unknown. These techniques have been implemented in a package using standard FORTRAN that should make the package readily transportable to most computers. This paper is also meant to be an instruction manual for the package. 25 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Glancing angle deposited villi-like nanostructures for enhanced chemo-resistive performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Hi Gyu; Jung, Youngmo; Lee, Taikjin; Lee, Seok; Park, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Chulki; Kang, Chong-Yun

    Metal oxide nanostructures have attracted enormous attention for diverse applications such as solar cells, nanogenerators, nanolasers, optoelectronic devices and chemoresistive sensor. To achieve the enhanced electrical properties for these applications, one-dimensional (1D) metal oxide materials including nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes and nanobelts have been widely studied. However, the use of 1D nanomaterials as chemoresistive sensors is still in the beginning stage in how to integrate them. As an alternative, porous thin films based on 1D metal oxide nanostructures are considered as more desirable configuration due to their simplicity in synthesis, high reproducibility. In this study, we propose facile synthesis and self-assembled villi-like nanofingers (VLNF) WO3 thin films with large specific surface area on the SiO2/Si substrate. Room-temperature glancing angle deposition of WO3 by a simple controlling in both polar and azimuthal directions resulted in anisotropic nanostructures with large aspect ratio and porous structures with a relative surface area of 350 m2/g. Glancing angle deposited villi-like nanostructures for enhanced chemo-resistive performances.

  8. Spatially-Interactive Biomolecular Networks Organized by Nucleic Acid Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jinglin; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Conspectus Living systems have evolved a variety of nanostructures to control the molecular interactions that mediate many functions including the recognition of targets by receptors, the binding of enzymes to substrates, and the regulation of enzymatic activity. Mimicking these structures outside of the cell requires methods that offer nanoscale control over the organization of individual network components. Advances in DNA nanotechnology have enabled the design and fabrication of sophisticated one-, two- and three-dimensional (1D, 2D and 3D) nanostructures that utilize spontaneous and sequence specific DNA hybridization. Compared to other self-assembling biopolymers, DNA nanostructures offer predictable and programmable interactions, and surface features to which other nanoparticles and bio-molecules can be precisely positioned. The ability to control the spatial arrangement of the components while constructing highly-organized networks will lead to various applications of these systems. For example, DNA nanoarrays with surface displays of molecular probes can sense noncovalent hybridization interactions with DNA, RNA, and proteins and covalent chemical reactions. DNA nanostructures can also align external molecules into well-defined arrays, which may improve the resolution of many structural determination methods, such as X-ray diffraction, cryo-EM, NMR, and super-resolution fluorescence. Moreover, by constraining target entities to specific conformations, self-assembled DNA nanostructures can serve as molecular rulers to evaluate conformation-dependent activities. This Account describes the most recent advances in the DNA nanostructure directed assembly of biomolecular networks and explores the possibility of applying this technology to other fields of study. Recently, several reports have demonstrated the DNA nanostructure directed assembly of spatially-interactive biomolecular networks. For example, researchers have constructed synthetic multi-enzyme cascades

  9. MIS diode structure in As/+/ implanted CdS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchby, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Structure made by As implantation of carefully prepared high-conductivity CdS surfaces followed by Pt deposition and 450 C anneal display rectifying, although substantially different, I-V characteristics in the dark and during illumination with subband-gap light. Structures prepared in the same way on an unimplanted portion of the substrate have similar I-V characteristics, except that the forward turnover voltage for an illuminated unimplanted diode is much smaller than that for an implanted diode. It is suggested that the charge conduction in both structures is dominated by hole and/or electron tunneling through a metal-semiconductor potential barrier. The tunneling processes appear to be quite sensitive to subband-gap illumination, which causes the dramatic decreases of turnover voltages and apparent series resistances. The difference in turnover voltage appears to be caused by interface states between the Pt electrode and the implanted layer, which suggests a MIS model.

  10. Blood flow quantification using 1D CFD parameter identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosig, Richard; Kowarschik, Markus; Maday, Peter; Katouzian, Amin; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir

    2014-03-01

    Patient-specific measurements of cerebral blood flow provide valuable diagnostic information concerning cerebrovascular diseases rather than visually driven qualitative evaluation. In this paper, we present a quantitative method to estimate blood flow parameters with high temporal resolution from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) image sequences. Using a 3D DSA dataset and a 2D+t DSA sequence, the proposed algorithm employs a 1D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for estimation of time-dependent flow values along a cerebral vessel, combined with an additional Advection Diffusion Equation (ADE) for contrast agent propagation. The CFD system, followed by the ADE, is solved with a finite volume approximation, which ensures the conservation of mass. Instead of defining a new imaging protocol to obtain relevant data, our cost function optimizes the bolus arrival time (BAT) of the contrast agent in 2D+t DSA sequences. The visual determination of BAT is common clinical practice and can be easily derived from and be compared to values, generated by a 1D-CFD simulation. Using this strategy, we ensure that our proposed method fits best to clinical practice and does not require any changes to the medical work flow. Synthetic experiments show that the recovered flow estimates match the ground truth values with less than 12% error in the mean flow rates.

  11. Validation of 3D/1D Analysis of ICRF Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanesio, D.; Lancellotti, V.; Kyrytsya, V.; Maggiora, R.; Vecchi, G.; Parisot, A.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2004-11-01

    An innovative tool has been realized for the 3D/1D simulation of Ion Cyclotron Radio Frequency (ICRF), i.e. accounting for antennas in a realistic 3D geometry and with an accurate 1D plasma model. The approach to the problem is based on an integral-equation formulation for the self-consistent evaluation of the current distribution on the conductors. The environment has been subdivided in two coupled region: the plasma region and the vacuum region. The two problems are linked by means of electromagnetic current distribution on the aperture between the two regions. The plasma enters the formalism via a surface impedance matrix for this reason any plasma model can be used. The source term directly models the TEM mode of the coax feeding the antenna and the current in the coax is determined self-consistently, giving the input impedance/admittance of the antenna itself. The suite, called TOPICA, has been used in the design of various ICRF antennas and also for the performance prediction of the ALCATOR C-MOD D and E antenna. An extensive set of comparisons between measured and simulated antenna parameters during ALCATOR C-MOD operation will be presented.

  12. Engineered atom-light interactions in 1D photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Michael J.; Hung, Chen-Lung; Yu, Su-Peng; Goban, Akihisa; Muniz, Juan A.; Hood, Jonathan D.; Norte, Richard; McClung, Andrew C.; Meenehan, Sean M.; Cohen, Justin D.; Lee, Jae Hoon; Peng, Lucas; Painter, Oskar; Kimble, H. Jeff

    2014-05-01

    Nano- and microscale optical systems offer efficient and scalable quantum interfaces through enhanced atom-field coupling in both resonators and continuous waveguides. Beyond these conventional topologies, new opportunities emerge from the integration of ultracold atomic systems with nanoscale photonic crystals. One-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides can be engineered for both stable trapping configurations and strong atom-photon interactions, enabling novel cavity QED and quantum many-body systems, as well as distributed quantum networks. We present the experimental realization of such a nanophotonic quantum interface based on a nanoscale photonic crystal waveguide, demonstrating a fractional waveguide coupling of Γ1 D /Γ' of 0 . 32 +/- 0 . 08 , where Γ1 D (Γ') is the atomic emission rate into the guided (all other) mode(s). We also discuss progress towards intra-waveguide trapping of ultracold Cs. This work was supported by the IQIM, an NSF Physics Frontiers Center with support from the Moore Foundation, the DARPA ORCHID program, the AFOSR QuMPASS MURI, the DoD NSSEFF program, NSF, and the Kavli Nanoscience Institute (KNI) at Caltech.

  13. TiO{sub 2} flower-like nanostructures decorated with CdS/PbS nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Trenczek-Zajac, Anita; Kusior, Anna; Lacz, Agnieszka; Radecka, Marta; Zakrzewska, Katarzyna

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} flower-like nanostructures were prepared with the use of Ti foil and 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • QDs of CdS and PbS were deposited using the SILAR method. • The SILAR method makes it possible to control the size of QDs. • Band gap energy of CdS was found to be 2.35 eV. • Sensitization of TiO{sub 2} with CdS or PbS improves the photoelectrochemical properties. - Abstract: Flower-like nanostructures of TiO{sub 2} were prepared by immersing Ti foil in 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at 80 °C for times varying from 15 to 240 min. Upon annealing at 450 °C in an Ar atmosphere, the received amorphous samples crystallized in an anatase structure with rutile as a minority phase. SEM images revealed that partially formed flowers were present at the surface of the prepared samples as early as after 15 min of immersion. The size of the individual flowers increased from 400–800 nm after 15 min of reaction to 2.5–6.0 μm after 240 min. It was also found that surface is very rough and surface development is considerable. After 45 min of immersion, the nanoflowers were sensitized with CdS and PbS quantum dots (QDs-CdS/QDs-PbS) deposited using the SILAR method from water- and methanol-based precursor solutions at different concentrations (0.001–0.1 M). QDs-CdS crystallized in the hawleyite structure, while QDs-PbS in the galena form. SEM analysis showed the tendency of quantum dots to agglomerate at high concentrations of the precursor in water-based solutions. QDs obtained from methanol-based solutions were uniformly distributed. The produced QDs-PbS were smaller than QDs-CdS. Based on the optical reflectance spectra, the band-gap energies of TiO{sub 2} nanostructures with and without QDs were calculated to be 3.32 eV for flower-like TiO{sub 2} nanostructures and 2.35 eV for QDs-CdS. The photoelectrochemical behaviour of nanoflowers was found to improve significantly after the deposition of QDs-CdS.

  14. Raman spectroscopic studies of thin film carbon nanostructures deposited using electro deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, Saurabh; Sasi, Arshali; Jhariya, Sapna; Sasikumar, C.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work our focus is to synthesize carbon nanostructures (CNS) by electro deposition technique without using any surface pretreatment or catalyst preparation before CNS formation. The process were carried out at significantly low voltage and at low temperature as reported elsewhere. Further the samples were characterized using different characterization tools such as SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM results showed the fibres or tubular like morphology. Raman spectra shows strong finger print at 1600 cm-1 (G peak), 1350 cm-1 (D peak) along with the radial breathing mode (RBM) between 150cm-1 to 300 cm-1. This confirms the formation of tubular carbon nanostructures.

  15. Three-dimensional hyperbranched PdCu nanostructures with high electrocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bo; Li, Cuiling; Malgras, Victor; Bando, Yoshio; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-01-21

    In this study, three-dimensional (3D) PdCu alloyed nanostructures, consisting of one-dimensional (1D) branches, were successfully synthesized through a facile wet-chemical method without using any seeds or organic solvent. The success of this approach relies on the use of hydrochloric acid (HCl) to control the reduction rate, and on the presence of bromide ions (Br(-)) to selectively adsorb on certain facets of the PdCu nucleus. The as-prepared 3D PdCu nanostructures exhibit a greatly enhanced catalytic activity toward formic acid oxidation, owing to a suitable electronic landscape resulting from the alloy structure and the unique morphology. PMID:26602439

  16. Nanostructure-enhanced laser tweezers for efficient trapping and alignment of particles

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Benjamin K.; Mentele, Tim; Bachar, Stephanie; Knouf, Emily; Bendoraite, Ausra; Tewari, Muneesh; Pun, Suzie H.; Lin, Lih Y.

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a purely optical approach to trap and align particles using the interaction of polarized light with periodic nanostructures to generate enhanced trapping force. With a weakly focused laser beam, we observed efficient trapping and transportation of polystyrene beads with sizes ranging from 10 μm down to 190 nm as well as cancer cell nuclei. In addition, alignment of non-spherical dielectric particles to a 1-D periodic nanostructure was achieved with low laser intensity without attachment to birefringent crystals. Bacterial cells were trapped and aligned with incident optical intensity as low as 17 μW/μm2. PMID:20720985

  17. High aspect ratio CdS nanowires synthesized in microemulsion system

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Xun . E-mail: fuxun@qust.edu.cn; Wang Debao; Wang Jing; Shi Huaqiang; Song Caixia

    2004-10-04

    CdS nanowires with typical length more than 8 {mu}m and width of 30 nm on average have been successfully synthesized through Cd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} reacting with CS{sub 2} and ethylenediamine in microemulsion system of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SBDS). The microstructures of the as-synthesized CdS nanowires were characterized using XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and HRTEM. The possible formation mechanism was discussed. The morphologies of CdS sample strongly depend on the concentration of surfactant in solutions.

  18. Evidence of reaction rate influencing cubic and hexagonal phase formation process in CdS nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Kuldeep; Kalita, M. P. C.

    2016-05-01

    CdS nanocrystals are synthesized by co-precipitation method using 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) as capping agent. Cubic, hexagonal and their mixture are obtained by varying the ME concentration. Lower (higher) ME concentration results in cubic (hexagonal) phase. The crystallite sizes are in the range 3-7 nm. Increase in ME concentration lead to lower reaction rate between Cd2+ and S2- of the precursors, and slower reaction rate is found to favor hexagonal phase formation over the cubic one in CdS nanocrystals. Role of reaction rate in the phase formation process provides a way to synthesize CdS nanocrystals in desired crystal phase.

  19. CdS loaded on coal based activated carbon nanofibers with enhanced photocatalytic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jixi; Guo, Mingxi; Jia, Dianzeng; Song, Xianli; Tong, Fenglian

    2016-08-01

    The coal based activated carbon nanofibers (CBACFs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and acid treated coal. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles loaded on CBACFs were fabricated by solvothermal method. The obtained samples were characterized by FESEM, TEM, and XRD. The results reveal that the CdS nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed on the surfaces of CBACFs. The CdS/CBACFs nanocomposites exhibited higher photoactivity for photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation than pure CdS nanoparticles. CBACFs can be used as low cost support materials for the preparation of nanocomposites with high photocatalytic activity.

  20. Synthesis of CdS nanoparticles for photocatalytic application of methyleneblue degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Muthuraj, V.; Umadevi, M.; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Kajamuhideen, M. S.

    2014-04-24

    CdS nanoparticles were prepared by the reaction of cadmium acetate with thiourea in the presence and absence of methylene blue dye (MB). The nanoparticles were characterized by, XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis. XRD study shows the presence of hexagonal phase for the nanoparticles whereas in case of the bulk samples only the hexagonal phase is observed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed a strong interaction of methyl groups with CdS nanoparticles. The degradation of methylene blue was analysed using UV-Vis absorbance spectrum. Thus the results authenticate that methylene blue dye influences the structural and optical properties of the CdS nanoparticles.

  1. Random lasing characteristics in dye-doped semiconductor CdS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. W.

    2016-01-01

    A new strategy to obtain random lasing from semiconductor CdS nanoparticles is presented. A device is prepared with dye (DCM) solution containing CdS NPs. Good lasing behavior is reached and the multiple light scattering process is responsible for lasing generation. We also manage to show that the lasing modes and output intensity exhibit angular dependence. The result indicates that CdS nanoparticles can be used as ideal microlaser material in future semiconductor laser devices. Supported by the Doctoral Science Research Start-up Funding of GuiZhou Normal University No. 11904-0514162.

  2. PVP capped CdS nanoparticles for UV-LED applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaram, H.; Selvakumar, D.; Jayavel, R.

    2015-06-24

    Polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) capped cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles are synthesized by wet chemical method. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) result indicates that the nanoparticles are crystallized in cubic phase. The optical properties are characterized by UV-Vis absorption. The morphology of CdS nanoparticles are studied using Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The thermal behavior of the as prepared nanoparticles has been examined by Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The optical absorption study of pvp capped CdS reveal a red shift confirms the UV-LED applications.

  3. Nanoindentation of Carbon Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Karamjit; Verma, Veena; Bhatti, H S

    2016-06-01

    In the present research paper carbon nanostructures viz. single walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, single walled carbon nanohorns and graphene nanoplatelets have been synthesized by CVD technique, hydrothermal method, DC arc discharge method in liquid nitrogen and microwave technique respectively. After synthesis 5 mm thick pallets of given nanomaterial are prepared by making a paste in isopropyl alcohol and using polyvinylidene difluoride as a binder and then these pallets were used for nanoindentation measurements. Hardness, reduced modulus, stiffness, contact height and contact area have been measured using nanoindenter. PMID:27427726

  4. Biomimetics of photonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Andrew R.; Townley, Helen E.

    2007-06-01

    Biomimetics is the extraction of good design from nature. One approach to optical biomimetics focuses on the use of conventional engineering methods to make direct analogues of the reflectors and anti-reflectors found in nature. However, recent collaborations between biologists, physicists, engineers, chemists and materials scientists have ventured beyond experiments that merely mimic what happens in nature, leading to a thriving new area of research involving biomimetics through cell culture. In this new approach, the nanoengineering efficiency of living cells is harnessed and natural organisms such as diatoms and viruses are used to make nanostructures that could have commercial applications.

  5. Nanostructures for peroxidases

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana M.; Prieto, Tatiana; Nantes, Iseli L.

    2015-01-01

    Peroxidases are enzymes catalyzing redox reactions that cleave peroxides. Their active redox centers have heme, cysteine thiols, selenium, manganese, and other chemical moieties. Peroxidases and their mimetic systems have several technological and biomedical applications such as environment protection, energy production, bioremediation, sensors and immunoassays design, and drug delivery devices. The combination of peroxidases or systems with peroxidase-like activity with nanostructures such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, thin films, liposomes, micelles, nanoflowers, nanorods and others is often an efficient strategy to improve catalytic activity, targeting, and reusability. PMID:26389124

  6. Nanostructures for peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Ribeiro, Ana M; Prieto, Tatiana; Nantes, Iseli L

    2015-01-01

    Peroxidases are enzymes catalyzing redox reactions that cleave peroxides. Their active redox centers have heme, cysteine thiols, selenium, manganese, and other chemical moieties. Peroxidases and their mimetic systems have several technological and biomedical applications such as environment protection, energy production, bioremediation, sensors and immunoassays design, and drug delivery devices. The combination of peroxidases or systems with peroxidase-like activity with nanostructures such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, thin films, liposomes, micelles, nanoflowers, nanorods and others is often an efficient strategy to improve catalytic activity, targeting, and reusability. PMID:26389124

  7. Quantization of Energy in 1D Model of Crystal Lattice with Local Perturbations Induced by Ion-Beam Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minárik, Stanislav

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose theoretical basis for investigation of dynamics of acoustic phonons in a thin layers containing nano-scale structural inhomogeneities. One-dimensional (1D) model of a crystal lattice was considered to reveal specific features of the processes arising in such system of phonons in equilibrium state. Standard quantization of energy of 1D ionic chain vibrating by acoustic frequencies was carried out while the presence of foreign ions in this chain was taken into account. Since only two dimensions are dominant in thin layers, only longitudinal vibrations of the chain in the plane of the layer were considered. Results showed that foreign ions affect the energy quantization. Phonon-phonon interaction between two phonon`s modes can be expected if the mass of foreign ions implanted by ion-beam differs from the mass of ions in the initial layer. We believe that the obtained results will help to understand the character of phonon systems in nanostructured thin layers prepared by ion-bem technology, and will allow better explain some thermal and electrical phenomena associated with lattice dynamics in such layers.

  8. Quantum-confined CdS nanoparticles on DNA templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Young Gyu

    As electronic devices became smaller, interest in quantum-confined semiconductor nanostructures increased. Self-assembled mesoscale semiconductor structures of II-VI nanocrystals are an especially exciting subject because of their controllable band gap and unique photophysical properties. Several preparative methods to synthesize and control the sizes of the individual nanocrystallites and the electronic and optical properties have been intensively studied. Fabrication of patterned nanostructures composed of quantum-confined nanoparticles is the next step toward practical applications. We have developed an innovative method to fabricate diverse nanostructures which relies on the size and a shape of a chosen deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) template. DNA has anionic atoms which can bind transition metal ions such as Znsp{2+},\\ Cdsp{2+} and Hgsp{2+}. The DNA can thus control the location of nanoparticles synthesis. Therefore, diverse nanoscale structures composed of arrays of quantum-confined nanocrystallite can be fabricated on DNA fixed to solid substrates without using complicated and expensive photolithography. Mesoscale arrays of Q-CdS nanostructures were fabricated on pUCLeu4 plasmid and PhiX 174 RF II DNA. These DNAs are double-stranded and in A-form are 2.55 nm in diameter, and 0.85 mum and 1.32 mum long, respectively. The samples were prepared either by dropping Cdsp{2+}/DNA complexes on carbon-coated TEM grids or by floating the grids on Cdsp{2+}/DNA or DNA only solutions. The grids with DNA only were reacted with Cdsp{2+} by dipping the grids into a cadmium solution. The grids were exposed to Hsb2S gas to form the Q-CdS nanoparticle arrays. Various ratios and concentrations of Cdsp{2+}/DNA were examined. Conventional, analytical and high resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the Q-CdS nanostructures. Absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies were used for optical characterization. The experimental results demonstrate the

  9. Förster-type Nonradiative Energy Transfer for Assemblies of Arrayed Nanostructures: Confinement Dimension vs. Stacking Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Hernandez Martinez, Pedro Ludwig; Govorov, Alexander O.

    2014-03-01

    We report a theoretical framework of generalized theory for the Förster-type NRET with mixed dimensionality in arrays. These include combinations of arrayed nanostructures made of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanowires (NWs) assemblies in one-dimension (1D), two-dimension (2D), and three-dimensions (3D) completing the framework for the transfer rates in all possible combinations of different confinement geometries and assembly architectures, we obtain a unified picture of NRET in assembled nanostructures arrays. We find that the generic NRET distance dependence is modified by arraying the nanostructures. For an acceptor NP the rate distance dependence changes from γ ~d-6 to γ ~d-5 when they are arranged in a 1D stack, and to γ ~d-4 when in a 2D array, and to γ ~d-3 when in a 3D array. Likewise, an acceptor NW changes its distance dependence from γ ~d-5 to γ ~d-4 when they are arranged in a 1D array and to γ ~d-3 when in a 2D array. These finding shows that the numbers of dimensions across which nanostructures are stacked is equally critical as the confinement dimension of the nanostructure in determining the NRET kinetics. Bilkent University.

  10. Magnetic behavior of some 1D Cu chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Roger D.; Gomez-García, Carlos J.; Ghosh, Ashutosh

    2004-05-01

    The magnetic properties of three 1D copper(II) salts are reported. The compound Cu(14ane)Cu(N 3) 4 contains alternating site chains with weak FM coupling with J/k=0.635 K . Magnetization studies are reported on Cu(TIM)CuCl 4, an alternating site, alternating FM/AFM exchange system with J FM/k=29.7 K and J AFM/k=-8.66 K. (HPy) 2Cu 3Cl 8.2H 2O contains FM chains composed of alternating Cu 2Cl 62- dimers and CuCl 2(H 2O) 2 monomers, with intradimer coupling J 1/k=17.35 K and dimer-monomer coupling J 2/k=1.93 K .

  11. Quadratic Finite Element Method for 1D Deterministic Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Tolar, Jr., D R; Ferguson, J M

    2004-01-06

    In the discrete ordinates, or SN, numerical solution of the transport equation, both the spatial ({und r}) and angular ({und {Omega}}) dependences on the angular flux {psi}{und r},{und {Omega}}are modeled discretely. While significant effort has been devoted toward improving the spatial discretization of the angular flux, we focus on improving the angular discretization of {psi}{und r},{und {Omega}}. Specifically, we employ a Petrov-Galerkin quadratic finite element approximation for the differencing of the angular variable ({mu}) in developing the one-dimensional (1D) spherical geometry S{sub N} equations. We develop an algorithm that shows faster convergence with angular resolution than conventional S{sub N} algorithms.

  12. Electron Energy Levels in the 1D-2D Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Michael; Sanjeev, Kumar; Thomas, Kalarikad; Creeth, Graham; English, David; Ritchie, David; Griffiths, Jonathan; Farrer, Ian; Jones, Geraint

    Using GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures we have investigated the behaviour of electron energy levels with relaxation of the potential confining a 2D electron gas into a 1D configuration. In the ballistic regime of transport, when the conductance shows quantized plateaux, different types of behaviour are found according to the spins of interacting levels, whether a magnetic field is applied and lifting of the momentum degeneracy with a source-drain voltage. We have observed both crossing and anti-crossing of levels and have investigated the manner in which they can be mutually converted. In the presence of a magnetic field levels can cross and lock together as the confinement is altered in a way which is characteristic of parallel channels. The overall behaviour is discussed in terms of electron interactions and the wavefunction flexibility allowed by the increasing two dimensionality of the electron distribution as the confinement is weakened. Work supported by UK EPSRC.

  13. Directed enzymatic activation of 1-D DNA tiles.

    PubMed

    Garg, Sudhanshu; Chandran, Harish; Gopalkrishnan, Nikhil; LaBean, Thomas H; Reif, John

    2015-02-24

    The tile assembly model is a Turing universal model of self-assembly where a set of square shaped tiles with programmable sticky sides undergo coordinated self-assembly to form arbitrary shapes, thereby computing arbitrary functions. Activatable tiles are a theoretical extension to the Tile assembly model that enhances its robustness by protecting the sticky sides of tiles until a tile is partially incorporated into a growing assembly. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate a simplified version of the Activatable tile assembly model. In particular, we demonstrate the simultaneous assembly of protected DNA tiles where a set of inert tiles are activated via a DNA polymerase to undergo linear assembly. We then demonstrate stepwise activated assembly where a set of inert tiles are activated sequentially one after another as a result of attachment to a growing 1-D assembly. We hope that these results will pave the way for more sophisticated demonstrations of activated assemblies. PMID:25625898

  14. Robust recognition of 1D barcodes using Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwinell, John; Bian, Peng; Bian, Long Xiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for the recognition of 1D barcodes using the Hough transform, which is highly robust regarding the typical degraded image. The algorithm addresses various typical image distortions, such as inhomogeneous illumination, reflections, damaged barcode or blurriness etc. Other problems arise from recognizing low quality printing (low contrast or poor ink receptivity). Traditional approaches are unable to provide a fast solution for handling such complex and mixed noise factors. A multi-level method offers a better approach to best manage competing constraints of complex noise and fast decode. At the lowest level, images are processed in gray scale. At the middle level, the image is transformed into the Hough domain. At the top level, global results, including missing information, is processed within a global context including domain heuristics as well as OCR. The three levels work closely together by passing information up and down between levels.

  15. Axion string dynamics I: 2+1D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Leesa M.; Moore, Guy D.

    2016-05-01

    If the axion exists and if the initial axion field value is uncorrelated at causally disconnected points, then it should be possible to predict the efficiency of cosmological axion production, relating the axionic dark matter density to the axion mass. The main obstacle to making this prediction is correctly treating the axion string cores. We develop a new algorithm for treating the axionic string cores correctly in 2+1 dimensions. When the axionic string cores are given their full physical string tension, axion production is about twice as efficient as in previous simulations. We argue that the string network in 2+1 dimensions should behave very differently than in 3+1 dimensions, so this result cannot be simply carried over to the physical case. We outline how to extend our method to 3+1D axion string dynamics.

  16. MX chains: 1-D analog of CuO planes

    SciTech Connect

    Gammel, J.T.; Batistic, I.; Bishop, A.R.; Loh, E.Y. Jr.; Marianer, S.

    1989-01-01

    We study a two-band Peierls-Hubbard model for halogen-bridged mixed-valence transition metal linear chain complexes (MX chains). We include electron-electron correlations (both Hubbard and PPP-like expressions) using several techniques including calculations in the zero-hopping limit, exact diagonalization of small systems, mean field approximation, and a Gutzwiller-like Ansatz for quantum phonons. The adiabatic optical absorption and phonon spectra for both photo-excited and doping induced defects (kinks, polarons, bipolarons, and excitons) are discussed. A long period phase which occurs even at commensurate filling for certain parameter values may be related to twinning. The effect of including the electron-phonon in addition to the electron-electron interaction on the polaron/bipolaron (pairing) competition is especially interesting when this class of compounds is viewed as a 1-D analog of high-temperature superconductors. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Effective theory of black holes in the 1/D expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2015-06-01

    The gravitational field of a black hole is strongly localized near its horizon when the number of dimensions D is very large. In this limit, we can effectively replace the black hole with a surface in a background geometry (e.g. Minkowski or Anti-deSitter space). The Einstein equations determine the effective equations that this `black hole surface' (or membrane) must satisfy. We obtain them up to next-to-leading order in 1/ D for static black holes of the Einstein-(A)dS theory. To leading order, and also to next order in Minkowski backgrounds, the equations of the effective theory are the same as soap-film equations, possibly up to a redshift factor. In particular, the Schwarzschild black hole is recovered as a spherical soap bubble. Less trivially, we find solutions for `black droplets', i.e. black holes localized at the boundary of AdS, and for non-uniform black strings.

  18. A 1-D morphodynamic model of postglacial valley incision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunnicliffe, Jon F.; Church, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Chilliwack River is typical of many Cordilleran valley river systems that have undergone dramatic Holocene degradation of valley fills that built up over the course of Pleistocene glaciation. Downstream controls on base level, mainly blockage of valleys by glaciers, led to aggradation of significant glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine valley fills and fan deposits, subsequently incised by fluvial action. Models of such large-scale, long-term degradation present a number of important challenges since the evolution of model parameters, such as the rate of bedload transport and grain size characteristics, are governed by the nature of the deposit. Sediment sampling in the Chilliwack Valley reveals a complex sequence of very coarse to fine textural modes. We present a 1-D numerical morphodynamic model for the river-floodplain system tailored to conditions in the valley. The model is adapted to dynamically adjust channel width to optimize sediment transporting capacity and to integrate relict valley fill material as the channel incises through valley deposits. Sensitivity to model parameters is studied using four principal criteria: profile concavity, rate of downstream grain size fining, bed surface sand content, and the timescale to equilibrium. Model results indicate that rates of abrasion and coarsening of the grain size distributions exert the strongest controls on all of the interrelated model performance criteria. While there are a number of difficulties in satisfying all model criteria simultaneously, results indicate that 1-D models of valley bottom sedimentary systems can provide a suitable framework for integrating results from sediment budget studies and chronologies of sediment evacuation established from dating.

  19. Irradiation-Induced Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ewing, R.C.; Matzke, Hj.; Meldrum, A.; Newcomer, P.P.; Wang, L.M.; Wang, S.X.; Weber, W.J.

    1999-08-09

    This paper summarizes the results of the studies of the irradiation-induced formation of nanostructures, where the injected interstitials from the source of irradiation are not major components of the nanophase. This phenomena has been observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a number of intermetallic compounds and ceramics during high-energy electron or ion irradiations when the ions completely penetrate through the specimen. Beginning with single crystals, electron or ion irradiation in a certain temperature range may result in nanostructures composed of amorphous domains and nanocrystals with either the original composition and crystal structure or new nanophases formed by decomposition of the target material. The phenomenon has also been observed in natural materials which have suffered irradiation from the decay of constituent radioactive elements and in nuclear reactor fuels which have been irradiated by fission neutrons and other fission products. The mechanisms involved in the process of this nanophase formation are discussed in terms of the evolution of displacement cascades, radiation-induced defect accumulation, radiation-induced segregation and phase decomposition, as well as the competition between irradiation-induced amorphization and recrystallization.

  20. EDITORIAL: Nanostructured solar cells Nanostructured solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenham, Neil C.; Grätzel, Michael

    2008-10-01

    Conversion into electrical power of even a small fraction of the solar radiation incident on the Earth's surface has the potential to satisfy the world's energy demands without generating CO2 emissions. Current photovoltaic technology is not yet fulfilling this promise, largely due to the high cost of the electricity produced. Although the challenges of storage and distribution should not be underestimated, a major bottleneck lies in the photovoltaic devices themselves. Improving efficiency is part of the solution, but diminishing returns in that area mean that reducing the manufacturing cost is absolutely vital, whilst still retaining good efficiencies and device lifetimes. Solution-processible materials, e.g. organic molecules, conjugated polymers and semiconductor nanoparticles, offer new routes to the low-cost production of solar cells. The challenge here is that absorbing light in an organic material produces a coulombically bound exciton that requires dissociation at a donor-acceptor heterojunction. A thickness of at least 100 nm is required to absorb the incident light, but excitons only diffuse a few nanometres before decaying. The problem is therefore intrinsically at the nano-scale: we need composite devices with a large area of internal donor-acceptor interface, but where each carrier has a pathway to the respective electrode. Dye-sensitized and bulk heterojunction cells have nanostructures which approach this challenge in different ways, and leading research in this area is described in many of the articles in this special issue. This issue is not restricted to organic or dye-sensitized photovoltaics, since nanotechnology can also play an important role in devices based on more conventional inorganic materials. In these materials, the electronic properties can be controlled, tuned and in some cases completely changed by nanoscale confinement. Also, the techniques of nanoscience are the natural ones for investigating the localized states, particularly at

  1. Polar magneto-optical Kerr effect instrument for 1-dimensional magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Sachin; Sharma, Manish

    2014-01-01

    The magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) is a powerful technique to investigate the magnetization behaviour in magnetic nanostructures. We describe the design of a polar MOKE instrument for investigating the magnetization variation in MOKE signal observed in the exciting regime where the size of the magnetic nanostructures is around 20-350 nm. In particular, when the magnetization of the sample is perpendicular to its plane (i.e., along the axis of a cylindrical nanowire) we use polar MOKE configuration. The sign and magnitude of the small rotation measured in the signal is found proportional to the magnetization and its direction. The MOKE measurements indicate that the hysteresis depends on the shape as well as the density of nanostructures formed. The instrument is sensitive enough to clearly indicate the effect of magneto-static interaction on shape of M-H loop. We have observed the coercive field of ˜269 G for cylindrical nanowire grown in anodic aluminium oxide template and ˜135 G for "pin" shaped nanowire grown in polycarbonate track etched template. The magnetization reversal measurements are intricate in the case of "pin" or "X" shaped nanostructures as seen from the loop. These typical MOKE measurements on the 1-dimensional (1-D) nanostructures explore the effect of magneto-static interaction between the nanostructures.

  2. The preparation and degradation performance of CdS photocatalysts to methyl orange solution.

    PubMed

    Duan, Limei; Zhao, Weiqiang; Xu, Ling; Chen, Xiaohong; Lita, A; Liu, Zongrui

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the CdS samples were prepared using thiourea or sodium sulfide as sulfur source by hydrothermal or solvothermal synthesis method, the results of XRD, TEM and SEM showed all the samples belong to hexagonal CdS nano-material with different morphologies. Using the degradation of methyl orange solution as a model reaction, the photocatalytic performance of different CdS samples was measured, and the samples prepared using thiourea as sulfur source exhibited better photocatalytic activity than those using sodium sulfide as sulfur source. The factors on degradation effect were discussed including the pH value of degradation system and the type of light source. The degradation effect of CdS samples increased with the pH value decreased, and the degradation effect was better when the methyl orange solution was irradiated under sunlight than under 250 W mercury lamp. PMID:23755673

  3. Preparation and characterization of CdS nanoparticles decorated into titanate nanotubes and their photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ming Wei; Shi Wang, Li; Wu, Yan Dan; Huang, Xin Jian; Dang, Zhi

    2008-01-01

    Nanoscopic CdS particles are decorated into the microchannel with nanometre-scale diameter of titanate nanotubes (TNTs) by using nonionic thioacetamide (TAA) as a sulfide precursor (labelled as CdS(TAA)/TNTs). The characterizations by XPS, TEM, XRD, Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis absorption confirm that CdS nanoparticles with smaller size and more homogeneous dispersion are obtained by using a TAA precursor in contrast to the particles predominantly formed on the surface of TNTs by adding ionic Na2S as a precursor (labelled as CdS(Na2S)/TNTs). As is expected, the photocatalytic activities of the nanosized CdS sensitized TNTs nanocrystal materials were superior to those of simple CdS and TNTs in the oxidation of rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. Furthermore, the comparison of photocatalysis activity between CdS(TAA)/TNTs and CdS(Na2S)/TNTs is also discussed.

  4. An Optimal CDS Construction Algorithm with Activity Scheduling in Ad Hoc Networks.

    PubMed

    Penumalli, Chakradhar; Palanichamy, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    A new energy efficient optimal Connected Dominating Set (CDS) algorithm with activity scheduling for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is proposed. This algorithm achieves energy efficiency by minimizing the Broadcast Storm Problem [BSP] and at the same time considering the node's remaining energy. The Connected Dominating Set is widely used as a virtual backbone or spine in mobile ad hoc networks [MANETs] or Wireless Sensor Networks [WSN]. The CDS of a graph representing a network has a significant impact on an efficient design of routing protocol in wireless networks. Here the CDS is a distributed algorithm with activity scheduling based on unit disk graph [UDG]. The node's mobility and residual energy (RE) are considered as parameters in the construction of stable optimal energy efficient CDS. The performance is evaluated at various node densities, various transmission ranges, and mobility rates. The theoretical analysis and simulation results of this algorithm are also presented which yield better results. PMID:26221627

  5. Structural and chemical properties of highly oriented cadmium sulfide (CdS) cauliflower films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vemuri, R. S.; Gullapalli, S. K.; Zubia, D.; McClure, J. C.; Ramana, C. V.

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films have been produced by sputter-deposition varying the sputtering-power ( P) in the range of 60-120 W. The crystal structure, morphology and chemical quality of the CdS films has been investigated employing X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray spectrometry (EDS). Structural characterization indicates that all the CdS layers exhibit cauliflower morphology. Highly oriented, single phase hexagonal-CdS films can be produced at P = 75-105 W while the films at other power contain mixed phases. Characterization using XPS and EDS indicate that the CdS layers are nearly stoichiometric at P = 75-105 W, at which point S-deficiency is induced resulting in Cd-rich-CdS layers.

  6. Development of a Higher Fidelity Model for the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to the ACM model of the CDS, enabling accurate predictions of dynamic operations with fewer assumptions. The model has been utilized to predict how CDS performance would be impacted by changing operating parameters, revealing performance trade-offs and possibilities for improvement. CDS efficiency is driven by the THP coefficient of performance, which in turn is dependent on heat transfer within the system. Based on the remaining limitations of the simulation, priorities for further model development include: center dot Relaxing the assumption of total condensation center dot Incorporating dynamic simulation capability for the buildup of dissolved inert gasses in condensers center dot Examining CDS operation with more complex feeds center dot Extending heat transfer analysis to all surfaces

  7. Fluorescent CdS Quantum Dots: Synthesis, Characterization, Mechanism and Interaction with Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Yang, Mei; Liu, Yu; Duan, Yixiang

    2015-05-01

    CdS quantum dot (QD) is a typical kind of II-IV nanoparticles, which plays an important role in the common type of core-shell QDs. It is of great practical significance to synthesize the water-soluble CdS QDs used in multicolor biomarkers and prepare core-shell QDs. In our case, we came up with a novel green method to manufacture CdS QDs with high quality, different size, and adopted UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, FTIR, XPS, HRTEM, SAED and STEM-EDX to discuss their growth mechanism. We successfully constructed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system between CdS QDs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), then comprehensively and systematically studied the interaction between them. PMID:26504997

  8. Development and applications of the heterostructures synthesis based on CdS nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shancheng; Shi, Yi; Sun, Litao; Yan, Wenfu; Zhou, Minmin; Hu, Dong; Wu, Jiansheng; Wang, Jianyu; Shi, Bingjie; Lan, Xinke

    2013-01-01

    Semiconducting nanowire heterostructures are of particular interest because of their fascinating properties and potential applications in the field of nanoscale science. CdS, with a direct bandgap of 2.42 eV, is considered to be an excellent material for various optoelectronic applications in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. On account of this, the diverse heterostructures based on CdS nanowires have drawn great attention owing to their novel properties. Here, we focus on recent routes used to synthesize diverse heterostructures based on CdS nanowires and the emergent properties of the one-dimensional nanowires heterostructures, and discuss their potential applicability in different fields. In particular, the mechanisms of various synthetic methods for the heterostructure based on the CdS nanowires are discussed detailedly. PMID:23646694

  9. Continuous Microreactor-Assisted Solution Deposition for Scalable Production of CdS Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ramprasad, Sudhir; Su, Yu-Wei; Chang, Chih-Hung; Paul, Brian; Palo, Daniel R.

    2013-06-13

    Solution deposition offers an attractive, low temperature option in the cost effective production of thin film solar cells. Continuous microreactor-assisted solution deposition (MASD) was used to produce nanocrystalline cadmium sulfide (CdS) films on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates with excellent uniformity. We report a novel liquid coating technique using a ceramic rod to efficiently and uniformly apply reactive solution to large substrates (152 mm × 152 mm). This technique represents an inexpensive approach to utilize the MASD on the substrate for uniform growth of CdS films. Nano-crystalline CdS films have been produced from liquid phase at ~90°C, with average thicknesses of 70 nm to 230 nm and with a 5 to 12% thickness variation. The CdS films produced were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-Ray diffraction to demonstrate their suitability to thin-film solar technology.

  10. An Optimal CDS Construction Algorithm with Activity Scheduling in Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Penumalli, Chakradhar; Palanichamy, Yogesh

    2015-01-01

    A new energy efficient optimal Connected Dominating Set (CDS) algorithm with activity scheduling for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is proposed. This algorithm achieves energy efficiency by minimizing the Broadcast Storm Problem [BSP] and at the same time considering the node's remaining energy. The Connected Dominating Set is widely used as a virtual backbone or spine in mobile ad hoc networks [MANETs] or Wireless Sensor Networks [WSN]. The CDS of a graph representing a network has a significant impact on an efficient design of routing protocol in wireless networks. Here the CDS is a distributed algorithm with activity scheduling based on unit disk graph [UDG]. The node's mobility and residual energy (RE) are considered as parameters in the construction of stable optimal energy efficient CDS. The performance is evaluated at various node densities, various transmission ranges, and mobility rates. The theoretical analysis and simulation results of this algorithm are also presented which yield better results. PMID:26221627

  11. Growth and characterization of CdS thin films on polymer substrates for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongseob; Kim, Eung Kwon; Lee, Suho; Lee, Jaehyeong

    2014-05-01

    In this work, cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on flexible polymer substrates such as polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The r.f. magnetron sputtering, which is cost-effective scalable technique, was used for the film deposition. The structural and optical properties of the films grown at different sputtering pressures were investigated. When the CdS film was deposited at lower pressure, the crystallinity and the preferred orientation toward c-axis in hexagonal phase was improved. However, the optical transmittance was reduced as the sputtering pressure was decreased. Compared with the glass substrate, CdS films grown on polymer substrates were exhibited some wore structural and optical characteristics. CdTe thin film solar cell applied to sputtered CdS as a window layer showed a maximum efficiency of 11.6%. PMID:24734656

  12. Nonlinear optical enhancement induced by synergistic effect of graphene nanosheets and CdS nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Baohua; Wang, Fangfang; Cao, Yawan; Wang, Chong; Wang, Ji; Gu, Yuzong

    2016-06-01

    CdS nanocrystals are attached on graphene nanosheets and their nonlinear optical properties are investigated by picosecond Z-scan technique at 532 nm. We found that synergistic effect between the graphene and CdS makes a major enhancement on the nonlinear optical absorption of graphene/CdS nanohybrid in comparison with cooperative effect, and the synergistic improvement is restricted by nonradiative defects in hybrid. The synergistic mechanism involving the local field theory and charge transfer evolution is proposed.

  13. Clusius-Dickel Separations (CDS): A new look at an old technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    The history, applications, and theoretical basis of the CDS technique are reviewed. The advantage to be realized by conduction of CDSs in low-g, space environments are deduced. The results are reported of investigations aimed at further improving CDS efficiencies by altering convective flow patterns. The question of whether multicellular flow or turbulence can introduce a new separation mechanism which would boost separation efficiencies at least an order of magnitude is considered. Results are presented and discussed.

  14. 3D/1D Analysis of ICRF Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiora, Riccardo; Lancellotti, Vito; Vecchi, Giuseppe

    2003-10-01

    An innovative tool has been realized for the 3D/1D simulation of Ion Cyclotron Radio Frequency (ICRF), i.e. accounting for antennas in a realistic 3D geometry and with an accurate 1D plasma model. The approach to the problem is based on an integral-equation formulation for the self-consistent evaluation of the current distribution on the conductors. The environment has been subdivided in two coupled region: the plasma region and the vacuum region. The two problems are linked by means of a magnetic current (electric field) distribution on the aperture between the two regions. In the vacuum region all the calculations are executed in the spatial domain while in the plasma region an extraction in the spectral domain of some integrals is employed that permits to significantly reduce the integration support and to obtain a high numerical efficiency leading to the practical possibility of using a large number of sub-domain (rectangular or triangular) basis functions on each solid conductor of the system. The plasma enters the formalism of the plasma region via a surface impedance matrix; for this reason any plasma model can be used; at present the FELICE code has been adopted, that affords density and temperature profiles, and FLR effects. The source term directly models the TEM mode of the coax feeding the antenna and the current in the coax is determined self-consistently, giving the input impedance/admittance of the antenna itself. Calculation of field distributions (both magnetic and electric), useful for sheath considerations, is included. This tool has been implemented in a suite, called TOPICA, that is modular and applicable to ICRF antenna structures of arbitrary shape. This new simulation tool can assist during the detailed design phase and for this reason can be considered a "Virtual Prototyping Laboratory" (VPL). The TOPICA suite has been tested against assessed codes and against measurements and data of mock-ups and existing antennas. The VPL is being used in

  15. Titanium nitride: A new Ohmic contact material for n-type CdS

    SciTech Connect

    Didden, Arjen; Battjes, Hemme; Dam, Bernard; Krol, Roel van de; Machunze, Raymond

    2011-08-01

    In devices based on CdS, indium is often used to make Ohmic contacts. Since indium is scarce and expensive, suitable replacement materials need to be found. In this work, we show that sputtered titanium nitride forms an Ohmic contact with n-type CdS. The CdS films, deposited with chemical bath deposition, have a hexagonal crystal structure and are polycrystalline, mostly with a (002) texture. The thickness of the films is {approx}600 nm, and the donor density is 1.9 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}. The donor density increases to 1.5 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} upon annealing. The contact resistivity of sputtered TiN on CdS is found to be 4.7 {+-} 0.6 {Omega} cm{sup 2}. This value is sufficiently small to avoid large resistive losses in most CdS device applications. To demonstrate the use of TiN in a CdS device, a Au/CdS/TiN Schottky diode was constructed. The diode has a potential barrier of 0.69 V and an ideality factor of 2.2.

  16. A Novel Cobalt-Sensitive Fluorescent Chemosensor Based on Ligand Capped CdS Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Faridbod, Farnoush; Jamali, Abbas; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Morteza; Norouzi, Parviz

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a ligand capped CdS QDs was synthesized, characterized and its fluorescence behavior was studied. The surface of the CdS QDs was modified using N-(3-methyl-2-(thiophene-2-carboxamido) phenyl) thiophene-2-carboxamide. The immobilized ligand on the surface of the CdS QDs can interact by cationic species due to the existence of donating atoms in its structures. Thus, effect of some metal cations on the fluorescent intensity of the ligand capped CdS QDs were studied. It was found that fluorescence intensity of the modified CdS QDs quenched selectively by addition of Co(II) ion in comparison with other cations tested. The ligand capped CdS QDs can be used as a fluorescent bulk chemosensor for detection of Co(II) ions. The fluorescent quenching is linear in the range of 1.0 × 10(-5) to 1.5 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) of Co(II) ions. The limit of detection was obtained 8.3 × 10(-7) mol L(-1). The nanosensor exhibits high selectivity toward Co(II) ions in comparison with common metal ions. PMID:25804832

  17. Optical and structural properties of sputtered CdS films for thin film solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Donguk; Park, Young; Kim, Minha; Choi, Youngkwan; Park, Yong Seob; Lee, Jaehyoeng

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Photo current–voltage curves (a) and the quantum efficiency (QE) (b) for the solar cell with CdS film grown at 300 °C. - Highlights: • CdS thin films were grown by a RF magnetron sputtering method. • Influence of growth temperature on the properties of CdS films was investigated. • At higher T{sub g}, the crystallinity of the films improved and the grains enlarged. • CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies of 9.41% were prepared at 300 °C. - Abstract: CdS thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at various temperatures. The effects of growth temperature on crystallinity, surface morphology and optical properties of the films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectra, UV–visible spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. As the growth temperature was increased, the crystallinity of the sputtered CdS films was improved and the grains were enlarged. The characteristics of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell appeared to be significantly influenced by the growth temperature of the CdS films. Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies of 9.41% were prepared at a growth temperature of 300 °C.

  18. Dynamic decoupling in the presence of 1D random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Arnab; Chakraborty, Ipsita; Bhattacharyya, Rangeet

    2016-05-01

    In the recent past, many dynamic decoupling sequences have been proposed for the suppression of decoherence of spins connected to thermal baths of various natures. Dynamic decoupling schemes for suppressing decoherence due to Gaussian diffusion have also been developed. In this work, we study the relative performances of dynamic decoupling schemes in the presence of a non-stationary Gaussian noise such as a 1D random walk. Frequency domain analysis is not suitable to determine the performances of various dynamic decoupling schemes in suppressing decoherence due to such a process. Thus, in this work, we follow a time domain calculation to arrive at the following conclusions: in the presence of such a noise, we show that (i) the traditional Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) sequence outperforms Uhrig’s dynamic decoupling scheme, (ii) CPMG remains the optimal sequence for suppression of decoherence due to random walk in the presence of an external field gradient. Later, the theoretical predictions are experimentally verified by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on spin 1/2 particles diffusing in a liquid medium.

  19. 1-D Numerical Analysis of RBCC Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Samuel S.

    1998-01-01

    An RBCC engine combines air breathing and rocket engines into a single engine to increase the specific impulse over an entire flight trajectory. Considerable research pertaining to RBCC propulsion was performed during the 1960's and these engines were revisited recently as a candidate propulsion system for either a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) or two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) launch vehicle. There are a variety of RBCC configurations that had been evaluated and new designs are currently under development. However, the basic configuration of all RBCC systems is built around the ejector scramjet engine originally developed for the hypersonic airplane. In this configuration, a rocket engine plays as an ejector in the air-augmented initial acceleration mode, as a fuel injector in scramjet mode and the rocket in all rocket mode for orbital insertion. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a useful tool for the analysis of complex transport processes in various components in RBCC propulsion systems. The objective of the present research was to develop a transient 1-D numerical model that could be used to predict flow behavior throughout a generic RBCC engine following a flight path.

  20. Spectral functions of 1D Peierls and Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voit, Johannes

    1998-03-01

    We construct the spectral function of the Luther-Emery model which describes one-dimensional Peierls and Mott insulators with a spin resp. charge gap, using symmetries and known limits and equivalences to other models. For the Peierls insulator, we find a true singularity with interaction dependent exponents on the gapped spin dispersion and a finite maximum depending on the magnitude of the spin gap, on a charge dispersion shifted by Δ_σ, as well as strong shadow bands with the same functional form as the main bands. For 1D Mott insulators, one or two singularities with universal inverse-square-root singularities are found depending on whether the charge velocity is larger or smaller than the spin velocity. The shadow band has a single singularity on the renormalized charge dispersion. These results could apply to the description of photoemission experiments in systems like K_0.3 Mo O_3, TTF-TCNQ, or Sr Cu O_2.

  1. 1D X-ray Beam Compressing Monochromators

    SciTech Connect

    Korytar, D.; Dobrocka, E.; Konopka, P.; Zaprazny, Z.; Ferrari, C.; Mikulik, P.; Vagovic, P.; Ac, V.; Erko, A.; Abrosimov, N.

    2010-04-06

    A total beam compression of 5 and 10 corresponding to the asymmetry angles of 9 deg. and 12 deg. is achieved with V-5 and V-10 monochromators, respectively, in standard single crystal pure germanium (220) X-ray beam compressing (V-shaped) monochromators for CuKalpha{sub 1} radiation. A higher 1D compression of X-ray beam is possible using larger angles of asymmetry, however it is achieved at the expense of the total intensity, which is decreased due to the refraction effect. To increase the monochromator intensity, several ways are considered both theoretically and experimentally. Linearly graded germanium rich Ge{sub x}Si{sub (1-x)} single crystal was used to prepare a V-21 single crystal monochromator with 15 deg. asymmetry angles (compression factor of 21). Its temperature gradient version is discussed for CuKalpha{sub 1} radiation. X-ray diffraction measurements on the graded GeSi monochromator showed more than 3-times higher intensity at the output compared with that of a pure Ge monochromator.

  2. Graphs on uniform points in [0,1]d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Martin J. B.; Russo, Ralph P.; Yang, King J.

    1995-06-01

    Statistical problems in pattern or structure recognition for a random multidimensional point set may be addressed by variations on the random graph model of Erdos and Renyui. The imposition of graph structure with a variable edge criterion on a large random point set allows a search for signature quantities or behavior under the given distributional hypothesis. The work is motivated by the question of how to make statistical inferences from sensed mine field data. This article describes recent results obtained in the following special cases. On independent random points U1,...,Un distributed uniformly on [0,1]d, a random graph Gn(x) is constructed in which two distinct such points are joined by an edge if the l(infinity )-distance between them is at most some prescribed value 0 = 2.

  3. 1-D Modeling of Massive Particle Injection (MPI) in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W.; Parks, P. B.; Izzo, V. A.

    2008-11-01

    A 1-D Fast Current Quench (FCQ) model is developed to study current evolution and runaway electron suppression under massive density increase. The model consists of coupled toroidal electric field and energy equations, and it is solved numerically for DIII-D and ITER operating conditions. Simulation results suggest that fast shutdown by D2 liquid jet/pellet injection is in principle achievable for the desired plasma cooling time (˜15 ms for DIII-D and ˜50 ms for ITER) under ˜150x or higher densification. The current density and pressure profile are practically unaltered during the initial phase of jet propagation when dilution cooling dominates. With subsequent radiation cooling, the densified discharge enters the strongly collisional regime where Pfirsch-Schluter thermal diffusion can inhibit current contraction on the magnetic axis. Often the 1/1 kink instability, addressed by Kadomtsev's magnetic reconnection model, can be prevented. Our results are compared with NIMROD simulations in which the plasma is suddenly densified by ˜100x and experiences instantaneous dilution cooling, allowing for use of actual (lower) Lundquist numbers.

  4. Effective-range signatures in quasi-1D matter waves: sound velocity and solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgarlata, F.; Mazzarella, G.; Salasnich, L.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate ultracold and dilute bosonic atoms under strong transverse harmonic confinement using a 1D modified Gross-Pitaevskii equation (1D MGPE), which accounts for the energy dependence of the two-body scattering amplitude within an effective-range expansion. We study sound waves and solitons of the quasi-1D system, comparing the 1D MGPE results with the 1D GPE ones. We find that when the finite-size nature of the interaction is taken into account, the speed of sound and the density profiles of both dark and bright solitons show relevant quantitative changes with respect to predictions given by the standard 1D GPE.

  5. Repairable, nanostructured biomimetic hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, M.; Brombosz, S.; Grubjesic, S.

    2013-03-01

    Proteins facilitate many key cellular processes, including signal recognition and energy transduction. The ability to harness this evolutionarily-optimized functionality could lead to the development of protein-based systems useful for advancing alternative energy storage and conversion. The future of protein-based, however, requires the development of materials that will stabilize, order and control the activity of the proteins. Recently we have developed a synthetic approach for the preparation of a durable biomimetic chemical hydrogel that can be reversibly swollen in water. The matrix has proven ideal for the stable encapsulation of both water- and membrane-soluble proteins. The material is composed of an aqueous dispersion of a diacrylate end-derivatized PEO-PPO-PEO macromer, a saturated phospholipid and a zwitterionic co-surfactant that self-assembles into a nanostructured physical gel at room temperature as determined by X-ray scattering. The addition of a water soluble PEGDA co-monomer and photoinitator does not alter the self-assembled structure and UV irradiation serves to crosslink the acrylate end groups on the macromer with the PEGDA forming a network within the aqueous domains as determined by FT-IR. More recently we have begun to incorporate reversible crosslinks employing Diels-Alder chemistry, allowing for the extraction and replacement of inactive proteins. The ability to replenish the materials with active, non-denatured forms of protein is an important step in advancing these materials for use in nanostructured devices This work was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences, USDoE under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  6. Plasmonic properties and applications of metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Yurong

    Plasmonic properties and the related novel applications are studied on various types of metallic nano-structures in one, two, or three dimensions. For 1D nanostructure, the motion of free electrons in a metal-film with nanoscale thickness is confined in its normal dimension and free in the other two. Describing the free-electron motion at metal-dielectric surfaces, surface plasmon polariton (SPP) is an elementary excitation of such motions and is well known. When further perforated with periodic array of holes, periodicity will introduce degeneracy, incur energy-level splitting, and facilitate the coupling between free-space photon and SPP. We applied this concept to achieve a plasmonic perfect absorber. The experimentally observed reflection dip splitting is qualitatively explained by a perturbation theory based on the above concept. If confined in 2D, the nanostructures become nanowires that intrigue a broad range of research interests. We performed various studies on the resonance and propagation of metal nanowires with different materials, cross-sectional shapes and form factors, in passive or active medium, in support of corresponding experimental works. Finite- Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulations show that simulated results agrees well with experiments and makes fundamental mode analysis possible. Confined in 3D, the electron motions in a single metal nanoparticle (NP) leads to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) that enables another novel and important application: plasmon-heating. By exciting the LSPR of a gold particle embedded in liquid, the excited plasmon will decay into heat in the particle and will heat up the surrounding liquid eventually. With sufficient exciting optical intensity, the heat transfer from NP to liquid will undergo an explosive process and make a vapor envelop: nanobubble. We characterized the size, pressure and temperature of the nanobubble by a simple model relying on Mie calculations and continuous medium assumption. A

  7. A new 9T global shutter pixel with CDS technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Ma, Cheng; Zhou, Quan; Wang, Xinyang

    2015-04-01

    Benefiting from motion blur free, Global shutter pixel is very widely used in the design of CMOS image sensors for high speed applications such as motion vision, scientifically inspection, etc. In global shutter sensors, all pixel signal information needs to be stored in the pixel first and then waiting for readout. For higher frame rate, we need very fast operation of the pixel array. There are basically two ways for the in pixel signal storage, one is in charge domain, such as the one shown in [1], this needs complicated process during the pixel fabrication. The other one is in voltage domain, one example is the one in [2], this pixel is based on the 4T PPD technology and normally the driving of the high capacitive transfer gate limits the speed of the array operation. In this paper we report a new 9T global shutter pixel based on 3-T partially pinned photodiode (PPPD) technology. It incorporates three in-pixel storage capacitors allowing for correlated double sampling (CDS) and pipeline operation of the array (pixel exposure during the readout of the array). Only two control pulses are needed for all the pixels at the end of exposure which allows high speed exposure control.

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: Magnetic surface nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, A.; Skomski, R.; Honolka, J.

    2010-11-01

    Recent trends in the emerging field of surface-supported magnetic nanostructures are reviewed. Current strategies for nanostructure synthesis are summarized, followed by a predominantly theoretical description of magnetic phenomena in surface magnetic structures and a review of experimental research in this field. Emphasis is on Fe- or Co-based nanostructures in various low-dimensional geometries, which are studied as model systems to explore the effects of dimensionality, atomic coordination, chemical bonds, alloying and, most importantly, interactions with the supporting substrate on the magnetism. This review also includes a discussion of closely related systems, such as 3d element impurities integrated into organic networks, surface-supported Fe-based molecular magnets, Kondo systems or 4d element nanostructures that exhibit emergent magnetism, thereby bridging the traditional areas of surface science, molecular physics and nanomagnetism.

  9. Nanostructured Materials for Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2009-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose overall objective is to advance the fundamental understanding of novel photoelectronic organic device structures integrated with inorganic nanostructures, while also expanding the general field of nanomaterials for renewable energy devices and systems.

  10. Peptide nanostructures in biomedical technology.

    PubMed

    Feyzizarnagh, Hamid; Yoon, Do-Young; Goltz, Mark; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2016-09-01

    Nanostructures of peptides have been investigated for biomedical applications due to their unique mechanical and electrical properties in addition to their excellent biocompatibility. Peptides may form fibrils, spheres and tubes in nanoscale depending on the formation conditions. These peptide nanostructures can be used in electrical, medical, dental, and environmental applications. Applications of these nanostructures include, but are not limited to, electronic devices, biosensing, medical imaging and diagnosis, drug delivery, tissue engineering and stem cell research. This review offers a discussion of basic synthesis methods, properties and application of these nanomaterials. The review concludes with recommendations and future directions for peptide nanostructures. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2016, 8:730-743. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1393 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26846352

  11. Programmed self-assembly of complex DNA nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Cheng

    DNA has served as an excellent building block to self-assemble into a wide range of one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) structures with the bottom-up method. Due to the specificity of base pairing, the DNA assembly system is predictable and robust. These DNA structures with higher diversity and complexity have potential applications as templates to organize guest molecules or nanoparticles for the nanofabrication, as biosensors for the genetic diagnosis and environmental detection, and as nanocarriers to deliver and release drugs for the therapy. My major researches focus on designing a novel building block and assembly strategies to self-assemble DNA into complex nanostructures to increase the diversity and complexity. A novel building block was first constructed, which is a parallel, left-handed DNA helix containing multiple domains of half-turn-long standard B-DNA. Such a structure can be used to introduce left-handed crossings in order to increase the diversity and complexity of DNA nanostructures, and can be taken into consideration when predicting the secondary structure of DNA/RNA molecules in cells. In addition, a tile-based directed self-assembly strategy was developed to construct DNA nanocages. In this strategy, directing building blocks were employed to control the self-assembly process of assembly building blocks. This strategy greatly expands the scope of accessible DNA nanostructures and would facilitate technological applications such as nano-guest encapsulation, drug delivery, and nanoparticle organization. As the complexity of DNA nanostructures increases, more errors might be involved in the assembly process. Therefore, a simplified design system based on T-junction was designed to build DNA arrays and minimize the assembly errors. In such system, due to the sequence symmetry, only one DNA single strand is employed and assembled into predesigned 1D and 2D arrays. This design system can be applied to assemble a

  12. Absorption and emission spectroscopy of individual semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Matthew P.

    The advent of controllable synthetic methods for the production of semiconductor nanostructures has led to their use in a host of applications, including light-emitting diodes, field effect transistors, sensors, and even television displays. This is, in part, due to the size, shape, and morphologically dependent optical and electrical properties that make this class of materials extremely customizable; wire-, rod- and sphere-shaped nanocrystals are readily synthesized through common wet chemical methods. Most notably, confining the physical dimension of the nanostructure to a size below its Bohr radius (aB) results in quantum confinement effects that increase its optical energy gap. Not only the size, but the shape of a particle can be exploited to tailor its optical and electrical properties. For example, confined CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and nanowires (NWs) of equivalent diameter possess significantly different optical gaps. This phenomenon has been ascribed to electrostatic contributions arising from dielectric screening effects that are more pronounced in an elongated (wire-like) morphology. Semiconducting nanostructures have thus received significant attention over the past two decades. However, surprisingly little work has been done to elucidate their basic photophysics on a single particle basis. What has been done has generally been accomplished through emission-based measurements, and thus does not fully capture the full breadth of these intriguing systems. What is therefore needed then are absorption-based studies that probe the size and shape dependent evolution of nanostructure photophysics. This thesis summarizes the single particle absorption spectroscopy that we have carried out to fill this knowledge gap. Specifically, the diameter-dependent progression of one-dimensional (1D) excitonic states in CdSe NWs has been revealed. This is followed by a study that focuses on the polarization selection rules of 1D excitons within single CdSe NWs. Finally

  13. Synthesis and characterization of CdS nanocrystals in Maleic anhydride-Octene-1-Vinylbutyl Ether terpolymer matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akperov, Oktay H.; Muradov, Mustafa B.; Malikov, Elvin Y.; Akperov, Elchin O.; Mammadova, Rasmiyya E.; Eyvazova, Goncha M.; Kukovecz, Ákos; Kónya, Zoltán

    2016-07-01

    A Maleic anhydride-Octene-1-Vinylbutyl Ether terpolymer was synthesized via the radical terpolymerization method in order to prepare a new matrix for CdS nanocrystal synthesis. CdS nanocrystals were synthesized through the reaction of thiourea with cadmium chloride. The synthesized terpolymer/CdS nanocrystal composites were characterized by several methods. Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis, Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction methods. The room temperature UV-visible absorption spectra show a shift of the absorption edge towards higher energies. The band gap of the CdS nanocomposite is bigger than that of bulk CdS. Raman spectrum exhibits characteristic peaks of CdS. Images of the nanocomposite obtained with Atomic Force Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy are the evidences of CdS nanocrystal formation in the terpolymer. Thermal investigation shows that the nanocomposite is more thermostable than the terpolymer which could be useful for application in thermo aggressive medium.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of monodispersed CdS nanoparticles in SiO 2 fibers by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hullavarad, Nilima V.; Hullavarad, Shiva S.

    2007-11-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) has been synthesized by a sol-gel route in order to obtain chemically protected, stable nanoparticles. The CdS nanoparticles in the SiO 2 gel matrix were dried to form monoliths of 1 in. diameter. The TEOS:H 2O:HCl:C 2H 5OH and TEOS/Cd mole ratios were varied to obtain narrow size distributed CdS nanoparticles. The UV absorption measurements indicated sharp absorption at 260 and 350 nm for different precursor compositions. SiO 2 gel containing the CdS nanoparticles was spin coated onto substrates in order to monitor the surface morphology of the samples. Scanning electron microscope measurements revealed formation of CdS nanoparticles within the branches of gel-network. Depending upon the mole ratio of additives and drying method, fibers or monolithic tablets of CdS nanoparticles could be produced.

  15. One-pot solvothermal route to self-assembly of cauliflower-shaped CdS microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Ming; Cui, Yao; Liu, Lu; Zhou, Zhen

    2011-05-01

    Nearly monodispersed cauliflower-shaped CdS microspheres were prepared through a simple one-step solvothermal route on a large scale by employing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the surfactant. Images by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicate that cauliflower-shaped CdS microspheres with diameters in the range from 1.3 to 4.5 μm are assembled by nanoparticles with an average diameter of approximately 30 nm. The possible formation mechanism of the cauliflower-shaped CdS microspheres was also proposed. The photovoltaic activity of cauliflower-shaped CdS architectures has been investigated, indicating that the as-obtained CdS microspheres exhibited higher photovoltaic performance in comparison with CdS nanoparticles.

  16. Improved stoichiometry and photoanode efficiency of thermally evaporated CdS film with quantum dots as precursor.

    PubMed

    Fan, Libo; Wang, Peng; Guo, Qiuquan; Lei, Yan; Li, Ming; Han, Hongpei; Zhao, Haifeng; Yang, Dongluo; Zheng, Zhi; Yang, Jun

    2015-08-21

    Good stoichiometry of cadmium sulfide (CdS) film facilitates its application in photovoltaic devices; however, traditional thermal evaporation usually results in a Cd-deficient CdS film at a low-substrate temperature. In this study, Cd-rich CdS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by a facile co-precipitation method and used as the precursor to thermally evaporate CdS film on indium tin oxide-coated glass (ITO/glass). As a consequence, the stoichiometry of CdS film was greatly improved with atomic ratio of Cd to S restored to unity. More importantly, the newly developed CdS film, with its rod-like surface microstructure, acted as an efficient photoanode in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell. Its properties, including surface morphology and roughness, crystal structure, chemical composition, film thickness, energy-level structure and photosensitivity, are studied in detail. PMID:26221785

  17. Improved stoichiometry and photoanode efficiency of thermally evaporated CdS film with quantum dots as precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Libo; Wang, Peng; Guo, Qiuquan; Lei, Yan; Li, Ming; Han, Hongpei; Zhao, Haifeng; Yang, Dongluo; Zheng, Zhi; Yang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    Good stoichiometry of cadmium sulfide (CdS) film facilitates its application in photovoltaic devices; however, traditional thermal evaporation usually results in a Cd-deficient CdS film at a low-substrate temperature. In this study, Cd-rich CdS quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by a facile co-precipitation method and used as the precursor to thermally evaporate CdS film on indium tin oxide-coated glass (ITO/glass). As a consequence, the stoichiometry of CdS film was greatly improved with atomic ratio of Cd to S restored to unity. More importantly, the newly developed CdS film, with its rod-like surface microstructure, acted as an efficient photoanode in a photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell. Its properties, including surface morphology and roughness, crystal structure, chemical composition, film thickness, energy-level structure and photosensitivity, are studied in detail.

  18. Synthesis and properties of a few 1-D cobaltous fumarates

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, Sanchay J.; Das, Birinchi K.

    2012-08-15

    Metal fumarates are often studied in the context of metal organic framework solids. Preparation, structure and properties of three cobalt(II) fumarates, viz. [Co(fum)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O 1, [Co(fum)(py){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] 2, and [Co(fum)(4-CNpy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] 3 (fum=fumarate, py=pyridine, 4-CNpy=4-cyanopyridine) are described. All three are chain polymers involving bridging fumarato ligands between each pair of octahedral Co(II) centres, but while the first one is zigzag in structure, the latter two are linear. Indexed powder X-ray diffraction patterns, solid state electronic spectra and magnetic properties of the species are reported. Thermal decomposition behaviour of the compounds suggests that they may be suitable as precursors to make Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} via pyrolysis below 600 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: Structure and properties of three chain-polymeric cobalt(II) fumarates are described. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three fumarate bridged 1-D coordination polymers of cobalt(II) are reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer While Co(II) fumarate pentahydrate is zigzag, the species having both pyridine and water as co-ligands are linear in structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prominent lines in the powder X-ray diffraction patterns have been indexed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal decomposition of the species yields Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} as the final product.

  19. Dynamical functions of a 1D correlated quantum liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmelo, J. M. P.; Bozi, D.; Penc, K.

    2008-10-01

    The dynamical correlation functions in one-dimensional electronic systems show power-law behaviour at low energies and momenta close to integer multiples of the charge and spin Fermi momenta. These systems are usually referred to as Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids. However, near well defined lines of the (k,ω) plane the power-law behaviour extends beyond the low-energy cases mentioned above, and also appears at higher energies, leading to singular features in the photoemission spectra and other dynamical correlation functions. The general spectral-function expressions derived in this paper were used in recent theoretical studies of the finite-energy singular features in photoemission of the organic compound tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) metallic phase. They are based on a so-called pseudofermion dynamical theory (PDT), which allows us to systematically enumerate and describe the excitations in the Hubbard model starting from the Bethe ansatz, as well as to calculate the charge and spin object phase shifts appearing as exponents of the power laws. In particular, we concentrate on the spin-density m\\rightarrow 0 limit and on effects in the vicinity of the singular border lines, as well as close to half filling. Our studies take into account spectral contributions from types of microscopic processes that do not occur for finite values of the spin density. In addition, the specific processes involved in the spectral features of TTF-TCNQ are studied. Our results are useful for the further understanding of the unusual spectral properties observed in low-dimensional organic metals and also provide expressions for the one- and two-atom spectral functions of a correlated quantum system of ultracold fermionic atoms in a 1D optical lattice with on-site two-atom repulsion.

  20. Evidence against dopamine D1/D2 receptor heteromers

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Aliya L.; Yano, Hideaki; Trifilieff, Pierre; Vishwasrao, Harshad D.; Biezonski, Dominik; Mészáros, József; Sibley, David R.; Kellendonk, Christoph; Sonntag, Kai C.; Graham, Devon L.; Colbran, Roger J.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Javitch, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Hetero-oligomers of G-protein-coupled receptors have become the subject of intense investigation because their purported potential to manifest signaling and pharmacological properties that differ from the component receptors makes them highly attractive for the development of more selective pharmacological treatments. In particular, dopamine D1 and D2 receptors have been proposed to form hetero-oligomers that couple to Gαq proteins, and SKF83959 has been proposed to act as a biased agonist that selectively engages these receptor complexes to activate Gαq and thus phospholipase C. D1/D2 heteromers have been proposed as relevant to the pathophysiology and treatment of depression and schizophrenia. We used in vitro bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), ex vivo analyses of receptor localization and proximity in brain slices, and behavioral assays in mice to characterize signaling from these putative dimers/oligomers. We were unable to detect Gαq or Gα11 protein coupling to homomers or heteromers of D1 or D2 receptors using a variety of biosensors. SKF83959-induced locomotor and grooming behaviors were eliminated in D1 receptor knockout mice, verifying a key role for D1-like receptor activation. In contrast, SKF83959-induced motor responses were intact in D2 receptor and Gαq knockout mice, as well as in knock-in mice expressing a mutant Ala286-CaMKIIα, that cannot autophosphorylate to become active. Moreover, we found that in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, even in neurons in which D1 and D2 receptor promoters are both active, the receptor proteins are segregated and do not form complexes. These data are not compatible with SKF83959 signaling through Gαq or through a D1–D2 heteromer and challenge the existence of such a signaling complex in the adult animals that we used for our studies. PMID:25560761

  1. A new general 1-D vadose zone flow solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Fred L.; Lai, Wencong; Steinke, Robert C.; Zhu, Jianting; Talbot, Cary A.; Wilson, John L.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed an alternative to the one-dimensional partial differential equation (PDE) attributed to Richards (1931) that describes unsaturated porous media flow in homogeneous soil layers. Our solution is a set of three ordinary differential equations (ODEs) derived from unsaturated flux and mass conservation principles. We used a hodograph transformation, the Method of Lines, and a finite water-content discretization to produce ODEs that accurately simulate infiltration, falling slugs, and groundwater table dynamic effects on vadose zone fluxes. This formulation, which we refer to as "finite water-content", simulates sharp fronts and is guaranteed to conserve mass using a finite-volume solution. Our ODE solution method is explicitly integrable, does not require iterations and therefore has no convergence limits and is computationally efficient. The method accepts boundary fluxes including arbitrary precipitation, bare soil evaporation, and evapotranspiration. The method can simulate heterogeneous soils using layers. Results are presented in terms of fluxes and water content profiles. Comparing our method against analytical solutions, laboratory data, and the Hydrus-1D solver, we find that predictive performance of our finite water-content ODE method is comparable to or in some cases exceeds that of the solution of Richards' equation, with or without a shallow water table. The presented ODE method is transformative in that it offers accuracy comparable to the Richards (1931) PDE numerical solution, without the numerical complexity, in a form that is robust, continuous, and suitable for use in large watershed and land-atmosphere simulation models, including regional-scale models of coupled climate and hydrology.

  2. SCCRO3 (DCUN1D3) Antagonizes the Neddylation and Oncogenic Activity of SCCRO (DCUN1D1)*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guochang; Stock, Cameron; Bommeljé, Claire C.; Weeda, Víola B.; Shah, Kushyup; Bains, Sarina; Buss, Elizabeth; Shaha, Manish; Rechler, Willi; Ramanathan, Suresh Y.; Singh, Bhuvanesh

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cullin-RING type ubiquitination E3 ligases is regulated by neddylation, a process analogous to ubiquitination that culminates in covalent attachment of the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 to cullins. As a component of the E3 for neddylation, SCCRO/DCUN1D1 plays a key regulatory role in neddylation and, consequently, cullin-RING ligase activity. The essential contribution of SCCRO to neddylation is to promote nuclear translocation of the cullin-ROC1 complex. The presence of a myristoyl sequence in SCCRO3, one of four SCCRO paralogues present in humans that localizes to the membrane, raises questions about its function in neddylation. We found that although SCCRO3 binds to CAND1, cullins, and ROC1, it does not efficiently bind to Ubc12, promote cullin neddylation, or conform to the reaction processivity paradigms, suggesting that SCCRO3 does not have E3 activity. Expression of SCCRO3 inhibits SCCRO-promoted neddylation by sequestering cullins to the membrane, thereby blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, SCCRO3 inhibits SCCRO transforming activity. The inhibitory effects of SCCRO3 on SCCRO-promoted neddylation and transformation require both an intact myristoyl sequence and PONY domain, confirming that membrane localization and binding to cullins are required for in vivo functions. Taken together, our findings suggest that SCCRO3 functions as a tumor suppressor by antagonizing the neddylation activity of SCCRO. PMID:25349211

  3. 25th anniversary article: label-free electrical biodetection using carbon nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Kannan; Kern, Klaus

    2014-02-26

    Nanostructures are promising candidates for use as active materials for the detection of chemical and biological species, mainly due to the high surface-to-volume ratio and the unique physical properties arising at the nanoscale. Among the various nanostructures, materials comprised of sp(2) -carbon enjoy a unique position due to the possibility to readily prepare them in various dimensions ranging from 0D, through 1D to 2D. This review focuses on the use of 1D (carbon nanotubes) and 2D (graphene) carbon nanostructures for the detection of biologically relevant molecules. A key advantage is the possibility to perform the sensing operation without the use of any labels or complex reaction schemes. Along this spirit, various strategies reported for the label-free electrical detection of biomolecules using carbon nanostructures are discussed. With their promise for ultimate sensitivity and the capability to attain high selectivity through controlled chemical functionalization, carbon-based nanobiosensors are expected to open avenues to novel diagnostic tools as well as to obtain new fundamental insight into biomolecular interactions down to the single molecule level. PMID:24452968

  4. Morphological evolution, growth mechanism, and magneto-transport properties of silver telluride one-dimensional nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Single crystalline one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of silver telluride (Ag2Te) with well-controlled shapes and sizes were synthesized via the hydrothermal reduction of sodium tellurite (Na2TeO3) in a mixed solution. The morphological evolution of various 1D nanostructures was mainly determined by properly controlling the nucleation and growth process of Ag2Te in different reaction times. Based on the transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy studies, the formation mechanism for these 1D nanostructures was rationally interpreted. In addition, the current–voltage (I-V) characteristics as a function of magnetic field of the highly single crystal Ag2Te nanowires were systematically measured. From the investigation of I-V characteristics, we have observed a rapid change of the current in low magnetic field, which can be used as the magnetic field sensor. The magneto-resistance behavior of the Ag2Te nanowires with monoclinic structure was also investigated. Comparing to the bulk and thin film materials, we found that there is generally a larger change in R (T) as the sample size is reduced, which indicates that the size of the sample has a certain impact on magneto-transport properties. Simultaneously, some possible reasons resulting in the observed large positive magneto-resistance behavior are discussed. PMID:23958372

  5. Wedding Cake Growth Mechanism in One-Dimensional and Two-Dimensional Nanostructure Evolution.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin; Shi, Jian; Niu, Xiaobin; Huang, Hanchen; Wang, Xudong

    2015-11-11

    The kinetic processes and atomistic mechanisms in nanostructure growth are of fundamental interest to nanomaterial syntheses with precisely controlled morphology and functionality. By programming deposition conditions at time domain, we observed the wedding cake growth mechanism in the formation of 1D and 2D ZnO nanostructures. Within a narrow growth window, the surfaces of the 1D and 2D structures were covered with a unique concentric terrace feature. This mechanism was further validated by comparing the characteristic growth rates to the screw dislocation-driven model. An interesting 1D to 2D morphology transition was also found during the wedding cake growth, when the adatoms overcome the Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barrier along the edge of the top crystal facet triggered by lowering the supersaturation. The wedding cake model might be a general growth mechanism for flat-tipped nanowires that do not possess any dislocations. This study enriches our understanding on the fundamental kinetics of nanostructured crystal growth and provides a transformative strategy to achieve rational design and control of nanoscale geometry. PMID:26501960

  6. Evaluating Cytotoxicity and Cellular Uptake from the Presence of Variously Processed Ti02 Nanostructured Morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Wong, S.; Zhou, H.; Santull, A.C.

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the cytotoxicity of various morphological classes of TiO{sub 2} nanostructures (including 0-D nanoparticles, 1-D nanorods, and 3-D assemblies) toward living cells. These TiO{sub 2} nanostructures were modified with fluorescent dye molecules, mediated via a dopamine linkage, in order to facilitate a confocal study of their internalization. Specifically, we noted that both TiO{sub 2} 1-D nanorods and 0-D nanoparticles could internalize into cells after 24 h of incubation time. However, only incubation with TiO{sub 2} 1-D nanorods and 3-D micrometer-scale sea urchin-like assemblies at concentrations of up to 125 {mu}g/mL yielded data suggestive of cell viabilities of close to 100%. Moreover, upon irradiation with UV light for periods of a few minutes at energy densities of up to 1 J/cm{sub 2}, we observed up to 60% mortality rates, indicative of the cytotoxic potential of photoirradiated TiO{sub 2} nanostructures due to the generation of reactive oxygen species.

  7. PPM1D exerts its oncogenic properties in human pancreatic cancer through multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo; Guo, Bo-Min; Kang, Jie; Deng, Xian-Zhao; Fan, You-Ben; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Ai, Kai-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Protein phosphatase, Mg(2+)/Mn(2+) dependent, 1D (PPM1D) is emerging as an oncogene by virtue of its negative control on several tumor suppressor pathways. However, the clinical significance of PPM1D in pancreatic cancer (PC) has not been defined. In this study, we determined PPM1D expression in human PC tissues and cell lines and their irrespective noncancerous controls. We subsequently investigated the functional role of PPM1D in the migration, invasion, and apoptosis of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 PC cells in vitro and explored the signaling pathways involved. Furthermore, we examined the role of PPM1D in PC tumorigenesis in vivo. Our results showed that PPM1D is overexpressed in human PC tissues and cell lines and significantly correlated with tumor growth and metastasis. PPM1D promotes PC cell migration and invasion via potentiation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway through downregulation of apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2 (ASPP2). In contrast to PPM1D, our results showed that ASPP2 is downregulated in PC tissues. Additionally, PPM1D suppresses PC cell apoptosis via inhibition of the p38 MAPK/p53 pathway through both dephosphorylation of p38 MAPK and downregulation of ASPP2. Furthermore, PPM1D promotes PC tumor growth in vivo. Our results demonstrated that PPM1D is an oncogene in PC. PMID:26714478

  8. Preliminary abatement device evaluation: 1D-2D KGM cyclone design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are predominately used in controlling cotton gin particulate matter (PM) emissions. The most commonly used cyclone designs are the 2D-2D and 1D-3D; however other designs such as the 1D-2D KGM have or are currently being used. A 1D-2D cyclone has a barrel length equal to the barrel diamete...

  9. Chemically enabled nanostructure fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Fengwei

    The first part of the dissertation explored ways of chemically synthesizing new nanoparticles and biologically guided assembly of nanoparticle building blocks. Chapter two focuses on synthesizing three-layer composite magnetic nanoparticles with a gold shell which can be easily functionalized with other biomolecules. The three-layer magnetic nanoparticles, when functionalized with oligonucleotides, exhibit the surface chemistry, optical properties, and cooperative DNA binding properties of gold nanoparticle probes, while maintaining the magnetic properties of the Fe3O4 inner shell. Chapter three describes a new method for synthesizing nanoparticles asymmetrically functionalized with oligonucleotides and the use of these novel building blocks to create satellite structures. This synthetic capability allows one to introduce valency into such structures and then use that valency to direct particle assembly events. The second part of the thesis explored approaches of nanostructure fabrication on substrates. Chapter four focuses on the development of a new scanning probe contact printing method, polymer pen lithography (PPL), which combines the advantages of muCp and DPN to achieve high-throughput, flexible molecular printing. PPL uses a soft elastomeric tip array, rather than tips mounted on individual cantilevers, to deliver inks to a surface in a "direct write" manner. Arrays with as many as ˜11 million pyramid-shaped pens can be brought into contact with substrates and readily leveled optically in order to insure uniform pattern development. Chapter five describes gel pen lithography, which uses a gel to fabricate pen array. Gel pen lithography is a low-cost, high-throughput nanolithography method especially useful for biomaterials patterning and aqueous solution patterning which makes it a supplement to DPN and PPL. Chapter 6 shows a novel form of optical nanolithography, Beam Pen Lithography (BPL), which uses an array of NSOM pens to do nanoscale optical

  10. From nonfinite to finite 1D arrays of origami tiles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsai Chin; Rahman, Masudur; Norton, Michael L

    2014-06-17

    average solution structures for blocks is more readily achieved using computer models than using direct imaging methods. The development of scalable 1D-origami arrays composed of uniquely addressable components is a logical, if not necessary, step in the evolution of higher order fully addressable structures. Our research into the fabrication of arrays has led us to generate a listing of several important areas of future endeavor. Of high importance is the re-enforcement of the mechanical properties of the building blocks and the organization of multiple arrays on a surface of technological importance. While addressing this short list of barriers to progress will prove challenging, coherent development along each of these lines of inquiry will accelerate the appearance of commercial scale molecular manufacturing. PMID:24803094

  11. Novel hollow mesoporous 1D TiO2 nanofibers as photovoltaic and photocatalytic materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Thavasi, Velmurugan; Mhaisalkar, S G; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-03-01

    Hollow mesoporous one dimensional (1D) TiO(2) nanofibers are successfully prepared by co-axial electrospinning of a titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) solution with two immiscible polymers; polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) using a core-shell spinneret, followed by annealing at 450 °C. The annealed mesoporous TiO(2) nanofibers are found to having a hollow structure with an average diameter of 130 nm. Measurements using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method reveal that hollow mesoporous TiO(2) nanofibers possess a high surface area of 118 m(2) g(-1) with two types of mesopores; 3.2 nm and 5.4 nm that resulted from gaseous removal of PEO and PVP respectively during annealing. With hollow mesoporous TiO(2) nanofibers as the photoelectrode in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC), the solar-to-current conversion efficiency (η) and short circuit current (J(sc)) are measured as 5.6% and 10.38 mA cm(-2) respectively, which are higher than those of DSSC made using regular TiO(2) nanofibers under identical conditions (η = 4.2%, J(sc) = 8.99 mA cm(-2)). The improvement in the conversion efficiency is mainly attributed to the higher surface area and mesoporous TiO(2) nanostructure. It facilitates the adsorption of more dye molecules and also promotes the incident photon to electron conversion. Hollow mesoporous TiO(2) nanofibers with close packing of grains and crystals intergrown with each other demonstrate faster electron diffusion, and longer electron recombination time than regular TiO(2) nanofibers as well as P25 nanoparticles. The surface effect of hollow mesoporous TiO(2) nanofibers as a photocatalyst for the degradation of rhodamine dye was also investigated. The kinetic study shows that the hollow mesoporous surface of the TiO(2) nanofibers influenced its interactions with the dye, and resulted in an increased catalytic activity over P25 TiO(2) nanocatalysts. PMID:22315140

  12. [Spectroscopic study on CdS nanoparticles prepared by microwave irradiation].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei-qing; Liu, Di; Yan, Zheng-yu

    2008-06-01

    CdS nanoparticles capped by mercaptoacetic acid have been successfully synthesized by microwave method employing thioacetamide as sulfur source, which was proved to be a simple, rapid and specific mothod compared with traditional synthetical methods, such as precipitation, sol-gel, solvo-thermal method and so on. The concrete procedure synthesizing CdS nanoparticles was as follows: Cd(NO3)2 (40 mL, 5 mmol c L(-1)) was titrated with mercaptoacetic acid to pH 2.0, resulting in a turbid blue solution. NaOH (0.1 mol x L(-1)) was then added dropwise until the pH was 7 and the solution was again colorless. While quickly stirring the solution, 40 mL of 5 mmol x L(-1) CH3CSNH2 was added. Subsequently, the solution was adjusted to pH 9.0 and placed in a microwave oven for 25 min with power 30% (it means that if microwave works in a 30 s regime, it works 6 s, and does not work 24 s. This is some kind of pulse regime, but the totalpower is still 100%). This kind of nanoparticles were water-soluble and symmetrical. The diameter of CdS nanoparticles which have a spherical morphology was determined to be 12 nm by transmission electron microscopy(TEM), which posess perfect uniforminty. According to literatures report, there are two kinds of emission peak: one is edge-emission peak, and the other is surface blemish emission. In contrast to edge-emission peak, the surface blemish emission shows red shift on fluorescence spectra. In the present paper, the prominent peak of CdS QDs fluorescence spectrum was located at 490 nm, the humpbacked peak caused by surface blemish of CdS nanoparticles was located at 565 nm. However, the surface blemish emission was unconspicuous, thus we can conclude that the synthetical CdS QDs possesses excellent luminescence capability and favorable structure. The size and absorption and fluorescence spectra of CdS nanoparticles at different microwave power, pH value, reaction time and different sulfur source were investigated. The result showed that the

  13. A nanostructured electrochromic supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di; Scherer, Maik R J; Bower, Chris; Andrew, Piers; Ryhänen, Tapani; Steiner, Ullrich

    2012-04-11

    We report the first successful application of an ordered bicontinuous double-gyroid vanadium pentoxide network in an electrochromic supercapacitor. The freestanding vanadia network was fabricated by electrodeposition into a voided block copolymer template that had self-assembled into the double-gyroid morphology. The highly ordered structure with 11.0 nm wide struts and a high specific surface to bulk volume ratio of 161.4 μm(-1) is ideal for fast and efficient lithium ion intercalation/extraction and faradaic surface reactions, which are essential for high energy and high power density electrochemical energy storage devices. Supercapacitors made from such gyroid-structured vanadia electrodes exhibit a high specific capacitance of 155 F g(-1) and show a strong electrochromic color change from green/gray to yellow, indicating the capacitor's charge condition. The nanostructuring approach and utilizing an electrode material that has intrinsic electrochemical color-change properties are concepts that can be readily extended to other electrochromic intercalation compounds. PMID:22390702

  14. Phonon engineering for nanostructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Aubry, Sylvie; Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sullivan, John Patrick; Peebles, Diane Elaine; Hurley, David H.; Shinde, Subhash L.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Emerson, John Allen

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the physics of phonon transport at small length scales is increasingly important for basic research in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, nanomechanics, and thermoelectrics. We conducted several studies to develop an understanding of phonon behavior in very small structures. This report describes the modeling, experimental, and fabrication activities used to explore phonon transport across and along material interfaces and through nanopatterned structures. Toward the understanding of phonon transport across interfaces, we computed the Kapitza conductance for {Sigma}29(001) and {Sigma}3(111) interfaces in silicon, fabricated the interfaces in single-crystal silicon substrates, and used picosecond laser pulses to image the thermal waves crossing the interfaces. Toward the understanding of phonon transport along interfaces, we designed and fabricated a unique differential test structure that can measure the proportion of specular to diffuse thermal phonon scattering from silicon surfaces. Phonon-scale simulation of the test ligaments, as well as continuum scale modeling of the complete experiment, confirmed its sensitivity to surface scattering. To further our understanding of phonon transport through nanostructures, we fabricated microscale-patterned structures in diamond thin films.

  15. Ultrahard magnetic nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Sahota, PK; Liu, Y; Skomski, R; Manchanda, P; Zhang, R; Franchin, M; Fangohr, H; Hadjipanayis, GC; Kashyap, A; Sellmyer, DJ

    2012-04-01

    The performance of hard-magnetic nanostructures is investigated by analyzing the size and geometry dependence of thin-film hysteresis loops. Compared to bulk magnets, weight and volume are much less important, but we find that the energy product remains the main figure of merit down to very small features sizes. However, hysteresis loops are much easier to control on small length scales, as epitomized by Fe-Co-Pt thin films with magnetizations of up to 1.78 T and coercivities of up to 2.52 T. Our numerical and analytical calculations show that the feature size and geometry have a big effect on the hysteresis loop. Layered soft regions, especially if they have a free surface, are more harmful to coercivity and energy product than spherical inclusions. In hard-soft nanocomposites, an additional complication is provided by the physical properties of the hard phases. For a given soft phase, the performance of a hard-soft composite is determined by the parameter (M-s - M-h)/K-h. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3679453

  16. Ultrahard magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahota, P. K.; Liu, Y.; Skomski, R.; Manchanda, P.; Zhang, R.; Franchin, M.; Fangohr, H.; Hadjipanayis, G. C.; Kashyap, A.; Sellmyer, D. J.

    2012-04-01

    The performance of hard-magnetic nanostructures is investigated by analyzing the size and geometry dependence of thin-film hysteresis loops. Compared to bulk magnets, weight and volume are much less important, but we find that the energy product remains the main figure of merit down to very small features sizes. However, hysteresis loops are much easier to control on small length scales, as epitomized by Fe-Co-Pt thin films with magnetizations of up to 1.78 T and coercivities of up to 2.52 T. Our numerical and analytical calculations show that the feature size and geometry have a big effect on the hysteresis loop. Layered soft regions, especially if they have a free surface, are more harmful to coercivity and energy product than spherical inclusions. In hard-soft nanocomposites, an additional complication is provided by the physical properties of the hard phases. For a given soft phase, the performance of a hard-soft composite is determined by the parameter (Ms - Mh)/Kh.

  17. Optics of anisotropic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokushima, Katsu; Antoš, Roman; Mistrík, Jan; Višňovský, Štefan; Yamaguchi, Tomuo

    2006-07-01

    The analytical formalism of Rokushima and Yamakita [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 901-908 (1983)] treating the Fraunhofer diffraction in planar multilayered anisotropic gratings proved to be a useful introduction to new fundamental and practical situations encountered in laterally structured periodic (both isotropic and anisotropic) multilayer media. These are employed in the spectroscopic ellipsometry for modeling surface roughness and in-depth profiles, as well as in the design of various frequency-selective elements including photonic crystals. The subject forms the basis for the solution of inverse problems in scatterometry of periodic nanostructures including magnetic and magneto-optic recording media. It has no principal limitations as for the frequencies and period to radiation wavelength ratios and may include matter wave diffraction. The aim of the paper is to make this formalism easily accessible to a broader community of students and non-specialists. Many aspects of traditional electromagnetic optics are covered as special cases from a modern and more general point of view, e.g., plane wave propagation in isotropic media, reflection and refraction at interfaces, Fabry-Perot resonator, optics of thin films and multilayers, slab dielectric waveguides, crystal optics, acousto-, electro-, and magneto-optics, diffraction gratings, etc. The formalism is illustrated on a model simulating the diffraction on a ferromagnetic wire grating.

  18. Genetic variation in aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) affects the expression and activity of multiple cytochrome P450s.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Amarjit S; Thirumaran, Ranjit K; Yasuda, Kazuto; Yang, Xia; Fan, Yiping; Strom, Stephen C; Schuetz, Erin G

    2013-08-01

    Human liver gene regulatory (Bayesian) network analysis was previously used to identify a cytochrome P450 (P450) gene subnetwork with Aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) as a key regulatory driver of this subnetwork. This study assessed the biologic importance of AKR1D1 [a key enzyme in the synthesis of bile acids, ligand activators of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), known transcriptional regulators of P450s] to hepatic P450 expression. Overexpression of AKR1D1 in primary human hepatocytes led to increased expression of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6. Conversely, AKR1D1 knockdown decreased expression of these P450s. We resequenced AKR1D1 from 98 donor livers and identified a 3'-untranslated region (UTR) (rs1872930) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) significantly associated with higher AKR1D1 mRNA expression. AKR1D1 3'-UTR-luciferase reporter studies showed that the variant allele resulted in higher luciferase activity, suggesting that the SNP increases AKR1D1 mRNA stability and/or translation efficiency. Consistent with AKR1D1's putative role as a driver of the P450 subnetwork, the AKR1D1 3'-UTR SNP was significantly associated with increased hepatic mRNA expression of multiple P450s (CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6) and CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6 activities. After adjusting for multiple testing, the association remained significant for AKR1D1, CYP2C9, and CYP2C8 mRNA expression and CYP2C8 activity. These results provide new insights into the variation in expression and activity of P450s that can account for interindividual differences in drug metabolism/efficacy and adverse drug events. In conclusion, we provide the first experimental evidence supporting a role for AKR1D1 as a key genetic regulator of the P450 network. PMID:23704699

  19. Wavelength-tunable lasing in single-crystal CdS1-XSeX nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. K.; Zapien, J. A.; Shan, Y. Y.; Tang, H.; Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. T.

    2007-09-01

    Alloyed ternary CdS1-XSeX nanoribbons of variable composition X were synthesized by the combination of thermal evaporation and laser ablation. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction showed that the ternary CdS1-XSeX nanoribbons were single phase and highly crystalline. Room-temperature optical measurements showed that band-gap engineering could be realized in CdS1-XSeX nanoribbons via modulation in composition X. Lasing emission between the band-gap energy of CdS (512 nm) and that of CdSe (710 nm) was observed for composition 0CdS1-XSeX nanoribbons reveal the uniform optical properties of the nanoribbons, which supports the absence of phase segregation within the nanoribbon. Fine tuning of the lasing wavelength via composition changes is shown to be smaller than 0.1 nm, and is capable of overlapping thermally induced tuning, demonstrating the possibility of continuous tuning in the lasing wavelength. The broad and fine tunable lasing properties of ternary nanoribbons have potential applications in color-tuned nanolasers, biological labels, and nano-optoelectronics.

  20. In situ growth of well-dispersed CdS nanocrystals in semiconducting polymers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A straight synthetic route to fabricate hybrid nanocomposite films of well-dispersed CdS nanocrystals (NCs) in poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) is reported. A soluble cadmium complex [Cd(SBz)2]2·MI, obtained by incorporating a Lewis base (1-methylimidazole, MI) on the cadmium bis(benzyl)thiol, is used as starting reagent in an in situ thermolytic process. CdS NCs with spherical shape nucleate and grow well below 200°C in a relatively short time (30 min). Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements performed on CdS/MEH-PPV nanocomposites show that CdS photoluminescence peaks are totally quenched inside MEH-PPV, if compared to CdS/PMMA nanocomposites, as expected due to overlapping of the polymer absorption and CdS emission spectra. The CdS NCs are well-dispersed in size and homogeneously distributed within MEH-PPV matrix as proved by transmission electron microscopy. Nanocomposites with different precursor/polymer weight ratios were prepared in the range from 1:4 to 4:1. Highly dense materials, without NCs clustering, were obtained for a weight/weight ratio of 2:3 between precursor and polymer, making these nanocomposites particularly suitable for optoelectronic and solar energy conversion applications. PMID:24015753

  1. Synthesis of Novel Sea-Urchin-Like CdS and Their Optical Properties.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Muhammad Arshad; Liu, Ruibin; Shi, Li-Jie; Bukhtiar, Arfan; Li, Jing; Zou, Bingsuo

    2015-06-01

    A novel morphology of CdS sea-urchin-like microstructures is synthesized by simple thermal evaporation process. Microstructures with average size of 20-50 μm are composed of single crystalline CdS nanobelts. The structural, compositional, morphological characterization of the product were examined by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction while optical properties are investigated by Photoluminescence spectroscopy and time-resolved Photoluminescence measurements. The tentative growth mechanism for the growth of sea-urchin-like CdS is proposed and described briefly. A strong green emission with a maximum around 517 nm was observed from the individual CdS microstructure at room temperature, which was attributed to band-edge emission of CdS. These Novel structures exhibit excellent lasing (stimulated emission) with low threshold (9.07 μJ cm(-2)) at room temperature. We analyze the physical mechanism of stimulated emission. These results are important in the design of green luminescence, low-threshold laser and display devices in the future. PMID:26369062

  2. In situ synthesis of mesoporous CdS nanoparticles in ternary cubic phase lyotropic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, N. M.; Kan, C. S.; Radiman, S.

    An in situ technique for the synthesis of CdS nanoparticles in a ternary lyotropic cubic phase liquid crystal has been carried out. The extremely viscous cubic phase liquid-crystal system consists of poly(oxyethylene)10 nonyl phenol ether as non-ionic surfactant, octane as oil phase and an aqueous phase containing reactant ions (Cd2+ and S2-). Thioacetamide (TAA) has been utilized as a source for slow release of sulfur in the in situ synthesis of CdS. Rheological results show that CdS nanoparticle growth did not disrupt the structure of the cubic phase liquid-crystal system. This indicates that homogenous synthesis of CdS in the liquid crystal had been achieved. The final products were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. It was found that the CdS nanoparticles formed have a mesoporous structure with a size dependent on the TAA decomposition aging time.

  3. Combinatorial Chemical Bath Deposition of CdS Contacts for Chalcogenide Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Mokurala, Krishnaiah; Baranowski, Lauryn L; de Souza Lucas, Francisco W; Siol, Sebastian; van Hest, Maikel F A M; Mallick, Sudhanshu; Bhargava, Parag; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-09-12

    Contact layers play an important role in thin film solar cells, but new material development and optimization of its thickness is usually a long and tedious process. A high-throughput experimental approach has been used to accelerate the rate of research in photovoltaic (PV) light absorbers and transparent conductive electrodes, however the combinatorial research on contact layers is less common. Here, we report on the chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS thin films by combinatorial dip coating technique and apply these contact layers to Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) light absorbers in PV devices. Combinatorial thickness steps of CdS thin films were achieved by removal of the substrate from the chemical bath, at regular intervals of time, and in equal distance increments. The trends in the photoconversion efficiency and in the spectral response of the PV devices as a function of thickness of CdS contacts were explained with the help of optical and morphological characterization of the CdS thin films. The maximum PV efficiency achieved for the combinatorial dip-coating CBD was similar to that for the PV devices processed using conventional CBD. The results of this study lead to the conclusion that combinatorial dip-coating can be used to accelerate the optimization of PV device performance of CdS and other candidate contact layers for a wide range of emerging absorbers. PMID:27479495

  4. Growth of CdS Nanorods and Deposition of Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jie; Yang, Fanghong; Yang, Ping

    2015-05-01

    Systematic investigations have been done to deposit silver nanoparticles on seeded CdS nanorods. The CdS nanorods were synthesized by using CdS nanocrystals as seeds being indexed to the cubic structure (zinc-blende) and tetradecylphosphonic acid as surfactants to enable preferential growth on the reactive {001} facets. Ostwald ripening process occurred during the growth of CdS nanorods. Ag/CdS heterostructures were obtained through a facile method in which oleylamine was employed as reducing agents under an elevated temperature. Exposing CdS nanorods to Ag+ ions resulted in Ag domains depositing on the tips of the nanorods or defected sites embedding in the nanorod surfaces. Ag domains formed separate nuclei and grew quickly at a high concentration of AgNO3 solution. We further focused on discussing the morphology formation mechanism and optical properties of the heterostructures and the nanorods. The as-synthesized Ag/CdS heterostructures can facilitate charge separation at the metal-semiconductor interface. Herein, it opens up an application possibility of enhancing photocatalytic processes and other devices. PMID:26505026

  5. Enhancement of Charge Transfer and Quenching of Photoluminescence of Capped CdS Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Quantum dots (Q-dots) of cadmium sulfide (CdS) with three different capping ligands, 1-butanethiol (BT), 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) and benzyl mercaptan (BM) have been investigated. An external electric field of variable strength of 0.2–1.0 MV cm−1 was applied to the sample of capped CdS Q-dots doped in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films. Field-induced changes in optical absorption of capped CdS Q-dots were observed in terms of purely the second-derivative of the absorption spectrum (the Stark shift), indicating an enhancement in electric dipole moment following transition to the first exciton state. The enhancement depends on the shape and size of the Q-dots prepared using different capping ligands. Field induced-change in photoluminescence (PL) reveals similar changes, an enhancement in charge-transfer (CT) character in exciton state. PL of capped CdS Q-dots is significantly quenched in presence of external electric field. The strong field-induced quenching occurs as a result of the increased charge separation resulting exciton dissociation. Thus, understanding the CT character and field-induced PL quenching of CdS Q-dots is important for photovoltaic, LEDs and biological applications. PMID:26166553

  6. Plasmid CDS5 influences infectivity and virulence in a mouse model of Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital infection.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, K H; Schripsema, J H; Smith, B J; Wang, Y; Jham, B C; O'Hagan, K P; Thomson, N R; Murthy, A K; Skilton, R J; Chu, P; Clarke, I N

    2014-08-01

    The native plasmid of both Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to control virulence and infectivity in mice and in lower primates. We recently described the development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis that for the first time provides a platform for the molecular dissection of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In the present study, we transformed a plasmid-free lymphogranuloma venereum isolate of C. trachomatis, serovar L2, with either the original shuttle vector (pGFP::SW2) or a derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene (pCDS5KO). Female mice were inoculated with these strains either intravaginally or transcervically. We found that transformation of the plasmid-free isolate with the intact pGFP::SW2 vector significantly enhanced infectivity and induction of host inflammatory responses compared to the plasmid-free parental isolate. Transformation with pCDS5KO resulted in infection courses and inflammatory responses not significantly different from those observed in mice infected with the plasmid-free isolate. These results indicate a critical role of plasmid CDS5 in in vivo fitness and in induction of inflammatory responses. To our knowledge, these are the first in vivo observations ascribing infectivity and virulence to a specific plasmid gene. PMID:24866804

  7. Plasmid CDS5 Influences Infectivity and Virulence in a Mouse Model of Chlamydia trachomatis Urogenital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schripsema, J. H.; Smith, B. J.; Wang, Y.; Jham, B. C.; O'Hagan, K. P.; Thomson, N. R.; Murthy, A. K.; Skilton, R. J.; Chu, P.; Clarke, I. N.

    2014-01-01

    The native plasmid of both Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to control virulence and infectivity in mice and in lower primates. We recently described the development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis that for the first time provides a platform for the molecular dissection of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In the present study, we transformed a plasmid-free lymphogranuloma venereum isolate of C. trachomatis, serovar L2, with either the original shuttle vector (pGFP::SW2) or a derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene (pCDS5KO). Female mice were inoculated with these strains either intravaginally or transcervically. We found that transformation of the plasmid-free isolate with the intact pGFP::SW2 vector significantly enhanced infectivity and induction of host inflammatory responses compared to the plasmid-free parental isolate. Transformation with pCDS5KO resulted in infection courses and inflammatory responses not significantly different from those observed in mice infected with the plasmid-free isolate. These results indicate a critical role of plasmid CDS5 in in vivo fitness and in induction of inflammatory responses. To our knowledge, these are the first in vivo observations ascribing infectivity and virulence to a specific plasmid gene. PMID:24866804

  8. Study on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between CdS quantum dots and Eosin Y.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhengyu; Zhang, Zhengwei; Yu, Yan; Chen, Jianqiu

    2015-03-01

    Water-soluble CdS quantum dots (QDs) were prepared using mercaptoacetic acid (TGA) as the stabilizer in an aqueous system. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system was constructed between water-soluble CdS QDs (donor) and Eosin Y (acceptor). Several factors that impacted the fluorescence spectra of the FRET system, such as pH (3.05-10.10), concentration of Eosin Y (2-80 mg/L) and concentration of CdS QDs (2-80 mg/L), were investigated and refined. Donor-to-acceptor ratios, the energy transfer efficiency (E) and the distance (r) between CdS QDs and Eosin Y were obtained. The results showed that a FRET system could be established between water-soluble CdS QDs and Eosin Y at pH 5.0; donor-to-acceptor ratios demonstrated a 1: 8 proportion of complexes; the energy transfer efficiency (E) and the distance (r) between the QDs and Eosin Y were 20.07% and 4.36 nm,respectively. PMID:24888328

  9. Optical characterization of CdS semiconductor nanoparticles capped with starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Fragoso, P.; de la Cruz, G. González; Tomas, S. A.; Zelaya-Angel, O.

    2010-11-01

    Starch capped cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles were synthesized by aqueous solution precipitation. Starch added during the synthesis of nanoparticles resulted in cadmium-rich nanoparticles forming a stable complex with starch. The size of the CdS quantum dots was measured using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The average diameter (d) of nanoparticles spanned the range 4.8 ± 0.4 to 5.7 ± 0.2 nm when the pH of the solution was varied within the range 10-14. The main Raman phonon of CdS, the longitudinal optical mode located around 300 cm-1, softens as diameter decreases, in accordance with theoretical predictions. In addition, the largest Raman response of starch, near 478 cm-1, related with the important skeletal vibration modes of the starch pyranose ring, dominates the spectra of the CdS capped nanoparticles and also softens as the size decreases. This fact indicates a strain variation on CdS as a function of d which increases as the pH increases.

  10. Surfactant mediated one- and two-dimensional ZnO nanostructured thin films for dye sensitized solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N.; Thangamuthu, R.; Mummoorthi, M.; Rajendran, S.; Ravi, G.

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were electrodeposited from aqueous zinc chloride on FTO glass substrates. The effects of organic surfactant such as cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on structural, morphological, crystal quality and optical properties of electrodeposited ZnO films were investigated. The x-ray diffraction pattern revealed that the prepared thin films were pure wutrzite hexagonal structure. The thin films deposited using organic surfactant in this work showed different morphologies such as nanoplatelet and flower. The hexagonal platelet and flower-like nanostructures were obtained in the presence of CTAB and PVA surfactant, respectively. The crystal quality and atomic vacancies of the prepared nanostructured thin films were investigated by micro Raman spectroscopic technique. The emission properties and optical quality of the films were studied by photoluminescence spectrometry. PEMA-LiClO4-EC gel polymer electrolyte has been used to replace the liquid electrolyte for reducing the leakage problem. Graphene counter electrode was used as an alternative for platinum electrode. Eosin yellow dye was used as a sensitizer. J-V characterizations were carried out for different 1D and 2D nanostructures. The nanoflower structure exhibited higher efficiency (η = 0.073%) than the other two nanostructures.

  11. EEF1D modulates proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Flores, Isadora L; Kawahara, Rebeca; Miguel, Márcia C C; Granato, Daniela C; Domingues, Romênia R; Macedo, Carolina C S; Carnielli, Carolina M; Yokoo, Sami; Rodrigues, Priscila C; Monteiro, Bárbara V B; Oliveira, Carine E; Salmon, Cristiane R; Nociti, Francisco H; Lopes, Márcio A; Santos-Silva, Alan; Winck, Flavia V; Coletta, Ricardo D; Paes Leme, Adriana F

    2016-05-01

    EEF1D (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1δ) is a subunit of the elongation factor 1 complex of proteins that mediates the elongation process during protein synthesis via enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome. Although the functions of EEF1D in the translation process are recognized, EEF1D expression was found to be unbalanced in tumours. In the present study, we demonstrate the overexpression of EEF1D in OSCC (oral squamous cell carcinoma), and revealed that EEF1D and protein interaction partners promote the activation of cyclin D1 and vimentin proteins. EEF1D knockdown in OSCC reduced cell proliferation and induced EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) phenotypes, including cell invasion. Taken together, these results define EEF1D as a critical inducer of OSCC proliferation and EMT. PMID:26823560

  12. Grid Cell Responses in 1D Environments Assessed as Slices through a 2D Lattice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, KiJung; Lewallen, Sam; Kinkhabwala, Amina A; Tank, David W; Fiete, Ila R

    2016-03-01

    Grid cells, defined by their striking periodic spatial responses in open 2D arenas, appear to respond differently on 1D tracks: the multiple response fields are not periodically arranged, peak amplitudes vary across fields, and the mean spacing between fields is larger than in 2D environments. We ask whether such 1D responses are consistent with the system's 2D dynamics. Combining analytical and numerical methods, we show that the 1D responses of grid cells with stable 1D fields are consistent with a linear slice through a 2D triangular lattice. Further, the 1D responses of comodular cells are well described by parallel slices, and the offsets in the starting points of the 1D slices can predict the measured 2D relative spatial phase between the cells. From these results, we conclude that the 2D dynamics of these cells is preserved in 1D, suggesting a common computation during both types of navigation behavior. PMID:26898777

  13. Key Physical Mechanisms in Nanostructured Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Stephan Bremner

    2010-07-21

    The objective of the project was to study both theoretically and experimentally the excitation, recombination and transport properties required for nanostructured solar cells to deliver energy conversion efficiencies well in excess of conventional limits. These objectives were met by concentrating on three key areas, namely, investigation of physical mechanisms present in nanostructured solar cells, characterization of loss mechanisms in nanostructured solar cells and determining the properties required of nanostructured solar cells in order to achieve high efficiency and the design implications.

  14. Gallium nitride nanostructures: Synthesis, characterization and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kente, Thobeka; Mhlanga, Sabelo Dalton

    2016-06-01

    GaN nanostructures have been extensively studied due to their important properties and applications in many fields. The recent synthesis and uses of these nanostructures have been reviewed. The different synthesis methods such as catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free methods to make GaN nanostructures and different reaction conditions have been also reviewed. This review covers the synthesis, growth mechanism, crystalline structure, properties, applications, structural and optical characterization of GaN nanostructures.

  15. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  16. PREFACE: Self-organized nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, Sylvie; Ortega, Enrique

    2006-04-01

    In order to fabricate ordered arrays of nanostructures, two different strategies might be considered. The `top-down' approach consists of pushing the limit of lithography techniques down to the nanometre scale. However, beyond 10 nm lithography techniques will inevitably face major intrinsic limitations. An alternative method for elaborating ultimate-size nanostructures is based on the reverse `bottom-up' approach, i.e. building up nanostructures (and eventually assemble them to form functional circuits) from individual atoms or molecules. Scanning probe microscopies, including scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) invented in 1982, have made it possible to create (and visualize) individual structures atom by atom. However, such individual atomic manipulation is not suitable for industrial applications. Self-assembly or self-organization of nanostructures on solid surfaces is a bottom-up approach that allows one to fabricate and assemble nanostructure arrays in a one-step process. For applications, such as high density magnetic storage, self-assembly appears to be the simplest alternative to lithography for massive, parallel fabrication of nanostructure arrays with regular sizes and spacings. These are also necessary for investigating the physical properties of individual nanostructures by means of averaging techniques, i.e. all those using light or particle beams. The state-of-the-art and the current developments in the field of self-organization and physical properties of assembled nanostructures are reviewed in this issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. The papers have been selected from among the invited and oral presentations of the recent summer workshop held in Cargese (Corsica, France, 17-23 July 2005). All authors are world-renowned in the field. The workshop has been funded by the Marie Curie Actions: Marie Curie Conferences and Training Courses series named `NanosciencesTech' supported by the VI Framework Programme of the European Community, by

  17. Interfacing nanostructures to biological cells

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xing; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed herein are methods and materials by which nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, nanorods, etc. are bound to lectins and/or polysaccharides and prepared for administration to cells. Also disclosed are complexes comprising glycosylated nanostructures, which bind selectively to cells expressing glycosylated surface molecules recognized by the lectin. Exemplified is a complex comprising a carbon nanotube functionalized with a lipid-like alkane, linked to a polymer bearing repeated .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine sugar groups. This complex is shown to selectively adhere to the surface of living cells, without toxicity. In the exemplified embodiment, adherence is mediated by a multivalent lectin, which binds both to the cells and the .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine groups on the nanostructure.

  18. Nanostructures for protein drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Pachioni-Vasconcelos, Juliana de Almeida; Lopes, André Moreni; Apolinário, Alexsandra Conceição; Valenzuela-Oses, Johanna Karina; Costa, Juliana Souza Ribeiro; Nascimento, Laura de Oliveira; Pessoa, Adalberto; Barbosa, Leandro Ramos Souza; Rangel-Yagui, Carlota de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Use of nanoscale devices as carriers for drugs and imaging agents has been extensively investigated and successful examples can already be found in therapy. In parallel, recombinant DNA technology together with molecular biology has opened up numerous possibilities for the large-scale production of many proteins of pharmaceutical interest, reflecting in the exponentially growing number of drugs of biotechnological origin. When we consider protein drugs, however, there are specific criteria to take into account to select adequate nanostructured systems as drug carriers. In this review, we highlight the main features, advantages, drawbacks and recent developments of nanostructures for protein encapsulation, such as nanoemulsions, liposomes, polymersomes, single-protein nanocapsules and hydrogel nanoparticles. We also discuss the importance of nanoparticle stabilization, as well as future opportunities and challenges in nanostructures for protein drug delivery. PMID:26580477

  19. Solvothermal synthesis and characterization of uniform CdS nanowires in high yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingqing, Wang; Gang, Xu; Gaorong, Han

    2005-09-01

    Large-scale CdS nanowires with uniform diameter and high aspect ratios were synthesized using a simple solvothermal route that employed CdCl 2 and S powder as starting materials, ethylenediamine (en) as the solvent. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the products are hexagonal structure CdS nanowires with diameter of 40 nm and length up to 10 μm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) studies indicate the single-crystalline nature of CdS nanowires with an oriented growth along the c-axis direction. The optical properties of the products were characterized by optical absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra. Based on the results of contrastive experiments, it is found that the sulfur source and the solvent play significant roles in the formation of uniform nanowires. A possible formation mechanism of nanowires is discussed.

  20. Pseudocapacitive behavior of unidirectional CdS nanoforest in 3D architecture through solution chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Nikila; Majumder, Sutripto; Sankapal, Babasaheb R.

    2016-08-01

    Two step soft chemical route has been utilized for the fabrication of CdS nanowire electrode in 3D architecture at room temperature (300 K). The electrochemical pseudocapacitive behavior of thin film consisting of CdS nanowires has been evaluated by using cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in an aqueous media. The electrochemical test revealed that CdS nanowire attained a specific capacitance of 181 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s. An energy density of 1.72 Wh/kg and power density of 27.14 W/kg has been achieved at 89 mA/g current density in 1 M Na2SO3 solution.

  1. Influence of Ag doping concentration on structural and optical properties of CdS thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pragati; Saxena, Nupur; Gupta, Vinay; Agarwal, Avinash

    2015-05-15

    This work shows the influence of Ag concentration on structural properties of pulsed laser deposited nanocrystalline CdS thin film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies confirm the dopant concentration in CdS films and atomic concentration of elements. XPS studies show that the samples are slightly sulfur deficient. GAXRD scan reveals the structural phase transformation from cubic to hexagonal phase of CdS without appearance of any phase of CdO, Ag{sub 2}O or Ag{sub 2}S suggesting the substitutional doping of Ag ions. Photoluminescence studies illustrate that emission intensity increases with increase in dopant concentration upto 5% and then decreases for higher dopant concentration.

  2. Open Photoacoustic Cell Configuration Applied to the Thermal Characterization of Liquid CdS Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, Nastaran; Mahmood Mat Yunus, W.; Kharazmi, Alireza; Saion, Elias; Behzad, Kasra

    2014-01-01

    CdS nanofluids were prepared by the gamma-radiation method at different radiation doses. The samples were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The open cell photoacoustic technique was used to measure the thermal effusivity of the CdS nanocomposites. In this technique a He-Ne laser was used as the excitation source and was operated at 632.8 nm with an output power of 70 mW. The precision and accuracy of this technique were initially established by measuring the thermal effusivity of distilled water and ethylene glycol. The thermal-effusivity values of these two samples were found to be close to the values reported in the literature. The thermal effusivity of CdS nanofluids decreased from (0.453 to 0.268) with increased dosage of gamma radiation.

  3. Effect of pyridine as a ligand in precursor on morphology of CdS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy; Thirumaran, Subbiah

    2012-06-01

    [Cd(thqdtc)2], [Cd(thqdtc)2(py)] and [Cd(thqdtc)2(2,2'-bipy)] (where thqdtc = 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolinecarbodithioate; py = pyridine; 2,2'-bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) have been found to be effective single source precursors for the preparation of diethylenetriamine capped CdS nanoparticles via solvothermal method. Flower-like and rod-like CdS nanoparticles were prepared at a relatively low temperature by thermolysis of the precursors using chelating solvent diethylenetriamine. Use of [Cd(thqdtc)2] and [Cd(thqdtc)2(2,2'-bipy)] afforded rod-shaped nanoparticles and flower-like nanoparticles obtained from [Cd(thqdtc)2(py)]. UV-Visible spectroscopy established pronounced quantum confinement effect. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed hexagonal crystal phase for so obtained CdS nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were also characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence spectroscopy.

  4. Photoluminescence quenching and conductivity enhancement of PVK induced by CdS quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masala, S.; Bizzarro, V.; Re, M.; Nenna, G.; Villani, F.; Minarini, C.; Di Luccio, T.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we studied the optical and transport properties of hybrid nanocomposites of CdS quantum dots (QDs) and poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) polymer. The CdS QDs were prepared by thermal decomposition (thermolysis) of a single source precursor, Cd bis-thiolate, in a high boiling solvent, octadecene (ODE). The optical characterization of the QDs has been carried out by UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy while the morphological properties have been investigated atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The analyses have shown that CdS QDs of diameter below 6 nm can be synthesized by such route with good light emission in the UV range. The QDs have been dispersed in a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) matrix to obtain a PVK:CdS nanocomposite layers. An increase of conductivity and a quenching of the photoluminescence have been observed when the nanocomposite layer was inserted in ITO/PVK:CdS/Al structures.

  5. Deposition and performance of CdS thin films on various substrates for photochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, R. C.; Jadhav, C. M.; Taqui Khan, M. M.

    1984-09-01

    A photoelectrochemical study of CdS semiconductor electrodes with various metal substrates is presented. The current and voltage were measured by performing the experiments in a polysulphide electrolyte using a carbon counterelectrode. The electrodes were prepared by depositing a thin film of CdS by slurry painting, chemical-bath deposition, or electroplating in a non-aqueous solvent. The highest short-circuit current (0.9 mA) and open-circuit voltage (0.51 V) in a sun intensity of 70 mW/sq cm were obtained with slurry-painted electrodes after the films had been doped and etched. It appears that the efficiency of photochemical devices using polycrystal line CdS films can be improved to be comparable with that of single-crystal semiconductor material, with the advantages of low cost and simple technology.

  6. An electrochemical investigation of glucose oxidase at a CdS nanoparticles modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yinxi; Zhang, Wenjun; Xiao, Han; Li, Genxi

    2005-11-15

    The direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) adsorbed on a CdS nanoparticles modified pyrolytic graphite electrode was investigated, where the enzyme demonstrated significantly enhanced electron-transfer reactivity. GOD adsorbed on CdS nanoparticles maintained its bioactivity and structure, and could electro-catalyze the reduction of dissolved oxygen, which resulted in a great increase of the reduction peak current. Upon the addition of glucose, the reduction peak current decreased, which could be used for glucose detection. Performance and characteristics of the fabricated glucose biosensor were assessed with respect to detection limit, sensitivity, storage stability and interference exclusion. The results showed that the fabricated biosensor was sensitive and stable in detecting glucose, indicating that CdS nanoparticle was a good candidate material for the immobilization of enzyme in glucose biosensor construction. PMID:16242622

  7. Biosynthesis of luminescent CdS quantum dots using plant hairy root culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovaya, Mariya N.; Naumenko, Antonina P.; Matvieieva, Nadia A.; Blume, Yaroslav B.; Yemets, Alla I.

    2014-12-01

    CdS nanoparticles have a great potential for application in chemical research, bioscience and medicine. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient and environmentally-friendly method of plant-based biosynthesis of CdS quantum dots using hairy root culture of Linaria maroccana L. By incubating Linaria root extract with inorganic cadmium sulfate and sodium sulfide we synthesized stable luminescent CdS nanocrystals with absorption peaks for UV-visible spectrometry at 362 nm, 398 nm and 464 nm, and luminescent peaks at 425, 462, 500 nm. Transmission electron microscopy of produced quantum dots revealed their spherical shape with a size predominantly from 5 to 7 nm. Electron diffraction pattern confirmed the wurtzite crystalline structure of synthesized cadmium sulfide quantum dots. These results describe the first successful attempt of quantum dots synthesis using plant extract.

  8. Novel hollow mesoporous 1D TiO2 nanofibers as photovoltaic and photocatalytic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiang; Thavasi, Velmurugan; Mhaisalkar, S. G.; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2012-02-01

    Hollow mesoporous one dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanofibers are successfully prepared by co-axial electrospinning of a titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) solution with two immiscible polymers; polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) using a core-shell spinneret, followed by annealing at 450 °C. The annealed mesoporous TiO2 nanofibers are found to having a hollow structure with an average diameter of 130 nm. Measurements using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method reveal that hollow mesoporous TiO2 nanofibers possess a high surface area of 118 m2 g-1 with two types of mesopores; 3.2 nm and 5.4 nm that resulted from gaseous removal of PEO and PVP respectively during annealing. With hollow mesoporous TiO2 nanofibers as the photoelectrode in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC), the solar-to-current conversion efficiency (η) and short circuit current (Jsc) are measured as 5.6% and 10.38 mA cm-2 respectively, which are higher than those of DSSC made using regular TiO2 nanofibers under identical conditions (η = 4.2%, Jsc = 8.99 mA cm-2). The improvement in the conversion efficiency is mainly attributed to the higher surface area and mesoporous TiO2 nanostructure. It facilitates the adsorption of more dye molecules and also promotes the incident photon to electron conversion. Hollow mesoporous TiO2 nanofibers with close packing of grains and crystals intergrown with each other demonstrate faster electron diffusion, and longer electron recombination time than regular TiO2 nanofibers as well as P25 nanoparticles. The surface effect of hollow mesoporous TiO2 nanofibers as a photocatalyst for the degradation of rhodamine dye was also investigated. The kinetic study shows that the hollow mesoporous surface of the TiO2 nanofibers influenced its interactions with the dye, and resulted in an increased catalytic activity over P25 TiO2 nanocatalysts.Hollow mesoporous one dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanofibers are successfully prepared by co-axial electrospinning of a titanium

  9. CdS quantum dots: growth, microstructural, optical and electrical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamad, Tansir; Majeed Khan, M. A.; Kumar, Sushil; Ahamed, Maqusood; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Alhazaa, Abdulaziz N.

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) with cubic phase were prepared using simple precursors by chemical precipitation technique, and their thin films were grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition. The obtained quantum dots were characterized for their structural, morphological, optical, thermal and electrical properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis and low-temperature electrical transport measurements, respectively. XRD pattern reveals that the prepared CdS QDs are highly pure and crystalline in nature with cubic phase. The average particle size, estimated to be ~2 nm, is almost in agreement with the values calculated by Brusïs formula. Selected area electron diffraction also recognizes the cubic structure of CdS quantum dots. The UV-visible spectra exhibit a blueshift with respect to that of bulk sample which is attributed to the quantum size effect of electrons and holes. The band gap of CdS QDs is calculated from absorption data using Tauc plot and found to be 2.84 eV. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis reveals the presence of Cd and S in almost stoichiometric ratio in the prepared CdS QDs. Micro-Raman spectroscopic studies also yield convincing evidence for the transformation of structure. The emission spectra of CdS QDs show peak centered at 541 nm, which is attributed to the presence of cadmium vacancies in the lattice. The DC resistivity data at low temperatures are qualitatively consistent with the variable-range hopping model, and the density of states at the Fermi level is determined.

  10. Surfactant-Assisted Growth of CdS Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, C. L.; Hasoon, F. S.

    2006-05-01

    A common nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100, was used to modify the chemical bath deposition of CdS 'buffer' layers on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films. Addition of the surfactant to the CdS deposition bath allowed increased wetting of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} substrates and an increase in the uniformity of films, especially on model hydrophobic substrates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy data demonstrate that films produced with the surfactant have the same chemical and electronic properties as films grown without it. In CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} devices, it was found that Triton X-100 allowed the use of CdS layers that were three to four times thinner than those used normally in high efficiency CIGS-based devices and eliminated the large drops in open-circuit voltage that usually accompany very thin buffer layers. For these thin CdS layers and relative to devices made without the surfactant, average absolute cell efficiencies were increased from 10.5% to 14.8% or by a relative 41%. Visual inspection of the CdS depositions reveals one possible mechanism of the surfactant's effects: Bubbles that form and adhere to the CIGS surface during the chemical bath deposition are almost completely eliminated with the addition of the TX-100. Thus, junction nonuniformities, pinholes, and thin areas in the CdS layer caused by poor wetting of the substrate surface are sharply reduced, leading to large increases in the open-circuit voltage in devices produced with the surfactant.

  11. Shape-controlled continuous synthesis of metal nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, Victor; Smith, Christopher D.; Jensen, Klavs F.

    2016-03-01

    A segmented flow-based microreactor is used for the continuous production of faceted nanocrystals. Flow segmentation is proposed as a versatile tool to manipulate the reduction kinetics and control the growth of faceted nanostructures; tuning the size and shape. Switching the gas from oxygen to carbon monoxide permits the adjustment in nanostructure growth from 1D (nanorods) to 2D (nanosheets). CO is a key factor in the formation of Pd nanosheets and Pt nanocubes; operating as a second phase, a reductant, and a capping agent. This combination confines the growth to specific structures. In addition, the segmented flow microfluidic reactor inherently has the ability to operate in a reproducible manner at elevated temperatures and pressures whilst confining potentially toxic reactants, such as CO, in nanoliter slugs. This continuous system successfully synthesised Pd nanorods with an aspect ratio of 6; thin palladium nanosheets with a thickness of 1.5 nm; and Pt nanocubes with a 5.6 nm edge length, all in a synthesis time as low as 150 s.A segmented flow-based microreactor is used for the continuous production of faceted nanocrystals. Flow segmentation is proposed as a versatile tool to manipulate the reduction kinetics and control the growth of faceted nanostructures; tuning the size and shape. Switching the gas from oxygen to carbon monoxide permits the adjustment in nanostructure growth from 1D (nanorods) to 2D (nanosheets). CO is a key factor in the formation of Pd nanosheets and Pt nanocubes; operating as a second phase, a reductant, and a capping agent. This combination confines the growth to specific structures. In addition, the segmented flow microfluidic reactor inherently has the ability to operate in a reproducible manner at elevated temperatures and pressures whilst confining potentially toxic reactants, such as CO, in nanoliter slugs. This continuous system successfully synthesised Pd nanorods with an aspect ratio of 6; thin palladium nanosheets with a

  12. Enhanced performance of branched TiO{sub 2} nanorod based Mn-doped CdS and Mn-doped CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Lee, Jae-Cheol; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-04-28

    TiO{sub 2} branched nanostructures could be efficient as photoanodes for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) due to their large surface area for QD deposition. In this study, Mn-doped CdS/Mn-doped CdSe deposited branched TiO{sub 2} nanorods were fabricated to enhance the photovoltaic performance of QDSCs. Mn doping in CdS and CdSe retards the recombination losses of electrons, while branched TiO{sub 2} nanorods facilitate effective electron transport and compensate for the low surface area of the nanorod structure. As a result, the charge-transfer resistance (R{sub CT}), electron lifetime (τ{sub e}), and the amount of QD deposition were significantly improved with branched TiO{sub 2} nanorod based Mn-doped CdS/Mn-doped CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cell.

  13. Nanostructured Substrates for Optical Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Kemling, Jonathan W.; Qavi, Abraham J.; Bailey, Ryan C.

    2011-01-01

    Sensors that change color have the advantages of versatility, ease of use, high sensitivity, and low cost. The recent development of optically based chemical sensing platforms has increasingly employed substrates manufactured with advanced processing or fabrication techniques to provide precise control over shape and morphology of the sensor micro- and nano-structure. New sensors have resulted with improved capabilities for a number of sensing applications, including the detection of biomolecules and environmental monitoring. This perspective focuses on recent optical sensor devices that utilize nanostructured substrates. PMID:22174955

  14. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia J; Libal, Andras J

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  15. Endogenous N-terminal Domain Cleavage Modulates α1D-Adrenergic Receptor Pharmacodynamics.

    PubMed

    Kountz, Timothy S; Lee, Kyung-Soon; Aggarwal-Howarth, Stacey; Curran, Elizabeth; Park, Ji-Min; Harris, Dorathy-Ann; Stewart, Aaron; Hendrickson, Joseph; Camp, Nathan D; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Wang, Edith H; Scott, John D; Hague, Chris

    2016-08-26

    The α1D-adrenergic receptor (ADRA1D) is a key regulator of cardiovascular, prostate, and central nervous system functions. This clinically relevant G protein-coupled receptor has proven difficult to study, as it must form an obligate modular homodimer containing the PDZ proteins scribble and syntrophin or become retained in the endoplasmic reticulum as non-functional protein. We previously determined that targeted removal of the N-terminal (NT) 79 amino acids facilitates ADRA1D plasma membrane expression and agonist-stimulated functional responses. However, whether such an event occurs in physiological contexts was unknown. Herein, we report the ADRA1D is subjected to innate NT processing in cultured human cells. SNAP near-infrared imaging and tandem-affinity purification revealed the ADRA1D is expressed as both full-length and NT truncated forms in multiple human cell lines. Serial truncation mapping identified the cleavage site as Leu(90)/Val(91) in the 95-amino acid ADRA1D NT domain, suggesting human cells express a Δ1-91 ADRA1D species. Tandem-affinity purification MS/MS and co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicate NT processing of ADRA1D is not required to form scribble-syntrophin macromolecular complexes. Yet, label-free dynamic mass redistribution signaling assays demonstrate that Δ1-91 ADRA1D agonist responses were greater than WT ADRA1D. Mutagenesis of the cleavage site nullified the processing event, resulting in ADRA1D agonist responses less than the WT receptor. Thus, we propose that processing of the ADRA1D NT domain is a physiological mechanism employed by cells to generate a functional ADRA1D isoform with optimal pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:27382054

  16. Efficient photocatalytic selective nitro-reduction and C-H bond oxidation over ultrathin sheet mediated CdS flowers.

    PubMed

    Pahari, Sandip Kumar; Pal, Provas; Srivastava, Divesh N; Ghosh, Subhash Ch; Panda, Asit Baran

    2015-06-28

    We report here a visible light driven selective nitro-reduction and oxidation of saturated sp(3) C-H bonds using ultrathin (0.8 nm) sheet mediated uniform CdS flowers as catalyst under a household 40 W CFL lamp and molecular oxygen as oxidant. The CdS flowers were synthesized using a simple surfactant assisted hydrothermal method. PMID:26024214

  17. Adapting the Established SIS to Meet Higher Education's Increasingly Dynamic Needs. CDS Spotlight Report. ECAR Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Leah; Pirani, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This Spotlight focuses on data from the 2013 Core Data Service (CDS) to better understand how higher education institutions approach student information systems (SISs). Information provided for this spotlight was derived from Module 8 of the CDS survey, which asked several questions regarding information systems and applications. Responses from…

  18. Census Data System of the Management Information System for Occupational Education: Guidelines and Instructions for Reporting. CDS Document No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Management and Information System for Occupational Education, Winchester, MA.

    The MISOE Census Data System (CDS) is one of two major subsystems of an integrated management information system (MISOE), which was developed to provide occupational education managers with comprehensive data on which to base rational management decisions. Essentially, CDS contains descriptive information systematically structured in a manner…

  19. A Dynamic Approach to Make CDS/ISIS Databases Interoperable over the Internet Using the OAI Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakanth, F.; Maly, K.; Zubair, M.; Aswath, L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: A dynamic approach to making legacy databases, like CDS/ISIS, interoperable with OAI-compliant digital libraries (DLs). Design/methodology/approach: There are many bibliographic databases that are being maintained using legacy database systems. CDS/ISIS is one such legacy database system. It was designed and developed specifically for…

  20. Characterization of CdS Thin-Film in High Efficient CdS/CdTe Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Miwa; Aramoto, Tetsuya; Ohyama, Hideaki; Hibino, Takeshi; Omura, Kuniyoshi

    2000-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films are the most commonly used window materials for high efficient cadmium telluride (CdTe) and chalcopyrite polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic devices. High efficient CdS/CdTe solar cells with thin CdS films have been developed using ultrathin CdS films with a thickness of less than 0.1 μm. CdS films were deposited on transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/glass substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. CdTe films were subsequently deposited by the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) technique. The screen printing and sintering method fabricated carbon and silver electrodes. Cell performance depends primarily on the electrical and optical properties of CdS films. Therefore we started to develop higher-quality CdS films and found clear differences between high- and low-quality CdS films from the analyses of scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS) and Fourier transforms-infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) measurements. As a result of controlling the quality of CdS films, a photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 10.5% has been achieved for size of 1376 cm2 of the solar cells under the Air Mass (AM) 1.5 conditions of the Japan Quality Assurance Organization.

  1. Plasmonic Au nanoparticles embedding enhances the activity and stability of CdS for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guiyang; Wang, Xiang; Cao, Jungang; Wu, Shujie; Yan, Wenfu; Liu, Gang

    2016-02-01

    The activity and stability of CdS for visible-light-driven hydrogen evolution could be significantly enhanced by embedding plasmonic Au nanoparticles. The plasmon resonance energy field of Au nanoparticles could increase the formation rate and lifetime of e(-)/h(+) pairs in CdS semiconductors. PMID:26732587

  2. Chemical Synthesis and Optical Properties of CdS Poly(Lactic Acid) Nanocomposites and Their Transparent Fluorescent Films

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cai-Feng; Cheng, Yu-Peng; Xie, He-Yi; Chen, Li; Hu, Michael Z.; Chen, Su

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the chemical synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) polymer nanocomposites by covalently grafting poly(lactic acid) (PLA) onto the surfaces of CdS nanocrystals (NCs). Synthesis of the nanocomposites involved two steps. Lactic acid (LA) capped CdS NCs were first prepared by reacting cadmium chloride (CdCl2) with sodium sulfide (Na2S) using LA as the organic ligand in H2O/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution. Next CdS PLA nanocomposites were formed by in situ ring-opening polymerization of lactide on the surface of modified CdS NCs. Transparent fluorescent films were then successfully prepared by blending as-prepared CdS PLA nanocomposites with high-molecular-weight PLA. The as-prepared CdS NCs and their nanocomposites were studied by transmission electron microscopic imaging, thermogravimetric analyses, and spectroscopic measurements (ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence). The spectroscopic studies revealed that the CdS polymer nanocomposites exhibited good optical properties in terms of their photoluminescence and transparency.

  3. Coronal Magnetography of Solar Active Regions Using Coordinated SOHO/CDS and VLA Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to apply the coronal magnetographic technique to SOHO (Solar Heliospheric Observatory) /CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer) EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation) and coordinated VLA microwave observations of solar active regions to derive the strength and structure of the coronal magnetic field. A CDS observing plan was developed for obtaining spectra needed to derive active region differential emission measures (DEMs) required for coronal magnetography. VLA observations were proposed and obtained. SOHO JOP 100 was developed, tested, approved, and implemented to obtain coordinated CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer)/EIT (Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope)/ VLA (Very Large Array)/ TRACE (Transition Region and Coronal Explorer)/ SXT (Solar X Ray Telescope) observations of active regions on April 12, May 9, May 13, and May 23. Analysis of all four data sets began, with heaviest concentration on COS data. It is found that 200-pixel (14 A in NIS1) wavelength windows are appropriate for extracting broadened Gaussian line profile fit parameters for lines including Fe XIV at 334.2, Fe XVI at 335.4, Fe XVI at 360.8, and Mg IX at 368.1 over the 4 arcmin by 4 arcmin CDS field of view. Extensive efforts were focused on learning and applying were focused on learning and applying CDS software, and including it in new IDL procedures to carry out calculations relating to coronal magnetography. An important step is to extract Gaussian profile fits to all the lines needed to derive the DEM in each spatial pixel of any given active region. The standard CDS absolute intensity calibration software was applied to derived intensity images, revealing that ratios between density-insensitive lines like Fe XVI 360.8/335.4 yield good agreement with theory. However, the resulting absolute intensities of those lines are very high, indicating that revisions to the CDS absolute intensity calibrations remain to be included in the CDS software, an essential step to

  4. Photoluminescence enhancement in CdS quantum dots by thermal annealing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The photoluminescence behavior of CdS quantum dots in initial growth stage was studied in connection with an annealing process. Compared to the as-synthesized CdS quantum dots (quantum efficiency ≅ 1%), the heat-treated sample showed enhanced luminescence properties (quantum efficiency ≅ 29%) with a narrow band-edge emission. The simple annealing process diminished the accumulated defect states within the nanoparticles and thereby reduced the nonradiative recombination, which was confirmed by diffraction, absorption, and time-resolved photoluminescence. Consequently, the highly luminescent and defect-free nanoparticles were obtained by a facile and straightforward process. PMID:22931230

  5. Negative infrared photoconductivity in CdS1-xSex films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdinov, A. S.; Jafarov, M. A.; Mamedov, H. M.; Nasirov, E. F.

    2003-09-01

    The negative infrared photoconductivity (NPH) has been observed for the first time in CdS1-xSex films, in the wavelength region of 0.700 - 1.23 μm. at values of stimulating light intensity Φ = 100 - 400 Lk. electrical field E = 0.5 - 130 V/cm and temperature T = 265 - 310 Κ. It is established, that basic laws of NPH explains on the basis of two-barrier model and in the considered conditions a charge carriers, overcome a barrier by tunneling. A films of CdS1-xSex can be used in IR engineering and negatronics.

  6. Nonlinearity of the refractive index due to an excitonic molecule resonance state in CdS

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, R.; Broser, I.; Buschick, K.

    1986-08-01

    The authors report the observation of an intensity-dependent refractive-index nonlinearity in CdS due to a resonance state where an excitonic molecule is created by induced absorption of light. The refractive index n as a function of the incident laser photon energy E is measured directly by light refraction in thin crystal prisms. A renormalized dielectric function describes the measured n(E) spectra well. This strong refractive-index nonlinearity is well suited to produce an optical bistability and to further strengthen the evidence of CdS to be an important material for laser-induced dynamic gratings.

  7. Formation of CdS nanoparticles using starch as capping agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, P.; Muñoz-Aguirre, N.; Martínez, E. San-Martin; Gonzalez, G.; Zelaya, O.; Mendoza, J.

    2008-11-01

    CdS nanoparticles have been synthesized using starch as capping agent in aqueous solution. The morphology and crystalline structure of such samples were measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The average grain size of the nanoparticles determined by these techniques was of the order of 5 nm. Photoluminescence of CdS nanoparticles shows a strong emission peak below to the band gap bulk semiconductor attributed to center trap states, also the broadening peak was interpreted in terms of electron-phonon interaction.

  8. Surface plasmon polaritons suppress photoresponse of colloidal CdS nanorods in nanogap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peigang; Song, Jia; Pan, Aoqiu; Chen, Jianjun; Wang, Shunli; Shen, Jingqin; Wang, Pengchao; Zhan, Jianming; Qian, Huiqin; Tang, Weihua

    2015-05-01

    Colloidal CdS nanorods ∼4.9 nm in diameter and ∼60 nm long were positioned in gold bow-tie electrodes with a gap of ∼50 nm by an AC dielectrophoresis process to construct optoelectronic devices. The fabricated devices exhibited an excellent photoresponse to white and blue light, but no response to green light. However, the response of the devices to white light could be degraded by green light. This is considered to be related to surface plasmon polaritons suppressing the generation of photo-carriers in the CdS nanorods. The results indicate that surface plasmons do not always benefit nano-optoeletronic devices.

  9. Photodetectors of slit and sandwich types based on CdS and CdS1-xSex films obtained using MOCVD method from dithiocarbamates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavyalova, Ludmila V.; Svechnikov, Sergey V.; Tchoni, Vladimir G.

    1997-04-01

    Here we report the results of working out an original, simple in control and not requiring expensive equipment MOCVD-method for depositing films of semiconductor compounds A2B6. Dithiocarbamates (DTC) are used as starting materials. The compounds are stable, easily synthesized, cheap and low toxic. Atoms of metal and sulfur in the DTC are strongly bonded. The DTC could be easily dissolved in various organic solvents. The experimental unit for film deposition comprises a spraying apparatus, a substrate heater, and a quartz cylinder for separation of a reaction zone from ambience. The process of film deposition is carried out in air conditions. Films of CdS, bright-yellow, transparent, having mirror smooth surface at thickness less than 2 mkm and rough surface at thickness 8-12 mkm, were deposited by spraying cadmium dithiocarbamate, that is DTC with radical C2H5, solution in pyridine on substrates heated to 240-280 degrees C. Deposition rate was 60-90 nm/min. Films obtained were of hexagonal modification, polycrystalline, textured, with low, at the level of centipercents content of oxygen and carbon. Slit type photodetectors based on CdS and CdS1-xSex of 1.0 mkm thickness have dark conductivity (sigma) d equals 10-9 divided by 10-8 Ohm-1cm-1 and photoconductivity (sigma) ph equals 10-2 divided by 10-1 Ohm-1cm-1 at 200 lux. Industrially suitable technology for production of photopotentiometer on the base of these films was developed. Sandwich-type photodetectors In2S3 - CdS: Cu, Cl - In with 8-12 mkm thickness have the same value of photoconductivity and the light-to-dark ratio is 106 divided by 107. Based on sandwich-type photodetectors, a hybrid structure of pyroelectric-photodetector as a resonant-type coordinate-sensitive detector was developed.

  10. Organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures for solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdulAlmohsin, Samir M.

    The enticing electro-optical properties of nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, CdS nanocrystals and ZnO nanowrie bring new vigor into the innovation of photovoltaics. The main purpose of this dissertation is to develop novel nano-structured materials for low cost solar cell applications. Fabrication, characterization, and solar cell application of organic-inorganic hybrid structures are the main focus of this research. Polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) composite films were synthesized by an electrochemical polymerization of aniline with airbrushed MWNTs on ITO substrates. It was found that the incorporation of MWNTs in PANI effectively increase the film conductivity with a percolation threshold of 5% of nanotubes in the composite. The solar cell performance strongly depends on the conductivity of the composite films, which can be tuned by adjusting nanotube concentration. A higher conductivity resulted in a better cell performance, resulting from an efficient charge collection. This study indicates that PANI/MWNT composite films with optimized conductivity are potentially useful for low-cost hybrid solar cell applications. CdS nanocrystal-sensitized solar cells (NCSSCs) were investigated by using polyaniline (PANI) as a replacement for conventional platinum counter electrode. The growth time of the nanocrystals significantly affects the solar cell performance. At an optimum growth, the NCSSCs exhibit 0.83% of the conversion efficiency in comparison to 0.13% for the identical cells without CdS nanocrystals. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the charge transfer in the solar cells with CdS nanocrystals was improved. The enhanced overall energy conversion efficiency by nanocrystals is attributed to improved light absorption and suppressed recombination rate of interfacial charges at the injection, resulting in significantly improved charge transfer and electron lifetime. In addition, the PANI electrodes

  11. Controlled placement and orientation of nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alex K; Yuzvinsky, Thomas D; Fennimore, Adam M

    2014-04-08

    A method for controlled deposition and orientation of molecular sized nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) on substrates is disclosed. The method comprised: forming a thin layer of polymer coating on a substrate; exposing a selected portion of the thin layer of polymer to alter a selected portion of the thin layer of polymer; forming a suspension of nanostructures in a solvent, wherein the solvent suspends the nanostructures and activates the nanostructures in the solvent for deposition; and flowing a suspension of nanostructures across the layer of polymer in a flow direction; thereby: depositing a nanostructure in the suspension of nanostructures only to the selected portion of the thin layer of polymer coating on the substrate to form a deposited nanostructure oriented in the flow direction. By selectively employing portions of the method above, complex NEMS may be built of simpler NEMSs components.

  12. Effects of CdS film thickness on the photovoltaic properties of sintered CdS/CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. S.; Jun, Y. K.; Im, H. B.

    1987-01-01

    All polycrystalline CdS/CdTe heterojunction solar cells with various thicknesses of CdS film were prepared by the coating and sintering method in an attempt to optimize the thickness of the sintered CdSfilm whose role is to be the window as well as the front contact for the CdS/CdS/CdTe solar cell. The thickness of the CdS films was varied from 14 to 55 microns by changing the screen mesh size of a screen printer and the solid-liquid ratio of the slurry which consisted of CdS powder, 9 weight percent CdCl2 and propylene glycol. Average grain size of the sintered CdS films increases and porosity decreases with an increase in film thickness. Electrical resistivity of the sintered CdS films shows a minimum value in 35-micron thick film. Highest optical transmission is observed in 20-micron thick CdS film. The CdCl2 remaining in the CdS film after the sintering causes an increase in the thickness of the CdS(1-x)Te(x) solid solution layer, acting as a sintering aid, at the interface between the CdS and the CdTe films. The combination of the optical transmission, the solid solution layer, and the sheet resistance effects resulted in the highest solar efficiency in a CdS/CdTe heterojunction solar cell with 20-micron thick CdS layer.

  13. Molecular characterization of the maize Rp1-D rust resistance haplotype and its mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, N; Drake, J; Ayliffe, M; Sun, Q; Ellis, J; Hulbert, S; Pryor, T

    1999-01-01

    The Rp1-D gene for resistance to maize common rust (Puccinia sorghi) is a member of a complex locus (haplotype) composed of Rp1-D and approximately eight other gene homologs. The identity of Rp1-D was demonstrated by using two independent gene-tagging approaches with the transposons Mutator and Dissociation. PIC20, a disease resistance (R) gene analog probe previously mapped to the rp1 locus, detected insertion of Dissociation in an Rp1-D mutation and excision in three revertants. Independent libraries probed with the PIC20 or Mutator probes resulted in isolation of the same gene sequence. Rp1-D belongs to the nucleotide binding site, leucine-rich repeat class of R genes. However, unlike the rust resistance genes M and L6 from flax, the maize Rp1-D gene does not encode an N-terminal domain with similarity to the signal transduction domains of the Drosophila Toll protein and mammalian interleukin-1 receptor. Although the abundance of transcripts of genes from the rp1 complex changed with leaf age, there was no evidence of any change due to inoculation with avirulent or virulent rust biotypes. A set of 27 Rp1-D mutants displayed at least nine different deletions of Rp1-D gene family members that were consistent with unequal crossing-over events. One mutation (Rp1-D*-24) resulted in deletion of all but one gene family member. Other unique deletions were observed in the disease lesion mimic Rp1-D*-21 and the partially susceptible mutant Rp1-D*-5. Different rp1 specificities have distinct DNA fingerprints (haplotypes). Analysis of recombinants between rp1 specificities indicated that recombination had occurred within the rp1 gene complex. Similar analyses indicated that the rust R genes at the rp5 locus, 2 centimorgans distal to rp1, are not closely related to Rp1-D. PMID:10402435

  14. Molecular characterization of the maize Rp1-D rust resistance haplotype and its mutants.

    PubMed

    Collins, N; Drake, J; Ayliffe, M; Sun, Q; Ellis, J; Hulbert, S; Pryor, T

    1999-07-01

    The Rp1-D gene for resistance to maize common rust (Puccinia sorghi) is a member of a complex locus (haplotype) composed of Rp1-D and approximately eight other gene homologs. The identity of Rp1-D was demonstrated by using two independent gene-tagging approaches with the transposons Mutator and Dissociation. PIC20, a disease resistance (R) gene analog probe previously mapped to the rp1 locus, detected insertion of Dissociation in an Rp1-D mutation and excision in three revertants. Independent libraries probed with the PIC20 or Mutator probes resulted in isolation of the same gene sequence. Rp1-D belongs to the nucleotide binding site, leucine-rich repeat class of R genes. However, unlike the rust resistance genes M and L6 from flax, the maize Rp1-D gene does not encode an N-terminal domain with similarity to the signal transduction domains of the Drosophila Toll protein and mammalian interleukin-1 receptor. Although the abundance of transcripts of genes from the rp1 complex changed with leaf age, there was no evidence of any change due to inoculation with avirulent or virulent rust biotypes. A set of 27 Rp1-D mutants displayed at least nine different deletions of Rp1-D gene family members that were consistent with unequal crossing-over events. One mutation (Rp1-D*-24) resulted in deletion of all but one gene family member. Other unique deletions were observed in the disease lesion mimic Rp1-D*-21 and the partially susceptible mutant Rp1-D*-5. Different rp1 specificities have distinct DNA fingerprints (haplotypes). Analysis of recombinants between rp1 specificities indicated that recombination had occurred within the rp1 gene complex. Similar analyses indicated that the rust R genes at the rp5 locus, 2 centimorgans distal to rp1, are not closely related to Rp1-D. PMID:10402435

  15. Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.

    2012-06-01

    To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.

  16. Computer Code for Nanostructure Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Due to their small size, nanostructures can have stress and thermal gradients that are larger than any macroscopic analogue. These gradients can lead to specific regions that are susceptible to failure via processes such as plastic deformation by dislocation emission, chemical debonding, and interfacial alloying. A program has been developed that rigorously simulates and predicts optoelectronic properties of nanostructures of virtually any geometrical complexity and material composition. It can be used in simulations of energy level structure, wave functions, density of states of spatially configured phonon-coupled electrons, excitons in quantum dots, quantum rings, quantum ring complexes, and more. The code can be used to calculate stress distributions and thermal transport properties for a variety of nanostructures and interfaces, transport and scattering at nanoscale interfaces and surfaces under various stress states, and alloy compositional gradients. The code allows users to perform modeling of charge transport processes through quantum-dot (QD) arrays as functions of inter-dot distance, array order versus disorder, QD orientation, shape, size, and chemical composition for applications in photovoltaics and physical properties of QD-based biochemical sensors. The code can be used to study the hot exciton formation/relation dynamics in arrays of QDs of different shapes and sizes at different temperatures. It also can be used to understand the relation among the deposition parameters and inherent stresses, strain deformation, heat flow, and failure of nanostructures.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of one dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chun

    In this thesis, one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures with controlled morphologies, defects and alignment have been fabricated by a simple vapor transfer method. The crystal structures, interfaces, growth mechanisms and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Great efforts have been devoted to the patterned growth and assembly of ZnO nanostructures as well as the stability of ZnO nanowires (NWs). Using carbonized photoresists, a simple and very effective method has been developed for fabricating and patterning high-quality ZnO NW arrays. ZnO NWs from this method show excellent alignment, crystal quality, and optical properties that are independent of the substrates. The carbonized photoresists provide perfect nucleation sites for the growth of aligned ZnO NWs and also perfectly connect to the NWs to form ideal electrodes. This approach is further extended to realize large area growth of different forms of ZnO NW arrays (e.g., the horizontal growth and multilayered ZnO NW arrays) on other kinds of carbon-based materials. In addition, the as-synthesized vertically aligned ZnO NW arrays show a low weighted reflectance (Rw) and can be used as antireflection coatings. Moreover, non c-axis growth of 1D ZnO nanostructures (e.g., nanochains, nanobrushes and nanobelts) and defect related 1D ZnO nanostructures (e.g., Y-shaped twinned nanobelts and hierarchical nanostructures decorated by flowers induced by screw dislocations) is also present. Using direct oxidization of pure Zn at high temperatures in air, uniformed ZnO NWs and tetrapods have been fabricated. The spatially-resolved PL study on these two kinds of nanostructures suggests that the defects leading to the green luminescence (GL) should originate from the structural changes along the legs of the tetrapods. Surface defects in these ZnO nanostructures play an unimportant

  18. Comparative effects of nodularin and microcystin-LR in zebrafish: 1. Uptake by organic anion transporting polypeptide Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1).

    PubMed

    Faltermann, Susanne; Prétôt, René; Pernthaler, Jakob; Fent, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and nodularin are hepatotoxins produced by several cyanobacterial species. Their toxicity is based on active cellular uptake and subsequent inhibition of protein phosphatases PP1/2A, leading to hyperphosphorylation and cell death. To date, uptake of MC-LR and nodularin in fish is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of the organic anion transporting polypeptide Oatp1d1 in zebrafish (drOatp1d1, Slco1d1) in cellular uptake in zebrafish. We stably transfected CHO and HEK293 cell lines expressing drOatp1d1. In both transfectants, uptake of MC-LR and nodularin was demonstrated by competitive inhibition of uptake with fluorescent substrate lucifer yellow. Direct uptake of MC-LR was demonstrated by immunostaining, and indirectly by the high cytotoxicity in stable transfectants. By means of a synthesized fluorescent labeled MC-LR derivative, direct uptake was further confirmed in HEK293 cells expressing drOatp1d1. Additionally, uptake and toxicity was investigated in the permanent zebrafish liver cell line ZFL. These cells had only a low relative abundance of drOatp1d1, drOatp2b1 and drOatp1f transcripts, which correlated with the lack of MC-LR induced cytotoxicity and transcriptional changes of genes indicative of endoplasmic reticulum stress, a known effect of this toxin. Our study demonstrates that drOatp1d1 functions as an uptake transporter for both MC-LR and nodularin in zebrafish. PMID:26769064

  19. Plasmonic Nanostructures for Biosensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadde, Akshitha

    Improving the sensitivity of existing biosensors is an active research topic that cuts across several disciplines, including engineering and biology. Optical biosensors are the one of the most diverse class of biosensors which can be broadly categorized into two types based on the detection scheme: label-based and label-free detection. In label-based detection, the target bio-molecules are labeled with dyes or tags that fluoresce upon excitation, indicating the presence of target molecules. Label-based detection is highly-sensitive, capable of single molecule detection depending on the detector type used. One method of improving the sensitivity of label-based fluorescence detection is by enhancement of the emission of the labels by coupling them with metal nanostructures. This approach is referred as plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (PEF). PEF is achieved by increasing the electric field around the nano metal structures through plasmonics. This increased electric field improves the enhancement from the fluorophores which in turn improves the photon emission from the fluorophores which, in turn, improves the limit of detection. Biosensors taking advantage of the plasmonic properties of metal films and nanostructures have emerged an alternative, low-cost, high sensitivity method for detecting labeled DNA. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensors employing noble metal nanostructures have recently attracted considerable attention as a new class of plasmonic nanosensors. In this work, the design, fabrication and characterization of plasmonic nanostructures is carried out. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations were performed using software from Lumerical Inc. to design a novel LSPR structure that exhibit resonance overlapping with the absorption and emission wavelengths of quantum dots (QD). Simulations of a composite Au/SiO2 nanopillars on silicon substrate were performed using FDTD software to show peak plasmonic enhancement at QD emission wavelength

  20. Dynamics of Nanostructures at Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Andreas K.

    2001-02-28

    Currently, much effort is being devoted to the goal of achieving useful nanotechnologies, which depend on the ability to control and manipulate things on a very small scale. One promising approach to the construction of nanostructures is 'self-assembly', which means that under suitable conditions desired nanostructures might form automatically due to physical and chemical forces. Remarkably, the forces controlling such self-assembly mechanisms are only poorly understood, even though highly successful examples of self-assembly are known in nature (e.g., complex biochemical machinery regularly self-assembles in the conditions inside living cells). This talk will highlight basic measurements of fundamental forces governing the dynamics of nanostructures at prototypical metal surfaces. We use advanced surface microscopy techniques to track the motions of very small structures in real time and up to atomic resolution. One classic example of self-organized nanostructures are networks of surface dislocations (linear crystal defects). The direct observation of thermally activated atomic motions of dislocations in a reconstructed gold surface allows us to measure the forces stabilizing the remarkable long-range order of this nanostructure. In another example, the rapid migration of nano-scale tin crystals deposited on a pure copper surface was traced to an atomic repulsion between tin atoms absorbed on the crystal surface and bronze alloy formed in the footprint of the tin crystals. It is intriguing to consider the clusters as simple chemo-mechanical energy transducers, essentially tiny linear motors built of 100,000 Sn atoms. We can support this view by providing estimates of the power and energy-efficiency of these nano-motors.

  1. Transformation Mechanism and Kinetics for the Pressure-Induced Phase Transition in Shocked CdS

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Y.M.; Knudson, M.D.; Kunz, A.B.

    1999-06-24

    The pressure-induced phase transition in CdS was investigated using picosecond time-resolved electronic spectroscopy in plate impact shock wave experiments. Real-time changes in the electronic spectra were observed, with 100 ps time resolution, in single crystals of CdS shocked along the c and a axes to peak stresses between 35 and 90 kbar (above the phase transition stress of approximately 30 kbar measured in continuum studies). When shocked to stresses above approximately 50 kbar along the crystal c axis and 60 to 70 kbar along the crystal a axis, the crystals undergo a very rapid change in electronic structure, indicating that significant structural changes occur within the first 100 ps. These results, along with previous ns continuum measurements, make a strong case for a metastable state during the phase transition in shocked CdS. Ab-initio periodic Hartree-Fock calculations (with DFT correlation corrections) were employed to examine the compression of CdS and to determine a possible lattice structure for the proposed metastable structure. These results, along with details of the transformation kinetics and orientational dependence, will be discussed. Work supported by ONR.

  2. Emission energy, exciton dynamics and lasing properties of buckled CdS nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Sun, Liaoxin; Lu, Jian; Ren, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Tianning; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Xiaohao; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Changqing; Shen, Xuechu; Agarwal, Ritesh; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We report the modulation of emission energy, exciton dynamics and lasing properties in a single buckled CdS nanoribbon (NR) by strain-engineering. Inspired by ordered structure fabrication on elastomeric polymer, we develop a new method to fabricate uniform buckled NRs supported on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Wavy structure, of which compressive and tensile strain periodically varied along the CdS NR, leads to a position-dependent emission energy shift as large as 14 nm in photoluminescence (PL) mapping. Both micro-PL and micro-reflectance reveal the spectral characteristics of broad emission of buckled NR, which can be understood by the discrepancy of strain-induced energy shift of A- and B-exciton of CdS. Furthermore, the dynamics of excitons under tensile strain are also investigated; we find that the B-exciton have much shorter lifetime than that of redshifted A-exciton. In addition, we also present the lasing of buckled CdS NRs, in which the strain-dominated mode selection in multi-mode laser and negligible mode shifts in single-mode laser are clearly observed. Our results show that the strained NRs may serve as new functional optical elements for flexible light emitter or on-chip all-optical devices. PMID:27210303

  3. Biosynthesis of CdS nanoparticles: A fluorescent sensor for sulfate-reducing bacteria detection.

    PubMed

    Qi, Peng; Zhang, Dun; Zeng, Yan; Wan, Yi

    2016-01-15

    CdS nanoparticles were synthesized with an environmentally friendly method by taking advantage of the characteristic metabolic process of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), and used as fluorescence labels for SRB detection. The presence of CdS nanoparticles was observed within and immediately surrounded bacterial cells, indicating CdS nanoparticles were synthesized both intracellularly and extracellularly. Moreover, fluorescent properties of microbial synthesized CdS nanoparticles were evaluated for SRB detection, and a linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and the logarithm of bacterial concentration was obtained in the range of from 1.0×10(2) to 1.0×10(7)cfu mL(-1). The proposed SRB detection method avoided the use of biological bio-recognition elements which are easy to lose their specific recognizing abilities, and the bacterial detection time was greatly shortened compared with the widely used MPN method which would take up to 15 days to accomplish the detection process. PMID:26592588

  4. Working Together at CDS: The Symbiosis Between Astronomers, Documentalists, and IT Specialists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perret, E.; Boch, T.; Bonnarel, F.; Bot, C.; Buga, M.; Brouty, M.; Bruneau, C.; Brunet, C.; Cambrésy, L.; Derrière, S.; Eisele, A.; Fernique, P.; Genova, F.; Guéhenneux, S.; Landais, G.; Lesteven, S.; Loup, C.; Neuville, M.; Oberto, A.; Ochsenbein, F.; Ocvirk, P.; Pineau, F.-X.; Schaaff, A.; Siebert, A.; Simon, A.-C.; Son, E.; Vannier, P.; Vollmer, B.; Vonflie, P.; Wenger, M.; Woelfel, F.

    2015-04-01

    Since the CDS (Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg) began a little more than forty years ago, astronomers, documentalists, and information technology (IT) specialists have been working together. The synergy between these three professional groups support the core of the work and is becoming more and more crucial with the increasing volume and complexity of data handled. The astronomers use their understanding of the subject and of users' needs to help to maintain the accuracy and the relevance of data. The computer engineers enhance these data by maintaining the database framework and continuing to add useful tools to retrieve and reuse this content. Finally, the documentalists, by definition, manage the content. They do so with the help of IT tools developed at CDS; they analyze the publications, extract the relevant information, verify the data, make comparisons with existing data, add the useful information in VizieR and SIMBAD, and confer with astronomers to make corrections, if needed. After an historical review of the evolution in data and the way data have been provided at CDS, we will further discuss the fundamental roles of the three professional groups to support the mission of the CDS.

  5. Optical characterization of ZnS coated CdS nanorods embedded in liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, J. S.; Majumder, T. Pal; Dabrowski, R.

    2016-05-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity of ZnS coated CdS nanorods, represented by CdS/ZnS system, have been enhanced in presence of liquid crystals (LC) and the enhancement strongly depends on concentration of LC. The highly light scattering liquid crystalline phase causes the enhancement in PL intensity. It is also observed that the PL intensity of CdS nanorods enhances with the coating of ZnS material. This enhancement in PL intensity is ascribed by the fact that the high optical band gap ZnS material prevents the tunneling of the charge carriers from the core CdS nanorods and passivated nonradiative recombination sites which are existed on the core surfaces. Finally, 5 fold enhancements in PL intensity of CdS nanorods have been observed by coating with ZnS material and then embedding in LC. We have also observed the red shift in emission energy band of CdS/ZnS system embedded in LC. This study will provide a possible way to develop smart optoelectronics devices.

  6. Emission energy, exciton dynamics and lasing properties of buckled CdS nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Sun, Liaoxin; Lu, Jian; Ren, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Tianning; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Xiaohao; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Changqing; Shen, Xuechu; Agarwal, Ritesh; Lu, Wei

    2016-05-01

    We report the modulation of emission energy, exciton dynamics and lasing properties in a single buckled CdS nanoribbon (NR) by strain-engineering. Inspired by ordered structure fabrication on elastomeric polymer, we develop a new method to fabricate uniform buckled NRs supported on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Wavy structure, of which compressive and tensile strain periodically varied along the CdS NR, leads to a position-dependent emission energy shift as large as 14 nm in photoluminescence (PL) mapping. Both micro-PL and micro-reflectance reveal the spectral characteristics of broad emission of buckled NR, which can be understood by the discrepancy of strain-induced energy shift of A- and B-exciton of CdS. Furthermore, the dynamics of excitons under tensile strain are also investigated; we find that the B-exciton have much shorter lifetime than that of redshifted A-exciton. In addition, we also present the lasing of buckled CdS NRs, in which the strain-dominated mode selection in multi-mode laser and negligible mode shifts in single-mode laser are clearly observed. Our results show that the strained NRs may serve as new functional optical elements for flexible light emitter or on-chip all-optical devices.

  7. Ammonia free growth of CdS thin films by Chemical Bath Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, A.; Alamri, S. N.; Aida, M. S.

    2011-10-01

    CdS thin films were deposited by a chemical bath deposition technique (CBD). The bath solution is composed of CdCl2 (0.1 M) salt as a source for Cd and thiourea (0.1M) as a source of sulphur (S). To avoid the toxicity and volatility of the commonly used ammonia, ethanolamine (ETA ) is used as complexing agent. Films were deposited with different times from 30 to 120 minutes in order to study the films growth mechanism. The solution temperature was fixed at 60°C. The structural and morphological films characterizations were carried by XRD analysis and AFM observations. From the XRD analysis we inferred that obtained CdS films have a pure hexagonal structure with the preferential orientation along the plane (101). The pure hexagonal structure is highly recommended for the realization of CdTe/ CdS or CuInSe/CdS solar cells. The presence of the hexagonal structure and the low growth rate in order of 1nm/min suggest that the growth mechanism is achieved through the ion by ion process. The optical characterization result indicates that the obtained films have a high transparency from 80 to 60 % in the visible range. In conclusion we inferred that CBD ammonia free CdS thin films deposition enables the production of films suitable for photovoltaic applications.

  8. Emission energy, exciton dynamics and lasing properties of buckled CdS nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Sun, Liaoxin; Lu, Jian; Ren, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Tianning; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Xiaohao; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Changqing; Shen, Xuechu; Agarwal, Ritesh; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We report the modulation of emission energy, exciton dynamics and lasing properties in a single buckled CdS nanoribbon (NR) by strain-engineering. Inspired by ordered structure fabrication on elastomeric polymer, we develop a new method to fabricate uniform buckled NRs supported on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Wavy structure, of which compressive and tensile strain periodically varied along the CdS NR, leads to a position-dependent emission energy shift as large as 14 nm in photoluminescence (PL) mapping. Both micro-PL and micro-reflectance reveal the spectral characteristics of broad emission of buckled NR, which can be understood by the discrepancy of strain-induced energy shift of A- and B-exciton of CdS. Furthermore, the dynamics of excitons under tensile strain are also investigated; we find that the B-exciton have much shorter lifetime than that of redshifted A-exciton. In addition, we also present the lasing of buckled CdS NRs, in which the strain-dominated mode selection in multi-mode laser and negligible mode shifts in single-mode laser are clearly observed. Our results show that the strained NRs may serve as new functional optical elements for flexible light emitter or on-chip all-optical devices. PMID:27210303

  9. Synthesis and characterization of functionalized dithiocarbamates: New single-source precursors for CdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Novel single-molecular precursors for CdS are prepared by reacting functionalized secondary amine and CS2 with cadmium acetate dihydrate. All these precursors are characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and solid-state 13C NMR. CdS semiconductor nanoparticles are synthesized using these precursors by a single-step solvothermal method with ethylenediamine at 117 °C. The synthesized semiconductor nanoparticles are investigated by infra-red spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, scanning electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high resolution transmission microscopy, selected area electron diffraction analysis and Raman spectroscopy. The synthesized CdS are hexagonal (zinc wurtzite) crystalline material, which are indicative of the reduction of particles. Comparison with the CdS and the mixture of CdS/CdSṡ0.5gl revealed that the CdS/CdSṡ0.5gl exhibited a well crystalline structure.

  10. Effect of Reaction Temperature of CdS Buffer Layers by Chemical Bath Deposition Method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Chae-Woong; Jung, Duk Young; Jeong, Chaehwan

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated CdS deposition on a Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) film via chemical bath deposition (CBD) in order to obtain a high-quality optimized buffer layer. The thickness and reaction temperature (from 50 degrees C to 65 degrees C) were investigated, and we found that an increase in the reaction temperature during CBD, resulted in a thicker CdS layer. We obtained a thin film with a thickness of 50 nm at a reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, which also exhibited the highest photoelectric conversion efficiency for use in solar cells. Room temperature time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) measurements were performed on the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film and CdS/CIGS samples to determine the recombination process of the photo-generated minority carrier. The device performance was found to be dependent on the thickness of the CdS layer. As the thickness of the CdS increases, the fill factor and the series resistance increased to 61.66% and decreased to 8.35 Ω, respectively. The best condition was observed at a reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, and its conversion efficiency was 12.20%. PMID:27483883

  11. Maximize Institutional Relationships with CRMs. CDS Spotlight Report. ECAR Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Leah; Pirani, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This Spotlight focuses on data from the 2013 Core Data Service (CDS) to better understand how higher education institutions approach customer relationship management (CRM) systems. Information provided for this Spotlight was derived from Module 8 of the Core Data survey, which asked several questions regarding information systems and applications.…

  12. Loose-fit polypseudorotaxanes constructed from γ-CDs and PHEMA-PPG-PEG-PPG-PHEMA.

    PubMed

    Kong, Tao; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Ai-Ying; Feng, Zeng-Guo

    2014-01-01

    A pentablock copolymer was prepared via the atom transfer radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) initiated by 2-bromoisobutyryl end-capped PPO-PEO-PPO as a macroinitiator in DMF. Attaching PHEMA blocks altered the self-assembly process of the pentablock copolymer with γ-CDs in aqueous solution. Before attaching the PHEMA, the macroinitiator was preferentially bent to pass through the inner cavity of γ-CDs to give rise to tight-fit double-chain stranded polypseudorotaxanes (PPRs). After attaching the PHEMA, the resulting pentablock copolymer was single-chain stranded into the interior of γ-CDs to form more stable, loose-fit PPRs. The results of (1)H NMR, WXRD, DSC, TGA, (13)C CP/MAS NMR and FTIR analyses indicated that γ-CDs can accommodate and slip over PHEMA blocks to randomly distribute along the entire pentablock copolymer chain. This results in unique, single-chain stranded PPRs showing no characteristic channel-type crystal structure. PMID:25383117

  13. Loose-fit polypseudorotaxanes constructed from γ-CDs and PHEMA-PPG-PEG-PPG-PHEMA

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Tao; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Ai-ying

    2014-01-01

    Summary A pentablock copolymer was prepared via the atom transfer radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) initiated by 2-bromoisobutyryl end-capped PPO-PEO-PPO as a macroinitiator in DMF. Attaching PHEMA blocks altered the self-assembly process of the pentablock copolymer with γ-CDs in aqueous solution. Before attaching the PHEMA, the macroinitiator was preferentially bent to pass through the inner cavity of γ-CDs to give rise to tight-fit double-chain stranded polypseudorotaxanes (PPRs). After attaching the PHEMA, the resulting pentablock copolymer was single-chain stranded into the interior of γ-CDs to form more stable, loose-fit PPRs. The results of 1H NMR, WXRD, DSC, TGA, 13C CP/MAS NMR and FTIR analyses indicated that γ-CDs can accommodate and slip over PHEMA blocks to randomly distribute along the entire pentablock copolymer chain. This results in unique, single-chain stranded PPRs showing no characteristic channel-type crystal structure. PMID:25383117

  14. Highly photoconducting O2-doped CdS films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, D.; El-Korashy, A. M.; Stirn, R. J.; Karulkar, P. C.

    1984-01-01

    CdS films have been prepared by spraying in air solutions of thiourea with either cadmium chloride or cadmium acetate with varying mole ratio and substrate temperature, and subsequently heat treating in oxygen. Substrates included both bare glass or sapphire and transparent conducting oxide-coated sapphire for electrical measurements lateral and transverse to the CdS plane, respectively. Dark resistances of over 10 to the 14th ohms and light-to-dark conductivities of up to 10 to the 7th were obtained using uncoated substrates. The use of Cd(C2H3O2)2 in place of CdCl2 greatly increased the speed of response although with some sacrifice in photoconductivity. Deposition of CdS on ITO-coated surfaces led to greatly reduced dark resistances for the case of CdCl2, but not Cd(C2H3O2)2, presumably due to HCl reaction with the ITO coating in the course of spraying with the former. Ion microprobe analysis detected indium within the CdS films exhibiting low dark resistance. Measurements of the dark and light conductivities at temperatures down to 77 K are given as are the response times for unetched and HCl-etched surfaces.

  15. Preparation, structural and linear optical properties of Zn doped CdS nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekhar, H.; Rakesh Kumar, Y.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2015-02-01

    A series of Zn doped cadmium sulfide (CdS:Zn) nanopowders were prepared by a simple co-precipitation method at room temperature by mixing the stoichiometric amount of reactants in a Milli Q water solvent. The composition of nanopowders was accurately adjusted by controlling the molar ratio of Cd, Zn acetate in the mixed reactants. Spectroscopic studies on as prepared nanopowders were investigated by using XRD, Raman, UV-Vis absorption, FE- SEM-EDAX and photoluminescence. Extremely broad reflections of XRD peaks of as prepared powders establish the nanometer scale dimensions and cubic structure. Doping with Zn in CdS does not lead to any structural phase transformation but introduces a decrease in the lattice constants. Two characteristics of LO phonon peaks were observed in pure and Zn doped CdS samples. Raman peaks of Zn doped CdS nanopowders shifts slightly towards higher energy side compared to the pure CdS nanopowders. Exciton-phonon confinement factor (S) varies in between 0.3-0.4. At lower wavelength excitation we observed a broad emission peak maximum centered at 404 nm is attributed to localized band edge emission.

  16. Cd–cysteine precursor nanowire templated microwave-assisted transformation route to CdS nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiao-Lin; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Qian; Li, Zhi-Feng; Yang, Bin

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Cadmium sulfide polycrystalline nanotubes have been successfully synthesized by microwave-assisted transformation method using Cd–cysteine precursor nanowires as the source material and template in ethylene glycol at 160 °C or ethanol at 60 °C. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Cd–cysteine precursor nanowires were successfully synthesized in alkaline solution. ► CdS nanotubes were prepared by templated microwave-assisted transformation method. ► CdS nanotubes can well duplicate the size and morphology of precursor nanowires. ► This method has the advantages of the simplicity and low cost. -- Abstract: We report the Cd–cysteine precursor nanowire templated microwave-assisted transformation route to CdS nanotubes. In this method, the Cd–cysteine precursor nanowires are synthesized using CdCl{sub 2}·2.5H{sub 2}O, L-cysteine and ethanolamine in water at room temperature. The Cd–cysteine precursor nanowires are used as the source material and template for the subsequent preparation of CdS nanotubes by a microwave-assisted transformation method using ethylene glycol or ethanol as the solvent. This method has the advantages of the simplicity and low cost, and may be extended to the synthesis of nanotubes of other compounds. The products are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  17. Potent neutralizing anti-CD1d antibody reduces lung cytokine release in primate asthma model

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Jonathan; Clarke, Adam W; Shim, Doris; Mabon, David; Tian, Chen; Windloch, Karolina; Buhmann, Chris; Corazon, Beau; Lindgren, Matilda; Pollard, Matthew; Domagala, Teresa; Poulton, Lynn; Doyle, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    CD1d is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells involved in triggering cell populations, particularly natural killer T (NKT) cells, to release high levels of cytokines. NKT cells are implicated in asthma pathology and blockade of the CD1d/NKT cell pathway may have therapeutic potential. We developed a potent anti-human CD1d antibody (NIB.2) that possesses high affinity for human and cynomolgus macaque CD1d (KD ∼100 pM) and strong neutralizing activity in human primary cell-based assays (IC50 typically <100 pM). By epitope mapping experiments, we showed that NIB.2 binds to CD1d in close proximity to the interface of CD1d and the Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain. Together with data showing that NIB.2 inhibited stimulation via CD1d loaded with different glycolipids, this supports a mechanism whereby NIB.2 inhibits NKT cell activation by inhibiting Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain interactions with CD1d, independent of the lipid antigen in the CD1d antigen-binding cleft. The strong in vitro potency of NIB.2 was reflected in vivo in an Ascaris suum cynomolgus macaque asthma model. Compared with vehicle control, NIB.2 treatment significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of Ascaris-induced cytokines IL-5, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist, and significantly reduced baseline levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, IL-12/23p40, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and VEGF. At a cellular population level NIB.2 also reduced numbers of BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and blood eosinophils and basophils. We demonstrate that anti-CD1d antibody blockade of the CD1d/NKT pathway modulates inflammatory parameters in vivo in a primate inflammation model, with therapeutic potential for diseases where the local cytokine milieu is critical. PMID:25751125

  18. Fabrication of zein nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luecha, Jarupat

    resins. The soft lithography technique was mainly used to fabricate micro and nanostructures on zein films. Zein material well-replicated small structures with the smallest size at sub micrometer scale that resulted in interesting photonic properties. The bonding method was also developed for assembling portable zein microfluidic devices with small shape distortion. Zein-zein and zein-glass microfluidic devices demonstrated sufficient strength to facilitate fluid flow in a complex microfluidic design with no leakage. Aside from the fabrication technique development, several potential applications of this environmentally friendly microfluidic device were investigated. The concentration gradient manipulation of Rhodamine B solution in zein-glass microfluidic devices was demonstrated. The diffusion of small molecules such as fluorescent dye into the wall of the zein microfluidic channels was observed. However, with this formulation, zein microfluidic devices were not suitable for cell culture applications. This pioneer study covered a wide spectrum of the implementation of the two nanotechnology approaches to advance zein biomaterial which provided proof of fundamental concepts as well as presenting some limitations. The findings in this study can lead to several innovative research opportunities of advanced zein biomaterials with broad applications. The information from the study of zein nanocomposite structure allows the packaging industry to develop the low cost biodegradable materials with physical property improvement. The information from the study of the zein microfluidic devices allows agro-industry to develop the nanotechnology-enabled microfluidic sensors fabricated entirely from biodegradable polymer for on-site disease or contaminant detection in the fields of food and agriculture.

  19. UNDERFLIGHT CALIBRATION OF SOHO/CDS AND HINODE/EIS WITH EUNIS-07

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Tongjiang; Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Thomas, Roger J.; Rabin, Douglas M.; Davila, Joseph M.; Young, Peter R.; Del Zanna, Giulio

    2011-12-01

    Flights of Goddard Space Flight Center's Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS) sounding rocket in 2006 and 2007 provided updated radiometric calibrations for Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (SOHO/CDS) and Hinode/Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (Hinode/EIS). EUNIS carried two independent imaging spectrographs covering wavebands of 300-370 A in first order and 170-205 A in second order. After each flight, end-to-end radiometric calibrations of the rocket payload were carried out in the same facility used for pre-launch calibrations of CDS and EIS. During the 2007 flight, EUNIS, SOHO/CDS, and Hinode/EIS observed the same solar locations, allowing the EUNIS calibrations to be directly applied to both CDS and EIS. The measured CDS NIS 1 line intensities calibrated with the standard (version 4) responsivities with the standard long-term corrections are found to be too low by a factor of 1.5 due to the decrease in responsivity. The EIS calibration update is performed in two ways. One uses the direct calibration transfer of the calibrated EUNIS-07 short wavelength (SW) channel. The other uses the insensitive line pairs, in which one member was observed by the EUNIS-07 long wavelength (LW) channel and the other by EIS in either the LW or SW waveband. Measurements from both methods are in good agreement, and confirm (within the measurement uncertainties) the EIS responsivity measured directly before the instrument's launch. The measurements also suggest that the EIS responsivity decreased by a factor of about 1.2 after the first year of operation (although the size of the measurement uncertainties is comparable to this decrease). The shape of the EIS SW response curve obtained by EUNIS-07 is consistent with the one measured in laboratory prior to launch. The absolute value of the quiet-Sun He II 304 A intensity measured by EUNIS-07 is consistent with the radiance measured by CDS NIS in quiet regions near the

  20. Nanostructured Carbons and Their Electrical Transport Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wu

    This thesis is about the fabrication, characterization, device preparation and electrical transport properties measurements of three types of nanostructured carbons. In particular, the foci are on the 4 Angstrom carbon nanotubes embedded in zeolite crystals, bundles of double-wall carbon nanotubes, and disordered graphene. The 4 Angstrom single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) embedded in zeolite crystals are fabricated by a new heating process which introduces ethylene gas as the carbon source. Raman characterization indicates the sample quality to be improved compared to that fabricated by the original heating process that involved converting the precursor tripropylamine. Transport measurements carried out on these newly fabricated 4 Angstrom SWCNT samples show two types of superconducting resistive transitions. The first type is one-dimensional (1D) crossover to three-dimensional (3D) superconducting transition, which was observed to initiate at 15 K, followed by a sharp, order of magnitude resistance drop at 7.5 K. The sharp transition exhibits anisotropic magnetic field dependence. And differential resistance versus current curves indicate that the establishment of coherence proceeded in stages as the temperature is lowered below 15K. In particular, the sharp resistance drop and its attendant nonlinear IV characteristics are consistent with the manifestations of a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition that establishes a quasi-long range order in the plane transverse to the c-axis of the nanotubes. The second type is quasi 1D superconducting transition, which was also observed to initiate at 15 K. But the resistance drop exhibits a smooth feature and magnetic field independence up to 11 Tesla as temperature decreases. And differential resistance increases smoothly with bias current. Specific heat and new Meissner effect measurements carried out by Prof. Rolf Lortz's group provide strong support of the superconductivity in 4 Angstrom CNTs, with detailed

  1. Mapping of the serotonin 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} autoreceptor gene (HTR1D) on chromosome 1 using a silent polymorphism in the coding region

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, N.; Lappalainen, J.; Linnoila, M.

    1995-04-24

    Serotonin (5-HT){sub ID} receptors are 5-HT release-regulating autoreceptors in the human brain. Abnormalities in brain 5-HT function have been hypothesized in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, mood disorders, eating disorders, impulsive violent behavior, and alcoholism. Thus, mutations occurring in 5-HT autoreceptors may cause or increase the vulnerability to any of these conditions. 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} and 5-HT{sub 1D{Beta}} subtypes have been previously localized to chromosomes 1p36.3-p34.3 and 6q13, respectively, using rodent-human hybrids and in situ localization. In this communication, we report the detection of a 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} receptor gene polymorphism by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the coding sequence. The polymorphism was used for fine scale linkage mapping of 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} on chromosome 1. This polymorphism should also be useful for linkage studies in populations and in families. Our analysis also demonstrates that functionally significant coding sequence variants of the 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} are probably not abundant either among alcoholics or in the general population. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer efficiency in the O/1 D/-N2 and O/1 D/-CO systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, T. G.; Black, G.

    1974-01-01

    With the aid of a molecular resonance fluorescence technique, which utilizes optical pumping from the v = 1 level of the ground state of CO by A 1 Pi-X 1 Sigma radiation, a study is made of the efficiency of E-V transfer from O(1 D) to CO. O(1 D) is generated at a known rate by O2 photodissociation at 1470 A in an intermittent mode, and the small modulation of the fluorescent signal associated with CO (v = 1) above the normal thermal background is interpreted in terms of E-V transfer efficiency. The CO (v = 1) lifetime in this system is determined mainly by resonance trapping of the IR fundamental band, and is found to be up to ten times longer than the natural radiative lifetime. For CO, (40 plus or minus 8)% of the O(1 D) energy is converted into vibrational energy. By observing the effect of N2 on the CO (v = 1) fluorescent intensity and lifetime, it is possible to obtain the E-V transfer efficiency for the system O(1 D)-N2 relative to that for O(1 D)-CO. The results indicate that the efficiency for N2 is (83 plus or minus 10)% of that for CO.

  3. A Comprehensive Review of Semiconductor Ultraviolet Photodetectors: From Thin Film to One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Liwen; Liao, Meiyong; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors have drawn extensive attention owing to their applications in industrial, environmental and even biological fields. Compared to UV-enhanced Si photodetectors, a new generation of wide bandgap semiconductors, such as (Al, In) GaN, diamond, and SiC, have the advantages of high responsivity, high thermal stability, robust radiation hardness and high response speed. On the other hand, one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure semiconductors with a wide bandgap, such as β-Ga2O3, GaN, ZnO, or other metal-oxide nanostructures, also show their potential for high-efficiency UV photodetection. In some cases such as flame detection, high-temperature thermally stable detectors with high performance are required. This article provides a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art research activities in the UV photodetection field, including not only semiconductor thin films, but also 1D nanostructured materials, which are attracting more and more attention in the detection field. A special focus is given on the thermal stability of the developed devices, which is one of the key characteristics for the real applications. PMID:23945739

  4. A comprehensive review of semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors: from thin film to one-dimensional nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Sang, Liwen; Liao, Meiyong; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors have drawn extensive attention owing to their applications in industrial, environmental and even biological fields. Compared to UV-enhanced Si photodetectors, a new generation of wide bandgap semiconductors, such as (Al, In) GaN, diamond, and SiC, have the advantages of high responsivity, high thermal stability, robust radiation hardness and high response speed. On the other hand, one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure semiconductors with a wide bandgap, such as β-Ga2O3, GaN, ZnO, or other metal-oxide nanostructures, also show their potential for high-efficiency UV photodetection. In some cases such as flame detection, high-temperature thermally stable detectors with high performance are required. This article provides a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art research activities in the UV photodetection field, including not only semiconductor thin films, but also 1D nanostructured materials, which are attracting more and more attention in the detection field. A special focus is given on the thermal stability of the developed devices, which is one of the key characteristics for the real applications. PMID:23945739

  5. Plasmonic spectroscopy of metallic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Weihai

    The study of the plasmonic spectroscopy of metallic nanostructures is of great interest in nanoscale optics and photonics. Metallic nanostructures exhibit rich optical and electrical properties due to their localized surface plasmons (LSPs, collective charge density oscillations that are confined to metallic nanostructures). They can be widely used in a variety of application areas, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), plasmonic sensing, and metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF). In this thesis, a systematic study on the plasmonic spectroscopy of metallic nanostructures has been presented, both theoretically and experimentally. I will first describe my studies on the plasmonic properties of metallic nanostructures. Specific approaches of modifying the sizes and shapes of Au nanorods have been developed for tailoring their plasmonic properties, including surface plasmon wavelength, absorption, scattering, and extinction cross sections. Single-particle dark-field imaging and spectroscopy have proved that the scattering intensity of overgrown nanorods is larger than that of shortened nanorods from the same starting nanorods. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations further show that the scattering-to-extinction ratio increases linearly as a function of the diameter of Au nanorods with a fixed aspect ratio. To obtain a deep understanding on the shape dependence of the localized surface plasmon resonance, I have emplyed FDTD on both Au nanorods and Au nanobipyramids. The results show that, when excited at their LSP wavelengths, Au nanobipyramids exhibit a maximal electric field intensity enhancement that is 3--6 times that of Au nanorods. Au nanorods have been further assembled into chains (end-to-end) and stacks (side-by-side). FDTD calculations have been performed on both Au nanorod chains and stacks with varying gap distances to obtain the dependence of the plasmon shift on the gap distance, which is then used as a plasmonic ruler to estimate the

  6. Diffusion mediated agglomeration of CdS nanoparticles via Langmuir–Blodgett technique

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Nayan Mani Roy, Dhrubojyoti; Gupta, P.S.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Diffusion mediated agglomeration of CdS nanoparticles are discussed. • Formation of CdS nanoparticles are confirmed by the change of chain length in XRD. • AFM shows the agglomeration of particles with a film swelling of about 5 Å. • UV–vis absorbance suggests that the grown particles show quantum confinement. • Hexagonal form of particle was confirmed by UV–vis reflectivity. - Abstract: We have reported a diffusion mediated agglomeration of cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanoparticles within cadmium arachidate (CdA{sub 2}) film matrix. The structural morphology and formation of CdS nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show a change in bilayer difference from 53.04 Å to 43 Å after the sulphidation. An epitaxial growth of the films by ∼5 Å after sulphidation is confirmed from atomic force microscopy studies. The particle size calculated form UV–vis absorption edges are found to be varying from 2.6 nm to 3.3 nm for the different layers. A lateral dimension of 72–80 nm from AFM measurements and a size of 2.6–3.3 nm have confirmed one side flat pseudo two-dimensional disk-like nanoparticles. UV–vis reflectivity peak at E{sub 1} (A) confirms the formation of hexagonal CdS nanoparticles along the c-axis.

  7. Mg line formation in late-type stellar atmospheres. II. Calculations in a grid of 1D models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, Y.; Barklem, P. S.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Mg is the α element of choice for Galactic population and chemical evolution studies because it is easily detectable in all late-type stars. Such studies require precise elemental abundances, and thus departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) need to be accounted for. Aims: Our goal is to provide reliable departure coefficients and equivalent widths in non-LTE, and for reference in LTE, for diagnostic lines of Mg studied in late-type stars. These can be used, for example, to correct LTE spectra and abundances. Methods: Using the model atom built and tested in the preceding paper in this series, we performed non-LTE radiative transfer calculations in a grid of 3945 stellar 1D atmospheric models. We used a sub-grid of 86 models to explore the propagation of errors in the recent atomic collision calculations to the radiative transfer results. Results: We obtained departure coefficients for all the levels and equivalent widths (in LTE and non-LTE) for all the radiative transitions included in the "final" model atom presented in Paper I. Here we present and describe our results and show some examples of applications of the data. The errors that result from uncertainties in the collisional data are investigated and tabulated. The results for equivalent widths and departure coefficients are made freely available. Conclusions: Giants tend to have negative abundance corrections while dwarfs have positive, though small, corrections. Error analysis results show that uncertainties related to the atomic collision data are typically on the order of 0.01 dex or less, although for few stellar models in specific lines uncertainties can be as large as 0.03 dex. As these errors are less than or on the same order as typical corrections, we expect that we can use these results to extract Mg abundances from high-quality spectra more reliably than from classical LTE analysis. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130

  8. Shape-controlled continuous synthesis of metal nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Victor; Smith, Christopher D; Jensen, Klavs F

    2016-04-14

    A segmented flow-based microreactor is used for the continuous production of faceted nanocrystals. Flow segmentation is proposed as a versatile tool to manipulate the reduction kinetics and control the growth of faceted nanostructures; tuning the size and shape. Switching the gas from oxygen to carbon monoxide permits the adjustment in nanostructure growth from 1D (nanorods) to 2D (nanosheets). CO is a key factor in the formation of Pd nanosheets and Pt nanocubes; operating as a second phase, a reductant, and a capping agent. This combination confines the growth to specific structures. In addition, the segmented flow microfluidic reactor inherently has the ability to operate in a reproducible manner at elevated temperatures and pressures whilst confining potentially toxic reactants, such as CO, in nanoliter slugs. This continuous system successfully synthesised Pd nanorods with an aspect ratio of 6; thin palladium nanosheets with a thickness of 1.5 nm; and Pt nanocubes with a 5.6 nm edge length, all in a synthesis time as low as 150 s. PMID:26927867

  9. Ultrasensitive detection of amifostine and alkaline phosphatase based on the growth of CdS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Na, Weidan; Liu, Siyu; Liu, Xiaotong; Su, Xingguang

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we reported a simple and sensitive fluorescence nanosensor for rapid detection of amifostine and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The novel nanosensor was based on the fluorescence "turn on-off" of CdS quantum dots (QDs). Firstly, Cd(2+) cation could react with S(2-) anion to generate fluorescent CdS QDs in the presence of amifostine. The fluorescence (FL) intensity of amifostine-capped CdS QDs (Amifostine-CdS QDs) was increased with the increasing amounts of amifostine, and could be used for amifostine detection. However, amifostine could be converted to 2-(3-aminopropylamino) ethanethiol (WR1065) in the presence of ALP based on the dephosphorylation of ALP. Under the optimum conditions, the affinity of WR1065 to CdS QDs was weaker than that of amifostine. Therefore the new generation of WR1065-CdS QDs would reduce the FL intensity with the increase of ALP concentration, and the fluorescence of CdS QDs was turn off. The metabolic process of amifostine in the presence of alkaline phosphatase could be also studied via the change of FL intensity of CdS QDs. The present method was cost-effective, convenient, and does not require any complicated synthetic procedures. PMID:26452927

  10. Challenges and Solutions in Optimizing Execution Performance of a Clinical Decision Support-Based Quality Measurement (CDS-QM) Framework

    PubMed Central

    Tippetts, Tyler J; Warner, Phillip B; Kukhareva, Polina V; Shields, David E; Staes, Catherine J; Kawamoto, Kensaku

    2015-01-01

    Given the close relationship between clinical decision support (CDS) and quality measurement (QM), it has been proposed that a standards-based CDS Web service could be leveraged to enable QM. Benefits of such a CDS-QM framework include semantic consistency and implementation efficiency. However, earlier research has identified execution performance as a critical barrier when CDS-QM is applied to large populations. Here, we describe challenges encountered and solutions devised to optimize CDS-QM execution performance. Through these optimizations, the CDS-QM execution time was optimized approximately three orders of magnitude, such that approximately 370,000 patient records can now be evaluated for 22 quality measure groups in less than 5 hours (approximately 2 milliseconds per measure group per patient). Several key optimization methods were identified, with the most impact achieved through population-based retrieval of relevant data, multi-step data staging, and parallel processing. These optimizations have enabled CDS-QM to be operationally deployed at an enterprise level. PMID:26958259

  11. Characterization of CdS thin film in high efficient CdS/CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Miwa; Aramoto, Tetsuya; Ohyama, Hideaki; Hibino, Takeshi; Omura, Kuniyoshi

    2000-06-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin film is the most commonly used window material for high-efficient cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin-film photovoltaic devices. High-efficient CdS/CdTe solar cells have been developed using ultra-thin CdS films having a thickness of below 0.1 μm. CdS film is deposited on transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film coated glass substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, CdTe film is subsequently deposited by the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) technique. Finally, carbon and Ag-In electrodes are fabricated by the screen printing and sintering method. Cell performance depends primarily on the electrical and optical properties of CdS film, and hence we started to develop higher quality CdS film and found out clear differences between high- and low-quality CdS films from various analyses: SEM, AFM, SIMS, TDS and FT-IR. As a result of controlling qualities of CdS films, photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 10.5% has been achieved for a size of 1376 cm 2 of the solar module under air mass (AM) 1.5 conditions by the Japan Quality Assurance Organization (JQA).

  12. Surfactant free most probable TiO2 nanostructures via hydrothermal and its dye sensitized solar cell properties

    PubMed Central

    Mali, Sawanta S.; Kim, Hyungjin; Shim, Chang Su; Patil, Pramod S.; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Hong, Chang Kook

    2013-01-01

    Tailoring the nano-morphology and nano-architecture of titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most important task in the third generation solar cells (Dye sensitized solar cells/Quantum dot sensitized solar cells) (DSSCs/QDSSCs). In this article we present complete study of surfactant free synthesis of TiO2 nanostructures by a simple and promising hydrothermal route. The plethora of nanostructures like nanoparticles clusters, 1D tetragonal nanorods, 3D dendrites containing nanorods having <30 nm diameter and 3D hollow urchin like have been synthesized. These nanostructures possess effective large surface area and thus useful in DSSCs. In the present work, 7.16% power conversion efficiency has been demonstrated for 3D dendritic hollow urchin like morphology. Our synthetic strategy provides an effective solution for surfactant free synthesis of efficient TiO2 nanoarchitectures. PMID:24141599

  13. Templated Synthesis of Silver(I) and Copper(II) Nanostructures: Solid State Reactions and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourret, Gilles R.

    2011-12-01

    This Thesis presents the synthesis of novel 1D, 2D, and 3D Ag(I) and Cu(II) nanostructures and their use as sacrificial templates to make functional nanomaterials. New soft template methods were developed for the synthesis of AgCN and Cu(OH)2 nanostructures. Polymeric organic nanotubes were successfully used to synthesize AgCN nanowires, while the precipitation of Cu(OH)2 nanofibers was templated in water microdroplets. Both methods benefit from the versatility of soft templates and allows for a control of both the size and the morphology of the nanostructures produced. The conversion of these precursors into metallic and semi-conductive nanomaterials was achieved via chemical and electrochemical reduction, and thermolysis. Chemical reduction of the AgCN nanowires leads to the fabrication of conductive arrays on nylon filter substrates, while the thermolysis of the Cu(OH)2 spherical assemblies yields photoresponsive semi-conductive porous CuO spheres. The electrochemical reduction of the native Ag(I) and Cu(II) one-dimensional nanostructures was investigated in aqueous solution at gold/glass/gold junctions. The solid-solid conversion involved in the electrochemical reduction process was studied via cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and electronic microscopy. The strong influence of the reduction potential on the nanomaterials produced allowed for the fabrication of a range of Ag(0) nanostructures, including nanoparticles, nanoprisms, nanofibers and porous networks. Electrochemical reduction of Au/M2+/Au junctions leads to the formation of an excellent electrical contact between the two gold electrodes. This technique was expanded to include ionically-conductive Ag2S nanowires which form metallic/ionic-conductor heterojunctions. Keywords: nanostructure, nanowire, template, emulsion, electrochemistry, silver, cyanide, copper, oxide, heterojunction, sacrificial template.

  14. Tctex1d2 Is a Negative Regulator of GLUT4 Translocation and Glucose Uptake.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoko; Okada, Shuichi; Yamada, Eijiro; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Yamada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    Tctex1d2 (Tctex1 domain containing 2) is an open reading frame that encodes for a functionally unknown protein that contains a Tctex1 domain found in dynein light chain family members. Examination of gene expression during adipogenesis demonstrated a marked increase in Tctex1d2 protein expression that was essentially undetectable in preadipocytes and markedly induced during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Tctex1d2 overexpression significantly inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake. In contrast, Tctex1d2 knockdown significantly increased insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake. However, acute insulin stimulation (up to 30 min) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with overexpression or knockdown of Tctex1d2 had no effect on Akt phosphorylation, a critical signal transduction target required for GLUT4 translocation. Although overexpression of Tctex1d2 had no significant effect on GLUT4 internalization, Tctex1d2 was found to associate with syntaxin 4 in an insulin-dependent manner and inhibit Doc2b binding to syntaxin 4. In addition, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide rescued the Tctex1d2 inhibition of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation by suppressing the Tctex1d2-syntaxin 4 interaction and increasing Doc2b-Synatxin4 interactions. Taking these results together, we hypothesized that Tctex1d2 is a novel syntaxin 4 binding protein that functions as a negative regulator of GLUT4 plasma membrane translocation through inhibition of the Doc2b-syntaxin 4 interaction. PMID:26200093

  15. Electronic structure and optical properties of CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} solid solution nanostructures from X-ray absorption near edge structure, X-ray excited optical luminescence, and density functional theory investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, M. W.; Yiu, Y. M. Sham, T. K.; Ward, M. J.; Liu, L.; Hu, Y.; Zapien, J. A.; Liu, Yingkai

    2014-11-21

    The electronic structure and optical properties of a series of iso-electronic and iso-structural CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} solid solution nanostructures have been investigated using X-ray absorption near edge structure, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray excited optical luminescence at various absorption edges of Cd, S, and Se. It is found that the system exhibits compositions, with variable local structure in-between that of CdS and CdSe accompanied by tunable optical band gap between that of CdS and CdSe. Theoretical calculation using density functional theory has been carried out to elucidate the observations. It is also found that luminescence induced by X-ray excitation shows new optical channels not observed previously with laser excitation. The implications of these observations are discussed.

  16. Chemical Sensors Based on Metal Oxide Nanostructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Mike J.; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an overview of sensor development based on metal oxide nanostructures. While nanostructures such as nanorods show significan t potential as enabling materials for chemical sensors, a number of s ignificant technical challenges remain. The major issues addressed in this work revolve around the ability to make workable sensors. This paper discusses efforts to address three technical barriers related t o the application of nanostructures into sensor systems: 1) Improving contact of the nanostructured materials with electrodes in a microse nsor structure; 2) Controling nanostructure crystallinity to allow co ntrol of the detection mechanism; and 3) Widening the range of gases that can be detected by using different nanostructured materials. It is concluded that while this work demonstrates useful tools for furt her development, these are just the beginning steps towards realizati on of repeatable, controlled sensor systems using oxide based nanostr uctures.

  17. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  18. Photophysical and photocatalytic properties of histidine-stabilized CdS quantum dots in the presence of indole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanu, T. Inakhunbi; Negi, Devendra P. S.

    2012-01-01

    The fluorescence band of the histidine-stabilized CdS quantum dots was found to be blue-shifted as well as enhanced in intensity in the presence of indole. Irradiation of the reaction mixture containing CdS and indole using visible light resulted in the formation of indigo and isatin as the products of the photocatalytic reaction. The presence of adenine was found to enhance the photocatalytic activity of the CdS quantum dots. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements indicated that adenine enhanced the lifetime of the photogenerated electron-hole pair thereby allowing more indole molecules to undergo reaction with the hole.

  19. Erythorbic acid promoted formation of CdS QDs in a tube-in-tube micro-channel reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Yan; Tan, Jiawei; Wang, Jiexin; Chen, Jianfeng; Sun, Baochang; Shao, Lei

    2014-12-15

    Erythorbic acid assistant synthesis of CdS quantum dots (QDs) was conducted by homogeneous mixing of two continuous liquids in a high-throughput microporous tube-in-tube micro-channel reactor (MTMCR) at room temperature. The effects of the micropore size of the MTMCR, liquid flow rate, mixing time and reactant concentration on the size and size distribution of CdS QDs were investigated. It was found that the size and size distribution of CdS QDs could be tuned in the MTMCR. A combination of erythorbic acid promoted formation technique with the MTMCR may be a promising pathway for controllable mass production of QDs.

  20. Nanostructured materials for water desalination.

    PubMed

    Humplik, T; Lee, J; O'Hern, S C; Fellman, B A; Baig, M A; Hassan, S F; Atieh, M A; Rahman, F; Laoui, T; Karnik, R; Wang, E N

    2011-07-22

    Desalination of seawater and brackish water is becoming an increasingly important means to address the scarcity of fresh water resources in the world. Decreasing the energy requirements and infrastructure costs of existing desalination technologies remains a challenge. By enabling the manipulation of matter and control of transport at nanometer length scales, the emergence of nanotechnology offers new opportunities to advance water desalination technologies. This review focuses on nanostructured materials that are directly involved in the separation of water from salt as opposed to mitigating issues such as fouling. We discuss separation mechanisms and novel transport phenomena in materials including zeolites, carbon nanotubes, and graphene with potential applications to reverse osmosis, capacitive deionization, and multi-stage flash, among others. Such nanostructured materials can potentially enable the development of next-generation desalination systems with increased efficiency and capacity. PMID:21680966

  1. Raman Studies of Carbon Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorio, Ado; Souza Filho, Antonio G.

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews recent advances on the use of Raman spectroscopy to study and characterize carbon nanostructures. It starts with a brief survey of Raman spectroscopy of graphene and carbon nanotubes, followed by recent developments in the field. Various novel topics, including Stokes–anti-Stokes correlation, tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in two dimensions, phonon coherence, and high-pressure and shielding effects, are presented. Some consequences for other fields—quantum optics, near-field electromagnetism, archeology, materials and soil sciences—are discussed. The review ends with a discussion of new perspectives on Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanostructures, including how this technique can contribute to the development of biotechnological applications and nanotoxicology.

  2. Nanorice: a new hybrid nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordlander, P.; Brandl, D.; Le, F.; Wang, H.; Halas, N. J.

    2006-03-01

    The plasmon hybridization method [1] is applied to nanorice, a new metallic nanostructure which combines the properties of two popular tunable plasmonic nanoparticle geometries: nanorods and nanoshells. The particle consists of a prolate spheroidal dielectric core and a thin metallic shell, bearing a remarkable resemblance to a rice grain. The nanorice particle shows far greater geometric tunability of the optical resonance, larger local field intensity enhancements and far greater sensitivity as a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) nanosensor than any previously reported dielectric-metal nanostructure. The tunability of the nanorice particle arises from the interaction of primitive plasmons associated with the inner and outer surfaces of the shell. The results from plasmon hybridization are compared to FDTD simulations. [1] E. Prodan and P. Nordlander, J. Chem. Phys. 120(2004)5444-5454

  3. Topology optimization of piezoelectric nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanthakumar, S. S.; Lahmer, Tom; Zhuang, Xiaoying; Park, Harold S.; Rabczuk, Timon

    2016-09-01

    We present an extended finite element formulation for piezoelectric nanobeams and nanoplates that is coupled with topology optimization to study the energy harvesting potential of piezoelectric nanostructures. The finite element model for the nanoplates is based on the Kirchoff plate model, with a linear through the thickness distribution of electric potential. Based on the topology optimization, the largest enhancements in energy harvesting are found for closed circuit boundary conditions, though significant gains are also found for open circuit boundary conditions. Most interestingly, our results demonstrate the competition between surface elasticity, which reduces the energy conversion efficiency, and surface piezoelectricity, which enhances the energy conversion efficiency, in governing the energy harvesting potential of piezoelectric nanostructures.

  4. Coherent acoustic phonons in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekorsy, T.; Taubert, R.; Hudert, F.; Bartels, A.; Habenicht, A.; Merkt, F.; Leiderer, P.; Köhler, K.; Schmitz, J.; Wagner, J.

    2008-02-01

    Phonons are considered as a most important origin of scattering and dissipation for electronic coherence in nanostructures. The generation of coherent acoustic phonons with femtosecond laser pulses opens the possibility to control phonon dynamics in amplitude and phase. We demonstrate a new experimental technique based on two synchronized femtosecond lasers with GHz repetition rate to study the dynamics of coherently generated acoustic phonons in semiconductor heterostructures with high sensitivity. High-speed synchronous optical sampling (ASOPS) enables to scan a time-delay of 1 ns with 100 fs time resolution with a frequency in the kHz range without a moving part in the set-up. We investigate the dynamics of coherent zone-folded acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattices (GaAs/AlAs and GaSb/InAs) and of coherent vibration of metallic nanostructures of non-spherical shape using ASOPS.

  5. Shape-dependent magnetic properties of Co nanostructure arrays synthesized by pulsed laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirato, N.; Sherrill, S.; Gangopadhyay, A. K.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2016-06-01

    One dimensional (1D) magnetic nanowires show unique magnetic behaviors, such as large coercivity and high remanence, in comparison to the bulk and thin film materials. Here, planar arrays of Co nanowires, nanorods and nanoparticles were fabricated from thin Co films by a nanosecond pulsed laser interference irradiation technique. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and surface magneto-optic Kerr effect (SMOKE) techniques were used to study the individual and average magnetic properties of the nanostructures. Magnetic domain orientation was found to depend on the in-plane aspect ratio of the nanostructure. The magnetic orientation was out-of-plane for in-plane aspect ratio ranging from 1 to 1.4 and transitioned to an in-plane orientation for aspect ratios greater than 1.4 (such as in nanorods and nanowires). Our results also showed that polycrystalline Co nanowires showed much higher coercivity and remanence as compared to bulk and thin film materials, as well as shapes with smaller aspect ratio. This result was attributed mainly to the shape anisotropy. This study demonstrated that nanosecond pulsed laser synthesis is capable of fabricating various nanostructures in a simple, robust and rapid manner and SMOKE is a reliable technique to rapidly characterize such magnetic nanostructures.

  6. Sintering and ripening resistant noble metal nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    van Swol, Frank B; Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A; Miller, James E; Challa, Sivakumar R

    2013-09-24

    Durable porous metal nanostructures comprising thin metal nanosheets that are metastable under some conditions that commonly produce rapid reduction in surface area due to sintering and/or Ostwald ripening. The invention further comprises the method for making such durable porous metal nanostructures. Durable, high-surface area nanostructures result from the formation of persistent durable holes or pores in metal nanosheets formed from dendritic nanosheets.

  7. Advances in CZTS thin films and nanostructured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N.; Ahmed, R.; Bakhtiar-Ul-Haq; Shaari, A.

    2015-06-01

    Already published data for the optical band gap (Eg) of thin films and nanostructured copper zinc tin sulphide (CZTS) have been reviewed and combined. The vacuum (physical) and non-vacuum (chemical) processes are focused in the study for band gap comparison. The results are accumulated for thin films and nanostructured in different tables. It is inferred from the re- view that the nanostructured material has plenty of worth by engineering the band gap for capturing the maximum photons from solar spectrum.

  8. Functional Properties of Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassing, Rainer; Petkov, Plamen; Kulisch, Wilhelm; Popov, Cyril

    This book, based on the lectures and contributions of the NATO ASI on "Functional Properties of Nanostructured Materials", gives a broad overview on this topic, as it combines basic theoretical articles, papers dealing with experimental techniques, and contributions on advanced and up-to-date applications in fields such as microelectronics, optoelectronics, electrochemistry, sensorics, and biotechnology. In addition, it presents an interdisciplinary approach since the authors came from such different fields as physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science and biology.

  9. Insulating oxide surfaces and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goniakowski, Jacek; Noguera, Claudine

    2016-03-01

    This contribution describes some peculiarities of the science of oxide surfaces and nanostructures and proposes a simple conceptual scheme to understand their electronic structure, in the spirit of Jacques Friedel's work. Major results on the effects of non-stoichiometry and polarity are presented, for both semi-infinite surfaces and ultra-thin films, and promising lines of research for the near future are sketched. xml:lang="fr"

  10. Thermoelectric effects in graphene nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Dollfus, Philippe; Hung Nguyen, Viet; Saint-Martin, Jérôme

    2015-04-10

    The thermoelectric properties of graphene and graphene nanostructures have recently attracted significant attention from the physics and engineering communities. In fundamental physics, the analysis of Seebeck and Nernst effects is very useful in elucidating some details of the electronic band structure of graphene that cannot be probed by conductance measurements alone, due in particular to the ambipolar nature of this gapless material. For applications in thermoelectric energy conversion, graphene has two major disadvantages. It is gapless, which leads to a small Seebeck coefficient due to the opposite contributions of electrons and holes, and it is an excellent thermal conductor. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of a two-dimensional (2D) graphene sheet is thus very limited. However, many works have demonstrated recently that appropriate nanostructuring and bandgap engineering of graphene can concomitantly strongly reduce the lattice thermal conductance and enhance the Seebeck coefficient without dramatically degrading the electronic conductance. Hence, in various graphene nanostructures, ZT has been predicted to be high enough to make them attractive for energy conversion. In this article, we review the main results obtained experimentally and theoretically on the thermoelectric properties of graphene and its nanostructures, emphasizing the physical effects that govern these properties. Beyond pure graphene structures, we discuss also the thermoelectric properties of some hybrid graphene structures, as graphane, layered carbon allotropes such as graphynes and graphdiynes, and graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures which offer new opportunities. Finally, we briefly review the recent activities on other atomically thin 2D semiconductors with finite bandgap, i.e. dichalcogenides and phosphorene, which have attracted great attention for various kinds of applications, including thermoelectrics. PMID:25779989

  11. Synthesis of Compositionally Defined Single-Crystalline Eu 3+ -Activated Molybdate–Tungstate Solid-Solution Composite Nanowires and Observation of Charge Transfer in a Novel Class of 1D CaMoO 4 –CaWO 4 :Eu 3+ –0D CdS/CdSe QD Nanoscale Heterostructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Fischer, Daniel A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-02-10

    As a first step, we have synthesized and optically characterized a systematic series of one-dimensional (1D) single-crystalline Eu³⁺-activated alkaline-earth metal tungstate/molybdate solid solution composite CaW₁₋xMoxO₄ (0 ≤ ‘x’ ≤ 1) nanowires of controllable chemical composition using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions. Extensive characterization of the resulting nanowires has been performed using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. The crystallite size and single crystallinity of as-prepared 1D CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (0 ≤ ‘x’ ≤ 1) solid solution composite nanowires increase with increasing Mo component (‘x’). We note a clear dependence of luminescence output upon nanowire chemical composition withmore » our 1D CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (0 ≤ ‘x’ ≤ 1) evincing the highest photoluminescence (PL) output at ‘x’ = 0.8, amongst samples tested. Subsequently, coupled with either zero-dimensional (0D) CdS or CdSe quantum dots (QDs), we successfully synthesized and observed charge transfer processes in 1D CaW1-xMoxO4: Eu3+ (‘x’ = 0.8) – 0D QD composite nanoscale heterostructures. Our results show that CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (‘x’ = 0.8) nanowires give rise to PL quenching when CdSe QDs and CdS QDs are anchored onto the surfaces of 1D CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ nanowires. The observed PL quenching is especially pronounced in CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (‘x’ = 0.8) – 0D CdSe QD heterostructures. Conversely, the PL output and lifetimes of CdSe and CdS QDs within these heterostructures are not noticeably altered as compared with unbound CdSe and CdS QDs. The difference in optical behavior between 1D Eu³⁺ activated tungstate and molybdate solid solution nanowires and the semiconducting 0D QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. We propose that

  12. Synthesis of Compositionally Defined Single-Crystalline Eu 3+ -Activated Molybdate–Tungstate Solid-Solution Composite Nanowires and Observation of Charge Transfer in a Novel Class of 1D CaMoO 4 –CaWO 4 :Eu 3+ –0D CdS/CdSe QD Nanoscale Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Fischer, Daniel A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-02-10

    As a first step, we have synthesized and optically characterized a systematic series of one-dimensional (1D) single-crystalline Eu³⁺-activated alkaline-earth metal tungstate/molybdate solid solution composite CaW₁₋xMoxO₄ (0 ≤ ‘x’ ≤ 1) nanowires of controllable chemical composition using a modified template-directed methodology under ambient room-temperature conditions. Extensive characterization of the resulting nanowires has been performed using X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. The crystallite size and single crystallinity of as-prepared 1D CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (0 ≤ ‘x’ ≤ 1) solid solution composite nanowires increase with increasing Mo component (‘x’). We note a clear dependence of luminescence output upon nanowire chemical composition with our 1D CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (0 ≤ ‘x’ ≤ 1) evincing the highest photoluminescence (PL) output at ‘x’ = 0.8, amongst samples tested. Subsequently, coupled with either zero-dimensional (0D) CdS or CdSe quantum dots (QDs), we successfully synthesized and observed charge transfer processes in 1D CaW1-xMoxO4: Eu3+ (‘x’ = 0.8) – 0D QD composite nanoscale heterostructures. Our results show that CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (‘x’ = 0.8) nanowires give rise to PL quenching when CdSe QDs and CdS QDs are anchored onto the surfaces of 1D CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ nanowires. The observed PL quenching is especially pronounced in CaW₁₋xMoxO₄: Eu³⁺ (‘x’ = 0.8) – 0D CdSe QD heterostructures. Conversely, the PL output and lifetimes of CdSe and CdS QDs within these heterostructures are not noticeably altered as compared with unbound CdSe and CdS QDs. The difference in optical behavior between 1D Eu³⁺ activated tungstate and molybdate solid solution nanowires and the semiconducting 0D QDs within our

  13. Ultrasonic approach for surface nanostructuring.

    PubMed

    Skorb, Ekaterina V; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2016-03-01

    The review is about solid surface modifications by cavitation induced in strong ultrasonic fields. The topic is worth to be discussed in a special issue of surface cleaning by cavitation induced processes since it is important question if we always find surface cleaning when surface modifications occur, or vice versa. While these aspects are extremely interesting it is important for applications to follow possible pathways during ultrasonic treatment of the surface: (i) solely cleaning; (ii) cleaning with following surface nanostructuring; and (iii) topic of this particular review, surface modification with controllably changing its characteristics for advanced applications. It is important to know what can happen and which parameters should be taking into account in the case of surface modification when actually the aim is solely cleaning or aim is surface nanostructuring. Nanostructuring should be taking into account since is often accidentally applied in cleaning. Surface hydrophilicity, stability to Red/Ox reactions, adhesion of surface layers to substrate, stiffness and melting temperature are important to predict the ultrasonic influence on a surface and discussed from these points for various materials and intermetallics, silicon, hybrid materials. Important solid surface characteristics which determine resistivity and kinetics of surface response to ultrasonic treatment are discussed. It is also discussed treatment in different solvents and presents in solution of metal ions. PMID:26382299

  14. Photoinduced magnetic force between nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guclu, Caner; Tamma, Venkata Ananth; Wickramasinghe, Hemantha Kumar; Capolino, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    Photoinduced magnetic force between nanostructures, at optical frequencies, is investigated theoretically. Till now optical magnetic effects were not used in scanning probe microscopy because of the vanishing natural magnetism with increasing frequency. On the other hand, artificial magnetism in engineered nanostructures led to the development of measurable optical magnetism. Here two examples of nanoprobes that are able to generate strong magnetic dipolar fields at optical frequency are investigated: first, an ideal magnetically polarizable nanosphere and then a circular cluster of silver nanospheres that has a looplike collective plasmonic resonance equivalent to a magnetic dipole. Magnetic forces are evaluated based on nanostructure polarizabilities, i.e., induced magnetic dipoles, and magnetic-near field evaluations. As an initial assessment on the possibility of a magnetic nanoprobe to detect magnetic forces, we consider two identical magnetically polarizable nanoprobes and observe magnetic forces on the order of piconewtons, thereby bringing it within detection limits of conventional atomic force microscopes at ambient pressure and temperature. The detection of magnetic force is a promising method in studying optical magnetic transitions that can be the basis of innovative spectroscopy applications.

  15. Precise replication of antireflective nanostructures from biotemplates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongjun; Liu, Zhongfan; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Guoming; Xie, Guoyong

    2007-03-01

    The authors report herein a new type of nanonipple structures on the cicada's eye and the direct structural replication of the complex micro- and nanostructures for potential functional emulation. A two-step direct molding process is developed to replicate these natural micro- and nanostructures using epoxy resin with high fidelity, which demonstrates a general way of fabricating functional nanostructures by direct replication of natural biotemplates via a suitable physicochemical process. Measurements of spectral reflectance showed that this kind of replicated nanostructure has remarkable antireflective property, suggestive of its potential applications to optical devices.

  16. Processing Nanostructured Sensors Using Microfabrication Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; VanderWal, Randall L.; Evans, Laura J.; Xu, Jennifer C.

    2010-01-01

    Standard microfabrication techniques can be implemented and scaled to help assemble nanoscale microsensors. Currently nanostructures are often deposited onto materials primarily by adding them to a solution, then applying the solution in a thin film. This results in random placement of the nanostructures with no controlled order, and no way to accurately reproduce the placement. This method changes the means by which microsensors with nanostructures are fabricated. The fundamental advantage to this approach is that it enables standard microfabrication techniques to be applied in the repeated manufacture of nanostructured sensors on a microplatform.

  17. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  18. Synthesis of Silver Nanostructures by Multistep Methods

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Song, Yuan-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Yang; Wu, Jing-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    The shape of plasmonic nanostructures such as silver and gold is vital to their physical and chemical properties and potential applications. Recently, preparation of complex nanostructures with rich function by chemical multistep methods is the hotspot of research. In this review we introduce three typical multistep methods to prepare silver nanostructures with well-controlled shapes, including the double reductant method, etching technique and construction of core-shell nanostructures. The growth mechanism of double the reductant method is that different favorable facets of silver nanocrystals are produced in different reductants, which can be used to prepare complex nanostructures such as nanoflags with ultranarrow resonant band bandwidth or some silver nanostructures which are difficult to prepare using other methods. The etching technique can selectively remove nanoparticles to achieve the aim of shape control and is widely used for the synthesis of nanoflowers and hollow nanostructures. Construction of core-shell nanostructures is another tool to control shape and size. The three methods can not only prepare various silver nanostructures with well-controlled shapes, which exhibit unique optical properties, such as strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect, but also have potential application in many areas. PMID:24670722

  19. Nanostructures created by interfered femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Chang, Yun-Ching; Yao, Jimmy; Luo, Claire; Yin, Shizhuo; Ruffin, Paul; Brantley, Christina; Edwards, Eugene

    2011-10-01

    The method by applying the interfered femtosecond laser to create nanostructured copper (Cu) surface has been studied. The nanostructure created by direct laser irradiation is also realized for comparison. Results show that more uniform and finer nanostructures with sphere shape and feature size around 100 nm can be induced by the interfered laser illumination comparing with the direct laser illumination. This offers an alternative fabrication approach that the feature size and the shape of the laser induced metallic nanostructures can be highly controlled, which can extremely improve its performance in related application such as the colorized metal, catalyst, SERS substrate, and etc.

  20. Nanostructures having crystalline and amorphous phases

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Samuel S; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-04-28

    The present invention includes a nanostructure, a method of making thereof, and a method of photocatalysis. In one embodiment, the nanostructure includes a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase in contact with the crystalline phase. Each of the crystalline and amorphous phases has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes a nanoparticle comprising a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase. The amorphous phase is in a selected amount. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes crystalline titanium dioxide and amorphous titanium dioxide in contact with the crystalline titanium dioxide. Each of the crystalline and amorphous titanium dioxide has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale.