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Sample records for 1d chain structure

  1. Vibron properties in quasi 1D molecular structures: the case of two parallel unshifted macromolecuar chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čevizović, D.; Petković, S.; Galović, S.; Reshetnyak, A.; Chizhov, A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the hopping mechanism of the vibron excitation transport in the system of two parallel unshifted 1D macromolecuar chains in the framework of non-adiabatic polaron theory. We suppose that the vibron interaction with thermal oscillations of the macromolecular structural elements will result in vibron self-trapping and the formation of the partial dressed vibron state. We also suppose that quasiparticle motion takes place via a sequence of random sitejumps, in each of which the quasiparticle can migrate either to the first neighbor site of the macromolecular chain. With use of the modified Holstein polaron model, we calculate the vibron effective mass in dependence of the basic system parameters and temperature. Special attention is paid to the influence of interchain coupling on vibron dressing. We find that for certain values of the system parameters the quasiparticle mass abruptly changes.

  2. From 1D chain to 3D network: A theoretical study on TiO2 low dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ling-ju; Zeng, Zhi; He, Tao

    2015-06-01

    We have performed a systematic study on a series of low dimensional TiO2 nanostructures under density functional theory methods. The geometries, stabilities, growth mechanism, and electronic structures of 1D chain, 2D ring, 2D ring array, and 3D network of TiO2 nanostructures are analyzed. Based on the Ti2O4 building unit, a series of 1D TiO2 nano chains and rings can be built. Furthermore, 2D ring array and 3D network nanostructures can be constructed from 1D chains and rings. Among non-periodic TiO2 chain and ring structures, one series of ring structures is found to be more stable. The geometry model of the 2D ring arrays and 3D network structures in this work has provided a theoretical understanding on the structure information in experiments. Based on these semiconductive low dimensional structures, moreover, it can help to understand and design new hierarchical TiO2 nanostructure in the future.

  3. From 1D chain to 3D network: A theoretical study on TiO{sub 2} low dimensional structures

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Ling-ju; He, Tao; Zeng, Zhi

    2015-06-14

    We have performed a systematic study on a series of low dimensional TiO{sub 2} nanostructures under density functional theory methods. The geometries, stabilities, growth mechanism, and electronic structures of 1D chain, 2D ring, 2D ring array, and 3D network of TiO{sub 2} nanostructures are analyzed. Based on the Ti{sub 2}O{sub 4} building unit, a series of 1D TiO{sub 2} nano chains and rings can be built. Furthermore, 2D ring array and 3D network nanostructures can be constructed from 1D chains and rings. Among non-periodic TiO{sub 2} chain and ring structures, one series of ring structures is found to be more stable. The geometry model of the 2D ring arrays and 3D network structures in this work has provided a theoretical understanding on the structure information in experiments. Based on these semiconductive low dimensional structures, moreover, it can help to understand and design new hierarchical TiO{sub 2} nanostructure in the future.

  4. 1D ferrimagnetism in homometallic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronado, E.; Gómez-García, C. J.; Borrás-Almenar, J. J.

    1990-05-01

    The magnetic properties of the cobalt zigzag chain Co(bpy)(NCS)2 (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) are discussed on the basis of an Ising-chain model that takes into account alternating Landé factors. It is emphasized, for the first time, that a homometallic chain containing only one type of site can give rise to a 1D ferrimagneticlike behavior.

  5. Structural variation from heterometallic cluster-based 1D chain to heterometallic tetranuclear cluster: Syntheses, structures and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shu-Hua; Zhao, Ru-Xia; Li, He-Ping; Ge, Cheng-Min; Li, Gui; Huang, Qiu-Ping; Zou, Hua-Hong

    2014-08-15

    Using the solvothermal method, we present the comparative preparation of ([Co{sub 3}Na(dmaep){sub 3}(ehbd)(N{sub 3}){sub 3}]·DMF){sub n} (1) and [Co{sub 2}Na{sub 2}(hmbd){sub 4}(N{sub 3}){sub 2}(DMF){sub 2}] (2), where Hehbd is 3-ethoxy-2-hydroxy-benzaldehyde, Hhmbd is 3-methoxy-2-hydroxy-benzaldehyde, and Hdmaep is 2-dimethylaminomethyl-6-ethoxy-phenol, which was synthesized by an in-situ reaction. Complexes 1 and 2 were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Complex 1 is a novel heterometallic cluster-based 1-D chain and 2 is a heterometallic tetranuclear cluster. The (Co{sub 3}{sup II}Na) and (Co{sub 2}{sup II}Na{sub 2}) cores display dominant ferromagnetic interaction from the nature of the binding modes through μ{sub 1,1,1}-N{sub 3}{sup –} (end-on, EO). - Graphical abstract: Two novel cobalt complexes have been prepared. Compound 1 consists of tetranuclear (Co{sub 3}{sup II}Na) units, which further formed a 1-D chain. Compound 2 is heterometallic tetranuclear cluster. Two complexes display dominant ferromagnetic interaction. - Highlights: • Two new heterometallic complexes have been synthesized by solvothermal method. • The stereospecific blockade of the ligands in the synthesis system seems to be the most important synthetic parameter. • The magnetism studies show that 1 and 2 exhibit ferromagnetic interactions. • Complex 1 shows slowing down of magnetization and not blocking of magnetization.

  6. Self-assembly of three new coordination complexes: Formation of 2-D square grid, 1-D chain and tape structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indrani, Murugan; Ramasubramanian, Ramasamy; Fronczek, Frank R.; Vasanthacharya, N. Y.; Kumaresan, Sudalaiandi

    2009-08-01

    Three distinct coordination complexes, viz., [Co(imi) 2(tmb) 2] ( 1) [where imi = imidazole], {[Ni(tmb) 2(H 2O) 3]·2H 2O} n ( 2) and [Cu 2(μ-tmb) 4(CH 3OH) 2] ( 3), have been synthesized hydrothermally by the reactions of metal acetates, 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid (Htmb) and with or without appropriate amine. The Ni analogue of 1 and the Co analogue of 2 have also been synthesized. X-ray single-crystal diffraction suggests that complex 1 represents discrete mononuclear species and complex 2 represents a 1D chain coordination polymer in which the Ni(II) ions are connected by the bridging water molecules. Complex 3 represents a neutral dinuclear complex. In 1, the central metal ions are associated by the carboxylate moiety and imidazole ligands, whereas the central metal atom is coordinated to the carboxylate moiety and the respective solvent molecules in 2 and 3. In 3, the four 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoate moieties act as a bridge connecting two copper (II) ions and the O atoms of methanol coordinate in an anti arrangement to form a square pyramidal geometry, with the methanol molecule at the apical position. In all the three structures the central metal atom sits on a crystallographic inversion centre. In all the cases, the coordination entities are further organized via hydrogen bonding interactions to generate multifarious supramolecular networks. Complexes 1, 2 and 3 have also been characterized by spectroscopic (UV/Vis and IR) and thermal analysis (TGA). In addition, the complexes were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity.The magnetic susceptibility measurements, measured from 8 to 300 K, revealed antiferromagnetic interactions between the Co(II) ions in compound 1 and the Ni(II) ions in 1a, respectively.

  7. Structural and Magnetic Behavior of a Quasi-1D Antiferromagnetic Chain Compound Cu(NCS)(2)(PYZ)

    SciTech Connect

    Bordallo, H. N.; Chapon, L. C.; Manson, Jamie L; Qualls, J. S.; Hall, D.; Argyriou, D. N.

    2003-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) were used to determine the structure of Cu(NCS){sub 2}(pyz) (pyz=pyrazine=C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 4}), which consists of a stacking of Cu-pyz-Cu chains. While NPD measurements showed no evidence of long-range magnetic ordering, the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and magnetization suggests that the system can be adequately described on the local scale as a spin-1/2 antiferromagnet (AFM) chain with an intrachain exchange interaction J/k{sub B} = -8 K ({approx}0.7 meV). Comparison of isothermal magnetization data acquired up to 30 T at 1.6 K to a linear chain model shows excellent agreement, making this material a nearly ideal example of an isotropic Heisenberg AFM chain.

  8. Entanglement Entropy in 1-D integrable chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchini, Fabio; Evangelisti, Stefano; Ercolessi, Elisa; Ravanini, Francesco; de Luca, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    We study analytically the Renyi entropy of a bipartite lattice in the limit of two semi-infinite chains joined at the origin, for a few integrable 1-dimensional models, by using the techniques of Corner Transfer Matrices of the corresponding 2-D classical systems, namely the 8-vertex model and the RSOS. In the scaling limit, close to a conformal point, we reproduce the leading behavior expected from CFT prediction. The sub-leading corrections, however, differ from na"ive expectations and we show that lattice effect can give rise to additional relevant terms in any numerical approach. Moreover, in the vicinity of a non-conformal (ferromagnetic) point, we observe a violation of universality and a behavior of the entropy characteristic of an essential singularity.

  9. Synthesis, structure and characterization of 4,4‧-bipyridine directed isolated cluster and 1D chain of iron sulfates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Fu, Yunlong; Zhang, Yu

    2008-03-01

    Two 4,4'-bipyridine directed iron sulfates have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectrum, powder X-ray diffraction, CHN elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis and magnetic analysis. [C 10N 2H 10] 2[Fe 4O 2(SO 4) 6(H 2O) 4]·6H 2O, I, and [C 10N 2H 10][Fe(SO 4) 2(OH)]·H 2O, II, both crystallize in triclinic space group P (No. 2). Crystal data: for I, a = 9.2064(8) Å, b = 11.5548(11) Å, c = 11.8130(11) Å, α = 117.3070(10)°, β = 94.650(2)°, γ = 96.493(2)°, V = 1096.79(17) Å 3, Z = 1; for II, a = 7.0382(9) Å, b = 9.0625(12) Å, c = 11.8903(16) Å, α = 100.145(3)°, β = 98.701(2)°, γ = 91.047(3)°, V = 737.17(17) Å 3, Z = 2. Compound I exhibits a rare discrete sulfated tetra-nuclear iron oxo cluster with a butterfly-type arrangement, and II possesses 1D tancoite-type chains. Magnetic properties analysis of I reveals a transformation from ferromagnetism to antiferromagnetism at about 14 K.

  10. Magnetic behavior of some 1D Cu chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Roger D.; Gomez-García, Carlos J.; Ghosh, Ashutosh

    2004-05-01

    The magnetic properties of three 1D copper(II) salts are reported. The compound Cu(14ane)Cu(N 3) 4 contains alternating site chains with weak FM coupling with J/k=0.635 K . Magnetization studies are reported on Cu(TIM)CuCl 4, an alternating site, alternating FM/AFM exchange system with J FM/k=29.7 K and J AFM/k=-8.66 K. (HPy) 2Cu 3Cl 8.2H 2O contains FM chains composed of alternating Cu 2Cl 62- dimers and CuCl 2(H 2O) 2 monomers, with intradimer coupling J 1/k=17.35 K and dimer-monomer coupling J 2/k=1.93 K .

  11. MX chains: 1-D analog of CuO planes

    SciTech Connect

    Gammel, J.T.; Batistic, I.; Bishop, A.R.; Loh, E.Y. Jr.; Marianer, S.

    1989-01-01

    We study a two-band Peierls-Hubbard model for halogen-bridged mixed-valence transition metal linear chain complexes (MX chains). We include electron-electron correlations (both Hubbard and PPP-like expressions) using several techniques including calculations in the zero-hopping limit, exact diagonalization of small systems, mean field approximation, and a Gutzwiller-like Ansatz for quantum phonons. The adiabatic optical absorption and phonon spectra for both photo-excited and doping induced defects (kinks, polarons, bipolarons, and excitons) are discussed. A long period phase which occurs even at commensurate filling for certain parameter values may be related to twinning. The effect of including the electron-phonon in addition to the electron-electron interaction on the polaron/bipolaron (pairing) competition is especially interesting when this class of compounds is viewed as a 1-D analog of high-temperature superconductors. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Three new 2-D metal-organic frameworks containing 1-D metal chains bridged by N-benzesulfonyl-glutamic acid: Syntheses, crystal structures and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Lufang; Huo Xiankuan; Wang Liya Wang Jiange; Fan Yaoting

    2007-05-15

    To explore the possibility of obtaining the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) bearing the bsgluH{sub 2} ligand, two new Cd(II) and one Cu(II) coordination polymers, [Cd(bsglu)(bipy)] {sub n} (1), [Cd(bsglu).(H{sub 2}O)] {sub n} (2) and {l_brace}[Cu{sub 2}(bsglu){sub 2}(bipy){sub 2}].4H{sub 2}O{r_brace} {sub n} (3) (bsglu=N-benzesulfonyl-glutamic acid bianion, bipy=2,2'-bipyridine) were synthesized and characterized by IR, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibit one-dimensional coordination chains, which are further connected to form two-dimensional supramolecular networks through {pi}-{pi} aromatic stacking interactions in a novel zipper-like way. Compound 2 presents a two-dimensional layer structure. To the best of our knowledge, 2 is the first two-dimensional complex formed from transition metal and bsgluH{sub 2} ligand. Interestingly, the bsglu anion exhibits remarkable versatile coordination modes in these complexes. Fluorescent analyses show that 1 exhibits photoluminescence in the solid state. Magnetic measurements for 3 revealed that the Cu(II) chain exhibit a weak antiferromagnetic behavior with a J value of -0.606 cm{sup -1}. - Graphical abstract: Three new complexes, [Cd(bsglu)(bipy)] {sub n} (1), [Cd(bsglu).(H{sub 2}O)] {sub n} (2) and {l_brace}[Cu{sub 2}(bsglu){sub 2}(bipy){sub 2}].4H{sub 2}O{r_brace} {sub n} (3), constructed from Cd(II) or Cu(II) salt with N-benzesulfonyl-glutamic acid were synthesized and characterized. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibit one-dimensional chains which are further connected to form two-dimensional supramolecular networks through {pi}-{pi} aromatic stacking interactions in a novel zipper-like way. Compound 2 presents a two-dimensional layer structure. Luminescence of 1 and magnetic properties of 3 are also investigated.

  13. Cooperative microexcitations in 2+1D chain-bundle dusty plasma liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Io, C.-W.; Chan, C.-L.; Lin I

    2010-05-15

    Through direct visualization at the discrete level, the microexcitations in cold 2+1D dusty plasma liquids formed by negatively charged dusts suspended in low pressure gaseous discharges were experimentally investigated, in which the downward ion flow wake field induces strong vertical coupling and chain bundle structure. It is found that the horizontal structure and motion are similar to those of the two-dimensional liquid. Different types of basic cooperative chain excitations: straight vertical chains with small amplitude jittering, chain tilting-restraightening, bundle twisting-restraightening, and chain breaking-reconnection, are observed. The region with good (poor) horizontal structural order prefers the straight (tilted or broken) chains with little (large) titling and tilting rate.

  14. The synthesis and structure of a chiral 1D aluminophosphate chain compound: d-Co(en) 3[AlP 2O 8]·6.5H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Li, Jiyang; Yu, Jihong; Wang, Yu; Pan, Qinhe; Xu, Ruren

    2005-06-01

    A new chiral one-dimensional (1D) aluminophosphate chain compound [ d-Co(en) 3][AlP 2O 8]·6.5H 2O (designated AlPO-CJ22) has been hydrothermally synthesized by using the optically pure d-Co(en) 3I 3 complex as the template. Single-crystal structural analysis reveals that its structure is built up from alternating connection of AlO 4 and PO 2(=O 2) tetrahedra to form corner-shared Al 2P 2 four-membered ring (4-MR) chains. The d-Co(en) 33+ complex cations extended along the 2 1 screw axis interact with the inorganic chains through hydrogen-bonds of N⋯O atoms in a helical fashion. Optical rotation measurement shows that AlPO-CJ22 is chiral as with d-Co(en) 33+ complex cations. Crystal data: orthorhombic, I2 12 12 1, a=8.5573(8) Å, b=22.613(2) Å, c=22.605(2) Å, Z=8, R1=0.067, wR2=0.1291, and Flack parameter: -0.02(3). CCDC number: 254179.

  15. Structure and thermodynamic properties of (C5H12N)CuBr3: a new weakly coupled antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain complex lying in the 1D-3D dimensional cross-over regime.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bingying; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Shiyan

    2014-04-01

    Single crystals of a metal organic complex (C5H12N)CuBr3 (C5H12N = piperidinium, pipH for short) have been synthesized, and the structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. (pipH)CuBr3 crystallizes in the monoclinic group C2/c. Edging-sharing CuBr5 units link to form zigzag chains along the c axis, and the neighboring Cu(II) ions with spin-1/2 are bridged by bibromide ions. Magnetic susceptibility data down to 1.8 K can be well fitted by the Bonner-Fisher formula for the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain, giving the intrachain magnetic coupling constant J ≈ -17 K. At zero field, (pipH)CuBr3 shows three-dimensional (3D) order below TN = 1.68 K. Calculated by the mean-field theory, the interchain coupling constant J' = -0.91 K is obtained and the ordered magnetic moment m0 is about 0.23 μB. This value of m0 makes (pipH)CuBr3 a rare compound suitable to study the 1D-3D dimensional cross-over problem in magnetism, since both 3D order and one-dimensional (1D) quantum fluctuations are prominent. In addition, specific heat measurements reveal two successive magnetic transitions with lowering temperature when external field μ0H ≥ 3 T is applied along the a' axis. The μ0H-T phase diagram of (pipH)CuBr3 is roughly constructed. PMID:24617285

  16. Intra-chain superexchange couplings in quasi-1D 3d transition-metal magnetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hongping; Tang, Yingying; Zhang, Suyun; He, Zhangzhen

    2016-07-13

    The electronic structure and magnetic properties of the quasi-1D transition-metal borates PbMBO4 (M  =  Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co) have been investigated by density functional theory, including electronic correlation. The results evidence PbCrBO4 and PbFeBO4 as antiferromagnetic (AFM) semiconductors (intra-chain AFM and inter-chain FM) and PbMnBO4 as a ferromagnetic (FM) semiconductor (both intra- and inter-chain FM) in accordance with experimental observations. For non-synthesized PbTiBO4, PbVBO4, and PbCoBO4, the ground-state magnetic structures are paramagnetic, FM, and paramagnetic, respectively. In this series of compounds, there are two kinds of superexchange couplings dominating their magnetic properties, i.e. the direction M-M delocalization superexchange and indirect M-O-M correlation superexchange. For PbMBO4 with M (3+) d  (n) , n  ⩽  3 (M  =  V and Cr), the main intra-chain spin coupling is the M-M t 2g-t 2g direct delocalization superexchange, while for PbMBO4 with M (3+) d  (n) , n  >  3 (M  =  Mn and Fe), the main intra-chain spin coupling is the near 90° M-O-M e g-p-e g indirect correlation superexchange. PMID:27213502

  17. Intra-chain superexchange couplings in quasi-1D 3d transition-metal magnetic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Hongping; Tang, Yingying; Zhang, Suyun; He, Zhangzhen

    2016-07-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic properties of the quasi-1D transition-metal borates PbMBO4 (M  =  Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co) have been investigated by density functional theory, including electronic correlation. The results evidence PbCrBO4 and PbFeBO4 as antiferromagnetic (AFM) semiconductors (intra-chain AFM and inter-chain FM) and PbMnBO4 as a ferromagnetic (FM) semiconductor (both intra- and inter-chain FM) in accordance with experimental observations. For non-synthesized PbTiBO4, PbVBO4, and PbCoBO4, the ground-state magnetic structures are paramagnetic, FM, and paramagnetic, respectively. In this series of compounds, there are two kinds of superexchange couplings dominating their magnetic properties, i.e. the direction M–M delocalization superexchange and indirect M–O–M correlation superexchange. For PbMBO4 with M 3+ d  n , n  ⩽  3 (M  =  V and Cr), the main intra-chain spin coupling is the M–M t 2g–t 2g direct delocalization superexchange, while for PbMBO4 with M 3+ d  n , n  >  3 (M  =  Mn and Fe), the main intra-chain spin coupling is the near 90° M–O–M e g–p–e g indirect correlation superexchange.

  18. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling Methods for 1D Seismic and EM Data Inversion

    2008-09-22

    This software provides several Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods for the Bayesian model developed for inverting 1D marine seismic and controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. The current software can be used for individual inversion of seismic AVO and CSEM data and for joint inversion of both seismic and EM data sets. The structure of the software is very general and flexible, and it allows users to incorporate their own forward simulation codes and rockmore » physics model codes easily into this software. Although the softwae was developed using C and C++ computer languages, the user-supplied codes can be written in C, C++, or various versions of Fortran languages. The software provides clear interfaces for users to plug in their own codes. The output of this software is in the format that the R free software CODA can directly read to build MCMC objects.« less

  19. The Relationship Between the Sloshing and Breathing Frequencies in a 1D Vertically Aligned Dust Particle Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jie; Qiao, Ke; Sabo, Hannah; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2013-10-01

    When confined in a glass box placed on the lower powered electrode of a GEC rf reference cell, dust particles immersed in plasma can form vertically aligned 1D chains. Both the formation and subsequent structural changes within this vertically aligned dust chain are controlled by the rf power, since the rf power effects the ionization rate in the cell, the screening parameter and the charge on the dust particles. In this study, oscillations of a 1D vertically aligned dust particle chain are employed to investigate the dust charge and screening length through measurement of the resonance frequency. It will be shown that the relationship between the sloshing and breathing frequencies indicates that the ion streaming effect plays an important role in vertical oscillations and must be included in any structural analysis of the system.

  20. From 1D chain to 3D network: a new family of inorganic-organic hybrid semiconductors MO3(L)(x) (M = Mo, W; L = organic linker) built on perovskite-like structure modules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Hejazi, Mehdi; Thiagarajan, Suraj J; Woerner, William R; Banerjee, Debasis; Emge, Thomas J; Xu, Wenqian; Teat, Simon J; Gong, Qihan; Safari, Ahmad; Yang, Ronggui; Parise, John B; Li, Jing

    2013-11-20

    MO3 (M = Mo, W) or VI-VI binary compounds are important semiconducting oxides that show great promise for a variety of applications. In an effort to tune and enhance their properties in a systematic manner we have applied a designing strategy to deliberately introduce organic linker molecules in these perovskite-like crystal lattices. This approach has led to a wealth of new hybrid structures built on one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) VI-VI modules. The hybrid semiconductors exhibit a number of greatly improved properties and new functionality, including broad band gap tunability, negative thermal expansion, largely reduced thermal conductivity, and significantly enhanced dielectric constant compared to their MO3 parent phases. PMID:24152119

  1. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of two 1D nano-chain coordination polymers constructed by lanthanide with pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline

    SciTech Connect

    Song Huihua Li Yajuan; Song You; Han Zhangang; Yang Fang

    2008-05-15

    The hydrothermal reactions of LnCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O (Ln=Eu, Tb), pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylic acid (3,4-pydaH{sub 2}), 1,10-phenthroline (phen) and NaOH in aqueous medium yield two metal-organic hybrid materials, [Eu{sub 2}(3,4-pyda){sub 3}(phen)(H{sub 2}O).H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (1) and [Tb{sub 2}(3,4-pyda){sub 3}(phen)(H{sub 2}O).H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (2), respectively. Both compounds have similar topology structure containing one-dimensional nano-chain, which is further assembled into a three-dimensional supramolecular network via {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions and hydrogen bonds. To the best of our knowledge, they represent the first example of nano-chain coordination polymers constructed by 3,4-pydaH{sub 2} and chelate heterocylic ligand. Interestingly, the 3,4-pyda anion exhibits three kinds of coordination modes in these complexes. The coordination modes of 3,4-pyda in complexes 1 and 2 have not been observed in other coordination polymers containing 3,4-pyda ligands. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit strong fluorescent emission bands in the solid state at room temperature. Their magnetic analyses show that they exhibit different magnetic interactions. - Graphical abstract: Two novel lanthanide coordination polymers [M{sub 2}(pydc){sub 3}(phen)(H{sub 2}O).H{sub 2}O]{sub n} (M=Eu(1) and Tb(2), pydc=pyridine-3,4-dicarboxylate, phen=1,10-phenthroline) have been synthesized and characterized. Both compounds reveal a one-dimensional nano-chain, which is further assembled into a three-dimensional supramolecular network via {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions and hydrogen bonds. Their luminescent and magnetic properties have been investigated.

  2. Propagation of excitation in long 1D chains: Transition from regular quantum dynamics to stochastic dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Benderskii, V. A.; Kats, E. I.

    2013-01-15

    The quantum dynamics problem for a 1D chain consisting of 2N + 1 sites (N Much-Greater-Than 1) with the interaction of nearest neighbors and an impurity site at the middle differing in energy and in coupling constant from the sites of the remaining chain is solved analytically. The initial excitation of the impurity is accompanied by the propagation of excitation over the chain sites and with the emergence of Loschmidt echo (partial restoration of the impurity site population) in the recurrence cycles with a period proportional to N. The echo consists of the main (most intense) component modulated by damped oscillations. The intensity of oscillations increases with increasing cycle number and matrix element C of the interaction of the impurity site n = 0 with sites n = {+-}1 (0 < C {<=} 1; for the remaining neighboring sites, the matrix element is equal to unity). Mixing of the components of echo from neighboring cycles induces a transition from the regular to stochastic evolution. In the regular evolution region, the wave packet propagates over the chain at a nearly constant group velocity, embracing a number of sites varying periodically with time. In the stochastic regime, the excitation is distributed over a number of sites close to 2N, with the populations varying irregularly with time. The model explains qualitatively the experimental data on ballistic propagation of the vibrational energy in linear chains of CH{sub 2} fragments and predicts the possibility of a nondissipative energy transfer between reaction centers associated with such chains.

  3. TCTEX1D4 Interactome in Human Testis: Unraveling the Function of Dynein Light Chain in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Maria João; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Morais-Santos, Filipa; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Studies were designed to identify the TCTEX1D4 interactome in human testis, with the purpose of unraveling putative protein complexes essential to male reproduction and thus novel TCTEX1D4 functions. TCTEX1D4 is a dynein light chain that belongs to the DYNT1/TCTEX1 family. In spermatozoa, it appears to be important to sperm motility, intraflagellar transport, and acrosome reaction. To contribute to the knowledge on TCTEX1D4 function in testis and spermatozoa, a yeast two-hybrid assay was performed in testis, which allowed the identification of 40 novel TCTEX1D4 interactors. Curiously, another dynein light chain, TCTEX1D2, was identified and its existence demonstrated for the first time in human spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence studies proved that TCTEX1D2 is an intra-acrosomal protein also present in the midpiece, suggesting a role in cargo movement in human spermatozoa. Further, an in silico profile of TCTEX1D4 revealed that most TCTEX1D4 interacting proteins were not previously characterized and the ones described present a very broad nature. This reinforces TCTEX1D4 as a dynein light chain that is capable of interacting with a variety of functionally different proteins. These observations collectively contribute to a deeper molecular understanding of the human spermatozoa function. PMID:24606217

  4. Bi3+/M2+ oxyphosphate: a continuous series of polycationic species from the 1D single chain to the 2D planes. Part 1: From HREM images to crystal-structure deduction.

    PubMed

    Huvé, M; Colmont, M; Mentré, O

    2006-08-21

    This work deals with the crystal-structure deduction of new structural types of Bi3+-M2+ oxyphosphates (M is a transition element) from HREM images. Previous studies showed the unequivocal attribution of particular HREM contrasts to the corresponding Bi/M/O-based polycationic species in similar materials. On this basis, the examination of isolated crystallites of polyphased samples led to new HREM contrasts assigned to new polycationic species in three new structural types. This helped us to solve one crystal structure, and the two other forms have been deduced through HREM image decoding. It helped to model the investigated materials from the structural point of view as well as the chemical one. The three assumed crystal structures are formed by polycationic ribbons, n tetrahedra wide, surrounded by PO4 groups, as already encountered in these series of oxyphosphates. However, here we deal with the original n= 4-6 cases, whereas, up to this work, only the n= 1-3 ribbons have been reported. The greater size of ribbons is associated with particular structural modifications responsible for complex HREM contrasts. The validity of the proposed models is verified in Part 2 of this work. PMID:16903714

  5. Measurement-induced disturbance and thermal negativity in 1D optical lattice chain

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jin-Liang; Lin-Wang; Long, Gui-Lu

    2013-03-15

    We study the measurement-induced disturbance (MID) in a 1D optical lattice chain with nonlinear coupling. Special attention is paid to the difference between the thermal entanglement and MID when considering the influences of the linear coupling constant, nonlinear coupling constant and external magnetic field. It is shown that MID is more robust than thermal entanglement against temperature T and external magnetic field B, and MID may reveal more properties about quantum correlations of the system, which can be seen from the point of view that MID can be nonzero when there is no thermal entanglement and MID can detect the critical point of quantum phase transition at finite temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nonlinear coupling constant can strengthen the quantum correlation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MID is more robust than entanglement against temperature and magnetic field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MID exhibits more information about quantum correlation than entanglement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MID can detect the critical point of quantum phase transition at finite temperature.

  6. New Mononuclear Cu(II) Complexes and 1D Chains with 4-Amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole

    PubMed Central

    Dîrtu, Marinela M.; Boland, Yves; Gillard, Damien; Tinant, Bernard; Robeyns, Koen; Safin, Damir A.; Devlin, Eamonn; Sanakis, Yiannis; Garcia, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structures of two mononuclear Cu(II) NH2trz complexes [Cu(NH2trz)4(H2O)](AsF6)2 (I) and [Cu(NH2trz)4(H2O)](PF6)2 (II) as well as two coordination polymers [Cu(μ2-NH2trz)2Cl]Cl·H2O (III) and [Cu(μ2-NH2trz)2Cl] (SiF6)0.5·1.5H2O (IV) are presented. Cationic 1D chains with bridging bis-monodentate μ2-coordinated NH2trz and bridging μ2-coordinated chloride ligands are present in III and IV. In these coordination polymers, the Cu(II) ions are strongly antiferromagnetically coupled with J = −128.4 cm−1 for III and J = −143 cm−1 for IV (H = −J∑SiSi+1), due to the nature of the bridges between spin centers. Inter-chain interactions present in the crystal structures were taken into consideration, as well as g factors, which were determined experimentally, for the quantitative modeling of their magnetic properties. PMID:24300095

  7. Quantum Creep and Quantum-Creep Transitions in 1D Sine-Gordon Chains.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Florian R; Müser, Martin H

    2004-01-23

    Discrete sine-Gordon (SG) chains are studied with path-integral molecular dynamics. Chains commensurate with the substrate show the transition from pinning to quantum creep at bead masses slightly larger than in the continuous SG model. Within the creep regime, a field-driven transition from creep to complete depinning is identified. The effects of disorder on the chain's dynamics depend on the potential's roughness exponent H. For example, quantum fluctuations are generally too small to depin the chain if H=1/2, while an H=0 chain can be pinned or unpinned depending on the bead masses. Thermal fluctuations always depin the chain. PMID:14753858

  8. Structural stability of a 1D compressible viscoelastic fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Xiaokai; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with a compressible viscoelastic fluid model proposed by Öttinger. Although the model has a convex entropy, the Hessian matrix of the entropy does not symmetrize the system of first-order partial differential equations due to the non-conservative terms in the constitutive equation. We show that the corresponding 1D model is symmetrizable hyperbolic and dissipative and satisfies the Kawashima condition. Based on these, we prove the global existence of smooth solutions near equilibrium and justify the compatibility of the model with the Navier-Stokes equations.

  9. The role of solitons in charge and energy transfer in 1D molecular chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivić , Zoran

    1998-03-01

    The idea that polarons and solitons could play the crucial role in the transport processes in biological structures, has been critically reexamined on the basis of the general theory of self-trapping phenomena. The criteria which enable one to determine conditions for the existence and stability of polarons and solitons and to determine their character, in dependence of the values of the basic physical parameters of the system, were formulated. Validity of the so-called Davydov's soliton model was discussed on the basis of these criteria. It was found that the original Davydov's proposal, based upon the idea of the soliton creation due to the single excitation (particle, vibron, etc.) self-trapping, cannot explain the intramolecular energy transfer in α-helix and acetanilide. However, Davydov theory is flexible enough to describe the single electron transfer in some systems (α-helix and acetanilide for example). In the many-particle systems, dressing effect, due to the quantum nature of phonons, may cause the creation of the bound states of the several excitons in the molecular chain. The possibility of creation of the soliton states of this type is discussed for the simple Fröhlich's one-dimensional model. The regions of the system parameter space where different mechanisms dominate the behaviour of such entities are characterized.

  10. Single molecule magnet behavior observed in a 1-D dysprosium chain with quasi-D5h symmetry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xing-Cai; Zhang, Ming; Wu, Dayu; Shao, Dong; Zhao, Xin-Hua; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xin-Yi

    2015-12-28

    Two one-dimensional (1-D) chain complexes with pentagonal bipyramidal Dy(III) centers have been synthesized and magnetically characterized. Field-induced single molecule magnet behavior has been revealed in both compounds, which is still rarely reported in a lanthanide compound with a pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometry. Their crystal field parameters and orientations of the magnetic easy axes were obtained from the simulation of the magnetic data and the electrostatic model calculation. PMID:26593051

  11. Tunable Design of Structural Colors Produced by Pseudo-1D Photonic Crystals of Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Tong, Liping; Qi, Wei; Wang, Mengfan; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2016-07-01

    It is broadly observed that graphene oxide (GO) films appear transparent with a thickness of about several nanometers, whereas they appear dark brown or almost black with thickness of more than 1 μm. The basic color mechanism of GO film on a sub-micrometer scale, however, is not well understood. This study reports on GO pseudo-1D photonic crystals (p1D-PhCs) exhibiting tunable structural colors in the visible wavelength range owing to its 1D Bragg nanostructures. Striking structural colors of GO p1D-PhCs could be tuned by simply changing either the volume or concentration of the aqueous GO dispersion during vacuum filtration. Moreover, the quantitative relationship between thickness and reflection wavelength of GO p1D-PhCs has been revealed, thereby providing a theoretical basis to rationally design structural colors of GO p1D-PhCs. The spectral response of GO p1D-PhCs to humidity is also obtained clearly showing the wavelength shift of GO p1D-PhCs at differently relative humidity values and thus encouraging the integration of structural color printing and the humidity-responsive property of GO p1D-PhCs to develop a visible and fast-responsive anti-counterfeiting label. The results pave the way for a variety of potential applications of GO in optics, structural color printing, sensing, and anti-counterfeiting. PMID:27171200

  12. Terahertz excitations in the 1D Ising chain quantum magnet CoNb2O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Christopher M.; Valdés Aguilar, R.; Koopayeh, S.; Broholm, C.; Armitage, N. P.

    2012-02-01

    The one-dimensional magnet CoNb2O6 was recently demonstrated to be an excellent realization of a one-dimensional quantum Ising spin chain. It has been shown to undergo a quantum phase transition in a magnetic field oriented transverse to its ferromagnetically aligned spin chains. Low energy spin-flip excitations in the chains were recently observed via inelastic neutron scattering.ootnotetextR. Coldea, et al, Science 327, 177 (2010) The energy spectrum of these excitations was shown to have a interesting energy scaling governed by symmetries of the E8 exceptional Lie group. Here, time-domain terahertz spectroscopy (TDTS) is used to investigate optically active low energy excitations in CoNb2O6. We take advantage of the polarization sensitivity of this technique to characterize both electric and magnetic dipole active excitations in this compound. A connection is made from the q=0 response observed here to the excitations observed by neutron scattering. In addition, we will show preliminary data on the terahertz spectra of this material as it undergoes the magnetic field-tuned quantum phase transition.

  13. Multiple mobility edges in a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction in presence of electric field: Controlled electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Srilekha; Maiti, Santanu K.; Karmakar, S. N.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic behavior of a 1D Aubry chain with Hubbard interaction is critically analyzed in presence of electric field. Multiple energy bands are generated as a result of Hubbard correlation and Aubry potential, and, within these bands localized states are developed under the application of electric field. Within a tight-binding framework we compute electronic transmission probability and average density of states using Green's function approach where the interaction parameter is treated under Hartree-Fock mean field scheme. From our analysis we find that selective transmission can be obtained by tuning injecting electron energy, and thus, the present model can be utilized as a controlled switching device.

  14. Quantum Bocce: Magnon-magnon collisions between propagating and bound states in 1D spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, Paolo; Greentree, Andrew D.; Busch, Kurt; Cole, Jared H.

    2013-08-01

    The dynamics of two magnons in a Heisenberg spin chain under the influence of a non-uniform magnetic field is investigated by means of a numerical wave-function-based approach using a Holstein-Primakoff transformation. The magnetic field is localized in space such that it supports exactly one single-particle bound state. We study the interaction of this bound mode with an incoming spin wave and the interplay between transmittance, energy and momentum matching. We find analytic criteria for maximizing the interconversion between propagating single-magnon modes and true propagating two-magnon states. The manipulation of bound and propagating magnons is an essential step towards quantum magnonics.

  15. Electronic and magnetic structures of chain structured iron selenide compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Setty, Chandan; Chen, X. H.; Hu, Jiangping

    2014-08-01

    Electronic and magnetic structures of iron selenide compounds Ce2O2FeSe2 (2212*) and BaFe2Se3 (123*) are studied by the first-principles calculations. We find that while all these compounds are composed of one-dimensional (1D) Fe chain (or ladder) structures, their electronic structures are not close to be quasi-1D. The magnetic exchange couplings between two nearest-neighbor (NN) chains in 2212* and between two NN two-leg-ladders in 123* are both antiferromagnetic (AFM), which is consistent with the presence of significant third NN AFM coupling, a common feature shared in other iron-chalcogenides, FeTe (11*) and K y Fe2- x Se2 (122*). In magnetic ground states, each Fe chain of 2212* is ferromagnetic and each two-leg ladder of 123* form a block-AFM structure. We suggest that all magnetic structures in iron-selenide compounds can be unified into an extended J 1- J 2- J 3 model. Spin-wave excitations of the model are calculated and can be tested by future experiments on these two systems.

  16. Characterizing gapped phases of a 1D spin chain with on-site and spatial symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Colin; Prakash, Abhishodh; Wei, Tzu-Chieh

    We investigate the phase diagram of a spin-1 chain whose Hamiltonian is invariant under translation, lattice inversion and a global A4 symmetry in the spin degrees of freedom. The classification scheme by Chen, Gu, and Wen allows us to enumerate all possible phases under the given symmetry. Then, we determine which of these phases actually occur in the two-parameter Hamiltonian. Using numerical methods proposed by Pollmann and Turner (2012) we determine the characteristic projective parameters for the Symmetry Protected Topological (SPT) phases. In addition, we present a method for determining the projective commutation parameter in these phases. The resulting phase diagram is rich and contains at least nine different SPT phases. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

  17. Two unprecedented 1D coordination polymer chains based on tetranuclear copper(II) building blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Li Gaijuan; Xing Yan Song Shuyan; Xu Ning; Liu Xianchun; Su Zhongmin

    2008-09-15

    The reaction of copper(II) sulfate with pyridine in DMF or methanol yield two unprecedented Cu(II) coordination polymers {l_brace}[Cu{sub 4}({mu}{sub 4}-O)(py){sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}][{mu}-Cu(py)(DMF){sub 2}]{r_brace}{sub n}(1) and {l_brace}[Cu{sub 4}({mu}{sub 4}-O)(py){sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}][{mu}-Cu(py){sub 4}]{r_brace}{sub n}(2), respectively. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicated that compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group p2(1)/n, a=14.542(5) A, b=16.359(5) A, c=18.951(5) A, {beta}=92.047(5){sup o}, V=4505(2) A{sup 3}, Z=4 while 2 is monoclinic C2/c, a=23.078(5) A, b=10.214(5) A, c=23.142(5) A, {beta}=115.471(5){sup o}, V=4925(3) A{sup 3}, Z=4. Both of the two compounds consist of tetrahedral tetranuclear [Cu{sub 4}({mu}{sub 4}-O)(py){sub 4}(SO{sub 4}){sub 4}] clusters that are bridged by pentacoordinated Cu atom for 1 or hexacoordinated Cu atoms for 2 through the sulfate oxygen to form the infinite one-dimensional polymer chains. - Graphical abstract: Two unprecedented Cu(II) coordination polymers have been prepared by using solvothermal method; they consist of tetrahedral tetranuclear clusters that are bridged by unique Cu(II) atom through the sulfate oxygen to form the infinite one-dimensional polymer chains (a) for complex 1 and (b) for complex 2.

  18. Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Human Steroid 5-Reductase (AKR1D1)

    SciTech Connect

    Costanzo, L.; Drury, J; Christianson, D; Penning, T

    2009-01-01

    Human steroid 5{beta}-reductase (aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1D1) catalyzes reduction of {Delta}{sup 4}-ene double bonds in steroid hormones and bile acid precursors. We have reported the structures of an AKR1D1-NADP{sup +} binary complex, and AKR1D1-NADP{sup +}-cortisone, AKR1D1-NADP{sup +}-progesterone and AKR1D1-NADP{sup +}-testosterone ternary complexes at high resolutions. Recently, structures of AKR1D1-NADP{sup +}-5{beta}-dihydroprogesterone complexes showed that the product is bound unproductively. Two quite different mechanisms of steroid double bond reduction have since been proposed. However, site-directed mutagenesis supports only one mechanism. In this mechanism, the 4-pro-R hydride is transferred from the re-face of the nicotinamide ring to C5 of the steroid substrate. E120, a unique substitution in the AKR catalytic tetrad, permits a deeper penetration of the steroid substrate into the active site to promote optimal reactant positioning. It participates with Y58 to create a 'superacidic' oxyanion hole for polarization of the C3 ketone. A role for K87 in the proton relay proposed using the AKR1D1-NADP{sup +}-5{beta}-dihydroprogesterone structure is not supported.

  19. A hierarchy of ``meson'' bound state excitations in the 1D ferromagnetic Ising chain CoNb2O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Christopher; Koopayeh, Seyed; Ghosh, Anirban; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; McQueen, Tyrel M.; Armitage, N. Peter; Valdés Aguilar, Rolando; Krizan, Jason; Cava, Robert J.

    2014-03-01

    The quantum magnet CoNb2O6 was recently demonstrated to be an excellent realization of the one-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising spin chain. Low energy spin-flip excitations in the chains were recently observed via inelastic neutron scattering.[2] The energy spectrum of these excitations was shown to have a interesting energy scaling governed by symmetries of the E8 exceptional Lie group. Here, time-domain terahertz spectroscopy (TDTS) is used to investigate these optically active spin flip excitations in CoNb2O6. A series of nine spin flip bound states is observed, whose energies can be modeled exceedingly well by the Airy function solutions to a 1D Schrödinger equation. Additionally, a novel bound state of excitations on neighboring chains is observed just below the onset of a two particle continuum. Work supported by The Institute of Quantum Matter under DOE grant DE-FG02-08ER46544 and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF2628.

  20. Synthesis, crystal structure, and properties of a 1-D terbium-substituted monolacunary Keggin-type polyoxotungstate.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pengtao; Si, Yanan; Wan, Rong; Zhang, Shaowei; Wang, Jingping; Niu, Jingyang

    2015-03-01

    A new 1-D linear chainlike terbium-substituted polyoxometalate [Tb(H2O)2(α-PW11O39)](4-) (1) has been synthesized in aqueous solution and characterized by elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), IR spectrum, thermal analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. X-ray structural analysis reveals that 1 displays a 1-D linear chain containing [Tb(H2O)2(α-PW11O39)](4-) moieties. The Tb(III) cation incorporated into the monolacunary Keggin-type [α-PW11O39](7-) unit resides in a distorted monocapped triangular prismatic geometry and acts as a linker to join two adjacent [α-PW11O39](7-) units to form a 1-D chain structure. Solid-state photoluminescent property of 1 has been investigated at room temperature and the photoluminescent emission mainly results from the synergistic effect of the Tb(III) cation and the Na7[α-PW11O39] precursor. The ESI-MS spectrum of 1 confirms that the polyanion [Tb(H2O)(HPW11O39)](3-) is stable in aqueous solution. PMID:25541394

  1. Synthesis, crystal structure, and properties of a 1-D terbium-substituted monolacunary Keggin-type polyoxotungstate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Pengtao; Si, Yanan; Wan, Rong; Zhang, Shaowei; Wang, Jingping; Niu, Jingyang

    2015-03-01

    A new 1-D linear chainlike terbium-substituted polyoxometalate [Tb(H2O)2(α-PW11O39)]4- (1) has been synthesized in aqueous solution and characterized by elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), IR spectrum, thermal analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. X-ray structural analysis reveals that 1 displays a 1-D linear chain containing [Tb(H2O)2(α-PW11O39)]4- moieties. The Tb(III) cation incorporated into the monolacunary Keggin-type [α-PW11O39]7- unit resides in a distorted monocapped triangular prismatic geometry and acts as a linker to join two adjacent [α-PW11O39]7- units to form a 1-D chain structure. Solid-state photoluminescent property of 1 has been investigated at room temperature and the photoluminescent emission mainly results from the synergistic effect of the TbIII cation and the Na7[α-PW11O39] precursor. The ESI-MS spectrum of 1 confirms that the polyanion [Tb(H2O)(HPW11O39)]3- is stable in aqueous solution.

  2. Two-step spin transition in a 1D Fe(II) 1,2,4-triazole chain compound.

    PubMed

    Dîrtu, Marinela M; Schmit, France; Naik, Anil D; Rusu, Ionela; Rotaru, Aurelian; Rackwitz, Sergej; Wolny, Juliusz A; Schünemann, Volker; Spinu, Leonard; Garcia, Yann

    2015-04-01

    A thermochromic 1D spin crossover coordination (SCO) polymer [Fe(βAlatrz)3](BF4)2⋅2 H2O (1⋅2 H2O), whose precursor βAlatrz, (1,2,4-triazol-4-yl-propionate) has been tailored from a β-amino acid ester is investigated in detail by a set of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), (57)Fe Mössbauer, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared, and Raman measurements. An hysteretic abrupt two-step spin crossover (T1/2(↓) = 230 K and T1/2(↑) = 235 K, and T1/2(↓) = 172 K and T1/2(↑) = 188 K, respectively) is registered for the first time for a 1,2,4-triazole-based Fe(II) 1D coordination polymer. The two-step SCO configuration is observed in a 1:2 ratio of low-spin/high-spin in the intermediate phase for a 1D chain. The origin of the stepwise transition was attributed to a distribution of chains of different lengths in 1⋅2 H2O after First Order Reversal Curves (FORC) analyses. A detailed DFT analysis allowed us to propose the normal mode assignment of the Raman peaks in the low-spin and high-spin states of 1⋅2 H2O. Vibrational spectra of 1⋅2 H2O reveal that the BF4(-) anions and water molecules play no significant role on the vibrational properties of the [Fe(βAlatrz)3](2+) polymeric chains, although non-coordinated water molecules have a dramatic influence on the emergence of a step in the spin transition curve. The dehydrated material [Fe(βAlatrz)3](BF4)2 (1) reveals indeed a significantly different magnetic behavior with a one-step SCO which was also investigated. PMID:25736846

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of two 1-D and 2-D Dawson-based phosphotungstates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Junwei; Zheng Shoutian; Liu Wei; Yang Guoyu

    2008-03-15

    Two new Dawson-based phosphotungstates (H{sub 2}en){sub 0.5}H[Cu(en){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2}{l_brace}[Cu(en){sub 2}]({alpha}{sub 1}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}CuO{sub 61}){r_brace}.8H{sub 2}O (1) (en=ethylenediamine) and [4,4'-H{sub 2}bpy]{sub 2}{l_brace}[Cu(4,4'-bpy){sub 3}][Cu(4,4'-bpy){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub 2}[Cu(4,4'-bpy)][{alpha}-P{sub 2}W{sub 1=} 8O{sub 62}]{sub 2}{r_brace}.6H{sub 2}O (2) (4,4'-bpy=4,4'-bipyridine) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. 1 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with a=11.7626(17), b=13.246(2), c=29.350(5) A, {alpha}=87.355(5), {beta}=79.583(5), {gamma}=66.993(3){sup o}, V=4138.3(11) A{sup 3}, Z=2, GOF=1.089, R{sub 1}=0.0563 and wR{sub 2}=0.1505, whereas 2 belongs to the orthorhombic space group Iba2 with a=22.277(8), b=47.04(2), c=22.153(8) A, V=23215(17) A{sup 3}, Z=4, GOF=1.051, R{sub 1}=0.0627 and wR{sub 2}=0.1477. 1 consists of a 1-D linear chain structure constructed from monocopper{sup II}-substituted Dawson polyoxoanions, while 2 represents the first 2-D sheet-like structure with a (4,4)-connected topological net built up from plenary Dawson-type polyoxoanions and Cu{sup II}-4,4'-bpy complex cations in polyoxometalate chemistry. - Graphical abstract: Two Dawson-based phosphotungstates (H{sub 2}en){sub 0.5}H[Cu(en){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2}{l_brace}[Cu(en){sub 2}]({alpha}{sub 1}-P{sub 2}W{sub 17}CuO{sub 61}){r_brace}.8H{sub 2}O (1) and [4,4'-H{sub 2}bpy]{sub 2}{l_brace}[Cu(4,4'-bpy){sub 3}][Cu(4,4'-bpy){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub 2}[Cu(4,4'-bpy)][{alpha}-P{sub 2}W{sub 1=} 8O{sub 62}]{sub 2}{r_brace}.6H{sub 2}O (2) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. 1 consists of a 1-D linear chain structure constructed from monocopper-substituted Dawson polyoxoanions, while 2 represents the first 2-D sheet-like structure with a (4,4)-connected topological net built up from saturated Dawson-type polyoxoanions and Cu{sup II}-4,4'-bpy complex cations in

  4. Design of natural killer T cell activators: Structure and function of a microbial glycosphingolipid bound to mouse CD1d

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Douglass; Zajonc, Dirk M.; Fujio, Masakazu; Sullivan, Barbara A.; Kinjo, Yuki; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Wilson, Ian A.; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2006-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells provide an innate-type immune response upon T cell receptor interaction with CD1d-presented antigens. We demonstrate through equilibrium tetramer binding and antigen presentation assays with Vα14i-positive NKT cell hybridomas that the Sphingomonas glycolipid α-galacturonosyl ceramide (GalA-GSL) is a NKT cell agonist that is significantly weaker than α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), the most potent known NKT agonist. For GalA-GSL, a shorter fatty acyl chain, an absence of the 4-OH on the sphingosine tail and a 6′-COOH group on the galactose moiety account for its observed antigenic potency. We further determined the crystal structure of mCD1d in complex with GalA-GSL at 1.8-Å resolution. The overall binding mode of GalA-GSL to mCD1d is similar to that of the short-chain α-GalCer ligand PBS-25, but its sphinganine chain is more deeply inserted into the F′ pocket due to alternate hydrogen-bonding interactions between the sphinganine 3-OH with Asp-80. Subsequently, a slight lateral shift (>1 Å) of the galacturonosyl head group is noted at the CD1 surface compared with the galactose of α-GalCer. Because the relatively short C14 fatty acid of GalA-GSL does not fully occupy the A′ pocket, a spacer lipid is found that stabilizes this pocket. The lipid spacer was identified by GC/MS as a mixture of saturated and monounsaturated palmitic acid (C16). Comparison of available crystal structures of α-anomeric glycosphingolipids now sheds light on the structural basis of their differential antigenic potency and has led to the design and synthesis of NKT cell agonists with enhanced cell-based stimulatory activities compared with α-GalCer. PMID:16537470

  5. Toward Structural Correctness: Aquatolide and the Importance of 1D Proton NMR FID Archiving

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The revision of the structure of the sesquiterpene aquatolide from a bicyclo[2.2.0]hexane to a bicyclo[2.1.1]hexane structure using compelling NMR data, X-ray crystallography, and the recent confirmation via full synthesis exemplify that the achievement of “structural correctness” depends on the completeness of the experimental evidence. Archived FIDs and newly acquired aquatolide spectra demonstrate that archiving and rigorous interpretation of 1D 1H NMR data may enhance the reproducibility of (bio)chemical research and curb the growing trend of structural misassignments. Despite being the most accessible NMR experiment, 1D 1H spectra encode a wealth of information about bonds and molecular geometry that may be fully mined by 1H iterative full spin analysis (HiFSA). Fully characterized 1D 1H spectra are unideterminant for a given structure. The corresponding FIDs may be readily submitted with publications and collected in databases. Proton NMR spectra are indispensable for structural characterization even in conjunction with 2D data. Quantum interaction and linkage tables (QuILTs) are introduced for a more intuitive visualization of 1D J-coupling relationships, NOESY correlations, and heteronuclear experiments. Overall, this study represents a significant contribution to best practices in NMR-based structural analysis and dereplication. PMID:26812443

  6. Toward Structural Correctness: Aquatolide and the Importance of 1D Proton NMR FID Archiving.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Guido F; Niemitz, Matthias; Bisson, Jonathan; Lodewyk, Michael W; Soldi, Cristian; Shaw, Jared T; Tantillo, Dean J; Saya, Jordy M; Vos, Klaas; Kleinnijenhuis, Roel A; Hiemstra, Henk; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Friesen, J Brent

    2016-02-01

    The revision of the structure of the sesquiterpene aquatolide from a bicyclo[2.2.0]hexane to a bicyclo[2.1.1]hexane structure using compelling NMR data, X-ray crystallography, and the recent confirmation via full synthesis exemplify that the achievement of "structural correctness" depends on the completeness of the experimental evidence. Archived FIDs and newly acquired aquatolide spectra demonstrate that archiving and rigorous interpretation of 1D (1)H NMR data may enhance the reproducibility of (bio)chemical research and curb the growing trend of structural misassignments. Despite being the most accessible NMR experiment, 1D (1)H spectra encode a wealth of information about bonds and molecular geometry that may be fully mined by (1)H iterative full spin analysis (HiFSA). Fully characterized 1D (1)H spectra are unideterminant for a given structure. The corresponding FIDs may be readily submitted with publications and collected in databases. Proton NMR spectra are indispensable for structural characterization even in conjunction with 2D data. Quantum interaction and linkage tables (QuILTs) are introduced for a more intuitive visualization of 1D J-coupling relationships, NOESY correlations, and heteronuclear experiments. Overall, this study represents a significant contribution to best practices in NMR-based structural analysis and dereplication. PMID:26812443

  7. Formation of 1D adsorbed water structures on CaO(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xunhua; Bhattacharya, Saswata; Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Scheffler, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the interaction of water with oxide surfaces is of fundamental importance for basic and engineering sciences. Recently, a spontaneous formation of one-dimensional (1D) adsorbed water structures have been observed on CaO(001). Interestingly, at other alkaline earth metal oxides, in particular MgO(001) and SrO(001), such structures have not been found experimentally. We calculate the relative stability of adsorbed water structures on the three oxides using density-functional theory combined with the ab initio atomistic thermodynamics. Low-energy structures at different coverages are obtained with a first-principles genetic algorithm. Finite-temperature vibrational spectra are calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics. We find a range of (T, p) conditions where 1D structures are thermodynamically stable on CaO(001). The orientation and vibrational spectra of the 1D structures are in agreement with the experiments. The formation of the 1D structures is found to be actuated by a symmetry breaking in the adsorbed water tetramer, as well as by a balance between water-water and water-substrate interactions, determined by the lattice constant of the oxide.

  8. Structure-based design of novel Chlamydomonas reinhardtii D1-D2 photosynthetic proteins for herbicide monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Giuseppina; Polticelli, Fabio; Antonacci, Amina; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Katiyar, Prashant; Kulkarni, Sudhir A; Johanningmeier, Udo; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The D1-D2 heterodimer in the reaction center core of phototrophs binds the redox plastoquinone cofactors, QA and QB, the terminal acceptors of the photosynthetic electron transfer chain in the photosystem II (PSII). This complex is the target of the herbicide atrazine, an environmental pollutant competitive inhibitor of QB binding, and consequently it represents an excellent biomediator to develop biosensors for pollutant monitoring in ecosystems. In this context, we have undertaken a study of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii D1-D2 proteins aimed at designing site directed mutants with increased affinity for atrazine. The three-dimensional structure of the D1 and D2 proteins from C. reinhardtii has been homology modeled using the crystal structure of the highly homologous Thermosynechococcus elongatus proteins as templates. Mutants of D1 and D2 were then generated in silico and the atrazine binding affinity of the mutant proteins has been calculated to predict mutations able to increase PSII affinity for atrazine. The computational approach has been validated through comparison with available experimental data and production and characterization of one of the predicted mutants. The latter analyses indicated an increase of one order of magnitude of the mutant sensitivity and affinity for atrazine as compared to the control strain. Finally, D1-D2 heterodimer mutants were designed and selected which, according to our model, increase atrazine binding affinity by up to 20 kcal/mol, representing useful starting points for the development of high affinity biosensors for atrazine. PMID:19693932

  9. Magnetic and optical properties in the 1D TM-O chain compounds Sr2TMO3 (TM = Ni, Co): A first-principle investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Hong; Li, Xin; Zhao, Zhenjie; Xie, Wenhui

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we have calculated the structural, electronic, magnetic and optical properties of Sr2NiO3 and Sr2CoO3 using density functional theory (DFT) within generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The crystal structure of both materials is well described with Immm (No. 71) symmetry which are isostructural with Sr2CuO3 and both are quasi-one-dimensional (1D) rectangular lattice G-type antiferromagnets, in consistent with the experimental data. Due to a distortion, Sr2CoO3 lifts the near-degeneracy dxz and dyz states of the local Co electronic configuration, which demonstrates a strong coupling between the structural lattice and the electronic configuration. The calculated band structure shows a band gap of 1.376 eV for Sr2NiO3 and a band gap of 1.735 eV for Sr2CoO3. Ni and Co ions are in the high-spin S = 1 and S = 3/2 configurations with the magnetic moments of 1.585 μB and 2.587 μB, respectively. Based on the Heisenberg Hamiltonian model, we conclude that the superexchange intrachain TM-O-TM superexchange interaction is predominant and interaction between the 1D chains is weak. According to the calculated dielectric function, absorption spectrum and electron energy loss spectrum, the optical responses suggest that Sr2NiO3 shows the unique anisotropic structure and interaction of the application in optoelectronics.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of a 1D chain-like Cu{sub 6} substituted sandwich-type phosphotungstate with pendant dinuclear Cu–azido complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan-Ying; Zhao, Jun-Wei; Wei, Qi; Yang, Bai-Feng; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2014-02-15

    A novel Cu–azido complex modified hexa-Cu{sup II} substituted sandwich-type phosphotungstate [Cu(en){sub 2}]([Cu{sub 2}(en){sub 2}(μ-1,1-N{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2}[Cu{sub 6}(en){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(B-α-PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}])·6H{sub 2}O (1) (en=ethylene-diamine) has been prepared under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 displays a beautiful 1-D chain architecture constructed from sandwich-type [Cu{sub 2}(en){sub 2}(μ-1,1-N{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2}[Cu{sub 6}(en){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(B-α-PW{sub 9}O{sub 34}){sub 2}]{sup 2−} units and [Cu(en){sub 2}]{sup 2+} linkers. To our knowledge, 1 represents the first hexa-Cu{sup II} sandwiched phosphotungstate with supporting Cu–azido complexes. - Graphical abstract: The first hexa-Cu{sup II} sandwiched phosphotungstate with supporting Cu–azido complexes has been prepared and characterized. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Hexa-copper-substituted phosphotungstate. • Cu–azido complexes modified hexa-Cu{sup II} substituted sandwich-type polyoxometalate. • 1-D chain architecture built by hexa-copper-substituted polyoxotungstate units.

  11. Canonical decomposition of magnetotelluric responses: Experiment on 1D anisotropic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ze-qiu; Wei, Wen-bo; Ye, Gao-feng; Jin, Sheng; Jing, Jian-en

    2015-08-01

    Horizontal electrical heterogeneity of subsurface earth is mostly originated from structural complexity and electrical anisotropy, and local near-surface electrical heterogeneity will severely distort regional electromagnetic responses. Conventional distortion analyses for magnetotelluric soundings are primarily physical decomposition methods with respect to isotropic models, which mostly presume that the geoelectric distribution of geological structures is of local and regional patterns represented by 3D/2D models. Due to the widespread anisotropy of earth media, the confusion between 1D anisotropic responses and 2D isotropic responses, and the defects of physical decomposition methods, we propose to conduct modeling experiments with canonical decomposition in terms of 1D layered anisotropic models, and the method is one of the mathematical decomposition methods based on eigenstate analyses differentiated from distortion analyses, which can be used to recover electrical information such as strike directions, and maximum and minimum conductivity. We tested this method with numerical simulation experiments on several 1D synthetic models, which turned out that canonical decomposition is quite effective to reveal geological anisotropic information. Finally, for the background of anisotropy from previous study by geological and seismological methods, canonical decomposition is applied to real data acquired in North China Craton for 1D anisotropy analyses, and the result shows that, with effective modeling and cautious interpretation, canonical decomposition could be another good method to detect anisotropy of geological media.

  12. Investigation of 1-D crustal velocity structure beneath Izmir Gulf and surroundings by using local earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Orhan; Özer, Ćaglar

    2016-04-01

    In this study; we examined one dimensional crustal velocity structure of Izmir gulf and surroundings. We used nearly one thousand high quality (A and B class) earthquake data which recorded by Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) [1], Bogazici University (BU-KOERI) [2] and National Observatory of Athens (NOA) [3,4]. We tried several synthetic tests to understand power of new velocity structure, and examined phase residuals, RMS values and shifting tests. After evaluating these tests; we decided one dimensional velocity structure and minimum 1-D P wave velocities, hypocentral parameter and earthquake locations from VELEST algorithm. Distribution of earthquakes was visibly improved by using new minimum velocity structure.

  13. Syntheses, structures, and properties of two novel cadmium coordination polymers with 1D and 2D structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li; Li, Chuanbi; Zhu, Dongsheng; Xu, Lin

    2011-09-01

    Two novel complexes [Cd 2(MIP) 2(BDC) 2]n ( 1) [MIP = 2-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, BDC = terephthalic acid] and [Cd(IPM)(NDC)]n ( 2) [IPM = 4-(1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthrolin-2-yl)-2-methoxyphenol, NDC = naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid] have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Complex 1 exhibits 1D zigzag chain structure and complex 2 shows 2D layer topology. The intermolecular C sbnd H⋯O interactions extend the complex 1 into 2D networks, and the existing H-bonds further stabilized the complexes 1-2, which can be proved by TGA experiment. Furthermore, the solid-state fluorescence spectrum of the complex 2 was studied, as well as the ligand IPM. The complex 2 exhibits intense broad emission at 540 nm at room temperature, which is red-shifted by 45 nm relative to that of free ligand IPM.

  14. Supramolecular open-framework based on 1-D iron phosphate-diphosphate chains assembled through hydrogen bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Salvado, Miguel A.; Pertierra, Pilar; Trobajo, Camino; Garcia, Jose R.

    2008-05-15

    Fe(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4})(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}).C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N, a new iron(III) phosphate with an open-framework has been synthesized hydrothermally using pyridine as organic template. The crystal structure was solved ab initio using conventional powder X-ray diffraction data. The unit cell is orthorhombic, a=9.5075(2), b=10.1079(1), c=13.3195(2) A, space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, Z=4. The structure consists of FeO{sub 6} octahedra joined by H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} groups forming linear chains interconnected by hydrogen bonding to give rise to a supramolecular framework enclosing tunnels in which the pyridine molecules reside. - Graphical abstract: The low temperature hydrothermal synthesis offers many possibilities in the preparation of new materials with mixed octahedral-tetrahedral open-frameworks. Fe(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4})(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}).C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N is constituted by linear chains of FeO{sub 6} octahedra joined through of both dihydrogenphosphate and dihydrogendiphosphate bridges, interconnected by hydrogen bonds, originating channels where the pyridine molecules are located.

  15. Uranium(VI) coordination polymers with pyromellitate ligand: Unique 1D channel structures and diverse fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingjie; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Price, Jason R.; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Zhaoming; Kong, Linggen; Čejka, Jiří; Lu, Kim; Lumpkin, Gregory R.

    2015-03-15

    Three new coordination polymers of uranium(VI) with pyromellitic acid (H{sub 4}btca) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. (ED)[(UO{sub 2})(btca)]·(DMSO)·3H{sub 2}O (1) (ED=ethylenediammonium; DMSO=dimethylsulfoxide) has a lamellar structure with intercalation of ED and DMSO. (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 6}O{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}(btca)]·~6H{sub 2}O (2) has a 3D framework built from 7-fold coordinated uranyl trinuclear units and btca ligands with 1D diamond-shaped channels (~8.5 Å×~8.6 Å). [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(btca)]·4H{sub 2}O (3) has a 3D network constructed by two types of 7-fold coordinated uranium polyhedron. The unique μ{sub 5}-coordination mode of btca in 3 enables the formation of 1D olive-shaped large channels (~4.5 Å×~19 Å). Vibrational modes, thermal stabilities and fluorescence properties have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Table of content: three new uranium(VI) coordination polymers with pyromellitic acid (H{sub 4}btca) have been synthesized via room temperature and hydrothermal synthesis methods, and structurally characterized. Two to three dimensional (3D) frameworks are revealed. All 3D frameworks have unique 1D large channels. Their vibrational modes, thermal stabilities and photoluminescence properties have been investigated. - Highlights: • Three new coordination polymers of U(VI) with pyromellitic acid (H{sub 4}btca). • Structures from a 2D layer to 3D frameworks with unique 1D channels. • Unusual µ{sub 5}-(η{sub 1}:η{sub 2}:η{sub 1}:η{sub 2:}η{sub 1}) coordination mode of btca ligand. • Vibrational modes, thermal stabilities and luminescent properties reported.

  16. Topological degeneracy (Majorana zero-mode) and 1 + 1D fermionic topological order in a magnetic chain on superconductor via spontaneous Z₂(f) symmetry breaking.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Joel; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2015-10-14

    We study a chain of ferromagnetic sites, ie nano-particles, molecules or atoms, on a substrate of fully gapped superconductors. We find that under quite realistic conditions, the fermion-number-parity symmetry Z₂(f) can spontaneously break. In other words, such a chain can realize a 1  +  1D fermionic topologically ordered state and the corresponding two-fold topological degeneracy on an open chain. Such a topological degeneracy becomes the so called Majorana zero mode in the non-interacting limit. PMID:26401725

  17. Thermodynamic nature of vitrification in a 1D model of a structural glass former

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new spin-glass model with no positional quenched disorder which is regarded as a coarse-grained model of a structural glass-former. The model is analyzed in the 1D case when the number N of states of a primary cell is large. For N → ∞, the model exhibits a sharp freezing transition of the thermodynamic origin. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the glass transition is accompanied by a significant growth of a static length scale ξ pointing to the structural (equilibrium) nature of dynamical slowdown effects in supercooled liquids.

  18. Thermodynamic nature of vitrification in a 1D model of a structural glass former.

    PubMed

    Semenov, A N

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new spin-glass model with no positional quenched disorder which is regarded as a coarse-grained model of a structural glass-former. The model is analyzed in the 1D case when the number N of states of a primary cell is large. For N → ∞, the model exhibits a sharp freezing transition of the thermodynamic origin. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the glass transition is accompanied by a significant growth of a static length scale ξ pointing to the structural (equilibrium) nature of dynamical slowdown effects in supercooled liquids. PMID:26233148

  19. Thermodynamic nature of vitrification in a 1D model of a structural glass former

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, A. N.

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new spin-glass model with no positional quenched disorder which is regarded as a coarse-grained model of a structural glass-former. The model is analyzed in the 1D case when the number N of states of a primary cell is large. For N → ∞, the model exhibits a sharp freezing transition of the thermodynamic origin. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the glass transition is accompanied by a significant growth of a static length scale ξ pointing to the structural (equilibrium) nature of dynamical slowdown effects in supercooled liquids.

  20. Self-assembly of silver(I) coordination polymers from aminopyrimidyl derivatives and malonate acid: From 1D chain to 2D layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Di; Zhang, Na; Xu, Qin-Juan; Luo, Geng-Geng; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2010-04-01

    Two new silver(I) coordination polymers (CPs) of the formula [Ag 2(dmapym) 4(mal)·H 2O] n ( 1) and [Ag 3(apym) 3(mal)NO 3] n ( 2) (dmapym = 2-amino-4,6-dimethylprimidine, apym = 2-aminopyrimidine, H 2mal = malonate) have been synthesized by reactions of AgNO 3 and 2-aminopyrimidyl ligands with malonate under the ammoniacal condition. Both complexes have been characterized by element analysis, IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The monodentate dmapym and tridentate mal ligands link Ag(I) ions to give complex 1 a one-dimensional (1D) H-shaped chain structure. The complex 2 is a two-dimensional (2D) double sheet structure constructed by (4, 4) single sheet. Additionally, the hydrogen-bonding and C-H⋯π interactions also direct the self-assembly of supramolecular architectures. The photoluminescence properties of the 1 and 2 were investigated in the solid state at room temperature.

  1. Study of phase transformation and crystal structure for 1D carbon-modified titania ribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Lihui Zhang, Fang; Li, Jinxia

    2014-02-15

    One-dimensional hydrogen titanate ribbons were successfully prepared with hydrothermal reaction in a highly basic solution. A series of one-dimensional carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons were prepared via calcination of the mixture of hydrogen titanate ribbons and sucrose solution under N{sub 2} flow at different temperatures. The phase transformation process of hydrogen titanate ribbons was investigated by in-situ X-ray diffraction at various temperatures. Besides, one-dimensional carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons calcined at different temperatures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, diffuse reflectance ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and so on. Carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons showed one-dimensional ribbon crystal structure and various crystal phases of TiO{sub 2}. After being modified with carbon, a layer of uniform carbon film was coated on the surface of TiO{sub 2} ribbons, which improved their adsorption capacity for methyl orange as a model organic pollutant. One-dimensional carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons also exhibited enhanced visible-light absorbance with the increase of calcination temperatures. - Highlights: • The synthesis of 1D carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons. • The phase transformation of 1D carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons. • 1D carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} exhibites enhanced visible-light absorbance.

  2. Computational Study and Analysis of Structural Imperfections in 1D and 2D Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    K.R. Maskaly

    2005-06-01

    increasing RMS roughness. Again, the homogenization approximation is able to predict these results. The problem of surface scratches on 1D photonic crystals is also addressed. Although the reflectivity decreases are lower in this study, up to a 15% change in reflectivity is observed in certain scratched photonic crystal structures. However, this reflectivity change can be significantly decreased by adding a low index protective coating to the surface of the photonic crystal. Again, application of homogenization theory to these structures confirms its predictive power for this type of imperfection as well. Additionally, the problem of a circular pores in 2D photonic crystals is investigated, showing that almost a 50% change in reflectivity can occur for some structures. Furthermore, this study reveals trends that are consistent with the 1D simulations: parameter changes that increase the absolute reflectivity of the photonic crystal will also increase its tolerance to structural imperfections. Finally, experimental reflectance spectra from roughened 1D photonic crystals are compared to the results predicted computationally in this thesis. Both the computed and experimental spectra correlate favorably, validating the findings presented herein.

  3. Structure of Human Ferritin L Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Wang,Z.; Li, C.; Ellenburg, M.; Soistman, E.; Ruble, J.; Wright, B.; Ho, J.; Carter, D.

    2006-01-01

    Ferritin is the major iron-storage protein present in all cells. It generally contains 24 subunits, with different ratios of heavy chain (H) to light chain (L), in the shape of a hollow sphere hosting up to 4500 ferric Fe atoms inside. H-rich ferritins catalyze the oxidation of iron(II), while L-rich ferritins promote the nucleation and storage of iron(III). Several X-ray structures have been determined, including those of L-chain ferritins from horse spleen (HoSF), recombinant L-chain ferritins from horse (HoLF), mouse (MoLF) and bullfrog (BfLF) as well as recombinant human H-chain ferritin (HuHF). Here, structures have been determined of two crystal forms of recombinant human L-chain ferritin (HuLF) obtained from native and perdeuterated proteins. The structures show a cluster of acidic residues at the ferrihydrite nucleation site and at the iron channel along the threefold axis. An ordered Cd{sup 2+} structure is observed within the iron channel, offering further insight into the route and mechanism of iron transport into the capsid. The loop between helices D and E, which is disordered in many other L-chain structures, is clearly visible in these two structures. The crystals generated from perdeuterated HuLF will be used for neutron diffraction studies.

  4. Self-assembly of mixed-valence Co(II/III) and Ni(II) clusters: azide-bridged 1D single chain coordination polymers comprised of tetranuclear units, tetranuclear Co(II/III) complexes, ferromagnetically coupled azide-bridged tetranuclear, and hexanuclear Ni(II) complexes: synthesis, structural, and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Santokh S; Bunge, Scott D; Rakosi, Robert; Xu, Zhiqiang; Thompson, Laurence K

    2009-09-01

    One-pot reactions between 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol (DFMP) and 2-aminoethanol (AE) in the presence of cobalt(II) salts [Co(ClO4)2, CoCl2, Co(CH3CO2)2, Co(NO3)2] and sodium azide result in the self-assembly of novel one-dimensional single chain mixed-valence cobalt coordination polymers {[Co2(II)Co2(III) (HL)2(OCH3)2(N3)3]ClO(4).5H2O.CH3OH}n (1), {[Co2(II)Co2(III) (HL)2(OCH3)2(N3)3]Cl.H2O}n (2) in which tetra-cobalt cationic units are bridged by symmetrical 1,3-azides, forming single chains; mixed valence neutral tetranuclear clusters [Co2(II)Co2(III) (HL)2(OCH3)2(N3)4]CH3OH.2H2O (3), [Co2(II)Co2(III)(HL)2(OCH3)2(N3)2(CH3CO2)2].2CH3OH.2H2O (4), and the cationic cluster [Co2(II) Co2(III) (HL)2(OCH3)2(CH3OH)2(N3)2](NO3)2 (5). In all these reactions, H3L, the potentially pentadentate (N2O3), trianionic double Schiff base ligand 2,6-bis[(2-hydroxy-ethylimino)-methyl]-4-methylphenol is formed. The reaction between DFMP and AE in the presence of nickel(ii) salts and sodium azide in methanol-water mixture results in the self-assembly of ferromagnetically coupled hexanuclear complexes [Ni6(H2L)2(HL-1)2(H2O)2(N3)6](ClO4)(2).2CH3OH (6), and [Ni6(H2L)2(HL-1)2(CH3OH)2(N3)6](BF4)2 (7), involving double (H3L) and single (H2L-1) Schiff base ligands, and a neutral tetranuclear complex [Ni4(H2L)2(OCH3)2(CH3CO2)2(N3)2] (8) with only double Schiff-base (H3L). In these complexes, the nature of the anion and the reaction conditions seem to play an important role in directing the formation of tetranuclear, hexanuclear or polymeric clusters. All complexes involve divacant double cubane-type cores containing three to four different types of bridging ligands (phenoxy, azido, methoxy/alkoxy, and acetate). Variable temperature magnetic properties of these spin coupled clusters have been investigated and magneto-structural correlations have been established. PMID:19672499

  5. Structural transformation in monolayer materials: a 2D to 1D transformation.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Kasra; Attariani, Hamed; LeSar, Richard A

    2016-07-20

    Reducing the dimensions of materials to atomic scales results in a large portion of atoms being at or near the surface, with lower bond order and thus higher energy. At such scales, reduction of the surface energy and surface stresses can be the driving force for the formation of new low-dimensional nanostructures, and may be exhibited through surface relaxation and/or surface reconstruction, which can be utilized for tailoring the properties and phase transformation of nanomaterials without applying any external load. Here we used atomistic simulations and revealed an intrinsic structural transformation in monolayer materials that lowers their dimension from 2D nanosheets to 1D nanostructures to reduce their surface and elastic energies. Experimental evidence of such transformation has also been revealed for one of the predicted nanostructures. Such transformation plays an important role in bi-/multi-layer 2D materials. PMID:27388501

  6. Four 1-D metal-organic polymers self-assembled from semi-flexible benzimidazole-based ligand: Syntheses, structures and fluorescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chun-lin; Wang, Shi-min; Liu, Sai-nan; Yu, Tian-tian; Li, Rui-ying; Xu, Hong; Liu, Zhong-yi; Sun, Huan; Cheng, Jia-jia; Li, Jin-peng; Hou, Hong-wei; Chang, Jun-biao

    2016-08-01

    Four one-dimensional (1-D) metal-organic polymers based on methylene-bis(1,1‧-benzimidazole)(mbbz), namely, {[Hg(mbbz)(SCN)2]·1/3H2O}n (1), [Co(mbbz)(Cl)2]n (2), {[Co(mbbz)(SO4)]·CH3OH}n (3) and {[Zn(mbbz)(SO4)]·CH3OH}n (4) have been successfully synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that polymers 1 and 2 exhibit interesting 1-D double helical chain structures, while polymers 3 and 4 are 1-D double chain structures due to the bridging effect of mbbz ligands and sulfate anions. These polymers containing the mbbz-based ligand have a high degree of dependence on the corresponding counter anions. Furthermore, the fluorescence properties of the four polymers were also investigated in the solid state, showing the fluorescence signal changes in comparing with that of free ligand mbbz.

  7. 1D crustal structure from quality seismological data for the Cyprus subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perk, Şükran; Deǧer, Ali; Özbakır, Karabulut, Hayrullah

    2013-04-01

    The eastern Mediterranean is a tectonically complex region, where long-term subduction and accretion processes have shaped the overall evolution. Recently, many seismic tomography studies have shown subducted slabs of the Neo-Tethyan lithosphere, continuing its subduction in the Hellenic trench, stalled in the Cyprus trench and being torn near the intersection between them. Antalya bay is a key region located on the western flank of the Cyprus Subduction Zone (CSZ), close to the junction between the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs. Here deep earthquakes are nucleated, which otherwise cannot be seen anywhere else along the CSZ. For this reason, we focus our attention specifically to the Antalya Bay area but also the remaining parts of the CSZ. Several regional studies have been carried out to define the velocity structure beneath the region but none have been able to locate the CSZ. One of the main reasons for this was the lack of incorporation of a wide seismic network in those regional studies. We compile a large catalog of seismicity and relocate earthquakes to infer 1D local crustal structure using the clusters of seismicity. We used seismic data between 2005 - 2011 which are recorded at more than 335 seismic stations operated by several agencies and portable deployments. The data-set is composed of over 10,000 events and earthquakes can be grouped in several distinct clusters. We defined five of these clusters, where the total number of events is more than 4500, among which we selected over 2000 events with the highest data quality. 1-D local P-wave velocity models are developed using this high quality data-set and the earthquakes are relocated using the local velocity models. The compiled and reanalyzed data will contribute to perform local earthquake tomography. Moreover, obtained local velocity models represent a fundamental step towards an improved seismic tomography studies in a very crucial region in the eastern Mediterranean.

  8. Syntheses, structures, spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of two 1D organic-inorganic CuII-LnIII heterometallic germanotungstates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingli; Li, Jie; Li, Lijie; Zhao, Haozhe; Ma, Pengtao; Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Lijuan

    2013-10-01

    Two organic-inorganic hybrid copper-lanthanide heterometallic germanotungstates KNa2H7[enH2]3[Cu(en)2(H2O)]2[Cu(en)2]2{Cu(en)2[Eu(α-GeW11O39)2]2}·13H2O (1) and Na2H4[Cu(en)2(H2O)]2[Cu(en)2]6[Cu(en)2]{Cu(en)2[La(α-GeW11O39)2]2}·12H2O (2) have been hydrothermally synthesized by reaction of K8Na2[A-α-GeW9O34]·25H2O with CuCl2·2H2O and EuCl3/LaCl3 in the presence of en (en=ethylenediamine) and structurally characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 exhibits the 1D chain motif built by tetrameric {[Cu(en)2(H2O)]2[Cu(en)2]2{Cu(en)2[Eu(α-GeW11O39)2]2}}(16-) moieties through square antiprismatic K(+) cations while 2 displays the 1D architecture made by tetrameric [[Cu(en)2]6[Cu(en)2]{Cu(en)2[La(α-GeW11O39)2]2}](10-) units via octahedral [Cu(en)2](2+) cations. Furthermore, the solid-state electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of 1 have been investigated and 1 indicates the good electrocatalytic activity for nitrite reduction. In addition, the photoluminescence property of 1 has been investigated. PMID:23786977

  9. Thermally triggered reversible transformation between parallel staggered stacking and plywood-like stacking of 1D coordination polymer chains.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian-Ke; Jin, Xu-Hui; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Jie

    2010-08-01

    An unusual example showing reversible interconversion of chain-like isomers under controlled experimental settings is reported, which illustrates the key role of assembly conditions for the target packing architecture with related properties. The reaction of Mn(II) ions with an organic ligand 2-hydroxypyrimidine-4,6-dicarboxylic acid (H(3)hpdc) at room temperature gives a coordination polymer {[Mn(3)(hpdc)(2)(H(2)O)(6)] x 2 H(2)O}(n) containing parallel staggered stacking, whereas the reaction under hydrothermal conditions at 150 degrees C affords a compound {[Mn(3)(hpdc)(2)(H(2)O)(6)] x H(2)O}(n) possessing plywood-like stacking. Interestingly, two compounds contain similar one-dimensional chain components with different orientations that can be controlled by thermodynamic factors. Thermally triggered reversible interconversion of the two compounds was verified by X-ray powder, IR, and element analysis. The spin-canted antiferromagnetic behaviors are observed in as-synthesized samples, and the influence of chain orientations on magnetic properties has been detected. PMID:20608747

  10. Structure and Stability of Monatomic Metallic Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Inder P.; Sen, Prasenjit; Ciraci, S.

    2001-03-01

    We have investigated atomic and electronic structure of Au and Al monatomic chains by using first-principle plane wave method within density-functional theory. Despite their different valencies, Au and Al form planar zigzag chains with each atom having four nearest neighbors. The zigzag structure is stable against linearization and non-planar deformations. We performed an extensive charge density analysis and finite temperature calculations to reveal the origin of the unusual atomic structure in these one dimensional metallic systems. The implications of the zigzag structure on the electronic properties and the balistic electron conduction have been examined.

  11. Syntheses, crystal structures and properties of two 1-D cadmium(II) coordination polymers based on 1,1'-(1,3-propanediyl)bis-1H-benzimidazole

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Huaixia; Meng Xiangru; Liu Yun; Hou Hongwei Fan Yaoting; Shen Xiaoqing

    2008-09-15

    The combination of framework-builders 1,1'-(1,3-propanediyl)bis-1H-benzimidazole (pbbm), Cd(II) ion and framework-regulator ClO{sub 4}{sup -} or SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} provides two new coordination polymers [Cd(pbbm){sub 2}(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}]{sub n}(1) and {l_brace}[Cd(pbbm)SO{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].CH{sub 3}OH{r_brace}{sub n}(2). Both of them display 1-D chain framework, but their detailed structures are clearly different from each other. 1 displays a 1-D ribbon of rings framework, 2 features an interesting infinite 1-D looped chain structure composed of two kinds of rings, the smaller 8-membered ring and the larger 20-membered ring. The antimicrobial activities of the two polymers were tested by the agar diffusion method and the results indicated that they exhibited antimicrobial activities against bacterial strands. The measurement of the non-isothermal kinetics of the thermal decomposition of 2 reveals that there are at least three steps that occur in its decomposition process. - Graphical abstract: Two new Cd(II)-containing complexes have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The antimicrobial activity and the non-isothermal kinetics of the thermal decomposition of the polymers were also investigated. Display Omitted.

  12. Mössbauer spectroscopy monitoring the spin transition of a FeII 1D chain with a fluorinated 4-R-1,2,4-triazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Railliet, Antoine P.; Naik, Anil D.; Rotaru, Aurelian; Garcia, Yann

    2014-04-01

    The spin transition properties of [Fe(fletrz)3](BF4)2•2H2O are described. Fletrz (4-(2'-fluoroethyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole) is a novel fluorine substituted 1,2,4-triazole ligand which forms 1D chain upon self-assembly with FeII ions. This coordination polymer exhibits reversible abrupt thermochromic spin transition that has been probed by SQUID magnetometry, variable temperature 57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy (77-300 K) and differential scanning calorimetry (100-300 K).

  13. Optical bullets in (2+1)D photonic structures and their interaction with localized defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohnal, Tomas

    2005-11-01

    This dissertation studies light propagation in Kerr-nonlinear two dimensional waveguides with a Bragg resonant, periodic structure in the propagation direction. The model describing evolution of the electric field envelopes is the system of 2D Nonlinear Coupled Mode Equations (2D CME). The periodic structure induces a range of frequencies (frequency gap) in which linear waves do not propagate. It is shown that, similarly to the ID case of a fiber grating, the 2D nonlinear system supports localized solitary wave solutions, referred to as 2D gap solitons, which have frequencies inside the linear gap and can travel at, any speed smaller than or equal to the speed of light in the corresponding homogeneous medium. Such solutions are constructed numerically via Newton's iteration. Convergence is obtained only near the upper edge of the gap. Gap solitons with a nonzero velocity are constructed by numerically following a bifurcation curve parameterized by the velocity v. It is shown that gap solitons are saddle points of the corresponding Hamiltonian functional and that no (constrained) local minima of the Hamiltonian exist. The linear stability problem is formulated and reasons for the failure of the standard Hamiltonian PDE approach for determining linear stability are discussed. In the second part of the dissertation interaction of 2D gap solitons with localized defects is studied and trapping of slow enough 2D gap solitons is demonstrated. This study builds on [JOSA B 19, 1635 (2002)], where such trapping of 1D gap solitons is considered. Analogously to this 1D problem trapping in the 2D model is explained as a resonant energy transfer into one or more defect modes existent for the particular defect. For special localized defects exact linear modes are found explicitly via the separation of variables. Numerical computation of linear defect modes is used for more general defects. Corresponding nonlinear modes are then constructed via Newton's iteration by following a

  14. MAGNETIC CORE SHELL STRUCTURES: from 0D to 1D assembling.

    PubMed

    Ficai, Denisa; Ficai, Anton; Dinu, Elena; Oprea, Ovidiu; Sonmez, Maria; Keler, Memduh Kagan; Sahin, Yesim Muge; Ekren, Nazmi; Inan, Ahmet Talat; Daglilar, Sibel; Gunduz, Oguzhan

    2015-01-01

    Material research and development studies are focused on different techniques of bringing out nanomaterials with desired characteristics and properties. From the point of view of materials development, nowadays scientists are strongly focused on obtaining materials with predefined characteristics and properties. The morphology control seems to be a determinant factor and increasing attention is devoted to this aspect. At this moment it is possible to engineer the material's features by using different methods and materials combination for both medical and industrial applications. In the applications of chemistry and synthesis, biology, mechanics, optics solar cells and microelectronics tailoring the adjustable parameters of stoichiometry, chemical structure, shape and segregation are evaluated and opens new fields. Because of the magnetic features of nanoparticles and durable particle size, less than 100 nm, this study is aiming to describe their uses in practical applications. That's why the whole hydrodynamic magnetic core shell topic will be reviewed on this paper. Additionally, the properties acting in general sight in solid-state physics are utilized for material selection and for defining issue connecting the core, shell structure and their producing properties. Here, in the study of core/shell nanoparticle various physical and chemical synthesis routes and the effect of electrospun method are briefly discussed. Starting from a real void of the scientific literature, the existent data related to the 1D magnetic electrospun materials are reviewed. The perspectives in the medical, environmental or energetic sector is great and bring some real advantages related to the 0D core@shell structures because both mechanical and biological properties are dependent on the morphology of the materials. PMID:26377653

  15. Syntheses, crystal structures and luminescent properties of two new 1D d {sup 1} coordination polymers constructed from 2,2'-bibenzimidazole and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate

    SciTech Connect

    Wen Lili; Li Yizhi; Dang Dongbin; Tian Zhengfang; Ni Zhaoping; Meng Qingjin . E-mail: mengqj@nju.edu.cn

    2005-11-15

    Two novel interesting d {sup 1} metal coordination polymers, [Zn(H{sub 2}bibzim)(BDC)] {sub n} (1) and [Cd(H{sub 2}bibzim)(BDC)] {sub n} (2) [H{sub 2}bibzim=2,2'-bibenzimidazole, BDC=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate] have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized. Both 1 and 2 are constructed from infinite neutral zigzag-like one-dimensional (1D) chains. The {pi}-{pi} interactions and interchain hydrogen-bonding interactions further extend the 1D arrangement to generate a 3D supramolecular architecture for 1 and 2. Both complexes have high thermal stability and display strong blue fluorescent emissions in the solid state upon photo-excitation at 365 nm at room temperature. They are the first two examples that 2,2'-bibenzimidazole has been introduced into the d {sup 1} coordination polymeric framework.

  16. Two-band model description of electroabsorption and third-harmonic generation in 1-D MX linear chains

    SciTech Connect

    Shuai, Z.; Bredas, J.L.; Saxena, A.; Gammel, J.T.; Bishop, A.R.

    1994-10-01

    Within a two-band model, the authors investigate the electroabsorption (EA) and third-harmonic generation (THG) processes in halogen-bridged mixed-valence Pt complexes: PtCl, PtBr and Ptl. For PtCl, the theoretical THG spectrum shows three peaks, corresponding to (i) a three-photon resonance at 0.83 eV originating in a M(etal)-M(etal) transition; (ii) a two-photon resonance at 1.5 eV from an M-M band-edge transition; and (iii) a three-photon resonance at 1.6 eV from an M-X transition. The latter two peaks account well for the twin-peak structure seen experimentally. They show that the twin-peak intensity strongly decreases from PtCl to PtBr and disappears for PtI. They also discuss the theoretical EA spectra due to localized defects (polarons, bipolarons, kinks, and excitons).

  17. Crystal Structures of Human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 (AS160) RabGTPase-activating Protein (RabGAP) Domains Reveal Critical Elements for GLUT4 Translocation

    SciTech Connect

    S Park; W Jin; S Shoelson

    2011-12-31

    We have solved the x-ray crystal structures of the RabGAP domains of human TBC1D1 and human TBC1D4 (AS160), at 2.2 and 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Like the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP domain, whose structure was solved previously in complex with mouse Rab33B, the human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 domains both have 16 {alpha}-helices and no {beta}-sheet elements. We expected the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP/mouse Rab33B structure to predict the corresponding interfaces between cognate mammalian RabGAPs and Rabs, but found that residues were poorly conserved. We further tested the relevance of this model by Ala-scanning mutagenesis, but only one of five substitutions within the inferred binding site of the TBC1D1 RabGAP significantly perturbed catalytic efficiency. In addition, substitution of TBC1D1 residues with corresponding residues from Gyp1p did not enhance catalytic efficiency. We hypothesized that biologically relevant RabGAP/Rab partners utilize additional contacts not described in the yeast Gyp1p/mouse Rab33B structure, which we predicted using our two new human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 structures. Ala substitution of TBC1D1 Met{sup 930}, corresponding to a residue outside of the Gyp1p/Rab33B contact, substantially reduced catalytic activity. GLUT4 translocation assays confirmed the biological relevance of our findings. Substitutions with lowest RabGAP activity, including catalytically dead RK and Met{sup 930} and Leu{sup 1019} predicted to perturb Rab binding, confirmed that biological activity requires contacts between cognate RabGAPs and Rabs beyond those in the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP/mouse Rab33B structure.

  18. Simulation of unsteady state performance of a secondary air system by the 1D-3D-Structure coupled method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong; Li, Peng; Li, Yulong

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the calculation method for unsteady state conditions in the secondary air systems in gas turbines. The 1D-3D-Structure coupled method was applied. A 1D code was used to model the standard components that have typical geometric characteristics. Their flow and heat transfer were described by empirical correlations based on experimental data or CFD calculations. A 3D code was used to model the non-standard components that cannot be described by typical geometric languages, while a finite element analysis was carried out to compute the structural deformation and heat conduction at certain important positions. These codes were coupled through their interfaces. Thus, the changes in heat transfer and structure and their interactions caused by exterior disturbances can be reflected. The results of the coupling method in an unsteady state showed an apparent deviation from the existing data, while the results in the steady state were highly consistent with the existing data. The difference in the results in the unsteady state was caused primarily by structural deformation that cannot be predicted by the 1D method. Thus, in order to obtain the unsteady state performance of a secondary air system more accurately and efficiently, the 1D-3D-Structure coupled method should be used.

  19. Supramolecular assembled of hexameric water clusters into a 1D chain containing (H2O)6 and [(H2O)4O2] stabilized by hydrogen bonding in a copper complex

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Various water clusters including hexamers, heptamers, octamers, decamers and 1D or 2D infinite water chains in a number of organic and inorganic-organic hybrid hosts, have been reported. Results {[Cu(pydc)(amp)].3H2O}n has been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and by IR spectroscopy. A wide range of hydrogen bonds (of the O-H...O, N-H...O and N-H...N type) are present in the crystal structure. Hydrogen bond interactions between the co-crystallized water molecules led to formation of six-membered rings with chair conformation. Conclusion In {[Cu(pydc)(amp)].3H2O}n, there are three uncoordinated water molecules. Thermal methods confirm number of co-crystallized water molecules in polymer. Hydrogen bond interactions between the co-crystallized water molecules led to the formation of a six-membered ring with the chair conformation. These rings are part of a 1D chain containing six-membered O6 rings, which are alternately made from (H2O)6 and [(H2O)4O2] rings. [(H2O)4O2] rings are also in chair conformation. PMID:22264401

  20. The structure and electronic properties of copper iodide 1D nanocrystals within single walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, N. A.; Kumskov, A. S.; Zhigalina, V. G.; Verbitskiy, N. I.; Yashina, L. V.; Chuvilin, A. L.; Vasiliev, A. L.; Eliseev, A. A.

    2013-11-01

    Copper iodide one-dimensional nanocrystals within single walled carbon nanotubes (1D CuI@SWCNTs), i.e. meta-nanotubes [1], were investigated by high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM). In meta-nanotubes of diameter Dm = 1.3-1.4 nm produced by arc-discharge (AD) method close-packed hexagonal or deformed cubic 1D crystal anion sublattices were observed with cations in octahedral or tetrahedral positions. These two sublattices reversibly transform to one another. In catalysed chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) meta-nanotubes of diameters Dm = 1.5-2.0 nm cubic anion sublattices are formed. For diameters >=2.0 nm three-dimensional (3D) crystallization is observed.

  1. Inhibition of Human Steroid 5-Reductase (AKR1D1) by Finasteride and Structure of the Enzyme-Inhibitor Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.; Di Costanzo, L; Penning, T; Christianson, D

    2009-01-01

    The {Delta}{sup 4}-3-ketosteroid functionality is present in nearly all steroid hormones apart from estrogens. The first step in functionalization of the A-ring is mediated in humans by steroid 5{alpha}- or 5{beta}-reductase. Finasteride is a mechanism-based inactivator of 5{alpha}-reductase type 2 with subnanomolar affinity and is widely used as a therapeutic for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. It is also used for androgen deprivation in hormone-dependent prostate carcinoma, and it has been examined as a chemopreventive agent in prostate cancer. The effect of finasteride on steroid 5{beta}-reductase (AKR1D1) has not been previously reported. We show that finasteride competitively inhibits AKR1D1 with low micromolar affinity but does not act as a mechanism-based inactivator. The structure of the AKR1D1 {center_dot} NADP{sup +} {center_dot} finasteride complex determined at 1.7 {angstrom} resolution shows that it is not possible for NADPH to reduce the {Delta}{sup 1-2}-ene of finasteride because the cofactor and steroid are not proximal to each other. The C3-ketone of finasteride accepts hydrogen bonds from the catalytic residues Tyr-58 and Glu-120 in the active site of AKR1D1, providing an explanation for the competitive inhibition observed. This is the first reported structure of finasteride bound to an enzyme involved in steroid hormone metabolism.

  2. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Xin Lingyun; Liu Guangzhen; Wang Liya

    2011-06-15

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)]{sub n}(2), and [Cu{sub 2}(PHDA){sub 2}(BPP)]{sub n}(3) (H{sub 2}PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D{yields}2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4{sup 8}6{sup 6}8 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state. - Graphical Abstract: We show diverse supramolecular frameworks based on the same ligands (PHDA and BPP) and different metal acetate salts including 1D double-stranded chain, 2D {yields} 2D twofold interpenetrated layer, and 3D self-penetration networks. Highlights: > Three metal(II = 2 /* ROMAN ) coordination polymers were synthesized using H{sub 2}PHDA and BPP. > The diversity of structures show a remarked sensitivity to metal(II) center. > Complexes show the enhancement of fluorescence compared to that of free ligand.

  3. Structure, electrochemical properties and capacitance performance of polypyrrole electrodeposited onto 1-D crystals of iridium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocka-Żołopa, Monika; Winkler, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Composites of polypyrrole and one-dimensional iridium complex crystals [(C2H5)4N]0.55[IrCl2(CO)2] were prepared by in situ two-step electrodeposition. Initially, iridium complex crystals were formed during [IrCl2(CO)2]- complex oxidation. Next, pyrrole was electropolymerized on the surface of the iridium needles. The morphology of the composite was investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. At positive potentials, the iridium complex crystals and the polypyrrole were oxidized. In aprotic solvents, oxidation of the iridium complex crystals resulted in their dissolution. In water containing tetra(n-butyl)ammonium chlorides, the 1-D iridium complex crystals were reversibly oxidized. The product of the iridium complex oxidation remained on the electrode surface in crystalline form. The iridium complex needles significantly influenced the redox properties of the polymer. The polypyrrole involved electrode processes become more reversible in presence of crystals of iridium complex. The current of polypyrrole oxidation was higher compared to that of pure polypyrrole and the capacitance properties of the polymer were significantly enhanced. A specific capacitance as high as 590 F g-1 was obtained for a composite of polypyrrole and 1-D crystals of the iridium complex in water containing tetra(n-butyl)ammonium chloride. This value is approximately twice as high as the capacitance of the pure polymer deposited onto the electrode surface.

  4. Syntheses, crystal structures, and characterization of three 1D, 2D and 3D complexes based on mixed multidentate N- and O-donor ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Huai-Xia; Liang, Zhen; Hao, Bao-Lian; Meng, Xiang-Ru

    2014-10-15

    Three new 1D to 3D complexes, namely, ([Ni(btec)(Himb){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·6H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1), ([Cd(btec){sub 0.5}(imb)(H{sub 2}O)]·1.5H{sub 2}O){sub n} (2), and ([Zn(btec){sub 0.5}(imb)]·H{sub 2}O){sub n} (3) (H{sub 4}btec=1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid, imb=2-(1H-imidazol-1-methyl)-1H-benzimidazole) have been synthesized by adjusting the central metal ions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that complex 1 possesses a 1D chain structure which is further extended into the 3D supramolecular architecture via hydrogen bonds. Complex 2 features a 2D network with Schla¨fli symbol (5{sup 3}·6{sup 2}·7)(5{sup 2}·6{sup 4}). Complex 3 presents a 3D framework with a point symbol of (4·6{sup 4}·8)(4{sup 2}·6{sup 2}·8{sup 2}). Moreover, their IR spectra, PXRD patterns, thermogravimetric curves, and luminescent emissions were studied at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Three new 1D to 3D complexes with different structural and topological motifs have been obtained by modifying the central metal ions. Additionally, their IR, TG analyses and fluorescent properties are also investigated. - Highlights: • Three complexes based on mixed multidentate N- and O-donor ligands. • The complexes are characterized by IR, luminescence and TGA techniques. • Benzenetetracarboxylates display different coordination modes in complexes 1–3. • Changing the metal ions can result in complexes with completely different structures.

  5. An approach to control tuning range and speed in 1D ternary photonic band gap material nano-layered optical filter structures electro-optically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, Shahneel; Banerjee, Anirudh

    2016-05-01

    This paper demonstrates a way to control spectrum tuning capability in one-dimensional (1D) ternary photonic band gap (PBG) material nano-layered structures electro-optically. It is shown that not only tuning range, but also tuning speed of tunable optical filters based on 1D ternary PBG structures can be controlled Electro-optically. This approach finds application in tuning range enhancement of 1D Ternary PBG structures and compensating temperature sensitive transmission spectrum shift in 1D Ternary PBG structures.

  6. Impulse noise removal using 1-D switching median filter with adaptive scanning order based on structural context of image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Takanori; Suetake, Noriaki

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes the detail-preserving impulse noise removal performance of a one-dimensional (1-D) switching median filter (SMF) applied along an adaptive space-filling curve. Usually, a SMF with a two-dimensional (2-D) filter window is widely used for impulse noise removal while still preserving detailed parts in an input image. However, the noise detector of the 2-D filter does not always distinguish between the original pixels and the noise-corrupted ones perfectly. In particular, pixels constituting thin lines in an input image tend to be incorrectly detected as noise-corrupted pixels, and such pixels are filtered regardless of the necessity of the filtering. To cope with this problem, we propose a new impulse noise removal method based on a 1-D SMF and a space-filling curve which is adaptively drawn using a minimum spanning tree reflecting structural context of an input image.

  7. Hyperfine structures of the nd /sup 1/D(n = 3 - 8) states of /sup 3/He I

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.L.; Streif, V.F.; Berry, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    We have used the beam-foil quantum beat method to measure the hyperfine structure separations F = 3/2 - 5/2 of the 1snd /sup 1/D states (n = 3 - 8) of /sup 3/He I. We observed the single frequency modulated decay curves of the 1s2p /sup 1/P - 1snd /sup 1/D transitions for times after excitation up to 50 ns, corresponding to 4 to 5 modulation periods. The frequencies obtained (with a precision of 2 to 5%) are compared with other experiments and theory. The frequencies are determined mainly by the singlet-triplet energy separations and mixing factors for the He I D-states. The results agree with the same parameters obtained from other recent level-crossing measurements in strong magnetic field mixing of the singlet-triplet states.

  8. Structure and function of branched chain aminotransferases.

    PubMed

    Hutson, S

    2001-01-01

    Branched chain aminotransferases (BCATs) catalyze transamination of the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Except for the Escherichia coli and Salmonella proteins, which are homohexamers arranged as a double trimer, the BCATs are homodimers. Structurally, the BCATs belong to the fold type IV class of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) enzymes. Other members are D-alanine aminotransferase and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase. Catalysis is on the re face of the PLP cofactor, whereas in other classes, catalysis occurs from the si face of PLP. Crystal structures of the fold type IV proteins show that they are distinct from the fold type I aspartate aminotransferase family and represent a new protein fold. Because the fold type IV enzymes catalyze diverse reactions, it is not surprising that the greatest structural similarities involve residues that participate in PLP binding rather than residues involved in substrate binding. The BCATs are widely distributed in the bacterial kingdom, where they are involved in the synthesis/degradation of the BCAAs. Bacteria contain a single BCAT. In eukaryotes there are two isozymes, one is mitochondrial (BCATm) and the other is cytosolic (BCATc). In mammals, BCATm is in most tissues, and BCATm is thought to be important in body nitrogen metabolism. BCATc is largely restricted to the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, BCATc has been recognized as a target of the neuroactive drug gabapentin. BCATc is involved in excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate synthesis in the CNS. Ongoing structural studies of the BCATs may facilitate the design of therapeutic compounds to treat neurodegenerative disorders involving disturbances of the glutamatergic system. PMID:11642362

  9. Optical reflectance and omnidirectional bandgaps in Fibonacci quasicrystals type 1-D multilayer structures containing exponentially graded material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bipin K.; Thapa, Khem B.; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2013-06-01

    A theoretical study of optical reflectance and reflection bands of 1-D photonic quasi-crystals (Fibonacci type arrangement) composed of exponentially graded material is presented. The proposed structures consist of two different layers, one of them is of constant refractive index (L) and the other one is of exponentially graded refractive index (S) dielectric materials. Four different generations (2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th) of the Fibonacci sequence for 10 periods in one dimension (1-D) are considered and compared in view of their optical reflectance and bandgaps for both TE and TM polarisations. Also, we proposed some heterostructures made by the combination of different Fibonacci generations and their periods to obtain suitable omnidirectional reflection band. We used the transfer matrix method (TMM) to obtain the reflectance, bandgaps and omnidirectional reflectional bandgaps (ODR) of such structures in near infrared spectrum (800-2200 nm) at different angles of incidence. We show that ODR exists in these types of structures. The number of ODRs and total bandgap depend on the Fibonacci generations. Extraordinary ODR bandgaps are obtained in the case of heterostructures formed by the combination of different generations of the Fibonacci sequence. The ODR for these structures is similar to the ODR of photonic crystals containing left-handed materials. This work would be useful to study the Fibonacci type photonic crystals having graded index materials and also it will open new window to design several photonic crystal devices like sensors, reflectors, etc. in the infrared region.

  10. Syntheses, crystal structures, and characterization of three 1D, 2D and 3D complexes based on mixed multidentate N- and O-donor ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huai-Xia; Liang, Zhen; Hao, Bao-Lian; Meng, Xiang-Ru

    2014-10-01

    Three new 1D to 3D complexes, namely, {[Ni(btec)(Himb)2(H2O)2]·6H2O}n (1), {[Cd(btec)0.5(imb)(H2O)]·1.5H2O}n (2), and {[Zn(btec)0.5(imb)]·H2O}n (3) (H4btec=1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid, imb=2-(1H-imidazol-1-methyl)-1H-benzimidazole) have been synthesized by adjusting the central metal ions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that complex 1 possesses a 1D chain structure which is further extended into the 3D supramolecular architecture via hydrogen bonds. Complex 2 features a 2D network with Schla¨fli symbol (53·62·7)(52·64). Complex 3 presents a 3D framework with a point symbol of (4·64·8)(42·62·82). Moreover, their IR spectra, PXRD patterns, thermogravimetric curves, and luminescent emissions were studied at room temperature.

  11. Bifurcation Structures in a Family of 1D Discontinuous Linear-Hyperbolic Invertible Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makrooni, Roya; Gardini, Laura; Sushko, Iryna

    2015-12-01

    We consider a family of one-dimensional discontinuous invertible maps from an application in engineering. It is defined by a linear function and by a hyperbolic function with real exponent. The presence of vertical and horizontal asymptotes of the hyperbolic branch leads to particular codimension-two border collision bifurcation (BCB) such that if the parameter point approaches the bifurcation value from one side then the related cycle undergoes a regular BCB, while if the same bifurcation value is approached from the other side then a nonregular BCB occurs, involving periodic points at infinity, related to the asymptotes of the map. We investigate the bifurcation structure in the parameter space. Depending on the exponent of the hyperbolic branch, different period incrementing structures can be observed, where the boundaries of a periodicity region are related either to subcritical, or supercritical, or degenerate flip bifurcations of the related cycle, as well as to a regular or nonregular BCB. In particular, if the exponent is positive and smaller than one, then the period incrementing structure with bistability regions is observed and the corresponding flip bifurcations are subcritical, while if the exponent is larger than one, then the related flip bifurcations are supercritical and, thus, also the regions associated with cycles of double period are involved into the incrementing structure.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure and properties of a novel chain coordination polymer constructed by tetrafunctional phosphonate anions and cobalt ions

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Lei; Wang, Ying

    2015-08-15

    A novel cobalt phosphonate, [Co(HL)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{sub n} (1) (L=N(CH{sub 2}PO{sub 3}H){sub 3}{sup 3−}) has been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction at 150 °C and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, elemental and thermogravimetric analysis. Complex 1 features a 1D chain structure with double-channel built from CoO{sub 6} octahedra bridged together by the phosphonate groups. Each cobalt ion is octahedrally coordinated by three phosphonate oxygen atoms and three water molecules. The coordinated water molecules can form the hydrogen bonds with the phosphonate oxygen atoms to link the 1D chains, building a 2D layered structure, further resulting in a 3D network. The luminescence spectrum indicates an emission maximum at 435 nm. The magnetic susceptibility curve exhibits a dominant antiferromagnetic behavior with a weakly ferromagnetic component at low temperatures. - Graphical abstract: The connectivity between cobalt ions and the ligands results in a chain structure with a 1D double-channel structure, which is constructed by A-type subrings and B-type subrings. - Highlights: • The tetrafunctional phosphonate ligand was used as the ligand. • A novel chain structure can be formed by A-type rings and B-type rings. • Two types of rings can form a 1D double-channel structure, along the c-axis.

  13. A 3D-1D substitution matrix for protein fold recognition that includes predicted secondary structure of the sequence.

    PubMed

    Rice, D W; Eisenberg, D

    1997-04-11

    In protein fold recognition, a probe amino acid sequence is compared to a library of representative folds of known structure to identify a structural homolog. In cases where the probe and its homolog have clear sequence similarity, traditional residue substitution matrices have been used to predict the structural similarity. In cases where the probe is sequentially distant from its homolog, we have developed a (7 x 3 x 2 x 7 x 3) 3D-1D substitution matrix (called H3P2), calculated from a database of 119 structural pairs. Members of each pair share a similar fold, but have sequence identity less than 30%. Each probe sequence position is defined by one of seven residue classes and three secondary structure classes. Each homologous fold position is defined by one of seven residue classes, three secondary structure classes, and two burial classes. Thus the matrix is five-dimensional and contains 7 x 3 x 2 x 7 x 3 = 882 elements or 3D-1D scores. The first step in assigning a probe sequence to its homologous fold is the prediction of the three-state (helix, strand, coil) secondary structure of the probe; here we use the profile based neural network prediction of secondary structure (PHD) program. Then a dynamic programming algorithm uses the H3P2 matrix to align the probe sequence with structures in a representative fold library. To test the effectiveness of the H3P2 matrix a challenging, fold class diverse, and cross-validated benchmark assessment is used to compare the H3P2 matrix to the GONNET, PAM250, BLOSUM62 and a secondary structure only substitution matrix. For distantly related sequences the H3P2 matrix detects more homologous structures at higher reliabilities than do these other substitution matrices, based on sensitivity versus specificity plots (or SENS-SPEC plots). The added efficacy of the H3P2 matrix arises from its information on the statistical preferences for various sequence-structure environment combinations from very distantly related proteins. It

  14. Synthesis, crystal structures and magnetic properties of mer-cyanideiron(III)-based 1D heterobimetallic cyanide-bridged chiral coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daopeng; Zhuo, Shuping; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Ping; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2015-03-14

    Two pairs of cyanide-bridged Fe(III)–Mn(III)/Cu(II) chiral enantiomer coordination polymers {[Mn(S,S/R,R-Salcy)(CH3OH)2]{[Mn(S,S/R,R-Salcy)][Fe(bbp)(CN)3]}}2n (1,2) (bbp = bis(2-benzimidazolyl)pyridine dianion) and {[Cu(S,S/R,R-Chxn)2]2[Fe2(tbbp)(CN)6]}n (3,4) (tbbp = tetra(3-benzimidazolyl)-4,4′-bipyridine tetraanion) have been successfully prepared by employing mer-tricyanometallate [PPh4]2[Fe(bbp)(CN)3] or the newly bimetallic mer-cyanideiron(III) precursor K4[Fe2(tbbp)(CN)6] as building blocks and with chiral manganese(III)/copper(II) compounds as assemble segments. The four complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra. Single X-ray diffraction reveals that complexes 1 and 2 possess a single anionic chain structure consisting of the asymmetric chiral {[Mn(S,S/R,R-Salcy)][Fe(bbp)(CN)3]}2(2−) unit with free [Mn(S,S/R,R-Salcy)](+) as balanced cations. The cyanide-bridged Fe(III)–Cu(II) complexes 3 and 4 can be structurally characterized as neutral ladder-like double chains composed of the alternating cyanide-bridged Fe–Cu units. Our investigation of magnetic susceptibilities reveals the antiferromagnetic coupling between the cyanide-bridged Fe(III) and Mn(III)/Cu(II) ions for complexes 1–4. These results have been further confirmed by theoretical simulation through numerical matrix diagonalization techniques using a Fortran program or a uniform chain model, leading to the coupling constants J = −7.36 cm(−1), D = −1.52 cm(−1) (1) and J = −4.35 cm(−1) (3), respectively. PMID:25661782

  15. Structure elucidation of organic compounds from natural sources using 1D and 2D NMR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topcu, Gulacti; Ulubelen, Ayhan

    2007-05-01

    In our continuing studies on Lamiaceae family plants including Salvia, Teucrium, Ajuga, Sideritis, Nepeta and Lavandula growing in Anatolia, many terpenoids, consisting of over 50 distinct triterpenoids and steroids, and over 200 diterpenoids, several sesterterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids along with many flavonoids and other phenolic compounds have been isolated. For Salvia species abietanes, for Teucrium and Ajuga species neo-clerodanes for Sideritis species ent-kaurane diterpenes are characteristic while nepetalactones are specific for Nepeta species. In this review article, only some interesting and different type of skeleton having constituents, namely rearranged, nor- or rare diterpenes, isolated from these species will be presented. For structure elucidation of these natural diterpenoids intensive one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques ( 1H, 13C, APT, DEPT, NOE/NOESY, 1H- 1H COSY, HETCOR, COLOC, HMQC/HSQC, HMBC, SINEPT) were used besides mass and some other spectroscopic methods.

  16. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of Cu(TIM)CuBr 4: An alternating site-alternating exchange chain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Roger D.; Gomez-Garcia, Carlos J.

    2007-09-01

    The title compound, Cu(TIM)CuBr 4 (where TIM is a macrocycle ligand) is a member of the Cu(TIM)MX 4 family, which contains linear chain structures with ⋯Cu⋯X-M-X⋯Cu⋯X-M-⋯ linkages. This chain structure defines an alternating exchange/alternating site 1d system. For M=Cu, alternating FM/AFM chains are formed with JFM>| JAFM|. Structural and magnetic data are presented, along with an analysis of the exchange pathways.

  17. 1D cyanide complexes with 2-pyridinemethanol: Synthesis, crystal structures and spectroscopic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayın, Elvan; Kürkçüoğlu, Güneş Süheyla; Yeşilel, Okan Zafer; Hökelek, Tuncer

    2015-12-01

    Two new one-dimensional coordination polymers, [Cu(hmpH)2Pd(μ-CN)2(CN)2]n (1) and [Cu(hmpH)2Pt(μ-CN)2(CN)2]n (2), (hmpH = 2-pyridinemethanol), have been synthesized and characterized by vibrational (FT-IR and Raman) spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermal and elemental analyses techniques. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that complexes 1 and 2 are isomorphous and isostructural, and crystallize in the triclinic system and P-1 space group. The Pd(II) or Pt(II) ions are four coordinated with four cyanide-carbon atoms in a square planar geometry. Cu(II) ion displays a distorted octahedral coordination by two N-atoms and two O-atoms of hmpH ligands, two bridging cyanide groups. In one dimensional structure of the complexes, [M(CN)4]2- (M = Pd(II) or Pt(II)) anions and [Cu(hmpH)2]2+ cations are linked via bridging cyanide ligands. In the complexes, the presence of intramolecular C-H⋯M (M = Pd(II) or Pt(II)) interactions with distance values of 3.00-2.95 Å are established, respectively.

  18. Exponents of the spectral functions and dynamical structure factor of the 1D Lieb-Liniger Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmelo, J. M. P.; Sacramento, P. D.

    2016-06-01

    We study the (k , ω) -plane finite-energy line shape of the zero-temperature one-boson removal spectral function (ω < 0) , one-boson addition spectral function (ω > 0) , and charge dynamical structure factor (ω > 0) of the 1D Lieb-Liniger Bose gas with repulsive boson interaction c > 0. Our analysis of the problem focuses on the line shape at finite excitation energies in the vicinity of these functions spectrum upper (ω < 0) or lower (ω > 0) threshold. Specifically, we derive the exact momentum, interaction, and density dependences of the exponents controlling such a line shape in each of the N = 1 , 2 , 3 , … momentum subdomains k ∈ [(N - 1) 2 πn , N 2 πn ] . Here n = N / L is the boson density, N the boson number, and L the system length. In the thermodynamic limit considered in our study nearly all spectral weight of the dynamical correlation functions is for large values of n / c contained in the N = 1 momentum subdomain k ∈ [ 0 , 2 πn ] . As n / c decreases a small fraction of that weight is transferred to the remaining set of N = 2 , 3 , 4 , … momentum subdomains, particularly to the N = 2 subdomain. In the case of the momentum subdomain k ∈ [ 0 , 2 πn ] , our exact results agree with those of previous studies. For that subdomain the above exponents are plotted as a function of the momentum for several n / c values. Our derivation of the line shapes of the three dynamical correlation functions relies on the use of a simplified form of the pseudofermion dynamical theory of the fermionic 1D Hubbard model suitably modified in this paper for the 1D Bose gas.

  19. Ionothermal synthesis and crystal structures of metal phosphate chains

    SciTech Connect

    Wragg, David S.; Le Ouay, Benjamin; Beale, Andrew M.; O'Brien, Matthew G.; Slawin, Alexandra M.Z.; Warren, John E.; Prior, Timothy J.; Morris, Russell E.

    2010-07-15

    We have prepared isostructural aluminium and gallium phosphate chains by ionothermal reactions in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and 1-ethylpyridinium bromide under a variety of conditions. The chains can be prepared as pure phases or along with three dimensional framework phases. The chains are favoured at shorter heating times and the crystallinity can be improved by addition of transition metal acetates and amines which are not included in the final structure. The chain can be prepared with or without the presence of hydrofluoric acid. - Graphical abstract: Chain structures prepared from ionic liquid solvents under a wide variety of synthesis conditions.

  20. New coordination polymers from 1D chain, 2D layer to 3D framework constructed from 1,2-phenylenediacetic acid and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane flexible ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Ling-Yun; Liu, Guang-Zhen; Wang, Li-Ya

    2011-06-01

    The hydrothermal reactions of Cd, Zn, or Cu(II) acetate salts with H 2PHDA and BPP flexible ligands afford three new coordination polymers, including [Cd(PHDA)(BPP)(H 2O)] n(1), [Zn(PHDA)(BPP)] n(2), and [Cu 2(PHDA) 2(BPP)] n(3) (H 2PHDA=1,2-phenylenediacetic acid, BPP=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane). The single-crystal X-ray diffractions reveal that all three complexes feature various metal carboxylate subunits extended further by the BPP ligands to form a diverse range of structures, displaying a remarked structural sensitivity to metal(II) cation. Complex 1 containing PHDA-bridged binuclear cadmium generates 1D double-stranded chain, complex 2 results in 2D→2D interpenetrated (4,4) grids, and complex 3 displays a 3D self-penetrated framework with 4 86 68 rob topology. In addition, fluorescent analyses show that both 1 and 2 exhibit intense blue-violet photoluminescence in the solid state.

  1. A review of MBE grown 0D, 1D and 2D quantum structures in a nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Mata, Maria; Zhou, Xiang; Furtmayr, Florian; Teubert, Jörg; Gradecak, Silvija; Eickhoff, Martin; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna; Arbiol, Jordi

    2013-05-01

    We review different strategies to achieve a three-dimensional energy bandgap modulation in a nanowire (NW) by the introduction of self-assembled 0D, 1D and 2D quantum structures, quantum dots (QDs), quantum wires (QWRs) and quantum wells (QWs). Starting with the well-known axial, radial (coaxial/prismatic) or polytypic quantum wells in GaN/AlN, GaAs/AlAs or wurtzite/zinc-blende systems, respectively, we move to more sophisticated structures by lowering their dimensionality. New recent approaches developed for the self-assembly of GaN quantum wires and InAs or AlGaAs quantum dots on single nanowire templates are reported and discussed. Aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microcopy is presented as a powerful tool to determine the structure and morphology at the atomic scale allowing for the creation of 3D atomic models that can help us to understand the enhanced optical properties of these advanced quantum structures.

  2. Photonic Crystals: Tunable Design of Structural Colors Produced by Pseudo-1D Photonic Crystals of Graphene Oxide (Small 25/2016).

    PubMed

    Tong, Liping; Qi, Wei; Wang, Mengfan; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2016-07-01

    The production of structural colors based on graphene oxide (GO) pseudo-one-dimensional photonic crystals (p1D-PhCs) in the visible spectrum is reported on page 3433 by W. Qi and co-workers. The structural colors could be tuned by simply changing either the volume or concentration of the aqueous GO dispersion. Moreover, GO p1D-PhCs exhibit visible and rapid responsiveness to humidity. PMID:27364309

  3. Designed Quasi-1D Potential Structures Realized in Compositionally Graded InAs1-xPx Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Nylund, Gustav; Storm, Kristian; Lehmann, Sebastian; Capasso, Federico; Samuelson, Lars

    2016-02-10

    III-V semiconductor heterostructures are important components of many solid-state optoelectronic devices, but the ability to control and tune the electrical and optical properties of these structures in conventional device geometries is fundamentally limited by the bulk dimensionality and the inability to accommodate lattice-mismatched material combinations. Here we demonstrate how semiconductor nanowires may enable the creation of arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional potential structures for new types of designed device functionality. We describe the controlled growth of stepwise compositionally graded InAs1-xPx heterostructures defined along the axes of InAs nanowires, and we show that nanowires with sawtooth-shaped composition profiles behave as near-ideal unipolar diodes with ratchet-like rectification of the electron transport through the nanowires, in excellent agreement with simulations. This new type of designed quasi-1D potential structure represents a significant advance in band gap engineering and may enable fundamental studies of low-dimensional hot-carrier dynamics, in addition to constituting a platform for implementing novel electronic and optoelectronic device concepts. PMID:26788886

  4. Contrasting 1D tunnel-structured and 2D layered polymorphs of V2O5: relating crystal structure and bonding to band gaps and electronic structure.

    PubMed

    Tolhurst, Thomas M; Leedahl, Brett; Andrews, Justin L; Marley, Peter M; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Moewes, Alexander

    2016-06-21

    New V2O5 polymorphs have risen to prominence as a result of their open framework structures, cation intercalation properties, tunable electronic structures, and wide range of applications. The application of these materials and the design of new, useful polymorphs requires understanding their defining structure-property relationships. We present a characterization of the band gap and electronic structure of nanowires of the novel ζ-phase and the orthorhombic α-phase of V2O5 using X-ray spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The band gap is found to decrease from 1.90 ± 0.20 eV in the α-phase to 1.50 ± 0.20 eV in the ζ-phase, accompanied by the loss of the α-phase's characteristic split-off dxy band in the ζ-phase. States of dxy origin continue to dominate the conduction band edge in the new polymorph but the inequivalence of the vanadium atoms and the increased local symmetry of [VO6] octahedra results in these states overlapping with the rest of the V 3d conduction band. ζ-V2O5 exhibits anisotropic conductivity along the b direction, defining a 1D tunnel, in contrast to α-V2O5 where the anisotropic conductivity is along the ab layers. We explain the structural origins of the differences in electronic properties that exist between the α- and ζ-phase. PMID:27230816

  5. Pressure, temperature and plasma frequency effects on the band structure of a 1D semiconductor photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Luz E.; Porras-Montenegro, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this work using the transfer-matrix formalism we study pressure, temperature and plasma frequency effects on the band structure of a 1D semiconductor photonic crystal made of alternating layers of air and GaAs. We have found that the temperature dependence of the photonic band structure is negligible, however, its noticeable changes are due mainly to the variations of the width and the dielectric constant of the layers of GaAs, caused by the applied hydrostatic pressure. On the other hand, by using the Drude's model, we have studied the effects of the hydrostatic pressure by means of the variation of the effective mass and density of the carriers in n-doped GaAs, finding firstly that increasing the amount of n-dopants in GaAs, namely, increasing the plasma frequency, the photonic band structure is shifted to regions of higher frequencies, and secondly the appearance of two regimes of the photonic band structure: one above the plasma frequency with the presence of usual Bragg gaps, and the other, below this frequency, where there are no gaps regularly distributed, with their width diminishing with the increasing of the plasma frequency as well as with the appearance of more bands, but leaving a wide frequency range in the lowest part of the spectrum without accessible photon states. Also, we have found characteristic frequencies in which the dielectric constant equals for different applied pressures, and from which to higher or lower values the photonic band structure inverts its behavior, depending on the value of the applied hydrostatic pressure. We hope this work may be taken into account for the development of new perspectives in the design of new optical devices.

  6. Surface-micromachined chain for use in microelectromechanical structures

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, Sr., George E.

    2001-01-01

    A surface-micromachined chain and a microelectromechanical (MEM) structure incorporating such a chain are disclosed. The surface-micromachined chain can be fabricated in place on a substrate (e.g. a silicon substrate) by depositing and patterning a plurality of alternating layers of a chain-forming material (e.g. polycrystalline silicon) and a sacrificial material (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass). The sacrificial material is then removed by etching to release the chain for movement. The chain has applications for forming various types of MEM devices which include a microengine (e.g. an electrostatic motor) connected to rotate a drive sprocket, with the surface-micromachined chain being connected between the drive sprocket and one or more driven sprockets.

  7. An approach to jointly invert hypocenters and 1D velocity structure and its application to the Lushan earthquake series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hui; Mechie, James; Li, Haibing; Xue, Guangqi; Su, Heping; Cui, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Earthquake location is essential when defining fault systems and other geological structures. Many methods have been developed to locate hypocenters within a 1D velocity model. In this study, a new approach, named MatLoc, has been developed which can simultaneously invert for the locations and origin times of the hypocenters and the velocity structure, from the arrival times of local earthquakes. Moreover, it can invert for layer boundary depths, such as Moho depths, which can be well constrained by the Pm and Pn phases. For this purpose, the package was developed to take into account reflected phases, e.g., the Pm phase. The speed of the inversion is acceptable due to the use of optimized matrix calculations. The package has been used to re-locate the Lushan earthquake series which occurred in Sichuan, China, from April 20 to April 22, 2013. The results obtained with the package show that the Lushan earthquake series defines the dip of the Guankou fault, on which most of the series occurred, to be 39° toward the NW. Further, the surface projection of the Lushan earthquake series is consistent with the regional tectonic strike which is about N45° E.

  8. HOTCFGM-1D: A Coupled Higher-Order Theory for Cylindrical Structural Components with Through-Thickness Functionally Graded Microstructures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Aboudi, Jacob

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this three-year project was to develop and deliver to NASA Lewis one-dimensional and two-dimensional higher-order theories, and related computer codes, for the analysis, optimization and design of cylindrical functionally graded materials/structural components for use in advanced aircraft engines (e.g., combustor linings, rotor disks, heat shields, blisk blades). To satisfy this objective, a quasi one-dimensional version of the higher-order theory, HOTCFGM-1D, and four computer codes based on this theory, for the analysis, design and optimization of cylindrical structural components functionally graded in the radial direction were developed. The theory is applicable to thin multi-phased composite shell/cylinders subjected to macroscopically axisymmetric thermomechanical and inertial loading applied uniformly along the axial direction such that the overall deformation is characterized by a constant average axial strain. The reinforcement phases are uniformly distributed in the axial and circumferential directions, and arbitrarily distributed in the radial direction, thereby allowing functional grading of the internal reinforcement in this direction.

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of an alternating manganese chain

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos Silva, Manuela . E-mail: manuela@pollux.fis.uc.pt; Matos Beja, Ana; Antonio Paixao, Jose; Martin-Gil, Jesus

    2006-07-15

    A new 1D complex has been prepared and characterized. X-ray single crystal structure confirms that the Mn(II) ions assemble in alternating chains with Mn-Mn distances of 3.8432(13) and 4.4428(14) A. A 3D network of hydrogen bonds links the chains together. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility reveals that this compound undergoes a magnetic transition and exhibits an antiferromagnetic interaction in the low-temperature phase with two alternating exchange interactions of -2.32(1) and -5.55(1) cm{sup -1}. - Graphical abstract: Portion of the dimeric manganese chain showing the two alternating exchange interactions paths.

  10. Automated structure verification based on a combination of 1D (1)H NMR and 2D (1)H - (13)C HSQC spectra.

    PubMed

    Golotvin, Sergey S; Vodopianov, Eugene; Pol, Rostislav; Lefebvre, Brent A; Williams, Antony J; Rutkowske, Randy D; Spitzer, Timothy D

    2007-10-01

    A method for structure validation based on the simultaneous analysis of a 1D (1)H NMR and 2D (1)H - (13)C single-bond correlation spectrum such as HSQC or HMQC is presented here. When compared with the validation of a structure by a 1D (1)H NMR spectrum alone, the advantage of including a 2D HSQC spectrum in structure validation is that it adds not only the information of (13)C shifts, but also which proton shifts they are directly coupled to, and an indication of which methylene protons are diastereotopic. The lack of corresponding peaks in the 2D spectrum that appear in the 1D (1)H spectrum, also gives a clear picture of which protons are attached to heteroatoms. For all these benefits, combined NMR verification was expected and found by all metrics to be superior to validation by 1D (1)H NMR alone. Using multiple real-life data sets of chemical structures and the corresponding 1D and 2D data, it was possible to unambiguously identify at least 90% of the correct structures. As part of this test, challenging incorrect structures, mostly regioisomers, were also matched with each spectrum set. For these incorrect structures, the false positive rate was observed as low as 6%. PMID:17694570

  11. Structure factor and rheology of chain molecules from molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castrejón-González, Omar; Castillo-Tejas, Jorge; Manero, Octavio; Alvarado, Juan F. J.

    2013-05-01

    Equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics were performed to determine the relationship between the static structure factor, the molecular conformation, and the rheological properties of chain molecules. A spring-monomer model with Finitely Extensible Nonlinear Elastic and Lennard-Jones force field potentials was used to describe chain molecules. The equations of motion were solved for shear flow with SLLOD equations of motion integrated with Verlet's algorithm. A multiple time scale algorithm extended to non-equilibrium situations was used as the integration method. Concentric circular patterns in the structure factor were obtained, indicating an isotropic Newtonian behavior. Under simple shear flow, some peaks in the structure factor were emerged corresponding to an anisotropic pattern as chains aligned along the flow direction. Pure chain molecules and chain molecules in solution displayed shear-thinning regions. Power-law and Carreau-Yasuda models were used to adjust the generated data. Results are in qualitative agreement with rheological and light scattering experiments.

  12. Structural variation from 1D to 3D: effects of ligands and solvents on the construction of lead(II)-organic coordination polymers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Li, Guo-Dong; Cao, Jun-Jun; Yue, Qi; Li, Guang-Hua; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    A series of Pb(II) coordination polymers [Pb(ndc)(dpp)] (1), [Pb(ndc)(ptcp)].0.5 H2O (2), [Pb(ndc)(dppz)] (3), [Pb(ndc)(tcpn)(2)] (4), [Pb2(ndc)2(tcpp)] (5), [Pb(Hndc)2].H2O (6), [Pb(ndc)(dma)] (7), [Pb(bdc)(dma)] (8), [Pb(trans-chdc)(H2O)] (9), and [Pb2(cis-chdc)2].NH(CH3)2 (10), where ndc=1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylate, dpp=4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, ptcp=2-phenyl-1H-1,3,7,8-tetraazacyclopenta[l]phenanthrene, dppz=dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine, tcpn=2-(1H-1,3,7,8-tetraazacyclopenta[l]phenanthren-2-yl)naphthol, tcpp=4-(1H-1,3,7,8-tetraazacyclopenta[l]phenanthren-2-yl)phenol, dma=N,N-dimethylacetamide, bdc=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate, and chdc=1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylate, have been synthesized from a hydrothermal or solvothermal reaction system by varying the ligands or the solvents. Compounds 1-5 crystallize with an N-donor chelating ligand and an aromatic dicarboxylate linker. Compounds 1-4 are 1D polymers with different pi-pi stacking interactions, whereas compound 5 consists of 2D layers. The structures of compounds 7, 8, and 10 are 3D frameworks formed by connection of the Pb(II) centers by organic acid ligands. Compound 7 is chiral although the ndc ligand is achiral, while the framework of 8 is a typical 3D (3,4)-connected net. Compound 10 is the first example of Pb(II) wheel cluster [Pb(8)O(8)] units bridged by carboxylate groups. Compound 6 contains 1D chains which are further extended to a 3D structure by pi-pi interactions. Compound 9 consists of a 2D network constructed by Pb(II) centers and trans-chdc ligands. The structural differences between 7 and 8 and between 9 and 10 indicate the importance of solvents for framework formation of the coordination polymers. By varying the solvent the cis and trans conformations of H(2)chdc in 9 and 10 were separated completely. The photoluminescence and nonlinear optical properties of the coordination polymers have also been investigated. PMID:17212363

  13. Syntheses, structures, and photoluminescence of d 10 coordination architectures: From 1D to 3D complexes based on mixed ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Gang; Shao, Kui-Zhan; Du, Dong-Ying; Wang, Xin-Long; Su, Zhong-Min

    2011-05-01

    Six new compounds, namely, {[Cd 3(Himpy) 3(tda) 2]·3H 2O} n ( 1), {[Zn 3(bipy) 2(tda) 2(H 2O) 2]·4H 2O} n ( 2), {[Cd 3(bipy) 3(tda) 2]·4H 2O} n ( 3), {[Cd 3(tda) 2(H 2O) 3Cl]·H 2O} n ( 4), {[Zn 2(tz)(tda)(H 2O) 2]·H 2O} n ( 5) and {[Cd 7(pz)(tda) 4(OAc)(H 2O) 7]·3H 2O} n ( 6) [H 3tda = 1H-1,2,3-triazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid, Himpy = 2-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)pyridine, bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine, Htz = 1H-1,2,4-triazole, H 2pz = piperazine] have been prepared under hydrothermal condition and characterized by elemental analyses, infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compound 1 is a 1D column-like structure and displays a 3D supramolecular network via the π···π stacking interaction. The compounds 2 and 3 exhibit similar 2D layer-like structure, which further extend to 3D supermolecular structure by the π···π stacking interaction. All of compounds 4- 6 display 3D framework with diverse topology constructed from the tda 3- ligands in different coordination modes and secondary ligands (or bridging atom) connecting metal ions. Furthermore, the thermal stabilities and photoluminescent properties of compounds 1- 6 were studied.

  14. Terahertz excitations near the quantum critical point in the 1D Ising chain quantum magnet CoNb2O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Christopher M.; Valdés Aguilar, R.; Koopayeh, S.; McQueen, T. M.; Armitage, N. P.

    2013-03-01

    The one-dimensional magnet CoNb2O6 was recently demonstrated to be an excellent realization of a one-dimensional quantum Ising spin chain. It has been shown to undergo a quantum phase transition in a magnetic field oriented transverse to its ferromagnetically aligned spin chains. Low energy spin-flip excitations in the chains were recently observed via inelastic neutron scattering.[2] The energy spectrum of these excitations was shown to have a interesting energy scaling governed by symmetries of the E8 exceptional Lie group. Here, time-domain terahertz spectroscopy (TDTS) is used to investigate these optically active spin flip excitations in CoNb2O6 in an external magnetic field. For static magnetic fields oriented transverse to the spin chains, the terahertz excitations show evidence of the phase transitions that occur near the quantum critical magnetic field. Additional spin flip excitations are also observed for longitudinally oriented magnetic fields. Work supported by The Institute of Quantum Matter under DOE grant DE-FG02-08ER46544 and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.

  15. Field and dilution effects on the magnetic relaxation behaviours of a 1D dysprosium(iii)-carboxylate chain built from chiral ligands.

    PubMed

    Han, Tian; Leng, Ji-Dong; Ding, You-Song; Wang, Yanyan; Zheng, Zhiping; Zheng, Yan-Zhen

    2015-08-14

    A one-dimensional dysprosium(iii)-carboxylate chain in which the Dy(III) ions sit in a pseudo D(2d)-symmetry environment is synthesized and shows different slow magnetic relaxation behaviours depending on the field and dilution effects. Besides, the chiral ligand introduces the additional functions of the Cotton effect and polarization for this compound. PMID:26159885

  16. Nuclear structure notes on element 115 decay chains

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, D. Sarmiento, L. G.; Forsberg, U.

    2015-10-15

    Hitherto collected data on more than hundred α-decay chains stemming from element 115 are combined to probe some aspects of the underlying nuclear structure of the heaviest atomic nuclei yet created in the laboratory.

  17. Structure of an α-Helical Peptide and Lipopeptide Bound to the Nonclassical Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I Molecule CD1d.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Enrico; Wang, Jing; Zajonc, Dirk M

    2016-05-13

    Mouse CD1d is a nonclassical MHC molecule able to present lipids and glycolipids to a specialized subset of T cells known as natural killer T cells. The antigens presented by CD1d have been shown to cover a broad range of chemical structures and to follow precise rules determining the potency of the antigen in the context of T cell activation. Together with lipids, initial reports suggested that CD1d can also bind and present hydrophobic peptides with (F/W)XX(I/L/M)XXW. However, the exact location of peptide binding and the molecular basis for the required motif are currently unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of the first peptide identified to bind CD1d, p99, and show that it binds in the antigen-binding groove of CD1d in a manner compatible with its presentation to T cell receptors. Interestingly, the peptide adopts an α-helical conformation, which orients the motif residues toward its deep binding groove, therefore explaining the molecular requirements for peptide binding. Moreover, we demonstrate that a lipopeptide version of the same peptide is able to bind CD1d in a similar conformation, identifying another class of molecules binding this antigen-presenting molecule. PMID:27006394

  18. Relationships between Th1 or Th2 iNKT Cell Activity and Structures of CD1d-Antigen Complexes: Meta-analysis of CD1d-Glycolipids Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Xavier; Renault, Nicolas; Farce, Amaury; Chavatte, Philippe; Hénon, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A number of potentially bioactive molecules can be found in nature. In particular, marine organisms are a valuable source of bioactive compounds. The activity of an α-galactosylceramide was first discovered in 1993 via screening of a Japanese marine sponge (Agelas mauritanius). Very rapidly, a synthetic glycololipid analogue of this natural molecule was discovered, called KRN7000. Associated with the CD1d protein, this α-galactosylceramide 1 (KRN7000) interacts with the T-cell antigen receptor to form a ternary complex that yields T helper (Th) 1 and Th2 responses with opposing effects. In our work, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations (11.5 µs in total) involving eight different ligands (conducted in triplicate) in an effort to find out correlation at the molecular level, if any, between chemical modulation of 1 and the orientation of the known biological response, Th1 or Th2. Comparative investigations of human versus mouse and Th1 versus Th2 data have been carried out. A large set of analysis tools was employed including free energy landscapes. One major result is the identification of a specific conformational state of the sugar polar head, which could be correlated, in the present study, to the biological Th2 biased response. These theoretical tools provide a structural basis for predicting the very different dynamical behaviors of α-glycosphingolipids in CD1d and might aid in the future design of new analogues of 1. PMID:25376021

  19. New 1-D and 3-D thiocyanatocadmates modified by various amine molecules and Cl(-)/CH3COO(-) ions: synthesis, structural characterization, thermal behavior and photoluminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bing; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Yan-Ning; Huang, Jing-Jing; Yu, Jie-Hui; Xu, Ji-Qing

    2015-03-21

    Under ambient conditions, reactions of CdCl2/Cd(CH3COO)2, SCN(-) and various organic amine molecules in strongly acidic solutions afforded the five new thiocyanatocadmates [H2(abpy)][CdCl2(SCN)2] (abpy = azobispyridine) 1, [H(apy)][Cd(SCN)3] (apy = 4-aminopyridine) 2, [H(ba)]2[CdCl2(SCN)2] (ba = tert-butylamine) 3, [H2(tmen)][Cd3Cl6(SCN)2] (tmen = N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) 4, and [H(dba)]2[Cd2(CH3COO)2(SCN)4] (dba = dibutylamine) 5. In compound 2 only, the CH3COO(-) ions in Cd(CH3COO)2 were completely displaced by SCN(-), producing a chained thiocyanatocadmate [Cd(SCN)3](-). In the other four compounds, the Cl(-) or CH3COO(-) ions appeared in the final inorganic anion frameworks. In compound 1, the Cl(-) ions doubly bridge the Cd(2+) centers, forming a one-dimensional (1-D) infinite chain, and the SCN(-) group exists in a terminal form, whereas in compound 3, the reverse situation is observed. Due to a trans-mode arrangement for two terminal Cl(-) or SCN(-) ions around each Cd(2+) center, the inorganic anion chains in compounds 1 and 3 both show a linear shape. In compound 4, Cd(2+) and Cl(-) first aggregate to form a 1-D endless chain with a composition of Cd3Cl6, which can be described as a linear arrangement of the open double cubanes. SCN(-) serves as the second connector, propagating the Cd3Cl6 chain into a three-dimensional (3-D) network with the occluded H2(tmen)(2+) cations. In compound 5, the SCN(-) groups doubly bridge the Cd(2+) centers, forming a 1-D zigzag-shape chain. The formation of the zigzag chain likely derives from chelation of the CH3COO(-) group to the Cd(2+) center. The thermal behavior and the photoluminescence properties of the title compounds were also investigated. PMID:25669175

  20. Spin crossover and solvate effects in 1D Fe{sup II} chain compounds containig Bis(dipyridylamine)-linked triazine ligands.

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, , T. M.; Moubaraki, B.; Turner, D. R.; Halder, G. J.; Chastanet, G.; Neville, S. M.; Cashion, J. D.; Letard, J. F.; Batten, S. R.; Murray, K. S.

    2011-03-01

    A series of 1D polymeric FeII spin crossover (SCO) compounds of type trans-[FeII(NCX)2(L)] Solvent has been synthesised {l_brace}L = DPPyT = 1-[4,6-bis(dipyridin-2-ylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]pyridin-4(1H)-one for 1-4{r_brace}; NCX = NCS- for 1 and 2, NCSe- for 3 and 4; Solvent = 2.5CH2Cl2 for 1, 2CHCl3 {center_dot} 0.5CH3OH for 2 and 4, CH2Cl2 for 3; L = DPT (6-phenoxy-N2,N2,N4,N4-tetra-2-pyridinyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) for 5; NCX = NCS- for 5; Solvent = 2CH3OH {center_dot} H2O for 5; L = DQT {l_brace}4-[4,6-bis(dipyridin-2-ylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yloxy]phenol{r_brace} for 6-8; NCX- = NCS- for 6; Solvent = 2CH2Cl2 for 6; NCX- = NCSe- for 7; Solvent = CH2Cl2 {center_dot} CH2ClCH2Cl for 7; NCX- = NCSe- for 8; Solvent = 1.5CH2Cl2 {center_dot} 0.5CH3OH for 8. Two mononuclear complexes, trans-[FeII(NCS)2(DPT)2] {center_dot} 2CH3OH (9) and trans-[FeII(NCSe)2(DPT)2] {center_dot} 2CH3OH (10), contained the L ligand in a terminal bidentate coordination mode. As well as variations made in the NCX- ligands, variations were also made in substituent groups on the s-triazine 'core' of L to investigate their intermolecular/supramolecular role in crystal packing and, thus, their influence on SCO properties. All the complexes crystallised as solvates, and the influence of the latter on the magnetism and spin transitions was explored. A wide range of physical methods was employed, as a function of temperature, viz. crystallography, PXRD (synchrotron), susceptibilities, LIESST and Moessbauer effect, in order to probe magnetostructural correlations in these 1D families. New examples of half-crossovers, with ordered -LS-HS-LS-HS- intrachain states existing below T1/2, have been observed and comparisons made to related one- or two-step systems. All the observed transitions are gradual and non-hysteretic, and brief comments are made in relation to recent theoretical models for cooperativity, developed elsewhere.

  1. Dinuclear and 1D iron(III) Schiff base complexes bridged by 4-salicylideneamino-1,2,4-triazolate: X-ray structures and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Herchel, Radovan; Pavelek, Lubomír; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2011-11-28

    Four new iron(III) complexes were obtained by the reaction of 4-salicylideneamino-1,2,4-triazole (Hsaltrz) and selected dinuclear μ-oxo-bridged iron(III) Schiff base complexes [{FeL(4)}(2)(μ-O)], where L(4) represents a terminal tetradentate dianionic Schiff-base ligand. X-ray structural analysis revealed a novel bridging mode of κN,κO of the saltrz ligand to form dinuclear complexes [{Fe(salen)(μ-saltrz)}(2)]·CH(3)OH (1) (H(2)salen = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylimine)) and [{Fe(salpn)(μ-saltrz)}(2)] (2) (H(2)salpn = N,N'-1,2-propylenbis(salicylimine)), whereas one-dimensional (1D) zig-zag chains were formed in the case of [{Fe(salch)(μ-saltrz)}·0.5CH(3)OH](n) (3) (H(2)salch = N,N'-cyclohexanebis(salicylimine)) and [Fe(salophen)(μ-saltrz)](n) (4) (H(2)salophen = N,N'-o-phenylenebis(salicylimine)). It was also shown that the rigidity of the terminal ligand L(4) can be considered as the key factor for the molecular dimensionality of the products. The thorough magnetic analysis based on SQUID experiments, including the isotropic exchange and the zero-field splitting of both temperature and field dependent data, was performed for dimeric (1 and 2) and also for polymeric compounds (3 and 4) and revealed weak antiferromagnetic exchange mediated by the saltrz anions with much larger D-parameter (|D|≫|J|). PMID:21968851

  2. A new family of 1D, 2D and 3D frameworks aggregated from Ni5, Ni4 and Ni7 building units: synthesis, structure, and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Hui; Lu, Li-Ping; Zhu, Miao-Li; Feng, Si-Si; Su, Feng

    2016-05-31

    Three new Ni(ii)-clusters based on a Y-shaped ligand (biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylate, H3BPT), [Ni5(HBPT)4(OH)2(H2O)12]n (), [Ni4(BPT)2(OH)2(H2O)6]n·4nH2O (), and [Ni7(BPT)2(1,4-bib)2(OH)6(HCO2)2]n·3nH2O () (1,4-bib = 1,4-bi(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzene), have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions. They were studied by infrared spectroscopy (IR), single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and magnetochemistry. The complexes contain low nuclear Ni-clusters as building units (BUs). Structurally, in , the cluster BUs of [Ni5(μ3-OH)2](8+) can be viewed as two reverse triangles sharing a common vertex, which are connected by the partially deprotonated μ2-η(1):η(1)-HBPT(2-) forming 1D chains. The BUs of [Ni4(μ3-OH)2](6+) clusters in can be considered as two reverse triangles sharing a common edge and extended by deprotonated μ6-η(1):η(1):η(1):η(1):η(2)-BPT(3-) constructing a 2D framework. The 3D framework of complex consists of a [Ni7(μ3-OH)4(R-COO)7(HCO2)3] cluster BUs with fully deprotonated μ5-η(1):η(1):η(1):η(1):η(1):η(1)-BPT(3-) and 1,4-bib ligands. In addition, TGA reveals that the complexes are stable in the range of 293-548 K. Magnetostructural analyses indicate ferromagnetic coupling of J1 = 1.85(3) and J2 = 2.25(4) cm(-1) in and J = 5.76(6) cm(-1) in , whereas magnetic parameters J1 = -2.64(3), J2 = -23.22(19) and J3 = 12.02(5) cm(-1) indicate an alternating magnetic chain (AF/F) in . PMID:27180871

  3. Gold-induced nanowires on the Ge(100) surface yield a 2D and not a 1D electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, N.; Heimbuch, R.; Eliëns, S.; Smit, S.; Frantzeskakis, E.; Caux, J.-S.; Zandvliet, H. J. W.; Golden, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    Atomic nanowires on semiconductor surfaces induced by the adsorption of metallic atoms have attracted a lot of attention as possible hosts of the elusive, one-dimensional Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid. The Au/Ge(100) system in particular is the subject of controversy as to whether the Au-induced nanowires do indeed host exotic, 1D (one-dimensional) metallic states. In light of this debate, we report here a thorough study of the electronic properties of high quality nanowires formed at the Au/Ge(100) surface. The high-resolution ARPES data show the low-lying Au-induced electronic states to possess a dispersion relation that depends on two orthogonal directions in k space. Comparison of the E (kx,ky) surface measured using high-resolution ARPES to tight-binding calculations yields hopping parameters in the two different directions that differ by approximately factor of two. Additionally, by pinpointing the Au-induced surface states in the first, second, and third surface Brillouin zones and analyzing their periodicity in k||, the nanowire propagation direction seen clearly in STM can be imported into the ARPES data. We find that the larger of the two hopping parameters corresponds, in fact, to the direction perpendicular to the nanowires (tperp). This proves that the Au-induced electron pockets possess a two-dimensional, closed Fermi surface, and this firmly places the Au/Ge(100) nanowire system outside potential hosts of a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid. We combine these ARPES data with scanning tunneling spectroscopic measurements of the spatially resolved electronic structure and find that the spatially straight—wirelike—conduction channels observed up to energies of order one electron volt below the Fermi level do not originate from the Au-induced states seen in the ARPES data. The former are rather more likely to be associated with bulk Ge states that are localized to the subsurface region. Despite our proof of the 2D (two-dimentional) nature of the Au

  4. Linear-chain structure of alpha clusters in Carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Tomoyuki; Chiba, Yohei; Kimura, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    The linear-chain structure of 12C in which three alpha particles are linearly aligned has long been interested and investigated since its proposal by Morinaga, but nowadays, its existence is doubt, because its instability was shown by fill-microscopic nuclear models. However, the possible existence of linear-chains in neutron-rich carbon isotopes assisted by the valence neutrons was recently suggested based on the cluster model. Therefore, it is of importance and interest to examine their stability and investigate the stabilization mechanism based on full-microscopic model. In this presentation, we will discuss the alpha cluster states of carbon isotopes including the linear-chains based on the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) model. For, example, we will demonstrate two different types of the alpha cluster states, that are, triangular and linear-chain configurations. Four valence neutrons occupy the molecular-orbit surrounding the cluster cores, in particular, their orbits of the linear-chain structure are π-orbit and σ-orbit as suggested by the cluster calculation. In addition, we predict the excitation energies of two structures. We will show that the linear-chain states have very large moment of inertia and they appear near the 6He+10Be threshold energy.

  5. 1D μ-glycine-briged copper (II) chain in complex [Cu(μ-Gly)Im(ClO4)]n and ferromagnetic interactions among copper (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lu; Lv, Xue-Chuan; Luo, Guan-Hua; Gao, Xiao-Han; Tan, Zhi-Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Complex [Cu(μ-Gly)Im(ClO4)]n(Im = imidazole, and Gly = glycine) with μ-glycine-briged copper (II) chain, containing six-coordination distorted elongated octahedron, was synthesized and characterized. The complex belongs to space group P 21/c measured by X-ray single crystal diffraction. In the cluster, each Cu2+ ion are six-coordination by one nitrogen atom and two oxygen atoms of glycine, one nitrogen atoms of imidazole, and two of oxygen atoms of two perchlorate. Each Cu2+ ion has an N2O4 donor set, which forms the distorted elongated octahedron due to the Jahn-Teller (JT) effect. The magnetic and thermodynamic properties were researched. Magnetic susceptibilities of the complex showed that ferromagnetic interactions occurred between the Cu (II) atoms. The Curie-Weiss constant C = 0.565 cm3 K·mol-1 and the Weiss constant θ = 1.0585 K were given by the Curie-Weiss law The ferromagnetic nature of the interaction could be deduced as the exchange pathway of Cusbnd Osbnd Csbnd Osbnd Cu, which involved an equatorial position at one copper (II) ion and an axial position of the nearest copper (II). The complex decomposed from 511 to 538 K as two steps.

  6. Tailoring the Electronic Structure of Gold Chains on Vicinal Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, Jason; Altmann, Kyle; Bromberger, Christian; Erwin, Steven; Kirakosian, Armen; McChesney, Jessica; Lin, Jia-Ling; Himpsel, Franz

    2003-03-01

    Surface states on silicon provide a unique opportunity to study one-dimensional electron systems. By growing chains of gold atoms on vicinal silicon surfaces we demonstrate the capability of engineering one-dimensional metallic states with varying inter-chain spacing and electron count. Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission we map the band structures and Fermi surfaces for these atomic chains. The resulting metallic bands exhibit novel properties including the formation of two half-filled metallic bands in place of a single semiconducting band and the formation of a fractionally filled band. From the Fermi surfaces we calculate the one-dimensional versus two-dimensional coupling strengths and demonstrate that their ratio can be tuned from 12:1 to >70:1 by increasing the chain spacing via the miscut angle. [1] [1] J. N. Crain et al., submitted.

  7. Structure of Isometric Viruses Containing Nonidentical Polypeptide Chains

    PubMed Central

    Dunker, A. Keith

    1974-01-01

    The theory of Caspar and Klug (1962) for the structure of isometric viruses has been generalized to the case in which the identical repeating unit is composed of n nonidentical polypeptide chains. This modified theory accounts for the structure of picornaviruses, the lambda phage head, cowpea mosaic virus, and φX174, while at the same time conserving the principle of having identical subunits in identical environments. Furthermore, the modified theory suggests amending the triangulation number to T[n] for capsids with n nonidentical polypeptide chains as the repeating unit. Images PMID:4418754

  8. Structural and Thermodynamic Characterization of a Cytoplasmic Dynein Light Chain-Intermediate Chain Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Williams,J.; Roulhac, P.; Roy, A.; Vallee, R.; Fitzgerald, M.; Hendrickson, W.

    2007-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-based motor protein complex that plays important roles in a wide range of fundamental cellular processes, including vesicular transport, mitosis, and cell migration. A single major form of cytoplasmic dynein associates with membranous organelles, mitotic kinetochores, the mitotic and migratory cell cortex, centrosomes, and mRNA complexes. The ability of cytoplasmic dynein to recognize such diverse forms of cargo is thought to be associated with its several accessory subunits, which reside at the base of the molecule. The dynein light chains (LCs) LC8 and TcTex1 form a subcomplex with dynein intermediate chains, and they also interact with numerous protein and ribonucleoprotein partners. This observation has led to the hypothesis that these subunits serve to tether cargo to the dynein motor. Here, we present the structure and a thermodynamic analysis of a complex of LC8 and TcTex1 associated with their intermediate chain scaffold. The intermediate chains effectively block the major putative cargo binding sites within the light chains. These data suggest that, in the dynein complex, the LCs do not bind cargo, in apparent disagreement with a role for LCs in dynein cargo binding interactions.

  9. Generating folded protein structures with a lattice chain growth algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Hin Hark; Tropsha, Alexander; Schlick, Tamar

    2000-10-01

    We present a new application of the chain growth algorithm to lattice generation of protein structure and thermodynamics. Given the difficulty of ab initio protein structure prediction, this approach provides an alternative to current folding algorithms. The chain growth algorithm, unlike Metropolis folding algorithms, generates independent protein structures to achieve rapid and efficient exploration of configurational space. It is a modified version of the Rosenbluth algorithm where the chain growth transition probability is a normalized Boltzmann factor; it was previously applied only to simple polymers and protein models with two residue types. The independent protein configurations, generated segment-by-segment on a refined cubic lattice, are based on a single interaction site for each amino acid and a statistical interaction energy derived by Miyazawa and Jernigan. We examine for several proteins the algorithm's ability to produce nativelike folds and its effectiveness for calculating protein thermodynamics. Thermal transition profiles associated with the internal energy, entropy, and radius of gyration show characteristic folding/unfolding transitions and provide evidence for unfolding via partially unfolded (molten-globule) states. From the configurational ensembles, the protein structures with the lowest distance root-mean-square deviations (dRMSD) vary between 2.2 to 3.8 Å, a range comparable to results of an exhaustive enumeration search. Though the ensemble-averaged dRMSD values are about 1.5 to 2 Å larger, the lowest dRMSD structures have similar overall folds to the native proteins. These results demonstrate that the chain growth algorithm is a viable alternative to protein simulations using the whole chain.

  10. 3-D imaging of large scale buried structure by 1-D inversion of very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aydmer, A.A.; Chew, W.C.; Cui, T.J.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.; Abraham, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for large scale three-dimensional (3-D) subsurface imaging of inhomogeneous background is presented. One-dimensional (1-D) multifrequency distorted Born iterative method (DBIM) is employed in the inversion. Simulation results utilizing synthetic scattering data are given. Calibration of the very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) experimental waveforms is detailed along with major problems encountered in practice and their solutions. This discussion is followed by the results of a large scale application of the method to the experimental data provided by the VETEM system of the U.S. Geological Survey. The method is shown to have a computational complexity that is promising for on-site inversion.

  11. Forward waveform modelling procedure for 1-D crustal velocity structure and its application to the southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seongryong; Rhie, Junkee; Kim, Geunyoung

    2011-04-01

    We propose a full-grid search procedure for broad-band waveform modelling to determine a 1-D crustal velocity model. The velocity model can be more constrained because of the use of broad-band waveforms instead of traveltimes for the crustal phases, although only a small number of event-station pairs were employed. Despite the time-consuming nature of the full-grid search method to search the whole model parameter space, the use of an empirical relationship between the P- and S-wave velocities can significantly reduce computation time. The proposed method was applied to a case in the southern Korean Peninsula. Broad-band waveforms obtained from two inland earthquakes that occurred on 2007 January 20 (Mw 4.6) and 2004 April 26 (Mw 3.6) were used to test the method. The three-layers over half-space crustal velocity model of the P- and S-wave velocities was estimated. Comparisons of waveform fitness between the final model and previously published models demonstrate advancements in the average value of waveform fitness for the inland earthquakes. In addition, 1-D velocity models were determined for three distinct tectonic regions, namely, the Gyonggi Massif, the Okcheon Belt and the Gyeongsang Basin, which are all located inside the study area. A comparison between the three models demonstrates that the crustal thickness of the southern Korean Peninsula increases from NW to SE and that the lower crustal composition of the Okcheon belt differs from that of the other tectonic regions.

  12. Structure and properties of mixed-chain phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed

    Shah, J; Sripada, P K; Shipley, G G

    1990-05-01

    The structural and thermotropic properties of the hydrated mixed-chain phosphatidylcholines (PCs), C(8):C(18)-PC and C(10):C(18)-PC, have been studied by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. For fully hydrated C(8):C(18)-PC, the reversible chain melting transition is observed at 9.9 degrees C (delta H = 7.3 kcal/mol). X-ray diffraction at 0 degrees C (below the chain melting transition) shows a small bilayer repeat distance, d = 51.0 A, and a sharp, symmetric wide-angle reflection at 4.1 A, characteristic of a mixed interdigitated bilayer gel phase [see McIntosh, T. J., Simon, S. A., Ellington, J. C., Jr., & Porter, N. A. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 4038-4044; Hui, S. W., Mason, J. T., & Huang, C. (1984) Biochemistry 23, 5570-5577]. At 30 degrees C (above the chain melting transition), a diffuse band is observed at 4.5 A characteristic of an L alpha phase but with an increased bilayer periodicity, d = 61 A. Both the calculated lipid bilayer thickness (d1) and that determined directly from electron density profiles (dp-p) show unusual increases as a consequence of chain melting. In contrast, fully hydrated C(10):C(18)-PC shows an asymmetric endothermic transition at 11.8 degrees C. Below the chain melting transition, two lamellar phases are present, corresponding to coexisting interdigitated (d = 52.3 A) and noninterdigitated (d = 62.5 A) bilayer gel phases. The relative amounts of these phases depend upon the low-temperature incubation and/or hydration conditions, suggesting conversions, albeit kinetically complex, between metastable, and stable phases. The different behavior of C(8):C(18)-PC and C(10):C(18)-PC, as well as their positional isomers, is rationalized in terms of the molecular conformation of PC. PMID:2361142

  13. Tertiary structure of human {Lambda}6 light chains.

    SciTech Connect

    Pokkuluri, P. R.; Solomon, A.; Weiss, D. T.; Stevens, F. J.; Schiffer, M.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Tennessee Medical Center /Graduate School of Medicine

    1999-01-01

    AL amyloidosis is a disease process characterized by the pathologic deposition of monoclonal light chains in tissue. To date, only limited information has been obtained on the molecular features that render such light chains amyloidogenic. Although protein products of the major human V kappa and V lambda gene families have been identified in AL deposits, one particular subgroup--lambda 6--has been found to be preferentially associated with this disease. Notably, the variable region of lambda 6 proteins (V lambda 6) has distinctive primary structural features including the presence in the third framework region (FR3) of two additional amino acid residues that distinguish members of this subgroup from other types of light chains. However, the structural consequences of these alterations have not been elucidated. To determine if lambda 6 proteins possess unique tertiary structural features, as compared to light chains of other V lambda subgroups, we have obtained x-ray diffraction data on crystals prepared from two recombinant V lambda 6 molecules. These components, isolated from a bacterial expression system, were generated from lambda 6-related cDNAs cloned from bone marrow-derived plasma cells from a patient (Wil) who had documented AL amyloidosis and another (Jto) with multiple myeloma and tubular cast nephropathy, but no evident fibrillar deposits. The x-ray crystallographic analyses revealed that the two-residue insertion located between positions 68 and 69 (not between 66 and 67 as previously surmised) extended an existing loop region that effectively increased the surface area adjacent to the first complementarity determining region (CDR1). Further, an unusual interaction between the Arg 25 and Phe 2 residues commonly found in lambda 6 molecules was noted. However, the structures of V lambda 6 Wil and Jto also differed from each other, as evidenced by the presence in the latter of certain ionic and hydrophobic interactions that we posit increased protein

  14. Crystal structure, infrared spectra and luminescence of a 1D Cd coordination polymer with 4-nitrophthalic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline monohydrate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Li-Juan; Kong, Ya-Jie; Sheng, Ning

    2015-01-01

    A new one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymer, [Cd(NPTA)(1,10-phen)(H2O)] n ( 1) (H2NPTA = 4-nitrophthalic acid; 1,10-phen = 1,10-phenanthroline monohydrate), has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, solid state emission spectra, FT-IR spectra, and thermogravimetric analyses. The compound belongs to triclinic system with space group , and exhibits a one-dimensional linear chain. Each Cd with a strongly distorted octahedral coordination geometry is six-coordinated by two N atoms from one 1,10-phenanthroline ligand, three O atoms from two carboxylate groups of two different NPTA2- ligands and one O atoms from lattice water. Layer supramolecular architecture is formed by medium π-π stacking interactions between two neighboring phenanthroline rings from two independent linear chains. Studies on luminescent property of 1 exhibit the solid state emission originating from an intra ligand π → π* transition of NPTA2- ligand.

  15. New method for computation of band structures in 1D photonic crystals based on the Fresnel equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshan Entezar, S.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new method for calculation of band structure in one-dimensional bilayer photonic crystals, based on the Fresnel equations. We derive a new relation to obtain the band structure without using the Floquet theorem. It is shown that this relation can be simplified under the assumption that the single-path phase-shift acquired through the individual layers of the photonic crystal be equal to ? . The results obtained by our method are compared with the ones obtained from the transfer matrix method to show that they are exactly identical.

  16. Crystal Structure of Human Liver delta {4}-3-Ketosteroid 5 beta-Reductase (AKR1D1) and Implications for Substrate Binding and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Di Costanzo,L.; Drury, J.; Penning, T.; Christianson, D.

    2008-01-01

    AKR1D1 (steroid 5{beta}-reductase) reduces all 4-3-ketosteroids to form 5{beta}-dihydrosteroids, a first step in the clearance of steroid hormones and an essential step in the synthesis of all bile acids. The reduction of the carbon-carbon double bond in an a,{beta}-unsaturated ketone by 5{beta}-reductase is a unique reaction in steroid enzymology because hydride transfer from NADPH to the {beta}-face of a 4-3-ketosteroid yields a cis-A/B-ring configuration with an {approx}90 bend in steroid structure. Here, we report the first x-ray crystal structure of a mammalian steroid hormone carbon-carbon double bond reductase, human 4-3-ketosteroid 5{beta}-reductase (AKR1D1), and its complexes with intact substrates. We have determined the structures of AKR1D1 complexes with NADP+ at 1.79- and 1.35- Angstroms resolution (HEPES bound in the active site), NADP+ and cortisone at 1.90- Angstroms resolution, NADP+ and progesterone at 2.03- Angstroms resolution, and NADP+ and testosterone at 1.62- Angstroms resolution. Complexes with cortisone and progesterone reveal productive substrate binding orientations based on the proximity of each steroid carbon-carbon double bond to the re-face of the nicotinamide ring of NADP+. This orientation would permit 4-pro-(R)-hydride transfer from NADPH. Each steroid carbonyl accepts hydrogen bonds from catalytic residues Tyr58 and Glu120. The Y58F and E120A mutants are devoid of activity, supporting a role for this dyad in the catalytic mechanism. Intriguingly, testosterone binds nonproductively, thereby rationalizing the substrate inhibition observed with this particular steroid. The locations of disease-linked mutations thought to be responsible for bile acid deficiency are also revealed.

  17. Structure and diversity of Mexican axolotl lambda light chains.

    PubMed

    André, S; Guillet, F; Charlemagne, J; Fellah, J S

    2000-11-01

    We report here the structure of cDNA clones encoding axolotl light chains of the lambda type. A single IGLC gene and eight different potential IGLV genes belonging to four different families were detected. The axolotl Cgamma domain has several residues or stretches of residues that are typically conserved in mammalian, avian, and Xenopus Cgamma, but the KATLVCL stretch, which is well conserved in the Cgamma and T-cell receptor Cbeta domains of many vertebrate species, is not well conserved. All axolotl Vgamma sequences closely match several human and Xenopus Vgamma-like sequences and, although the axolotl Cgamma and Vgamma sequences are very like their tetrapod homologues, they are not closely related to nontetrapod L chains. Southern blot experiments suggested the presence of a single IGLC gene and of a limited number of IGLV genes, and analysis of IGLV-J junctions clearly indicated that at least three of the IGLJ segments can associate with IGLV1, IGLV2, or IGLV3 subgroup genes. The overall diversity of the axolotl Vgamma CDR3 junctions seems to be of the same order as that of mammalian Vgamma chains. However, a single IGLV4 segment was found among the 45 cDNAs analyzed. This suggests that the axolotl IGL locus may have a canonical tandem structure, like the mammalian IGK or IGH loci. Immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, and microsequencing experiments strongly suggested that most, if not all L chains are of the gamma type. This may explain in part the poor humoral response of the axolotl. PMID:11132150

  18. Propagation of the Ultra-Short Laser Pulses Through the Helical 1D Photonic Crystal Structure with Twist Defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, Dmitrii V.; Iegorov, Roman

    2016-02-01

    The presence of the photonic band-gap is a featured property of the cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC). It can be practically realized for almost any reasonable wavelengths with very high degree of tunability. We have investigated theoretically the influence of the twist defect of the CLC helical structure onto the bandwidth-limited ultra-short laser pulse propagating inside the photonic band-gap. The changes of both pulse duration and peak power with defect angle were observed together with pulse acceleration and retardation for a case of normal incidence of the light.

  19. A time series generalized functional model based method for vibration-based damage precise localization in structures consisting of 1D, 2D, and 3D elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaris, C. S.; Sakellariou, J. S.; Fassois, S. D.

    2016-06-01

    This study focuses on the problem of vibration-based damage precise localization via data-based, time series type, methods for structures consisting of 1D, 2D, or 3D elements. A Generalized Functional Model Based method is postulated based on an expanded Vector-dependent Functionally Pooled ARX (VFP-ARX) model form, capable of accounting for an arbitrary structural topology. The FP model's operating parameter vector elements are properly constrained to reflect any given topology. Damage localization is based on operating parameter vector estimation within the specified topology, so that the location estimate and its uncertainty bounds are statistically optimal. The method's effectiveness is experimentally demonstrated through damage precise localization on a laboratory spatial truss structure using various damage scenarios and a single pair of random excitation - vibration response signals in a low and limited frequency bandwidth.

  20. Tuning the structures based on polyoxometalates from 1-D to 2-D by using different secondary organic ligands.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang-Yang; Xiao-Zhang; Zhao, De-Chuan; Guo, Hai-Yang; Fu, Li-Wei; Guo, Lan-Lan; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Huo, Qi-Sheng; Xu, Ji-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Six new organic-inorganic hybrid compounds based on [XM12O40](4-) (X = heteroatom, M = metal atom), namely [Cu(pic)2][H2XM12O40]·2Hapy·2apy (X = Si, M = W for , X = Ge, M = W for and X = Si, M = Mo for ), [Cu(2,2'-bpy)2][Cu(2,2'-bpy)(H2O)][Cu(pic)2]0.5[XM12O40]·nH2O (X = Si, M = Mo, n = 0.5 for , X = Ge, M = W, n = 1 for ) and [Cu(phen)(H2O)]2[Cu(pic)2][GeW12O40]·2.5H2O () (pic = deprotonated picolinic acid, apy = 2-aminopyridine, 2,2'-bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, phen = phenanthroline), have been synthesized and characterized by IR, UV-Vis, XRD, cyclic voltammetric measurements and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Single crystal X-ray analysis reveals that compounds are isomorphous and isostructural, in which each is based on [H2XM12O40](2-) and [Cu(pic)2]. Compounds and are also isomorphous and isostructural, of which the structures are more interesting than those of compounds . Both structures are constructed from [XM12O40](4-) and metal mixed-organic-ligand complexes. Compound is also constructed from Keggin ions and metal mixed-organic-ligand complexes, which are, however, thoroughly different from those of compounds and . The photodegradation properties of compounds have been analyzed. Compounds also exhibit rapid absorption properties for RhB (Rhodamine B). Detailed analysis of the photodegradation properties of compounds reveals that the molybdate POM has stronger degradation ability for RhB than the tungstate one. PMID:26223513

  1. Fractional Band Filling in an Atomic Chain Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, J. N.; Kirakosian, A.; Altmann, K. N.; Bromberger, C.; Erwin, S. C.; McChesney, J. L.; Lin, J.-L.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2003-05-01

    A new chain structure of Au is found on stepped Si(111) which exhibits a 1/4-filled band and a pair of ≥1/2-filled bands with a combined filling of 4/3. Band dispersions and Fermi surfaces for Si(553)-Au are obtained by photoemission and compared to that of Si(557)-Au. The dimensionality of both systems is determined using a tight binding fit. The fractional band filling makes it possible to preserve metallicity in the presence of strong correlations.

  2. Assembly of 1D, 2D and 3D lanthanum(iii) coordination polymers with perchlorinated benzenedicarboxylates: positional isomeric effect, structural transformation and ring-opening polymerisation of glycolide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Chun; Dai, An-Qi; Huang, Kun-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Cui, Ai-Jun; He, Ming-Yang; Chen, Qun

    2016-02-28

    Utilizing a series of positional isomers of tetrachlorinated benzenedicarboxylic acid ligands, seven La(iii)-based coordination polymers were solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Their structural dimensionalities varying from 1D double chains, to the 2D 3,4,5-connected network, to 3D 6-connected pcu topological nets are only governed by the positions of carboxyl groups on the tetrachlorinated benzene ring. A comprehensive analysis and comparison reveals that the size of the carbonyl solvent molecules (DMF, DEF, DMA, and NMP) can affect the coordination geometries around the La(iii) ions, the coordination modes of carboxylate groups, the packing arrangements, and the void volumes of the overall crystal lattices. One as-synthesized framework further shows an unprecedented structural transformation from a 3D 6-connected network to a 3D 4,5-connected net through the dissolution and reformation pathway in water, suggesting that these easily hydrolyzed lanthanide complexes may serve as precursors to produce new high-dimensional frameworks. The bulk solvent-free melt polymerisation of glycolide utilizing these La(iii) complexes as initiators has been reported herein for the first time. All complexes were found to promote the polymerization of glycolide over a temperature range of 200 to 220 °C, producing poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) with a molecular weight up to 93,280. Under the same experimental conditions, the different catalytic activities for these complexes may result from their structural discrepancy. PMID:26811117

  3. Structural Insights into the Binding of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-B by VEGFR-1D2

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Shalini; Darley, Paula I.; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2010-01-01

    The formation of blood vessels (angiogenesis) is a highly orchestrated sequence of events involving crucial receptor-ligand interactions. Angiogenesis is critical for physiological processes such as development, wound healing, reproduction, tissue regeneration, and remodeling. It also plays a major role in sustaining tumor progression and chronic inflammation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-B, a member of the VEGF family of angiogenic growth factors, effects blood vessel formation by binding to a tyrosine kinase receptor, VEGFR-1. There is growing evidence of the important role played by VEGF-B in physiological and pathological vasculogenesis. Development of VEGF-B antagonists, which inhibit the interaction of this molecule with its cognate receptor, would be important for the treatment of pathologies associated specifically with this growth factor. In this study, we present the crystal structure of the complex of VEGF-B with domain 2 of VEGFR-1 at 2.7 Å resolution. Our analysis reveals that each molecule of the ligand engages two receptor molecules using two symmetrical binding sites. Based on these interactions, we identify the receptor-binding determinants on VEGF-B and shed light on the differences in specificity towards VEGFR-1 among the different VEGF homologs. PMID:20501651

  4. Structural domains and main-chain flexibility in prion proteins.

    PubMed

    Blinov, N; Berjanskii, M; Wishart, D S; Stepanova, M

    2009-02-24

    In this study we describe a novel approach to define structural domains and to characterize the local flexibility in both human and chicken prion proteins. The approach we use is based on a comprehensive theory of collective dynamics in proteins that was recently developed. This method determines the essential collective coordinates, which can be found from molecular dynamics trajectories via principal component analysis. Under this particular framework, we are able to identify the domains where atoms move coherently while at the same time to determine the local main-chain flexibility for each residue. We have verified this approach by comparing our results for the predicted dynamic domain systems with the computed main-chain flexibility profiles and the NMR-derived random coil indexes for human and chicken prion proteins. The three sets of data show excellent agreement. Additionally, we demonstrate that the dynamic domains calculated in this fashion provide a highly sensitive measure of protein collective structure and dynamics. Furthermore, such an analysis is capable of revealing structural and dynamic properties of proteins that are inaccessible to the conventional assessment of secondary structure. Using the collective dynamic simulation approach described here along with a high-temperature simulations of unfolding of human prion protein, we have explored whether locations of relatively low stability could be identified where the unfolding process could potentially be facilitated. According to our analysis, the locations of relatively low stability may be associated with the beta-sheet formed by strands S1 and S2 and the adjacent loops, whereas helix HC appears to be a relatively stable part of the protein. We suggest that this kind of structural analysis may provide a useful background for a more quantitative assessment of potential routes of spontaneous misfolding in prion proteins. PMID:19178154

  5. Correlation Between Chain Architecture and Hydration Water Structure in Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Grossutti, Michael; Dutcher, John R

    2016-03-14

    The physical properties of confined water can differ dramatically from those of bulk water. Hydration water associated with polysaccharides provides a particularly interesting example of confined water, because differences in polysaccharide structure provide different spatially confined environments for water sorption. We have used attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to investigate the structure of hydration water in films of three different polysaccharides under controlled relative humidity (RH) conditions. We compare the results obtained for films of highly branched, dendrimer-like phytoglycogen nanoparticles to those obtained for two unbranched polysaccharides, hyaluronic acid (HA), and chitosan. We find similarities between the water structuring in the two linear polysaccharides and significant differences for phytoglycogen. In particular, the results suggest that the high degree of branching in phytoglycogen leads to a much more well-ordered water structure (low density, high connectivity network water), indicating the strong influence of chain architecture on the structuring of water. These measurements provide unique insight into the relationship between the structure and hydration of polysaccharides, which is important for understanding and exploiting these sustainable nanomaterials in a wide range of applications. PMID:26859153

  6. On the Importance of Noncovalent Carbon-Bonding Interactions in the Stabilization of a 1D Co(II) Polymeric Chain as a Precursor of a Novel 2D Coordination Polymer.

    PubMed

    Pal, Pampi; Konar, Saugata; Lama, Prem; Das, Kinsuk; Bauzá, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

    2016-07-14

    A new cobalt(II) coordination polymer 2 with μ1,5 dicyanamide (dca) and a bidentate ligand 3,5-dimethyl-1-(2'-pyridyl)pyrazole (pypz) is prepared in a stepwise manner using the newly synthesized one-dimensional linear Co(II) coordination polymer 1 as a precursor. The structural and thermal characterizations elucidate that the more stable complex 2 shows a two-dimensional layer structural feature. Here, Co(II) atoms with μ1,5 dicyanamido bridges are linked by the ligand pypz forming a macrocyclic chain that runs along the crystallographic 'c' axis having 'sql' (Shubnikov notation) net topology with a 4-connected uninodal node having point symbol {4(4).6(2)}. The remarkable noncovalent carbon-bonding contacts detected in the X-ray structure of compound 1 are analyzed and characterized by density functional theory calculations and the analysis of electron charge density (atoms in molecules). PMID:27295490

  7. Crystal Structure of Human Liver [delta][superscript 4]-3-Ketosteroid 5[beta]-Reductase (AKR1D1) and Implications for Substrate Binding and Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Di Costanzo, Luigi; Drury, Jason E.; Penning, Trevor M.; Christianson, David W.

    2008-07-15

    AKR1D1 (steroid 5{beta}-reductase) reduces all {Delta}{sup 4}-3-ketosteroids to form 5{beta}-dihydrosteroids, a first step in the clearance of steroid hormones and an essential step in the synthesis of all bile acids. The reduction of the carbon-carbon double bond in an {alpha}{beta}-unsaturated ketone by 5{beta}-reductase is a unique reaction in steroid enzymology because hydride transfer from NADPH to the {beta}-face of a {Delta}{sup 4}-3-ketosteroid yields a cis-A/B-ring configuration with an {approx}90{sup o} bend in steroid structure. Here, we report the first x-ray crystal structure of a mammalian steroid hormone carbon-carbon double bond reductase, human {Delta}{sup 4}-3-ketosteroid 5{beta}-reductase (AKR1D1), and its complexes with intact substrates. We have determined the structures of AKR1D1 complexes with NADP{sup +} at 1.79- and 1.35-{angstrom} resolution (HEPES bound in the active site), NADP{sup +} and cortisone at 1.90-{angstrom} resolution, NADP{sup +} and progesterone at 2.03-{angstrom} resolution, and NADP{sup +} and testosterone at 1.62-{angstrom} resolution. Complexes with cortisone and progesterone reveal productive substrate binding orientations based on the proximity of each steroid carbon-carbon double bond to the re-face of the nicotinamide ring of NADP{sup +}. This orientation would permit 4-pro-(R)-hydride transfer from NADPH. Each steroid carbonyl accepts hydrogen bonds from catalytic residues Tyr{sup 58} and Glu{sup 120}. The Y58F and E120A mutants are devoid of activity, supporting a role for this dyad in the catalytic mechanism. Intriguingly, testosterone binds nonproductively, thereby rationalizing the substrate inhibition observed with this particular steroid. The locations of disease-linked mutations thought to be responsible for bile acid deficiency are also revealed.

  8. Atomic structure and dynamic behaviour of truly one-dimensional ionic chains inside carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senga, Ryosuke; Komsa, Hannu-Pekka; Liu, Zheng; Hirose-Takai, Kaori; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.; Suenaga, Kazu

    2014-11-01

    Materials with reduced dimensionality have attracted much interest in various fields of fundamental and applied science. True one-dimensional (1D) crystals with single-atom thickness have been realized only for few elemental metals (Au, Ag) or carbon, all of which showed very short lifetimes under ambient conditions. We demonstrate here a successful synthesis of stable 1D ionic crystals in which two chemical elements, one being a cation and the other an anion, align alternately inside carbon nanotubes. Unusual dynamical behaviours for different atoms in the 1D lattice are experimentally corroborated and suggest substantial interactions of the atoms with the nanotube sheath. Our theoretical studies indicate that the 1D ionic crystals have optical properties distinct from those of their bulk counterparts and that the properties can be engineered by introducing atomic defects into the chains.

  9. Correlation Between Chain Architecture and Hydration Water Structure in Polysaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossutti, Michael; Dutcher, John

    The physical properties of confined water can differ dramatically from those of bulk water. Hydration water associated with polysaccharides provides a particularly important example of confined water, with differences in polysaccharide structure providing different spatially confined environments for water adsorption. We have used attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy to investigate the structure of hydration water in films of three different polysaccharides under controlled relative humidity (RH) conditions. We compare the results obtained for films of highly branched, monodisperse phytoglycogen nanoparticles to those obtained for two unbranched polysaccharides, hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitosan. We find similarities between water structuring in the two linear polysaccharides, and significant differences for phytoglycogen. In particular, the phytoglycogen nanoparticles exhibited high network water connectivity, and a large increase in the fraction of multimer water clusters with increasing RH, whereas the water structure for HA and chitosan was found to be insensitive to changes in RH. These measurements provide unique insight into the relationship between the chain architecture and hydration of polysaccharides.

  10. Nanoscale stabilization of zintl compounds: 1D ionic Li-P double helix confined inside a carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexander S.; Kar, Tapas; Boldyrev, Alexander I.

    2016-02-01

    One-dimensional (1D) ionic nanowires are extremely rare materials due to the difficulty in stabilizing 1D chains of ions under ambient conditions. We demonstrate here a theoretical prediction of a novel hybrid material, a nanotube encapsulated 1D ionic lithium monophosphide (LiP) chain, featuring a unique double-helix structure, which is very unusual in inorganic chemistry. This nanocomposite has been investigated with density functional theory, including molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations. We find that the formation of the LiP double-helical nanowire is facilitated by strong interactions between LiP and CNTs resulting in a charge transfer. This work suggests that nanostructured confinement may be used to stabilize other polyphosphide 1D chains, thus opening new ways to study the chemistry of zintl compounds at the nanoscale.One-dimensional (1D) ionic nanowires are extremely rare materials due to the difficulty in stabilizing 1D chains of ions under ambient conditions. We demonstrate here a theoretical prediction of a novel hybrid material, a nanotube encapsulated 1D ionic lithium monophosphide (LiP) chain, featuring a unique double-helix structure, which is very unusual in inorganic chemistry. This nanocomposite has been investigated with density functional theory, including molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations. We find that the formation of the LiP double-helical nanowire is facilitated by strong interactions between LiP and CNTs resulting in a charge transfer. This work suggests that nanostructured confinement may be used to stabilize other polyphosphide 1D chains, thus opening new ways to study the chemistry of zintl compounds at the nanoscale. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional DOS, band structures, and Bader charges for LiP@SWCNTs. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07713c

  11. Local Structure Fixation in the Composite Manufacturing Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girdauskaite, Lina; Krzywinski, Sybille; Rödel, Hartmut; Wildasin-Werner, Andrea; Böhme, Ralf; Jansen, Irene

    2010-12-01

    Compared to metal materials, textile reinforced composites show interesting features, but also higher production costs because of low automation rate in the manufacturing chain at this time. Their applicability is also limited due to quality problems, which restrict the production of complex shaped dry textile preforms. New technologies, design concepts, and cost-effective manufacturing methods are needed in order to establish further fields of application. This paper deals with possible ways to improve the textile deformation process by locally applying a fixative to the structure parallel to the cut. This hinders unwanted deformation in the textile stock during the subsequent stacking and formation steps. It is found that suitable thermoplastic binders, applied in the appropriate manner do not restrict formation of the textile and have no negative influence on the mechanical properties of the composite.

  12. Chaining sequence/structure seeds for computing RNA similarity.

    PubMed

    Bourgeade, Laetitia; Chauve, Cédric; Allali, Julien

    2015-03-01

    We describe a new method to compare a query RNA with a static set of target RNAs. Our method is based on (i) a static indexing of the sequence/structure seeds of the target RNAs; (ii) searching the target RNAs by detecting seeds of the query present in the target, chaining these seeds in promising candidate homologs; and then (iii) completing the alignment using an anchor-based exact alignment algorithm. We apply our method on the benchmark Bralibase2.1 and compare its accuracy and efficiency with the exact method LocARNA and its recent seeds-based speed-up ExpLoc-P. Our pipeline RNA-unchained greatly improves computation time of LocARNA and is comparable to the one of ExpLoc-P, while improving the overall accuracy of the final alignments. PMID:25768236

  13. Mononuclear, dinuclear and 1-D polymeric complexes of Cd(II) of a pyridyl pyrazole ligand: Syntheses, crystal structures and photoluminescence studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kinsuk; Konar, Saugata; Jana, Atanu; Barik, Anil Kumar; Roy, Sangita; Kar, Susanta Kumar

    2013-03-01

    The syntheses, crystal structures and photoluminescence properties of four new Cd(II) complexes are reported using strongly coordinating ligand 3,5-dimethyl-1-(2'-pyridyl) pyrazole (L) in presence of anionic ancillary bridging ligands as nitrite, chloride and dicyanamide. Among the complexes two (1 and 2) are monomeric, 3 is μ2 - chloro bridged dimer and the last one (4) is a mixed alternate chloro - end to end (EE) dicyanamide bridged 1D polymer. All the four complexes have been X-ray crystallographically characterized. The ligand L behaves as a potent bidentate neutral N, N donor. Geometrical diversity of Cd(II) complexes is due to no loss or gain of crystal field stability with the variation of geometry. Consequently the stability of a structure depends on steric requirements. The ligand L shows considerable fluorescence and all four complexes in methanol exhibit interesting photoluminescence properties with different emission intensities. The band maxima and fluorescence efficiency (in methanol) are found to be dependent on the coordination chromophore and structural rigidity induced by the incorporated Cd(II) ion. Among the synthesized complexes 1 exhibits the highest fluorescence intensity in methanol.

  14. Extinction and the associative structure of heterogeneous instrumental chains.

    PubMed

    Thrailkill, Eric A; Bouton, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    Drug abuse, overeating, and smoking are all examples of instrumental behaviors that often involve chains or sequences of behavior. A behavior chain is minimally composed of a procurement response that is required in order for a subsequent consumption response to be reinforced. Despite the translational importance of behavior chains, few studies have attempted to understand what binds them together and takes them apart. This article surveys the development of the heterogeneous instrumental chain method and introduces recent findings that have used extinction to analyze the associative content of (what is learned in) the chain. Chained responses that are occasion-set by their own discriminative stimuli may be directly associated; extinction of the procurement response weakens its associated consumption response, and extinction of the consumption response weakens its associated procurement response. Extinction itself involves learning to inhibit the response. Extinguished chained responses are subject to renewal when they are tested either back in the acquisition context or in a new context. In addition, a consumption response that is extinguished outside its chain is renewed when returned to the context of the preceding response in the chain. Research on heterogeneous behavior chains can provide important insights into an important but often overlooked aspect of instrumental learning. PMID:27296700

  15. A pure inorganic 1D chain based on {Mo8O28} clusters and Mn(II) ions: [Mn(H2O)2Mo8O28 ] n 6 n -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaofen; Yan, Yonghong; Wu, Lizhou; Yu, Chengxin; Dong, Xinbo; Hu, Huaiming; Xue, Ganglin

    2016-01-01

    A new pure inorganic polymer, (NH4)6n[Mn(H2O)2Mo8O28)]n(H2O)2n(1), has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectrum, UV-vis absorption spectra, TG-DSC and electrochemical studies. In 1, [Mo8O28]8- anions act as tetradentate ligands and are alternately linked by Mn(H2O)2 2 + ions into a one-dimensional chain structure. It is interesting that 1 represents the first example of pure inorganic-inorganic hybrid based on octamolybdate and transition metal ions. Moreover, it was indicated that 1 had definite catalytic activities on the probe reaction of benzyl alcohol oxidation to benzaldehyde with H2O2.

  16. Structure of Self-Assembled Mn Atom Chains on Si(001).

    PubMed

    Villarreal, R; Longobardi, M; Köster, S A; Kirkham, Ch J; Bowler, D; Renner, Ch

    2015-12-18

    Mn has been found to self-assemble into atomic chains running perpendicular to the surface dimer reconstruction on Si(001). They differ from other atomic chains by a striking asymmetric appearance in filled state scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images. This has prompted complicated structural models involving up to three Mn atoms per chain unit. Combining STM, atomic force microscopy, and density functional theory we find that a simple necklacelike chain of single Mn atoms reproduces all their prominent features, including their asymmetry not captured by current models. The upshot is a remarkably simpler structure for modeling the electronic and magnetic properties of Mn atom chains on Si(001). PMID:26722930

  17. First principles calculation of the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of Au-Pd atomic chains

    SciTech Connect

    Dave, Mudra R.; Sharma, A. C.

    2015-06-24

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of free standing Au-Pd bimetallic atomic chain is studied using ab-initio method. It is found that electronic and magnetic properties of chains depend on position of atoms and number of atoms. Spin polarization factor for different atomic configuration of atomic chain is calculated predicting a half metallic behavior. It suggests a total spin polarised transport in these chains.

  18. The structures and properties of the new two-dimensional inorganic–organic hybrid materials based on the molybdate chains

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Na; Mu, Bao; Cao, Xinyu; Huang, Rudan

    2014-09-15

    A series of inorganic organic hybrid materials based on polyoxometalates(POMs), namely, [M{sup II}(HL){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][Mo{sup VI}{sub 6}O{sub 20}] [M=Co (1), Ni (2), Cu (3), Zn (4)], [Mn{sup IV}L{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][Mo{sup VI}{sub 6}O{sub 20}] (5), and (HL){sub 3}PMO{sub 12}O{sub 40} (6) [L=3-(4-pyridyl)pyrazole], have been synthesized. The compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The results from single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicate that 1–5 are isostructural. It is worth noting that the polyanions are bridged by Mo–O–Mo to form 1D inorganic chains, which are further connected via M ions to form 2D nets. In compound 6, the ligands are used as the positive ions to balance the charge of the compound. Moreover, the magnetic properties of compound 5 have also been investigated in detail. - Graphical abstract: In complex 1, The Co ion is six coordinated by four oxygen atoms from two Mo{sub 6}O{sub 20} and two water molecules, and two N atoms from two different ligand. It is noticeable that there is an one-dimensional chain molybdate, which is combined by O–Mo–O, then the chain parallel with each other, the Mo{sub 6} anion acts as a bidentate ligand providing O7 atoms to bridge CoII ions to form a 2D inorganic layer. Finally every nets become 3D structure by hydrogen bond. - Highlights: • Novel inorganic–organic hybrid materials have been prepared. • Compounds 1–5 contain the 1D molybdate chains composed of (MoO{sub 6}) octahedra. • The 1D chains parallel with each other to form a 2D inorganic layer.

  19. Thermal Solitons in 1d and 2d Anharmonic Lattices - Solectrons and the Organization of Non-Linear Fluctuations in Long-Living Dynamical Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, M. G.; Ebeling, W.; Chetverikov, A. P.

    2013-01-01

    We study the thermal excitation of intrinsic localized modes in the form of solitons in 1d and 2d anharmonic lattices at moderately high temperatures. Such finite-amplitude fluctuations form long-living dynamical structures with life-time in the pico-second range thus surviving a relatively long time in comparison to other thermal fluctuations. Further we discuss the influence of such long-living fluctuations on the dynamics of added excess free electrons. The atomic lattice units are treated as quasi-classical objects interacting by Morse forces and stochastically moving according to Langevin equations. In 2d the atoms are initially organized in a triangular lattice. The electron distributions are in a first estimate represented by equilibrium adiabatic distributions in the actual polarization fields. Computer simulations show that in 2d systems such excitations are moving with supersonic velocities along lattice rows oriented with the cristallographic axes. By following the electron distributions we have also been able to study the excitations of solectron type (electron-soliton dynamic bound states) and estimate their life times.

  20. Forest-atmosphere BVOC exchange in diverse and structurally complex canopies: 1-D modeling of a mid-successional forest in northern Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Alexander M.; Cheng, Susan J.; Ashworth, Kirsti; Guenther, Alex B.; Hardiman, Brady S.; Bohrer, Gil; Steiner, Allison L.

    2015-11-01

    Foliar emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC)-important precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols-vary widely by vegetation type. Modeling studies to date typically represent the canopy as a single dominant tree type or a blend of tree types, yet many forests are diverse with trees of varying height. To assess the sensitivity of biogenic emissions to tree height variation, we compare two 1-D canopy model simulations in which BVOC emission potentials are homogeneous or heterogeneous with canopy depth. The heterogeneous canopy emulates the mid-successional forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). In this case, high-isoprene-emitting foliage (e.g., aspen and oak) is constrained to the upper canopy, where higher sunlight availability increases the light-dependent isoprene emission, leading to 34% more isoprene and its oxidation products as compared to the homogeneous simulation. Isoprene declines from aspen mortality are 10% larger when heterogeneity is considered. Overall, our results highlight the importance of adequately representing complexities of forest canopy structure when simulating light-dependent BVOC emissions and chemistry.

  1. Forest-atmosphere BVOC exchange in diverse and structurally complex canopies: 1-D modeling of a mid-successional forest in northern Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Alexander M.; Cheng, Susan J.; Ashworth, Kirsti; Guenther, Alex B.; Hardiman, Brady; Bohrer, Gil; Steiner, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    Foliar emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC)dimportant precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosolsdvary widely by vegetation type. Modeling studies to date typi-cally represent the canopy as a single dominant tree type or a blend of tree types, yet many forests are diverse with trees of varying height. To assess the sensitivity of biogenic emissions to tree height vari-ation, we compare two 1-D canopy model simulations in which BVOC emission potentials are homo-geneous or heterogeneous with canopy depth. The heterogeneous canopy emulates the mid-successional forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS). In this case, high-isoprene-emitting fo-liage (e.g., aspen and oak) is constrained to the upper canopy, where higher sunlight availability increases the light-dependent isoprene emission, leading to 34% more isoprene and its oxidation products as compared to the homogeneous simulation. Isoprene declines from aspen mortality are 10% larger when heterogeneity is considered. Overall, our results highlight the importance of adequately representing complexities of forest canopy structure when simulating light-dependent BVOC emissions and chemistry.

  2. The role of cellular structure on increasing the detonability limits of three-step chain-branching detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Mark; Kiyanda, Charles B; Quirk, James J; Sharpe, Gary J

    2011-01-27

    In [1], the dynamics of a pulsating three-step chain-branching detonation were studied. The reaction model consists of, sequentially, chain-initiation, chain-branching and chain-termination steps. The chain-initiation and chain-branching steps are taken to be thermally neutral, with chemical energy release occuring in the chain-termination stage. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether cellular detonation structure can increase the value of the chain-branching cross-over temperature T{sub b} at which fully coupled detonation solutions are observed over those in 1 D. The basic concept is straightforward and has been discussed in [1] and [3]; if T{sub s} drops below T{sub b} at the lead shock, the passage of a transverse shock can increase both the lead shock temperature and the temperature behind the transverse wave back above T{sub b}, thus sustaining an unstable cellular detonation for values of T{sub b} for which a one-dimensional pulsating detonation will fail. Experiments potentially supporting this hypothesis with irregular detonations have been shown in [3] in a shock tube with acoustically absorbing walls. Removal of the transverse waves results in detonation failure, giving way to a decoupled shock-flame complex. A number of questions remain to be addressed regarding the possibility of such a mechanism, and, if so, about the precise mechanisms driving the cellular structure for large T{sub b}. For instance, one might ask what sets the cell size in a chain-branching detonation, particularly could the characteristic cell size be set by the chain-branching cross-over temperature T{sub b}: after a transverse wave shock collision, the strength of the transverse wave weakens as it propagates along the front. If the spacing between shock collisions is too large (cell size), then the transverse shocks may weaken to the extent that the lead shock temperature or that behind the transverse waves is not raised above T{sub b}, losing chemical energy to

  3. Synthesis, structure, and electrochemistry and magnetic properties of a novel 1D homochiral MnIII(5-Brsalen) coordination polymer with left-handed helical character

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Dapeng; Yu, Naisen; Zhao, Haiyan; Liu, Dedi; Liu, Jia; Li, Zhenghua; Liu, Dongping

    2016-01-01

    A novel homochiral manganese (III) Mn(5-Brsalen) coordination polymer with left-handed helical character by spontaneous resolution on crystallization by using Mn(5-Brsalen) and 4,4-bipyridine, [MnIII(5-Brsalen)(4,4-bipy)]·ClO4·CH3OH (1) (4,4-bipy = 4,4-bipyridine) has been synthesized and structurally characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction, elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy. In compound 1, each manganese(III) anion is six-coordinate octahedral being bonded to four atoms of 5-Brsalen ligand in an equatorial plane and two nitrogen atoms from a 4,4-bipyridine ligand in axial positions. The structure of compound 1 can be described a supramolecular 2D-like structure which was formed by the intermolecular π-stacking interactions between the neighboring chains of the aromatic rings of 4,4-bipyridine and 5-Brsalen molecules. UV-vis absorption spectrum, electrochemistry and magnetic properties of the compound 1 have also been studied.

  4. Singularities of the dynamical structure factors of the spin-1/2 XXX chain at finite magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmelo, J. M. P.; Sacramento, P. D.; Machado, J. D. P.; Campbell, D. K.

    2015-10-01

    We study the longitudinal and transverse spin dynamical structure factors of the spin-1/2 XXX chain at finite magnetic field h, focusing in particular on the singularities at excitation energies in the vicinity of the lower thresholds. While the static properties of the model can be studied within a Fermi-liquid like description in terms of pseudoparticles, our derivation of the dynamical properties relies on the introduction of a form of the ‘pseudofermion dynamical theory’ (PDT) of the 1D Hubbard model suitably modified for the spin-only XXX chain and other models with two pseudoparticle Fermi points. Specifically, we derive the exact momentum and spin-density dependences of the exponents {{\\zeta}τ}(k) controlling the singularities for both the longitudinal ≤ft(τ =l\\right) and transverse ≤ft(τ =t\\right) dynamical structure factors for the whole momentum range k\\in ]0,π[ , in the thermodynamic limit. This requires the numerical solution of the integral equations that define the phase shifts in these exponents expressions. We discuss the relation to neutron scattering and suggest new experiments on spin-chain compounds using a carefully oriented crystal to test our predictions.

  5. Singularities of the dynamical structure factors of the spin-1/2 XXX chain at finite magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Carmelo, J M P; Sacramento, P D; Machado, J D P; Campbell, D K

    2015-10-14

    We study the longitudinal and transverse spin dynamical structure factors of the spin-1/2 XXX chain at finite magnetic field h, focusing in particular on the singularities at excitation energies in the vicinity of the lower thresholds. While the static properties of the model can be studied within a Fermi-liquid like description in terms of pseudoparticles, our derivation of the dynamical properties relies on the introduction of a form of the 'pseudofermion dynamical theory' (PDT) of the 1D Hubbard model suitably modified for the spin-only XXX chain and other models with two pseudoparticle Fermi points. Specifically, we derive the exact momentum and spin-density dependences of the exponents ζ(τ)(k) controlling the singularities for both the longitudinal (τ = l) and transverse (τ = t) dynamical structure factors for the whole momentum range k ∈ ]0,π[, in the thermodynamic limit. This requires the numerical solution of the integral equations that define the phase shifts in these exponents expressions. We discuss the relation to neutron scattering and suggest new experiments on spin-chain compounds using a carefully oriented crystal to test our predictions. PMID:26403307

  6. A Initio Mr-Rci Calculations of ((n - 1)D + Ns)(n) Atomic Bound States: Application to Hyperfine Structure and Electron Affinity Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Debasis

    Systematic inclusion of many-body effects in open d and f subshell atoms has long been known as a formidable challenge in atomic structure theory. Due to the presence of competing relativistic effects in such systems, an appropriate theoretical approach needs to incorporate electron correlation within the framework of the Special Theory of Relativity. To this aim, the Relativistic Configuration Interaction methodology as developed by Beck and others has been extended and applied to multi-reference situations in ((n - 1)d + ns) ^{rm N} type valence configurations. Specific focus has been on the hyperfine structure and electron affinity studies of the transition metal ions and the rare earths respectively. Energies and magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine structure constants of all the fifteen Zr II (4d + 5s)^3 J = 0.5, 1.5 levels and the twenty one Nb II (4d + 5s)^4 J = 2 levels have been determined with unprecedented accuracies. The average errors in energy are 0.087 eV and 0.050 eV for Zr II J = 3/2 & 1/2 respectively while that for the ten bottom levels of Nb II J = 2 is 0.055 eV. For the levels known experimentally, the corresponding errors in magnetic dipole hyperfine structure constants are 9.2%, 31.8% and 3.8%. Quite a few of the many-body hyperfine constant values exhibit striking improvements over the Multi-Configurational Dirac Fock values. A new value of nuclear quadrupole moment has also been predicted for Zr II. In all cases certain previous level assignments have been corrected and five previously unknown levels have been identified in Nb II. The rigorous systematics of the many-body effects important for the energy level and hyperfine structure of these systems has been presented including core-valence and core-core effects. Contrary to the conventional wisdom and theoretical predictions of the last decade, the attachment of an f electron has been discarded as the most likely mechanism for the formation of Lanthanide and Actinide negative

  7. Heterobridged dinuclear, tetranuclear, dinuclear-based 1-d, and heptanuclear-based 1-D complexes of copper(II) derived from a dinucleating ligand: syntheses, structures, magnetochemistry, spectroscopy, and catecholase activity.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Samit; Sarkar, Sohini; Sasmal, Sujit; Sañudo, E Carolina; Mohanta, Sasankasekhar

    2011-08-15

    The work in this paper presents syntheses, characterization, crystal structures, variable-temperature/field magnetic properties, catecholase activity, and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopic (ESI-MS positive) study of five copper(II) complexes of composition [Cu(II)(2)L(μ(1,1)-NO(3))(H(2)O)(NO(3))](NO(3)) (1), [{Cu(II)(2)L(μ-OH)(H(2)O)}(μ-ClO(4))](n)(ClO(4))(n) (2), [{Cu(II)(2)L(NCS)(2)}(μ(1,3)-NCS)](n) (3), [{Cu(II)(2)L(μ(1,1)-N(3))(ClO(4))}(2)(μ(1,3)-N(3))(2)] (4), and [{Cu(II)(2)L(μ-OH)}{Cu(II)(2)L(μ(1,1)-N(3))}{Cu(II)(μ(1,1)-N(3))(4)(dmf)}{Cu(II)(2)(μ(1,1)-N(3))(2)(N(3))(4)}](n)·ndmf (5), derived from a new compartmental ligand 2,6-bis[N-(2-pyridylethyl)formidoyl]-4-ethylphenol, which is the 1:2 condensation product of 4-ethyl-2,6-diformylphenol and 2-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine. The title compounds are either of the following nuclearities/topologies: dinuclear (1), dinuclear-based one-dimensional (2 and 3), tetranuclear (4), and heptanuclear-based one-dimensional (5). The bridging moieties in 1-5 are as follows: μ-phenoxo-μ(1,1)-nitrate (1), μ-phenoxo-μ-hydroxo and μ-perchlorate (2), μ-phenoxo and μ(1,3)-thiocyanate (3), μ-phenoxo-μ(1,1)-azide and μ(1,3)-azide (4), μ-phenoxo-μ-hydroxo, μ-phenoxo-μ(1,1)-azide, and μ(1,1)-azide (5). All the five compounds exhibit overall antiferromagnetic interaction. The J values in 1-4 have been determined (-135 cm(-1) for 1, -298 cm(-1) for 2, -105 cm(-1) for 3, -119.5 cm(-1) for 4). The pairwise interactions in 5 have been evaluated qualitatively to result in S(T) = 3/2 spin ground state, which has been verified by magnetization experiment. Utilizing 3,5-di-tert-butyl catechol (3,5-DTBCH(2)) as the substrate, catecholase activity of all the five complexes have been checked. While 1 and 3 are inactive, complexes 2, 4, and 5 show catecholase activity with turn over numbers 39 h(-1) (for 2), 40 h(-1) (for 4), and 48 h(-1) (for 5) in dmf and 167 h(-1) (for 2) and 215 h(-1) (for 4) in acetonitrile

  8. Structural Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Quasi-1D Quantum Magnets [Ni(HF2)(pyz)2]X (pyz = pyrazine; X = PF6- SbF6-) Exhibiting Ni-FHF-Ni and Ni-pyz-Ni Spin Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    J Manson; S Lapidus; P Stephens; P Peterson; K Carreiro; H Southerland; T Lancaster; S Blundell; A Steele; et al.

    2011-12-31

    [Ni(HF{sub 2})(pyz){sub 2}]X {l_brace}pyz = pyrazine; X = PF{sub 6}{sup -} (1), SbF{sub 6}{sup -} (2){r_brace} were structurally characterized by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and found to possess axially compressed NiN{sub 4}F{sub 2} octahedra. At 298 K, 1 is monoclinic (C2/c) with unit cell parameters, a = 9.9481(3), b = 9.9421(3), c = 12.5953(4) {angstrom}, and {beta} = 81.610(3){sup o} while 2 is tetragonal (P4/nmm) with a = b = 9.9359(3) and c = 6.4471(2) {angstrom} and is isomorphic with the Cu-analogue. Infinite one-dimensional (1D) Ni-FHF-Ni chains propagate along the c-axis which are linked via {mu}-pyz bridges in the ab-plane to afford three-dimensional polymeric frameworks with PF{sub 6}{sup -} and SbF{sub 6}{sup -} counterions occupying the interior sites. A major difference between 1 and 2 is that the Ni-F-H bonds are bent (157{sup o}) in 1 but are linear in 2. Ligand field calculations (LFT) based on an angular overlap model (AOM), with comparison to the electronic absorption spectra, indicate greater {pi}-donation of the HF{sub 2}{sup -} ligand in 1 owing to the bent Ni-F-H bonds. Magnetic susceptibility data for 1 and 2 exhibit broad maxima at 7.4 and 15 K, respectively, and {lambda}-like peaks in dxT/dT at 6.2 and 12.2 K that are ascribed to transitions to long-range antiferromagnetic order (TN). Muon-spin relaxation and specific heat studies confirm these TN's. A comparative analysis of x vs T to various 1D Heisenberg/Ising models suggests moderate antiferromagnetic interactions, with the primary interaction strength determined to be 3.05/3.42 K (1) and 5.65/6.37 K (2). However, high critical fields of 19 and 37.4 T obtained from low temperature pulsed-field magnetization data indicate that a single exchange constant (J1D) alone is insufficient to explain the data and that residual terms in the spin Hamiltonian, which could include interchain magnetic couplings (J), as mediated by Ni-pyz-Ni, and single-ion anisotropy (D), must be considered

  9. Syntheses and crystal structures of four 1-D or 2-D coordination polymers based on 1-((benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl)-1 H-1,3-imidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Li, Weiqiang; Jin, Guanghua; Zhao, Dong; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Meng, Xiangru; Hou, Hongwei

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, four coordination polymers, {[Ag(bmi)]·NO 3} n ( 1), [Co(N 3) 2(bmi) 2] n ( 2), [Cu(SCN) 2(bmi) 2] n ( 3), and {[Cu(bmi) 2(CH 3OH)(H 2O)]·(ClO 4) 2} n ( 4) have been synthesized through the reactions of an unsymmetrical ligand 1-((benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl)-1 H-1,3-imidazole (bmi) with Ag(I), Co(II) and Cu(II) salts at room temperature. X-ray diffraction analyses showed that compound 1 exhibits double-stranded helical chain. Compounds 2- 4 display 2-D rhombus grid network structure. The rhombus grid consists of 32-membered rings, and gives the dimensions of ca. 8.9 × 8.9 Å for compound 2, ca. 10.1 × 10.1 Å for compound 3, and ca. 9.7 × 9.5 Å for compound 4. In addition, the 2-D layers of compound 3 are stacked into 3-D structure via π- π interactions, while the 3-D architecture of compound 4 is realized through complicated hydrogen bonds and π- π interactions. The thermal analyses of compounds 1 and 3 indicate that they have high thermal stability and are stable up to 259 °C.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure determination of Mn (II) ion based 1D polymer constructed from 2, 2‧ bipyridyl and azide group, its thermal stability, magnetic properties and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudsainiyan, R. K.; Jassal, Amanpreet Kaur; Chawla, S. K.

    2015-05-01

    The 1-D polymeric complex (I) is having formula [Mn(2,2‧-BP).(N3)2]n, which has been crystallized in distilled water and characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR spectrum, powder X-ray diffraction analyses and single-crystal diffraction analysis. This polymer possesses 1D helical chains or coils where Mn-azide-Mn forms the base of the coil which is alternatively garlanded by rigid bi-pyridine rings, where coordinates are in anti-fashion. The Mn (II) ions in the repeating units are linked by two end-on azide groups which extend through the two end-to-end azide ligands to the next unit forming a 1-D polymeric chain. The present study suggests that the use of this rigid and neutral building block leads to give better arrangement of the polymeric motif with [010] chains in 2-c uninodal net. During investigation of strong or weak intermolecular interactions, X-ray diffraction analysis and Hirshfeld surface analysis give rise to comparable results but in Hirshfeld surface analysis, two-third times more results of close contacts are obtained. The fingerprint plots demonstrate that these weak non-bonding interactions are important for stabilizing the crystal packing. Magnetic properties of the complex (I) were analyzed on the basis of an alternating ferro- and antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain of Mn (II) ions. The J-exchange parameters found are J1=64.3 K (45.3 cm-1), and J2=-75.7 K (-53.3 cm-1). Magnetic properties are discussed in comparison with those of other similar molecular magnets of [Mn(L-L)(N3)2]n type.

  11. LOCA hydroloads calculations with multidimensional nonlinear fluid/structure interaction. Volume 1: STEALTH 1D single-phase fluid studies. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Santee, G.E. Jr.; Mortensen, G.A.; Caraher, D.L.

    1980-04-01

    This report, which is the first in a series of reports for RP-1065, describes the first step in the stepwise approach for developing the methodology to assess the hydroloads on a large PWR during the subcooled portions of a hypothetical LOCA. The first step in the methodology considers enhancements and special modifications to the 1D STEALTH computer code in order that acoustic phenomena in piping and vessel networks may be simulated. The resulting code is termed 1D STEALTH-HYDRO. The 1D STEALTH-HYDRO enhancements consist of three control volume models to simulate area changes, orifices, and tees in piping networks. The theory of the control volume models is described.

  12. 1D cadmium(II) thiocyanate systems: Synthesis and characterization of three new polymeric 1D cadmium(II) thiocyanato complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, Mohamed R.; Abu-Youssef, Morsy A. M.; Goher, Mohamed A. S.; Sabra, Berry A.; Hafez, Afaf K.; Badr, Ahmed M.-A.; Mautner, Franz A.

    2012-01-01

    Three new cadmium(II) thiocyanato complexes, [{Cd(NCS) 2(val)}·H 2O] n1, [Cd(NCS) 2(3-ampy) 2] n2, and [Cd(NCS) 2(pyrazolinone)] n3, (val = D, L-valine, 3-ampy = 3-aminopyridine and pyrazolinone = 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The X-ray structure analysis revealed di-μ-N,S thiocyanato bridges connecting cadmium centers in a 1D chain with the co-ligand blocking the remaining coordination sites. The structure of complex 1 features six coordinate Cd(II) centers, each cadmium is surrounded by two N atoms and two S atoms from two bridging N,S-thiocyanato groups giving rise to a zigzag 1D chain and two oxygen atoms of the alternating chelating μ-O,O'-valine that coordinates as zwitterionic terminal amino acid. The structure of complex 2 consists of octahedral Cd(II) centers, connected by di-μ-N,S-bridging NCS groups, thus forming a 1D chain system along the [1 0 1] direction. The amino-groups are forming one intra-chain N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond and one interchain N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond to N-atoms of adjacent chains. The structure of 3 reveals di-μ-N,S-NCS doubly bridged unusual penta-coordinated cadmium centers with the alternating monodentate pyrazolinone ligand blocking the fifth coordination site. IR spectra and thermal properties of complexes are reported.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure determination of Mn (II) ion based 1D polymer constructed from 2, 2′ bipyridyl and azide group, its thermal stability, magnetic properties and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mudsainiyan, R.K. Jassal, Amanpreet Kaur; Chawla, S.K.

    2015-05-15

    The 1-D polymeric complex (I) is having formula [Mn(2,2′-BP).(N{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub n}, which has been crystallized in distilled water and characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR spectrum, powder X-ray diffraction analyses and single-crystal diffraction analysis. This polymer possesses 1D helical chains or coils where Mn–azide–Mn forms the base of the coil which is alternatively garlanded by rigid bi-pyridine rings, where coordinates are in anti-fashion. The Mn (II) ions in the repeating units are linked by two end-on azide groups which extend through the two end-to-end azide ligands to the next unit forming a 1-D polymeric chain. The present study suggests that the use of this rigid and neutral building block leads to give better arrangement of the polymeric motif with [010] chains in 2-c uninodal net. During investigation of strong or weak intermolecular interactions, X-ray diffraction analysis and Hirshfeld surface analysis give rise to comparable results but in Hirshfeld surface analysis, two-third times more results of close contacts are obtained. The fingerprint plots demonstrate that these weak non-bonding interactions are important for stabilizing the crystal packing. Magnetic properties of the complex (I) were analyzed on the basis of an alternating ferro- and antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain of Mn (II) ions. The J-exchange parameters found are J{sub 1}=64.3 K (45.3 cm{sup −1}), and J{sub 2}=−75.7 K (−53.3 cm{sup −1}). Magnetic properties are discussed in comparison with those of other similar molecular magnets of [Mn(L–L)(N{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub n} type. - - Highlights: • Synthesized 1-D polymeric complex of Mn (II) ions with 2, 2′ bipyridyl and azide group. • X-ray data of complex (I) is in a good agreement with TGA and other spectroscopic techniques. • DFT calculations were done and compared with the parameter of experimental and theoretical data. • Intermolecular interactions calculated by Hirshfeld surface analysis

  14. Magnetic susceptibility and low-temperature structure of the linear chain cuprate Sr2CuO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ami, T.; Crawford, M. K.; Harlow, R. L.; Wang, Z. R.; Johnston, D. C.; Huang, Q.; Erwin, R. W.

    1995-03-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements for Sr2CuO3+/-δ were made from 2 to 800 K, and a strong dependence upon oxygen content (δ) was observed. Samples synthesized under oxygen, followed by various nitrogen treatments, exhibited markedly different Curie-Weiss-type terms, and we discuss possible origins for this behavior. High-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements for the sample with the smallest Curie-Weiss-type term clearly show the increase with temperature expected from the Bonner-Fisher model for a spin-1/2 one-dimensional (1D) Heisenberg antiferromagnet. This is a direct experimental observation of 1D magnetic behavior in this system. The in-chain superexchange coupling constant, as determined by a fit to the Bonner-Fisher model, is ||J||/kB~=1300+100-200 K, comparable to the values observed in the two-dimensional layered cuprates. Estimates of the interchain magnetic interaction indicate this material may be the best realization of a 1D spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet reported to date. Low-temperature neutron and synchrotron x-ray powder-diffraction studies of Sr2CuO3 show that the low-temperature structure of this system has Immm space-group symmetry, the same structure reported at room temperature, indicating that this material, in contrast to La2CuO4, does not undergo any structural transformations upon cooling. The absence of crystallographic distortions precludes a magnetic anisotropy contribution from a Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction, implying that Sr2CuO3 should be a nearly ideal spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain compound, in agreement with the magnetic susceptibility results. A search for the presence of long-range three-dimensional antiferromagnetic order by magnetic neutron powder diffraction at temperatures as low as 1.5 K was not successful, although we estimate an upper limit for the size of the ordered moment which could have been detected to be ~0.1μB per Cu2+ ion.

  15. Mycobacterial phosphatidylinositol mannoside is a natural antigen for CD1d-restricted T cells

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Karsten; Scotet, Emmanuel; Niemeyer, Marcus; Koebernick, Heidrun; Zerrahn, Jens; Maillet, Sophie; Hurwitz, Robert; Kursar, Mischo; Bonneville, Marc; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Schaible, Ulrich E.

    2004-01-01

    A group of T cells recognizes glycolipids presented by molecules of the CD1 family. The CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells (NKT cells) are primarily considered to be self-reactive. By employing CD1d-binding and T cell assays, the following structural parameters for presentation by CD1d were defined for a number of mycobacterial and mammalian lipids: two acyl chains facilitated binding, and a polar head group was essential for T cell recognition. Of the mycobacterial lipids tested, only a phosphatidylinositol mannoside (PIM) fulfilled the requirements for CD1d binding and NKT cell stimulation. This PIM activated human and murine NKT cells via CD1d, thereby triggering antigen-specific IFN-γ production and cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and PIM-loaded CD1d tetramers identified a subpopulation of murine and human NKT cells. This phospholipid, therefore, represents a mycobacterial antigen recognized by T cells in the context of CD1d. PMID:15243159

  16. Crystal structure of Pseudomonas fluorescens mannitol 2-dehydrogenase: evidence for a very divergent long-chain dehydrogenase family.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Klimacek, Mario; Nidetzky, Bernd; Wilson, David K

    2003-02-01

    Mannitol 2-dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens (pfMDH) is a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase that catalyzes the reversible NAD(P)-dependent oxidation of D-mannitol to D-fructose, D-arabinitol to D-xylulose, and D-sorbitol to L-sorbose. It is a member of the mostly prokaryotic family of long-chain mannitol dehydrogenases that so far includes 66 members. Unlike other alcohol and polyol dehydrogenases that utilize metal cofactors or a conserved active-site tyrosine for catalysis, an invariant lysine is the general base. The crystal structure of pfMDH in a binary complex with NAD(H) and a ternary complex with NAD(H) and D-mannitol have been determined to 1.7 and 1.8 A resolution respectively. Comparison of secondary structure assignment to sequence alignments suggest the shortest members of this family, mannitol-1-phosphate 5-dehydrogenases, retain core elements but lack secondary structural components found on the surface of pfMDH. The elements predicted to be absent are distributed throughout the primary sequence, implying that a simple truncation or fusion did not occur. The closest structural neighbors are 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, N-(1-D-carboxyethyl)-L-norvaline dehydrogenase, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Although sequence identity is only a barely recognizable 7-10%, conservation of secondary structural elements as well as homologous residues that are contributed to the active site indicates they may be related by divergent evolution. PMID:12604241

  17. Magnetic properties of cubic FeCo nanoparticles with anisotropic long chain structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinming; Wu, Kai; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Cubic FeCo alloy nanoparticles (NPs) with body-centered cubic (bcc) phase were prepared using sputter based gas-condensation method. When the NPs formed long chain assemblies, the magnetic properties were quite different from that of well-dispersed NPs. Most of the well-dispersed NPs were superparamagnetic at room temperature while the long chain NP assemblies were ferromagnetic with coercivities around 765 Oe, which displayed quite different magnetic properties. The ferromagnetism of long chain NPs was from the exchange coupling between NPs, which eventually led to the transition from superparamagnetism (SPM) to superferromagetism (SFM). Zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) curves were obtained and long chain NP assemblies displayed ferromagnetism at the temperature ranging from 10 K to 400 K. Time-dependent remanent magnetic moment curves also indicated that the long chain structure had better thermal stability due to the strong exchange coupling.

  18. Structural and optical properties of self-assembled chains of plasmonic nanocubes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Klinkova, Anna; Gang, Oleg; Therien-Aubin, Heloise; Ahmed, Aftab; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Choueiri, Rachelle M.; Gagnon, Brandon; Muntyanu, Anastasiya; Walker, Gilbert C.; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2014-10-10

    Solution-based linear self-assembly of metal nanoparticles offers a powerful strategy for creating plasmonic polymers, which, so far, have been formed from spherical nanoparticles and nanorods. Here, we report linear solution-based self-assembly of metal nanocubes (NCs), examine the structural characteristics of the NC chains and demonstrate their advanced optical characteristics. Predominant face-to-face assembly of large NCs coated with short polymer ligands led to a larger volume of hot spots in the chains, a nearly uniform E-field enhancement in the gaps between co-linear NCs and a new coupling mode for NC chains, in comparison with chains of nanospheres with similar dimensions, compositionmore » and surface chemistry. The NC chains exhibited a stronger surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal, in comparison with linear assemblies of nanospheres. The experimental results were in agreement with finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations.« less

  19. Structural and optical properties of self-assembled chains of plasmonic nanocubes

    SciTech Connect

    Klinkova, Anna; Gang, Oleg; Therien-Aubin, Heloise; Ahmed, Aftab; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Choueiri, Rachelle M.; Gagnon, Brandon; Muntyanu, Anastasiya; Walker, Gilbert C.; Kumacheva, Eugenia

    2014-10-10

    Solution-based linear self-assembly of metal nanoparticles offers a powerful strategy for creating plasmonic polymers, which, so far, have been formed from spherical nanoparticles and nanorods. Here, we report linear solution-based self-assembly of metal nanocubes (NCs), examine the structural characteristics of the NC chains and demonstrate their advanced optical characteristics. Predominant face-to-face assembly of large NCs coated with short polymer ligands led to a larger volume of hot spots in the chains, a nearly uniform E-field enhancement in the gaps between co-linear NCs and a new coupling mode for NC chains, in comparison with chains of nanospheres with similar dimensions, composition and surface chemistry. The NC chains exhibited a stronger surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal, in comparison with linear assemblies of nanospheres. The experimental results were in agreement with finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations.

  20. Self-Organized Growth, Structure, and Magnetism of Monatomic Transition-Metal Oxide Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferstl, Pascal; Hammer, Lutz; Sobel, Christopher; Gubo, Matthias; Heinz, Klaus; Schneider, M. Alexander; Mittendorfer, Florian; Redinger, Josef

    2016-07-01

    We report on the self-organized growth of monatomic transition-metal oxide chains of (3 ×1 ) periodicity and unusual M O2 stoichiometry (M =Ni , Co, Fe, Mn) on Ir(100). We analyze their structural and magnetic properties by means of quantitative LEED, STM, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. LEED analyses reveal a fascinating common atomic structure in which the transition-metal atoms sit above a missing-row structure of the surface and are coupled to the substrate only via oxygen atoms. This structure is confirmed by DFT calculations with structural parameters deviating by less than 1.7 pm. The DFT calculations predict that the NiO2 chains are nonmagnetic, CoO2 chains are ferromagnetic, while FeO2 and MnO2 are antiferromagnetic. All structures show only weak magnetic interchain coupling. Further, we demonstrate the growth of oxide chains of binary alloys of Co and Ni or Fe on Ir(100), which allows us to produce well-controlled ensembles of ferromagnetic chains of different lengths separated by nonmagnetic or antiferromagnetic segments.

  1. Self-Organized Growth, Structure, and Magnetism of Monatomic Transition-Metal Oxide Chains.

    PubMed

    Ferstl, Pascal; Hammer, Lutz; Sobel, Christopher; Gubo, Matthias; Heinz, Klaus; Schneider, M Alexander; Mittendorfer, Florian; Redinger, Josef

    2016-07-22

    We report on the self-organized growth of monatomic transition-metal oxide chains of (3×1) periodicity and unusual MO_{2} stoichiometry (M=Ni, Co, Fe, Mn) on Ir(100). We analyze their structural and magnetic properties by means of quantitative LEED, STM, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. LEED analyses reveal a fascinating common atomic structure in which the transition-metal atoms sit above a missing-row structure of the surface and are coupled to the substrate only via oxygen atoms. This structure is confirmed by DFT calculations with structural parameters deviating by less than 1.7 pm. The DFT calculations predict that the NiO_{2} chains are nonmagnetic, CoO_{2} chains are ferromagnetic, while FeO_{2} and MnO_{2} are antiferromagnetic. All structures show only weak magnetic interchain coupling. Further, we demonstrate the growth of oxide chains of binary alloys of Co and Ni or Fe on Ir(100), which allows us to produce well-controlled ensembles of ferromagnetic chains of different lengths separated by nonmagnetic or antiferromagnetic segments. PMID:27494483

  2. Analysis of the rotational structure in the high-resolution infrared spectra of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1-d1 and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1,4-d2

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Norman C.; Chen, Yihui; Lu, Yuhua; Neese, Christopher F.; Nemchick, Deacon J.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-06-01

    Samples of cis,cis- and trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1- d1 and of trans,trans-1,4-difluorobutadiene-1,4-d2 have been synthesized, and high-resolution (≤0.0018 cm-1) infrared spectra of these substances have been recorded in the gas phase. Analysis of the rotational structure, mostly in C-type bands, has yielded ground state rotational constants. For the two 1-d1 species more than one band has been analyzed. For the 1,4-d2 species only one band was available for analysis. However, good agreement between the experimental centrifugal distortion constants and those predicted with a B3LYP/cc-pVTZ model give strong support to the analysis of the very dense spectrum. The ground state rotational constants are a contribution to finding semiexperimental equilibrium structures of the two nonpolar isomers of 1,4- difluorobutadiene.

  3. Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}: Synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and thermal behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Fomina, Irina; Dobrokhotova, Zhanna; Aleksandrov, Grygory; Emelina, Anna; Bykov, Mikhail; Bogomyakov, Artem; Puntus, Lada; Novotortsev, Vladimir; Eremenko, Igor

    2012-01-15

    The new 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} (1), where Piv=OOCBu{sup t-}, was synthesized in high yield (>95%) by the reaction of thulium acetate with pivalic acid in air at 100 Degree-Sign S. According to the X-ray diffraction data, the metal atoms in compound 1 are in an octahedral ligand environment unusual for lanthanides. The magnetic and luminescence properties of polymer 1, it's the solid-phase thermal decomposition in air and under argon, and the thermal behavior in the temperature range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S were investigated. The vaporization process of complex 1 was studied by the Knudsen effusion method combined with mass-spectrometric analysis of the gas-phase composition in the temperature range of 570-680 K. - Graphical Abstract: Novel 1D coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} was synthesized and studied by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic, luminescence properties, the thermal behavior and the volatility for the compound {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n} were investigated. Black-Small-Square Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized the coordination polymer {l_brace}Tm(Piv){sub 3{r_brace}n}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tm atoms in polymer have the coordination number 6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer exhibits blue-color emission at room temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer shows high thermal stability and volatility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polymer has no phase transitions in the range of -50 Horizontal-Ellipsis +50 Degree-Sign S.

  4. Self-similar spectral structures and edge-locking hierarchy in open-boundary spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, Masudul

    2010-07-15

    For an anisotropic Heisenberg (XXZ) spin chain, we show that an open boundary induces a series of approximately self-similar features at different energy scales, high up in the eigenvalue spectrum. We present a nonequilibrium phenomenon related to this fractal structure, involving states in which a connected block near the edge is polarized oppositely to the rest of the chain. We show that such oppositely polarized blocks can be 'locked' to the edge of the spin chain and that there is a hierarchy of edge-locking effects at various orders of the anisotropy. The phenomenon enables dramatic control of quantum-state transmission and magnetization control.

  5. Static and Dynamic Chain Structures in the Mean-Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, T.; Itagaki, N.; Loebl, N.; Maruhn, J. A.; Oberacker, V. E.; Ohkubo, S.; Schuetrumpf, B.; Umar, A. S.

    2011-10-01

    We give a brief overview of recent work examining the presence of α-clusters in light nuclei within the Skyrme-force Hartree-Fock model. Of special signif cance are investigations into α-chain structures in carbon isotopes and 16O. Their stability and possible role in fusion reactions are examined in static and time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations. We f nd a new type of shape transition in collisions and a centrifugal stabilization of the 4α chain state in a limited range of angular momenta. No stabilization is found for the 3α chain.

  6. Formation of chain structures in systems of charged grains interacting via isotropic pair potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Vaulina, O. S.; Lisina, I. I.; Koss, K. G.

    2013-05-15

    Conditions for the formation of chain structures of charged grains confined in the gravitational field by external electric fields are studied analytically and numerically. The relationships between the parameters of the pair interaction potential, the number of grains, and the electric field gradient in the trap are found. A criterion for the violation of stable equilibrium in a quasi-one-dimensional chain of grains and the formation of a new configuration in the system is proposed.

  7. Interfacial structure and dynamics of fatty alcohols: Effects of chain branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Rachel Elana

    The interfacial and bulk dynamic properties of fatty alcohol materials are of great interest as subjects of research and for a range of practical applications. One example is the use of surfactants to stabilize systems such as emulsions and foams. Interfacial viscoelasticity impacts the transport properties of the system. This thesis describes an investigation into interfacial phenomena: straight- and branched-chain hexadecanol and eicosanol mixtures. In this study, the rheology of Langmuir films of hexadecanol and eicosanol straight and branched mixtures was examined. Surface pressure vs. area isotherms, interfacial rheology, Brewster angle microscopy, and X-ray diffraction and reflectivity were all used to elucidate the behavior and structure of the fatty alcohol systems as a function of branched concentration. It was found that for eicosanol below a surface pressure of 25 mN/m, the branched chains are in the monolayer, yet phase-separated from the straight chains. At higher surface pressures, the branched chains are expelled, and presumably form micelles in the subphase. In contrast, the hexadecanol branched chains are not in the monolayer at any surface pressure. These different behaviors are explained in terms of straight-chain flexibility. The effect of the monolayer structure on the surface shear viscosity will be discussed. These studies provide a deeper understanding of the structure and behavior of amphiphilic mixtures, and will ultimately aid in developing models for lipids, micelle formation, and other important biological functions.

  8. An Innovative Supply Chain Management Programme Structure: Broadening the SCM Skill Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okongwu, Uche

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a matrix structure for training Supply Chain Management (SCM) professionals. It is an innovative programme structure that combines two approaches: cross-border and inter-organisational. It enables the students to comprehend complex and specific business environments and to understand the diverse nature of SCM systems in both…

  9. Crystal structure of 7,8,9,10-tetra­hydro­benzo[b]naphtho­[2,1-d]furan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongyuan; Reetz, Manfred T.; Harms, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In the title compound, C16H14O, the cyclo­hexene ring has a half-chair conformation. The mean plane, calculated through all non-H atoms of the mol­ecule, except for the central CH2 atoms of the cyclo­hexene ring, which deviate by 0.340 (3) and −0.369 (3) Å from this mean plane, has an r.m.s. deviation of 0.012 Å. In the crystal, there are C—H⋯π contacts present, resulting in the formation of zigzag chains propagating along the [010] direction. PMID:26870597

  10. Characterization of polyubiquitin chain structure by middle-down mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ping; Peng, Junmin

    2008-05-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub) is a 76 amino acid polypeptide that modifies a wide range of proteins in the types of monomer or polymers, and functional consequence of ubiquitination is modulated by the length and topologies of polyUb chains. Whereas polyUb chains are usually analyzed by fully trypsin digestion and mass spectrometry (MS), we present here a middle-down strategy to characterize the structure of polyUb chains by high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS). Under optimized condition, native folded polyUb is partially trypsinized exclusively at the R74 residue, generating a large Ub fragment (1-74 residues termed UbR74) and its ubiquitinated form with a diglycine tag (UbR74-GG). The molar ratio between UbR74 and UbR74-GG reflects the length of homogeneous polyUb chains (i.e., 1:1 for the dimer, 1:2 for the trimer, 1:3 for the tetramer, and so on). Moreover, lysine residues in ubiquitin used for chain linkages are detectable by MS/MS and MS/MS/MS of large GG-tagged Ub fragments. The strategy was validated using a number of ubiquitin polymers, including K48-linked human di-Ub, K63-linked human tetra-Ub, as well as His-tagged polyUb chains purified from yeast under native condition. The potential of this strategy to analyze polyUb chains with mixed linkages (e.g., forked chains) is also discussed. Together, this middle-down MS strategy provides a novel complementary method for studying the length and linkages of complex polyUb chain structures. PMID:18351785

  11. Alteration of lipid membrane structure and dynamics by diacylglycerols with unsaturated chains.

    PubMed

    Alwarawrah, Mohammad; Hussain, Fazle; Huang, Juyang

    2016-02-01

    Diacylglycerols (DAGs) with unsaturated acyl chains play many important roles in biomembranes, such as a second messenger and activator for protein kinase C. In this study, three DAGs of distinctly different chain unsaturations (i.e. di16:0DAG (DPG), 16:0-18:1DAG (POG), and di18:1DAG (DOG)) are studied using atomistic MD simulation to compare their roles in the structure and dynamics of 16:0-18:1phosphatidylcholine (POPC) membranes. All three DAGs are able to produce the so-called 'condensing effect' in POPC membranes: decreasing area-per-lipid, and increasing acyl chain order and bilayer thickness. Our visual and quantitative analyses clearly show that DAG with unsaturated chains induce larger spacing between POPC headgroups, compared with DAG with saturated chains; this particular effect has long been hypothesized to be crucial for activating enzymes and receptors in cell membranes. DAGs with unsaturated chains are also located closer to the bilayer/aqueous interface than DPG and are more effective in slowing down lateral diffusion of molecules. We show that DAG molecules seek the "umbrella coverage" from neighboring phospholipid headgroups - similar to cholesterol. Unlike cholesterol, DAGs also hide their chains from water by laterally inserting their chains into the surrounding. Thus, acyl chains of DAG are more spread and disordered than those of PC due to the insertion. By calculating the potential of mean force (PMF) for POPC in POPC/DAG bilayers, we found that all three DAGs can significantly increase the free energy barrier for POPC to flip-flop, but only DAGs with unsaturated chains can additionally increase the free energy of POPC desorption. PMID:26607007

  12. Discrete hexamer water clusters and 2D water layer trapped in three luminescent Ag/tetramethylpyrazine/benzene-dicarboxylate hosts: 1D chain, 2D layer and 3D network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Hong-Xin; Zhang, Ting; Huang, Hua-Qi; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2016-03-01

    Three mix-ligand Ag(I) coordination compounds, namely, {[Ag10(tpyz) 5(L1) 5(H2 O)2].(H2 O)4}n (1, tpyz = 2,3,4,5-tetramethylpyrazine, H2 L1 = phthalic acid), [Ag4(tpyz) 2(L2) 2(H2 O)].(H2 O)5}n (2, H2 L2 = isophthalic acid) {[Ag2(tpyz) 2(L3) (H2 O)4].(H2 O)8}n (3, H2 L3 = terephthalic acid), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, PXRD and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. 1 exhibits a 2D layer which can be simplified as a (4,4) net. 2 is a 3D network which can be simplified as a (3,3)-connected 2-nodal net with a point symbol of {102.12}{102}. 3 consists of linear [Ag(tpyz) (H2 O)2]n chain. Of particular interest, discrete hexamer water clusters were observed in 1 and 2, while a 2D L10(6) water layer exists in 3. The results suggest that the benzene dicarboxylates play pivotal roles in the formation of the different host architectures as well as different water aggregations. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and emissive behaviors of these compounds were investigated.

  13. Crystal Structures of T Cell Receptor (Beta) Chains Related to Rheumatoid Arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Li,H.; van Vranken, S.; Zhao, Y.; Li, Z.; Guo, Y.; Eisele, L.; Li, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The crystal structures of the V{beta}17+ {beta} chains of two human T cell receptors (TCRs), originally derived from the synovial fluid (SF4) and tissue (C5-1) of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), have been determined in native (SF4) and mutant (C5-1{sub F104{yields}Y/C187{yields}S}) forms, respectively. These TCR {beta} chains form homo-dimers in solution and in crystals. Structural comparison reveals that the main-chain conformations in the CDR regions of the C5-1 and SF4 V{beta}17 closely resemble those of a V{beta}17 JM22 in a bound form; however, the CDR3 region shows different conformations among these three V{beta}17 structures. At the side-chain level, conformational differences were observed at the CDR2 regions between our two ligand-free forms and the bound JM22 form. Other significant differences were observed at the V{beta} regions 8-12, 40-44, and 82-88 between C5-1/SF4 and JM22 V{beta}17, implying that there is considerable variability in the structures of very similar {beta} chains. Structural alignments also reveal a considerable variation in the V{beta}-C{beta} associations, and this may affect ligand recognition. The crystal structures also provide insights into the structure basis of T cell recognition of Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen (MAM), a superantigen that may be implicated in the development of human RA. Structural comparisons of the V{beta} domains of known TCR structures indicate that there are significant similarities among V{beta} regions that are MAM-reactive, whereas there appear to be significant structural differences among those V{beta} regions that lack MAM-reactivity. It further reveals that CDR2 and framework region (FR) 3 are likely to account for the binding of TCR to MAM.

  14. DESIGN PACKAGE 1D SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Eisler

    1995-02-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1D, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1D system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations excluding hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations.

  15. Control globular structure formation of a copolymer chain through inverse design.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Lu, Zhong-Yuan

    2016-06-14

    A copolymer chain in dilute solution can exhibit various globular structures with characteristic morphologies, which makes it a potentially useful candidate for artificial materials design. However, the chain has a huge conformation space and may not naturally form the globular structure we desire. An ideal way to control globular structure formation should be inverse design, i.e., starting from the target structure and finding out what kind of polymers can effectively generate it. To accomplish this, we propose an inverse design procedure, which is combined with Wang-Landau Monte Carlo to fully and precisely explore the huge conformation space of the chain. Starting from a desired target structure, all the geometrically possible sequences are exactly enumerated. Interestingly, reasonable interaction strengths are obtained and found to be not specified for only one sequence. Instead, they can be combined with many other sequences and also achieve a relatively high yield for target structure, although these sequences may be rather different. These results confirm the possibility of controlling globular structure formation of a copolymer chain through inverse design and pave the way for targeted materials design. PMID:27306020

  16. Control globular structure formation of a copolymer chain through inverse design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xi; Lu, Zhong-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    A copolymer chain in dilute solution can exhibit various globular structures with characteristic morphologies, which makes it a potentially useful candidate for artificial materials design. However, the chain has a huge conformation space and may not naturally form the globular structure we desire. An ideal way to control globular structure formation should be inverse design, i.e., starting from the target structure and finding out what kind of polymers can effectively generate it. To accomplish this, we propose an inverse design procedure, which is combined with Wang-Landau Monte Carlo to fully and precisely explore the huge conformation space of the chain. Starting from a desired target structure, all the geometrically possible sequences are exactly enumerated. Interestingly, reasonable interaction strengths are obtained and found to be not specified for only one sequence. Instead, they can be combined with many other sequences and also achieve a relatively high yield for target structure, although these sequences may be rather different. These results confirm the possibility of controlling globular structure formation of a copolymer chain through inverse design and pave the way for targeted materials design.

  17. Effect of the band structure in a rigorous two-body model with long-range interactions in 1D optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Tom; Simoni, Andrea; Launay, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-01

    We compute scattering and bound state properties for two ultracold molecules in a pure 1D optical lattice. We introduce reference functions with complex quasi-momentum that naturally account for the effect of excited energy bands. Our exact results for a short-range interaction are first compared with the simplest version of the standard Bose-Hubbard (BH) model. Such comparison allows us to highlight the effect of the excited bands, of the non-on-site interaction and of tunneling with distant neighbor, that are not taken into account in the BH model. The effective interaction can depend strongly on the particle quasi-momenta and can present a resonant behavior even in a deep lattice. As a second step, we study scattering of two polar particles in the optical lattice. Peculiar Wigner threshold laws stem from the interplay of the long range dipolar interaction and the presence of the energy bands. We finally assess the validity of an extended Bose-Hubbard model for dipolar gases based on our exact two-body calculations. This work was supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Contract No. ANR-12-BS04-0020-01).

  18. Dicynamide bridged two new zig-zag 1-D Zn(II) coordination polymers of pyrimidine derived Schiff base ligands: Synthesis, crystal structures and fluorescence studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, Saugata

    2015-07-01

    Two new zigzag 1-D polymeric Zn(II) coordination polymers {[Zn(L1)(μ1,5-dca)](H2O)}n (1), {[Zn(L2)(μ1,5-dca)](ClO4)}n (2) of two potentially tridentate NNO-, NNN-, donor Schiff base ligands [2-(2-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)hydrazono)methyl)phenol] (L1), [1-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)-2-(dipyridin-2ylmethylene)hydrazine] (L2) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR and 1H NMR, fluorescence spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The dicyanamide ions act as linkers (μ1,5 mode) in the formation of these coordination polymers. Both the complexes 1 and 2 have same distorted square pyramidal geometry around the Zn(II) centres. The weak forces like π⋯π, Csbnd H⋯π, anion⋯π interactions lead to various supramolecular architectures. Complex 1 shows high chelation enhanced fluorescence compared to that of 2. The fluorescence spectral changes observed high selectivity towards Zn(II) over other metal ions such as Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II).

  19. Phase Behavior of a Single Structured Ionomer Chain in Solution

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aryal, Dipak; Etampawala, Thusitha; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2014-08-14

    Structured polymers offer a means to tailor transport pathways within mechanically stable manifolds. Here we examine the building block of such a membrane, namely a single large pentablock co-polymer that consist of a center block of a randomly sulfonated polystyrene, designed for transport, tethered to poly-ethylene-r-propylene and end-capped by poly-t-butyl styrene, for mechanical stability,using molecular dynamics simulations. The polymer structure in a cyclohexane-heptane mixture, a technologically viable solvent, and in water, a poor solvent for all segments and a ubiquitous substance is extracted. In all solvents the pentablock collapsed into nearly spherical aggregates where the ionic block is segregated. Inmore » hydrophobic solvents, the ionic block resides in the center, surrounded by swollen intermix of flexible and end blocks. In water all blocks are collapsed with the sulfonated block residing on the surface. Our results demonstrate that solvents drive different local nano-segregation, providing a gateway to assemble membranes with controlled topology.« less

  20. Phase Behavior of a Single Structured Ionomer Chain in Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Aryal, Dipak; Etampawala, Thusitha; Perahia, Dvora; Grest, Gary S.

    2014-08-14

    Structured polymers offer a means to tailor transport pathways within mechanically stable manifolds. Here we examine the building block of such a membrane, namely a single large pentablock co-polymer that consist of a center block of a randomly sulfonated polystyrene, designed for transport, tethered to poly-ethylene-r-propylene and end-capped by poly-t-butyl styrene, for mechanical stability,using molecular dynamics simulations. The polymer structure in a cyclohexane-heptane mixture, a technologically viable solvent, and in water, a poor solvent for all segments and a ubiquitous substance is extracted. In all solvents the pentablock collapsed into nearly spherical aggregates where the ionic block is segregated. In hydrophobic solvents, the ionic block resides in the center, surrounded by swollen intermix of flexible and end blocks. In water all blocks are collapsed with the sulfonated block residing on the surface. Our results demonstrate that solvents drive different local nano-segregation, providing a gateway to assemble membranes with controlled topology.

  1. Carbohydrate Conformation and Lipid Condensation in Monolayers Containing Glycosphingolipid Gb3: Influence of Acyl Chain Structure

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Erik B.; Gao, Haifei; Dennison, Andrew J.C.; Chopin, Nathalie; Struth, Bernd; Arnold, Thomas; Florent, Jean-Claude; Johannes, Ludger

    2014-01-01

    Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), a glycosphingolipid found in the plasma membrane of animal cells, is the endocytic receptor of the bacterial Shiga toxin. Using x-ray reflectivity (XR) and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), lipid monolayers containing Gb3 were investigated at the air-water interface. XR probed Gb3 carbohydrate conformation normal to the interface, whereas GIXD precisely characterized Gb3’s influence on acyl chain in-plane packing and area per molecule (APM). Two phospholipids, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE), were used to study Gb3 packing in different lipid environments. Furthermore, the impact on monolayer structure of a naturally extracted Gb3 mixture was compared to synthetic Gb3 species with uniquely defined acyl chain structures. XR results showed that lipid environment and Gb3 acyl chain structure impact carbohydrate conformation with greater solvent accessibility observed for smaller phospholipid headgroups and long Gb3 acyl chains. In general, GIXD showed that Gb3 condensed phospholipid packing resulting in smaller APM than predicted by ideal mixing. Gb3’s capacity to condense APM was larger for DSPC monolayers and exhibited different dependencies on acyl chain structure depending on the lipid environment. The interplay between Gb3-induced changes in lipid packing and the lipid environment’s impact on carbohydrate conformation has broad implications for glycosphingolipid macromolecule recognition and ligand binding. PMID:25185550

  2. Relationship between chain collapse and secondary structure formation in a partially folded protein.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kanako; Yamada, Yoshiteru; Matsumura, Yoshitaka; Tsukamoto, Seiichi; Yamamoto-Ohtomo, Mio; Ohtomo, Hideaki; Okabe, Takahiro; Fujiwara, Kazuo; Ikeguchi, Masamichi

    2014-06-01

    Chain collapse and secondary structure formation are frequently observed during the early stages of protein folding. Is the chain collapse brought about by interactions between secondary structure units or is it due to polymer behavior in a poor solvent (coil-globule transition)? To answer this question, we measured small-angle X-ray scattering for a series of β-lactoglobulin mutants under conditions in which they assume a partially folded state analogous to the folding intermediates. Mutants that were designed to disrupt the secondary structure units showed the gyration radii similar to that of the wild type protein, indicating that chain collapse is due to coil-globule transitions. PMID:25100622

  3. Synthesis, Structure and Spectroscopy Study of a 1D Copper Coordination Polymer Based on a Carboxybenzyl Viologen Ligand and SCN-Anion.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Li-xia; Wan, Fang; Zhu, Bin-bin; Sun, Yan-qiong; You, Yi; Chen, Yi-ping

    2015-05-01

    A zwitterionic viologen derivative ligand, 1,1'-bis(4-carboxybenzyl)-4 4'-bipyridinium dichloride (H2BpybcCl2) as a multifunctional ligand, has been synthesized incorporating a 4,4'-bipyridine core with two carboxylate groups as a. building block, specifically designed for the rational construction of metal-organic frameworks. H2BpybcCl2 ligand is a multifunctional ligand that contains viologen's specific functions and carboxylate coordination groups. The coordination polymers of viologen carboxylate with copper thiocyanate are not reported to date. A novel copper coordination polymer, [Cu(SCN)2 (Bpybc)] (I) was by solution diffusion method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, XRD, elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, UV-Vis DRS, TG analysis and liquid-state luminescent properties. Compound I crystallized in the monoclinic system with C2/c space group. Crystal data for complex I is as follow: a=19. 508(4) A, b=9. 474(2) Å, c =16. 963(3) Å, α=90°, β=124. 92(3)°, γ=90°. Two SCN-anions were coordinated to the Cu2+ cation forming a [Cu(SCN)2] unit. Complex I was built up by [Cu(SCN)2] units bridged sequentially by ladder-shaped Bpybc ligands to form one-dimensional zigzag chains running along the [203] direction. The chains were held together by π-π interaction between the pyridine rings and phenyl rings, thus yielding a 3-D extended supramolecular network. The UV-Visible absorption spectra show the absorption bands of π-π* transitions of Bpybc ligands and d-->d transition of Cu2+. The liquid-state luminescent property of compound I was investigated at room temperature. Attractively, the complex exhibits strong blue emission peak at 533 nm (λEx=360 nn) that can be assigned to intraligand transition of Bpybc ligand when it was excited at 360 nm. PMID:26415457

  4. Structure and dynamics of an imidazoline nitroxide side chain with strongly hindered internal motion in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo Warshaviak, Dora; Khramtsov, Valery V.; Cascio, Duilio; Altenbach, Christian; Hubbell, Wayne L.

    2013-07-01

    A disulfide-linked imidazoline nitroxide side chain (V1) has a similar and highly constrained internal motion at diverse topological sites in a protein, unlike that for the disulfide-linked pyrroline nitroxide side chain (R1) widely used in site directed spin labeling EPR. Crystal structures of V1 at two positions in a helix of T4 Lysozyme and quantum mechanical calculations suggest the source of the constraints as intra-side chain interactions of the disulfide sulfur atoms with both the protein backbone and the 3-nitrogen in the imidazoline ring. These interactions apparently limit the conformation of the side chain to one of only three possible rotamers, two of which are observed in the crystal structure. An inter-spin distance measurement in frozen solution using double electron-electron resonance (DEER) gives a value essentially identical to that determined from the crystal structure of the protein containing two copies of V1, indicating that lattice forces do not dictate the rotamers observed. Collectively, the results suggest the possibility of predetermining a unique rotamer of V1 in helical structures. In general, the reduced rotameric space of V1 compared to R1 should simplify interpretation of inter-spin distance information in terms of protein structure, while the highly constrained internal motion is expected to extend the dynamic range for characterizing large amplitude nanosecond backbone fluctuations.

  5. Correlation between protein secondary structure, backbone bond angles, and side-chain orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Martin; Niemi, Antti J.

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the fine structure of the sp3 hybridized covalent bond geometry that governs the tetrahedral architecture around the central Cα carbon of a protein backbone, and for this we develop new visualization techniques to analyze high-resolution x-ray structures in the Protein Data Bank. We observe that there is a correlation between the deformations of the ideal tetrahedral symmetry and the local secondary structure of the protein. We propose a universal coarse-grained energy function to describe the ensuing side-chain geometry in terms of the Cβ carbon orientations. The energy function can model the side-chain geometry with a subatomic precision. As an example we construct the Cα-Cβ structure of HP35 chicken villin headpiece. We obtain a configuration that deviates less than 0.4 Å in root-mean-square distance from the experimental x-ray structure.

  6. A novel antibody light chain dimer: Implications for T-cell receptor structure

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, M.; Chang, Chong-Hwan; Solomon, A.; Stevens, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    The dimeric structures of antibody light chains produced in patients with multiple myeloma (Bence Jones proteins) have for some time been studied chemically and crystallographically as models of the antigen binding fragment (Fab) of an antibody. The conformational concordance of Fabs and a Bence Jones dimer was demonstrated by the initial immunoglobulin crystallographic structures. We have recently described the structure of a second intact light chain, the lambda-type protein Loc. The Loc protein exhibits an unanticipated protruding arrangement of its complementarity-determining residues. Grooves on each side of the protrusion may function as separate binding sites. In this report, we examine the Loc structure and its intracrystalline interactions in more detail and consider aspects of this structure that may possess implications for models of a nonantibody constituent of the immunoglobulin superfamily, the T-cell antigen receptor. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Variable domain structure of {kappa}IV human light chain len : high homology to the murine light chain McPC603.

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, D.-B.; Chang, C.-H.; Ainsworth, C.; Johnson, G.; Solomon, A.; Stevens, F. J.; Schiffer, M.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Tennessee Medical Center

    1997-12-01

    Antibody light chains of the {kappa} subgroup are the predominant light chain component in human immune responses and are used almost exclusively in the antibody repertoire of mice. Human {kappa} light chains comprise four subgroups. To date, all crystallographic studies of human {kappa} light chains were carried out on proteins of the {kappa}I subgroup. The light chain produced by multiple myeloma patient Len, was of the {kappa}IV subgroup, it differed by only one residue from the germ-line gene encoded protein. The variable domain fragment of the light chain was crystallized from ammonium sulfate in space group C222{sub 1}. The crystal structure was determined by molecular replacement and refined at 1.95 Angstrom resolution to an R-factor of 0.15. Protein Len has six additional residues in its CDR1 segment compared to the {kappa}I proteins previously characterized. The {kappa}IV variable domain. Len, differs in only 23 of 113 residues from murine {kappa} light chain McPC603. The RMS deviation upon superimposing their {alpha}-carbons was 0.69 Angstrom. The CDR1 segment of the human and murine variable domains have the same length and conformation although their amino acid sequences differ in 5 out of 17 residues. Structural features were identified that could account for the significantly higher stability of the human {kappa}IV protein relative to its murine counterpart. This human {kappa}IV light chain structure is the closest human homolog to a murine light chain and can be expected to facilitate detailed structural comparisons necessary for effective humanization of murine antibodies.

  8. Structural re-alignment in an immunologic surface region of ricin A chain

    SciTech Connect

    Zemla, A T; Zhou, C E

    2007-07-24

    We compared structure alignments generated by several protein structure comparison programs to determine whether existing methods would satisfactorily align residues at a highly conserved position within an immunogenic loop in ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs). Using default settings, structure alignments generated by several programs (CE, DaliLite, FATCAT, LGA, MAMMOTH, MATRAS, SHEBA, SSM) failed to align the respective conserved residues, although LGA reported correct residue-residue (R-R) correspondences when the beta-carbon (Cb) position was used as the point of reference in the alignment calculations. Further tests using variable points of reference indicated that points distal from the beta carbon along a vector connecting the alpha and beta carbons yielded rigid structural alignments in which residues known to be highly conserved in RIPs were reported as corresponding residues in structural comparisons between ricin A chain, abrin-A, and other RIPs. Results suggest that approaches to structure alignment employing alternate point representations corresponding to side chain position may yield structure alignments that are more consistent with observed conservation of functional surface residues than do standard alignment programs, which apply uniform criteria for alignment (i.e., alpha carbon (Ca) as point of reference) along the entirety of the peptide chain. We present the results of tests that suggest the utility of allowing user-specified points of reference in generating alternate structural alignments, and we present a web server for automatically generating such alignments.

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of a novel heterobimetallic rhenium(IV)-dysprosium(III) chain.

    PubMed

    Pejo, Carolina; Guedes, Guilherme P; Novak, Miguel A; Speziali, Nivaldo L; Chiozzone, Raúl; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Vaz, Maria G F; González, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    The use of the mononuclear rhenium(IV) precursor [ReBr5 (H2 pydc)](-) (H2 pydc=3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid) as a metalloligand towards dysprosium(III) afforded the first heterobimetallic Re(IV) -Dy(III) complex. Crystal structures and static and dynamic magnetic properties of both rhenium-containing species are reported herein. The 5d-4f compound shows an extended 1D structure and the AC magnetic measurements reveal frequency dependence at low temperature suggesting slow relaxation of the magnetization. PMID:25916407

  10. Structure and phase behavior of a confined nanodroplet composed of the flexible chain molecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Chul; Kim, Eun-Young; Seong, Baek-Seok

    2011-04-28

    A polymer density functional theory has been employed for investigating the structure and phase behaviors of the chain polymer, which is modelled as the tangentially connected sphere chain with an attractive interaction, inside the nanosized pores. The excess free energy of the chain polymer has been approximated as the modified fundamental measure-theory for the hard spheres, the Wertheim's first-order perturbation for the chain connectivity, and the mean-field approximation for the van der Waals contribution. For the value of the chemical potential corresponding to a stable liquid phase in the bulk system and a metastable vapor phase, the flexible chain molecules undergo the liquid-vapor transition as the pore size is reduced; the vapor is the stable phase at small volume, whereas the liquid is the stable phase at large volume. The wide liquid-vapor coexistence curve, which explains the wide range of metastable liquid-vapor states, is observed at low temperature. The increase of temperature and decrease of pore size result in a narrowing of liquid-vapor coexistence curves. The increase of chain length leads to a shift of the liquid-vapor coexistence curve towards lower values of chemical potential. The coexistence curves for the confined phase diagram are contained within the corresponding bulk liquid-vapor coexistence curve. The equilibrium capillary phase transition occurs at a higher chemical potential than in the bulk phase. PMID:21528975

  11. Long Chain Molecules in the Molten State: Surface Adsorption, Near Surface Structure, and Mutual-Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng

    1993-01-01

    The surface segregation in a binary mixture of polymer due to surface energy difference or end-grafting is studied. The surface energy difference induced segregation is compared with the mean-field theory. The end-labeling of chains strengthens the ability of the chain to bind to the surface, and the stretching of the end grafted chains is proved to be a controlling fact limiting the brush density. The structure of a chain near a surface needs to be known in order to make more quantitative analysis. Such knowledge is currently not available although a reflecting surface model is proposed. We also studied the mutual-diffusion of compatible linear chains. It is observed that the broadening of the interfacial width scales as the 1/4 power of the diffusion time for a time scale much longer than the reptation time. It is speculated that the anomalous behavior is either due to small molecular residue in the sample or due to the long chain nature of the polymer itself. If the former possibility can be ruled out, the validity of applying the reptation model to polymer diffusion over small distances might be under challenge. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is an established technique and its application in polymer science has been around for quite some time. However, the quantitative application in depth profiling was so far not very successful. The technique is reviewed and procedures that ensure correct extraction of depth profiles from raw SIMS data are discussed.

  12. A Modified Synthetic Pathway for the Synthesis of so far Inaccessible N1-Functionalized Tetrazole Ligands – Synthesis and Characterization of the 1D Chain-Type Spin Crossover Compound [Fe(3ditz)3](BF4)2

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Danny; Knoll, Christian; Stöger, Berthold; Artner, Werner; Reissner, Michael; Weinberger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A modified phase-transfer-catalyst-assisted synthetic pathway was developed that widens the pool of accessible 1-substituted tetrazoles, which are possible ligands for iron(II) spin-crossover compounds. Within the family of α,ω-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)alkanes, a series of ligands and their respective iron(II) spin-crossover compounds were synthesized and structurally and spectroscopically characterized in the past. The classical route to prepare these ligands is based on the respective amino-precursors. Hence the pool of accessible compounds is limited by the commercial or synthetical availability of α,ω-diaminoalkanes. Furthermore, the concomitant transformation to the tetrazole moieties turns out to be easier for diamino-alkanes with an even number of carbon atoms than for those with an odd number. In line with this observation, the shortest odd-numbered homologues such as 1,1-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)methane (1ditz) and 1,3-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)propane (3ditz) were inaccessible so far. In this paper, we report the successful preparation and characterisation of the classically inaccessible 1,3-bis(tetrazol-1-yl)propane (3ditz) and of its spin-crossover complex [Fe(3ditz)3](BF4)2, which features an abrupt and almost complete spin transition at T = 159 K. The single-crystal X-ray structure of the low-spin and the high-spin species is presented. The magnetic data are supported by variable-temperature IR, UV/Vis/NIR, and 57Fe Mössbauer spectra. PMID:23487581

  13. Structure factor of a Gaussian chain confined between two parallel plates.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi; Miao, Bing

    2015-04-28

    We study the structure factor of a single Gaussian chain confined between two macroscopic parallel plates theoretically. The chain propagator is constructed in terms of the eigen-spectrum of the Laplace operator under the Dirichlet boundary condition enforced at the two plates, by which the confinement effect enters the treatment through size-dependent eigen-spectrum. In terms of the series expansion solution for the chain propagator, we first calculate the confinement free energy and the confinement force for an arbitrary confinement strength. It is found that the confinement force scales to the distance between the two confining surfaces with a power of -3 for strong confinements and of -2 for weak confinements. Based on the ground state dominance approximation for strong confinements and the Euler-Maclaurin formula for weak confinements, we develop approximation theories for the two limit situations, which agree with the numerical results well. We further calculate the structure factor of the confined Gaussian chain in this slit geometry. While the scattering function of the transverse chain fluctuations perpendicular to the confinement direction is still a Debye function form, the structure factor for the longitudinal fluctuations along the confinement dimension starts with the monotonic Debye function behavior for weak confinements and develops a decaying oscillation behavior with the increase of confinements. The numerical results for the structure factor are also interpreted by developing approximation theories in different confinement regimes. Finally, the orientational average of the anisotropic structure factor is performed and an analytic expression for the averaged structure factor is derived under the ground state dominance approximation for strong confinements. PMID:25933787

  14. Control of coupling in 1D photonic crystal coupled-cavity nano-wire structures via hole diameter and position variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, A. R. Md; De La Rue, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    We have successfully demonstrated close experimental control of the resonance splitting/free spectral range of a coupled micro-cavity one-dimensional photonic crystal/photonic wire device structure based on silicon-on-insulator. Clear splitting of the resonances, with FSR values ranging from 8 nm to 48 nm, was obtained through the use of different hole arrangements within the middle section of the device structures, between the coupled cavities. The results show good agreement with calculations obtained using a finite-difference time-domain simulation approach.

  15. Synconset waves and chains: spiking onsets in synchronous populations predict and are predicted by network structure.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Mohan; Amrutur, Bharadwaj; Narayanan, Rishikesh; Sikdar, Sujit Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Synfire waves are propagating spike packets in synfire chains, which are feedforward chains embedded in random networks. Although synfire waves have proved to be effective quantification for network activity with clear relations to network structure, their utilities are largely limited to feedforward networks with low background activity. To overcome these shortcomings, we describe a novel generalisation of synfire waves, and define 'synconset wave' as a cascade of first spikes within a synchronisation event. Synconset waves would occur in 'synconset chains', which are feedforward chains embedded in possibly heavily recurrent networks with heavy background activity. We probed the utility of synconset waves using simulation of single compartment neuron network models with biophysically realistic conductances, and demonstrated that the spread of synconset waves directly follows from the network connectivity matrix and is modulated by top-down inputs and the resultant oscillations. Such synconset profiles lend intuitive insights into network organisation in terms of connection probabilities between various network regions rather than an adjacency matrix. To test this intuition, we develop a Bayesian likelihood function that quantifies the probability that an observed synfire wave was caused by a given network. Further, we demonstrate it's utility in the inverse problem of identifying the network that caused a given synfire wave. This method was effective even in highly subsampled networks where only a small subset of neurons were accessible, thus showing it's utility in experimental estimation of connectomes in real neuronal-networks. Together, we propose synconset chains/waves as an effective framework for understanding the impact of network structure on function, and as a step towards developing physiology-driven network identification methods. Finally, as synconset chains extend the utilities of synfire chains to arbitrary networks, we suggest utilities of our

  16. Substrate specificity and inhibitor analyses of human steroid 5β-reductase (AKR1D1)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mo; Drury, Jason E.; Penning, Trevor M.

    2011-01-01

    Human steroid 5β-reductase (Aldo-keto Reductase 1D1) catalyzes the stereospecific NADPH-dependent reduction of the C4-C5 double bond of Δ4-ketosteroids to yield an A/B cis-ring junction. This cis-configuration is crucial for bile acid biosynthesis and plays important roles in steroid metabolism. The biochemical properties of the enzyme have not been thoroughly studied and conflicting data have been reported, partially due to the lack of highly homogeneous protein. In the present study, we systematically determined the substrate specificity of homogeneous human recombinant AKR1D1 using C18, C19, C21, and C27 Δ4-ketosteroids and assessed the pH-rate dependence of the enzyme. Our results show that AKR1D1 proficiently reduced all the steroids tested at physiological pH, indicating AKR1D1 is the only enzyme necessary for all the 5β-steroid metabolite present in humans. Substrate inhibition was observed with C18 to C21 steroids provided that the side-chain at C17 was unsubstituted. This structure activity relationship can be explained by the existence of a small alternative substrate binding pocket revealed by the AKR1D1 crystal structure. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which are potent inhibitors of the related AKR1C enzymes do not inhibit AKR1D1 by contrast chenodeoxycholate and ursodeoxycholate were found to be potent non-competitive inhibitors suggesting that bile-acids may regulate their own synthesis at the level of AKR1D1 inhibition. PMID:21255593

  17. Synthesis, calorimetric studies, and crystal structures of N, O-diacylethanolamines with matched chains[S

    PubMed Central

    Kamlekar, Ravi Kanth; Tarafdar, Pradip K.; Swamy, Musti J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies show that N-, O-diacylethanolamines (DAEs) can be derived by the O-acylation of N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) under physiological conditions. Because the content of NAEs in a variety of organisms increases in response to stress, it is likely that DAEs may also be present in biomembranes. In view of this, a homologous series of DAEs with matched acyl chains (n = 10–20) have been synthesized and characterized. Transition enthalpies and entropies obtained from differential scanning calorimetry show that dry DAEs with even and odd acyl chains independently exhibit linear dependence on the chainlength. Linear least-squares analyses yielded incremental values contributed by each methylene group to the transition enthalpy and entropy and the corresponding end contributions. N-, O-Didecanoylethanolamine (DDEA), N-, O-dilauroylethanolamine (DLEA), and N-, O-dimyristoylethanolamine (DMEA) crystallized in the orthorhombic space group Pbc21 with four symmetry-related molecules in the unit cell. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies show that DDEA, DLEA, and DMEA are isostructural and adopt an L-shaped structure with the N-acyl chain and the central ethanolamine moiety being essentially identical to the structure of N-acylethanolamines, whereas the O-acyl chain is linear with all-trans conformation. In all three DAEs, the lipid molecules are organized in a bilayer fashion wherein the N-acyl and O-acyl chains from adjacent layers oppose each other. PMID:19597189

  18. Direct observation of self-assembled chain-like water structures in a nanoscopic water meniscus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byung I.; Boehm, Ryan D.; Bonander, Jeremy R.

    2013-08-01

    Sawtooth-like oscillatory forces generated by water molecules confined between two oxidized silicon surfaces were observed using a cantilever-based optical interfacial force microscope when the two surfaces approached each other in ambient environments. The humidity-dependent oscillatory amplitude and periodicity were 3-12 nN and 3-4 water diameters, respectively. Half of each period was matched with a freely jointed chain model, possibly suggesting that the confined water behaved like a bundle of water chains. The analysis also indicated that water molecules self-assembled to form chain-like structures in a nanoscopic meniscus between two hydrophilic surfaces in air. From the friction force data measured simultaneously, the viscosity of the chain-like water was estimated to be between 108 and 1010 times greater than that of bulk water. The suggested chain-like structure resolves many unexplained properties of confined water at the nanometer scale, thus dramatically improving the understanding of a variety of water systems in nature.

  19. Direct observation of self-assembled chain-like water structures in a nanoscopic water meniscus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung I; Boehm, Ryan D; Bonander, Jeremy R

    2013-08-01

    Sawtooth-like oscillatory forces generated by water molecules confined between two oxidized silicon surfaces were observed using a cantilever-based optical interfacial force microscope when the two surfaces approached each other in ambient environments. The humidity-dependent oscillatory amplitude and periodicity were 3-12 nN and 3-4 water diameters, respectively. Half of each period was matched with a freely jointed chain model, possibly suggesting that the confined water behaved like a bundle of water chains. The analysis also indicated that water molecules self-assembled to form chain-like structures in a nanoscopic meniscus between two hydrophilic surfaces in air. From the friction force data measured simultaneously, the viscosity of the chain-like water was estimated to be between 10(8) and 10(10) times greater than that of bulk water. The suggested chain-like structure resolves many unexplained properties of confined water at the nanometer scale, thus dramatically improving the understanding of a variety of water systems in nature. PMID:23927275

  20. Effect of chain stiffness on structural and thermodynamic properties of polymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    2008-03-01

    Static and dynamic properties of polymers are affected by the stiffness of the chains. In this work, we investigate structural and thermodynamic properties of a lattice model for semiflexible polymer chains. The model is an extension of Shaffer's bond- fluctuation model [1] and includes attractive interactions between monomers and an adjustable bending penalty that determines the Kuhn segment length. For isolated chains, a competition between monomer-monomer interactions and bending penalties determines the chain conformations at low temperatures. For dense melts, packing effects play an important role in the structure and thermodynamics of the polymeric liquid. In order to investigate static properties as a function of temperature and chain stiffness, we perform Wang-Landau type simulations and construct densities of states over the two- dimensional state space of monomer-monomer and bending contributions to the internal energy. In addition, we present first results from an algorithm for equation-of-state effects in lattice models. [1] J. S. Shaffer, J. Chem. Phys. 101, 4205 (1994).

  1. High orientation of long chain branched poly (lactic acid) with enhanced blood compatibility and bionic structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengqiu; Ye, Lin; Zhao, Xiaowen; Coates, Phil; Caton-Rose, Fin; Martyn, Michasel

    2016-05-01

    Highly oriented poly (lactic acid) (PLA) with bionic microgrooves was fabricated through solid hot drawing technology for further improving the mechanical properties and blood biocompatibility of PLA. In order to enhance the melt strength and thus obtain high orientation degree, long chain branched PLA was prepared at first through a two-step ring-opening reaction during processing. Linear viscoelasticity combined with branch-on-branch model was used to predict probable compositions and chain topologies of the products, and it was found that the molecular weight of PLA increased and topological structures with star like chain with three arms and tree-like chain with two generations formed during reactive processing, and consequently draw ratio as high as1200% can be achieved during the subsequent hot stretching. With the increase of draw ratio, the tensile strength and orientation degree of PLA increased dramatically. Long chain branching and orientation could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PLA by prolonging clotting time and decreasing platelet activation. Microgrooves can be observed on the surface of the oriented PLA which were similar to the intimal layer of blood vessel, and such bionic structure resulted from the formation of the oriented shish kebab-like crystals along the draw direction. PMID:26743130

  2. Quasi-1D physics in metal-organic frameworks: MIL-47(V) from first principles

    PubMed Central

    Jaeken, Jan W; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Lejaeghere, Kurt; Van Speybroeck, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    Summary The geometric and electronic structure of the MIL-47(V) metal-organic framework (MOF) is investigated by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Special focus is placed on the relation between the spin configuration and the properties of the MOF. The ground state is found to be antiferromagnetic, with an equilibrium volume of 1554.70 Å3. The transition pressure of the pressure-induced large-pore-to-narrow-pore phase transition is calculated to be 82 MPa and 124 MPa for systems with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic chains, respectively. For a mixed system, the transition pressure is found to be a weighted average of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic transition pressures. Mapping DFT energies onto a simple-spin Hamiltonian shows both the intra- and inter-chain coupling to be antiferromagnetic, with the latter coupling constant being two orders of magnitude smaller than the former, suggesting the MIL-47(V) to present quasi-1D behavior. The electronic structure of the different spin configurations is investigated and it shows that the band gap position varies strongly with the spin configuration. The valence and conduction bands show a clear V d-character. In addition, these bands are flat in directions orthogonal to VO6 chains, while showing dispersion along the the direction of the VO6 chains, similar as for other quasi-1D materials. PMID:25383285

  3. Synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of three Mo(V)-Ln(III) (Ln = Ho, Er, Tm) magnetic chains based on [Mo(CN)8]3-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Wen-Wen; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Zhou; Xu, Xiao-Juan; Tao, Jian-Qian

    2016-05-01

    Complexes 1-3 with general formula [Ln(tmphen)2(DMF)2Mo(CN)8]∞ (Ln = Ho(1), Er(2) and Tm(3)) have been prepared by reaction of Cs3[Mo(CN)8]·4H2O and Ln(NO3)3·6H2O in the presence of the tmphen blocking ligand (tmphen = 3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline), and characterized by IR, elemental analysis, single crystal X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. The structural determination reveals that complexes 1-3 consist of 1D chains, in which [LnIII(tmphen)2(DMF)2]3+ and [MoV(CN)8]3- ions are linked in an alternating fashion. Furthermore, two adjacent 1D chain are linked by π-π interaction between the benzene and pyridine rings and hydrogen bonds to form a supramolecular three-dimensional framework. Investigation of the magnetic properties of complexes 1-3 reveals antiferromagnetic coupling interaction exists between heavy LnIII (HoIII, ErIII and TmIII) and MoV ions.

  4. Structural studies of an arabinan from the stems of Ephedra sinica by methylation analysis and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yong-Gang; Liang, Jun; Yang, Bing-You; Wang, Qiu-Hong; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2015-05-01

    Plant arabinan has important biological activity. In this study, a water-soluble arabinan (Mw∼6.15kDa) isolated from the stems of Ephedra sinica was found to consist of (1→5)-Araƒ, (1→3,5)-Araƒ, T-Araƒ, (1→3)-Araƒ and (1→2,5)-Araƒ residues at proportions of 10:2:3:2:1. A tentative structure was proposed by methylation analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT-135, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and ROESY) and literature. The structure proposed includes a branched (1→5)-α-Araf backbone where branching occurs at the O-2 and O-3 positions of the residues with 7.7% and 15.4% of the 1,5-linked α-Araf substituted at the O-2 and O-3 positions. The presence of a branched structure was further observed by atomic force microscopy. This polymer was characterized as having a much longer linear (1→5)-α-Araf backbone as a repeating unit. In particular, the presence of α-Araf→3)-α-Araf-(1→3)-α-Araf-(1→ attached at the O-2 is a new finding. This study may facilitate a deeper understanding of structure-activity relationships of biological polysaccharides from the stems of E. sinica. PMID:25659720

  5. Differential Recognition of CD1d-[alpha]-Galactosyl Ceramide by the V[beta]8.2 and V[beta]7 Semi-invariant NKT T Cell Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Pellicci, Daniel G.; Patel, Onisha; Kjer-Nielsen, Lars; Pang, Siew Siew; Sullivan, Lucy C.; Kyparissoudis, Konstantinos; Brooks, Andrew G.; Reid, Hugh H.; Gras, Stephanie; Lucet, Isabelle S.; Koh, Ruide; Smyth, Mark J.; Mallevaey, Thierry; Matsuda, Jennifer L.; Gapin, Laurent; McCluskey, James; Godfrey, Dale I.; Rossjohn, Jamie; PMCI-A; Monash; UCHSC; Melbourne

    2009-09-02

    The semi-invariant natural killer T cell receptor (NKT TCR) recognizes CD1d-lipid antigens. Although the TCR{alpha} chain is typically invariant, the {beta} chain expression is more diverse, where three V{beta} chains are commonly expressed in mice. We report the structures of V{alpha}14-V{beta}8.2 and V{alpha}14-V{beta}7 NKT TCRs in complex with CD1d-{alpha}-galactosylceramide ({alpha}-GalCer) and the 2.5 {angstrom} structure of the human NKT TCR-CD1d-{alpha}-GalCer complex. Both V{beta}8.2 and V{beta}7 NKT TCRs and the human NKT TCR ligated CD1d-{alpha}-GalCer in a similar manner, highlighting the evolutionarily conserved interaction. However, differences within the V{beta} domains of the V{beta}8.2 and V{beta}7 NKT TCR-CD1d complexes resulted in altered TCR{beta}-CD1d-mediated contacts and modulated recognition mediated by the invariant {alpha} chain. Mutagenesis studies revealed the differing contributions of V{beta}8.2 and V{beta}7 residues within the CDR2{beta} loop in mediating contacts with CD1d. Collectively we provide a structural basis for the differential NKT TCR V{beta} usage in NKT cells.

  6. Crystal Structures of Lys-63-linked tri- and di-ubiquitin Reveal a Highly Extended Chain Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, S.; Grasty, K; Hernandez-Cuebas, L; Loll, P

    2009-01-01

    The covalent attachment of different types of poly-ubiquitin chains signal different outcomes for the proteins so targeted. For example, a protein modified with Lys-48-linked poly-ubiquitin chains is targeted for proteasomal degradation, whereas Lys-63-linked chains encode nondegradative signals. The structural features that enable these different types of chains to encode different signals have not yet been fully elucidated. We report here the X-ray crystal structures of Lys-63-linked tri- and di-ubiquitin at resolutions of 2.3 and 1.9 {angstrom}, respectively. The tri- and di-ubiquitin species adopt essentially identical structures. In both instances, the ubiquitin chain assumes a highly extended conformation with a left-handed helical twist; the helical chain contains four ubiquitin monomers per turn and has a repeat length of {approx}110 {angstrom}. Interestingly, Lys-48 ubiquitin chains also adopt a left-handed helical structure with a similar repeat length. However, the Lys-63 architecture is much more open than that of Lys-48 chains and exposes much more of the ubiquitin surface for potential recognition events. These new crystal structures are consistent with the results of solution studies of Lys-63 chain conformation, and reveal the structural basis for differential recognition of Lys-63 versus Lys-48 chains.

  7. BetaSCPWeb: side-chain prediction for protein structures using Voronoi diagrams and geometry prioritization.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Joonghyun; Lee, Mokwon; Cha, Jehyun; Laskowski, Roman A; Ryu, Seong Eon; Kim, Deok-Soo

    2016-07-01

    Many applications, such as protein design, homology modeling, flexible docking, etc. require the prediction of a protein's optimal side-chain conformations from just its amino acid sequence and backbone structure. Side-chain prediction (SCP) is an NP-hard energy minimization problem. Here, we present BetaSCPWeb which efficiently computes a conformation close to optimal using a geometry-prioritization method based on the Voronoi diagram of spherical atoms. Its outputs are visual, textual and PDB file format. The web server is free and open to all users at http://voronoi.hanyang.ac.kr/betascpweb with no login requirement. PMID:27151195

  8. Linear-chain structure of three {alpha} clusters in {sup 13}C

    SciTech Connect

    Itagaki, N.; Oertzen, W. von; Okabe, S.

    2006-12-15

    We investigate a linear-chain configuration of three {alpha} clusters with a neutron in {sup 13}C. To characterize this configuration, an operator P is introduced, which is the sum of parity inversion operators for each proton. The states with positive expectation values for this operator are found to form a rotational band structure, and the moment of inertia agrees well with the experimentally suggested value. Allowing a small bending angle stabilizes the linear-chain configuration of three {alpha} clusters with a valence neutron, which is a hyper-deformed state.

  9. BetaSCPWeb: side-chain prediction for protein structures using Voronoi diagrams and geometry prioritization

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Joonghyun; Lee, Mokwon; Cha, Jehyun; Laskowski, Roman A.; Ryu, Seong Eon; Kim, Deok-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Many applications, such as protein design, homology modeling, flexible docking, etc. require the prediction of a protein's optimal side-chain conformations from just its amino acid sequence and backbone structure. Side-chain prediction (SCP) is an NP-hard energy minimization problem. Here, we present BetaSCPWeb which efficiently computes a conformation close to optimal using a geometry-prioritization method based on the Voronoi diagram of spherical atoms. Its outputs are visual, textual and PDB file format. The web server is free and open to all users at http://voronoi.hanyang.ac.kr/betascpweb with no login requirement. PMID:27151195

  10. SPRITE and ASSAM: web servers for side chain 3D-motif searching in protein structures

    PubMed Central

    Nadzirin, Nurul; Gardiner, Eleanor J.; Willett, Peter; Artymiuk, Peter J.; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Similarities in the 3D patterns of amino acid side chains can provide insights into their function despite the absence of any detectable sequence or fold similarities. Search for protein sites (SPRITE) and amino acid pattern search for substructures and motifs (ASSAM) are graph theoretical programs that can search for 3D amino side chain matches in protein structures, by representing the amino acid side chains as pseudo-atoms. The geometric relationship of the pseudo-atoms to each other as a pattern can be represented as a labeled graph where the pseudo-atoms are the graph's nodes while the edges are the inter-pseudo-atomic distances. Both programs require the input file to be in the PDB format. The objective of using SPRITE is to identify matches of side chains in a query structure to patterns with characterized function. In contrast, a 3D pattern of interest can be searched for existing occurrences in available PDB structures using ASSAM. Both programs are freely accessible without any login requirement. SPRITE is available at http://mfrlab.org/grafss/sprite/ while ASSAM can be accessed at http://mfrlab.org/grafss/assam/. PMID:22573174

  11. Quantification of transition dipole strengths using 1D and 2D spectroscopy for the identification of molecular structures via exciton delocalization: Application to α-helices

    PubMed Central

    Grechko, Maksim; Zanni, Martin T.

    2012-01-01

    Vibrational and electronic transition dipole strengths are often good probes of molecular structures, especially in excitonically coupled systems of chromophores. One cannot determine transition dipole strengths using linear spectroscopy unless the concentration is known, which in many cases it is not. In this paper, we report a simple method for measuring transition dipole moments from linear absorption and 2D IR spectra that does not require knowledge of concentrations. Our method is tested on several model compounds and applied to the amide I′ band of a polypeptide in its random coil and α-helical conformation as modulated by the solution temperature. It is often difficult to confidently assign polypeptide and protein secondary structures to random coil or α-helix by linear spectroscopy alone, because they absorb in the same frequency range. We find that the transition dipole strength of the random coil state is 0.12 ± 0.013 D2, which is similar to a single peptide unit, indicating that the vibrational mode of random coil is localized on a single peptide unit. In an α-helix, the lower bound of transition dipole strength is 0.26 ± 0.03 D2. When taking into account the angle of the amide I′ transition dipole vector with respect to the helix axis, our measurements indicate that the amide I′ vibrational mode is delocalized across a minimum of 3.5 residues in an α-helix. Thus, one can confidently assign secondary structure based on exciton delocalization through its effect on the transition dipole strength. Our method will be especially useful for kinetically evolving systems, systems with overlapping molecular conformations, and other situations in which concentrations are difficult to determine. PMID:23163364

  12. Quantification of transition dipole strengths using 1D and 2D spectroscopy for the identification of molecular structures via exciton delocalization: Application to α-helices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechko, Maksim; Zanni, Martin T.

    2012-11-01

    Vibrational and electronic transition dipole strengths are often good probes of molecular structures, especially in excitonically coupled systems of chromophores. One cannot determine transition dipole strengths using linear spectroscopy unless the concentration is known, which in many cases it is not. In this paper, we report a simple method for measuring transition dipole moments from linear absorption and 2D IR spectra that does not require knowledge of concentrations. Our method is tested on several model compounds and applied to the amide I' band of a polypeptide in its random coil and α-helical conformation as modulated by the solution temperature. It is often difficult to confidently assign polypeptide and protein secondary structures to random coil or α-helix by linear spectroscopy alone, because they absorb in the same frequency range. We find that the transition dipole strength of the random coil state is 0.12 ± 0.013 D2, which is similar to a single peptide unit, indicating that the vibrational mode of random coil is localized on a single peptide unit. In an α-helix, the lower bound of transition dipole strength is 0.26 ± 0.03 D2. When taking into account the angle of the amide I' transition dipole vector with respect to the helix axis, our measurements indicate that the amide I' vibrational mode is delocalized across a minimum of 3.5 residues in an α-helix. Thus, one can confidently assign secondary structure based on exciton delocalization through its effect on the transition dipole strength. Our method will be especially useful for kinetically evolving systems, systems with overlapping molecular conformations, and other situations in which concentrations are difficult to determine.

  13. Structural Basis for Substrate Fatty Acyl Chain Specificity: Crystal Structure of Human Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    McAndrew, Ryan P.; Wang, Yudong; Mohsen, Al-Walid; He, Miao; Vockley, Jerry; Kim, Jung-Ja P.

    2008-08-26

    Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) is a member of the family of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs). Unlike the other ACADs, which are soluble homotetramers, VLCAD is a homodimer associated with the mitochondrial membrane. VLCAD also possesses an additional 180 residues in the C terminus that are not present in the other ACADs. We have determined the crystal structure of VLCAD complexed with myristoyl-CoA, obtained by co-crystallization, to 1.91-{angstrom} resolution. The overall fold of the N-terminal {approx}400 residues of VLCAD is similar to that of the soluble ACADs including medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD). The novel C-terminal domain forms an {alpha}-helical bundle that is positioned perpendicular to the two N-terminal helical domains. The fatty acyl moiety of the bound substrate/product is deeply imbedded inside the protein; however, the adenosine pyrophosphate portion of the C14-CoA ligand is disordered because of partial hydrolysis of the thioester bond and high mobility of the CoA moiety. The location of Glu-422 with respect to the C2-C3 of the bound ligand and FAD confirms Glu-422 to be the catalytic base. In MCAD, Gln-95 and Glu-99 form the base of the substrate binding cavity. In VLCAD, these residues are glycines (Gly-175 and Gly-178), allowing the binding channel to extend for an additional 12{angstrom} and permitting substrate acyl chain lengths as long as 24 carbons to bind. VLCAD deficiency is among the more common defects of mitochondrial {beta}-oxidation and, if left undiagnosed, can be fatal. This structure allows us to gain insight into how a variant VLCAD genotype results in a clinical phenotype.

  14. Correlation between morphology, electron band structure, and resistivity of Pb atomic chains on the Si(5 5 3)-Au surface.

    PubMed

    Jałochowski, M; Kwapiński, T; Łukasik, P; Nita, P; Kopciuszyński, M

    2016-07-20

    Structural and electron transport properties of multiple Pb atomic chains fabricated on the Si(5 5 3)-Au surface are investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, reflection high electron energy diffraction, angular resolved photoemission electron spectroscopy and in situ electrical resistance. The study shows that Pb atomic chains growth modulates the electron band structure of pristine Si(5 5 3)-Au surface and hence changes its sheet resistivity. Strong correlation between chains morphology, electron band structure and electron transport properties is found. To explain experimental findings a theoretical tight-binding model of multiple atomic chains interacting on effective substrate is proposed. PMID:27228462

  15. Correlation between morphology, electron band structure, and resistivity of Pb atomic chains on the Si(5 5 3)-Au surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jałochowski, M.; Kwapiński, T.; Łukasik, P.; Nita, P.; Kopciuszyński, M.

    2016-07-01

    Structural and electron transport properties of multiple Pb atomic chains fabricated on the Si(5 5 3)-Au surface are investigated using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, reflection high electron energy diffraction, angular resolved photoemission electron spectroscopy and in situ electrical resistance. The study shows that Pb atomic chains growth modulates the electron band structure of pristine Si(5 5 3)-Au surface and hence changes its sheet resistivity. Strong correlation between chains morphology, electron band structure and electron transport properties is found. To explain experimental findings a theoretical tight-binding model of multiple atomic chains interacting on effective substrate is proposed.

  16. Structure and Active Stie Residues of Pg1D, an N-Acetyltransferase from the Bacillosamine Synthetic Pathway Required for N-Glycan Synthesis in Campylobacter jejuni

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan,E.; Ruane, K.; Sulea, T.; Watson, D.; Proteau, A.; Leclerc, S.; Cygler, M.; Matte, A.; Young, N.

    2008-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is highly unusual among bacteria in forming N-linked glycoproteins. The heptasaccharide produced by its pgl system is attached to protein Asn through its terminal 2, 4-diacetamido-2, 4,6-trideoxy-d-Glc (QuiNAc4NAc or N, N'-diacetylbacillosamine) moiety. The crucial, last part of this sugar's synthesis is the acetylation of UDP-2-acetamido-4-amino-2, 4,6-trideoxy-d-Glc by the enzyme PglD, with acetyl-CoA as a cosubstrate. We have determined the crystal structures of PglD in CoA-bound and unbound forms, refined to 1.8 and 1.75 Angstroms resolution, respectively. PglD is a trimer of subunits each comprised of two domains, an N-terminal {alpha}/{beta}-domain and a C-terminal left-handed {beta}-helix. Few structural differences accompany CoA binding, except in the C-terminal region following the {beta}-helix (residues 189-195), which adopts an extended structure in the unbound form and folds to extend the {beta}-helix upon binding CoA. Computational molecular docking suggests a different mode of nucleotide-sugar binding with respect to the acetyl-CoA donor, with the molecules arranged in an 'L-shape', compared with the 'in-line' orientation in related enzymes. Modeling indicates that the oxyanion intermediate would be stabilized by the NH group of Gly143', with His125' the most likely residue to function as a general base, removing H+ from the amino group prior to nucleophilic attack at the carbonyl carbon of acetyl-CoA. Site-specific mutations of active site residues confirmed the importance of His125', Glu124', and Asn118. We conclude that Asn118 exerts its function by stabilizing the intricate hydrogen bonding network within the active site and that Glu124' may function to increase the pKa of the putative general base, His125'.

  17. Conceptual Model of Supply Chain Structure Mapping - A Case of Subsidized LPG Commodity in Yogyakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistio, Joko; Thoif, Afifuddin; Fitri Alindira, Aulia

    2016-01-01

    — In 2007, the government launched a conversion program of kerosene to LPG by issuing a Presidential Regulation No. 104/2007 on Supply, Distribution and Pricing LPG 3 Kg. Article 2 on the regulation says that setting the supply, distribution, and pricing of LPG 3 Kg include planning an annual sales volume of enterprises, the reference price and the retail price and conditions of export and import of LPG 3 Kg in order to reduce subsidies Kerosene especially to divert the use of kerosene according to government policy. In principle, the purpose of this policy is to reduce energy subsidies on commodities, especially Kerosene. Although the government claimed the conversion program is success, there are few problems arising from conversion program. In 2014, many scarcity and high price of LPG 3 Kg were reported. In this case, Pertamina was given full authority to manage all supply chain and distribution. Because the root of the problem of scarcity that occurred in the supply chain system has not been explained, the proposed solutions will also be partial and not comprehensive. Thus, this research will build a structural map of the causes of supply chain system LPG 3 Kg, as well as providing a comprehensive picture of system dynamics of LPG 3 Kg supply chain system which applied in Indonesia. And the result is expected as in form of Causal Loop Diagram of supply chain system.

  18. Communication: Role of short chain branching in polymer structure and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Mo; Baig, Chunggi

    2016-02-01

    A comprehensive understanding of chain-branching effects, essential for establishing general knowledge of the structure-property-phenomenon relationship in polymer science, has not yet been found, due to a critical lack of knowledge on the role of short-chain branches, the effects of which have mostly been neglected in favor of the standard entropic-based concepts of long polymers. Here, we show a significant effect of short-chain branching on the structural and dynamical properties of polymeric materials, and reveal the molecular origins behind the fundamental role of short branches, via atomistic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and mesoscopic Brownian dynamics by systematically varying the strength of the mobility of short branches. We demonstrate that the fast random Brownian kinetics inherent to short branches plays a key role in governing the overall structure and dynamics of polymers, leading to a compact molecular structure and, under external fields, to a lesser degree of structural deformation of polymer, to a reduced shear-thinning behavior, and to a smaller elastic stress, compared with their linear analogues. Their fast dynamical nature being unaffected by practical flow fields owing to their very short characteristic time scale, short branches would substantially influence (i.e., facilitate) the overall relaxation behavior of polymeric materials under various flowing conditions.

  19. Communication: Role of short chain branching in polymer structure and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Mo; Baig, Chunggi

    2016-02-28

    A comprehensive understanding of chain-branching effects, essential for establishing general knowledge of the structure-property-phenomenon relationship in polymer science, has not yet been found, due to a critical lack of knowledge on the role of short-chain branches, the effects of which have mostly been neglected in favor of the standard entropic-based concepts of long polymers. Here, we show a significant effect of short-chain branching on the structural and dynamical properties of polymeric materials, and reveal the molecular origins behind the fundamental role of short branches, via atomistic nonequilibrium molecular dynamics and mesoscopic Brownian dynamics by systematically varying the strength of the mobility of short branches. We demonstrate that the fast random Brownian kinetics inherent to short branches plays a key role in governing the overall structure and dynamics of polymers, leading to a compact molecular structure and, under external fields, to a lesser degree of structural deformation of polymer, to a reduced shear-thinning behavior, and to a smaller elastic stress, compared with their linear analogues. Their fast dynamical nature being unaffected by practical flow fields owing to their very short characteristic time scale, short branches would substantially influence (i.e., facilitate) the overall relaxation behavior of polymeric materials under various flowing conditions. PMID:26931673

  20. 2.3 A crystal structure of tetanus neurotoxin light chain.

    PubMed

    Breidenbach, Mark A; Brunger, Axel T

    2005-05-24

    TeNT is the causative agent of the neuroparalytic disease tetanus. A key component of TeNT is its light chain, a Zn(2+) endopeptidase that targets SNAREs. Recent structural studies of closely related BoNT endopeptidases indicate that substrate-binding exosites remote from a conserved active site are the primary determinants of substrate specificity. Here we report the 2.3 A X-ray crystal structure of TeNT-LC, determined by combined molecular replacement and MAD phasing. As expected, the overall structure of TeNT-LC is similar to the other known CNT light chain structures, including a conserved thermolysin-like core inserted between structurally distinct amino- and carboxy-terminal regions. Differences between TeNT-LC and the other CNT light chains are mainly limited to surface features such as unique electrostatic potential profiles. An analysis of surface residue conservation reveals a pattern of relatively high variability matching the path of substrate binding around BoNT/A, possibly serving to accommodate the variations in different SNARE targets of the CNT group. PMID:15895988

  1. Helical structures in vertically aligned dust particle chains in a complex plasma.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Truell W; Kong, Jie; Matthews, Lorin S

    2013-05-01

    Self-assembly of structures from vertically aligned, charged dust particle bundles within a glass box placed on the lower, powered electrode of a Gaseous Electronics Conference rf reference cell were produced and examined experimentally. Self-organized formation of one-dimensional vertical chains, two-dimensional zigzag structures, and three-dimensional helical structures of triangular, quadrangular, pentagonal, hexagonal, and heptagonal symmetries are shown to occur. System evolution is shown to progress from a one-dimensional chain structure, through a zigzag transition to a two-dimensional, spindlelike structure, and then to various three-dimensional, helical structures exhibiting multiple symmetries. Stable configurations are found to be dependent upon the system confinement, γ(2)=(ω(0h)/ω(0v))(2) (where ω(0h,v) are the horizontal and vertical dust resonance frequencies), the total number of particles within a bundle, and the rf power. For clusters having fixed numbers of particles, the rf power at which structural phase transitions occur is repeatable and exhibits no observable hysteresis. The critical conditions for these structural phase transitions as well as the basic symmetry exhibited by the one-, two-, and three-dimensional structures that subsequently develop are in good agreement with the theoretically predicted configurations of minimum energy determined employing molecular dynamics simulations for charged dust particles confined in a prolate, spheroidal potential as presented theoretically by Kamimura and Ishihara [Kamimura and Ishihara, Phys. Rev. E 85, 016406 (2012)]. PMID:23767642

  2. Intricate heterogeneous structures of the top 300 km of the Earth's inner core inferred from global array data: I. Regional 1D attenuation and velocity profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iritani, R.; Takeuchi, N.; Kawakatsu, H.

    2014-05-01

    We apply a waveform inversion method based on simulated annealing to complex core phase data observed by globally deployed seismic arrays, and present regional variation of depth profiles of attenuation and velocity for the top half of the inner core. Whereas measured attenuation parameters exhibit consistent trends for data sampling the eastern hemisphere of the inner core, for the western hemisphere, there is a remarkable difference between data sampling the inner core beneath Africa (W1) and beneath north America (W2). Obtained attenuation profiles suggest that intricate heterogeneities appear to be confined in the top 300 km. The profile for the eastern hemisphere has a high attenuation zone in the top 150 km that gradually diminishes with depth. Conversely, for the western hemisphere, the profile for W1 shows constant low attenuation and that for W2 represents a gradual increase from the inner core boundary to a peak at around 200 km depth. Velocity profiles, obtained from differential traveltimes between PKP(DF) and PKP(CD, BC) phases, for the eastern and western hemispheres are respectively about 0.8% faster and 0.6% slower than the reference model at the top of the inner core, and the difference nearly disappears at about 200 km depth. Our result suggests the presence of intricate quasi-hemispherical structures in the top ˜200-300 km of the inner core.

  3. Moments of the Spin Structure Functions g1p and g1d for 0.05 < Q2 < 3.0 GeV2

    SciTech Connect

    Prok, Yelena; Bosted, Peter; Burkert, Volker; Deur, Alexandre; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Dodge, Gail; Griffioen, Keith; Kuhn, Sebastian; Minehart, Ralph; Adams, Gary; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asryan, G.; Audit, Gerard; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Beard, Kevin; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bonner, Billy; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Cazes, Antoine; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Cords, Dieter; Corvisiero, Pietro; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Cummings, John; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Denizli, Haluk; Dennis, Lawrence; Dhuga, Kalvir; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fatemi, Renee; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Fersch, Robert; Feuerbach, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Golovach, Evgeny; Gothe, Ralf; Guidal, Michel; Guillo, Matthieu; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hadjidakis, Cynthia; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Hassall, Neil; Heddle, David; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Huertas, Marco; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keith, Christopher; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Kui; Kim, Kyungmo; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Klusman, Mike; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, Dave; Lima, Ana; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; Lukashin, K.; MacCormick, Marion; Marchand, Claude; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Morand, Ludyvine; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; O'Rielly, Grant; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Philips, Sasha; Pierce, J.; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Popa, Iulian; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Protopopescu, Dan; Qin, Liming; Raue, Brian; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Rowntree, David; Rubin, Philip; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schumacher, Reinhard; Seely, Mikell; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shaw, Jeffrey; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Skabelin, Alexander; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinskiy, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Suleiman, Riad; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; V

    2009-02-01

    The spin structure functions $g_1$ for the proton and the deuteron have been measured over a wide kinematic range in $x$ and \\Q2 using 1.6 and 5.7 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident upon polarized NH$_3$ and ND$_3$ targets at Jefferson Lab. Scattered electrons were detected in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, for $0.05 < Q^2 < 5 $\\ GeV$^2$ and $W < 3$ GeV. The first moments of $g_1$ for the proton and deuteron are presented -- both have a negative slope at low \\Q2, as predicted by the extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule. The first result for the generalized forward spin polarizability of the proton $\\gamma_0^p$ is also reported, and shows evidence of scaling above $Q^2$ = 1.5 GeV$^2$. Although the first moments of $g_1$ are consistent with Chiral Perturbation Theory (\\ChPT) calculations up to approximately $Q^2 = 0.06$ GeV$^2$, a significant discrepancy is observed between the $\\gamma_0^p$ data and \\ChPT\\ for $\\gamma_0^p$,even at the lowest \\Q2.

  4. Coalescence phenomena in 1D silver nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Wing, C.; Pérez-Alvarez, M.; Mondragón-Galicia, G.; Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Gutiérrez-Wing, M. T.; Henk, M. C.; Negulescu, I. I.; Rusch, K. A.

    2009-07-01

    Different coalescence processes on 1D silver nanostructures synthesized by a PVP assisted reaction in ethylene glycol at 160 °C were studied experimentally and theoretically. Analysis by TEM and HRTEM shows different defects found on the body of these materials, suggesting that they were induced by previous coalescence processes in the synthesis stage. TEM observations showed that irradiation with the electron beam eliminates the boundaries formed near the edges of the structures, suggesting that this process can be carried out by the application of other means of energy (i.e. thermal). These results were also confirmed by theoretical calculations by Monte Carlo simulations using a Sutton-Chen potential. A theoretical study by molecular dynamics simulation of the different coalescence processes on 1D silver nanostructures is presented, showing a surface energy driven sequence followed to form the final coalesced structure. Calculations were made at 1000-1300 K, which is near the melting temperature of silver (1234 K). Based on these results, it is proposed that 1D nanostructures can grow through a secondary mechanism based on coalescence, without losing their dimensionality.

  5. Synthesis and properties of a few 1-D cobaltous fumarates

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, Sanchay J.; Das, Birinchi K.

    2012-08-15

    Metal fumarates are often studied in the context of metal organic framework solids. Preparation, structure and properties of three cobalt(II) fumarates, viz. [Co(fum)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O 1, [Co(fum)(py){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] 2, and [Co(fum)(4-CNpy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] 3 (fum=fumarate, py=pyridine, 4-CNpy=4-cyanopyridine) are described. All three are chain polymers involving bridging fumarato ligands between each pair of octahedral Co(II) centres, but while the first one is zigzag in structure, the latter two are linear. Indexed powder X-ray diffraction patterns, solid state electronic spectra and magnetic properties of the species are reported. Thermal decomposition behaviour of the compounds suggests that they may be suitable as precursors to make Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} via pyrolysis below 600 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: Structure and properties of three chain-polymeric cobalt(II) fumarates are described. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three fumarate bridged 1-D coordination polymers of cobalt(II) are reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer While Co(II) fumarate pentahydrate is zigzag, the species having both pyridine and water as co-ligands are linear in structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prominent lines in the powder X-ray diffraction patterns have been indexed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal decomposition of the species yields Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} as the final product.

  6. Untangleing the effects of chain rigidity on the structure and dynamics of strongly adsorbed polymer melts

    SciTech Connect

    Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Cheng, Shiwang; Kumar, Rajeev; Goswami, Monojoy; Sokolov, Alexei P; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2015-06-11

    Here, we present a detailed analysis of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of semiflexible polymer melts in contact with a strongly adsorbing substrate. We have characterized the segments in the interfacial layer by counting the number of trains, loops, tails and unadsorbed segments. For more rigid chains, a tail and an adsorbed segment (a train) dominate while loops are more prevalent in more flexible chains. The tails exhibit a non-uniformly stretched conformation akin to the polydispersed pseudobrush envisioned by Guiselin. To probe the dynamics of the segments we computed the layer z-resolved intermediate coherent collective dynamics structure factor, S(q, t, z), mean-square displacement of segments, and the 2nd Legendre polynomial of the time-autocorrelation of unit bond vectors, 2[ni(t,z)•ni(0,z)]>. Our results show that segmental dynamics is slower for stiffer chains and there is a strong correlation between the structure and dynamics in the interfacial layer. There is no glassy layer, and the slowing down in dynamics of stiffer chains in the adsorbed region can be attributed to the densification and the more persistent layering of segments.

  7. Untangleing the effects of chain rigidity on the structure and dynamics of strongly adsorbed polymer melts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Cheng, Shiwang; Kumar, Rajeev; Goswami, Monojoy; Sokolov, Alexei P; Sumpter, Bobby G.

    2015-06-11

    Here, we present a detailed analysis of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of semiflexible polymer melts in contact with a strongly adsorbing substrate. We have characterized the segments in the interfacial layer by counting the number of trains, loops, tails and unadsorbed segments. For more rigid chains, a tail and an adsorbed segment (a train) dominate while loops are more prevalent in more flexible chains. The tails exhibit a non-uniformly stretched conformation akin to the polydispersed pseudobrush envisioned by Guiselin. To probe the dynamics of the segments we computed the layer z-resolved intermediate coherent collective dynamics structure factor, S(q, t, z),more » mean-square displacement of segments, and the 2nd Legendre polynomial of the time-autocorrelation of unit bond vectors, 2[ni(t,z)•ni(0,z)]>. Our results show that segmental dynamics is slower for stiffer chains and there is a strong correlation between the structure and dynamics in the interfacial layer. There is no glassy layer, and the slowing down in dynamics of stiffer chains in the adsorbed region can be attributed to the densification and the more persistent layering of segments.« less

  8. Conserved structure of amphibian T-cell antigen receptor beta chain.

    PubMed

    Fellah, J S; Kerfourn, F; Guillet, F; Charlemagne, J

    1993-07-15

    All jawed vertebrates possess well-differentiated thymuses and elicit T-cell-like cell-mediated responses; however, no surface T-cell receptor (TCR) molecules or TCR genes have been identified in ectothermic vertebrate species. Here we describe cDNA clones from an amphibian species, Ambystoma mexicanum (the Mexican axolotl), that have sequences highly homologous to the avian and mammalian TCR beta chains. The cloned amphibian beta chain variable region (V beta) shares most of the structural characteristics with the more evolved vertebrate V beta and presents approximately 56% amino acid identities with the murine V beta 14 and human V beta 18 families. The two different cloned axolotl beta chain joining regions (J beta) were found to have conserved all the invariant mammalian J beta residues, and in addition, the presence of a conserved glycine at the V beta-J beta junction suggests the existence of diversity elements. The extracellular domains of the two axolotl beta chain constant region isotypes C beta 1 and C beta 2 show an impressively high degree of identity, thus suggesting that a very efficient mechanism of gene correction has been in operation to preserve this structure at least from the early tetrapod evolution. The transmembrane axolotl C beta domains have been less well conserved when compared to the mammalian C beta but they do maintain the lysine residue that is thought to be involved in the charged interaction between the TCR alpha beta heterodimer and the CD3 complex. PMID:8341702

  9. Intraglobular structures in multiblock copolymer chains from a Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowski, K.; Banaszak, M.

    2011-07-01

    Multiblock copolymer chains in implicit nonselective solvents are studied by using a Monte Carlo method, which employs a parallel tempering algorithm. Chains consisting of 120A and 120B monomers, arranged in three distinct microarchitectures: (10-10)12,(6-6)20, and (3-3)40, collapse to globular states upon cooling, as expected. By varying both the reduced temperature T* and the compatibility between monomers ω, numerous intraglobular structures are obtained: diclusters (handshake, spiral, torus with a core, etc.), triclusters, and n clusters with n>3 (lamellar and other), which are reminiscent of the block copolymer nanophases for spherically confined geometries. Phase diagrams for various chains in the (T*,ω) space are mapped. The structure factor S(k), for a selected microarchitecture and ω, is calculated. Since S(k) can be measured in scattering experiments, it can be used to relate simulation results to an experiment. Self-assembly in those systems is interpreted in terms of competition between minimization of the interfacial area separating different types of monomers and minimization of contacts between chain and solvent. Finally, the relevance of this model to the protein folding is addressed.

  10. Ubiquitin Ser65 phosphorylation affects ubiquitin structure, chain assembly and hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Wauer, Tobias; Swatek, Kirby N; Wagstaff, Jane L; Gladkova, Christina; Pruneda, Jonathan N; Michel, Martin A; Gersch, Malte; Johnson, Christopher M; Freund, Stefan MV; Komander, David

    2015-01-01

    The protein kinase PINK1 was recently shown to phosphorylate ubiquitin (Ub) on Ser65, and phosphoUb activates the E3 ligase Parkin allosterically. Here, we show that PINK1 can phosphorylate every Ub in Ub chains. Moreover, Ser65 phosphorylation alters Ub structure, generating two conformations in solution. A crystal structure of the major conformation resembles Ub but has altered surface properties. NMR reveals a second phosphoUb conformation in which β5-strand slippage retracts the C-terminal tail by two residues into the Ub core. We further show that phosphoUb has no effect on E1-mediated E2 charging but can affect discharging of E2 enzymes to form polyUb chains. Notably, UBE2R1- (CDC34), UBE2N/UBE2V1- (UBC13/UEV1A), TRAF6- and HOIP-mediated chain assembly is inhibited by phosphoUb. While Lys63-linked poly-phosphoUb is recognized by the TAB2 NZF Ub binding domain (UBD), 10 out of 12 deubiquitinases (DUBs), including USP8, USP15 and USP30, are impaired in hydrolyzing phosphoUb chains. Hence, Ub phosphorylation has repercussions for ubiquitination and deubiquitination cascades beyond Parkin activation and may provide an independent layer of regulation in the Ub system. PMID:25527291

  11. Quasiparticle band structure of infinite hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen chloride chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buth, Christian

    2006-10-01

    We study the quasiparticle band structure of isolated, infinite (HF)∞ and (HCl)∞ bent (zigzag) chains and examine the effect of the crystal field on the energy levels of the constituent monomers. The chains are one of the simplest but realistic models of the corresponding three-dimensional crystalline solids. To describe the isolated monomers and the chains, we set out from the Hartree-Fock approximation, harnessing the advanced Green's function methods local molecular orbital algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) scheme and local crystal orbital ADC (CO-ADC) in a strict second order approximation, ADC(2,2) and CO-ADC(2,2), respectively, to account for electron correlations. The configuration space of the periodic correlation calculations is found to converge rapidly only requiring nearest-neighbor contributions to be regarded. Although electron correlations cause a pronounced shift of the quasiparticle band structure of the chains with respect to the Hartree-Fock result, the bandwidth essentially remains unaltered in contrast to, e.g., covalently bound compounds.

  12. Structural studies on the zinc-endopeptidase light chain of tetanus neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, V; Vangelista, L; Schiavo, G; Tonello, F; Montecucco, C

    1995-04-01

    Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) blocks neuroexocytosis via a zinc-endopeptidase activity highly specific for vescicle-associated membrane protein(VAMP)/synaptobrevin. TeNT is the prototype of clostridial neurotoxins, a new family of metalloproteinases. They consist of three domains and the proteolytic activity is displayed by the 50-kDa light chain (L chain). The L chain was isolated here in the native state from bacterial filtrates of Clostridium tetani and its structure was studied via circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The secondary structure content (27% alpha-helix and 43% beta-sheet), estimated by far-ultraviolet CD measurements, was in reasonable agreement with that obtained by standard predictive methods (25% alpha-helix and 49% beta-sheet). Moreover, the hypothetical zinc-binding motif, encompassing residues His-Glu-Leu-Ile-His, was correctly predicted to be in alpha-helical conformation, as also expected on the basis of the geometrical requirements for a correct coordination of the zinc ion. Both near-ultraviolet CD and fluorescence data strongly suggest that the single Trp43 residue is buried and constrained in a hydrophobic environment, likely distant from the zinc ion located in the active-site cleft. The contribution of the bound zinc ion to the overall conformation of TeNT L chain was investigated by different and complementary techniques, including spectroscopic (far- and near-ultraviolet CD, fluorescence, second derivative absorption spectroscopy) as well as proteolytic probes. The results indicate that the zinc ion plays little, if any, role in determining the structural properties of the L chain molecule. Similarly, the metal-free apo-enzyme and the holo-protein share common stability features evaluated in respect to different physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature and urea concentration). These results parallel those obtained on thermolysin, a zinc-dependent neutral endoprotease from Bacillus thermoproteolyticus, where both

  13. Statistical mechanics of protein allostery: Roles of backbone and side-chain structural fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Kazuhito; Sasai, Masaki

    2011-03-01

    A statistical mechanical model of allosteric transition of proteins is developed by extending the structure-based model of protein folding to cases that a protein has two different native conformations. Partition function is calculated exactly within the model and free-energy surfaces associated with allostery are derived. In this paper, the model of allosteric transition proposed in a previous paper [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 134, 7775 (2010)] is reformulated to describe both fluctuation in side-chain configurations and that in backbone structures in a balanced way. The model is applied to example proteins, Ras, calmodulin, and CheY: Ras undergoes the allosteric transition between guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound and guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound forms, and the model results show that the GDP-bound form is stabilized enough to prevent unnecessary signal transmission, but the conformation in the GTP-bound state bears large fluctuation in side-chain configurations, which may help to bind multiple target proteins for multiple pathways of signaling. The calculated results of calmodulin show the scenario of sequential ordering in Ca2 + binding and the associated allosteric conformational change, which are realized though the sequential appearing of pre-existing structural fluctuations, i.e., fluctuations to show structures suitable to bind Ca2 + before its binding. Here, the pre-existing fluctuations to accept the second and third Ca2 + ions are dominated by the side-chain fluctuation. In CheY, the calculated side-chain fluctuation of Tyr106 is coordinated with the backbone structural change in the β4-α4 loop, which explains the pre-existing Y-T coupling process in this protein. Ability of the model to explain allosteric transitions of example proteins supports the view that the large entropic effects lower the free-energy barrier of allosteric transition.

  14. Fitmunk: improving protein structures by accurate, automatic modeling of side-chain conformations.

    PubMed

    Porebski, Przemyslaw Jerzy; Cymborowski, Marcin; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Minor, Wladek

    2016-02-01

    Improvements in crystallographic hardware and software have allowed automated structure-solution pipelines to approach a near-`one-click' experience for the initial determination of macromolecular structures. However, in many cases the resulting initial model requires a laborious, iterative process of refinement and validation. A new method has been developed for the automatic modeling of side-chain conformations that takes advantage of rotamer-prediction methods in a crystallographic context. The algorithm, which is based on deterministic dead-end elimination (DEE) theory, uses new dense conformer libraries and a hybrid energy function derived from experimental data and prior information about rotamer frequencies to find the optimal conformation of each side chain. In contrast to existing methods, which incorporate the electron-density term into protein-modeling frameworks, the proposed algorithm is designed to take advantage of the highly discriminatory nature of electron-density maps. This method has been implemented in the program Fitmunk, which uses extensive conformational sampling. This improves the accuracy of the modeling and makes it a versatile tool for crystallographic model building, refinement and validation. Fitmunk was extensively tested on over 115 new structures, as well as a subset of 1100 structures from the PDB. It is demonstrated that the ability of Fitmunk to model more than 95% of side chains accurately is beneficial for improving the quality of crystallographic protein models, especially at medium and low resolutions. Fitmunk can be used for model validation of existing structures and as a tool to assess whether side chains are modeled optimally or could be better fitted into electron density. Fitmunk is available as a web service at http://kniahini.med.virginia.edu/fitmunk/server/ or at http://fitmunk.bitbucket.org/. PMID:26894674

  15. Fitmunk: improving protein structures by accurate, automatic modeling of side-chain conformations

    PubMed Central

    Porebski, Przemyslaw Jerzy; Cymborowski, Marcin; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta; Minor, Wladek

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in crystallographic hardware and software have allowed automated structure-solution pipelines to approach a near-‘one-click’ experience for the initial determination of macromolecular structures. However, in many cases the resulting initial model requires a laborious, iterative process of refinement and validation. A new method has been developed for the automatic modeling of side-chain conformations that takes advantage of rotamer-prediction methods in a crystallographic context. The algorithm, which is based on deterministic dead-end elimination (DEE) theory, uses new dense conformer libraries and a hybrid energy function derived from experimental data and prior information about rotamer frequencies to find the optimal conformation of each side chain. In contrast to existing methods, which incorporate the electron-density term into protein-modeling frameworks, the proposed algorithm is designed to take advantage of the highly discriminatory nature of electron-density maps. This method has been implemented in the program Fitmunk, which uses extensive conformational sampling. This improves the accuracy of the modeling and makes it a versatile tool for crystallographic model building, refinement and validation. Fitmunk was extensively tested on over 115 new structures, as well as a subset of 1100 structures from the PDB. It is demonstrated that the ability of Fitmunk to model more than 95% of side chains accurately is beneficial for improving the quality of crystallographic protein models, especially at medium and low resolutions. Fitmunk can be used for model validation of existing structures and as a tool to assess whether side chains are modeled optimally or could be better fitted into electron density. Fitmunk is available as a web service at http://kniahini.med.virginia.edu/fitmunk/server/ or at http://fitmunk.bitbucket.org/. PMID:26894674

  16. A novel method of preparing the monoform structure of catalytic antibody light chain.

    PubMed

    Hifumi, Emi; Matsumoto, Shingo; Nakashima, Hiroki; Itonaga, Shogo; Arakawa, Mitsue; Katayama, Yoshiki; Kato, Ryuichi; Uda, Taizo

    2016-02-01

    Along with the development of antibody drugs and catalytic antibodies, the structural diversity (heterogeneity) of antibodies has been given attention. For >20 yr, detailed studies on the subject have not been conducted, because the phenomenon presents many difficult and complex problems. Structural diversity provides some (or many) isoforms of an antibody distinguished by different charges, different molecular sizes, and modifications of amino acid residues. For practical use, the antibody and the subunits must have a defined structure. In recent work, we have found that the copper (Cu) ion plays a substantial role in solving the diversity problem. In the current study, we used several catalytic antibody light chains to examine the effect of the Cu ion. In all cases, the different electrical charges of the molecule converged to a single charge, giving 1 peak in cation-exchange chromatography, as well as a single spot in 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The Cu-binding site was investigated by using mutagenesis, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscope analysis, and molecular modeling, which suggested that histidine and cysteine residues close to the C-terminus are involved with the binding site. The constant region domain of the antibody light chain played an important role in the heterogeneity of the light chain. Our findings may be a significant tool for preparing a single defined, not multiple, isoform structure. PMID:26527062

  17. Probing structure-induced optical behavior in a new class of self-activated luminescent 0D/1D CaWO₄ metal oxide – CdSe nanocrystal composite heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Hoy, Jessica; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Li, Zhuo-Qun; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Taylor, Gordon T.; Misewich, James A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-01-30

    In this report, we synthesize and characterize the structural and optical properties of novel heterostructures composed of (i) semiconducting nanocrystalline CdSe quantum dot (QDs) coupled with (ii) both one and zero-dimensional (1D and 0D) motifs of self-activated luminescence CaWO₄ metal oxides. Specifically, ~4 nm CdSe QDs have been anchored onto (i) high-aspect ratio 1D nanowires, measuring ~230 nm in diameter and ~3 μm in length, as well as onto (ii) crystalline 0D nanoparticles (possessing an average diameter of ~ 80 nm) of CaWO₄ through the mediation of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a connecting linker. Composite formation was confirmed by complementary electron microscopy and spectroscopy (i.e. IR and Raman) data. In terms of luminescent properties, our results show that our 1D and 0D heterostructures evince photoluminescence (PL) quenching and shortened PL lifetimes of CaWO₄ as compared with unbound CaWO₄. We propose that a photo-induced electron transfer process occurs from CaWO₄ to CdSe QDs, a scenario which has been confirmed by NEXAFS measurements and which highlights a decrease in the number of unoccupied orbitals in the conduction bands of CdSe QDs. By contrast, the PL signature and lifetimes of MPA-capped CdSe QDs within these heterostructures do not exhibit noticeable changes as compared with unbound MPA-capped CdSe QDs. The striking difference in optical behavior between CaWO₄ nanostructures and CdSe QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. In addition, the PL quenching behaviors for CaWO₄ within the heterostructure configuration were examined by systematically varying (i) the quantities and coverage densities of CdSe QDs as well as (ii) the intrinsic morphology (and by extension, the inherent crystallite size) of CaWO₄ itself.

  18. Energetic, Structural, and Antimicrobial Analyses of [beta]-Lactam Side Chain Recognition by [beta]-Lactamases

    SciTech Connect

    Caselli, E.; Powers, R.A.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Wu, C.Y.E.; Prati, F.; Shoichet, B.K.

    2010-03-05

    Penicillins and cephalosporins are among the most widely used and successful antibiotics. The emergence of resistance to these {beta}-lactams, most often through bacterial expression of {beta}-lactamases, threatens public health. To understand how {beta}-lactamases recognize their substrates, it would be helpful to know their binding energies. Unfortunately, these have been difficult to measure because {beta}-lactams form covalent adducts with {beta}-lactamases. This has complicated functional analyses and inhibitor design. To investigate the contribution to interaction energy of the key amide (R1) side chain of {beta}-lactam antibiotics, eight acylglycineboronic acids that bear the side chains of characteristic penicillins and cephalosporins, as well as four other analogs, were synthesized. These transition-state analogs form reversible adducts with serine {beta}-lactamases. Therefore, binding energies can be calculated directly from K{sub i} values. The K{sub i} values measured span four orders of magnitude against the Group I {beta}-lactamase AmpC and three orders of magnitude against the Group II {beta}-lactamase TEM-1. The acylglycineboronic acids have K{sub i} values as low as 20 nM against AmpC and as low as 390 nM against TEM-1. The inhibitors showed little activity against serine proteases, such as chymotrypsin. R1 side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam inhibitors did not have better affinity for AmpC than did side chains characteristic of {beta}-lactam substrates. Two of the inhibitors reversed the resistance of pathogenic bacteria to {beta}-lactams in cell culture. Structures of two inhibitors in their complexes with AmpC were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.90 {angstrom} and 1.75 {angstrom} resolution; these structures suggest interactions that are important to the affinity of the inhibitors. Acylglycineboronic acids allow us to begin to dissect interaction energies between {beta}-lactam side chains and {beta}-lactamases. Surprisingly

  19. Topological Constraints on Chain-Folding Structure of Semicrystalline Polymer as Studied by 13C-13C Double Quantum NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Youlee; Miyoshi, Toshikazu

    Chain-folding process is a prominent feature of long polymer chains during crystallization. Over the last half century, much effort has been paid to reveal the chain trajectory. Even though various chain-folding models as well as theories of crystallization at molecule levels have been proposed, they could be not reconciled due to the limited experimental evidences. Recent development of double quantum NMR with selective isotope labeling identified the chain-trajectory of 13C labeled isotactic poly(1-butene). The systematic experiments covered a wide range of parameters, i.e. kinetics, concentration, and molecular weight (Mw) . It was demonstrated that i) adjacent re-entry site was invariant as a function of crystallization temperature (Tc) , concentration, andMw, ii) long-range order of adjacent re-entry sequence is independence of kinetics at a given concentration while it decreased with increasing the polymer concentration at a given Tc due to the increased interruption between the chains, and iii) high Mw chains led to the multilayer folded structures in single crystals, but the melt state induced the identical short adjacent sequences of long and short polymer over a wide range of Tc due to the entanglements. The behaviors indicated that the topological restriction plays significant roles in the chain-folding process rather than the kinetics. The proposed framework to control the chain-folding structure presents a new perspective into the chain organization by either the intra- or inter-chain interaction. National Science Foundation Grants DMR-1105829 and 1408855.

  20. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia in Glut1D on Ketogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Klepper, Joerg; Leiendecker, Baerbel; Heussinger, Nicole; Lausch, Ekkehart; Bosch, Friedrich

    2016-04-01

    High-fat ketogenic diets are the only treatment available for Glut1 deficiency (Glut1D). Here, we describe an 8-year-old girl with classical Glut1D responsive to a 3:1 ketogenic diet and ethosuximide. After 3 years on the diet a gradual increase of blood lipids was followed by rapid, severe asymptomatic hypertriglyceridemia (1,910 mg/dL). Serum lipid apheresis was required to determine liver, renal, and pancreatic function. A combination of medium chain triglyceride-oil and a reduction of the ketogenic diet to 1:1 ratio normalized triglyceride levels within days but triggered severe myoclonic seizures requiring comedication with sultiam. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in children with Glut1D on ketogenic diets may be underdiagnosed and harmful. In contrast to congenital hypertriglyceridemias, children with Glut1D may be treated effectively by dietary adjustments alone. PMID:26902182

  1. Chain Graph Models to Elicit the Structure of a Bayesian Network

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Federico M.

    2014-01-01

    Bayesian networks are possibly the most successful graphical models to build decision support systems. Building the structure of large networks is still a challenging task, but Bayesian methods are particularly suited to exploit experts' degree of belief in a quantitative way while learning the network structure from data. In this paper details are provided about how to build a prior distribution on the space of network structures by eliciting a chain graph model on structural reference features. Several structural features expected to be often useful during the elicitation are described. The statistical background needed to effectively use this approach is summarized, and some potential pitfalls are illustrated. Finally, a few seminal contributions from the literature are reformulated in terms of structural features. PMID:24688427

  2. Cryo-EM reveals the steric zipper structure of a light chain-derived amyloid fibril.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Andreas; Annamalai, Karthikeyan; Schmidt, Matthias; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Fändrich, Marcus

    2016-05-31

    Amyloid fibrils are proteinaceous aggregates associated with diseases in humans and animals. The fibrils are defined by intermolecular interactions between the fibril-forming polypeptide chains, but it has so far remained difficult to reveal the assembly of the peptide subunits in a full-scale fibril. Using electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM), we present a reconstruction of a fibril formed from the pathogenic core of an amyloidogenic immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain. The fibril density shows a lattice-like assembly of face-to-face packed peptide dimers that corresponds to the structure of steric zippers in peptide crystals. Interpretation of the density map with a molecular model enabled us to identify the intermolecular interactions between the peptides and rationalize the hierarchical structure of the fibril based on simple chemical principles. PMID:27185936

  3. Fiber Bragg gratings sensing network with a bus chain typology structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiaoyan; Shuai, Huang; Zhu, Fangdong; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2016-06-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensing network with a bus chain typology structure based on time-division multiplexing (TDM) technology has been developed. Each FBG sensor was placed in an isolated branching circuit separated by an optical splitter. By doing this, multiple reflection and spectrum shadow, which are common in a traditional TDM network, were eliminated since incident light reflected by each sensor did not go through the other sensors. Interference among different FBGs was also avoided. The system was experimentally verified by constructing such a network with 17 FBGs involved. Wavelength and position interrogation were successfully realized. Temperature experiment was carried out on four of the FBGs and the sensitivity was 9.87, 9.92, 9.91, and 9.97 pm/°C, respectively. The durability, reliability, and measuring accuracy of the sensing network were effectively improved due to the bus chain typology structure.

  4. Customer involvement in greening the supply chain: an interpretive structural modeling methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Luthra, Sunil; Haleem, Abid

    2013-04-01

    The role of customers in green supply chain management needs to be identified and recognized as an important research area. This paper is an attempt to explore the involvement aspect of customers towards greening of the supply chain (SC). An empirical research approach has been used to collect primary data to rank different variables for effective customer involvement in green concept implementation in SC. An interpretive structural-based model has been presented, and variables have been classified using matrice d' impacts croises- multiplication appliqué a un classement analysis. Contextual relationships among variables have been established using experts' opinions. The research may help practicing managers to understand the interaction among variables affecting customer involvement. Further, this understanding may be helpful in framing the policies and strategies to green SC. Analyzing interaction among variables for effective customer involvement in greening SC to develop the structural model in the Indian perspective is an effort towards promoting environment consciousness.

  5. Crystal Structure of a Phosphorylated Light Chain Domain of Scallop Smooth-Muscle Myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V.S.; Robinson, H.; O-Neall-Hennessey, E.; Reshetnikova, L.; Brown, J. H.; Szent-Gyorgyi, A. G.; Cohen, C.

    2011-11-02

    We have determined the crystal structure of a phosphorylated smooth-muscle myosin light chain domain (LCD). This reconstituted LCD is of a sea scallop catch muscle myosin with its phosphorylatable regulatory light chain (RLC SmoA). In the crystal structure, Arg{sup 16}, an arginine residue that is present in this isoform but not in vertebrate smooth-muscle RLC, stabilizes the phosphorylation site. This arginine interacts with the carbonyl group of the phosphorylation-site serine in the unphosphorylated LCD (determined previously), and with the phosphate group when the serine is phosphorylated. However, the overall conformation of the LCD is essentially unchanged upon phosphorylation. This result provides additional evidence that phosphorylation of the RLC is unlikely to act as an on-switch in regulation of scallop catch muscle myosin.

  6. Structure and diversity of the T-cell receptor alpha chain in the Mexican axolotl.

    PubMed

    Fellah, J S; Kerfourn, F; Dumay, A M; Aubet, G; Charlemagne, J

    1997-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate cDNA clones encoding putative T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha chains in an amphibian, the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Five TCRalpha-V chain-encoding segments were identified, each belonging to a separate family. The best identity scores for these axolotl TCRalpha-V segments were all provided by sequences belonging to the human TCRalpha-V1 family and the mouse TCRalpha-V3 and TCRalpha-V8 families. A total of 14 different TCRA-J segments were identified from 44 TCRA-V/TCRA-J regions sequenced, suggesting that a large repertoire of TCRA-J segments is a characteristic of most vertebrates. The structure of the axolotl CDR3 alpha chain loop is in good agreement with that of mammals, including a majority of small hydrophobic residues at position 92 and of charged, hydrophilic, or polar residues at positions 93 and 94, which are highly variable and correspond to the TCRA-V/J junction. This suggests that some positions of the axolotl CDR3 alpha chain loop are positively selected during T-cell differentiation, particularly around residue 93 that could be selected for its ability to makes contacts with major histocompatibility complex-associated antigenic peptides, as in mammals. The axolotl Calpha domain had the typical structure of mammalian and avian Calpha domains, including the charged residues in the TM segment that are thought to interact with other proteins in the membrane, as well as most of the residues forming the conserved antigen receptor transmembrane motif. PMID:9002443

  7. Structure and diversity of the TCR alpha-chain in a teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Partula, S; de Guerra, A; Fellah, J S; Charlemagne, J

    1996-07-01

    T cell receptor beta-chain genes are well characterized in representatives of most vertebrate phyla, from sharks to mammals, but the molecular structure of complete TCR alpha-chains has not yet been established in cold-blooded vertebrates. We used a PCR approach to isolate cDNAs encoding putative teleost fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss, rainbow trout) TCR alpha-chains. Eight V alpha segments were identified, belonging to six different families, and the best amino acid sequence identity scores for these trout V alpha were all provided by mammalian V alpha or V delta sequences. Twenty-four (60.1 %) of the 39 analyzed V alpha segments belong to the V alpha 2 family, which has limited homology with mammalian V alpha/delta sequences and with the human V pre-B sequence. A total of 32 different J alpha segments were identified from 40 J alpha regions sequenced, suggesting that a large repertoire of J alpha segments is a characteristic of most vertebrates. The structural properties of the TCR alpha-chain complementarity-determining region 3 loop are well conserved between trout and mammals, suggesting that this region has been under continuous selective pressure in jawed vertebrate evolution. The trout C alpha segment has conserved N-terminal and transmembrane domains, but the C alpha intercysteine distance contains only 40 residues, significantly smaller as compared with mammals (49-56 residues). The conserved features of teleost fish TCR beta- and alpha-chains with their mammalian equivalents suggest that TCR-alpha beta receptors were still present in the common Devonian ancestors of modern teleost fish and mammals, about 450 million years ago. PMID:8683116

  8. Retrobiosynthetic Approach Delineates the Biosynthetic Pathway and the Structure of the Acyl Chain of Mycobacterial Glycopeptidolipids*

    PubMed Central

    Vats, Archana; Singh, Anil Kumar; Mukherjee, Raju; Chopra, Tarun; Ravindran, Madhu Sudhan; Mohanty, Debasisa; Chatterji, Dipankar; Reyrat, Jean-Marc; Gokhale, Rajesh S.

    2012-01-01

    Glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) are dominant cell surface molecules present in several non-tuberculous and opportunistic mycobacterial species. GPLs from Mycobacterium smegmatis are composed of a lipopeptide core unit consisting of a modified C26-C34 fatty acyl chain that is linked to a tetrapeptide (Phe-Thr-Ala-alaninol). The hydroxyl groups of threonine and terminal alaninol are further modified by glycosylations. Although chemical structures have been reported for 16 GPLs from diverse mycobacteria, there is still ambiguity in identifying the exact position of the hydroxyl group on the fatty acyl chain. Moreover, the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the fatty acyl component are unknown. In this study we show that a bimodular polyketide synthase in conjunction with a fatty acyl-AMP ligase dictates the synthesis of fatty acyl chain of GPL. Based on genetic, biochemical, and structural investigations, we determine that the hydroxyl group is present at the C-5 position of the fatty acyl component. Our retrobiosynthetic approach has provided a means to understand the biosynthesis of GPLs and also resolve the long-standing debate on the accurate structure of mycobacterial GPLs. PMID:22798073

  9. Structural and electronic properties of a single Si chain doped zigzag AlN nanoribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Min; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Ke-Wei

    2015-04-01

    The first-principles projector-augmented wave (PAW) potentials within the density function theory (DFT) framework have been used to determine the geometry structures and electronic properties of the zigzag edge AlN nanoribbons (ZAlNNRs) doped with a single Si chain under generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The average Al-Si, Si-Si, Al-N, Si-N, Al-H and N-H bond lengths are 2.39, 2.16, 1.83, 1.74, 1.59 and 1.03 Å, respectively. Pure 7-ZAlNNR is an indirect semiconductor with a large band gap of 2.235 eV, while a semiconductor to metal transformation is taken place after a single Si chain substituting for a single Al-N chain at various positions. In pure 7-ZAlNNR, the HVB and LCB are mainly attributed to the edge N and Al atoms, respectively, while in a single Si chain substituting doped 7-ZAlNNR, the HVB and LCB are mainly attributed to the Si atoms. The Al-N, Al-H and Al-Si bonds are ionic bond, the Si-Si and Si-H bonds are covalent bond, the N-H and N-Si bonds are covalent bond modified ionic bond.

  10. Structural Analyses of Short-Chain Prenyltransferases Identify an Evolutionarily Conserved GFPPS Clade in Brassicaceae Plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Qingwen; Fan, Dongjie; Li, Jianxu; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Peng

    2016-02-01

    Terpenoids are the largest and most diverse class of plant-specialized metabolites, which function in diverse physiological processes during plant development. In the biosynthesis of plant terpenoids, short-chain prenyltransferases (SC-PTs), together with terpene synthases (TPSs), play critical roles in determining terpenoid diversity. SC-PTs biosynthesize prenyl pyrophosphates with different chain lengths, and these compounds are the direct precursors of terpenoids. Arabidopsis thaliana possesses a subgroup of SC-PTs whose functions are not clearly known. In this study, we focus on 10 geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase-like [GGPPSL] proteins, which are commonly thought to produce GGPP [C20]. We found that a subset of members of the Arabidopsis GGPPSL gene family have undergone neo-functionalization: GGPPSL6, 7, 9, and 10 mainly have geranylfarnesyl pyrophosphate synthase activity (C25; renamed AtGFPPS1, 2, 3, and 4), and GGPPSL8 produces even longer chain prenyl pyrophosphate (≥ C30; renamed polyprenyl pyrophosphate synthase 2, AtPPPS2). By solving the crystal structures of AtGFPPS2, AtPPPS2, and AtGGPPS11, we reveal the product chain-length determination mechanism of SC-PTs and interpret it as a "three floors" model. Using this model, we identified a novel GFPPS clade distributed in Brassicaceae plants and found that the GFPPS gene typically occurs in tandem with a gene encoding a TPS, forming a GFPPS-TPS gene cluster. PMID:26537048

  11. Synthesis and characterization of metal(II) fluconazole complexes: Chain-like structure and photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yun; Hu, Chang Wen; Xia, Zhi Ning

    2007-06-01

    Three coordination polymers (flu) 2CuBr 2·2H 2O ( 1), (flu) 2Zn(ClO 4) 2·2H 2O ( 2), (flu) 4Ni 2(H 2O) 4(Mo 8O 26) · 6H 2O ( 3), (flu = fluconazole) have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1- 3 exhibit similar one dimensional chain-like structures linked by double stranded fluconazole-bridge. In the self-assembly of compounds 1- 3, the introduction of anions with different sizes and geometrical configurations lead to the flexible C-C chain of fluconazole to be rotated for suitable position and angle to hold them. Similar inter-chain hydrogen bonding interactions are observed in compounds 1 and 2, whereas compound 3 exhibits a different three dimensional supramolecular architecture in which different chains are linked by [Mo 8O 26] 4- via hydrogen bonding interactions. Complex 1 is nonemissive at room temperature and compounds 2- 3 exhibit different photoluminescence properties.

  12. Molecular structure and rheological properties of short-side-chain heavily glycosylated porcine stomach mucin.

    PubMed

    Yakubov, Gleb E; Papagiannopoulos, Aristeidis; Rat, Elodie; Easton, Richard L; Waigh, Thomas A

    2007-11-01

    The current accepted model for high-molecular-weight gastric mucins of the MUC family is that they adopt a polydisperse coil conformation in bulk solutions. We develop this model using well-characterized highly purified porcine gastric mucin Orthana that is genetically close to the human MUC6 type. It has short side chains and low levels of sialic acid residues and includes minute amounts of cysteine residues that, if abundant, can be responsible for the self-polymerization of mucin. We have established that the mucin structure in bulk solutions corresponds to a daisy-chain random coil. Dynamic light scattering experiments probe the internal dynamics of globular subunits (individual daisies) at the approximately 9 nm length scale, whereas viscosity and light scattering measurements indicate that the size of the whole mucin chains is much larger, approximately 50 nm. The bulk viscosity (eta) scales with mucin concentration (c) in a manner similar to that found for short-side-chain synthetic comb polyelectrolytes and is characterized by a transition between semidilute (eta approximately c1/2) and entangled (eta approximately c3/2) regimes. PMID:17910495

  13. Enzymic and structural studies on Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase and other short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases.

    PubMed

    Smilda, T; Kamminga, A H; Reinders, P; Baron, W; van Hylckama Vlieg, J E; Beintema, J J

    2001-05-01

    Enzymic and structural studies on Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenases and other short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) are presented. Like alcohol dehydrogenases from other Drosophila species, the enzyme from D. simulans is more active on secondary than on primary alcohols, although ethanol is its only known physiological substrate. Several secondary alcohols were used to determine the kinetic parameters kcat and Km. The results of these experiments indicate that the substrate-binding region of the enzyme allows optimal binding of a short ethyl side-chain in a small binding pocket, and of a propyl or butyl side-chain in large binding pocket, with stereospecificity for R(-) alcohols. At a high concentration of R(-) alcohols substrate activation occurs. The kcat and Km values determined under these conditions are about two-fold, and two orders of magnitude, respectively, higher than those at low substrate concentrations. Sequence alignment of several SDRs of known, and unknown three-dimensional structures, indicate the presence of several conserved residues in addition to those involved in the catalyzed reactions. Structural roles of these conserved residues could be derived from observations made on superpositioned structures of several SDRs with known structures. Several residues are conserved in tetrameric SDRs, but not in dimeric ones. Two halohydrin-halide-lyases show significant homology with SDRs in the catalytic domains of these enzymes, but they do not have the structural features required for binding NAD+. Probably these lyases descend from an SDR, which has lost the capability to bind NAD+, but the enzyme reaction mechanisms may still be similar. PMID:11443349

  14. Dynamic Structure Factors of the Spin-1/2 XX Chain with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derzhko, Oleg; Verkholyak, Taras

    2006-10-01

    We consider the spin-1/2 isotropic XY chain in a (z) transverse magnetic field with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction directed along the z-axis in spin space and examine the effects of the latter interaction on the zz, xx (yy) and xy (yx) dynamic structure factors. The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction does not manifest itself in the zz dynamic quantities. In contrast, the xx (yy) and xy (yx) dynamic structure factors show dramatical changes owing to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Implications of our results for electron spin resonance experiments are briefly discussed.

  15. Combinatorial variation of structure in considerations of compound lumping in one- and two-dimensional property representations of condensable atmospheric organic compounds. 1. Lumping by 1-D volatility with nC fixed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankow, James F.; Niakan, Negar; Asher, William E.

    2013-12-01

    Many current models that aim to predict urban and regional levels of organic particulate matter (OPM) use either the 2 product (2p) framework for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, or a static 1-D volatility basis set (1-D-VBS). These approaches assume that: 1) the compounds involved in OPM condensation/evaporation can be lumped simply by volatility with no specificity regarding carbon number nC, MW, or polar functionality; 2) water uptake does not occur; and 3) the compounds are non-ionizing. This work considers the consequences for uniphasic PM caused by the first two assumptions due to effects of the condensed-phase mean molecular weight MWbar and activity coefficients (ζi), including when RH (relative humidity) > 0. Setting nC = 10 for all bins, multiple chemical structures were developed for each bin of a 1-D-VBS for un-aged SOA in the α-pinene/ozone system. For each bin, a group-contribution vapor pressure (pLo) prediction method was used to find multiple structures such that the groups-based log pLo for nC = 10 and variable numbers of aldehyde, ketone, hydroxyl, and carboxylic acid groups agrees, within ±0.5, with the bin volatility. The number of possible combinations with one structure taken from each bin was 17,640. The Raster-Roulette Organic Aerosol (RROA) model was used to calculate the equilibrium mass concentrations (μg m-3) of OPM (Mo) and co-condensed water (Mw) at 25 °C for each combination for ranges of RH and ΔHC (change in parent hydrocarbon concentration). UNIFAC was used to determine the needed values of ζi. Frequency distributions from RROA for Mo, Mw, and the O:C ratio were developed. For Mo levels typical of the ambient atmosphere, then for the 1-D-VBS and all bins constrained at nC = 10, significant RH-induced enhancement of OPM condensation was observed in the distributions. The spread of the distributions was found to increase rapidly as the level of OPM decreased. The within-bin spread of ±0.5 log units in the groups

  16. Structure of the nidogen binding LE module of the laminin gamma1 chain in solution.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, R; Czisch, M; Mayer, U; Pöschl, E; Huber, R; Timpl, R; Holak, T A

    1996-04-01

    The structure of the single LE module between residues 791 and 848 of the laminin gamma1 chain, which contains the high affinity binding site for nidogen, has been probed using NMR methods. The module folds into an autonomous domain which has a stable and unique three-dimensional (3D) structure in solution. The 3D structure was determined on the basis of 362 interproton distance constraints derived from nuclear Overhauser enhancement measurements and 39 phi angles, supplemented by 5 psi and 22 chi1 angles. The main features of the NMR structures are two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets which are separated by loops and cross-connected by four disulfide bridges. The N-terminal segment which contains the first three disulfide bridges is similar to epidermal growth factor. The C-terminal segment has an S-like backbone profile with a crossover at the last disulfide bridge and comprises two three-residue long beta-strands that form an antiparallel beta-sheet. The LE module possesses an exposed nidogen binding loop that projects away from the main body of the protein. The side-chains of three amino acids which are crucial for binding (Asp, Asn, Val) are all exposed at the domain surface. An inactivating Asn-Ser mutation in this region showed the same 3D structure indicating that these three residues, and possibly an additional Tyr in an adjacent loop, provide direct contacts in the interaction with nidogen. PMID:8648631

  17. Structural and thermodynamic behavior of alkane chains at the liquid/vapor interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, David Alejandro; Domínguez, Hector

    2013-04-01

    Computer simulations for several alkane fluids were carried out to study thermodynamics and structural behavior of the molecules at the liquid-vapor interface. Three different models were used to simulate the fluids, one of them was proposed in this work and we obtained a slightly better agreement than the other models with experimental data. The fluid structure at the interface was analyzed at temperatures close to the melting point using the new model and it was found that molecules at the free surface present more order than those at the bulk liquid phase. By calculating the order of the hydrocarbon chains a strong structure of molecules was observed at the interface than those in bulk, moreover, some of those molecules at the interface were aligned perpendicular to the interface. Previous simulations report stronger structures at the interface by the formation of a monolayer of alkane chains, however, those simulations started at very low temperatures and they did not reproduce thermodynamic properties such as the interfacial tension correctly. The model proposed in the present work not only presents good agreement with surface tension data but also shows evidence that the fluid structured as experiments indicated at temperatures close to the melting temperature.

  18. Four structural risk factors identify most fibril-forming kappa light chains.

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, F. J.; Biosciences Division

    2000-09-01

    Antibody light chains (LCs) comprise the most structurally diverse family of proteins involved in amyloidosis. Many antibody LCs incorporate structural features that impair their stability and solubility, leading to their assembly into fibrils and to their subsequent pathological deposition when produced in excess during multiple myeloma and primary amyloidosis. The particular amino acid variations in antibody LCs that account for fibril formation and amyloidogenesis have not been identified. This study focuses on amyloidogenesis within the Kl family of human LCs. Reanalysis of the current database of primary structures of proteins from more than 100 patients who produced Kl LCS, 37 of which were amyloidogenic, reveals apparent structural features that may contribute to amyloidosis. These features include loss of conserved residues or the gain of particular residues through mutation at sites involving a repertoire of approximately 20% of the amino acid positions in the light chain variable domain (V{sub L}). Moreover, 80% of all K1 amyloidogenic V{sub L}s are identifiable by the presence of at least one of three single-site substitutions or the acquisition of an N-linked glycosylation site through mutations. These findings suggest that it is feasible to predict fibril propensity by analysis of primary structure.

  19. Markov chains or the game of structure and chance. From complex networks, to language evolution, to musical compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Ph.; Dawin, J. R.; Volchenkov, D.

    2010-06-01

    Markov chains provide us with a powerful tool for studying the structure of graphs and databases in details. We review the method of generalized inverses for Markov chains and apply it for the analysis of urban structures, evolution of languages, and musical compositions. We also discuss a generalization of Lévy flights over large complex networks and study the interplay between the nonlinearity of diffusion process and the topological structure of the network.

  20. Structural features within the nascent chain regulate alternative targeting of secretory proteins to mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Natalie V; Dirndorfer, Daniela; Lang, Sven; Resenberger, Ulrike K; Restelli, Lisa M; Hemion, Charles; Miesbauer, Margit; Frank, Stephan; Neutzner, Albert; Zimmermann, Richard; Winklhofer, Konstanze F; Tatzelt, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Protein targeting to specified cellular compartments is essential to maintain cell function and homeostasis. In eukaryotic cells, two major pathways rely on N-terminal signal peptides to target proteins to either the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or mitochondria. In this study, we show that the ER signal peptides of the prion protein-like protein shadoo, the neuropeptide hormone somatostatin and the amyloid precursor protein have the property to mediate alternative targeting to mitochondria. Remarkably, the targeting direction of these signal peptides is determined by structural elements within the nascent chain. Each of the identified signal peptides promotes efficient ER import of nascent chains containing α-helical domains, but targets unstructured polypeptides to mitochondria. Moreover, we observed that mitochondrial targeting by the ER signal peptides correlates inversely with ER import efficiency. When ER import is compromised, targeting to mitochondria is enhanced, whereas improving ER import efficiency decreases mitochondrial targeting. In conclusion, our study reveals a novel mechanism of dual targeting to either the ER or mitochondria that is mediated by structural features within the nascent chain. PMID:23481258

  1. Structure of IL-22 Bound to Its High-Affinity IL-22R1 Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.C.; Logsdon, N.J.; Walter, M.R.

    2008-09-29

    IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens and contributes to immune disease. IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). IL-22R1 also pairs with the IL-20R2 chain to induce IL-20 and IL-24 signaling. To define the molecular basis of these diverse interactions, we have determined the structure of the IL-22/sIL-22R1 complex. The structure, combined with homology modeling and surface plasmon resonance studies, defines the molecular basis for the distinct affinities and specificities of IL-22 and IL-10 receptor chains that regulate cellular targeting and signal transduction to elicit effective immune responses.

  2. Biobased Fat Mimicking Molecular Structuring Agents for Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) and Other Edible Oils.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Julian R; John, George

    2015-12-01

    To develop sustainable value-added materials from biomass, novel small-molecule sugar ester gelators were synthesized using biocatalysis. The facile one-step regiospecific coupling of the pro-antioxidant raspberry ketone glucoside and unsaturated or saturated long- and medium-chain fatty acids provides a simple approach to tailor the structure and self-assembly of the amphiphilic product. These low molecular weight molecules demonstrated the ability to self-assemble in a variety of solvents and exhibited supergelation, with a minimum gelation concentration of 0.25 wt %, in numerous organic solvents, as well as in a range of natural edible oils, specifically a relatively unstudied group of liquids: natural medium-chain triglyceride oils, notably coconut oil. Spectroscopic analysis details the gelator structure as well as the intermolecular noncovalent interactions, which allow for gelation. X-ray diffraction studies indicate fatty acid chain packing of gelators is similar to that of natural fats, signifying the crystalline nature may lead to desirable textural properties and mouthfeel. PMID:26624525

  3. An indirect generation of 1D M(II)-2,5-dihydroxybenzoquinone coordination polymers, their structural rearrangements and generation of materials with a high affinity for H2, CO2 and CH4.

    PubMed

    Abrahams, Brendan F; Dharma, A David; Dyett, Brendan; Hudson, Timothy A; Maynard-Casely, Helen; Kingsbury, Christopher J; McCormick, Laura J; Robson, Richard; Sutton, Ashley L; White, Keith F

    2016-01-28

    A series of solid-state structural transformations are found to accompany desolvation of relatively simple coordination polymers to yield materials that exhibit unexpected gas sorbing properties. Reaction of 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzene with M(II) salts (M = Mg, or Zn) in an alcohol/water solution in the presence of air affords cis-M(II)(C6H2O4(-II))(H2O)2·2H2O·xROH, (M = Mg, or Zn), crankshaft-like chains in which the absolute configurations of the chiral metal centres follow the pattern Δ Δ Λ Λ Δ Δ Λ Λ, and are hydrogen bonded together to generate spacious channels. When crystals of the crankshaft chain are air dried the crystals undergo a single crystal-to-powder rearrangement to form linear trans-M(II)(C6H2O4(-II))(H2O)2 chains. Further dehydration yields microporous solids that reversibly sorb H2, CH4 and CO2 with high sorption enthalpies. PMID:26733002

  4. Thin Films of a Main Chain Columnar Liquid Crystal: Studies of Structure, Phase Transitions and Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Defaux, M.; DiMasi, E.; Vidal, Loic; Moller, Martin; Gearba, Raluca; Ivanov, Dimitri

    2009-03-22

    The structure of thin films of poly(di-n-propylsiloxane), PDPS, was studied with a combination of optical and atomic force microscopy, electron diffraction, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Two different morphological features are observed in the mesomorphic films. The lamellar ribbons are composed of the chains oriented parallel to the plane of the substrate in which the reciprocal space 10 vector is vertical. The other feature with a circular symmetry, the cylindrite, contains the chains parallel to the substrate normal. The cylindrites and needles are essentially the same mesomorphic lamellae that develop differently under the conditions of confinement. The crystallization of PDPS films does not change the gross morphological features developed during the mesophase formation and mainly proceeds via epitaxial growth of the {alpha}-crystal on the parent mesophase. Spontaneous alignment of the mesomorphic PDPS films on the PTFE-rubbed substrates allows fabricating highly crystalline inorganic polymer surfaces oriented on the scale of centimeters.

  5. Structure and chain conformation of a neutral intracellular heteropolysaccharide from mycelium of Paecilomyces cicadae.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao-yang; Li, Wei-qi; Shao, Shuang-shuang; He, Liang; Cheng, Junwen; Han, Sufang; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-20

    A neutral heteropolysaccharide (PCIPS2) was isolated and purified from mycelium of Paecilomyces cicadae, which was investigated to be mainly composed of D-mannose, L-rhamnose, 3-O-methyl-D-galactose, D-glucose and D-galactose with a molar ratio of 47.9:3.1:6.4:0.9:0.8. It had a backbone of 1,4-linked α-L-Rhap residues and 1,6-linked α-D-Manp residues with branches at O-3 of α-D-Manp residues. Its side chain was comprised of minor terminal β-D-glucose and 1,4-linked α-3-O-Me-D-Galp residues terminated by α-D-galactose. Furthermore, its chain information on the values of weight-average molar mass (Mw), root mean square radius ([Formula: see text]), hydrodynamic radius (Rh) and intrinsic viscosity ([η]) for PCIPS2 were analyzed to be 3.09 × 10(4)g/mol, 7.8 nm, 3.6 nm and 8.5 mL/g, respectively. The structural exponent α of 0.57 indicated that PCIPS2 existed as a flexible chain conformation with a coil-like structure in 0.1M NaNO3 at 25 °C. In terms of known theory for worm-like chains, the model parameters for PCIPS2 were as following: molar mass per unit contour length (ML) = 379 nm(-1), persistence length (q) = 0.74 nm and hydrodynamic diameter of cylinder (d) = 0.82 nm, which were further evidenced by atomic force microscopy (AFM). PMID:26572406

  6. Gene structure and molecular phylogeny of the linker chains from the giant annelid hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Chabasse, Christine; Bailly, Xavier; Sanchez, Sophie; Rousselot, Morgane; Zal, Franck

    2006-09-01

    Giant extracellular hexagonal bilayer hemoglobin (HBL-Hb), found only in annelids, is an approximately 3500-kDa heteropolymeric structure involved in oxygen transport. The HBL-Hbs are comprised of globin and linker chains, the latter being required for the assembly of the quaternary structure. The linker chains, varying in size from 225 to 283 amino acids, have a conserved cysteine-rich domain within their N-terminal moiety that is homologous to the cysteine-rich modules constituting the ligand binding domain of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) protein family found in many metazoans. We have investigated the gene structure of linkers from Arenicola marina, Alvinella pompejana, Nereis diversicolor, Lumbricus terrestris, and Riftia pachyptila. We found, contrary to the results obtained earlier with linker genes from N. diversicolor and L. terrestris, that in all of the foregoing cases, the linker LDL-A module is flanked by two phase 1 introns, as in the human LDLR gene, with two more introns in the 3' side whose positions varied with the species. In addition, we obtained 13 linker cDNAs that have been determined experimentally or found in the EST database LumbriBASE. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the linker primary sequences demonstrated that they cluster into two distinct families of linker proteins. We propose that the common gene ancestor to annelid linker genes exhibited a four-intron and five-exon structure and gave rise to the two families subsequent to a duplication event. PMID:16838215

  7. Structural dynamics of a single-chain Fv antibody against (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yusui; Tanaka, Yusuke; Inaba, Satomi; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruno, Takahiro; Sasaki, Yuji C; Fukada, Harumi; Kobayashi, Yuji; Azuma, Takachika; Oda, Masayuki

    2016-10-01

    Protein structure dynamics are critical for understanding structure-function relationships. An antibody can recognize its antigen, and can evolve toward the immunogen to increase binding strength, in a process referred to as affinity maturation. In this study, a single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody against (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)acetyl, derived from affinity matured type, C6, was designed to comprise the variable regions of light and heavy chains connected by a (GGGGS)3 linker peptide. This scFv was expressed in Escherichia coli in the insoluble fraction, solubilized in the presence of urea, and refolded by stepwise dialysis. The correctly refolded scFv was purified, and its structural, physical, and functional properties were analyzed using analytical ultracentrifugation, circular dichroism spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and surface plasmon resonance biosensor. Thermal stability of C6 scFv increased greatly upon antigen binding, due to favorable enthalpic contributions. Antigen binding kinetics were comparable to those of the intact C6 antibody. Structural dynamics were analyzed using the diffracted X-ray tracking method, showing that fluctuations were suppressed upon antigen binding. The antigen binding energy determined from the angular diffusion coefficients was in good agreement with that calculated from the kinetics analysis, indicating that the fluctuations detected at single-molecule level are well reflected by antigen binding events. PMID:27222286

  8. Probing structure-induced optical behavior in a new class of self-activated luminescent 0D/1D CaWO₄ metal oxide – CdSe nanocrystal composite heterostructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Hoy, Jessica; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Li, Zhuo-Qun; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Taylor, Gordon T.; et al

    2015-01-30

    In this report, we synthesize and characterize the structural and optical properties of novel heterostructures composed of (i) semiconducting nanocrystalline CdSe quantum dot (QDs) coupled with (ii) both one and zero-dimensional (1D and 0D) motifs of self-activated luminescence CaWO₄ metal oxides. Specifically, ~4 nm CdSe QDs have been anchored onto (i) high-aspect ratio 1D nanowires, measuring ~230 nm in diameter and ~3 μm in length, as well as onto (ii) crystalline 0D nanoparticles (possessing an average diameter of ~ 80 nm) of CaWO₄ through the mediation of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a connecting linker. Composite formation was confirmed by complementarymore » electron microscopy and spectroscopy (i.e. IR and Raman) data. In terms of luminescent properties, our results show that our 1D and 0D heterostructures evince photoluminescence (PL) quenching and shortened PL lifetimes of CaWO₄ as compared with unbound CaWO₄. We propose that a photo-induced electron transfer process occurs from CaWO₄ to CdSe QDs, a scenario which has been confirmed by NEXAFS measurements and which highlights a decrease in the number of unoccupied orbitals in the conduction bands of CdSe QDs. By contrast, the PL signature and lifetimes of MPA-capped CdSe QDs within these heterostructures do not exhibit noticeable changes as compared with unbound MPA-capped CdSe QDs. The striking difference in optical behavior between CaWO₄ nanostructures and CdSe QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. In addition, the PL quenching behaviors for CaWO₄ within the heterostructure configuration were examined by systematically varying (i) the quantities and coverage densities of CdSe QDs as well as (ii) the intrinsic morphology (and by extension, the inherent crystallite size) of CaWO₄ itself.« less

  9. Synthesis of 1D Fe₃O₄/P(MBAAm-co-MAA) nanochains as stabilizers for Ag nanoparticles and templates for hollow mesoporous structure, and their applications in catalytic reaction and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Si, Xiaowei; Liu, Bin; Bian, Guomin; Qi, Yonglin; Yang, Xinlin; Li, Chenxi

    2015-10-15

    One-dimensional (1D) magnetic Fe3O4/P(MBAAm-co-MAA) nanochains were prepared by distillation-precipitation polymerization of MBAAm and MAA in the presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles as building blocks under a magnetic heating stirrer, which played two critical roles: serving as magnetic field to induce the self-assembly of Fe3O4 nanoparticles into 1D nanochains and providing thermal energy to induce the polymerization of MAA and MBAAm on the surface of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The thickness of the P(MBAAm-co-MAA) layer can be easily tuned by adjusting the successive polymerization steps. The polymer layer that contained carboxyl groups was used as stabilizers for loading Ag nanoparticles and the reaction locus for deposition of outer silica layer via a sol-gel method in presence of C18TMS as the pore directing agent for tri-layer nanochains. The corresponding hollow mesoporous silica nanochains with movable maghemite cores (γ-Fe2O3@mSiO2) were produced after removal of the polymer mid-layer and the alkyl groups of the pore directing agent via calcination of the tri-layer nanochains at high temperature. The Fe3O4/P(MBAAm-co-MAA)/Ag nanochains exhibited a highly catalytic efficiency and well reusable property toward the reduction of nitrophenol. Furthermore, the γ-Fe2O3@mSiO2 nanochains possessed hollow mesoporous structure and high specific surface area (197.2 m(2) g(-1)) were used as a drug carrier, which displayed a controlled release property. PMID:26119084

  10. Rhamnoarabinosyl and rhamnoarabinoarabinosyl side chains as structural features of coffee arabinogalactans.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Fernando M; Reis, Ana; Silva, Artur M S; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2008-05-01

    The hot water soluble green coffee arabinogalactans, representing nearly 7% of total coffee bean arabinogalactans, were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR and, after partial acid hydrolysis, by ESI-MS/MS. Data obtained showed that these are highly branched type II arabinogalactans covalently linked to proteins (AGP), with a protein moiety containing 10% of 4-hydroxyproline residues. They possess a beta-(1-->3)-Galp/beta-(1-->3,6)-Galp ratio of 0.80, with a sugars composition of Rha:Ara:Gal of 0.25:1.0:1.5, and containing 2mol% of glucuronic acid residues. Beyond the occurrence of single alpha-L-Araf residues and [alpha-L-Araf-(1-->5)-alpha-L-Araf-(1-->] disaccharide residues as side chains, these AGPs contain unusual side chains at O-3 position of the beta-(1-->6)-linked galactopyranosyl residues composed by [alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->5)-alpha-L-Araf-(1-->] and [alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->5)-alpha-L-Araf-(1-->5)-alpha-L-Araf-(1-->] oligosaccharides. Rhamnoarabinosyl and rhamnoarabinoarabinosyl side chains are reported for the first time as structural features of plant arabinogalactan-proteins. PMID:18343467

  11. Modelling food chain structure and contaminant bioaccumulation using stable nitrogen isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabana, Gilbert; Rasmussen, Joseph B.

    1994-11-01

    THE nitrogen pools of animals are enriched in 15N relative to their food1, with the top predators having the highest concentrations of this stable isotope2. The use of δ15N to indicate trophic position depends on the degree to which it reflects variation in the underly-ing food-web structure, rather than variable fractionation along the food chain. Here we compare adult lake trout, a top pelagic predator, from a series of lakes, and find that δ15N values vary from 7.5 to 17.5%o, a surprisingly wide range for one species. The length of the food chain can explain this variation, supporting the idea that δ15N is a food-web descriptor. Food-chain length was measured by the presence or absence of two intermediate trophic levels, pelagic forage fish and the macrozooplankter, Mysis relicta, each of which when present contributes about three δ15N units to the trout signature. We find that δ15N can be used as a continuous, integrative measure of trophic position, which is supported by its correlation to mercury levels in lake trout.

  12. Synthesis, structure and spectroscopic properties of an o-phthalate-bridged copper(II) chain complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, J.; Su, Q.; Wang, Q.; Wu, X.

    2000-01-01

    An o-phthalate-bridged copper(II) chain complex of {[Cu(2,2'-bipyridine)(μ-phthalate)H 2O]·3.5H 2O} n has been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography and UV-vis spectroscopy measurements. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P2 1/c, with a=9.9585(5), b=14.8312(8), c=13.6875(7) Å, β=104.868(1)° and Z=4. The copper(II) center is in 4+1 surrounding that can be described as square-pyramid. Each Cu(II) atom links by o-phthalate to form a waving chain. A network structure is assembled by chains via π-π interactions and water molecules are clathrated in the cavities. The UV-vis absorption spectrum of the title complex is also reported and explained perfectly by the scaling radial theory which was proposed by us.

  13. Bacterial Social Networks: Structure and composition of Myxococcus xanthus outer membrane vesicle chains

    PubMed Central

    Remis, Jonathan P.; Wei, Doug; Gorur, Amita; Zemla, Marcin; Haraga, Jessica; Allen, Simon; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Costerton, J. William; Berleman, James E.; Auer, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Summary The social soil bacterium, Myxococcus xanthus, displays a variety of complex and highly coordinated behaviors, including social motility, predatory rippling and fruiting body formation. Here we show that M. xanthus cells produce a network of outer membrane extensions in the form of vesicles and vesicle chains that interconnect cells. We observed peritrichous display of vesicles and vesicle chains and increased abundance in biofilms compared to planktonic cultures. By applying a range of imaging techniques, including 3D Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB/SEM), we determined these structures to range between 30-60 nm in width and up to 5 μm in length. Purified vesicle chains consist of typical M. xanthus lipids, fucose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetylgalactoseamine (GalNAc) carbohydrates and a small set of cargo protein. The protein content includes CglB and Tgl membrane proteins transferred in a contact-dependent manner. Most significantly, the 3D organization of cells within biofilms indicates that cells are connected via an extensive network of membrane extensions that may connect cells at the level of the periplasmic space. Such a network would allow the transfer of membrane proteins and other molecules between cells, and likely provides a mechanism for the coordination of social activities. PMID:23848955

  14. Effect of A Long Chain Carboxylate Acid on Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelle Structure: A SANS Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriati, Arum; Giri Rachman Putra, Edy; Seok Seong, Baek

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a different hydrocarbon chain length of carboxylate acid, i.e. dodecanoic acid, CH3(CH)10COOH or lauric acid and hexadecanoic acid, CH3(CH2)14COOH or palmitic acid as a co-surfactant in the 0.3 M sodium dedecyl sulfate, SDS micellar solution has been studied using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The present of lauric acid has induced the SDS structural micelles. The ellipsoid micelles structures changed significantly in length (major axis) from 22.6 Å to 37.1 Å at a fixed minor axis of 16.7 Å in the present of 0.005 M to 0.1 M lauric acid. Nevertheless, this effect did not occur in the present of palmitic acid with the same concentration range. The present of palmitic acid molecules performed insignificant effect on the SDS micelles growth where the major axis of the micelle was elongated from 22.9 Å to 25.3 Å only. It showed that the appropriate hydrocarbon chain length between surfactant and co-surfactant molecules emerged as one of the determining factors in forming a mixed micelles structure.

  15. Structural basis for the RING catalyzed synthesis of K63 linked ubiquitin chains

    PubMed Central

    Branigan, Emma; Plechanovová, Anna; Jaffray, Ellis; Naismith, James H.; Hay, Ronald T.

    2015-01-01

    The RING E3 ligase catalysed formation of lysine 63 linked ubiquitin chains by the Ube2V2–Ubc13 E2 complex is required for many important biological processes. Here we report the structure of the RING domain dimer of rat RNF4 in complex with a human Ubc13~Ub conjugate and Ube2V2. The structure has captured Ube2V2 bound to the acceptor (priming) ubiquitin with Lys63 in a position that could lead to attack on the linkage between the donor (second) ubiquitin and Ubc13 that is held in the active “folded back” conformation by the RING domain of RNF4. The interfaces identified in the structure were verified by in vitro ubiquitination assays of site directed mutants. This represents the first view of the synthesis of Lys63 linked ubiquitin chains in which both substrate ubiquitin and ubiquitin-loaded E2 are juxtaposed to allow E3 ligase mediated catalysis. PMID:26148049

  16. Structural basis for the RING-catalyzed synthesis of K63-linked ubiquitin chains.

    PubMed

    Branigan, Emma; Plechanovová, Anna; Jaffray, Ellis G; Naismith, James H; Hay, Ronald T

    2015-08-01

    RING E3 ligase-catalyzed formation of K63-linked ubiquitin chains by the Ube2V2-Ubc13 E2 complex is required in many important biological processes. Here we report the structure of the RING-domain dimer of rat RNF4 in complex with a human Ubc13∼Ub conjugate and Ube2V2. The structure has captured Ube2V2 bound to the acceptor (priming) ubiquitin with K63 in a position favorable for attack on the linkage between Ubc13 and the donor (second) ubiquitin held in the active 'folded back' conformation by the RING domain of RNF4. We verified the interfaces identified in the structure by in vitro ubiquitination assays of site-directed mutants. To our knowledge, this represents the first view of synthesis of K63-linked ubiquitin chains in which both substrate ubiquitin and ubiquitin-loaded E2 are juxtaposed to allow E3 ligase-mediated catalysis. PMID:26148049

  17. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of microbial community structure in landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Miho; Hatayoshi, Haruna; Syuku-nobe, Aoi; Shimoyama, Takefumi; Nakayama, Toru; Okuwaki, Akitsugu; Nishino, Tokuzo; Hemmi, Hisashi

    2009-05-30

    The structures of microbial communities in water samples obtained from a landfill site that had been a source of environmental pollution by emitting hydrogen sulfide were elucidated using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The microbial communities, which consisted of a limited number of major microorganisms, were stable for several months. Microorganisms capable of degrading such chemical compounds as 2-hydroxybenzothiazole and bisphenol A were observed in landfill leachate. Microorganisms responsible for the production of hydrogen sulfide were not the primary microbes detected, even in water samples obtained from the site of gas emission. PMID:18977596

  18. Pressure dependence of structural and dynamical properties in melt sulfur: Evidence for two successive chain breakages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Mu, H. F.

    2014-11-01

    Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, the pressure dependence of structural and dynamical properties in melt sulfur along 1085 K isotherm was studied with pressure range from 4.18 to 15.8 GPa. It was found that the atomic chains in melt sulfur abruptly break twice with increasing pressure. The electric density of state near EF and the diffusion coefficient both show abrupt increase along with these two times of breakages. These changes would strongly influence the physical properties such as conductivity and viscosity. However, the density discontinuity along the isotherm, indication of a first-order phase transition, was not found.

  19. Cyano-bridged coordination polymer hydrogel-derived Sn-Fe binary oxide nanohybrids with structural diversity: from 3D, 2D, to 2D/1D and enhanced lithium-storage performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiyu; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Chen, Xuguang; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Yawen; Ding, Liangxin; Wu, Ping

    2016-05-14

    Metal oxide nanohybrids with uniform dimensions and controlled architectures possess unique compositional and structural superiorities, and thus harbor promising potential for a series of applications in energy, catalysis, and sensing systems. Herein, we propose a facile, general, and scalable cyano-bridged coordination polymer hydrogel-derived thermal-oxidation route for the construction of main-group metal and transition-metal heterometallic oxide nanohybrids with controlled constituents and architectures. The formation of Sn-Fe binary oxide nanohybrids has been demonstrated as an example by using cyano-bridged Sn(iv)-Fe(ii) bimetallic coordination polymer hydrogels (i.e., SnCl4-K4Fe(CN)6 cyanogels, Sn-Fe cyanogels) as precursors. The physicochemical properties of Sn-Fe cyanogels with different Sn/Fe ratios have been systematically examined, and it is found that perfect Sn-Fe cyanogels without unbridged Sn(iv) or Fe(ii) can be formed with Sn/Fe ratios from 2 : 1 to 1 : 2. More importantly, the simple adjustment of Sn/Fe ratios in the Sn-Fe cyanogel precursors can realize flexible dimensional control of the Sn-Fe binary oxide nanohybrids, and 2D/1D SnO2-Fe2O3 hierarchitectures, 2D SnO2-Fe2O3 nanosheets, and 3D SnO2-Fe2O3 networks have been synthesized using the Sn-Fe 1 : 2, Sn-Fe 1 : 1, and Sn-Fe 2 : 1 cyanogels as precursors, respectively. To demonstrate their compositional/structural superiorities and potential applications, the lithium-storage utilization of the Sn-Fe binary oxide nanohybrids has been selected as an objective application, and the nanohybrids exhibit Sn/Fe ratio-dependent lithium-storage performance. As a representative example, the 2D/1D SnO2-Fe2O3 hierarchitectures manifest markedly enhanced Li-storage performance in terms of reversible capacities and cycling stability in comparison with their constituent units, i.e., bare SnO2 nanosheets and Fe2O3 nanorods. The proposed cyanogel-derived thermal-oxidation strategy could

  20. Microscale and nanoscale hierarchical structured mesh films with superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties induced by long-chain fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shutao; Song, Yanlin; Jiang, Lei

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the lotus effect, we fabricate new microscale and nanoscale hierarchical structured copper mesh films by a simple electrochemical deposition. After modification of the long-chain fatty acid monolayer, these films show superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties, which could be used for the effective separation of oil and water. The length of the fatty acid chain strongly influences the surface wettability of as-prepared films. It is confirmed that the cooperative effect of the hierarchical structure of the copper film and the nature of the long-chain fatty acid contribute to this unique surface wettability.

  1. Structure of the keratan sulphate chains attached to fibromodulin isolated from bovine tracheal cartilage. Oligosaccharides generated by keratanase digestion.

    PubMed Central

    Lauder, R M; Huckerby, T N; Nieduszynski, I A

    1994-01-01

    The structure of the repeat region and chain caps of the N-linked keratan sulphate chains attached to bovine tracheal cartilage fibromodulin has been examined. The chains were fragmented by keratanase digestion, the resultant oligosaccharides isolated by strong anion-exchange chromatography, and their structures determined using high-field 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy. The chains were found to possess the following general structure: [formula: see text] All of the capping oligosaccharides isolated terminate with alpha(2-3)-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid. No alpha(2-6)-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid chain terminators, nor any fucose, alpha (1-3)-linked to N-acetylglucosamine along the repeat region, were detected. This work demonstrates that the structure of the repeat region and chain caps of N-linked keratan sulphate attached to fibromodulin isolated from bovine tracheal cartilage is identical with that of O-linked keratan sulphate chains attached to aggrecan derived from non-articular cartilage. PMID:8092992

  2. Protein Structure and Function: Looking through the Network of Side-Chain Interactions.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Moitrayee; Ghosh, Soma; Vishveshwara, Saraswathi

    2016-01-01

    Network theory has become an excellent method of choice through which biological data are smoothly integrated to gain insights into complex biological problems. Understanding protein structure, folding, and function has been an important problem, which is being extensively investigated by the network approach. Since the sequence uniquely determines the structure, this review focuses on the networks of non-covalently connected amino acid side chains in proteins. Questions in structural biology are addressed within the framework of such a formalism. While general applications are mentioned in this review, challenging problems which have demanded the attention of scientific community for a long time, such as allostery and protein folding, are considered in greater detail. Our aim has been to explore these important problems through the eyes of networks. Various methods of constructing protein structure networks (PSN) are consolidated. They include the methods based on geometry, edges weighted by different schemes, and also bipartite network of protein-nucleic acid complexes. A number of network metrics that elegantly capture the general features as well as specific features related to phenomena, such as allostery and protein model validation, are described. Additionally, an integration of network theory with ensembles of equilibrium structures of a single protein or that of a large number of structures from the data bank has been presented to perceive complex phenomena from network perspective. Finally, we discuss briefly the capabilities, limitations, and the scope for further explorations of protein structure networks. PMID:26412788

  3. Clathrin light chain B: gene structure and neuron-specific splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, S; Casper, D; Dinsmore, J; Kaufmann, C A; Brosius, J; Helfman, D M

    1992-01-01

    The clathrin light chains are components of clathrin coated vesicles, structural constituents involved in endocytosis and membrane recycling. The clathrin light chain B (LCB) gene encodes two isoforms, termed LCB2 and LCB3, via an alternative RNA splicing mechanism. We have determined the structure of the rat clathrin light chain B gene. The gene consists of six exons that extend over 11.9 kb. The first four exons and the last exon are common to the LCB2 and LCB3 isoforms. The fifth exon, termed EN, is included in the mRNA in brain, giving rise to the brain specific form LCB2 but is excluded in other tissues, generating the LCB3 isoform. Primary rat neuronal cell cultures express predominantly the brain specific LCB2 isoform, whereas primary rat cultures of glia express only the LCB3 isoform, suggesting that expression of the brain-specific LCB2 form is limited to neurons. Further evidence for neuronal localization of the LCB2 form is provided using a teratocarcinoma cell line, P19, which can be induced by retinoic acid to express a neuronal phenotype, concomitant with the induction of the LCB2 form. In order to determine the sequences involved in alternative splice site selection, we constructed a minigene containing the alternative spliced exon EN and its flanking intron and exon sequences. This minigene reflects the splicing pattern of the endogenous gene upon transfection in HeLa cell and primary neuronal cell cultures, indicating that this region of the LCB gene contains all the necessary information for neuron-specific splicing. Images PMID:1408826

  4. Proline-glutamate chimera's side chain conformation directs the type of β-hairpin structure.

    PubMed

    Maity, Jyotirmoy; Gerling, Ulla I M; Vukelić, Stella; Schäfer, Andreas; Koksch, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to study the impact of two proline chimeras, containing a glutamic acid side chain in cis- or trans-configuration, on secondary structure formation. We further investigated to what extent the configuration of the side chain contributes to the overall peptide conformation. We used a 10 residue peptide (IYSNPDGTWT) that forms a β-hairpin in water. The turn-forming proline was substituted with either a cis- or trans-proline-glutamic acid chimera, resulting in the peptides IYSNPcis -E DGTWT (P1_Pcis-E) and IYSNP(trans-E)DGTWT (P1_Ptrans-E). We studied the conformation of the modified peptides by circular dichroism (CD) and NMR-spectroscopy, and SEC/static light scattering (SLS) analysis. NMR analysis reveals that the modified peptides maintain the β-hairpin conformation in aqueous solution. At 5 °C and pH 4.3, the peptide (P1_Pcis-E) was found to adopt two coexisting β-hairpin conformations (2:2 β-hairpin, and 3:5 β-hairpin). In contrast to that, the peptide (P1_Ptrans-E) adopts a 2:2 β-hairpin that exists in equilibrium with a 4:4 β-hairpin conformation. The adoption of ordered β-hairpin structures for both modified peptides could be confirmed by CD spectroscopy, while SEC/SLS analysis showed a monomeric oligomerization state for all three investigated peptides. With the combination of several NMR methods, we were able to elucidate that even small alterations in the side chain conformation of the proline-glutamate chimera (cis or trans) can significantly influence the conformation of the adopted β-hairpin. PMID:24221353

  5. Light chain-dependent myosin structural dynamics in solution investigated by transient electrical birefringence.

    PubMed Central

    Eden, D; Highsmith, S

    1997-01-01

    The technique of transient electrical birefringence was used to compare some of the electric and structural dynamic properties of myosin subfragment 1 (S1(elc, rlc)), which has both the essential and regulatory light chains bound, to S1(elc), which has only an essential light chain. The rates of rotational Brownian motion indicate that S1(elc, rlc) is larger, as expected. The permanent electric dipole moment of S1(elc, rlc) is also larger, indicating that the regulatory light chain portion of S1(elc, rlc) has a dipole moment and that it is aligned head-to-tail with the dipole moment of the S1(elc) portion. The permanent electric dipoles decrease with increasing ionic strength, apparently because of ion binding to surface charges. Both S1(elc, rlc) and S1(elc) have intrinsic segmental flexibility, as detected by the ability to selectively align segments with a brief weak electric field. However, unlike S1(elc), which can be structurally distorted by the action of a brief strong electric field, S1(elc, rlc) is stiffer and cannot be distorted by fields as high as 7800 V/cm applied to its approximately 8000 D permanent electric dipole moment. The S1 . MgADP . Pi analog S1 . MgADP . Vi is smaller than S1 . MgADP, for both S1(elc, rlc) and S1(elc). Interestingly, the smaller, stiffer S1(elc, rlc) . MgADP . Vi complex retains intrinsic segmental flexibility. These results are discussed within a framework of current hypotheses of force-producing mechanisms that involve S1 segmental motion and/or the loss of cross-bridge flexibility during force production. PMID:9251811

  6. A 1-D dusty plasma photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Mitu, M. L.; Ticoş, C. M.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.; Scurtu, A.

    2013-09-21

    It is demonstrated numerically that a 1-D plasma crystal made of micron size cylindrical dust particles can, in principle, work as a photonic crystal for terahertz waves. The dust rods are parallel to each other and arranged in a linear string forming a periodic structure of dielectric-plasma regions. The dispersion equation is found by solving the waves equation with the boundary conditions at the dust-plasma interface and taking into account the dielectric permittivity of the dust material and plasma. The wavelength of the electromagnetic waves is in the range of a few hundred microns, close to the interparticle separation distance. The band gaps of the 1-D plasma crystal are numerically found for different types of dust materials, separation distances between the dust rods and rod diameters. The distance between levitated dust rods forming a string in rf plasma is shown experimentally to vary over a relatively wide range, from 650 μm to about 1350 μm, depending on the rf power fed into the discharge.

  7. Insights into Medium-chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Structure by Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Bonito, Cátia A; Leandro, Paula; Ventura, Fátima V; Guedes, Rita C

    2016-08-01

    The medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the first step of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (mFAO) pathway. Its deficiency is the most common genetic disorder of mFAO. Many of the MCAD disease-causing variants, including the most common p.K304E variant, show loss of function due to protein misfolding. Herein, we used molecular dynamics simulations to provide insights into the structural stability and dynamic behavior of MCAD wild-type (MCADwt) and validate a structure that would allow reliable new studies on its variants. Our results revealed that in both proteins the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) has an important structural role on the tetramer stability and also in maintaining the volume of the enzyme catalytic pockets. We confirmed that the presence of substrate changes the dynamics of the catalytic pockets and increases FAD affinity. A comparison between the porcine MCADwt (pMCADwt) and human MCADwt (hMCADwt) structures revealed that both proteins are essentially similar and that the reversion of the double mutant E376G/T255E of hMCAD enzyme does not affect the structure of the protein neither its behavior in simulation. Our validated hMCADwt structure is crucial for complementing and accelerating the experimental studies aiming for the discovery and development of potential stabilizers of MCAD variants as candidates for the treatment of MCAD deficiency (MCADD). PMID:26992026

  8. Phase Structures and Transition of Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Polyacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Er-Qiang; Ye, Chun; Cheng, S. Z. D.; Lam, Jacky W. Y.; Tang, Ben-Zhong

    2002-03-01

    A side-chain liquid crystalline polyacetylene, poly(5-[(4’-heptoxy-4-biphenylyl) carbonyl]oxy-1-pentyne) (-CH=C[(CH_2)3-OCO-Biph-OC_7H_15]n-), was synthesized. The polymerization catalyzed by WCl_6-Ph_4Sn under optimal condition produced the polymer of high molecular weight (up to 1.2 x 10^5), with predominantly a trans structure of good stereo-regularity. Both the smectic A (SA) and C (SC) phases were found, giving the d spacings of 2.3 and 3.3 nm, respectively. The coexistence of SA and SC is possible at low temperature range due to the specific molecular shape of the sample. Three broad transitions were observed upon heating: the flexible alkyl tails of the side-chain melts at 90 °C approximately, and the transformations from SA and SC to an isotropic melt occur at the peak temperatures of 160 and 170 °C, respectively. The separated SA and SC structures were obtained by the STM scanning at room temperature.

  9. Primary structure and chain conformation of fucoidan extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yaoguang; Hu, Yanfang; Yu, Long; McClements, David Julian; Xu, Xiaoqi; Liu, Guanchen; Xue, Changhu

    2016-01-20

    Knowledge of the structure of polysaccharides is essential for understanding and controlling their functional properties. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from Holothuria tubulosa, a species of sea cucumber that has recently become commercially important. The primary structure of the H. tubulosa fucoidan was clarified using a combination of enzymatic degradation, methylation analysis, and NMR, and its chain conformation was further elucidated by utilizing high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with multiple angle laser light scattering and viscometry. The fucoidan was composed of a tetrafucose repeating unit [ → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2,4(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → ]. Its sulfate content was determined to be 31.2 ± 1.6% and the weight-average molecular mass was 1567.6 ± 34.1 kDa. The molecule adapted a random coil conformation in 0.15M NaCl solution (pH 7.4) at 25 °C, with a root-mean-square radius of 63.9 ± 1.8 nm and a hydrodynamic radius of 44.5 ± 4.5 nm. This is the first report on the chain conformation of sea cucumber fucoidan. PMID:26572451

  10. Primary structure of O-linked carbohydrate chains in the cellulosome of different Clostridium thermocellum strains.

    PubMed

    Gerwig, G J; Kamerling, J P; Vliegenthart, J F; Morag, E; Lamed, R; Bayer, E A

    1991-02-26

    The cell-free forms of the multiple cellulase-containing protein complex (cellulosome), isolated from the cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum strains YS, ATCC 27405 and LQRI, have a total carbohydrate content of 5-7% (by mass), consisting of O-linked oligosaccharide chains. The carbohydrate chains were liberated by alkaline-borohydride treatment and fractionated as oligosaccharide alditols via gel-permeation chromatography and HPLC. The fractions were investigated by 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy in combination with monosaccharide and methylation analysis and with fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). In addition to the previously described major oligosaccharide, (formula; see text) [Gerwig, G. J., de Waard, P., Kamerling, J. P., Vliegenthart, J. F. G., Morgenstern, E., Lamed, R. & Bayer, E. A. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 1027-1035], the following partial structures of this compound could be established: (formula; see text). Cell-free and cell-associated forms of the cellulosome of C. thermocellum, as determined for strain YS, have the same oligosaccharide pattern. Based on the oligosaccharide structures, a biosynthetic pathway is suggested. PMID:2001693

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of two novel lanthanide supramolecular coordination polymers with nano-chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Yong-Hong; Jin, Lin-Pei; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2003-04-01

    Two novel lanthanide supramolecular coordination polymers, {[Nd 2(phth) 3(phen)(H 2O)]·H 2O} n ( 1, phth=phthalate, phen=1,10-phenanthroline) and {[Ho 2(phth) 3(phen)(H 2O) 2]·3H 2O} n ( 2), have been synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction. The results show that complex 1 crystallizes in triclinic space group P 1¯ with a=7.605(2) Å, b=12.972(4) Å, c=18.773(6) Å, α=109.778(5)°, β=91.657(5)°, γ=103.951(5)° and Z=2. Complex 1 has a one-dimentional nano-chain structure and the existence of hydrogen bonds and π- π interactions results in 2D network structure. Complex 2 crystallizes in triclinic space group P 1¯ with a=11.695(2) Å, b=13.488(3) Å, c=13.761(3) Å, α=87.09(3)°, β=67.40(3)°, γ=67.41(3)° and Z=2. Complex 2 features a zigzag double-chain and the hydrogen bonds lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network. Both Complex 1 and 2 have two metal environments.

  12. Structure and function of outer dynein arm intermediate and light chain complex

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Toshiyuki; Abe, Tatsuki; Yanagisawa, Haruaki; Kikkawa, Masahide

    2016-01-01

    The outer dynein arm (ODA) is a molecular complex that drives the beating motion of cilia/flagella. Chlamydomonas ODA is composed of three heavy chains (HCs), two ICs, and 11 light chains (LCs). Although the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the whole ODA complex has been investigated, the 3D configurations of the ICs and LCs are largely unknown. Here we identified the 3D positions of the two ICs and three LCs using cryo–electron tomography and structural labeling. We found that these ICs and LCs were all localized at the root of the outer-inner dynein (OID) linker, designated the ODA-Beak complex. Of interest, the coiled-coil domain of IC2 extended from the ODA-Beak to the outer surface of ODA. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of how the OID linker transmits signals to the ODA-Beak, by manipulating the interaction within the OID linker using a chemically induced dimerization system. We showed that the cross-linking of the OID linker strongly suppresses flagellar motility in vivo. These results suggest that the ICs and LCs of the ODA form the ODA-Beak, which may be involved in mechanosignaling from the OID linker to the HCs. PMID:26864626

  13. Structural analysis of poly-SUMO chain recognition by the RNF4-SIMs domain.

    PubMed

    Kung, Camy C-H; Naik, Mandar T; Wang, Szu-Huan; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Chang, Che-Chang; Lin, Li-Ying; Chen, Chia-Lin; Ma, Che; Chang, Chi-Fon; Huang, Tai-Huang

    2014-08-15

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF4 (RING finger protein 4) contains four tandem SIM [SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier)-interaction motif] repeats for selective interaction with poly-SUMO-modified proteins, which it targets for degradation. We employed a multi-faceted approach to characterize the structure of the RNF4-SIMs domain and the tetra-SUMO2 chain to elucidate the interaction between them. In solution, the SIM domain was intrinsically disordered and the linkers of the tetra-SUMO2 were highly flexible. Individual SIMs of the RNF4-SIMs domains bind to SUMO2 in the groove between the β2-strand and the α1-helix parallel to the β2-strand. SIM2 and SIM3 bound to SUMO with a high affinity and together constituted the recognition module necessary for SUMO binding. SIM4 alone bound to SUMO with low affinity; however, its contribution to tetra-SUMO2 binding avidity is comparable with that of SIM3 when in the RNF4-SIMs domain. The SAXS data of the tetra-SUMO2-RNF4-SIMs domain complex indicate that it exists as an ordered structure. The HADDOCK model showed that the tandem RNF4-SIMs domain bound antiparallel to the tetra-SUMO2 chain orientation and wrapped around the SUMO protamers in a superhelical turn without imposing steric hindrance on either molecule. PMID:24844634

  14. Cyano-bridged coordination polymer hydrogel-derived Sn-Fe binary oxide nanohybrids with structural diversity: from 3D, 2D, to 2D/1D and enhanced lithium-storage performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiyu; Zhu, Xiaoshu; Chen, Xuguang; Zhou, Yiming; Tang, Yawen; Ding, Liangxin; Wu, Ping

    2016-05-01

    Metal oxide nanohybrids with uniform dimensions and controlled architectures possess unique compositional and structural superiorities, and thus harbor promising potential for a series of applications in energy, catalysis, and sensing systems. Herein, we propose a facile, general, and scalable cyano-bridged coordination polymer hydrogel-derived thermal-oxidation route for the construction of main-group metal and transition-metal heterometallic oxide nanohybrids with controlled constituents and architectures. The formation of Sn-Fe binary oxide nanohybrids has been demonstrated as an example by using cyano-bridged Sn(iv)-Fe(ii) bimetallic coordination polymer hydrogels (i.e., SnCl4-K4Fe(CN)6 cyanogels, Sn-Fe cyanogels) as precursors. The physicochemical properties of Sn-Fe cyanogels with different Sn/Fe ratios have been systematically examined, and it is found that perfect Sn-Fe cyanogels without unbridged Sn(iv) or Fe(ii) can be formed with Sn/Fe ratios from 2 : 1 to 1 : 2. More importantly, the simple adjustment of Sn/Fe ratios in the Sn-Fe cyanogel precursors can realize flexible dimensional control of the Sn-Fe binary oxide nanohybrids, and 2D/1D SnO2-Fe2O3 hierarchitectures, 2D SnO2-Fe2O3 nanosheets, and 3D SnO2-Fe2O3 networks have been synthesized using the Sn-Fe 1 : 2, Sn-Fe 1 : 1, and Sn-Fe 2 : 1 cyanogels as precursors, respectively. To demonstrate their compositional/structural superiorities and potential applications, the lithium-storage utilization of the Sn-Fe binary oxide nanohybrids has been selected as an objective application, and the nanohybrids exhibit Sn/Fe ratio-dependent lithium-storage performance. As a representative example, the 2D/1D SnO2-Fe2O3 hierarchitectures manifest markedly enhanced Li-storage performance in terms of reversible capacities and cycling stability in comparison with their constituent units, i.e., bare SnO2 nanosheets and Fe2O3 nanorods. The proposed cyanogel-derived thermal-oxidation strategy could open up new

  15. Unexpected photoluminescence properties from one-dimensional molecular chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ye; Yao, Mingguang; Chen, Shuanglong; Liu, Shijie; Yang, Xigui; Zhang, Weiwei; Yao, Zhen; Liu, Ran; Liu, Bo; Liu, Bingbing

    2016-01-01

    Unlike bulk iodine, iodine molecular chains formed inside one dimensional (1D) nanochannels of AlPO4-5 (AFI) single crystals show unexpected PL behavior. Thanks to its unique 1D structure, the PL exhibits obvious polarization both in excitation and emission, by changing the angle between the c-axis of the channels and the polarization direction of the incident laser. As pressure increases, the PL intensity increases obviously due to the population increase of (I2)n chains upon compression. In contrast, the breaking of the (I2)n chain at high temperature leads to the decrease of PL intensity. Our theoretical calculation further points out that the PL may arise from the intrinsic band structure of (I2)n chains.

  16. Wavelet-expansion-based stochastic response of chain-like MDOF structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fan; Li, Jie

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a wavelet-expansion-based approach for response determination of a chain-like multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structure subject to full non-stationary stochastic excitations. Specifically, the generalized harmonic wavelet (GHW) is first utilized as the expansion basis to solve the dynamic equation of structures via the Galerkin treatment. In this way, a linear matrix relationship between the deterministic response and excitation can be derived. Further, considering the GHW-based representation of the stochastic processes, a time-varying power spectrum density (PSD) relationship on a certain wavelet scale or frequency band between the excitation and response is derived. Finally, pertinent numerical simulations, including deterministic dynamic analysis and Monte Carlo simulations of both the response PSD and the story-drift-based reliability, are utilized to validate the proposed approach.

  17. Crystal structure of Sr2CdPt2 containing linear platinum chains

    PubMed Central

    Nawawi, Effendi; Gulo, Fakhili; Köhler, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The ternary inter­metallic title phase, distrontium cadmium diplatinum, was prepared from stoichiometric amounts of the elements at 1123 K for one day. The crystal structure adopts the ortho­rhom­bic Ca2GaCu2 structure type in space group Immm. Its main features are characterized by linear (Pt—Pt⋯Pt—Pt)n chains that are aligned along [010] and condensed through cadmium atoms forming Cd-centred Pt2Cd2/2 rectangles to build up sheets parallel to (001). These sheets are connected to each other via alternating (001) sheets of strontium atoms along [001]. The strontium sheets consists of corrugated Sr4 units that are condensed to each other through edge-sharing parallel to [100]. PMID:26958374

  18. Crystal structure of Sr2CdPt2 containing linear platinum chains.

    PubMed

    Nawawi, Effendi; Gulo, Fakhili; Köhler, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    The ternary inter-metallic title phase, distrontium cadmium diplatinum, was prepared from stoichiometric amounts of the elements at 1123 K for one day. The crystal structure adopts the ortho-rhom-bic Ca2GaCu2 structure type in space group Immm. Its main features are characterized by linear (Pt-Pt⋯Pt-Pt) n chains that are aligned along [010] and condensed through cadmium atoms forming Cd-centred Pt2Cd2/2 rectangles to build up sheets parallel to (001). These sheets are connected to each other via alternating (001) sheets of strontium atoms along [001]. The strontium sheets consists of corrugated Sr4 units that are condensed to each other through edge-sharing parallel to [100]. PMID:26958374

  19. Sulfation effect on levan polysaccharide chains structure with molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coskunkan, Binnaz; Turgut, Deniz; Rende, Deniz; Malta, Seyda; Baysal, Nihat; Ozisik, Rahmi; Toksoy-Oner, Ebru

    Diversity in conformations and structural heterogeneity make polysaccharides the most challenging biopolymer type for experimental and theoretical characterization studies. Levan is a biopolymer chain that consists of fructose rings with β(2-6) linkages. It is a glycan that has great potential as a functional biopolymer in foods, feeds, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Sulfated polysaccharides are group of macromolecules with sulfated groups in their hydroxyl parts with a range of important biological properties. Sulfate groups and their positions have a major effect on anticoagulant activity. It is reported that sulfate modified levan has anticoagulant activity such as heparin. In the current study, the effect of sulfation on the structure and dynamics of unmodified and sulfate modified levan are investigated via fully atomistic Molecular Dynamics simulations in aqueous media and varying salt concentrations at 310 K. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1538730.

  20. Granular chains for the assessment of thermal stress in slender structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, Abdollah; La Malfa Ribolla, Emma; Rizzo, Piervincenzo

    2015-03-01

    Slender beams subjected to compressive stress are common in civil and mechanical engineering. The rapid in-situ measurement of this stress may prevent structural anomalies. In this paper, we describe the coupling mechanism between highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs) propagating along an L-shaped granular system and a beam in contact with the granular medium. We evaluate the use of HNSWs as a tool to measure stress in thermally loaded structures and to estimate the neutral temperature, i.e. the temperature at which this stress is null. We investigated numerically and experimentally one and two L-shaped chains of spherical particles in contact with a prismatic beam subjected to heat. We found that certain features of the solitary waves are affected by the beam's stress. In the future, these findings may help developing a novel sensing system for the nondestructive prediction of neutral temperature and thermal buckling.

  1. Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods applied to measuring the fine structure constant from quasar spectroscopy .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. A.; Mortlock, D. J.; Webb, J. K.; Murphy, M. T.

    Recent attempts to constrain cosmological variation in the fine structure constant, alpha , using quasar absorption lines have yielded two statistical samples which initially appear to be inconsistent. One of these samples was subsequently demonstrated to not pass consistency tests; it appears that the optimisation algorithm used to fit the model to the spectra failed. Nevertheless, the results of the other hinge on the robustness of the spectral fitting program VPFIT, which has been tested through simulation but not through direct exploration of the likelihood function. We present the application of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to this problem, and demonstrate that VPFIT produces similar values and uncertainties for Delta alpha /alpha , the fractional change in the fine structure constant, as our MCMC algorithm, and thus that VPFIT is reliable.

  2. Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods applied to measuring the fine structure constant from quasar spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Julian; Mortlock, Daniel; Webb, John; Murphy, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Recent attempts to constrain cosmological variation in the fine structure constant, α, using quasar absorption lines have yielded two statistical samples which initially appear to be inconsistent. One of these samples was subsequently demonstrated to not pass consistency tests; it appears that the optimisation algorithm used to fit the model to the spectra failed. Nevertheless, the results of the other hinge on the robustness of the spectral fitting program VPFIT, which has been tested through simulation but not through direct exploration of the likelihood function. We present the application of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to this problem, and demonstrate that VPFIT produces similar values and uncertainties for Δα/α, the fractional change in the fine structure constant, as our MCMC algorithm, and thus that VPFIT is reliable.

  3. Crystalline structures of polymeric hydrocarbon with 3,4-fold helical chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Chao-Sheng; Li, Han-Dong; Wang, Jian-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Molecular hydrocarbons are well-known to polymerize under pressure to form covalently bonded frameworks. Here we predict by ab initio calculations two distinct three-dimensional hydrocarbon crystalline structures composed of 3-fold and 4-fold helical CH chains in rhombohedral () and tetragonal (I41/a) symmetry, respectively. Both structures with 1:1 stoichiometry are found to be energetically more favorable than solid acetylene and cubane, and even more stable than benzene II solid at high pressure. The calculations on vibrational, electronic, and optical properties reveal that the new chiral hydrocarbons are dynamically stable with large bulk moduli around 200 GPa, and exhibit a transparent insulating behavior with indirect band gaps of 5.9 ~ 6.7 eV and anisotropic adsorption spectra. Such forms of hydrocarbon, once synthesized, would have wide applications in mechanical, optoelectronic, and biological materials.

  4. Structurally Diverse Mitochondrial Branched Chain Aminotransferase (BCATm) Leads with Varying Binding Modes Identified by Fragment Screening.

    PubMed

    Borthwick, Jennifer A; Ancellin, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie M; Bingham, Ryan P; Carter, Paul S; Chung, Chun-Wa; Churcher, Ian; Dodic, Nerina; Fournier, Charlène; Francis, Peter L; Hobbs, Andrew; Jamieson, Craig; Pickett, Stephen D; Smith, Sarah E; Somers, Donald O'N; Spitzfaden, Claus; Suckling, Colin J; Young, Robert J

    2016-03-24

    Inhibitors of mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferase (BCATm), identified using fragment screening, are described. This was carried out using a combination of STD-NMR, thermal melt (Tm), and biochemical assays to identify compounds that bound to BCATm, which were subsequently progressed to X-ray crystallography, where a number of exemplars showed significant diversity in their binding modes. The hits identified were supplemented by searching and screening of additional analogues, which enabled the gathering of further X-ray data where the original hits had not produced liganded structures. The fragment hits were optimized using structure-based design, with some transfer of information between series, which enabled the identification of ligand efficient lead molecules with micromolar levels of inhibition, cellular activity, and good solubility. PMID:26938474

  5. Crystalline structures of polymeric hydrocarbon with 3,4-fold helical chains

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Chao-Sheng; Li, Han-Dong; Wang, Jian-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Molecular hydrocarbons are well-known to polymerize under pressure to form covalently bonded frameworks. Here we predict by ab initio calculations two distinct three-dimensional hydrocarbon crystalline structures composed of 3-fold and 4-fold helical CH chains in rhombohedral () and tetragonal (I41/a) symmetry, respectively. Both structures with 1:1 stoichiometry are found to be energetically more favorable than solid acetylene and cubane, and even more stable than benzene II solid at high pressure. The calculations on vibrational, electronic, and optical properties reveal that the new chiral hydrocarbons are dynamically stable with large bulk moduli around 200 GPa, and exhibit a transparent insulating behavior with indirect band gaps of 5.9 ~ 6.7 eV and anisotropic adsorption spectra. Such forms of hydrocarbon, once synthesized, would have wide applications in mechanical, optoelectronic, and biological materials. PMID:25579707

  6. Phylogeny of immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes: structure of the constant region of Ambystoma mexicanum upsilon chain deduced from cDNA sequence.

    PubMed

    Fellah, J S; Kerfourn, F; Wiles, M V; Schwager, J; Charlemagne, J

    1993-01-01

    An RNA polymerase chain reaction strategy was used to amplify and clone a cDNA segment encoding for the complete constant part of the axolotl IgY heavy (C upsilon) chain. C upsilon is 433 amino acids long and organized into four domains (C upsilon 1-C upsilon 4); each has the typical internal disulfide bond and invariant tryptophane residues. Axolotl C upsilon is most closely related to Xenopus C upsilon (40% identical amino acid residues) and C upsilon 1 shares 46.4% amino acid residues among these species. The presence of additional cysteines in C upsilon 1 and C upsilon 2 domains is consistent with an additional intradomain S-S bond similar to that suggested for Xenopus C upsilon and C chi, and for the avian C upsilon and the human C epsilon. C upsilon 4 ends with the Gly-Lys dipeptide characteristic of secreted mammalian C gamma 3, human C epsilon 4, and avian and anuran C upsilon 4, and contains the consensus [G/GT(AA)] nucleotide splice signal sequence for joining C upsilon 4 to the transmembrane region. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of an ancestral structural relationship between amphibian, avian upsilon chains, and mammalian epsilon chains. However, these molecules have different biological properties: axolotl IgY is secretory Ig, anuran and avian IgY behave like mammalian IgG, and mammalian IgE is implicated in anaphylactic reactions. PMID:8344718

  7. The solution structure of a superpotent B-chain-shortened single-replacement insulin analogue.

    PubMed Central

    Kurapkat, G.; Siedentop, M.; Gattner, H. G.; Hagelstein, M.; Brandenburg, D.; Grötzinger, J.; Wollmer, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on an insulin analogue with 12.5-fold receptor affinity, the highest increase observed for a single replacement, and on its solution structure, determined by NMR spectroscopy. The analogue is [D-AlaB26]des-(B27-B30)-tetrapeptide-insulin-B26-amide. C-terminal truncation of the B-chain by four (or five) residues is known not to affect the functional properties of insulin, provided the new carboxylate charge is neutralized. As opposed to the dramatic increase in receptor affinity caused by the substitution of D-Ala for the wild-type residue TyrB26 in the truncated molecule, this very substitution reduces it to only 18% of that of the wild-type hormone when the B-chain is present in full length. The insulin molecule in solution is visualized as an ensemble of conformers interrelated by a dynamic equilibrium. The question is whether the "active" conformation of the hormone, sought after in innumerable structure/function studies, is or is not included in the accessible conformational space, so that it could be adopted also in the absence of the receptor. If there were any chance for the active conformation, or at least a predisposed state to be populated to a detectable extent, this chance should be best in the case of a superpotent analogue. This was the motivation for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of [D-AlaB26]des-(B27-B30)-tetrapeptide-insulin-B26-amide. However, neither the NMR data nor CD spectroscopic comparison of a number of related analogues provided a clue concerning structural features predisposing insulin to high receptor affinity. After the present study it seems more likely than before that insulin will adopt its active conformation only when exposed to the force field of the receptor surface. PMID:10091652

  8. Neutral-Type One-Dimensional Mixed-Valence Halogen-Bridged Platinum Chain Complexes with Large Charge-Transfer Band Gaps.

    PubMed

    Otake, Ken-Ichi; Otsubo, Kazuya; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    One-dimensional (1D) electronic systems have attracted significant attention for a long time because of their various physical properties. Among 1D electronic systems, 1D halogen-bridged mixed-valence transition-metal complexes (the so-called MX chains) have been thoroughly studied owing to designable structures and electronic states. Here, we report the syntheses, structures, and electronic properties of three kinds of novel neutral MX-chain complexes. The crystal structures consist of 1D chains of Pt-X repeating units with (1R,2R)-(-)-diaminocychlohexane and CN(-) in-plane ligands. Because of the absence of a counteranion, the neutral MX chains have short interchain distances, so that strong interchain electronic interaction is expected. Resonance Raman spectra and diffuse-reflectance UV-vis spectra indicate that their electronic states are mixed-valence states (charge-density-wave state: Pt(2+)···X-Pt(4+)-X···Pt(2+)···X-Pt(4+)-X···). In addition, the relationship between the intervalence charge-transfer (IVCT) band gap and the degree of distortion of the 1D chain shows that the neutral MX chains have a larger IVCT band gap than that of cationic MX-chain complexes. These results provide new insight into the physical and electronic properties of 1D chain compounds. PMID:26901774

  9. Structure, diversity and expression of the TCRdelta chains in the Mexican axolotl.

    PubMed

    Fellah, Julien S; André, Sébastien; Kerfourn, Fabienne; Guerci, Aline; Durand, Charles; Aubet, Geneviève; Charlemagne, Jacques

    2002-05-01

    Mammals and birds have two major populations of T cells, based on the molecular composition and biological properties of their antigen receptors (TCR). alpha beta T cells recognize antigenic peptides linked to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, and gamma delta T cells recognize native peptide or non-peptide antigens independently of MHC. Very little is known about gamma delta T cells in ectothermic vertebrates. We have cloned and characterized the TCRdelta chains of an urodele amphibian, the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). The Cdelta domain is structurally similar to its mammalian homologues and the transmembrane domain is very well conserved. Four of the six Valpha regions that can associate with Calpha (Valpha2, Valpha3, Valpha5 and Valpha6) can also associate with Cdelta, but no specific Vdelta regions were found. This suggests that the axolotl TRD locus is nested within the TRA locus, as in mammals, and that this organization has been present in all tetrapod vertebrates and in the common ancestor of Lissamphibians and mammals, for over 400 million years. Two Jdelta regions were identified, but no Ddelta segments were clearly recognized at the Vdelta-Jdelta junctions. This results in shorter and less variable CDR3 loops than in other vertebrates and the size range of the Vdelta-Jdelta junctions is similar to that of mammalian immunoglobulin light chains. Equivalent quantities of TRD mRNA were found in the lymphoid organs, and in the skin and the intestines of normal and thymectomized axolotls. The analysis of several Valpha/delta6-Cdelta and Vbeta7-Cbeta junctions showed that both the TCRdelta and the TCRbeta chains were limited in diversity in thymectomized axolotls. PMID:11981822

  10. Pressure-induced structural and magnetic transitions in the infinite-chains iron oxide Sr2FeO3: a first-principle investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Hong; Li, Xin; Zhao, Zhenjie; Xie, Wenhui

    2016-02-01

    The pressure-induced transition of Sr2FeO3 was studied by first-principle calculation using density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation plus on-site coulomb repulsion method. It shows that Sr2FeO3 exhibits a structure transition from Immm to Ammm and at about 35 GPa and then a spin transition from high spin S  =  2 to intermediate spin S  =  1. And it is also revealed that the pressure leads to a change in the Fe three-dimensional electronic configuration from ({{d}{{z2}}}\\uparrow )1({{d}yz}\\uparrow )1({{d}xz}\\uparrow )1({{d}xy}\\uparrow )1({{d}{{x2}-{{y}2}}}\\uparrow )1 ({{d}{{z2}}}\\downarrow )1 under ambient conditions to ({{d}{{z2}}}\\uparrow )1({{d}yz}\\uparrow )1({{d}xz}\\uparrow )1({{d}xy}\\uparrow )1 ({{d}{{x2}-{{y}2}}}\\uparrow ) δ ({{d}yz}\\downarrow )1 ({{d}{{z2}}}\\downarrow ) σ at high pressure, where δ plus σ equals 1.

  11. MODULAR STRUCTURE OF SMOOTH MUSCLE MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN KINASE: HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING AND FUNCTIONAL IMPLICATIONS†

    PubMed Central

    Mabuchi, Yasuko; Mabuchi, Katsuhide; Stafford, Walter F.; Grabarek, Zenon

    2010-01-01

    Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a calcium/calmodulin dependent enzyme that activates contraction of smooth muscle. The polypeptide chain of rabbit uterine smMLCK (Swiss-Prot: P29294) contains the catalytic/regulatory domain, three immunoglobulin related motifs (Ig), one fibronectin related motif (Fn3), a repetitive, proline rich segment (PEVK) and, at the N-terminus, a unique F-actin binding domain. We have evaluated the spatial arrangement of these domains in a recombinant 125 kDa full-length smMLCK and its two catalytically active C-terminal fragments (77 kDa, residues 461-1147 and 61 kDa, residues 461-1002). Electron microscopic images of smMLCK cross-linked to F-actin show particles at variable distance (11-55 nm) from the filament, suggesting that a well-structured C-terminal segment of smMLCK is connected to the actin-binding domain by a long, flexible tether. We have used structural homology and molecular dynamics methods to construct various all-atom representation models of smMLCK and its two fragments. The theoretical sedimentation coefficients computed with the program HYDROPRO were compared with those determined by sedimentation velocity. We found agreement between the predicted and observed sedimentation coefficients for models in which the independently folded catalytic domain, Fn3 and Ig domains are aligned consecutively on the long axis of the molecule. The PEVK segment is modeled as an extensible linker that enables smMLCK to remain bound to F-actin and simultaneously activate the myosin heads of adjacent myosin filaments at a distance of 40 nm or more. The structural properties of smMLCK may contribute to the elasticity of smooth muscle cells. PMID:20196616

  12. New hybrid lead iodides: From one-dimensional chain to two-dimensional layered perovskite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Kecai; Liu, Wei; Teat, Simon J.; An, Litao; Wang, Hao; Emge, Thomas J.; Li, Jing

    2015-10-15

    Two new hybrid lead halides (H{sub 2}BDA)[PbI{sub 4}] (1) (H{sub 2}BDA=1,4-butanediammonium dication) and (HNPEIM)[PbI{sub 3}] (2) (HNPEIM=N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that compound 1 features a two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layer whereas compound 2 contains one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains. The N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation within compound 2 was generated in-situ under solvothermal conditions. The optical absorption spectra collected at room temperature suggest that both compounds are semiconductors having direct band gaps, with estimated values of 2.64 and 2.73 eV for 1 and 2, respectively. Results from the density functional theory (DFT) calculations are consistent with the experimental data. Density of states (DOS) analysis reveals that in both compounds 1 and 2, the energy states in the valence band maximum region are iodine 5p atomic orbitals with a small contribution from lead 6s, while in the region of conduction band minimum, the major contributions are from the inorganic (Pb 6p atomic orbitals) and organic components (C and N 2p atomic orbitals) in compound 1 and 2, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two new hybrid lead halides built on one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains and two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layers are synthesized and their structural and electronic properties are analyzed. - Highlights: • Two new hybrid lead iodides are designed, synthesized, and characterized. • They are closely related to, but different from, perovskite structures. • The electronic properties of both compounds are analyzed by DFT calculations.

  13. Glutamine and Asparagine Side Chain Hyperconjugation-Induced Structurally Sensitive Vibrations.

    PubMed

    Punihaole, David; Hong, Zhenmin; Jakubek, Ryan S; Dahlburg, Elizabeth M; Geib, Steven; Asher, Sanford A

    2015-10-15

    We identified vibrational spectral marker bands that sensitively report on the side chain structures of glutamine (Gln) and asparagine (Asn). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the Amide III(P) (AmIII(P)) vibrations of Gln and Asn depend cosinusoidally on their side chain OCCC dihedral angles (the χ3 and χ2 angles of Gln and Asn, respectively). We use UV resonance Raman (UVRR) and visible Raman spectroscopy to experimentally correlate the AmIII(P) Raman band frequency to the primary amide OCCC dihedral angle. The AmIII(P) structural sensitivity derives from the Gln (Asn) Cβ-Cγ (Cα-Cβ) stretching component of the vibration. The Cβ-Cγ (Cα-Cβ) bond length inversely correlates with the AmIII(P) band frequency. As the Cβ-Cγ (Cα-Cβ) bond length decreases, its stretching force constant increases, which results in an upshift in the AmIII(P) frequency. The Cβ-Cγ (Cα-Cβ) bond length dependence on the χ3 (χ2) dihedral angle results from hyperconjugation between the Cδ═Oϵ (Cγ═Oδ) π* and Cβ-Cγ (Cα-Cβ) σ orbitals. Using a Protein Data Bank library, we show that the χ3 and χ2 dihedral angles of Gln and Asn depend on the peptide backbone Ramachandran angles. We demonstrate that the inhomogeneously broadened AmIII(P) band line shapes can be used to calculate the χ3 and χ2 angle distributions of peptides. The spectral correlations determined in this study enable important new insights into protein structure in solution, and in Gln- and Asn-rich amyloid-like fibrils and prions. PMID:26392216

  14. Crystal Structures of the Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domains of Kinesin Light Chains: Insight into Cargo Recognition Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Haizhong; Lee, Han Youl; Tong, Yufeng; Hong, Bum-Soo; Kim, Kyung-Phil; Shen, Yang; Lim, Kyung Jik; Mackenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won

    2012-10-23

    Kinesin-1 transports various cargos along the axon by interacting with the cargos through its light chain subunit. Kinesin light chains (KLC) utilize its tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain to interact with over 10 different cargos. Despite a high sequence identity between their TPR domains (87%), KLC1 and KLC2 isoforms exhibit differential binding properties towards some cargos. We determined the structures of human KLC1 and KLC2 tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains using X-ray crystallography and investigated the different mechanisms by which KLCs interact with their cargos. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we attributed the specific interaction between KLC1 and JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) cargo to residue N343 in the fourth TRP repeat. Structurally, the N343 residue is adjacent to other asparagines and lysines, creating a positively charged polar patch within the groove of the TPR domain. Whereas, KLC2 with the corresponding residue S328 did not interact with JIP1. Based on these finding, we propose that N343 of KLC1 can form 'a carboxylate clamp' with its neighboring asparagine to interact with JIP1, similar to that of HSP70/HSP90 organizing protein-1's (HOP1) interaction with heat shock proteins. For the binding of cargos shared by KLC1 and KLC2, we propose a different site located within the groove but not involving N343. We further propose a third binding site on KLC1 which involves a stretch of polar residues along the inter-TPR loops that may form a network of hydrogen bonds to JIP3 and JIP4. Together, these results provide structural insights into possible mechanisms of interaction between KLC TPR domains and various cargo proteins.

  15. Crystal structures and thermodynamics/kinetics of Zn(II) coordination polymers with helical chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Tian; Yue, Ke-Fen; Zhao, Yi-xing; Chen, San-Ping; Zhou, Chun-sheng; Yan, Ni

    2016-07-01

    Solvothermal reactions of Zn(II) acetates and four V-shaped carboxylates ligands in the presence of 1,4-Bis(2-methyl-imidazol-1-yl)butane afforded four interesting Zn(II) coordination polymers with helical chains, namely, {[Zn(bib)(atibdc)]·2H2O}n (1), {[Zn(bib)(atbip)]·H2O}n (2), [Zn(bib)(2,2‧-tda)]}n (3) and {[Zn(bib)(5-tbipa)]·EtOH}n (4), (H2atibdc=5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid, H2atbip=5-amino-2,4,6-tribromoisophthalic acid, 2,2‧-H2tad=2,2‧-thiodiacetic acid, 5-H2tbipa=5-tert-butyl-isophthalic acid). 1 reveals a 3D chiral framework with three kinds of helical chains along a, b and c axis. 2 shows a 2D step-type chiral framework with right-handed helical chains. 3 displays a wavelike 2D layer network possessing alternate left- and right-handed helical chains. 4 presents a four-connected 3D framework with zigzag and meso-helical chains. The different spacers and substituent group of carboxylic acid ligands may lead to the diverse network structures of 1-4. The fluorescent properties of complexes 1-4 were studied. In addition, the thermal decompositions properties of 1-4 were investigated by simultaneous TG/DTG-DSC technique. The apparent activation energy E and the pre-exponential factor (A) of skeleton collapse for the complexes 1-4 are calculated by the integral Kissinger's method and Ozawa-Doyle's method. The activation energy E (E1=209.658 kJ·mol-1, E2=250.037 kJ mol-1, E3=225.300 kJ mol-1, E4=186.529 kJ·mol-1) demonstrates that the reaction rate of the melting decomposition is slow. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH‡, ΔG‡ and ΔS‡) at the peak temperatures of the DTG curves were also calculated. ΔG‡>0 indicates that the skeleton collapse is not spontaneous. ΔHd>0 suggests that the skeleton collapse is endothermic, corresponding to the intense endothermic peak of the DSC curve. The structural stability could be illustrated from the point of thermodynamics and kinetics. Their thermal decompositions properties of 1-4 were

  16. Effect of side-chain asymmetry on the intermolecular structure and order-disorder transition in alkyl-substituted polyfluorenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaapila, M.; Stepanyan, R.; Torkkeli, M.; Haase, D.; Fröhlich, N.; Helfer, A.; Forster, M.; Scherf, U.

    2016-04-01

    We study relations among the side-chain asymmetry, structure, and order-disorder transition (ODT) in hairy-rod-type poly(9,9-dihexylfluorene) (PF6) with two identical side chains and atactic poly(9-octyl-9-methyl-fluorene) (PF1-8) with two different side chains per repeat. PF6 and PF1-8 organize into alternating side-chain and backbone layers that transform into an isotropic phase at TODT(PF 6 ) and TbiODT(PF 1 -8 ) . We interpret polymers in terms of monodisperse and bidisperse brushes and predict scenarios TODTchain length above or below the average grafting distance). Calorimetry and x-ray scattering indicate the condition TODT(PF 6 ) ˜TbiODT(PF 1 -8 ) following the low grafting prediction. PF6 side chains coming from the alternating backbone layers appear as two separate layers with thickness H (PF 6 ) , whereas PF1-8 side chains appear as an indistinguishable bilayer with a half thickness Hbilayer(PF 1 -8 ) /2 ≈H (PF 6 ) . The low grafting density region is structurally possible but not certain for PF6 and confirmed for PF1-8.

  17. Quasiparticle structure of superheavy nuclei along the α -decay chain of 288115

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezbakh, A. N.; Kartavenko, V. G.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Jolos, R. V.; Nesterenko, V. O.

    2015-07-01

    Background: Recent experiments on α -decay of odd-odd superheavy nuclei give important information on the structure of the low-lying states of these nuclei. For this reason, it is interesting to calculate the excitation spectra of superheavy nuclei in the framework of different approaches and compare the results with the experimental data. Purpose: To calculate the excitation energies of the two-quasiparticle states of nuclei belonging to the α -decay chain of 288115 nucleus. Method: Two different single-particle potentials, modified two-center and Skyrme-based potentials, are used to calculate the energies of two-quasiparticle states. Results: The spectra of the low-lying states are calculated. An evolution of the splitting of the pseudospin doublets and an evolution of the energies of the unique parity single-particle states with the nuclear mass number are investigated. The α -decay spectra of nuclei belonging to the α -decay chain of 288115 are obtained and compared with the experimental data. A possibility of the E 1 transitions in 276Mt following α decay of 288115 is considered. Conclusion: The E 1 transitions in 276Mt might be related to the transitions n 9 /2 [604 ]→n 11 /2 [725 ] ,n 11 /2 [725 ]→n 9 /2 [615 ] , and p 9 /2 [505 ]→p 11 /2 [615 ] . Besides the E 1 transitions, the strong M 1 and M 2 transitions are expected in 276Mt.

  18. Effects of pseudophosphorylation mutants on the structural dynamics of smooth muscle myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Fonseca, L Michel; Colson, Brett A; Thomas, David D

    2014-10-01

    We have performed 50 independent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to determine the effect of pseudophosphorylation mutants on the structural dynamics of smooth muscle myosin (SMM) regulatory light chain (RLC). We previously showed that the N-terminal phosphorylation domain of RLC simultaneously populates two structural states in equilibrium, closed and open, and that phosphorylation at S19 induces a modest shift toward the open state, which is sufficient to activate smooth muscle. However, it remains unknown why pseudophosphorylation mutants poorly mimic phosphorylation-induced activation of SMM. We performed MD simulations of unphosphorylated, phosphorylated, and three pseudophosphorylated RLC mutants: S19E, T18D/S19D and T18E/S19E. We found that the S19E mutation does not shift the equilibrium toward the open state, indicating that simple charge replacement at position S19 does not mimic the activating effect of phosphorylation, providing a structural explanation for previously published functional data. In contrast, mutants T18D/S19D and T18E/S19E shift the equilibrium toward the open structure and partially activate in vitro motility, further supporting the model that an increase in the mol fraction of the open state is coupled to SMM motility. Structural analyses of the doubly-charged pseudophosphorylation mutants suggest that alterations in an interdomain salt bridge between residues R4 and D100 results in impaired signal transmission from RLC to the catalytic domain of SMM, which explains the low ATPase activity of these mutants. Our results demonstrate that phosphorylation produces a unique structural balance in the RLC. These observations have important implications for our understanding of the structural aspects of activation and force potentiation in smooth and striated muscle. PMID:25091814

  19. Structural requirements for assembly of dimeric IgA probed by site-directed mutagenesis of J chain and a cysteine residue of the alpha-chain CH2 domain.

    PubMed

    Krugmann, S; Pleass, R J; Atkin, J D; Woof, J M

    1997-07-01

    The structural features of J chain required for interaction with IgA in IgA dimer assembly were investigated by coexpression of wild-type and mutant forms of J chain with IgA1 in CHO cells. With wild-type J chain, a mixture of J chain-containing dimers and monomers was secreted. Substitution of Cys14 of J chain with Ser resulted in expression of only monomer IgA covalently associated with J chain. Similarly, mutation of Cys68 to Ser also resulted in expression predominantly of a monomer IgA-J chain species. These results suggest that Cys14 and Cys68 play critical roles in formation of J chain-containing IgA dimers, with each forming a disulfide bridge to an IgA monomer. Substitution of Asn48 with Ala, to prevent attachment of N-linked carbohydrate to J chain, also resulted in markedly reduced dimer assembly, suggesting a requirement for the sugar moiety in J chain function. We also mutated Cys311 on the C alpha2 domain of the IgA heavy chain to Ser. When coexpressed with wild-type J chain, this mutant was still capable of forming dimers, indicating that this residue was not involved in dimerization. Taken together, our results are consistent with an arrangement in which IgA monomers are linked end-to-end with J chain interposed. PMID:9200460

  20. Frequent Side Chain Methyl Carbon-Oxygen Hydrogen Bonding in Proteins Revealed by Computational and Stereochemical Analysis of Neutron Structures

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Charles L.; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2016-01-01

    The propensity of backbone Cα atoms to engage in carbon-oxygen (CH···O) hydrogen bonding is well-appreciated in protein structure, but side chain CH···O hydrogen bonding remains largely uncharacterized. The extent to which side chain methyl groups in proteins participate in CH···O hydrogen bonding is examined through a survey of neutron crystal structures, quantum chemistry calculations, and molecular dynamics simulations. Using these approaches, methyl groups were observed to form stabilizing CH···O hydrogen bonds within protein structure that are maintained through protein dynamics and participate in correlated motion. Collectively, these findings illustrate that side chain methyl CH···O hydrogen bonding contributes to the energetics of protein structure and folding. PMID:25401519

  1. Copper(II) coordination chain complexes with the 3,5-diacetyl-4-methylpyrazole dioxime ligand: Synthesis, crystal structures and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outirite, Moha; Mernari, Bouchaib; Bentiss, Fouad; Capet, Frederic; Lagrenée, Michel

    2011-03-01

    3,5-Diacetyl-4-methylpyrazole dioxime (dampdoH 3) has been found to form with copper(II), in the presence of different anions (perchlorate, nitrate, triflate and tetrafluoroborate), four new dimeric complexes, [Cu 2(dampdoH 2) 2(ClO 4) 2] ( 1); [Cu 2(dampdoH 2) 2(H 2O) 2]2NO 3 ( 2); [Cu 2(dampdoH 2) 2(CF 3SO 3) 2] ( 3) and [Cu 2(dampdoH 2) 2(BF 4) 2] ( 4). The molecular structure of [Cu 2(dampdoH 3) 2] 2+ which is the common unit for the four complexes is composed of binuclear species where one of the oxime functions has the classical structure while the second function has a zwitterionic structure. For the four complexes these binuclear units are parallel and are bound together by a strong intermolecular bond to create an infinite 1D chain expanding along the crystallographic " a" axis. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements for complex 1 indicate a very strong antiferromagnetic exchange coupling intra or/and interdimeric ring, the J1 value of the intradimer coupling being strongest than the interbinuclear coupling J2 ( J1 = -346 cm -1, J2 = -119.15 cm -1).

  2. Spin Frustration in an Organic Radical Ion Salt Based on a Kagome-Coupled Chain Structure.

    PubMed

    Postulka, Lars; Winter, Stephen M; Mihailov, Adam G; Mailman, Aaron; Assoud, Abdeljalil; Robertson, Craig M; Wolf, Bernd; Lang, Michael; Oakley, Richard T

    2016-08-31

    Electro-oxidation of the quinoidal bisdithiazole BT in dichloroethane in the presence of [Bu4N][GaBr4] affords the 1:1 radical ion salt [BT][GaBr4], crystals of which belong to the trigonal space group P3. The packing pattern of the radical cations provides a rare example of an organic kagome basket structure, with S = 1/2 radical ion chains located at the triangular corners of a trihexagonal lattice. Magnetic measurements over a wide temperature range from 30 mK to 300 K suggest strongly frustrated AFM interactions on the scale of J/kb ∼ 30 K, but reveal no anomalies that would be associated with magnetic order. These observations are discussed in terms of the symmetry allowed magnetic interactions within and between the frustrated layers. PMID:27537064

  3. Use of polymerase chain reaction-amplified Helicobacter pylori urease structural genes for differentiation of isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Foxall, P A; Hu, L T; Mobley, H L

    1992-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has been demonstrated as an etiologic agent of human gastritis and peptic ulcer formation. However, there is no straightforward basis to distinguish different isolates. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the urease structural subunit genes, ureA and ureB, which, when digested with appropriate restriction endonucleases, allow the differentiation of patterns on agarose gels. PCR amplification was possible with DNA rapidly extracted from H. pylori by alkaline lysis and phenol-chloroform. The 2.4-kb PCR products amplified from 22 clinical isolates and subjected to HaeII restriction endonuclease digestion produced 10 distinct patterns on agarose gels, with two patterns being shared between five and six strains. PCR amplification of the urease genes may enable the differentiation of closely related H. pylori strains by restriction digest analysis of PCR-amplified ureA and ureB genes. Images PMID:1313051

  4. Influence of LC Content on the Phase Structures of Side-Chain Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Tenneti, K.; Chen, X; Li, C; Shen, Z; Wan, X; Fan, X; Zhou, Q; Rong, L; Hsiao, B

    2009-01-01

    We report the phase structures of a series of poly(styrene-block-{l_brace}3'-[4-(4-n-dodecyloxybenzoyloxy)benzoyloxy]-4-(12-methacryloyloxydodecyloxy)benzoyloxybiphenyl{r_brace}) (PS-b-PMAC) side-chain liquid crystalline block copolymers (SC LCBCP). The SC liquid crystalline polymer was formed by side attaching a bent-core mesogen to the polymer backbone using a 12-carbon spacer. The phase structure of the high and low fPMAC samples were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The PS coil block and PMAC LC block phase separate into a lamellar morphology in all of the samples investigated (volume fraction of PMAC fPMAC 0.31-0.65). However, both the LC phase and the orientation of the hierarchical structure under mechanical shear showed strong dependence on the LC content. Samples having a high fPMAC (0.5-0.65) showed a SmC2 LC phase (Smectic C denotes the LC molecules are tilted with respect to the layer normal, and 2 represents a bilayered structure), similar to that observed in PMAC homopolymers. Upon mechanical shear, these smectic layers oriented parallel to the shear plane and the BCP lamellae oriented perpendicular to the shear plane with the layer normal parallel to the vorticity direction. In samples having a lower fPMAC, the BCP lamellae laid parallel to the shear plane and the LC phase structure in these samples was columnar rectangular. A detailed structural and morphological study will be reported.

  5. Structure and diversity of the heavy chain VDJ junctions in the developing Mexican axolotl.

    PubMed

    Golub, R; Fellah, J S; Charlemagne, J

    1997-01-01

    The immune capacity of young and adult axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) was evaluated by examining the combinatorial and junctional diversity of the VH chain. A large number of VDJ rearrangements isolated from 2.5-, 3.5-, 10-, and 24-month-old animals were sequenced. Six JH segments were identified with the canonical structure of all known vertebrate JHs, including the conserved Trp103-Gly104-X-Gly106 motif. Four core DH-like sequences were used by most (80%) of the VDJ junctions. These G-rich sequences had structures reminiscent of the TCRB DB sequences, and were equally used in their three reading frames. About 25% of the Igh, VDJ junctions from 3.5-month-old axolotls were out of frame, but most rearrangements were in frame at 10 and 24 months, suggesting that there is active selection of the productively rearranged Igh chains in the developing animals. There was no significant difference between the size of CDR3 in young (3.5 months) and subadult (10 months) axolotls (mean: 8.5 amino acids). However, the CDR3 loop was 1 amino acid longer in 2-year-old adult animals (mean: 9.5 residues). Several pairs of identical VDJ/CDR3 sequences were shared between 3.5-month-old individually analyzed axolotls, or between groups of axolotl of different ages. These identical rearrangements might be provided by the selection of some B-cell clones important for species survival, although the probability that different 3.5-month-old axolotl larvae would produce identical junctions seems very low, considering their limited number of B cells (less than 10(5)). The high frequency of tyrosine residues and the paucity of charged residues in the axolotl CDR3 loops may explain the polyreactivity of natural antibodies, and also clarify why it is so difficult to raise specific antibodies against soluble antigens. PMID:9271630

  6. Structural and functional aspects of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Priya; Wang, Li; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Huang, Wenrui; Hernandez, Olga M.; Kawai, Masataka; Irving, Thomas C.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structural component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, but its function is poorly understood, especially the role of the cardiac specific N-terminal extension in modulating actomyosin interaction. Here, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the A57G (alanine to glycine) mutation in the cardiac ELC known to cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC). The function of the ELC N-terminal extension was investigated with the Tg-Δ43 mouse model, whose myocardium expresses a truncated ELC. Low-angle X-ray diffraction studies on papillary muscle fibers in rigor revealed a decreased interfilament spacing (∼1.5 nm) and no alterations in cross-bridge mass distribution in Tg-A57G mice compared to Tg-WT, expressing the full-length nonmutated ELC. The truncation mutation showed a 1.3-fold increase in I1,1/I1,0, indicating a shift of cross-bridge mass from the thick filament backbone toward the thin filaments. Mechanical studies demonstrated increased stiffness in Tg-A57G muscle fibers compared to Tg-WT or Tg-Δ43. The equilibrium constant for the cross-bridge force generation step was smallest in Tg-Δ43. These results support an important role for the N-terminal ELC extension in prepositioning the cross-bridge for optimal force production. Subtle changes in the ELC sequence were sufficient to alter cross-bridge properties and lead to pathological phenotypes.—Muthu, P., Wang, L., Yuan, C.-C., Kazmierczak, K., Huang, W., Hernandez, O. M., Kawai, M., Irving, T. C., Szczesna-Cordary, D. Structural and functional aspects of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction. PMID:21885653

  7. [Investigation of the chain structure and thermal property of xylene solubles of impact polypropylene copolymers].

    PubMed

    Luo, Hua-Lin; Zhao, Ying; Wu, Jin-Guang; Wang, Du-Jin

    2012-12-01

    Impact polypropylene copolymers (IPC) are in-situ blends of polypropylene homopolymer and ethylene-alpha-olefin copolymers formed in the reactor, which is a multiphasic complex material with isotactic polypropylene (iPP) as a matrix in which poly(ethylene-alpha-olefin) elastomeric copolymer is finely dispersed, and ethylene-alpha-olefin random copolymer (EPR) acts as an elastomer to improve the impact resistance properties of iPP at room temperature and low temperature. In the present, the content of xylene soluble is used to evaluate the content of EPR rubber phase in IPC. The content, the chain structure, and glass transition temperature (T(g)) of EPR rubber are critical to the toughness of IPC. In the present report, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) were utilized to study the comonomer content, chain structure and thermal property of xylene soluble of two IPC prepared by different catalysts. The results indicated that there are small amount of ethylene-propylene segmented copolymers containing short methylene sequence that is crystallizable in the xylene soluble in addition to the ethylene-propylene random copolymers. And the sequence length of crystallizable methylene group of ethylene-propylene segmented copolymers in these two kinds of xylene soluble is different. The random distribution degree of ethylene and propylene monomer in the ethylene-propylene copolymers in these two kinds of xylene soluble is similar. The xylene soluble with lower content of PPP sequence and higher content of ethylene monomer has lower T(g), which will benefit the improvement of impact resistance property of polypropylene. PMID:23427568

  8. Mixed copper, silver, and gold cyanides, (M(x)M'(1-x))CN: tailoring chain structures to influence physical properties.

    PubMed

    Chippindale, Ann M; Hibble, Simon J; Bilbé, Edward J; Marelli, Elena; Hannon, Alex C; Allain, Clémence; Pansu, Robert; Hartl, František

    2012-10-01

    Binary mixed-metal variants of the one-dimensional MCN compounds (M = Cu, Ag, and Au) have been prepared and characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, vibrational spectroscopy, and total neutron diffraction. A solid solution with the AgCN structure exists in the (Cu(x)Ag(1-x))CN system over the range (0 ≤ x ≤ 1). Line phases with compositions (Cu(1/2)Au(1/2))CN, (Cu(7/12)Au(5/12))CN, (Cu(2/3)Au(1/3))CN, and (Ag(1/2)Au(1/2))CN, all of which have the AuCN structure, are found in the gold-containing systems. Infrared and Raman spectroscopies show that complete ordering of the type [M-C≡N-M'-N≡C-](n) occurs only in (Cu(1/2)Au(1/2))CN and (Ag(1/2)Au(1/2))CN. The sense of the cyanide bonding was determined by total neutron diffraction to be [Ag-NC-Au-CN-](n) in (Ag(1/2)Au(1/2))CN and [Cu-NC-Au-CN-](n) in (Cu(1/2)Au(1/2))CN. In contrast, in (Cu(0.50)Ag(0.50))CN, metal ordering is incomplete, and strict alternation of metals does not occur. However, there is a distinct preference (85%) for the N end of the cyanide ligand to be bonded to copper and for Ag-CN-Cu links to predominate. Contrary to expectation, aurophilic bonding does not appear to be the controlling factor which leads to (Cu(1/2)Au(1/2))CN and (Ag(1/2)Au(1/2))CN adopting the AuCN structure. The diffuse reflectance, photoluminescence, and 1-D negative thermal expansion (NTE) behaviors of all three systems are reported and compared with those of the parent cyanide compounds. The photophysical properties are strongly influenced both by the composition of the individual chains and by how such chains pack together. The NTE behavior is also controlled by structure type: the gold-containing mixed-metal cyanides with the AuCN structure show the smallest contraction along the chain length on heating. PMID:22954066

  9. Hybrid Structure of a Dynamic Single-Chain Carboxylase from Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, Anna; Hunkeler, Moritz; Stuttfeld, Edward; Maier, Timm

    2016-08-01

    Biotin-dependent acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylases (aCCs) are involved in key steps of anabolic pathways and comprise three distinct functional units: biotin carboxylase (BC), biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), and carboxyl transferase (CT). YCC multienzymes are a poorly characterized family of prokaryotic aCCs of unidentified substrate specificity, which integrate all functional units into a single polypeptide chain. We employed a hybrid approach to study the dynamic structure of Deinococcus radiodurans (Dra) YCC: crystal structures of isolated domains reveal a hexameric CT core with extended substrate binding pocket and a dimeric BC domain. Negative-stain electron microscopy provides an approximation of the variable positioning of the BC dimers relative to the CT core. Small-angle X-ray scattering yields quantitative information on the ensemble of Dra YCC structures in solution. Comparison with other carrier protein-dependent multienzymes highlights a characteristic range of large-scale interdomain flexibility in this important class of biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:27396827

  10. Effects of molecular structure on microscopic heat transport in chain polymer liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubara, Hiroki Kikugawa, Gota; Ohara, Taku; Bessho, Takeshi; Yamashita, Seiji

    2015-04-28

    In this paper, we discuss the molecular mechanism of the heat conduction in a liquid, based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of a systematic series of linear- and branched alkane liquids, as a continuation of our previous study on linear alkane [T. Ohara et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034507 (2011)]. The thermal conductivities for these alkanes in a saturated liquid state at the same reduced temperature (0.7T{sub c}) obtained from the simulations are compared in relation to the structural difference of the liquids. In order to connect the thermal energy transport characteristics with molecular structures, we introduce the new concept of the interatomic path of heat transfer (atomistic heat path, AHP), which is defined for each type of inter- and intramolecular interaction. It is found that the efficiency of intermolecular AHP is sensitive to the structure of the first neighbor shell, whereas that of intramolecular AHP is similar for different alkane species. The dependence of thermal conductivity on different lengths of the main and side chain can be understood from the natures of these inter- and intramolecular AHPs.

  11. Effects of molecular structure on microscopic heat transport in chain polymer liquids.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Hiroki; Kikugawa, Gota; Bessho, Takeshi; Yamashita, Seiji; Ohara, Taku

    2015-04-28

    In this paper, we discuss the molecular mechanism of the heat conduction in a liquid, based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of a systematic series of linear- and branched alkane liquids, as a continuation of our previous study on linear alkane [T. Ohara et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034507 (2011)]. The thermal conductivities for these alkanes in a saturated liquid state at the same reduced temperature (0.7Tc) obtained from the simulations are compared in relation to the structural difference of the liquids. In order to connect the thermal energy transport characteristics with molecular structures, we introduce the new concept of the interatomic path of heat transfer (atomistic heat path, AHP), which is defined for each type of inter- and intramolecular interaction. It is found that the efficiency of intermolecular AHP is sensitive to the structure of the first neighbor shell, whereas that of intramolecular AHP is similar for different alkane species. The dependence of thermal conductivity on different lengths of the main and side chain can be understood from the natures of these inter- and intramolecular AHPs. PMID:25933776

  12. Chain length, temperature and solvent effects on the structural properties of α-aminoisobutyric acid homooligopeptides.

    PubMed

    Grubišić, Sonja; Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Barone, Vincenzo; Brancato, Giuseppe

    2016-07-27

    Non-coded α-amino acids, originally exploited by nature, have been successfully reproduced by recent synthetic strategies to confer special structural and functional properties to small peptides. The most known and well-studied atypical residue is α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), which is contained in a fairly large number of peptides with known antibiotic effects. Here, we report on a molecular dynamics (MD) study of a series of homooligopeptides based on α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) with increasing length (Ac-(Aib)n-NMe, n = 5, 6, 7 and 10) and at various temperatures, employing a recent extension of the AMBER force field tailored for the Aib residue. Solvent effects have been analyzed by comparative MD simulations of a heptapeptide in water and dimethylsulfoxide at different temperatures. Our results show that the preference for the 310- and/or α-helix structures, which typically characterize Aib based peptides, is finely tuned by several factors including the chain length, temperature and solvent nature. While the transitions between intra-molecular i → i + 3 and i → i + 4 hydrogen bonds characterizing 310 and α-helices, respectively, are rather fast in small peptides (in the picosecond timescale), our analysis shows that the above physical and chemical factors modulate the relative equilibrium populations of the two helical structures. The obtained results nicely agree with available experimental data and support the use of the new force field for modeling Aib containing peptides. PMID:27402118

  13. Direct visualization of quasi-ordered oxygen chain structures on Au(110)-(1 × 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebel, F.; Montemore, M. M.; Kaxiras, E.; Friend, C. M.

    2016-08-01

    The Au(110) surface offers unique advantages for atomically-resolved model studies of catalytic oxidation processes on gold. We investigate the adsorption of oxygen on Au(110) using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. We identify the typical (empty-states) STM contrast resulting from adsorbed oxygen as atomic-sized dark features of electronic origin. DFT-based image simulations confirm that chemisorbed oxygen is generally detected indirectly, from the binding-induced electronic structure modification of gold. STM images show that adsorption occurs without affecting the general structure of the pristine Au(110) missing-row reconstruction. The tendency to form one-dimensional structures is observed already at low coverage (< 0.05 ML), with oxygen adsorbing on alternate sides of the reconstruction ridges. Consistently, calculations yield preferred adsorption on the (111) facets of the reconstruction, on a 3-fold coordination site, with increased stability when adsorbed in chains. Gold atoms with two oxygen neighbors exhibit enhanced electronic hybridization with the O states. Finally, the species observed are reactive to CO oxidation at 200 K and desorption of CO2 leaves a clean and ordered gold surface.

  14. Direct Observation of Chiral Topological Solitons in 1D Charge-Density Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Cheon, Sangmo; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Yeom, Han Woong

    2015-03-01

    Macroscopic and classical solitons are easily and ubiquitously found, from tsunami to blood pressure pulses, but those in microscopic scale are hard to observe. While the existence of such topological solitons were predicted theoretically and evidenced indirectly by the transport and infrared spectroscopy measurements, the direct observation has been hampered by their high mobility and small dimension. In this talk, we show direct observation of topological solitons in the quasi-1D charge-density wave (CDW) ground state of indium atomic wires, which are consisting of interacting double Peierls chains. Such solitons exhibit a characteristic spatial variation of the CDW amplitudes as expected from the electronic structure. Furthermore, these solitons have an exotic hidden topology originated by topologically different 4-fold degenerate CDW ground states. Their exotic topology leads to the chirality of 1D topological solitons through interaction between two solitons in the double Peierls chains. Detailed scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy reveal their chiral nature at the atomic scale. This work paves the avenue toward the microscopic exploitation of the peculiar properties of nanoscale chiral solitons.

  15. Effects of the size of aromatic chelate ligands and d 10 metal ions on the structures of dicarboxylate complexes: From dinuclear molecule to helical chains and 2D network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhong-Xi; Wang, Ji-Jiang; Hu, Huai-Ming; Chen, Xiao-Li; Wu, Qing-Ran; Li, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Qi-Zhen

    2008-11-01

    Four new mixed-ligand complexes, namely [Zn 2(pam) 2(2,2'-bpy) 2] ( 1), [Cd(pam)(2,2'-bpy) 2] n ( 2), [Zn(pam)(phen)] n ( 3) and [Cd (pam)(phen)] n · 0.5 n CH 3CH 2OH · 0.5 nH 2O ( 4) (H 2pam = pamoic acid, 2,2'-bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Complex 1 possesses a discrete dinuclear metallamacrocyclic structure. Complex 2 is a 1D homochiral helical coordination polymer that is built from achiral components, whereas 3 displays a 1D helical chain structure. 4 is an unusual 2D double-layered structure generated by π ⋯ π interactions of two 2D networks. The structural differences of these complexes are mainly due to the differences of the size of the rigid aromatic chelate ligands and d 10 metal ions. It appears that the chelate ligands and metal ions of the larger size favor the formation of high-dimensional structures, whereas those of the smaller size favor the formation of low-dimensional structures in the present system. The photoluminescence and thermal stability of these complexes were investigated.

  16. Structural Origins of Nitroxide Side Chain Dynamics on Membrane Protein [alpha]-Helical Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Kroncke, Brett M.; Horanyi, Peter S.; Columbus, Linda

    2010-12-07

    Understanding the structure and dynamics of membrane proteins in their native, hydrophobic environment is important to understanding how these proteins function. EPR spectroscopy in combination with site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) can measure dynamics and structure of membrane proteins in their native lipid environment; however, until now the dynamics measured have been qualitative due to limited knowledge of the nitroxide spin label's intramolecular motion in the hydrophobic environment. Although several studies have elucidated the structural origins of EPR line shapes of water-soluble proteins, EPR spectra of nitroxide spin-labeled proteins in detergents or lipids have characteristic differences from their water-soluble counterparts, suggesting significant differences in the underlying molecular motion of the spin label between the two environments. To elucidate these differences, membrane-exposed {alpha}-helical sites of the leucine transporter, LeuT, from Aquifex aeolicus, were investigated using X-ray crystallography, mutational analysis, nitroxide side chain derivatives, and spectral simulations in order to obtain a motional model of the nitroxide. For each crystal structure, the nitroxide ring of a disulfide-linked spin label side chain (R1) is resolved and makes contacts with hydrophobic residues on the protein surface. The spin label at site I204 on LeuT makes a nontraditional hydrogen bond with the ortho-hydrogen on its nearest neighbor F208, whereas the spin label at site F177 makes multiple van der Waals contacts with a hydrophobic pocket formed with an adjacent helix. These results coupled with the spectral effect of mutating the i {+-} 3, 4 residues suggest that the spin label has a greater affinity for its local protein environment in the low dielectric than on a water-soluble protein surface. The simulations of the EPR spectra presented here suggest the spin label oscillates about the terminal bond nearest the ring while maintaining weak contact

  17. The role of the substrate structure in the on-surface synthesis of organometallic and covalent oligophenylene chains.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jingya; Fan, Qitang; Wang, Tao; Kuttner, Julian; Hilt, Gerhard; Gottfried, J Michael; Zhu, Junfa

    2016-07-27

    The influences of the substrate structure on the formation of one-dimensional organometallic and covalent oligomers on a Cu(110) surface were studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Vapor deposition of submonolayer 4,4''-dibromo-meta-terphenyl (DMTP) onto a Cu(110) surface at 300 K leads to scission of C-Br bonds and the formation of organometallic chains (cis/trans and all-trans) connected by C-Cu-C bonds. Larger islands (120 × 120 nm(2)) of all-trans zigzag organometallic chains as sole products were obtained by the deposition of DMTP onto Cu(110) held at 383 K. The domains are oriented along two directions with an angle of ±13° relative to the [0 0 1] direction due to the two-fold symmetry of the Cu(110) surface lattice. This study reveals at a sub-molecular level that the organometallic chains firstly lose copper atoms and then undergo C-C coupling into oligophenylene chains at a substrate temperature around 417 K. Annealing the large islands of organometallic chains at 458 K results in the formation of completely C-C covalently bonded zigzag oligophenylene chains. The zigzag angle of 125° slightly deviates from the ideal value of 120°. This is attributed to a stretching of the zigzag oligophenylene chains due to substrate template effects. PMID:27411742

  18. Comparison of crystal structures of two homologous proteins: structural origin of altered domain interactions in immunoglobulin light-chain dimers.

    PubMed

    Huang, D B; Chang, C H; Ainsworth, C; Brünger, A T; Eulitz, M; Solomon, A; Stevens, F J; Schiffer, M

    1994-12-13

    The sequence and structure of a second human kappa 1 immunoglobulin light-chain variable domain, Wat, has been determined. The R-factor is 15.7% for 1.9-A data. One hundred and ninety-five water molecules were identified; 30 water molecules were located in identical positions in each of the monomers. Some of the water molecules are integral parts of the domains. This light chain is encoded by the same variable domain gene that encoded the previously characterized kappa I variable domain, Rei. Due to limited somatic mutation, the two highly homologous proteins differ in only 20 of the 108 residues. Wat crystallized in space group P6(4) while Rei crystallized in space group P6(1); in both crystals, the asymmetric unit was the noncovalent dimer. Although the basic domain structure is the same for both proteins, the relative positions of the domains within the two dimers differ. This difference is most likely accounted for by the replacement of Tyr36 in Rei by Phe in the Wat protein. Residue Tyr36 is part of the hydrogen-bonding network in the interface between the domains in Rei. Losing the hydrogen-bonding capability of residue 36 by replacement of Tyr by Phe alters the network of hydrogen bonds between the domains, resulting in a different domain-domain contact. The details of lattice contacts in the two crystals were compared. One type of contact that extends the beta-sheet of the individual domains was conserved, but because it involved different symmetry elements within the crystal, different crystal packing resulted. In the Wat crystal, one of the contacts shows an example of how a symmetrical binding site can "bind" an asymmetrical object. Further, the examination of the Wat crystal also illustrates how the different crystalline environments of the domains of the dimer results in different distributions of temperature factors for the residues within the domains. PMID:7993911

  19. Structure-activity relationship of synthetic branched-chain distearoylglycerol (distearin) as protein kinase C activators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Qingzhong; Raynor, R.L.; Wood, M.G. Jr.; Menger, F.M.; Kuo, J.F. )

    1988-09-20

    Several representative branched-chain analogues of distearin (DS) were synthesized and tested for their abilities to activate protein kinase C (PKC) and to compete for the binding of ({sup 3}H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) to the enzyme. Substitutions of stearoyl moieties at sn-1 and sn-2 with 8-methylstearate decreased activities on these parameters, relative to those of the parental diacylglycerol DS, a weak PKC activator. Substitutions with 8-butyl, 4-butyl, or 8-phenyl derivatives, on the other hand, increased activities of the resulting analogues to levels comparable to those seen for diolein (DO), a diacylglycerol prototype shown to be a potent PKC activator. Kinetic analysis indicated that 8-methyldistearin (8-MeDS) acted by decreasing, whereas 8-butyldistearin (8-BuDS) and 8-phenyldistearin (8-PhDS) acted by increasing, the affinities of PKC for phosphatidylserine (PS, a phospholipid cofactor) and Ca{sup 2+} compared to the values seen in the absence or presence of DS. The stimulatory effect of 8-BuDS and 8-PhDS on PKC, as DO, was additive to that of 1,2-(8-butyl)distearoylphosphatidylcholine (1,2(8-Bu)DSPC) and, moreover, they abolished the marked inhibition of the enzyme activity caused by high concentrations of 1,2(8-Bu)DSPC. The present findings demonstrated a structure-activity relationship of the branched-chain DS analogues in the regulation of PKC, perhaps related to their abilities to specifically modify interactions of PKC with PS and/or Ca{sup 2+} critically involved in enzyme activation/inactivation.

  20. Vought F4U-1D Corsair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    Vought F4U-1D Corsair: In February and March of 1945 this Corsair was examined in the NACA's 30 x 60 Full Scale Tunnel at Langley Field. The F4U-1D has rockets mounted on its wings for this test. After installation and during testing, the wings would be lowered to their flight position.

  1. A structural model for the nucleotide binding domains of the flavocytochrome b-245 beta-chain.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, W. R.; Jones, D. T.; Segal, A. W.

    1993-01-01

    NADPH is a system in phagocytic cells that generates O2- and hydrogen peroxide in the endocytic vacuole, both of which are important for killing of the engulfed microbe. Dysfunction of this oxidase results in the syndrome of chronic granulomatous disease, characterized by a profound predisposition to bacterial and fungal infections. A flavocytochrome b is the site of most of the mutations causing this syndrome. The FAD and NADPH binding sites have been located on the beta subunit of this molecule, the C-terminal half of which showed weak sequence similarity to other reductases, including the ferredoxin-NADP reductase (FNR) of known structure. This enabled us to build a model of the nucleotide binding domains of the flavocytochrome using this structure as a template. The model was built initially using a novel automatic modeling method based on distance-matrix projection and then refined using energy minimization with appropriate side-chain torsional constraints. The resulting model rationalized much of the observed sequence conservation and identified a large insertion as a potential regulatory domain. It confirms the inclusion of the neutrophil flavocytochrome b-245 (Cb-245) as a member of the FNR family of reductases and strongly supports its function as the proximal electron transporting component of the NADPH oxidase. PMID:8251942

  2. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of a 1D thiocyanato bridged [Cu(en)2Zn(NCS)4]ṡH2O. Comparison of the three structures with the same [Cu(en)2Zn(NCS)4] unit - different in structural terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrzeszcz, Grzegorz; Muzioł, Tadeusz M.; Tereba, Natalia

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we report the synthesis method and the structure of a one-dimensional thiocyanato bridged heterometallic compound, [Cu(en)2Zn(NCS)4]ṡH2O (1). Moreover, we compare the structure of (1) with the previously described structures of [Cu(en)2Zn(NCS)4]ṡ0.5H2O (2) and [Cu(en)2Zn(NCS)4]ṡCH3CN (3) Pryma et al. (2003) [7]. The compound (1) has been characterized by thermal decomposition, IR, Vis and EPR spectra, and magnetic studies. Structure has been determined by X-ray analysis. Described coordination polymer crystallizes in the orthorhombic Cmcm space group with a = 12.414(2), b = 10.3276(14), c = 14.967(2) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, V = 1918.8(5) Å3 and Z = 4. Each distorted tetrahedral zinc(II) centre (with N-bonded NCS-) links two tetragonally distorted octahedral copper(II) centres by two end-to-end thiocyanato bridges and vice versa forming a zigzag type of CuZn chain. The structures of (1), (2) and (3) differ in crystallographic system, space group and/or CuZn chain type as well as in details. Variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements show very weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the paramagnetic copper(II) ions for compound (1).

  3. Field induced changes in the ring/chain equilibrium of hydrogen bonded structures: 5-methyl-3-heptanol.

    PubMed

    Young-Gonzales, Amanda R; Richert, Ranko

    2016-08-21

    Using non-linear dielectric techniques, we have measured the dynamics of 5-methyl-3-heptanol at a temperature at which the Kirkwood correlation factor gK indicates the coexistence of ring- and chain-like hydrogen-bonded structures. Steady state permittivity spectra recorded in the presence of a high dc bias electric field (17 MV/m) reveal that both the amplitude and the time constant are increased by about 10% relative to the low field limit. This change is attributed to the field driven conversion from ring-like to the more polar chain-like structures, and a direct observation of its time dependence shows that the ring/chain structural transition occurs on a time scale that closely matches that of the dielectric Debye peak. This lends strong support to the picture that places fluctuations of the end-to-end vector of hydrogen bonded structures at the origin of the Debye process, equivalent to fluctuations of the net dipole moment or gK. Recognizing that changes in the ring/chain equilibrium constant also impact the spectral separation between Debye and α-process may explain the difference in their temperature dependence whenever gK is sensitive to temperature, i.e., when the structural motifs of hydrogen bonding change considerably. PMID:27544115

  4. Nanoscale superstructures assembled by polymerase chain reaction (PCR): programmable construction, structural diversity, and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Hua; Ma, Wei; Xu, Liguang; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2013-11-19

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an essential tool in biotechnology laboratories and is becoming increasingly important in other areas of research. Extensive data obtained over the last 12 years has shown that the combination of PCR with nanoscale dispersions can resolve issues in the preparation DNA-based materials that include both inorganic and organic nanoscale components. Unlike conventional DNA hybridization and antibody-antigen complexes, PCR provides a new, effective assembly platform that both increases the yield of DNA-based nanomaterials and allows researchers to program and control assembly with predesigned parameters including those assisted and automated by computers. As a result, this method allows researchers to optimize to the combinatorial selection of the DNA strands for their nanoparticle conjugates. We have developed a PCR approach for producing various nanoscale assemblies including organic motifs such as small molecules, macromolecules, and inorganic building blocks, such as nanorods (NRs), metal, semiconductor, and magnetic nanoparticles (NPs). We start with a nanoscale primer and then modify that building block using the automated steps of PCR-based assembly including initialization, denaturation, annealing, extension, final elongation, and final hold. The intermediate steps of denaturation, annealing, and extension are cyclic, and we use computer control so that the assembled superstructures reach their predetermined complexity. The structures assembled using a small number of PCR cycles show a lower polydispersity than similar discrete structures obtained by direct hybridization between the nanoscale building blocks. Using different building blocks, we assembled the following structural motifs by PCR: (1) discrete nanostructures (NP dimers, NP multimers including trimers, pyramids, tetramers or hexamers, etc.), (2) branched NP superstructures and heterochains, (3) NP satellite-like superstructures, (4) Y-shaped nanostructures and DNA

  5. Structural Characterization of the Partially Folded Intermediates of An Immunoglobulin Light Chain Leading to Amyloid Fibrillation And Amorphous Aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Z.; Hu, D.; Zhu, M.; Fink, A.L.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2007-07-12

    Immunoglobulin light chain deposition diseases involve various types of extracellular deposition of light chain variable domains, including amyloid fibrils and amorphous deposits. The decreased thermodynamic stability of the light chain is believed to be the major factor leading to fibrillation. However, the differences in the nature of the deposits among the light chain deposition diseases raise the question of whether the mechanisms leading to fibrillar or amorphous aggregation is different. In this study, we generated two partially folded intermediates of the light chain variable domain SMA in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) and characterized their conformations. The more unfolded intermediate formed fibrils most rapidly, while the more native-like intermediate predominantly led to amorphous deposits. The results also show that the monomeric, rather than the dimeric state, was critical for fibrillation. The data also indicate that fibril elongation involves addition of a partially unfolded intermediate, rather than the native state. We postulate that a more highly unfolded intermediate is more suited to undergo the topological rearrangements necessary to form amyloid fibrils than a more structured one and that this also correlates with increased destabilization. In the case of light chain aggregation, it appears that more native-like intermediate conformations are more prone to form amorphous deposits.

  6. The horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes is enhanced by ionic liquid with different structure of varying alkyl chain length

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Qian; Mao, Daqing; Cui, Yuxiao; Luo, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have become a global health concern. In our previous study, an ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6]) had been proven to facilitate the dissemination of ARGs in the environment. However, enhanced alkyl group chain length or the substitution of alkyl groups with the cation ring corresponded with increased antimicrobial effects. In this study, we investigated how different structures of ILs with 4, 6, and 8 C atoms in the longer alkyl chain on the imidazolium cations facilitated the dissemination of ARGs. The promotion of plasmid RP4 transfer frequency decreased with [CnMIM][BF4] increasing the alkyl chain length from 4 carbon atoms to 8 carbon atoms on the imidazolium cations, which is observed with [BMIM][BF4] (n = 4, 5.9 fold) > HMIM][BF4] (n = 6, 2.2 fold) > [OMIM][BF4] (n = 8, 1.7 fold). This illustrates that [CnMIM][BF4] with increasing the alkyl chain length exert decreasing ability in facilitating plasmid RP4 horizontal transfer, which is possibly related to IL-structure dependent toxicity. The IL-structure dependent plasmid RP4 transfer frequency was attributable to bacterial cell membrane permeability weaken with increasing alkyl chain length of [CnMIM][PF4], which was evidenced by flow cytometry. In freshwater microcosm, [CnMIm][BF4] promoted the relative abundance of the sulI and intI genes for 4.6 folds, aphA and traF for 5.2 folds higher than the untreated groups, promoting the propagation of ARGs in the aquatic environment. This is the first report that ILs with different structure of varying alkyl chain length facilitate horizontal transfer of plasmid RP4 which is widely distributed in the environment, and thus add the adverse effects of the environmental risk of ILs. PMID:26379641

  7. 1D coordination polymers with polychalcogenides as linkers between metal atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Kysliak, Oleksandr; Beck, Johannes

    2013-07-15

    The reactions of zinc metal with elemental selenium and selenium/sulfur mixtures in liquid ammonia or methylamine under solvothermal conditions in closed glass ampoules at 50 °C lead within some days specifically to [Zn(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Se{sub 4}]{sub n} (1), [Zn(MeNH{sub 2}){sub 2}Se{sub 4}]{sub n} (2), [Zn(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Se{sub 2.23}S{sub 1.77}]{sub n} (3). From MnCl{sub 2}, Rb{sub 2}Se and excess Se in n-butylamine [Mn({sup n}BuNH{sub 2}){sub 4}Se{sub 6}]{sub n} (4) is obtained after prolonged reaction time at ambient temperature. The compounds are sensitive towards air and loss of NH{sub 3} or the amine ligands. The crystal structures were determined by single crystal diffraction at low temperatures. As a common structural feature, all compounds represent 1D coordination polymers with polychalcogenide chains as linkers between the metal atoms and consist of infinite [M–Ch{sub m}–]{sub n} chains (M=Zn, Mn; Ch{sub m}=Se{sub 4}, (S/Se){sub 4}, Se{sub 6}). The Zn central atoms in 1–3 have tetrahedral coordination with two amine ligands, the Mn atoms in 4 have octahedral coordination with four amine ligands and cis position of the two Se atoms. Raman spectra of 1–3 show the stretching mode vibrations of the Ch{sub 4} groups. The observation of S–S, S–Se, and Se–Se vibration bands in the spectrum of 3 indicates the presence of mixed S/Se polyanions. An optical band gap of 1.86(5) eV was determined for 2 by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. - Graphical abstract: The reaction of Zn and Se in liquid methylamine yields dark red [Zn(NH{sub 2}CH{sub 3})Se{sub 4}], a 1D coordination polymer consisting of helical Zn–Se{sub 4}–Zn– chains. - Highlights: • A series of 1D coordination polymers consisting of metal amine complexes concatenated by polychalcogenide ions is presented. • Syntheses were performed as solvothermal reactions in liquid ammonia, liquid methylamine and n-butylamine. • Crystal structures are dominated by helices [M–Ch{sub m

  8. Lattice and off-lattice side chain models of protein folding: Linear time structure prediction better than 86% of optimal

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, W.E.; Istrail, S.

    1996-08-09

    This paper considers the protein structure prediction problem for lattice and off-lattice protein folding models that explicitly represent side chains. Lattice models of proteins have proven extremely useful tools for reasoning about protein folding in unrestricted continuous space through analogy. This paper provides the first illustration of how rigorous algorithmic analyses of lattice models can lead to rigorous algorithmic analyses of off-lattice models. The authors consider two side chain models: a lattice model that generalizes the HP model (Dill 85) to explicitly represent side chains on the cubic lattice, and a new off-lattice model, the HP Tangent Spheres Side Chain model (HP-TSSC), that generalizes this model further by representing the backbone and side chains of proteins with tangent spheres. They describe algorithms for both of these models with mathematically guaranteed error bounds. In particular, the authors describe a linear time performance guaranteed approximation algorithm for the HP side chain model that constructs conformations whose energy is better than 865 of optimal in a face centered cubic lattice, and they demonstrate how this provides a 70% performance guarantee for the HP-TSSC model. This is the first algorithm in the literature for off-lattice protein structure prediction that has a rigorous performance guarantee. The analysis of the HP-TSSC model builds off of the work of Dancik and Hannenhalli who have developed a 16/30 approximation algorithm for the HP model on the hexagonal close packed lattice. Further, the analysis provides a mathematical methodology for transferring performance guarantees on lattices to off-lattice models. These results partially answer the open question of Karplus et al. concerning the complexity of protein folding models that include side chains.

  9. Crystal structure of a complex between β-glucopyranose and a macrocyclic receptor with dendritic multicharged water solubilizing chains.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Pradeep K; Kauffmann, Brice; Destecroix, Harry; Ferrand, Yann; Davis, Anthony P; Huc, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Using commercial screens for crystallization of biomolecules and taking advantage of the use of racemic crystallography allowed the production of X-ray quality single crystals and the elucidation at 1.08 Å resolution of the solid state structure of a difficult target: the complex between glucopyranose and a water soluble macrocyclic receptor equipped with dendritic multianionic solubilizing chains. PMID:27373805

  10. Structural transformation between long and short-chain form of liquid sulfur from ab initio molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Plašienka, Dušan; Cifra, Peter; Martoňák, Roman

    2015-04-21

    We present results of ab initio molecular dynamics study of the structural transformation occurring in hot liquid sulfur under high pressure, which corresponds to the recently observed chain-breakage phenomenon and to the electronic transition reported earlier. The transformation is temperature-induced and separates two distinct polymeric forms of liquid sulfur: high-temperature form composed of short chain-like fragments with open endings and low-temperature form with very long chains. We offer a structural description of the two liquid forms in terms of chain lengths, cross-linking, and chain geometry and investigate several physical properties. We conclude that the transformation is accompanied by changes in energy (but not density) as well as in diffusion coefficient and electronic properties—semiconductor-metal transition. We also describe the analogy of the investigated process to similar phenomena that take place in two other chalcogens selenium and tellurium. Finally, we remark that the behavior of heated liquid sulfur at ambient pressure might indicate a possible existence of a critical point in the low-pressure region of sulfur phase diagram. PMID:25903892

  11. Structural transformation between long and short-chain form of liquid sulfur from ab initio molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Plašienka, Dušan Martoňák, Roman; Cifra, Peter

    2015-04-21

    We present results of ab initio molecular dynamics study of the structural transformation occurring in hot liquid sulfur under high pressure, which corresponds to the recently observed chain-breakage phenomenon and to the electronic transition reported earlier. The transformation is temperature-induced and separates two distinct polymeric forms of liquid sulfur: high-temperature form composed of short chain-like fragments with open endings and low-temperature form with very long chains. We offer a structural description of the two liquid forms in terms of chain lengths, cross-linking, and chain geometry and investigate several physical properties. We conclude that the transformation is accompanied by changes in energy (but not density) as well as in diffusion coefficient and electronic properties—semiconductor-metal transition. We also describe the analogy of the investigated process to similar phenomena that take place in two other chalcogens selenium and tellurium. Finally, we remark that the behavior of heated liquid sulfur at ambient pressure might indicate a possible existence of a critical point in the low-pressure region of sulfur phase diagram.

  12. Structure-dependent and receptor-independent increase in osmotic fragility of rat erythrocytes by short-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Hitoshi; Hara, Hiroshi

    2005-07-30

    We examined short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) with 1 (C1) to 5 (C5) carbon atoms for osmotic fragility (OF) in isolated red blood cells (RBCs) in rats. The RBCs were used as prototypical plasma membrane model. The dense packed RBC was incubated in a phosphate-NaCl buffer solution containing each SCFA at 0 to 100 mM. The RBC suspensions were transferred into the OF test tubes containing NaCl from 0.2 to 0.9%. The hemoglobin concentration was determined and the EC50 in hemolysis was calculated. The OF in RBCs was dose-dependently increased by exposure to SCFAs, except for C1, with an increasing number of carbon atoms. Branched-chain fatty acids (isomers of C4 and C5) have a smaller effect on OF than straight-chain fatty acids (C4 and C5). The SCFA-induced increases in OF were not affected by pretreatment of RBCs with trypsin. The response of the RBC membrane to SCFAs depends on their concentration, carbon chain length and chain structure (straight or branched). The SCFAs probably disturb the lipid bilayer of the RBC membrane and result in a decrease in osmotic resistance. The plasma membrane in rat RBCs could respond to the structure of the SCFAs in detail by using the OF as an indicator. PMID:15963944

  13. Composition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in acanthamoeba castellanii: structural and evolutionary insights.

    PubMed

    Gawryluk, Ryan M R; Chisholm, Kenneth A; Pinto, Devanand M; Gray, Michael W

    2012-11-01

    The mitochondrion, derived in evolution from an α-proteobacterial progenitor, plays a key metabolic role in eukaryotes. Mitochondria house the electron transport chain (ETC) that couples oxidation of organic substrates and electron transfer to proton pumping and synthesis of ATP. The ETC comprises several multiprotein enzyme complexes, all of which have counterparts in bacteria. However, mitochondrial ETC assemblies from animals, plants and fungi are generally more complex than their bacterial counterparts, with a number of 'supernumerary' subunits appearing early in eukaryotic evolution. Little is known, however, about the ETC of unicellular eukaryotes (protists), which are key to understanding the evolution of mitochondria and the ETC. We present an analysis of the ETC proteome from Acanthamoeba castellanii, an ecologically, medically and evolutionarily important member of Amoebozoa (sister to Opisthokonta). Data obtained from tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analyses of purified mitochondria as well as ETC complexes isolated via blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis are combined with the results of bioinformatic queries of sequence databases. Our bioinformatic analyses have identified most of the ETC subunits found in other eukaryotes, confirming and extending previous observations. The assignment of proteins as ETC subunits by MS/MS provides important insights into the primary structures of ETC proteins and makes possible, through the use of sensitive profile-based similarity searches, the identification of novel constituents of the ETC along with the annotation of highly divergent but phylogenetically conserved ETC subunits. PMID:22709906

  14. Elastic energy and phase structure in a continuous spin Ising chain with applications to chiral homopolymers.

    PubMed

    Chernodub, M N; Lundgren, Martin; Niemi, Antti J

    2011-01-01

    We present a numerical Monte Carlo analysis of the phase structure in a continuous spin Ising chain that describes chiral homopolymers. We find that depending on the value of the Metropolis temperature, the model displays the three known nontrivial phases of polymers: At low temperatures the model is in a collapsed phase, at medium temperatures it is in a random walk phase, and at high temperatures it enters the self-avoiding random walk phase. By investigating the temperature dependence of the specific energy we confirm that the transition between the collapsed phase and the random walk phase is a phase transition, while the random walk phase and self-avoiding random walk phase are separated from each other by a crossover transition. We propose that the model can be applied to characterize the statistical properties of protein folding. For this we compare the predictions of the model to a phenomenological elastic energy formula, proposed by J. Lei and K. Huang [e-print arXiv:1002.5013; Europhys. Lett. 88, 68004 (2009)] to describe folded proteins. PMID:21405680

  15. Elastic energy and phase structure in a continuous spin Ising chain with applications to chiral homopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernodub, M. N.; Lundgren, Martin; Niemi, Antti J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a numerical Monte Carlo analysis of the phase structure in a continuous spin Ising chain that describes chiral homopolymers. We find that depending on the value of the Metropolis temperature, the model displays the three known nontrivial phases of polymers: At low temperatures the model is in a collapsed phase, at medium temperatures it is in a random walk phase, and at high temperatures it enters the self-avoiding random walk phase. By investigating the temperature dependence of the specific energy we confirm that the transition between the collapsed phase and the random walk phase is a phase transition, while the random walk phase and self-avoiding random walk phase are separated from each other by a crossover transition. We propose that the model can be applied to characterize the statistical properties of protein folding. For this we compare the predictions of the model to a phenomenological elastic energy formula, proposed by J. Lei and K. Huang [e-print arXiv:1002.5013; Europhys. Lett.EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/88/68004 88, 68004 (2009)] to describe folded proteins.

  16. New hybrid lead iodides: From one-dimensional chain to two-dimensional layered perovskite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Kecai; Liu, Wei; Teat, Simon J.; An, Litao; Wang, Hao; Emge, Thomas J.; Li, Jing

    2015-10-01

    Two new hybrid lead halides (H2BDA)[PbI4] (1) (H2BDA=1,4-butanediammonium dication) and (HNPEIM)[PbI3] (2) (HNPEIM=N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that compound 1 features a two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layer whereas compound 2 contains one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains. The N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation within compound 2 was generated in-situ under solvothermal conditions. The optical absorption spectra collected at room temperature suggest that both compounds are semiconductors having direct band gaps, with estimated values of 2.64 and 2.73 eV for 1 and 2, respectively. Results from the density functional theory (DFT) calculations are consistent with the experimental data. Density of states (DOS) analysis reveals that in both compounds 1 and 2, the energy states in the valence band maximum region are iodine 5p atomic orbitals with a small contribution from lead 6s, while in the region of conduction band minimum, the major contributions are from the inorganic (Pb 6p atomic orbitals) and organic components (C and N 2p atomic orbitals) in compound 1 and 2, respectively.

  17. The use of organic templates to develop biomimetic chain structures of magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sichu; John, Vijay T.; Irvin, Glen C.; Simmons, Blake; McPherson, Gary L.; Zhou, Weilie

    2000-05-01

    The double-tailed surfactants AOT (bis 2-ethylexyl sodium sulfosuccinate) and lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) self-assemble in the presence of water and a hydrocarbon to form fluid microstructures. The nanostructure of this gel appears to be made up of bicontinuous networked channels of water and the hydrocarbon phase, α-Fe nanoparticles are synthesized via reducing the ferrous salt in the aqueous microphase of the gel. Transmission electron microscopy of these particles reveals nanospheres with a uniform size distribution ranging from 15 to 18 nm in diameter. An interesting observation is that these nanoparticles appear to be synthesized in the form of entangled chains reminiscent of magnetic nanoparticles in magnetobacteria. Destruction of the gel phase still leaves the aggregation structure largely intact, implying a clear templating role of the surfactant microstructure. Magnetic properties of these particles were characterized using a SQUID susceptometer. The hysteresis loops at ambient temperature reveals a saturation magnetization of 190 emu/g and a coercivity of 240 G, indicating that the nanoparticles are ferromagnetic. The results indicate the possibility of nanoscale engineering of these materials with biomimetic properties.

  18. Quasi-Racemic X-ray Structures of K27-Linked Ubiquitin Chains Prepared by Total Chemical Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Man; Gao, Shuai; Zheng, Yong; Tan, Xiaodan; Lan, Huan; Tan, Xianglong; Sun, Demeng; Lu, Lining; Wang, Tian; Zheng, Qingyun; Huang, Yichao; Wang, Jiawei; Liu, Lei

    2016-06-15

    Quasi-racemic crystallography has been used to determine the X-ray structures of K27-linked ubiquitin (Ub) chains prepared through total chemical synthesis. Crystal structures of K27-linked di- and tri-ubiquitins reveal that the isopeptide linkages are confined in a unique buried conformation, which provides the molecular basis for the distinctive function of K27 linkage compared to the other seven Ub chains. K27-linked di- and triUb were found to adopt different structural conformations in the crystals, one being symmetric whereas the other triangular. Furthermore, bioactivity experiments showed that the ovarian tumor family de-ubiquitinase 2 significantly favors K27-linked triUb than K27-linked diUb. K27-linked triUb represents the so-far largest chemically synthesized protein (228 amino acids) that has been crystallized to afford a high-resolution X-ray structure. PMID:27268299

  19. Single-Layered Hybrid Materials Based on 1D Associated Metalorganic Nanoribbons for Controlled Release of Pheromones.

    PubMed

    Moreno, José María; Navarro, Ismael; Díaz, Urbano; Primo, Jaime; Corma, Avelino

    2016-09-01

    A new family of stable layered organic-inorganic materials has been prepared, in one-step solvothermal process. They are based on an ordered nickel cluster-type nanoribbons separated from each other by specific alkyl (heptyl- or dodecyl-) arylic mono-carboxylate moieties acting as molecular spacers, perpendicular to the 1D inorganic chains. These organic spacers contain hydrocarbon tails with different length which control the separation level between inorganic 1D sub-units, inhibiting the 3D growth of conventional DUT-8-type metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The lamellar nature of the materials formed was studied and confirmed by different characterization techniques, showing the structural location of individual organic and inorganic building units. They have been successfully used as a long-lasting biodegradable and water-proof materials for controlled release of chemicals, such as pheromones for sustainable treatment of insect plagues. PMID:27444798

  20. Optical properties of LEDs with patterned 1D photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hronec, P.; Kuzma, A.; Å kriniarová, J.; Kováč, J.; Benčurová, A.; Haščík, Å.; Nemec, P.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we focus on the application of the one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PhC) structures on the top of Al0.295Ga0.705As/GaAs multi-quantum well light emitting diode (MQW LED). 1D PhC structures with periods of 600 nm, 700 nm, 800 nm, and 900 nm were fabricated by the E-Beam Direct Write (EBDW) Lithography. Effect of 1D PhC period on the light extraction enhancement was studied. 1D PhC LED radiation profiles were obtained from Near Surface Light Emission Images (NSLEI). Measurements showed the strongest light extraction enhancement using 800 nm period of PhC. Investigation of PhC LED radiation profiles showed strong light decoupling when light reaches PhC structure. Achieved LEE was from 22.6% for 600 nm PhC LED to 47.0% for 800 nm PhC LED. LED with PhC structure at its surface was simulated by FDTD simulation method under excitation of appropriate launch field.

  1. Human von Willebrand factor gene and pseudogene: Structural analysis and differentiation by polymerase chain reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, D.J.; Tuley, E.A.; Westfield, L.A.; Lester-Mancuso, T.L.; Sorace, J.M.; Sadler, J.E. ); Le Beau, M.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Structural analysis of the von Willebrand factor gene located on chromosome 12 is complicated by the presence of a partial unprocessed pseudogene on chromosome 22q11-13. The structures of the von Willebrand factor pseudogene and corresponding segment of the gene were determined, and methods were developed for the rapid differentiation of von Willebrand factor gene and pseudogene sequences. The pseudogene is 21-29 kilobases in length and corresponds to 12 exons (exons 23-34) of the von Willebrand factor gene. Approximately 21 kilobases of the gene and pseudogene were sequenced, including the 5{prime} boundary of the pseudogene. The 3{prime} boundary of the pseudogene lies within an 8-kb region corresponding to intron 34 of the gene. The presence of splice site and nonsense mutations suggests that the pseudogene cannot yield functional transcripts. The pseudogene has diverged {approximately}3.1{percent} in nucleotide sequence from the gene. This suggests a recent evolutionary origin {approximately}19-29 million years ago, near the time of divergence of humans and apes from monkeys. Several repetitive sequences were identified, including 4 Alu, one Line-1, and several short simple sequence repeats. Several of these simple repeats differ in length between the gene and pseudogene and provide useful markers for distinguishing these loci. Sequence differences between the gene and pseudogene were exploited to design oligonucleotide primers for use in the polymerase chain reaction to selectivity amplify sequences corresponding to exons 23-34 from either the von Willebrand factor gene or the pseudogene. This method is useful for the analysis of gene defects in patients with von Willebrand disease, without interference from homologous sequences in the pseudogene.

  2. Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase. 2. The primary structure of the gamma 1 protein chain.

    PubMed

    Bühler, R; Hempel, J; Kaiser, R; de Zalenski, C; von Wartburg, J P; Jörnvall, H

    1984-12-17

    The primary structure of the gamma 1 subunit of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme gamma 1 gamma 1 was deduced by characterization of 36 tryptic and 2 CNBr peptides. The polypeptide chain is composed of 373 amino acid residues. gamma 1 differs from the beta 1 subunit of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase at 21 positions, and from the E subunit of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase at 43 positions including a gap at position 128 as in the beta 1 subunit. All zinc-liganding residues from the E subunit of the horse protein and the beta 1 subunit of the human enzyme are conserved, but like beta 1, gamma 1 also has an additional cysteine residue at position 286 (in the positional numbering system of the horse enzyme) due to a Tyr----Cys exchange. Most amino acid exchanges preserve the properties of the residues affected and are largely located on the surface of the molecules, away from the active site and the coenzyme binding region. However, eight positions with charge differences in relation to the E subunit of the horse enzyme are noticed. These result in a net positive charge increase of one in gamma 1 versus E, explaining the electrophoretic mobilities on starch gels. Of functional significance is the conservation of Ser-48 in gamma 1 relative to E. The residue is close to the active site but different (Thr-48) in the beta 1 subunit of the human enzyme. Thus, the closer structural relationship between human gamma 1 and horse E enzyme subunit than between beta 1 and E is also reflected in functionally important residues, explaining a greater similarity between gamma 1 gamma 1 and EE than between beta 1 beta 1 and EE. PMID:6391921

  3. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE COMPLEX III IN THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC ELECTRON TRANSFER CHAIN OF CHLOROFLEXUS AURANTIACUS

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xinliu; Xin, Yueyong; Bell, Patrick D.; Wen, Jianzhong; Blankenship, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    The green photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus, which belongs to the phylum of filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs, does not contain a cytochrome bc or bf type complex as is found in all other known groups of phototrophs. This suggests that a functional replacement exists to link the reaction center photochemistry to cyclic electron transfer as well as respiration. Earlier work identified a potential substitute of the cytochrome bc complex, now named alternative complex III (ACIII), which has been purified, identified and characterized from C. aurantiacus. ACIII functions as a menaquinol:auracyanin oxidoreductase in the photosynthetic electron transfer chain, and a related but distinct complex functions in respiratory electron flow to a terminal oxidase. In this work, we focus on elucidating the structure of the photosynthetic ACIII. We found that AC III is an integral-membrane protein complex of around 300 kDa that consists of 8 subunits of 7 different types. Among them, there are 4 metalloprotein subunits, including a 113 kDa iron-sulfur cluster-containing polypeptide, a 25 kDa penta-heme c-containing subunit and two 20 kDa mono-heme c-containing subunits in the form of a homodimer. A variety of analytical techniques were employed in determining the ACIII substructure, including HPLC combined with ESI-MS, metal analysis, potentiometric titration and intensity analysis of heme-staining SDS-PAGE. A preliminary structural model of the ACIII complex is proposed based on the analytical data and chemical cross-linking in tandem with mass analysis using MALDI-TOF, as well as transmembrane and transit peptide analysis. PMID:20614874

  4. Characterization and ab initio XRPD structure determination of a novel silicate with Vierer single chains: the crystal structure of NaYSi2O6.

    PubMed

    Többens, Daniel M; Kahlenberg, Volker; Kaindl, Reinhard

    2005-12-12

    The crystal structure of a sodium yttrium silicate with composition NaYSi2O6 has been determined from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data by simulated annealing, and has been subsequently refined with the Rietveld technique. The compound is monoclinic with space group P2(1)/c and unit cell parameters of a=5.40787(2) A, b=13.69784(5) A, c=7.58431(3) A, and beta=109.9140(3) degrees at 23.5 degrees C (Z=4). The structure was found to be a single-chain silicate with a chain periodicity of four. The two symmetry dependent [Si4O12] chains in the unit cell are parallel to c. A prominent feature is the strong folding of the crankshaft-like chains within the b,c-plane resulting in intrachain Si-Si-Si angles close to 90 degrees. The coordination of the Y3+ ions by O2- is 7-fold in the form of slightly irregular pentagonal bipyramids, with oxygen atoms from four different chains contributing to the coordination polyhedron. Na+ ions are irregularly coordinated by 10 oxygens from two neighboring chains. No disorder of Na+ and Y3+ between the two nontetrahedral cation sites could be observed. Furthermore, micro-Raman spectra have been obtained from the polycrystalline material. PMID:16323944

  5. Anion-dependent construction of a series of fluorescent coordination polymers based on 1D zinc∩4,4‧-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-biphenyl substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Kang-Yu; Zou, Qian; Han, Tong; Liu, Yi-Chen; Wang, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Xue; Li, Zuo-Xi

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the rod-like ligand 4,4‧-bis(imidazol-1-yl)-biphenyl (bibp) has been utilized as a building block to carry out counterion effects on the structural diversities of coordination polymers. A series of new zinc complexes, [Zn(trans-bibp)Cl2]∞ (1), [Zn(trans-bibp)Br2]∞ (2), {[Zn(cis-bibp)(Ac)2]·(H2O)}∞ (3), [Zn(trans-bibp)SO4]∞ (4), {[Zn2(cis-bibp)2(ipa)2]·(H2O)}∞ (5, H2ipa=isophthalic acid) and {[Zn(trans-bibp)(cis-bibp)]·(ClO4)2(CHCl3)2(CH3OH)}∞ (6) have been successfully synthesized. Complexes 1 and 2 are iso-structural, which show a 1D W-type chain [Zn(trans-bibp)]∞. Complex 3 exhibits a 2D wave-like layer formed by the hydrogen bond among the 1D linear chain [Zn(cis-bibp)]∞. Complex 4 displays a 2D fish-bone lattice, which is generated from connecting the 1D W-type chain [Zn(trans-bibp)]∞ by the μ2-SO42- . Complex 5 presents an interesting 2D-3D 65·8 architecture, including two 1D chains [Zn(ipa)]∞ and [Zn(cis-bibp)]∞. Complex 6 demonstrates a 2D wave-like layer [Zn(trans-bibp)(cis-bibp)]∞. The structural diversities among 1-6 have been carefully discussed, and the role of counterion in the self-assembly of coordination polymer have also been well documented from the coordination affinity and bridging mode. Furthermore, the solid-state fluorescence properties of 1-6 at room temperature have been studied.

  6. Theory of Topological Superconductivity in Ferromagnetic Metal Chains on Superconducting Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua

    2015-03-01

    Recent experiments have provided evidence that one-dimensional (1D) topological superconductivity based on transition metal atom chains formed on a superconducting substrate can be realized experimentally when the chain behaves like a ferromagnetic macrospin. In this talk I will address the structural and bonding considerations which determine whether or not a particular atom chain will have magnetic and electronic properties favorable for topological superconductivity. By using a Slater-Koster tight-binding model to account for important features of transition metal electronic structure, I conclude that topological states are common for ferromagnetic chains on superconductors and that they are nearly universal when ferromagnetic transition metal chains form straight lines on superconducting substrates. The proximity induced superconducting gap on the chain is ~ ΔEso / J where Δ is the s-wave pair-potential on the chain, Eso is the spin-orbit splitting energy induced in the normal chain state bands by hybridization with the superconducting substrate, and J is the exchange-splitting of the ferromagnetic chain d-bands. Because of the topological character of the 1D superconducting state, Majorana end modes appear within the gaps of finite length chains. I will specifically discuss the spatial decay length of the Majorana end modes which can be much shorter than the coherence length from the induced p-wave gap on the chain due to its strong coupling to the three-dimensional superconducting substrate, in agreement with experimental results. Pb is a particularly favorable substrate material for ferromagnetic chain topological superconductivity because it provides both strong s - wave pairing and strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling, but there seems to be considerable scope to optimize the 1D topological superconductivity by varying the atomic composition and structure of the chain. The authors acknowledge support from the Office of Naval Research under Grant ONR-N00014-14-1-0330.

  7. The primary structure of alpha A- and beta-chains from blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna, Psittaci) hemoglobin. No evidence for expression of alpha D-chains.

    PubMed

    Godovac-Zimmermann, J; Braunitzer, G

    1985-05-01

    The hemoglobin A of the Blue-and-Yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna) was isolated and characterized. The complete amino-acid sequence of alpha A- and beta-chains is presented. In contrast to some adult avian hemoglobins already investigated, Blue-and-Yellow Macaw hemoglobin is homogenous and contains only one component: HbA. The minor component, HbD, which is usually present in the hemolysate of avian erythrocytes, could not be detected. There is no evidence for the expression of the alpha D-globin gene. Comparison of alpha A- and beta-chains from Blue-and-Yellow Macaw hemoglobin with corresponding chains from Greylag Goose hemoglobin shows 19 amino-acid exchanges between alpha A-chains and 6 between beta-chains. The structure-function relationships of hemoglobin chains and the evolutionary aspects are discussed in view of these results. PMID:4005049

  8. Structure of the main saccharide chain in the acrosome reaction-inducing substance of the starfish, Asterias amurensis.

    PubMed

    Koyota, S; Wimalasiri, K M; Hoshi, M

    1997-04-18

    The structure of the main saccharide chain of the acrosome reaction-inducing substance in the egg jelly coat of the starfish, Asterias amurensis, is composed of the following pentasaccharide repeating units (Structure I). A polymer consisting of 10-11 repeating units has been observed to induce the acrosome reaction in starfish sperm at high calcium concentrations. [STRUCTURE I:see text] The identities and linkage positions of constituent sugars were established using sugar, methylation, and sulfate analyses together with one- and two-dimensional nmr spectroscopy. The structure was supported by the data obtained for desulfation products and the Smith degradation of the polysaccharide. PMID:9099675

  9. Structure formation during the crystallization induction period of a short chain-molecule system: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Hisao

    1998-10-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed for a short chain-molecule system to study structure formation during the crystallization induction period. A model simulating n-alkane having 20 methylene units was used for the short-chain molecule. A model system containing either 250 or 2000 chains was quenched from a high temperature, and the structure formation was examined at constant temperature and pressure. The model system containing 250 chains eventually forms an ordered phase after the induction period, during which macroscopic quantities, such as volume, remain almost constant. In spite of these small changes in the macroscopic quantities, development of local parallel order is significant during the induction period. We also found that the development of local parallel order causes density fluctuations which appear as a weak small-angle peak in the structure factor. A characteristic length scale corresponding to the density fluctuations becomes larger as time elapses in the induction period. These features are qualitatively in accord with recent experimental findings on a different polymer system [M. Imai et al., Phys. Rev. B 52, 12 696 (1995)].

  10. NMR solution structure and function of the C-terminal domain of eukaryotic class 1 polypeptide chain release factor.

    PubMed

    Mantsyzov, Alexey B; Ivanova, Elena V; Birdsall, Berry; Alkalaeva, Elena Z; Kryuchkova, Polina N; Kelly, Geoff; Frolova, Ludmila Y; Polshakov, Vladimir I

    2010-06-01

    Termination of translation in eukaryotes is triggered by two polypeptide chain release factors, eukaryotic class 1 polypeptide chain release factor (eRF1) and eukaryotic class 2 polypeptide chain release factor 3. eRF1 is a three-domain protein that interacts with eukaryotic class 2 polypeptide chain release factor 3 via its C-terminal domain (C-domain). The high-resolution NMR structure of the human C-domain (residues 277-437) has been determined in solution. The overall fold and the structure of the beta-strand core of the protein in solution are similar to those found in the crystal structure. The structure of the minidomain (residues 329-372), which was ill-defined in the crystal structure, has been determined in solution. The protein backbone dynamics, studied using (15)N-relaxation experiments, showed that the C-terminal tail 414-437 and the minidomain are the most flexible parts of the human C-domain. The minidomain exists in solution in two conformational states, slowly interconverting on the NMR timescale. Superposition of this NMR solution structure of the human C-domain onto the available crystal structure of full-length human eRF1 shows that the minidomain is close to the stop codon-recognizing N-terminal domain. Mutations in the tip of the minidomain were found to affect the stop codon specificity of the factor. The results provide new insights into the possible role of the C-domain in the process of translation termination. PMID:20553496

  11. Structural insight into SUMO chain recognition and manipulation by the ubiquitin ligase RNF4.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingqi; Plechanovová, Anna; Simpson, Peter; Marchant, Jan; Leidecker, Orsolya; Kraatz, Sebastian; Hay, Ronald T; Matthews, Steve J

    2014-01-01

    The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) can form polymeric chains that are important signals in cellular processes such as meiosis, genome maintenance and stress response. The SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 engages with SUMO chains on linked substrates and catalyses their ubiquitination, which targets substrates for proteasomal degradation. Here we use a segmental labelling approach combined with solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and biochemical characterization to reveal how RNF4 manipulates the conformation of the SUMO chain, thereby facilitating optimal delivery of the distal SUMO domain for ubiquitin transfer. PMID:24969970

  12. Structural insight into SUMO chain recognition and manipulation by the ubiquitin ligase RNF4

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yingqi; Plechanovová, Anna; Simpson, Peter; Marchant, Jan; Leidecker, Orsolya; Kraatz, Sebastian; Hay, Ronald T.; Matthews, Steve J.

    2014-01-01

    The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) can form polymeric chains that are important signals in cellular processes such as meiosis, genome maintenance and stress response. The SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 engages with SUMO chains on linked substrates and catalyses their ubiquitination, which targets substrates for proteasomal degradation. Here we use a segmental labelling approach combined with solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and biochemical characterization to reveal how RNF4 manipulates the conformation of the SUMO chain, thereby facilitating optimal delivery of the distal SUMO domain for ubiquitin transfer. PMID:24969970

  13. Identification of anisotropic geoelectric structures using dimensionality analysis of magnetotelluric data. Application to the Spanish Betic Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, A.; Rosell, O.; Queralt, P.; Ledo, J.; Marcuello, A.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we investigate how to identify and characterise anisotropic structures in the Earth using the dimensionality analysis of the magnetotelluric (MT) responses, and apply it to the dataset from the Betics (SE Spain), which geoelectric lithospheric structure is well known from a 3D model. The methodology employed is based on a previous work (Martí et al., 2010), which extended the use of the rotational invariants of the MT tensor to define new criteria to identify anisotropic structures, based on 1D and 2D synthetic models. Now, we apply these criteria to a broad grid of MT sites which data are affected by 3D structures. In order to obtain as much information from the data as possible, we include the study of the induction arrows and compare the analysis with the phase tensor.

  14. Detailed simulation of the role of functionalized polymer chains on the structural, dynamic and mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Shen, Jianxiang; Gao, Yangyang; Zhou, Huanhuan; Wu, Youping; Zhang, Liqun

    2014-11-28

    To systematically study the effect of functionalized chain groups on polymer nanocomposites, we perform our simulation work in the following two ways. In the case of dilute loading of nanoparticles (NPs) with different geometries (spherical, sheet-like, rod-like NPs), we adopt coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation to study the structural, dynamic and mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites influenced by the terminal groups of linear polymer chains. We observe that the terminal groups have more probability to be adsorbed onto the surface of NPs with decreasing temperature, chain molecular weight and increasing chain stiffness. For all NPs with different geometries, more terminal groups segregate into the surface of NPs with increase in the interaction energy εf-n between the terminal groups and the NPs. We also notice that the attractive interaction between the terminal groups and the sheet-like NPs induces the appearance of a gradient of translational dynamics of polymer chains, and the relaxation at the chain length scale is evidently different for various adsorbed layers, whereas the segmental relaxation only becomes slightly slower nearby the sheet-like NPs. For both pure and filled systems with spherical NPs, it is found that the stress-strain curves and bond orientations are significantly enhanced with increase in the interaction strength between the terminal groups as well as terminal groups and NPs. In the case of concentrated loading of NPs, we construct the atomistic models of C60, CNT and graphene to accurately account for the "many body effect." We explore the influence of the functionalization position along the chain backbone on the dispersion kinetics, realizing that the end-functionalization is more effective. The end-groups effect on the chain configuration, chain packing and graphene equilibrium dispersibility is examined. The translational and rotational (segmental and terminal relaxation) dynamics influenced by the interactions

  15. The Effect of Chain Structures on the Crystallization Behavior and Membrane Formation of Poly(Vinylidene Fluoride) Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenzhong; Yuan, Haoge; Wang, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    The crystallization behaviors of two copolymers of PVDF were studied, and the effect of copolymerized chains on the crystallization behavior was investigated. The results indicated that both copolymers had a lowered crystallization temperature and crystallinity. The crystallization rate was improved by the copolymer with symmetrical units in PVDF chains, but hindered by asymmetrical units, compared with the neat PVDF. The symmetrical units in PVDF chains favored the β-crystals with fiber-like structures. According to the solubility parameter rule, methyl salicylate (MS) can be chosen as a diluent for PVDF copolymers. Both diluted systems had liquid-liquid (L-L) regions in the phase diagrams, which was due to the lowered crystallization temperature. PMID:24957175

  16. Alcohol-to-acid ratio and substrate concentration affect product structure in chain elongation reactions initiated by unacclimatized inoculum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhao; Lü, Fan; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether the ratio of ethanol to acetate affects yield and product structure in chain elongation initiated by unacclimatized mixed cultures. The effect of varying the substrate concentration, while maintaining the same ratio of alcohol to acid, was also investigated. With a high substrate concentration, an alcohol to acid ratio >2:1 provided sufficient electron donor capacity for the chain elongation reaction. With an ethanol to acetate ratio of 3:1 (300mM total carbon), the highest n-caproate concentration (3033±98mg/L) was achieved during the stable phase of the reaction. A lower substrate concentration (150mM total carbon) gave a lower yield of products and led to reduced carbon transformation efficiency compared with other reaction conditions. The use of unacclimatized inoculum in chain elongation can produce significant amounts of odd-carbon-number carboxylates as a result of protein hydrolysis. PMID:27469095

  17. Side-chain effects on electronic structure and molecular stacking arrangement of PCBM spin-coated films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazylewski, Paul F.; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Forrest, Jay L.; Tada, Hirokazu; Choi, Dong Hoon; Chang, Gap Soo

    2011-05-01

    The electronic structure and molecular stacking arrangement of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was studied using a combination of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurements and density functional theory calculations. Measurements show that the side chain lifts the energy degeneracy of the C60 molecular orbitals around the chain attachment. This breaks the orbital symmetry of the LUMO of the C60 backbone which is observed through polarization dependence of C 1s → π∗ transitions. This dependence is analyzed to determine the bulk crystal structure of PCBM. X-ray emission and absorption measurements indicate the band gap energy of PCBM to be 1.87 eV.

  18. Quantization of Energy in 1D Model of Crystal Lattice with Local Perturbations Induced by Ion-Beam Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minárik, Stanislav

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose theoretical basis for investigation of dynamics of acoustic phonons in a thin layers containing nano-scale structural inhomogeneities. One-dimensional (1D) model of a crystal lattice was considered to reveal specific features of the processes arising in such system of phonons in equilibrium state. Standard quantization of energy of 1D ionic chain vibrating by acoustic frequencies was carried out while the presence of foreign ions in this chain was taken into account. Since only two dimensions are dominant in thin layers, only longitudinal vibrations of the chain in the plane of the layer were considered. Results showed that foreign ions affect the energy quantization. Phonon-phonon interaction between two phonon`s modes can be expected if the mass of foreign ions implanted by ion-beam differs from the mass of ions in the initial layer. We believe that the obtained results will help to understand the character of phonon systems in nanostructured thin layers prepared by ion-bem technology, and will allow better explain some thermal and electrical phenomena associated with lattice dynamics in such layers.

  19. A series of novel 1D coordination polymers constructed from metal?quinolone complex fragments linked by aromatic dicarboxylate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiang-Hong; Xiao, Dong-Rong; Yan, Shi-Wei; Sun, Dian-Zhen; Chen, Hai-Yan; Wang, Xin; Yang, Juan; Ye, Zhong-Li; Yuan, Ruo; Wang, En-Bo

    2012-08-01

    Self-assembly of quinolones with metal salts in the presence of aromatic dicarboxylate ligands affords a series of novel 1D metal-quinolone complexes, namely [Mn(Hppa)(oba)]·3H2O (1), [Co(Hppa)(oba)]·3.25H2O (2), [Zn(Hppa)(sdba)]·1.5H2O (3), [Mn(Hcf)(bpda)(H2O)]·2H2O (4), [Mn(Hppa)2(bpdc)] (5) and [Mn(Hlome)2(bpdc)]·4H2O (6) (Hppa = Pipemidic acid, Hcf = ciprofloxacin, Hlome = lomefloxacin). The structures of compounds 1-3 consist of novel polymeric chains spanning two different directions, which display an intriguing 1D → 3D inclined polycatenation of supramolecular ladders. Compound 4 exhibits a chain compound formed from the interconnection of [Mn2(Hcf)2(μ-CO2)2] dimers with bpda ligands. Compounds 5 and 6 are similar chain compounds constructed from [Mn(Hppa)2] (or [Mn(Hlome)2]) fragments linked by bpdc ligands. The magnetic properties of 4 have been studied, which indicate the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions. Furthermore, the luminescent properties of compound 3 are discussed.

  20. Perturbation theory for multicomponent fluids based on structural properties of hard-sphere chain mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Hlushak, Stepan

    2015-09-28

    An analytical expression for the Laplace transform of the radial distribution function of a mixture of hard-sphere chains of arbitrary segment size and chain length is used to rigorously formulate the first-order Barker-Henderson perturbation theory for the contribution of the segment-segment dispersive interactions into thermodynamics of the Lennard-Jones chain mixtures. Based on this approximation, a simple variant of the statistical associating fluid theory is proposed and used to predict properties of several mixtures of chains of different lengths and segment sizes. The theory treats the dispersive interactions more rigorously than the conventional theories and provides means for more accurate description of dispersive interactions in the mixtures of highly asymmetric components.

  1. The Role of High Molecular Weight Chains in Flow-Induced Crystallization Precursor Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yang,L.; Somani, R.; Scis, I.; Hsiao, B.; Kolb, R.; Lohse, D.

    2006-01-01

    Flow-induced crystallization in a bimodal polyethylene blend was investigated by means of in situ shear-WAXD (wide-angle x-ray diffraction) and shear-SAXS (small-angle x-ray scattering) techniques. The blend contained a low molecular weight (M{sub w} = 50 000 g mol{sup -1} and polydispersity = 2) polyethylene copolymer matrix (MB-50k) with 2 mol% of hexene, and a nearly monodisperse high molecular weight (M{sub w} = 161 000 g mol{sup -1} and polydispersity = 1.1) hydrogenated polybutadiene component (MD-161k), which has the microstructure of an ethylene-butene copolymer with 4 mol% butene. At the experimental temperatures of 112 and 115 C, MB-50k exhibited faster crystallization kinetics and higher crystallinity due to higher chain mobility and higher ethylene content than those of the MB-50k/MD-161k blend. However, both WAXD and SAXS results indicated that the high molecular weight component (MD-161k) is responsible for the formation of more highly oriented crystals, which we relate to a shear-induced precursor scaffold. Values of the lamellar long period in all experimental runs were found to slightly decrease in the beginning of crystallization and then reached a plateau value. Vonk's method for single lamella scattering was employed to estimate the lamellar thickness in the MB-50k/MD-161k blend at high temperature (115 C), where the lamellar thickness was also found to decrease in the beginning and remained about constant afterward. Twisted lamellar structures were observed in all formed kebabs.

  2. Structural and functional aspects of the myosin essential light chain in cardiac muscle contraction

    SciTech Connect

    Muthu, Priya; Wang, Li; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Huang, Wenrui; Hernandez, Olga M.; Kawai, Masataka; Irving, Thomas C.; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2012-04-02

    The myosin essential light chain (ELC) is a structural component of the actomyosin cross-bridge, but its function is poorly understood, especially the role of the cardiac specific N-terminal extension in modulating actomyosin interaction. Here, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the A57G (alanine to glycine) mutation in the cardiac ELC known to cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC). The function of the ELC N-terminal extension was investigated with the Tg-{Delta}43 mouse model, whose myocardium expresses a truncated ELC. Low-angle X-ray diffraction studies on papillary muscle fibers in rigor revealed a decreased interfilament spacing ({approx} 1.5 nm) and no alterations in cross-bridge mass distribution in Tg-A57G mice compared to Tg-WT, expressing the full-length nonmutated ELC. The truncation mutation showed a 1.3-fold increase in I{sub 1,1}/I{sub 1,0}, indicating a shift of cross-bridge mass from the thick filament backbone toward the thin filaments. Mechanical studies demonstrated increased stiffness in Tg-A57G muscle fibers compared to Tg-WT or Tg-{Delta}43. The equilibrium constant for the cross-bridge force generation step was smallest in Tg-{Delta}43. These results support an important role for the N-terminal ELC extension in prepositioning the cross-bridge for optimal force production. Subtle changes in the ELC sequence were sufficient to alter cross-bridge properties and lead to pathological phenotypes.

  3. Potent neutralizing anti-CD1d antibody reduces lung cytokine release in primate asthma model

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Jonathan; Clarke, Adam W; Shim, Doris; Mabon, David; Tian, Chen; Windloch, Karolina; Buhmann, Chris; Corazon, Beau; Lindgren, Matilda; Pollard, Matthew; Domagala, Teresa; Poulton, Lynn; Doyle, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    CD1d is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells involved in triggering cell populations, particularly natural killer T (NKT) cells, to release high levels of cytokines. NKT cells are implicated in asthma pathology and blockade of the CD1d/NKT cell pathway may have therapeutic potential. We developed a potent anti-human CD1d antibody (NIB.2) that possesses high affinity for human and cynomolgus macaque CD1d (KD ∼100 pM) and strong neutralizing activity in human primary cell-based assays (IC50 typically <100 pM). By epitope mapping experiments, we showed that NIB.2 binds to CD1d in close proximity to the interface of CD1d and the Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain. Together with data showing that NIB.2 inhibited stimulation via CD1d loaded with different glycolipids, this supports a mechanism whereby NIB.2 inhibits NKT cell activation by inhibiting Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain interactions with CD1d, independent of the lipid antigen in the CD1d antigen-binding cleft. The strong in vitro potency of NIB.2 was reflected in vivo in an Ascaris suum cynomolgus macaque asthma model. Compared with vehicle control, NIB.2 treatment significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of Ascaris-induced cytokines IL-5, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist, and significantly reduced baseline levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, IL-12/23p40, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and VEGF. At a cellular population level NIB.2 also reduced numbers of BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and blood eosinophils and basophils. We demonstrate that anti-CD1d antibody blockade of the CD1d/NKT pathway modulates inflammatory parameters in vivo in a primate inflammation model, with therapeutic potential for diseases where the local cytokine milieu is critical. PMID:25751125

  4. Linear rheology and structure of molecular bottlebrushes with short side chains

    SciTech Connect

    López-Barrón, Carlos R. Brant, Patrick; Crowther, Donna J.; Eberle, Aaron P. R.

    2015-05-15

    We investigate the microstructure and linear viscoelasticity of model molecular bottlebrushes (BBs) using rheological and small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering measurements. Our polymers have short atactic polypropylene (aPP) side chains of molecular weight ranging from 119 g/mol to 259 g/mol and narrow molecular weight distribution (M{sub w}/M{sub n} 1.02–1.05). The side chain molecular weights are a small fraction of the entanglement molecular weight of the corresponding linear polymer (M{sub e,aPP}= 7.05 kg/mol), and as such, they are unentangled. The morphology of the aPP BBs is characterized as semiflexible thick chains with small side chain interdigitation. Their dynamic master curves, obtained by time-temperature superposition, reveal two sequential relaxation processes corresponding to the segmental relaxation and the relaxation of the BB backbone. Due to the short length of the side chains, their fast relaxation could not be distinguished from the glassy relaxation. The fractional free volume is an increasing function of the side chain length (N{sub SC}). Therefore, the glassy behavior of these polymers as well as their molecular friction and dynamic properties are influenced by their N{sub SC} values. The apparent flow activation energies are a decreasing function of N{sub SC}, and their values explain the differences in zero-shear viscosity measured at different temperatures.

  5. Complete primary structure of the sixth chain of human basement membrane collagen, alpha 6(IV). Isolation of the cDNAs for alpha 6(IV) and comparison with five other type IV collagen chains.

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Ding, M; Zhao, Z; Reeders, S T

    1994-05-01

    Basement membranes were previously believed to contain five distinct type IV collagen subunits. We have recently isolated part of the cDNA for a novel type IV collagen, alpha 6(IV), and shown that COL4A6, the gene encoding this new chain, is deleted in Alport syndrome-associated leiomyomatosis (Zhou, J., Mochizuki, T., Smeets, H., Antignac, C., Laurila, P., de Paepe, A., Tryggvason, K., and Reeders, S. T. (1993) Science 261, 1167-1169). Here, we describe the entire human alpha 6(IV) cDNA and show that the gene encodes a classical type IV collagen with homology throughout its length to all the other five chains. There is a 21-residue signal peptide, a 1417-residue collagenous domain interrupted at 25 points, and a 228-residue carboxyl-terminal non-collagenous domain. When the complete primary structure of this new chain was compared with all the other known chains, it became clear that alpha 6(IV) has the most resemblance to alpha 2(IV) and alpha 4(IV). The evolution of the six chains was deduced, allowing a new classification of the type IV collagen family. The alpha 6(IV) chain is a candidate gene for X-linked Alport syndrome; knowledge of the complete structure of the chain will permit us to screen systematically for mutations in patients and to generate recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides for further study of cell-matrix interactions involving the alpha 6(IV) chain. PMID:8175748

  6. A new copper borophosphate with novel polymeric chains and its structural correlation with raw materials in molten hydrated flux synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Ruijing; Liu, Wei Cao, Lixin; Su, Ge; Xu, Hongmei; Zhao, Chenggong

    2014-02-15

    A novel copper borophosphate, Cu{sub 3}[B{sub 2}P{sub 3}O{sub 12}(OH){sub 3}] has been prepared by the molten hydrated flux method. Its crystal structure was determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction (monoclinic, Cc, a=6.1895 Å, b=13.6209 Å, c=11.9373 Å, β=97.62°, V=997.5 Å{sup 3}, Z=4). The three-dimensional framework of the titled compound, is composed by two kinds of polymeric chains and isolated PO{sub 4} tetrahedral. One novel 4-membered tetrahedral rings has been observed in borophosphates. Magnetic measurements indicate that the title compound exits antiferromagnetic interactions. Due to the special reaction medium created by the molten hydrated flux method, a possible structural correlation between the final solids and the raw materials has been noted. - Graphical abstract: The 3D structure consists of a framework composed of CuO{sub x} polyhedra, BO{sub 4} and PO{sub 4} tetrahedra. A intersection angle between the metal chains and borophosphate chains can be noted. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A novel copper borophosphate has been prepared by the molten hydrated flux method. • One novel 4-membered tetrahedral ring has been observed firstly in borophosphates. • A possible structural correlation between the final solids and the raw materials has been noted.

  7. Influence of the side chain and substrate on polythiophene thin film surface, bulk, and buried interfacial structures.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Minyu; Jasensky, Joshua; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Li, Yaoxin; Pichan, Cayla; Lu, Xiaolin; Chen, Zhan

    2016-08-10

    The molecular structures of organic semiconducting thin films mediate the performance of various devices composed of such materials. To fully understand how the structures of organic semiconductors alter on substrates due to different polymer side chains and different interfacial interactions, thin films of two kinds of polythiophene derivatives with different side-chains, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(3-potassium-6-hexanoate thiophene) (P3KHT), were deposited and compared on various surfaces. A combination of analytical tools was applied in this research: contact angle goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize substrate dielectric surfaces with varied hydrophobicity for polymer film deposition; X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to examine the polythiophene film bulk structure; sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was utilized to probe the molecular structures of polymer film surfaces in air and buried solid/solid interfaces. Both side-chain hydrophobicity and substrate hydrophobicity were found to mediate the crystallinity of the polythiophene film, as well as the orientation of the thiophene ring within the polymer backbone at the buried polymer/substrate interface and the polymer thin film surface in air. For the same type of polythiophene film deposited on different substrates, a more hydrophobic substrate surface induced thiophene ring alignment with the surface normal at both the buried interface and on the surface in air. For different films (P3HT vs. P3KHT) deposited on the same dielectric substrate, a more hydrophobic polythiophene side chain caused the thiophene ring to align more towards the surface at the buried polymer/substrate interface and on the surface in air. We believe that the polythiophene surface, bulk, and buried interfacial molecular structures all influence the hole mobility within the polythiophene film. Successful characterization of an organic conducting

  8. Species Specific Differences of CD1d Oligomer Loading In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Paletta, Daniel; Fichtner, Alina Suzann; Starick, Lisa; Porcelli, Steven A.; Savage, Paul B.; Herrmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    CD1d molecules are MHC class I-like molecules that present glycolipids to iNKT cells. The highly conserved interaction between CD1d:α-Galactosylceramide (αGC) complexes and the iNKT TCR not only defines this population of αβ T cells but can also be used for its direct identification. Therefore, CD1d oligomers are a widely used tool for iNKT cell related investigations. To this end, the lipid chains of the antigen have to be inserted into the hydrophobic pockets of the CD1d binding cleft, often with help of surfactants. In this study, we investigated the influence of different surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tyloxapol) on in vitro loading of CD1d molecules derived from four different species (human, mouse, rat and cotton rat) with αGC and derivatives carrying modifications of the acyl-chain (DB01-1, PBS44) and a 6-acetamido-6-deoxy-addition at the galactosyl head group (PBS57). We also compared rat CD1d dimers with tetramers and staining of an iNKT TCR transductant was used as readout for loading efficacy. The results underlined the importance of CD1d loading efficacy for proper analysis of iNKT TCR binding and demonstrated the necessity to adjust loading conditions for each oligomer/glycolipid combination. The efficient usage of surfactants as a tool for CD1d loading was revealed to be species-specific and depending on the origin of the CD1d producing cells. Additional variation of surfactant-dependent loading efficacy between tested glycolipids was influenced by the acyl-chain length and the modification of the galactosyl head group with PBS57 showing the least dependence on surfactants and the lowest degree of species-dependent differences. PMID:26599805

  9. TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport.

    PubMed

    Schmidts, Miriam; Hou, Yuqing; Cortés, Claudio R; Mans, Dorus A; Huber, Celine; Boldt, Karsten; Patel, Mitali; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Plaza, Jean-Marc; van Beersum, Sylvia E C; Yap, Zhi Min; Letteboer, Stef J F; Taylor, S Paige; Herridge, Warren; Johnson, Colin A; Scambler, Peter J; Ueffing, Marius; Kayserili, Hulya; Krakow, Deborah; King, Stephen M; Beales, Philip L; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Wicking, Carol; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M; Witman, George B

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. We thus define TCTEX1D2 as an integral component of the evolutionarily conserved retrograde IFT machinery. In complex with several IFT dynein light chains, it is required for correct vertebrate skeletal formation but may be functionally redundant under certain conditions. PMID:26044572

  10. TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport

    PubMed Central

    Schmidts, Miriam; Hou, Yuqing; Cortés, Claudio R.; Mans, Dorus A.; Huber, Celine; Boldt, Karsten; Patel, Mitali; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Plaza, Jean-Marc; van Beersum, Sylvia E. C.; Yap, Zhi Min; Letteboer, Stef J. F.; Taylor, S. Paige; Herridge, Warren; Johnson, Colin A.; Scambler, Peter J.; Ueffing, Marius; Kayserili, Hulya; Krakow, Deborah; King, Stephen M.; Beales, Philip L.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Wicking, Carol; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Witman, George B.; Al-Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl; Anney, Richard; Antony, Dinu; Asimit, Jennifer; Ayub, Mohammad; Barrett, Jeff; Barroso, Inês; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Blackwood, Douglas; Bobrow, Martin; Bochukova, Elena; Bolton, Patrick; Boustred, Chris; Breen, Gerome; Brion, Marie-Jo; Brown, Andrew; Calissano, Mattia; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Chen, Lu; Cirak, Sebhattin; Clapham, Peter; Clement, Gail; Coates, Guy; Collier, David; Cosgrove, Catherine; Cox, Tony; Craddock, Nick; Crooks, Lucy; Curran, Sarah; Daly, Allan; Danecek, Petr; Smith, George Davey; Day-Williams, Aaron; Day, Ian; Durbin, Richard; Edkins, Sarah; Ellis, Peter; Evans, David; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fitzpatrick, David; Flicek, Paul; Floyd, Jamie; Foley, A. Reghan; Franklin, Chris; Futema, Marta; Gallagher, Louise; Gaunt, Tom; Geschwind, Daniel; Greenwood, Celia; Grozeva, Detelina; Guo, Xiaosen; Gurling, Hugh; Hart, Deborah; Hendricks, Audrey; Holmans, Peter; Huang, Jie; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matt; Hysi, Pirro; Jackson, David; Jamshidi, Yalda; Jewell, David; Chris, Joyce; Kaye, Jane; Keane, Thomas; Kemp, John; Kennedy, Karen; Kent, Alastair; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Lachance, Genevieve; Langford, Cordelia; Lee, Irene; Li, Rui; Li, Yingrui; Ryan, Liu; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lopes, Margarida; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Massimo, Mangino; Marchini, Jonathan; Maslen, John; McCarthy, Shane; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew; McKechanie, Andrew; McQuillin, Andrew; Memari, Yasin; Metrustry, Sarah; Min, Josine; Moayyeri, Alireza; Morris, James; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Northstone, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Oualkacha, Karim; Owen, Michael; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Parker, Victoria; Parr, Jeremy; Paternoster, Lavinia; Paunio, Tiina; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John; Pietilainen, Olli; Plagnol, Vincent; Quail, Michael A.; Quaye, Lydia; Raymond, Lucy; Rehnström, Karola; Brent Richards, J.; Ring, Sue; Ritchie, Graham R S; Savage, David B.; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Semple, Robert K.; Serra, Eva; Shihab, Hashem; Shin, So-Youn; Skuse, David; Small, Kerrin; Smee, Carol; Soler, Artigas María; Soranzo, Nicole; Southam, Lorraine; Spector, Tim; St Pourcain, Beate; St. Clair, David; Stalker, Jim; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Suvisaari, Jaana; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tian, Jing; Timpson, Nic; Tobin, Martin; Valdes, Ana; van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Wain, Louise; Walter, Klaudia; Wang, Jun; Ward, Kirsten; Wheeler, Ellie; Whittall, Ros; Williams, Hywel; Williamson, Kathy; Wilson, Scott G.; Wong, Kim; Whyte, Tamieka; ChangJiang, Xu; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhang, Feng; Zheng, Hou-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. We thus define TCTEX1D2 as an integral component of the evolutionarily conserved retrograde IFT machinery. In complex with several IFT dynein light chains, it is required for correct vertebrate skeletal formation but may be functionally redundant under certain conditions. PMID:26044572

  11. Structure of the human laminin {gamma}2 chain gene (LAMC2): Alternative splicing with different tissue distribution of two transcripts

    SciTech Connect

    Airenne, T.; Haakana, H.; Kallunki, T.

    1996-02-15

    This article discusses the exon-intron structure and tissue distribution of the laminin {gamma}2 chain (LAMC2) gene, which is mutated in some cases of junctional epidermolysis bullosa. The article also discusses the transcription and splicing of this gene, which result in alternative uses of the last two exons of the gene. The different tissue distributions of the transcripts indicate different functions for the gene in vivo. 36 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Binding energies and electronic structures of adsorbed titanium chains on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chih-Kai; Zhao, Jijun; Lu, Jianping

    2002-03-01

    Our calculations based on first principles have shown that titanium is much favored energetically over gold and aluminum to form a continuous chain on a variety of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Results from two zigzag nanotubes, (10,0) and (14,0), and two armchairs, (6,6) and (8,8), indicate that binding energy for a Ti-adsorbed SWNT is generally six to seven eV per unit cell larger than a Au or Al-adsorbed SWNT. Furthermore, the adsorbed Ti chain generates additional states in the band gaps of the two semi-conducting zigzag nanotubes, transforming them into metals.

  13. The Relationship of Pretilt Angle and Chemical Structure of Rubbed Organo-Soluble Side-Chain Polyimides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ian K.; Bai, F.; Bai, Z.; Ge, J.; Sun, L.; Wang, H.; Zhang, Z.; Harris, Frank W.; Cheng, Stephen Z. D.

    2000-03-01

    This work is concerned with the relationship between the properties of the pretilt angles and chemical structure of the alignment layer for a series of novel organo-soluble side-chain polyimides developed at The University of Akron. The polyimides were spin cast on ITO glass substrates and mechanically rubbed with a velvet cloth. Liquid crystal display cells were constructed with an anti-parallel geometry using 10μm glass spacers and filled with the nematic liquid crystal mixture E7. The pretilt angle, which is defined as the angle between the liquid crystal director and the substrate, was measured using the magnetic null method. Various side-chain polyimide films were prepared and pretilt angles were determined employing identical processing conditions. In general, polyimides containing long flexible aliphatic side-chains (no. carbons >12) resulted in high pretilt angles (>20^o) however over time the pretilt shifted to a homeotropic alignment (i.e. 90^o to the substrate). The stability of the pretilt angles was improved when polyimide copolymers were used. Further enhancement of the stability was achieved by crosslinking the system prior to rubbing. Liquid crystal like side-chains (cyanobiphenol and biphenol based) resulted in stable pretilt angles ranging from 20 to 40^o for a spacer length of six carbons. Several surface techniques were used to study the effect of rubbing, including; atomic force microscopy, surfaced enhanced Raman scattering, and contact angle.

  14. Chain-like structure elements in Ni40Ta60 metallic glasses observed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pawlak, Rémy; Marot, Laurent; Sadeghi, Ali; Kawai, Shigeki; Glatzel, Thilo; Reimann, Peter; Goedecker, Stefan; Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim; Meyer, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The structure of metallic glasses is a long-standing question because the lack of long-range order makes diffraction based techniques difficult to be applied. Here, we used scanning tunneling microscopy with large tunneling resistance of 6 GΩ at low temperature in order to minimize forces between probe and sample and reduce thermal fluctuations of metastable structures. Under these extremely gentle conditions, atomic structures of Ni40Ta60 metallic glasses are revealed with unprecedented lateral resolution. In agreement with previous models and experiments, icosahedral-like clusters are observed. The clusters show a high degree of mobility, which explains the need of low temperatures for stable imaging. In addition to icosahedrons, chain-like structures are resolved and comparative density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirm that these structures are meta-stable. The co-existence of icosahedral and chain-like structures might be an key ingredient for the understanding of the mechanical properties of metallic glasses. PMID:26268430

  15. Resonance Assignments and Secondary Structure Analysis of Dynein Light Chain 8 by Magic-angle Spinning NMR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Shangjin; Butterworth, Andrew H.; Paramasivam, Sivakumar; Yan, Si; Lightcap, Christine M.; Williams, John C.; Polenova, Tatyana E.

    2011-08-04

    Dynein light chain LC8 is the smallest subunit of the dynein motor complex and has been shown to play important roles in both dynein-dependent and dynein-independent physiological functions via its interaction with a number of its binding partners. It has also been linked to pathogenesis including roles in viral infections and tumorigenesis. Structural information for LC8-target proteins is critical to understanding the underlying function of LC8 in these complexes. However, some LC8-target interactions are not amenable to structural characterization by conventional structural biology techniques owing to their large size, low solubility, and crystallization difficulties. Here, we report magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of the homodimeric apo-LC8 protein as a first effort in addressing more complex, multi-partner, LC8-based protein assemblies. We have established site-specific backbone and side-chain resonance assignments for the majority of the residues of LC8, and show TALOS+-predicted torsion angles ø and ψ in close agreement with most residues in the published LC8 crystal structure. Data obtained through these studies will provide the first step toward using MAS NMR to examine the LC8 structure, which will eventually be used to investigate protein–protein interactions in larger systems that cannot be determined by conventional structural studies.

  16. Effect of cholesterol on structural and mechanical properties of membranes depends on lipid chain saturation

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Jianjun; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F.

    2009-08-15

    The effects of cholesterol on membrane bending modulus K{sub C}, membrane thickness D{sub HH}, the partial and apparent areas of cholesterol and lipid, and the order parameter S{sub xray} are shown to depend upon the number of saturated hydrocarbon chains in the lipid molecules. Particularly striking is the result that up to 40% cholesterol does not increase the bending modulus K{sub C} of membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine lipids with two cis monounsaturated chains, although it does have the expected stiffening effect on membranes composed of lipids with two saturated chains. The B fluctuational modulus in the smectic liquid crystal theory is obtained and used to discuss the interactions between bilayers. Our K{sub C} results motivate a theory of elastic moduli in the high cholesterol limit and they challenge the relevance of universality concepts. Although most of our results were obtained at 30 deg. C, additional data at other temperatures to allow consideration of a reduced temperature variable do not support universality for the effect of cholesterol on all lipid bilayers. If the concept of universality is to be valid, different numbers of saturated chains must be considered to create different universality classes. The above experimental results were obtained from analysis of x-ray scattering in the low angle and wide angle regions.

  17. The primary structure of rat brain (cytoplasmic) dynein heavy chain, a cytoplasmic motor enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z; Tanaka, Y; Nonaka, S; Aizawa, H; Kawasaki, H; Nakata, T; Hirokawa, N

    1993-01-01

    Overlapping cDNA clones encoding the heavy chain of rat brain cytoplasmic dynein have been isolated. The isolated cDNA clones contain an open reading frame of 13,932 bp encoding 4644 aa (M(r), 532,213). The deduced protein sequence of the heavy chain of rat brain dynein shows significant similarity to sea urchin flagellar beta-dynein (27.0% identical) and to Dictyostelium cytoplasmic dynein (53.5% identical) throughout the entire sequence. The heavy chain of rat brain (cytoplasmic) dynein contains four putative nucleotide-binding consensus sequences [GX4GK(T/S)] in the central one-third region that are highly similar to those of sea urchin and Dictyostelium dyneins. The N-terminal one-third of the heavy chain of rat brain (cytoplasmic) dynein shows high similarity (43.8% identical) to that of Dictyostelium cytoplasmic dynein but poor similarity (19.4% identical) to that of sea urchin flagellar dynein. These results suggested that the C-terminal two-thirds of the dynein molecule is conserved and plays an essential role in microtubule-dependent motility activity, whereas the N-terminal regions are different between cytoplasmic and flagellar dyneins. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7690137

  18. Constant and variable domains of different disaccharide structure in corneal keratan sulphate chains.

    PubMed

    Oeben, M; Keller, R; Stuhlsatz, H W; Greiling, H

    1987-11-15

    Four peptidokeratan sulphate fractions of different Mr and degree of sulphation were cut from the pig corneal keratan sulphate distribution spectrum. After exhaustive digestion with keratanase, the fragments were separated on DEAE-Sephacel and Bio-Gel P-10 and analysed for their Mr, degree of sulphation and amino sugar and neutral sugar content. It was found that every glycosaminoglycan chain is constructed of a constant domain of non-sulphated and monosulphated disaccharide units and a variable domain of disulphated disaccharide units. Total neuraminic acid of the four peptidokeratan sulphates was recovered from their isolated linkage-region oligosaccharides. In kinetic studies, the four peptidokeratan sulphates were investigated for Mr distribution after various incubation times with keratanase. There was a continuous shift towards lower Mr and no appearance of a distinct intermediate-sized product at any degradation time. The linkage-region oligosaccharide was already being liberated after a very short incubation period. From the results of these kinetic investigations in connection with the results of neuraminic acid analyses it is suggested that there exists only one disaccharide chain per peptidokeratan sulphate molecule. A model of corneal keratan sulphate is postulated. One of the alpha-mannose residues in the linkage region is bound to an oligosaccharide consisting of a lactosamine and a terminal sialic acid. The other alpha-mannose residue is attached to the disaccharide chain. This chain contains one or two non-sulphated disaccharide units at the reducing end, followed by 10-12 monosulphated disaccharide units. The disulphated disaccharide moiety of variable length is positioned at the non-reducing end of the chain. PMID:2963618

  19. Encapsulated discrete octameric water cluster, 1D water tape, and 3D water aggregate network in diverse MOFs based on bisimidazolium ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ruo-Bing; Pi, Min; Jiang, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Jin, Chuan-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Four new metal-organic frameworks, [Zn(2-mBIM)2(SO3CF3)2·(H2O)4] (1), [Zn(BMIE)(1,4-BDC)]·(H2O)3 (2), [Cd(BIM)2(OH)(H2O)2(PF6)]·(H2O)4 (3), and [Cd(PA-BIM)2 (ClO4)2]·11.33H2O (4) (2-mBIM = bis(2-methylimidazol-1-yl)methane, BMIE = 1,2-bis[1-(2-methylimidazole)-diethoxy]ethane, BIM = bis(imidazol-1-yl)methane, and PA-BIM = 1,1-bis [(2-phenylazo)imidazol-1-yl]methane) have been prepared and structurally characterized. Complex 1 exhibits an infinite 1D cationic beaded-chain structure, which encapsulated discrete octameric water clusters that are comprised of a chair-like hexameric water cluster with two extra water molecules dangling on two diagonal vertices of the chair. Complex 2 forms a 1D infinite zigzag metal-organic chain structure with a 1D T4(0)A(4) water tape. Complexes 3 show a 2D grid-like sheet structure with the 1D water tape T4(0)A(0)2(0) motif. Complex 4 is a porous 3D MOF with tetrahedron-coordinated Cd(II) centers and trans-conformation PA-BIM ligands. These holes are occupied by a fascinating three-dimensional water clathrate network, which consists of cage-shaped structural tetradecameric water cluster (H2O)14 units and six independent bridged water molecules. The results suggest that the bisimidazolium ligands and anions play crucial roles in the formation of the different host structures and different guest water aggregations. Additionally, the thermal stabilities and photoluminescence spectra of the complexes have been discussed.

  20. Structure-guided optimization of estrogen receptor binding affinity and antagonist potency of pyrazolopyrimidines with basic side chains.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, H.; Sheng, S.; Compton, D.; Kim, Y.; Joachimiak, A.; Sharma, S.; Carlson, K.; Katzenellenbogen, B.; Nettles, K.; Greene, G.; Katzenellenbogen, J.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Illinois; Univ. of Chicago; The Scripps Research Inst.

    2007-01-01

    2,3-Diarylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines are estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists of modest potency that we have described previously. Guided by the crystal structure of an ER-ligand complex that we have obtained with one of these compounds, we prepared analogs that contain a basic side chain at the 2- or 3-aryl group and quickly found one that, according to the structure-based prediction, shows an increase in binding affinity and antagonist potency and a loss of residual agonist activity.

  1. The structures and properties of the new two-dimensional inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on the molybdate chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Mu, Bao; Cao, Xinyu; Huang, Rudan

    2014-09-01

    A series of inorganic organic hybrid materials based on polyoxometalates(POMs), namely, [MII(HL)2(H2O)2][MoVI6O20] [M=Co (1), Ni (2), Cu (3), Zn (4)], [MnIVL2(H2O)2][MoVI6O20] (5), and (HL)3PMO12O40 (6) [L=3-(4-pyridyl)pyrazole], have been synthesized. The compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The results from single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicate that 1-5 are isostructural. It is worth noting that the polyanions are bridged by Mo-O-Mo to form 1D inorganic chains, which are further connected via M ions to form 2D nets. In compound 6, the ligands are used as the positive ions to balance the charge of the compound. Moreover, the magnetic properties of compound 5 have also been investigated in detail.

  2. Two new Co(II)-MOFs based on polymeric chain building units: Crystal structures, and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Min-Le; Wu, Ya-Pan; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Two new Co(II) metal-organic frameworks, namely [Co2(bpm)(H2O)3(L)]n (1) and {[Co(bpe)(H2O)(H2L)]·(bpe)0.5·(H2O)}n (2), (H4L=1,1‧:2‧,1″-terphenyl-3,3″,4‧,5‧-tetracarboxylic acid, bpm=bis(4-pyridyl)amine, bpe=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene), have been obtained under hydrothermal conditions. Both complexes 1 and 2 have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Complexes 1 and 2 consist of 1D Co(II) chains bridging by carboxylate groups in syn-anti fashion. 1 shows a novel 3D tri-nodal (4,6,10)-connected net with a (3.43.52)2(32.414.512.612.74.8)(32.42.55.64.72) topology. While 2 exhibits a 2D sql layer. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that both 1 and 2 show weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent Co(II) ions in 300-8 K for 1 and 300-16 K for 2, respectively, and then 2 also displays ferromagnetic coupling at lower temperatures.

  3. Hsc70-induced Changes in Clathrin-Auxilin Cage Structure Suggest a Role for Clathrin Light Chains in Cage Disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Young, Anna; Stoilova-McPhie, Svetla; Rothnie, Alice; Vallis, Yvonne; Harvey-Smith, Phillip; Ranson, Neil; Kent, Helen; Brodsky, Frances M; Pearse, Barbara M F; Roseman, Alan; Smith, Corinne J

    2013-01-01

    The molecular chaperone, Hsc70, together with its co-factor, auxilin, facilitates the ATP-dependent removal of clathrin during clathrin-mediated endocytosis in cells. We have used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the 3D structure of a complex of clathrin, auxilin401-910 and Hsc70 at pH 6 in the presence of ATP, frozen within 20 seconds of adding Hsc70 in order to visualize events that follow the binding of Hsc70 to clathrin and auxilin before clathrin disassembly. In this map, we observe density beneath the vertex of the cage that we attribute to bound Hsc70. This density emerges asymmetrically from the clathrin vertex, suggesting preferential binding by Hsc70 for one of the three possible sites at the vertex. Statistical comparison with a map of whole auxilin and clathrin previously published by us reveals the location of statistically significant differences which implicate involvement of clathrin light chains in structural rearrangements which occur after Hsc70 is recruited. Clathrin disassembly assays using light scattering suggest that loss of clathrin light chains reduces the efficiency with which auxilin facilitates this reaction. These data support a regulatory role for clathrin light chains in clathrin disassembly in addition to their established role in regulating clathrin assembly. PMID:23710728

  4. Two new Co(II)-MOFs based on polymeric chain building units: Crystal structures, and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Min-Le; Wu, Ya-Pan; Zhao, Jun; Li, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2015-10-15

    Two new Co(II) metal-organic frameworks, namely [Co{sub 2}(bpm)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}(L)]{sub n} (1) and ([Co(bpe)(H{sub 2}O)(H{sub 2}L)]·(bpe){sub 0.5}·(H{sub 2}O)){sub n} (2), (H{sub 4}L=1,1′:2′,1″-terphenyl-3,3″,4′,5′-tetracarboxylic acid, bpm=bis(4-pyridyl)amine, bpe=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethene), have been obtained under hydrothermal conditions. Both complexes 1 and 2 have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Complexes 1 and 2 consist of 1D Co(II) chains bridging by carboxylate groups in syn-anti fashion. 1 shows a novel 3D tri-nodal (4,6,10)-connected net with a (3.4{sup 3}.5{sup 2}){sub 2}(3{sup 2}.4{sup 14}.5{sup 12}.6{sup 12}.7{sup 4}.8)(3{sup 2}.4{sup 2}.5{sup 5}.6{sup 4}.7{sup 2}) topology. While 2 exhibits a 2D sql layer. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that both 1 and 2 show weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the adjacent Co(II) ions in 300–8 K for 1 and 300–16 K for 2, respectively, and then 2 also displays ferromagnetic coupling at lower temperatures. - Graphical abstract: Two Co(II) coordination polymers with similar metal chain bridging by carboxylates in syn-anti fashion have been synthesized. Both 1 and 2 show weak antiferromagnetic interactions in high temperature, and then 2 also displays ferromagnetic coupling at lower temperatures. - Highlights: • Two Co(II) coordination polymers with similar metal chain bridging by carboxylates. • A novel 3D (4,6,10)-connected net and a 2D sql layers. • A antiferromagnetic coupling at high temperature for 1 and 2. • A ferromagnetic coupling at lower temperature for 2.

  5. Structure-Function Studies of Hydrophobic Residues That Clamp a Basic Glutamate Side Chain during Catalysis by Triosephosphate Isomerase.

    PubMed

    Richard, John P; Amyes, Tina L; Malabanan, M Merced; Zhai, Xiang; Kim, Kalvin J; Reinhardt, Christopher J; Wierenga, Rik K; Drake, Eric J; Gulick, Andrew M

    2016-05-31

    Kinetic parameters are reported for the reactions of whole substrates (kcat/Km, M(-1) s(-1)) (R)-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and for the substrate pieces [(kcat/Km)E·HPi/Kd, M(-2) s(-1)] glycolaldehyde (GA) and phosphite dianion (HPi) catalyzed by the I172A/L232A mutant of triosephosphate isomerase from Trypanosoma brucei brucei (TbbTIM). A comparison with the corresponding parameters for wild-type, I172A, and L232A TbbTIM-catalyzed reactions shows that the effect of I172A and L232A mutations on ΔG(⧧) for the wild-type TbbTIM-catalyzed reactions of the substrate pieces is nearly the same as the effect of the same mutations on TbbTIM previously mutated at the second side chain. This provides strong evidence that mutation of the first hydrophobic side chain does not affect the functioning of the second side chain in catalysis of the reactions of the substrate pieces. By contrast, the effects of I172A and L232A mutations on ΔG(⧧) for wild-type TbbTIM-catalyzed reactions of the whole substrate are different from the effect of the same mutations on TbbTIM previously mutated at the second side chain. This is due to the change in the rate-determining step that determines the barrier to the isomerization reaction. X-ray crystal structures are reported for I172A, L232A, and I172A/L232A TIMs and for the complexes of these mutants to the intermediate analogue phosphoglycolate (PGA). The structures of the PGA complexes with wild-type and mutant enzymes are nearly superimposable, except that the space opened by replacement of the hydrophobic side chain is occupied by a water molecule that lies ∼3.5 Å from the basic side chain of Glu167. The new water at I172A mutant TbbTIM provides a simple rationalization for the increase in the activation barrier ΔG(⧧) observed for mutant enzyme-catalyzed reactions of the whole substrate and substrate pieces. By contrast, the new water at the L232A mutant does not predict the decrease in

  6. Preparation of 1D nanostructures using biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruneanu, Stela; Olenic, Liliana; Barbu Tudoran, Lucian; Kacso, Irina; Farha Al-Said, Said A.; Hassanien, Reda; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we have shown that one-dimensional (1D) particle arrays can be obtained using biomolecules, like DNA or amino-acids. Nano-arrays of silver and gold were prepared in a single-step synthesis, by exploiting the binding abilities of λ-DNA and L-Arginine. The morphology and optical properties of these nanostructures were investigated using AFM, TEM and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy.

  7. Coenzyme Q biosynthesis and its role in the respiratory chain structure.

    PubMed

    Alcázar-Fabra, María; Navas, Plácido; Brea-Calvo, Gloria

    2016-08-01

    Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a unique electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which is synthesized on-site by a nuclear encoded multiprotein complex. CoQ receives electrons from different redox pathways, mainly NADH and FADH2 from tricarboxylic acid pathway, dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that support key aspects of the metabolism. Here we explore some lines of evidence supporting the idea of the interaction of CoQ with the respiratory chain complexes, contributing to their superassembly, including respirasome, and its role in reactive oxygen species production in the mitochondrial inner membrane. We also review the current knowledge about the involvement of mitochondrial genome defects and electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase mutations in the induction of secondary CoQ deficiency. This mechanism would imply specific interactions coupling CoQ itself or the CoQ-biosynthetic apparatus with the respiratory chain components. These interactions would regulate mitochondrial CoQ steady-state levels and function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:26970214

  8. Centrosome Positioning in 1D Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlerz, Katrina; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    During cell migration, the positioning of the centrosome and nucleus define a cell's polarity. For a cell migrating on a two-dimensional substrate the centrosome is positioned in front of the nucleus. Under one-dimensional confinement, however, the centrosome is positioned behind the nucleus in 60% of cells. It is known that the centrosome is positioned by CDC42 and dynein for cells moving on a 2D substrate in a wound-healing assay. It is currently unknown, however, if this is also true for cells moving under 1D confinement, where the centrosome position is often reversed. Therefore, centrosome positioning was studied in cells migrating under 1D confinement, which mimics cells migrating through 3D matrices. 3 to 5 μm fibronectin lines were stamped onto a glass substrate and cells with fluorescently labeled nuclei and centrosomes migrated on the lines. Our results show that when a cell changes directions the centrosome position is maintained. That is, when the centrosome is between the nucleus and the cell's trailing edge and the cell changes direction, the centrosome will be translocated across the nucleus to the back of the cell again. A dynein inhibitor did have an influence on centrosome positioning in 1D migration and change of directions.

  9. Structural basis of light chain amyloidogenicity: comparison of the thermodynamic properties, fibrillogenic potential and tertiary structural features of four vλ6 proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, J.S.; Gupta, V.; Wilkerson, M.; Schell, M.; Loris, R.; Adams, P.; Solomon, A.; Stevens, F.; Dealwis, C.

    2004-04-01

    Primary (AL) amyloidosis results from the pathologic deposition of monoclonal light chains as amyloid fibrils. Studies of recombinant-derived variable region (V{sub L}) fragments of these proteins have shown an inverse relationship between thermodynamic stability and fibrillogenic potential. Further, ionic interactions within the V{sub L} domain were predicted to influence the kinetics of light chain fibrillogenicity, as evidenced from our analyses of a relatively stable V{sub {lambda}}6 protein (Jto) with a long range electrostatic interaction between Asp and Arg side chains at position 29 and 68, respectively, and an unstable, highly fibrillogenic V{sub {lambda}}6 protein (Wil) that had neutral amino acids at these locations. To test this hypothesis, we have generated two Jto-related mutants designed to disrupt the interaction between Asp 29 and Arg 68 (JtoD29A and JtoR68S). Although the thermodynamic stabilities of unfolding for these two molecules were identical, they exhibited very different kinetics of fibril formation: the rate of JtoD29A fibrillogenesis was slow and comparable to the parent molecule, whereas that of JtoR68S was significantly faster. High-resolution X-ray diffraction analyses of crystals prepared from the two mutants having the same space group and unit cell dimensions revealed no significant main-chain conformational changes. However, several notable side-chain alterations were observed in JtoR68S, as compared with JtoD29A, that resulted in the solvent exposure of a greater hydrophobic surface and modifications in the electrostatic potential surface. We posit that these differences contributed to the enhanced fibrillogenic potential of the Arg 68 mutant, since both Jto mutants lacked the intrachain ionic interaction and were equivalently unstable. The information gleaned from our studies has provided insight into structural parameters that in addition to overall thermodynamic stability, contribute to the fibril forming propensity of

  10. Structure Predictions of Two Bauhinia variegata Lectins Reveal Patterns of C-Terminal Properties in Single Chain Legume Lectins

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Gustavo M. S. G.; Conceição, Fabricio R.; McBride, Alan J. A.; Pinto, Luciano da S.

    2013-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and –II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins. PMID:24260572

  11. Syntheses, crystal structure, spectroscopic and photoluminescence studies of mononuclear copper(II), manganese(II), cadmium(II), and a 1D polymeric Cu(II) complexes with a pyrimidine derived Schiff base ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sangita; Konar, Saugata; Jana, Atanu; Das, Kinsuk; Dhara, Anamika; Chatterjee, Sudipta; Kar, Susanta Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The complexation behaviour of Schiff base ligand 2-((2-(4,6-dimethylpyrimidin-2-yl)hydrazono)methyl)phenol [HL] towards different metal centres is reported by the syntheses and characterization of three mononuclear Cu(II), Mn(II) and Cd(II) complexes, [Cu(L)(H2O)2](NO3)(H2O) (1), [Mn(L)2](CH3OH) (2), [Cd(L)2](CH3OH) (3) and a 1D polymeric Cu(II) complex, [Cu(L)(ClO4)(C2N2O2H)]n(CH3OH) (4) respectively. In the complexes 1-4 the deprotonated uninegative tridentate ligand serves as NNO donor where one pyrimidine ring N, the azomethine N and the salicyl hydroxyl oxygen atoms are coordinatively active. The complex 1 has almost square pyramidal geometry [τ = 0.2081] whereas the metal centres maintain distorted octahedral geometry in the remaining three complexes 2-4. All the complexes are characterized by X-ray crystallography. The Cd(II) complex has considerable fluorescence while the rest of the complexes and the ligand molecule are fluorescent silent.

  12. Coherent thermal conductance of 1-D photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschikin, Maria; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2012-10-01

    We present an exact calculation of coherent thermal conductance in 1-D multilayer photonic crystals using the S-matrix method. In particular, we study the thermal conductance in a bilayer structure of Si/vacuum or Al2O3/vacuum slabs by means of the exact radiative heat flux expression. Based on the results obtained for the Al2O3/vacuum structure we show by comparison with previous works that the material losses and (localized) surface modes supported by the inner layers play a fundamental role and cannot be omitted in the definition of thermal conductance. Our results could have significant implications in the conception of efficient thermal barriers.

  13. Structure and Mechanism of an Arabidopsis Medium/Long-Chain-Length Prenyl Pyrophosphate Synthase1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Fu-Lien; Chang, Tao-Hsin; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Prenyltransferases (PTSs) are involved in the biosynthesis of terpenes with diverse functions. Here, a novel PTS from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is identified as a trans-type polyprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (AtPPPS), which forms a trans-double bond during each homoallylic substrate condensation, rather than a homomeric C10-geranyl pyrophosphate synthase as originally proposed. Biochemical and genetic complementation analyses indicate that AtPPPS synthesizes C25 to C45 medium/long-chain products. Its close relationship to other long-chain PTSs is also uncovered by phylogenetic analysis. A mutant of contiguous surface polar residues was produced by replacing four charged surface amino acids with alanines to facilitate the crystallization of the enzyme. The crystal structures of AtPPPS determined here in apo and ligand-bound forms further reveal an active-site cavity sufficient to accommodate the medium/long-chain products. The two monomers in each dimer adopt different conformations at the entrance of the active site depending on the binding of substrates. Taken together, these results suggest that AtPPPS is endowed with a unique functionality among the known PTSs. PMID:21220764

  14. Promoter for the human ferritin heavy chain-encoding gene (FERH): structural and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, M A; Giordano, M; D'Agostino, P; Santoro, C; Cimino, F; Costanzo, F

    1992-02-15

    We conducted a functional analysis of the promoter for the human ferritin heavy chain-encoding gene (pFERH) in HepG2 and HeLa cells. The activity of pFERH is equivalent in both cell types, despite their different ferritin (Fer) isotypes. Transfections of a series of 5'-deletion mutants indicate that pFERH activity is essentially dependent on two motifs. One of them, accounting for about 50% of the total transcriptional activity, is recognized by the RNA polymerase II transcription factor, Sp1, and the other by a low-affinity factor present in both the cell types analyzed. PMID:1541403

  15. The Luttinger liquid in superlattice structures: atomic gases, quantum dots and the classical Ising chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.; Jha, Pradip; Kumar, Tarun; Mohan, Man

    2011-01-01

    We study the physical properties of a Luttinger liquid in a superlattice that is characterized by alternating two tunneling parameters. Using the bosonization approach, we describe the corresponding Hubbard model by the equivalent Tomonaga-Luttinger model. We analyze the spin-charge separation and transport properties of the superlattice system. We suggest that cold Fermi gases trapped in a bichromatic optical lattice and coupled quantum dots offer the opportunity to measure these effects in a convenient manner. We also study the classical Ising chain with two tunneling parameters. We find that the classical two-point correlator decreases as the difference between the two tunneling parameters increases.

  16. Interactions of main chain in folding and self assembly of unfolded protein structure: Enquiries with a serine solubilized nonapeptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Kinshuk Raj; Durani, Susheel

    2014-06-01

    Interactions of the protein main chain are probed for their role in folding and self-assembly. The interactions are assessed with serine nonapeptide Ac-(Ser-Ala)4-Ser-NH2 in poly-L and alternating-L,D structure variations. Being a neutral molecule, Serine nonapeptide has been found to display not only folding-unfolding equilibrium, but also association-dissociation equilibrium as a function of solvent and concentration. Thus scrutiny of intra- and inter-molecular interactions have been undertaken in water, methanol, and DMSO solvents. In water, poly-L peptide displays a PPII-helix conformation which unfolds to extended β-conformation with increase of temperature, apparently in a two-state equilibrium. Poly-L peptide at high concentration and on transfer to the low polarity solvent, methanol, displays ordering as a β-hairpin. This implies folding of the peptide by self assembly. Self assembly and ordering possibly as double-stranded β-helix is also evidence for alternating-L,D peptide. Both isomers were observed to be unfolded in high polarity solvent DMSO. Dynamic light scattering suggests that assembly in both isomers may involve large size aggregates. The results have established that folding and self-assembly can be coupled equilibria dependent upon solute structure, concentration, and solvent. The interactions of the protein main chain involved in folding and self assembly of unfolded structure are illuminated and have been discussed.

  17. Structural characterization of the interaction of α-synuclein nascent chains with the ribosomal surface and trigger factor.

    PubMed

    Deckert, Annika; Waudby, Christopher A; Wlodarski, Tomasz; Wentink, Anne S; Wang, Xiaolin; Kirkpatrick, John P; Paton, Jack F S; Camilloni, Carlo; Kukic, Predrag; Dobson, Christopher M; Vendruscolo, Michele; Cabrita, Lisa D; Christodoulou, John

    2016-05-01

    The ribosome is increasingly becoming recognized as a key hub for integrating quality control processes associated with protein biosynthesis and cotranslational folding (CTF). The molecular mechanisms by which these processes take place, however, remain largely unknown, in particular in the case of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). To address this question, we studied at a residue-specific level the structure and dynamics of ribosome-nascent chain complexes (RNCs) of α-synuclein (αSyn), an IDP associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Using solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we find that, although the nascent chain (NC) has a highly disordered conformation, its N-terminal region shows resonance broadening consistent with interactions involving specific regions of the ribosome surface. We also investigated the effects of the ribosome-associated molecular chaperone trigger factor (TF) on αSyn structure and dynamics using resonance broadening to define a footprint of the TF-RNC interactions. We have used these data to construct structural models that suggest specific ways by which emerging NCs can interact with the biosynthesis and quality control machinery. PMID:27092002

  18. Fast Protein Loop Sampling and Structure Prediction Using Distance-Guided Sequential Chain-Growth Monte Carlo Method

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ke; Zhang, Jinfeng; Liang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Loops in proteins are flexible regions connecting regular secondary structures. They are often involved in protein functions through interacting with other molecules. The irregularity and flexibility of loops make their structures difficult to determine experimentally and challenging to model computationally. Conformation sampling and energy evaluation are the two key components in loop modeling. We have developed a new method for loop conformation sampling and prediction based on a chain growth sequential Monte Carlo sampling strategy, called Distance-guided Sequential chain-Growth Monte Carlo (DiSGro). With an energy function designed specifically for loops, our method can efficiently generate high quality loop conformations with low energy that are enriched with near-native loop structures. The average minimum global backbone RMSD for 1,000 conformations of 12-residue loops is Å, with a lowest energy RMSD of Å, and an average ensemble RMSD of Å. A novel geometric criterion is applied to speed up calculations. The computational cost of generating 1,000 conformations for each of the x loops in a benchmark dataset is only about cpu minutes for 12-residue loops, compared to ca cpu minutes using the FALCm method. Test results on benchmark datasets show that DiSGro performs comparably or better than previous successful methods, while requiring far less computing time. DiSGro is especially effective in modeling longer loops (– residues). PMID:24763317

  19. Effects of chemical structure on the dynamic and static surface tensions of short-chain, multi-arm nonionic fluorosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Thomas; Krumpfer, Joseph W; Schellenberger, Steffen; Friedrich, Reiner; Klapper, Markus; Müllen, Klaus

    2014-08-15

    Fluorinated surfactants with short perfluoroalkyl chains (R(F)) as potential substitutes for the environmentally questionable, long R(F) systems are presented. Three types of nonionic hydrophilic-fluorophilic amphiphiles are synthesized and evaluated based on surface activity in equilibrated (static) and non-equilibrated (dynamic) states. Furthermore, several mono- and disaccharide-based fluorosurfactants are also examined as potential non-bioaccumulative alternatives. A correlation between the chemical structure and resulting surface properties is made by comparing R(F) length, number and size, alkyl-spacer, and hydrophilic moieties. Based on dynamic and static surface tension experiments, the effects of surfactant structure are summarized to provide a basis for the future design of fluorosurfactants. We have found that surfactants with more perfluorinated chains tend to have a higher surface tension reduction, but typically result in slower dynamic behaviors. Using the presented structural characteristics, surfactants with R(F)<4 can be prepared with static surface tensions as low as 18.1 mN/m or reduce surface tension within milliseconds. PMID:24910063

  20. Structural characterization of the interaction of α-synuclein nascent chains with the ribosomal surface and trigger factor

    PubMed Central

    Deckert, Annika; Waudby, Christopher A.; Wlodarski, Tomasz; Wentink, Anne S.; Wang, Xiaolin; Kirkpatrick, John P.; Paton, Jack F. S.; Kukic, Predrag; Dobson, Christopher M.; Vendruscolo, Michele; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John

    2016-01-01

    The ribosome is increasingly becoming recognized as a key hub for integrating quality control processes associated with protein biosynthesis and cotranslational folding (CTF). The molecular mechanisms by which these processes take place, however, remain largely unknown, in particular in the case of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). To address this question, we studied at a residue-specific level the structure and dynamics of ribosome-nascent chain complexes (RNCs) of α-synuclein (αSyn), an IDP associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Using solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we find that, although the nascent chain (NC) has a highly disordered conformation, its N-terminal region shows resonance broadening consistent with interactions involving specific regions of the ribosome surface. We also investigated the effects of the ribosome-associated molecular chaperone trigger factor (TF) on αSyn structure and dynamics using resonance broadening to define a footprint of the TF–RNC interactions. We have used these data to construct structural models that suggest specific ways by which emerging NCs can interact with the biosynthesis and quality control machinery. PMID:27092002

  1. Structure of haptoglobin heavy chain and other serine protease homologs by comparative model building

    SciTech Connect

    Grer, J.

    1980-10-01

    Proteins often occur in families whose structure is closely similar, even though the proteins may come from widely different sources and have quite distinct functions. It would be useful to be able to construct the three-dimensional structure of these proteins from the known structure of one or more of them without having to solve the structure of each protein ab initio. We have been using comparative model building to derive the structure of an unusual protein of the trypsin-like serine protease family. We have recently extended this comparison to include other serine protease homologs for which a primary structure is available. To generate structures for the different members of the serine protease family, it is necessary to extract the common structural features of the molecule. Fortunately, three independently determined protein structures are available: schymotrypsin, trypsin, and elastase. These three structures were compared in detail and the structurally conserved regions in all three, mainly the BETA-sheet and the ..cap alpha..-helix, were identified. The variable portions occur in the loops on the surface of the molecule. By using these structures, the primary sequences of these three proteins were aligned. From this alignment, it is clear that sequence homology between the proteins occurs mainly in the structurally conserved regions of the molecule, while the variable portions show very little sequence homology.

  2. Mechanically durable and highly conductive elastomeric composites from long single-walled carbon nanotubes mimicking the chain structure of polymers.

    PubMed

    Ata, Seisuke; Kobashi, Kazufumi; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji

    2012-06-13

    By using long single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as a filler possessing the highest aspect ratio and small diameter, we mimicked the chain structure of polymers in the matrix and realized a highly conductive elastomeric composite (30 S/cm) with an excellent mechanical durability (4500 strain cycles until failure), far superior to any other reported conductive elastomers. This exceptional mechanical durability was explained by the ability of long and traversing SWNTs to deform in concert with the elastomer with minimum stress concentration at their interfaces. The conductivity was sufficient to operate many active electronics components, and thus this material would be useful for practical stretchable electronic devices. PMID:22546049

  3. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms (NPO-30232) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 10a. A photonic crystal is an optical component that has a periodic structure comprising two dielectric materials with high dielectric contrast (e.g., a semiconductor and air), with geometrical feature sizes comparable to or smaller than light wavelengths of interest. Experimental superprisms have been realized as photonic crystals having three-dimensional (3D) structures comprising regions of amorphous Si alternating with regions of SiO2, fabricated in a complex process that included sputtering. A photonic crystal of the type to be exploited according to the present proposal is said to be one-dimensional (1D) because its contrasting dielectric materials would be stacked in parallel planar layers; in other words, there would be spatial periodicity in one dimension only. The processes of designing and fabricating 1D photonic crystal superprisms would be simpler and, hence, would cost less than do those for 3D photonic crystal superprisms. As in 3D structures, 1D photonic crystals may be used in applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing. In the extended-range configuration, it is also suitable for spectrometry applications. As an engineered structure or artificially engineered material, a photonic crystal can exhibit optical properties not commonly found in natural substances. Prior research had revealed several classes of photonic crystal structures for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden in certain frequency ranges, denoted photonic bandgaps. It had also been found that in narrow frequency bands just outside the photonic bandgaps, the angular wavelength dispersion of electromagnetic waves propagating in photonic crystal superprisms is much stronger than is the angular wavelength dispersion obtained

  4. Novel familial dilated cardiomyopathy mutation in MYL2 affects the structure and function of myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenrui; Liang, Jingsheng; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Zhou, Zhiqun; Morales, Ana; McBride, Kim L; Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara M; Hershberger, Ray E; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2015-06-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the myocardium characterized by left ventricular dilatation and diminished contractile function. Here we describe a novel DCM mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), in which aspartic acid at position 94 is replaced by alanine (D94A). The mutation was identified by exome sequencing of three adult first-degree relatives who met formal criteria for idiopathic DCM. To obtain insight into the functional significance of this pathogenic MYL2 variant, we cloned and purified the human ventricular RLC wild-type (WT) and D94A mutant proteins, and performed in vitro experiments using RLC-mutant or WT-reconstituted porcine cardiac preparations. The mutation induced a reduction in the α-helical content of the RLC, and imposed intra-molecular rearrangements. The phosphorylation of RLC by Ca²⁺/calmodulin-activated myosin light chain kinase was not affected by D94A. The mutation was seen to impair binding of RLC to the myosin heavy chain, and its incorporation into RLC-depleted porcine myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activity of mutant-reconstituted porcine cardiac myosin was significantly higher compared with ATPase of wild-type. No changes in the myofibrillar ATPase-pCa relationship were observed in wild-type- or D94A-reconstituted preparations. Measurements of contractile force showed a slightly reduced maximal tension per cross-section of muscle, with no change in the calcium sensitivity of force in D94A-reconstituted skinned porcine papillary muscle strips compared with wild-type. Our data indicate that subtle structural rearrangements in the RLC molecule, followed by its impaired interaction with the myosin heavy chain, may trigger functional abnormalities contributing to the DCM phenotype. PMID:25825243

  5. Avian community responses to vegetation structure within chained and hand-cut pinyon-juniper woodlands on the Colorado Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, Charles, III; Crow, Claire

    2012-01-01

    We investigated relationships between breeding birds and vegetation characteristics in fuels-reduction treatment areas within pinyon-juniper woodlands at locations over the Colorado Plateau. The goal of this study was to document differences in avian community responses to two types of pinyon-juniper fuels-reduction treatments (chained vs. hand-cut), relative to control sites. We selected 73 vegetation plots in southern Utah and northern Arizona, of which 33 had been previously thinned by handcutting or chaining, and 40 control plots in untreated pinyon-juniper woodlands. At the 73 locations we documented vegetation structure and counted birds within 3.1 ha circular plots during the 2005 and 2006 breeding seasons. We focused in particular on the effects of fuels-reduction treatments to 16 bird species that are considered pinyon-juniper obligates. We found that density of pinyon pines was the most important variable in predicting bird species richness in all treatments and at control sites. Abundance of Brewer’s Sparrow (Spizella breweri) was negatively related to chained, but positively related to hand cut areas. Vesper Sparrow (Poocetes graminius) abundance was negatively related to both chaining and handcutting. Within 16 pinyon-juniper obligate bird species, abundance of five was positively related to pinyon-pine density, while two were positively related to juniper density. These responses, along with other bird-vegetation relationships influenced by treatment type, need to be considered by land managers when planning fuels reduction treatments in pinyon-juniper woodland habitat in the Colorado Plateau.

  6. Periodic variation in side-chain polarities of T-cell antigenic peptides correlates with their structure and activity.

    PubMed Central

    Cornette, J L; Margalit, H; Berzofsky, J A; DeLisi, C

    1995-01-01

    We present an analysis that synthesizes information on the sequence, structure, and motifs of antigenic peptides, which previously appeared to be in conflict. Fourier analysis of T-cell antigenic peptides indicates a periodic variation in amino acid polarities of 3-3.6 residues per period, suggesting an amphipathic alpha-helical structure. However, the diffraction patterns of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules indicate that their ligands are in an extended non-alpha-helical conformation. We present two mutually consistent structural explanations for the source of the alpha-helical periodicity, based on an observation that the side chains of MHC-bound peptides generally partition with hydrophobic (hydrophilic) side chains pointing into (out of) the cleft. First, an analysis of haplotype-dependent peptide motifs indicates that the locations of their defining residues tend to force a period 3-4 variation in hydrophobicity along the peptide sequence, in a manner consistent with the spacing of pockets in the MHC. Second, recent crystallographic determination of the structure of a peptide bound to a class II MHC molecule reveals an extended but regularly twisted peptide with a rotation angle of about 130 degrees. We show that similar structures with rotation angles of 100-130 degrees are energetically acceptable and also span the length of the MHC cleft. These results provide a sound physical chemical and structural basis for the existence of a haplotype-independent antigenic motif which can be particularly important in limiting the search time for antigenic peptides. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7667297

  7. Catalytic Features of the Botulinum Neurotoxin A Light Chain Revealed by High Resolution Structure of an Inhibitory Peptide Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Silvaggi,N.; Wilson, D.; Tzipori, S.; Allen, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A light chain (BoNT/A-LC) is a Zn(II)-dependent metalloprotease that blocks the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction by cleaving SNAP-25, one of the SNARE proteins required for exocytosis. Because of the potential for use of the toxin in bioterrorism and the increasingly widespread application of the toxin in the medical field, there is significant interest in the development of small-molecule inhibitors of the metalloprotease. Efforts to design such inhibitors have not benefited from knowledge of how peptides bind to the active site since the enzyme-peptide structures available previously either were not occupied in the vicinity of the catalytic Zn(II) ion or did not represent the product of SNAP-25 substrate cleavage. Herein we report the 1.4 Angstroms-resolution X-ray crystal structure of a complex between the BoNT/A-LC and the inhibitory peptide N-Ac-CRATKML, the first structure of the light chain with an inhibitory peptide bound at the catalytic Zn(II) ion. The peptide is bound with the Cys S? atom coordinating the metal ion. Surprisingly, the cysteine sulfur is oxidized to the sulfenic acid form. Given the unstable nature of this species in solution, is it likely that oxidation occurs on the enzyme. In addition to the peptide-bound structure, we report two structures of the unliganded light chain with and without the Zn(II) cofactor bound at 1.25 and 1.20 Angstroms resolution, respectively. The two structures are nearly identical, confirming that the Zn(II) ion plays a purely catalytic role. Additionally, the structure of the Zn(II)-bound uncomplexed enzyme allows identification of the catalytic water molecule and a second water molecule that occupies the same position as the peptidic oxygen in the tetrahedral intermediate. This observation suggests that the enzyme active site is prearranged to stabilize the tetrahedral intermediate of the protease reaction.

  8. Excitation structure of frustrated spin chains with dimerization and the description by the effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayoshi, Shintaro; Oshikawa, Masaki

    2012-02-01

    Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain with alternating exchange interaction is an important model, which describes magnetic properties of real materials. Field theoretical approach is a powerful tool to investigate such kind of one-dimensional quantum magnets, and it is known that this lattice model is related with corresponding sine-Gordon effective field theory through the bosonization technique. We investigate the excitation spectrum and the correspondence between S=12 and 1 frustrated chain with dimerization and their effective field theories by both analytical and numerical methods, focusing on the mass ratio r of second breather to soliton. In the result, the S=12 and 1 cases are understood in a unified way. r becomes √3, the value predicted from sine-Gordon model by the introduction of next-nearest neighbor coupling J2=J2c where the marginal term in effective field theory vanishes. The universality class of transition is Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid and first order for J2

  9. 1-D EQUILIBRIUM DISCRETE DIFFUSION MONTE CARLO

    SciTech Connect

    T. EVANS; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.

  10. Tctex1d2 Is a Negative Regulator of GLUT4 Translocation and Glucose Uptake.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoko; Okada, Shuichi; Yamada, Eijiro; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Yamada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    Tctex1d2 (Tctex1 domain containing 2) is an open reading frame that encodes for a functionally unknown protein that contains a Tctex1 domain found in dynein light chain family members. Examination of gene expression during adipogenesis demonstrated a marked increase in Tctex1d2 protein expression that was essentially undetectable in preadipocytes and markedly induced during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Tctex1d2 overexpression significantly inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake. In contrast, Tctex1d2 knockdown significantly increased insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake. However, acute insulin stimulation (up to 30 min) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with overexpression or knockdown of Tctex1d2 had no effect on Akt phosphorylation, a critical signal transduction target required for GLUT4 translocation. Although overexpression of Tctex1d2 had no significant effect on GLUT4 internalization, Tctex1d2 was found to associate with syntaxin 4 in an insulin-dependent manner and inhibit Doc2b binding to syntaxin 4. In addition, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide rescued the Tctex1d2 inhibition of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation by suppressing the Tctex1d2-syntaxin 4 interaction and increasing Doc2b-Synatxin4 interactions. Taking these results together, we hypothesized that Tctex1d2 is a novel syntaxin 4 binding protein that functions as a negative regulator of GLUT4 plasma membrane translocation through inhibition of the Doc2b-syntaxin 4 interaction. PMID:26200093

  11. Role of the D1-D2 Linker of Human VCP/p97 in the Asymmetry and ATPase Activity of the D1-domain

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wai Kwan; Xia, Di

    2016-01-01

    Human AAA+ protein p97 consists of an N-domain and two tandem ATPase domains D1 and D2, which are connected by the N-D1 and the D1-D2 linkers. Inclusion of the D1-D2 linker, a 22-amino acid peptide, at the end of p97 N-D1 truncate has been shown to activate ATP hydrolysis of its D1-domain, although the mechanism of activation remains unclear. Here, we identify the N-terminal half of this linker, highly conserved from human to fungi, is essential for the ATPase activation. By analyzing available crystal structures, we observed that the D1-D2 linker is capable of inducing asymmetry in subunit association into a p97 hexamer. This observation is reinforced by two new crystal structures, determined in the present work. The effect of D1-D2 linker on the ATPase activity of the D1-domain is correlated to the side-chain conformation of residue R359, a trans-acting arginine-finger residue essential for ATP hydrolysis of the D1-domain. The activation in D1-domain ATPase activity by breaking perfect six-fold symmetry implies functional importance of asymmetric association of p97 subunits, the extent of which can be determined quantitatively by the metric Asymmetric Index. PMID:26818443

  12. High-definition NMR structure of PED/PEA-15 death effector domain reveals details of key polar side chain interactions.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Edward C; Wei, Yufeng

    2012-07-20

    Death effector domain (DED) proteins constitute a subfamily of the large death domain superfamily that is primarily involved in apoptosis pathways. DED structures have characteristic side chain-side chain interactions among polar residues on the protein surface, forming a network of hydrogen bonds and salt bridges. The polar interaction network is functionally important in promoting protein-protein interactions by maintaining optimal side chain orientations. We have refined the solution DED structure of the PED/PEA-15 protein, a representative member of DED subfamily, using traditional NMR restraints with the addition of residual dipolar coupling (RDC) restraints from two independent alignment media, and employed the explicit solvent refinement protocol. The newly refined DED structure of PED/PEA-15 possesses higher structural quality as indicated by WHAT IF Z-scores, with most significant improvement in the backbone conformation normality quality factor. This higher quality DED structure of PED/PEA-15 leads to the identification of a number of key polar side chain interactions, which are not typically observed in NMR protein structures. The elucidation of polar side chain interactions is a key step towards the understanding of protein-protein interactions involving the death domain superfamily. The NMR structures with extensive details of protein structural features are thereby termed high-definition (HD) NMR structures. PMID:22732408

  13. The effect of side-chain length on the solid-state structure and optoelectronic properties of fluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole based conjugated polymers--a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Eslamibidgoli, Mohammad J; Lagowski, Jolanta B

    2012-11-01

    Using the dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT-D/B97D) approach, we have performed bulk solid-state calculations to investigate the influence of side-chain length on the molecular packing and optoelectronic properties of poly (9,9-di-n-alkylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) or FnBT's where n is the number of CH(2) units in the alkyl side-chains. Our results indicate that the FnBT's with longer side-chains in their most stable configurations, due to the significant intermolecular interactions between the side-chains, form lamellar crystal structures. On the other hand, for the FnBT's with shorter side-chains, two nearly degenerate stable crystal structures with nearly hexagonal symmetries have been found. These different packing structures can be attributed to the microphase separations between the flexible side-chains and the rigid backbones whose existence has been discussed in previous investigations for other hairy rod polymers. As a result of the efficient interchain interactions for the lamellar structures, the dihedral angle between the F and BT units is reduced by about 30°, providing a more planar configuration for the backbone. In turn, a more planar backbone leads to a decrease, about 0.2 and 0.3 eV, of the band gaps of the lamellar structures relative to the gap values for the gas and the nearly hexagonal phases, respectively. Time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) was used to study the excited states of the monomers of FnBT's with various lengths of side-chains. TD-DFT study suggests that the absorption spectrum of the polymers with longer side-chains is red-shifted relative to the polymers with shorter side-chains and the gas phase. PMID:23050864

  14. Surface structures of poly(methyl methacrylate) films influenced by chain entanglement in the corresponding film-formation solution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianquan; Liu, Yingjun; He, Jinsheng; Zhang, Rongping; Zuo, Biao; Wang, Xinping

    2014-11-28

    The effects of the properties of casting solution on the surface structure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films were systematically investigated. It was observed that the hydrophobicity of PMMA films increased with increasing viscosity of the corresponding polymer solution regardless of the film-formation techniques that were utilized. The ratio of the C-H symmetric stretching vibrations of methylene groups (hydrophobic components, with a peak at 2910 cm(-1)) to those of the ester methyl groups (relative hydrophilic components, with a peak at 2955 cm(-1)) from sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectra, A2910/A2955, was used as a parameter to evaluate the structure on the film surface, which was related to the surface wettability of the films. The results showed that A2910/A2955 of cast PMMA films increased linearly with ηsp(0.3) (ηsp, the specific viscosity of the casting solution), whereas that of the corresponding spin-coated films showed a linear relationship defined as ηsp(0.3)E(0.26), where E is the average number of entanglement points per molecule (E = Mw/Me). These results indicate that a relative equilibrium conformation on the PMMA film surface, adopted from the perspective of thermodynamics, was easily achieved during film formation, when the conformation of the polymer chains in the corresponding casting solution was close to that in the bulk. For the spin-coated films, the chain entanglement structure in the casting solution was a more important factor for the resulting film to reach a relative equilibrium state, since this structure was in favor of maintaining the pristine conformation in casting solution under centrifugal force during spin-coating. This work may help to enhance the fundamental understanding of the formation of the film surface structure from polymer solution to the resulting solid film, which will affect not only the corresponding surface properties, but also the dynamics of the resulting thin films. PMID:25295969

  15. Modeling the structure and operation of drug supply chains: The case of cocaine and heroin in Italy and Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Caulkins, Jonathan P; Disley, Emma; Tzvetkova, Marina; Pardal, Mafalda; Shah, Hemali; Zhang, Xiaoke

    2016-05-01

    Multiple layers of dealers connect international drug traffickers to users. The fundamental activity of these dealers is buying from higher-level dealers and re-selling in smaller quantities at the next lower market level. Each instance of this can be viewed as completing a drug dealing "cycle". This paper introduces an approach for combining isolated accounts of such cycles into a coherent model of the structure, span, and profitability of the various layers of the domestic supply chain for illegal drugs. The approach is illustrated by synthesizing data from interviews with 116 incarcerated dealers to elucidate the structure and operation of distribution networks for cocaine and heroin in Italy and Slovenia. Inmates' descriptions of cycles in the Italian cocaine market suggest fairly orderly networks, with reasonably well-defined market levels. The Italian heroin market appears to have more "level-jumpers" who skip a market level by making a larger number of sales per cycle, with each sale being of a considerably smaller weight. Slovenian data are sparser, but broadly consistent. Incorporating prices allows calculation of how much of the revenue from retail sales is retained by dealers at each market level. In the Italian cocaine market, both retail sellers and the international supply chain outside of Italy each appear to receive about 30-40% of what users spend, with the remaining 30% going to higher-level dealers operating in Italy (roughly 10% to those at the multi-kilo level and 20% to lower level wholesale dealers). Factoring in cycle frequencies permits rough estimation of the number of organizations at each market level per billion euros in retail sales, and of annual net revenues for organizations at each level. These analyses provide an approach to gaining insight into the structure and operation of the supply chain for illegal drugs. They also illustrate the value of two new graphical tools for describing illicit drug supply chains and hint at possible

  16. Exploring the use of concept chains to structure teacher trainees' understanding of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machin, Janet; Varleys, Janet; Loxley, Peter

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports on a paper and pencil concept-sorting strategy that enables trainee teachers to restructure their knowledge in any one domain of science. It is used as a self-study tool, mainly to enable them to break down and understand the progression of concepts beyond the level at which they have to teach. The strategy involves listing key ideas in an increasingly complex and inclusive fashion such that a 'chain' is developed where the initial statements are simple and the final ones more complex. Evaluation of the strategy with trainees over a five-year period revealed promising potential for the strategy as a self-study tool, as well as an audit tool, enabling tutors to more easily identify misconceptions. There was some evidence that trainees found the strategy useful in preparing themselves to teach in the classroom, possibly by enabling meaningful learning to take place according to the Ausubel-Novak-Gowin theory.

  17. Examining Prebiotic Chemistry Using O(^1D) Insertion Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Brian M.; Laas, Jacob C.; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus

    2013-06-01

    Aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol are all prebiotic molecules expected to form via photo-driven grain surface chemistry in the interstellar medium (ISM). These molecules are expected to be precursors for larger, biologically-relevant molecules in the ISM such as sugars and amino acids. These three molecules have not yet been detected in the ISM because of the lack of available rotational spectra. A high resolution (sub)millimeter spectrometer coupled to a molecular source is being used to study these molecules using O(^1D) insertion reactions. The O(^1D) chemistry is initiated using an excimer laser, and the products of the insertion reactions are adiabatically cooled using a supersonic expansion. Experimental parameters are being optimized by examination of methanol formed from O(^1D) insertion into methane. Theoretical studies of the structure and reaction energies for aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol have been conducted to guide the laboratory studies once the methanol experiment has been optimized. The results of the calculations and initial experimental results will be presented.

  18. Structure and diversity of the T cell antigen receptor beta-chain in a teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Partula, S; de Guerra, A; Fellah, J S; Charlemagne, J

    1995-07-15

    Cell-mediated immunity (e.g., allograft rejection) is found in all vertebrates, and these reactions are known to depend on thymus-derived cells in amphibian, avian, and mammalian species. The participation of peripheral T cell-like lymphocytes subpopulations to fish immunity is now well documented, but the developmental origin, migration, and peripheral tissue distribution of these cells remain practically unknown. This is mainly due to the difficulty of efficiently thymectomizing fish at an early stage of development and to the lack of Ab strictly specific for thymocytes and T cell surface Ag. One strategy for analyzing T cell biology in fish would be to characterize the genes encoding polypeptides homologous to the TCR molecules. This report describes cDNA clones from the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that have sequences very similar to amphibian, avian, and mammalian TCR beta-chains. Three complete trout V beta segments belonging to different families were analyzed; one of them had limited amino acid sequence similarity to the human V beta 20 family. The 10 trout beta-chain-joining segments all retain the invariant mammalian J beta residues, and comparison of 66 V beta-J beta junctions led to the identification of a D beta-like sequence (GGACAGGG) that is shorter than but very similar to the chicken D beta and mammalian D beta 1 sequences. There is considerable diversity at the V beta-D beta and D beta-J beta junctions, suggesting the presence of N-nucleotides. The trout C beta extracellular domain is shorter than mammalian C beta, and the hinge region has no cysteine residue. The transmembrane C beta domain contains a lysine residue that in mammals is thought to be involved in charged interactions with members of the CD3 complex. PMID:7608547

  19. Alkyl Chain Length and Temperature Effects on Structural Properties of Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquids: A Combined Atomistic Simulation and Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Study

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Song; Bañuelos, José Leobardo; Guo, Jianchang; Anovitz, Lawrence; Rother, Gernot; Shaw, Robert W.; Hillesheim, Patrick C.; Dai, Sheng; Baker, Gary A.; Cummings, Peter T.

    2011-12-21

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([CnMPy][Tf₂N], n = 3, 4, 6, 8, 10) were conducted using an all-atom model. Radial distribution functions (RDF) were computed and structure functions were generated to compare with new X-ray scattering experimental results, reported herein. The scattering peaks in the structure functions generally shift to lower Q values with increased temperature for all the liquids in this series. However, the first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) in the longer alkyl chain liquids displays a marked shift to higher Q values with increasing temperature. Alkyl chain-dependent ordering of the polar groups and increased tail aggregation with increasing alkyl chain length were observed in the partial pair correlation functions and the structure functions. The reasons for the observed alkyl chain-dependent phenomena and temperature effects were explored.

  20. Alkyl Chain Length and Temperature Effects on Structural Properties of Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquids: A Combined Atomistic Simulation and Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Song; Banuelos, Jose Leo; Guo, Jianchang; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Rother, Gernot; Shaw, Robert W; Hillesheim, Patrick C; Dai, Sheng; Baker, Gary A; Cummings, Peter T

    2011-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 1-alkyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium 12 bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([CnMPy][Tf2N], n = 3, 4, 6, 8, 10) were conducted 13 using an all-atom model. Radial distribution functions (RDF) were computed and structure 14 functions were generated to compare with new X-ray scattering experimental results, 15 reported herein. The scattering peaks in the structure functions generally shift to lower Q 16 values with increased temperature for all the liquids in this series. However, the first sharp 17 diffraction peak (FSDP) in the longer alkyl chain liquids displays a marked shift to higher Q 18 values with increasing temperature. Alkyl chain-dependent ordering of the polar groups and 19 increased tail aggregation with increasing alkyl chain length were observed in the partial pair 20 correlation functions and the structure functions. The reasons for the observed alkyl chain- 21 dependent phenomena and temperature effects were explored.

  1. The primary structure and characterization of carbohydrate chains of the extracellular glycoprotein proteinase inhibitor from latex of Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Odani, S; Yokokawa, Y; Takeda, H; Abe, S; Odani, S

    1996-10-01

    A secretory proteinase inhibitor was isolated from the latex of green fruits of papaya (Carica papaya). The protein exhibited stoichiometric inhibition of bovine trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin by the same site or overlapping binding sites. The complete covalent structure consisting of 184 amino acids and two disulfide bonds was determined by protein analysis. During the structural analysis, a procedure was established to separate very hydrophilic peptides by reverse-phase HPLC. The result revealed that the latex protein belongs to an extensively diverse plant protein family that includes inhibitors of serine, cysteine and aspartic proteases, a taste-modifying protein, wound responsive proteins, storage proteins, amylase inhibitors and even an oxidoreductase. In this superfamily, the latex proteinase inhibitor is most similar to the curious protein, miraculin, which makes sour food taste sweet. Two carbohydrate chains, each probably composed of (mannose)5, (xylose)1, (fucose)0-2, and (N-acetylglucosamine)2 residues, were attached to asparagine 84 and 90. Mass-spectrometric and compositional analysis suggested that they may represent a new class of plant xylose-containing carbohydrate chains with five mannose residues. PMID:8898891

  2. Structural instability of the CoO4 tetrahedral chain in SrCoO3-δ thin films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Glamazda, A.; Choi, Kwang-yong; Lemmens, P.; Choi, Woo Seok; Jeen, Hyoungjeen; Meyer, Tricia L.; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2015-08-31

    Raman scattering experiments together with detailed lattice dynamic calculations are performed to elucidate crystallographic and electronic peculiarities of SrCoO3-δ films. We observe that the 85 cm-1 phonon mode involving the rotation of a CoO4 tetrahedron undergoes a hardening by 21 cm-1 when the temperature is decreased. In addition, new phonon modes appear at 651.5 and 697.6 cm-1 . The latter modes are attributed to the Jahn-Teller activated modes. Upon cooling from room temperature, all phonons exhibit an exponential-like increase of intensity with a characteristic energy of about 103–107 K. We attribute this phenomenon to an instability of the CoO4 tetrahedralmore » chain structure, which constitutes a key ingredient to understand the electronic and structural properties of the brownmillerite SrCoO2.5.« less

  3. The elucidation of the structure of the core part of the LPS from Plesiomonas shigelloides serotype O17 expressing O-polysaccharide chain identical to the Shigella sonnei O-chain

    PubMed Central

    Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Schneerson, Rachel; Mocca, Chris; Vinogradov, Evgeny

    2008-01-01

    Plesiomonas shigelloides O17 LPS contains the same O-antigenic polysaccharide chain as a causative agent of dysenteria Shigella sonnei. This polysaccharide can be used as a component of a vaccine against dysenteria. Core part of the P. shigelloides O17 LPS was studied using NMR and mass spectrometry and the following structure was proposed: Significant similarity of the P. shigelloides O17 LPS core with the structure of the P. shigelloides O54 core was observed. PMID:18954864

  4. New 4,5-dichlorophthalhydrazidate-bridged chained coordination polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Juan; Wu, Di; Jia, Ming-Jun; Peng, Yu; Yu, Jie-Hui; Wang, Yu-Chang; Xu, Ji-Qing

    2011-03-01

    The hydrothermal self-assemblies of Pb 2+/Cd 2+ salt, 4,5-dichlorophthalic acid (dcpha), N 2H 4·H 2O together with 1,10-phenanthroline·H 2O (phen) or 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) generated two new monoacylhydrazidate-bridged 1-D chained coordination polymers [Pb 2(DCPTH) 4(phen) 2] 1 and [Cd 3(DCPTH) 2(dcph) 2(bpy) 2] 2 (DCPTH=4,5-dichlorophthalhydrazidate, dcph=4,5-dichlorophthalate). The monoacylhydrazidate ligand DCPTH originated from the hydrothermal in situ acylation reaction between dcpha and N 2H 4·H 2O. In compound 1, two types of coordination modes for DCPTH are found, which link alternately the Pb(II) centers into a 1-D chain structure of compound 1 with ancillary phen molecules. In compound 2, DCPTH and dcph as the mixed bridges extend the Cd(II) centers into a 1-D chain structure of compound 2 with auxiliary bpy molecules. DCPTH in compound 2 shows a different coordination mode from those observed in compound 1.

  5. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  6. Strain-induced metal–semiconductor transition observed in atomic carbon chains

    PubMed Central

    La Torre, A.; Botello-Mendez, A.; Baaziz, W.; Charlier, J. -C.; Banhart, F.

    2015-01-01

    Carbyne, the sp1-hybridized phase of carbon, is still a missing link in the family of carbon allotropes. While the bulk phases of carbyne remain elusive, the elementary constituents, that is, linear chains of carbon atoms, have already been observed using the electron microscope. Isolated atomic chains are highly interesting one-dimensional conductors that have stimulated considerable theoretical work. Experimental information, however, is still very limited. Here we show electrical measurements and first-principles transport calculations on monoatomic carbon chains. When the 1D system is under strain, the chains are semiconducting corresponding to the polyyne structure with alternating bond lengths. Conversely, when the chain is unstrained, the ohmic behaviour of metallic cumulene with uniform bond lengths is observed. This confirms the recent prediction of a metal–insulator transition that is induced by strain. The key role of the contacting leads explains the rectifying behaviour measured in monoatomic carbon chains in a nonsymmetric contact configuration. PMID:25818506

  7. Structural reconstruction and spontaneous formation of Fe polynuclears: a self-assembly of Fe-porphyrin coordination chains on Au(111) revealed by scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuxu; Zhou, Kun; Shi, Ziliang; Ma, Yu-Qiang

    2016-06-01

    A self-assembled Fe-porphyrin coordination chain structure on a Au(111) surface is investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), revealing structural reconstruction resulting from an alternative change of molecular orientations and spontaneous formation of uniformly sized Fe polynuclears. The alternation of the molecular orientations is ascribed to the cooperation of the attractive coordination and the intermolecular steric repulsion as elucidated by high-resolution STM observations. Furthermore, chemical control experiments are carried out to determine the number of atoms in an Fe polynuclear, suggesting a tentative Fe dinuclear-module that serves not only as a coordination center to link porphyrin units together but also as a "dangling" site for further functionalization by a guest terpyridine ligand. The chain structure and the Fe polynuclears are stable up to 320 K as revealed by real-time STM scanning. Annealing at higher temperatures converts the chain structure into a two-dimensional coordination structure. PMID:27167835

  8. Kinematics of an oblique deformation front using paleomagnetic data; the Altomira-Loranca structures (Iberian Chain, Central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcarcel, M.

    2013-05-01

    Manoel Valcárcel1, 5, Ruth Soto2, Elisabet Beamud3, Belén Oliva-Urcia4 and Josep Anton Muñoz5 1 IGME, Departamento de Investigación y Prospección Geocientífica. C/ La Calera, 1, 28760 Tres Cantos; m.valcarcel@igme.es 2 IGME, Unidad de Zaragoza, C/ Manuel Lasala 44, 9 B, 50006 Zaragoza, Spain 3 Lab. Paleomagnetisme (CCiT UB-CSIC). ICT "Jaume Almera", Solé i Sabarís, s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. 4 IPE-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza, Spain 5 Grup Geodinàmica i Anàlisi de Conques, Universitat de Barcelona, Zona Universitària Pedralbes, 08028 Barcelona, Spain The Altomira and Loranca structures consist of a fold-and-thrust system detached on Triassic evaporites. They are oriented N-S to NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE at its northern and southern end, respectively, forming a subtle arc, oblique with respect to the general NW-SE trend of the Iberian Chain. The aim of this work is to characterize with paleomagnetic data the kinematic evolution of the the Altomira Range, located at the southwestern deformation front of the Iberian Chain, and of the structures within its associated piggy-back basin, the Loranca basin. This approach will also give clues regarding the primary and/or secondary origin of these structures to better characterize them in further studies (3D reconstruction and restoration, fault pattern). A total of 180 samples were obtained from 19 sites in Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene rocks (including clays, fine sandstones and limestones). They were analyzed by means of stepwise thermal demagnetization and subsequent measurement of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Although fold tests are not statistically significant, a primary origin of the magnetization is deduced by samples showing either normal or reverse polarity after bedding correction of the calculated characteristic components. Declinations of the site mean directions appear scattered after bedding correction suggesting differential vertical-axis rotations. Sites located at the

  9. Improving the accuracy of the structure prediction of the third hypervariable loop of the heavy chains of antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Messih, Mario Abdel; Lepore, Rosalba; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Antibodies are able to recognize a wide range of antigens through their complementary determining regions formed by six hypervariable loops. Predicting the 3D structure of these loops is essential for the analysis and reengineering of novel antibodies with enhanced affinity and specificity. The canonical structure model allows high accuracy prediction for five of the loops. The third loop of the heavy chain, H3, is the hardest to predict because of its diversity in structure, length and sequence composition. Results: We describe a method, based on the Random Forest automatic learning technique, to select structural templates for H3 loops among a dataset of candidates. These can be used to predict the structure of the loop with a higher accuracy than that achieved by any of the presently available methods. The method also has the advantage of being extremely fast and returning a reliable estimate of the model quality. Availability and implementation: The source code is freely available at http://www.biocomputing.it/H3Loopred/ Contact: anna.tramontano@uniroma1.it Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24930144

  10. Structural advantage of sugar beet α-glucosidase to stabilize the Michaelis complex with long-chain substrate.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Takayoshi; Yamashita, Keitaro; Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide; Yao, Min; Kimura, Atsuo

    2015-01-16

    The α-glucosidase from sugar beet (SBG) is an exo-type glycosidase. The enzyme has a pocket-shaped active site, but efficiently hydrolyzes longer maltooligosaccharides and soluble starch due to lower Km and higher kcat/Km for such substrates. To obtain structural insights into the mechanism governing its unique substrate specificity, a series of acarviosyl-maltooligosaccharides was employed for steady-state kinetic and structural analyses. The acarviosyl-maltooligosaccharides have a longer maltooligosaccharide moiety compared with the maltose moiety of acarbose, which is known to be the transition state analog of α-glycosidases. The clear correlation obtained between log Ki of the acarviosyl-maltooligosaccharides and log(Km/kcat) for hydrolysis of maltooligosaccharides suggests that the acarviosyl-maltooligosaccharides are transition state mimics. The crystal structure of the enzyme bound with acarviosyl-maltohexaose reveals that substrate binding at a distance from the active site is maintained largely by van der Waals interactions, with the four glucose residues at the reducing terminus of acarviosyl-maltohexaose retaining a left-handed single-helical conformation, as also observed in cycloamyloses and single helical V-amyloses. The kinetic behavior and structural features suggest that the subsite structure suitable for the stable conformation of amylose lowers the Km for long-chain substrates, which in turn is responsible for higher specificity of the longer substrates. PMID:25451917

  11. Structures of Clostridium Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Light Chain Complexed with Small-Molecule Inhibitors Highlight Active-Site Flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Silvaggi,N.; Boldt, G.; Hixon, M.; Kennedy, J.; Tzipori, S.; Janda, K.; Allen, K.

    2007-01-01

    The potential for the use of Clostridial neurotoxins as bioweapons makes the development of small-molecule inhibitors of these deadly toxins a top priority. Recently, screening of a random hydroxamate library identified a small-molecule inhibitor of C. botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Light Chain (BoNT/A-LC), 4-chlorocinnamic hydroxamate, a derivative of which has been shown to have in vivo efficacy in mice and no toxicity. We describe the X-ray crystal structures of BoNT/A-LC in complexes with two potent small-molecule inhibitors. The structures of the enzyme with 4-chlorocinnamic hydroxamate or 2,4-dichlorocinnamic hydroxamate bound are compared to the structure of the enzyme complexed with L-arginine hydroxamate, an inhibitor with modest affinity. Taken together, this suite of structures provides surprising insights into the BoNT/A-LC active site, including unexpected conformational flexibility at the S1' site that changes the electrostatic environment of the binding pocket. Information gained from these structures will inform the design and optimization of more effective small-molecule inhibitors of BoNT/A-LC.

  12. Phthalocyanine based 1D nanowires for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Rajan; Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.

    2012-06-01

    1D nanowires (NWs) of Cu (II) 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-Phthalocyanine (CuPc(OBu)8) molecule have been grown on different substrates by cost effective solution processing technique. The density of NWs is found to be strongly dependent on the concentration of solution. The possible formation mechanism of these structures is π-π interaction between phthalocyanine molecules. The improved conductivity of these NWs as compared to spin coated film indicates their potential for molecular device applications.

  13. Structural organization of the human cardiac [alpha]-myosin heavy chain gene (MYH6)

    SciTech Connect

    Epp, T.A.; Dixon, I.M.C.; Wang, H.Y.; Sole, M.J.; Liew, C.C. )

    1993-12-01

    The human myocardium expresses two cardiac myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, [alpha] and [beta], that exist in tandem array on chromosome 14q12. The authors have previously sequenced the entire human cardiac [beta]-MyHC gene and now report the complete nucleotide sequence of the human cardiac [alpha]-MyHC, encompassing 26,159 bp as well as the entire 4484-bp 5'-flanking intergenic region. The gene (MYH6) consists of 39 exons, 37 of which contain coding information. The 5'-untranslated region is split into 3 exons, with the third exon containing the AUG translocation initiation codon. With the exception of the 13th intron of the human cardiac [beta]-MyHC, which is not present within the [alpha]-isogene, all exon/intron boundaries are conserved. Conspicuous sequence motifs contained within the [alpha]-MyHC gene include four Alu repeats, a single (GT)[sub n] element, and a homopurine-homopyrimidine tract containing 23 GAA repeating units followed by 10 GAG repeating units. Comparison of the encoded amino acid sequence with a previously reported human [alpha]-MyHC cDNA sequence reveals several potential polymorphisms. 29 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Characterization of the B-chain of human plasma alpha 2HS-glycoprotein. The complete amino acid sequence and primary structure of its heteroglycan.

    PubMed

    Gejyo, F; Chang, J L; Bürgi, W; Schmid, K; Offner, G D; Troxler, R F; Van Halbeek, H; Dorland, L; Gerwig, G J; Vliegenthart, J F

    1983-04-25

    alpha 2HS-Glycoprotein, a normal human plasma protein, was recently shown to consist of two polypeptide chains. In the present study, we have separated these two chains from one another and have elucidated the complete primary structure of the B-chain. Employing automated Edman degradation, the polypeptide moiety of this chain was shown to consist of 27 amino acid residues with an unequal distribution of the neutral and charged amino acid residues. The first 20 residues are uncharged, whereas the carboxyl-terminal heptapeptide contains all charged residues. Utilizing 500-MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy, the carbohydrate unit proved to be a trisaccharide consisting of sialic acid, galactose, and N-acetylgalactosamine O-glycosidically linked to serine (residue 6). The structure of the B-chain was found to be as follows. (formula; see text) Thus, the molecular weight of the B-chain is 3386. Evaluation of the polypeptide chain by the procedure of Chou and Fasman (Chou, P.Y., and Fasman, G.D. (1979) Adv. Enzymol. 47, 45-148) predicts that the B-chain has two beta-turns. Thereby, the carbohydrate unit which is linked to the Ser residue located in the first beta-turn appears to be directed away from the protein. The second beta-turn probably includes the Cys residue which links the B- to the A-chain. In agreement with the CD analysis, the B-chain lacks beta-conformation but possesses a short alpha-helical region. PMID:6833285

  15. Isostructural 1D coordination polymers of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) with phenylpropynoic acid and DABCO as organic linkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanakumar, Rajendran; Varghese, Babu; Sankararaman, Sethuraman

    2014-11-01

    Using phenylpropynoic acid (PPA) and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) as organic spacers, isostructural coordination polymers of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) were synthesized by solvothermal method and structurally characterized using single crystal XRD, powder XRD, 13C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy. Single crystal XRD data revealed four PPA units coordinating with two metal ions forming a paddle wheel secondary building unit (SBU). The paddle wheel units are connected through coordination of DABCO nitrogen to the metal centers from the axial positions leading to the formation of the 1D coordination polymers along the c axis. Intermolecular π stacking and Csbnd H…π interactions between the adjacent polymer chains convert the 1D coordination polymer into an interesting 3D network with the Csbnd H…π bonds running along the crystallographic a and b axes. Thermal and nitrogen adsorption studies of these coordination polymers are reported.

  16. The Effect of Side-Chain Length on the Solid-State Structure and Optical Properties of F8BT: A DFT Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javad Eslamibidgoli, Mohammad; Lagowski, Jolanta B.

    2012-02-01

    Using the long-range corrected hybrid density functional theory (DFT/B97D) approach, we have performed bulk solid state calculations to investigate the influence of side-chain length on the molecular packing and optical properties of poly (9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) or F8BT. Two different packing structures, the lamellar and nearly hexagonal, were obtained corresponding to longer and shorter side-chains respectively. This behavior can be attributed to the micro-phase separations between the flexible side-chains and the rigid backbones and is in agreement with previous investigations for other hairy-rod polymers. In addition, as a result of the efficient inter-chain interactions for the lamellar structure, the dihedral angle between the F8 and BT units is reduced providing a more planar configuration for the backbone which leads to the decreased band gap (by 0.2-0.3 eV) in comparison to the hexagonal phase and the gas phase with no side-chain. Time-dependent DFT (TDDFT/B3LYP) was also used to study the excited states of the monomer of F8BT optimized in solid-state structures with different side-chain lengths. It is found that the absorption spectrum is red shifted for the polymers with lamellar structure relative to the polymers in hexagonal and gas phases.

  17. New Insights into the Structure of (1→3,1→6)-β-D-Glucan Side Chains in the Candida glabrata Cell Wall

    PubMed Central

    Lowman, Douglas W.; West, Lara J.; Bearden, Daniel W.; Wempe, Michael F.; Power, Trevor D.; Ensley, Harry E.; Haynes, Ken; Williams, David L.; Kruppa, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    β-glucan is a (1→3)-β-linked glucose polymer with (1→6)-β-linked side chains and a major component of fungal cell walls. β-glucans provide structural integrity to the fungal cell wall. The nature of the (1–6)-β-linked side chain structure of fungal (1→3,1→6)-β-D-glucans has been very difficult to elucidate. Herein, we report the first detailed structural characterization of the (1→6)-β-linked side chains of Candida glabrata using high-field NMR. The (1→6)-β-linked side chains have an average length of 4 to 5 repeat units spaced every 21 repeat units along the (1→3)-linked polymer backbone. Computer modeling suggests that the side chains have a bent curve structure that allows for a flexible interconnection with parallel (1→3)-β-D-glucan polymers, and/or as a point of attachment for proteins. Based on these observations we propose new approaches to how (1→6)-β-linked side chains interconnect with neighboring glucan polymers in a manner that maximizes fungal cell wall strength, while also allowing for flexibility, or plasticity. PMID:22096604

  18. The chain length of biologically produced (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acid affects biological activity and structure of anti-cancer peptides.

    PubMed

    Szwej, Emilia; Devocelle, Marc; Kenny, Shane; Guzik, Maciej; O'Connor, Stephen; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Radivojevic, Jelena; Maslak, Veselin; Byrne, Annete T; Gallagher, William M; Zulian, Qun Ren; Zinn, Manfred; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2015-06-20

    Conjugation of DP18L peptide with (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid, derived from the biopolymer polyhydroxyalkanoate, enhances its anti-cancer activity (O'Connor et al., 2013. Biomaterials 34, 2710-2718). However, it is unknown if other (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids (R3HAs) can enhance peptide activity, if chain length affects enhancement, and what effect R3HAs have on peptide structure. Here we show that the degree of enhancement of peptide (DP18L) anti-cancer activity by R3HAs is carbon chain length dependent. In all but one example the R3HA conjugated peptides were more active against cancer cells than the unconjugated peptides. However, R3HAs with 9 and 10 carbons were most effective at improving DP18L activity. DP18L peptide variant DP17L, missing a hydrophobic amino acid (leucine residue 4) exhibited lower efficacy against MiaPaCa cells. Circular dichroism analysis showed DP17L had a lower alpha helix content and the conjugation of any R3HA ((R)-3-hydroxyhexanoic acid to (R)-3-hydroxydodecanoic acid) to DP17L returned the helix content back to levels of DP18L. However (R)-3-hydroxyhexanoic did not enhance the anti-cancer activity of DP17L and at least 7 carbons were needed in the R3HA to enhance activity of D17L. DP17L needs a longer chain R3HA to achieve the same activity as DP18L conjugated to an R3HA. As a first step to assess the synthetic potential of polyhydroxyalkanoate derived R3HAs, (R)-3-hydroxydecanoic acid was synthetically converted to (±)3-chlorodecanoic acid, which when conjugated to DP18L improved its antiproliferative activity against MiaPaCa cells. PMID:25820126

  19. Investigation of the structure of anti-human seminal plasma protein single-chain antibody and its association with linker peptide length

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, XIN; ZHAI, JUN; SONG, DONGKUI; QU, QINGSHAN; LI, MING; XING, LI; MIAO, SHUZHAI

    2015-01-01

    To enhance the activity of seminoprotein single-chain variable fragment (γ-Sm-ScFv) antibodies, modulation of the length of the linker peptide, which connects the variable region of the heavy chain (VH) and the light chain (VL) of single-chain antibodies, was performed in the present study. Homologous modeling of single VH and VL were performed, respectively. Subsequently, modeling of the whole ScFv sequence, which was previously modified with added linkers of different lengths was also performed, and the (Gly4Ser)n peptide chain structure was used as the linker. The similarities between VH and VL prior to and following the addition of the linker were compared by applying the algorithm of protein similarity, based on spherical coordinates layering. In addition, changes in the fore and aft distance, and diffusion radius were calculated using a MATLAB tool, based on which changes in structural stability were analyzed. Finally, the single-chain antibody was assessed in a nude mouse model. When n=3 or n=6, the similarity between the original distance and VH and VL were the highest, and the fore and aft distance and diffusion radius were relatively close. In addition, the nude mouse model indicated that, when n=3 or n=6, the inhibitory rate of the single-chain antibody against tumor cells was significantly higher, compared with the other linker peptides of different lengths. The effect of structural changes of the linker peptides in the single-chain antibodies on the whole antibody molecule was examined at different levels using a combination of mathematical modeling, bioinformatics methods and biological experiments. The findings of the present study may provide a foundation for further investigation into the preparation of single-chain antibodies. PMID:26099852

  20. Structural evolution of preexisting oceanic crust through intraplate igneous activities in the Marcus-Wake seamount chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Kentaro; Kodaira, Shuichi; Nishizawa, Azusa; Morishita, Taisei; Takahashi, Narumi

    2010-10-01

    Multichannel seismic reflection studies and seismic refraction surveys with ocean bottom seismographs in the Marcus-Wake seamount chain in the northwestern Pacific Ocean reveal P wave velocity structures of hot spot-origin seamounts and adjacent oceanic crust. Inside the seamounts are central high-velocity (>6.5 km/s) structures extending nearly to the top that may indicate intrusive cores. Thick sediment layers (up to 4 km) with P wave velocities of 4-5 km/s have accumulated on seafloor that predates seamount formation. Downward crustal thickening of up to 2 km was documented beneath a large seamount cluster, but thickening was not confirmed below a small seamount cluster. Volume ratios of an intrusive core to a seamount body are 15-20%, indicating that most of the supplied magma was consumed in forming the thick sedimentary and volcaniclastic layer constituting the seamount flanks. Underplating and downward crustal thickening may tend to occur when second or later intrusive cores are formed in a seamount. P wave velocities in the lowest crust and in the uppermost mantle below the seamount chain are 0.1-0.2 km/s higher and 0.3-0.5 km/s lower, respectively, than velocities below oceanic crust. We explain this difference as a result of sill-like intrusion of magma into the lower crust and uppermost mantle. Reflected waves observed at offsets >200 km are from mantle reflectors at depths of 30-45 km and 55-70 km. The shallower reflectors may indicate structures formed by intraplate igneous activities, and the deeper reflectors may correspond to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.