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Sample records for 1d keil special

  1. Profiles of 5-HT 1B/1D agonists in acute migraine with special reference to second generation agents.

    PubMed

    Deleu, D; Hanssens, Y

    1999-06-01

    The efficacy of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D (5-HT 1B/1D) agonists is related to their inhibitory effects on neurogenic inflammation, mediated through serotoninergic control mechanisms. Recently, a series of oral second generation 5-HT 1B/1D agonists (eletriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan and zolmitriptan) have been developed and are reviewed in this paper. Their in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties, clinical efficacy, drug interactions, and adverse effects are evaluated and compared to the gold standard in the treatment of acute migraine, sumatriptan. PMID:10427351

  2. Oral Histories in Meteoritics and Planetary Science—XIX: Klaus Keil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract- Klaus Keil (Fig. 1) grew up in Jena and became interested in meteorites as a student of Fritz Heide. His research for his Dr. rer. nat. became known to Hans Suess who--with some difficulty--arranged for him to move to La Jolla, via Mainz, 6 months before the borders of East Germany were closed. In La Jolla, Klaus became familiar with the electron microprobe, which has remained a central tool in his research and, with Kurt Fredriksson, he confirmed the existence of Urey and Craig's chemical H and L chondrite groups, and added a third group, the LL chondrites. Klaus then moved to NASA Ames where he established a microprobe laboratory, published his definitive paper on enstatite chondrites, and led in the development of the Si(Li) detector and the EDS method of analysis. After 5 years at Ames, Klaus became director of the Institute of Meteoritics at the University of New Mexico where he built up one of the leading meteorite research groups while working on a wide variety of projects, including chondrite groups, chondrules, differentiated meteorites, lunar samples, and Hawai'ian basalts. The basalt studies led to a love of Hawai'i and a move to the University of Hawai'i in 1990, where he has continued a wide variety of meteorite projects, notably the role of volcanism on asteroids. Klaus Keil has received honorary doctorates from Friedrich-Schiller University, Jena, and the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. He was President of the Meteoritical Society in 1969-1970 and was awarded the Leonard Medal in 1988.

    Klaus Keil at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa, 2007.

  3. Special lipid-based diets alleviate cognitive deficits in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease independent of brain amyloid deposition.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, Hennariikka; Grimm, Marcus O; Rothhaar, Tatjana L; Berkecz, Róbert; Lütjohann D, Dieter; Giniatullina, Rajsa; Takalo, Mari; Miettinen, Pasi O; Lahtinen, Hanna-Maija; Giniatullin, Rashid; Penke, Botond; Janáky, Tamás; Broersen, Laus M; Hartmann, Tobias; Tanila, Heikki

    2014-02-01

    Dietary fish oil, providing n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), associates with reduced dementia risk in epidemiological studies and reduced amyloid accumulation in Alzheimer mouse models. We now studied whether additional nutrients can improve the efficacy of fish oil in alleviating cognitive deficits and amyloid pathology in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic and wild-type mice. We compared four isocaloric (5% fat) diets. The fish oil diet differed from the control diet only by substituted fish oil. Besides fish oil, the plant sterol diet was supplemented with phytosterols, while the Fortasyn diet contained as supplements precursors and cofactors for membrane synthesis, viz. uridine-monophosphate; DHA and EPA; choline; folate; vitamins B6, B12, C and E; phospholipids and selenium. Mice began the special diets at 5 months and were sacrificed at 14 months after behavioral testing. Transgenic mice, fed with control chow, showed poor spatial learning, hyperactivity in exploring a novel cage and reduced preference to explore novel odors. All fish-oil-containing diets increased exploration of a novel odor over a familiar one. Only the Fortasyn diet alleviated the spatial learning deficit. None of the diets influenced hyperactivity in a new environment. Fish-oil-containing diets strongly inhibited β- and γ-secretase activity, and the plant sterol diet additionally reduced amyloid-β 1-42 levels. These data indicate that beneficial effects of fish oil on cognition in Alzheimer model mice can be enhanced by adding other specific nutrients, but this effect is not necessarily mediated via reduction of amyloid accumulation. PMID:24445040

  4. Specialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Pat

    Designed for middle school students, this award winning, six-day teaching unit helped students learn about the concepts of specialization, interdependence, efficiency, and profit. At the onset of the lesson the students were already familiar with the concepts of scarcity, goods, services, profits, supply, demand, and opportunity costs. The unit's…

  5. 1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    Jian Wei, Xuchun Song, Chunli Yang, and Michael Z. Hu, 1D Nanostructures: Controlled Fabrication and Energy Applications, Journal of Nanomaterials, published special issue (http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/si/197254/) (2013).

  6. Probing 1D super-strongly correlated dipolar quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Citro, R.; de Palo, S.; Orignac, E.; Pedri, P.; Chiofalo, M.-L.

    2009-04-01

    One-dimensional (1D) dipolar quantum gases are characterized by a very special condition where super-strong correlations occur to significantly affect the static and dynamical low-energy behavior. This behavior is accurately described by the Luttinger Liquid theory with parameter K < 1. Dipolar Bose gases are routinely studied in laboratory with Chromium atoms. On the other hand, 1D realizations with molecular quantum gases can be at reach of current experimental expertises, allowing to explore such extreme quantum degenerate conditions which are the bottom line for designing technological devices. Aim of the present contribution is to focus on the possible probes expected to signal the reach of Luttinger-Liquid behavior in 1D dipolar gases.

  7. Vought F4U-1D Corsair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1945-01-01

    Vought F4U-1D Corsair: In February and March of 1945 this Corsair was examined in the NACA's 30 x 60 Full Scale Tunnel at Langley Field. The F4U-1D has rockets mounted on its wings for this test. After installation and during testing, the wings would be lowered to their flight position.

  8. 1D ferrimagnetism in homometallic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronado, E.; Gómez-García, C. J.; Borrás-Almenar, J. J.

    1990-05-01

    The magnetic properties of the cobalt zigzag chain Co(bpy)(NCS)2 (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) are discussed on the basis of an Ising-chain model that takes into account alternating Landé factors. It is emphasized, for the first time, that a homometallic chain containing only one type of site can give rise to a 1D ferrimagneticlike behavior.

  9. DESIGN PACKAGE 1D SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Eisler

    1995-02-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1D, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1D system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations excluding hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations.

  10. Preparation of 1D nanostructures using biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruneanu, Stela; Olenic, Liliana; Barbu Tudoran, Lucian; Kacso, Irina; Farha Al-Said, Said A.; Hassanien, Reda; Houlton, Andrew; Horrocks, Benjamin R.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we have shown that one-dimensional (1D) particle arrays can be obtained using biomolecules, like DNA or amino-acids. Nano-arrays of silver and gold were prepared in a single-step synthesis, by exploiting the binding abilities of λ-DNA and L-Arginine. The morphology and optical properties of these nanostructures were investigated using AFM, TEM and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy.

  11. Centrosome Positioning in 1D Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlerz, Katrina; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    During cell migration, the positioning of the centrosome and nucleus define a cell's polarity. For a cell migrating on a two-dimensional substrate the centrosome is positioned in front of the nucleus. Under one-dimensional confinement, however, the centrosome is positioned behind the nucleus in 60% of cells. It is known that the centrosome is positioned by CDC42 and dynein for cells moving on a 2D substrate in a wound-healing assay. It is currently unknown, however, if this is also true for cells moving under 1D confinement, where the centrosome position is often reversed. Therefore, centrosome positioning was studied in cells migrating under 1D confinement, which mimics cells migrating through 3D matrices. 3 to 5 μm fibronectin lines were stamped onto a glass substrate and cells with fluorescently labeled nuclei and centrosomes migrated on the lines. Our results show that when a cell changes directions the centrosome position is maintained. That is, when the centrosome is between the nucleus and the cell's trailing edge and the cell changes direction, the centrosome will be translocated across the nucleus to the back of the cell again. A dynein inhibitor did have an influence on centrosome positioning in 1D migration and change of directions.

  12. Coalescence phenomena in 1D silver nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Wing, C.; Pérez-Alvarez, M.; Mondragón-Galicia, G.; Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Gutiérrez-Wing, M. T.; Henk, M. C.; Negulescu, I. I.; Rusch, K. A.

    2009-07-01

    Different coalescence processes on 1D silver nanostructures synthesized by a PVP assisted reaction in ethylene glycol at 160 °C were studied experimentally and theoretically. Analysis by TEM and HRTEM shows different defects found on the body of these materials, suggesting that they were induced by previous coalescence processes in the synthesis stage. TEM observations showed that irradiation with the electron beam eliminates the boundaries formed near the edges of the structures, suggesting that this process can be carried out by the application of other means of energy (i.e. thermal). These results were also confirmed by theoretical calculations by Monte Carlo simulations using a Sutton-Chen potential. A theoretical study by molecular dynamics simulation of the different coalescence processes on 1D silver nanostructures is presented, showing a surface energy driven sequence followed to form the final coalesced structure. Calculations were made at 1000-1300 K, which is near the melting temperature of silver (1234 K). Based on these results, it is proposed that 1D nanostructures can grow through a secondary mechanism based on coalescence, without losing their dimensionality.

  13. 1-D EQUILIBRIUM DISCRETE DIFFUSION MONTE CARLO

    SciTech Connect

    T. EVANS; ET AL

    2000-08-01

    We present a new hybrid Monte Carlo method for 1-D equilibrium diffusion problems in which the radiation field coexists with matter in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This method, the Equilibrium Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (EqDDMC) method, combines Monte Carlo particles with spatially discrete diffusion solutions. We verify the EqDDMC method with computational results from three slab problems. The EqDDMC method represents an incremental step toward applying this hybrid methodology to non-equilibrium diffusion, where it could be simultaneously coupled to Monte Carlo transport.

  14. Extended-Range Ultrarefractive 1D Photonic Crystal Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    A proposal has been made to exploit the special wavelength-dispersive characteristics of devices of the type described in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms (NPO-30232) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 4 (April 2005), page 10a. A photonic crystal is an optical component that has a periodic structure comprising two dielectric materials with high dielectric contrast (e.g., a semiconductor and air), with geometrical feature sizes comparable to or smaller than light wavelengths of interest. Experimental superprisms have been realized as photonic crystals having three-dimensional (3D) structures comprising regions of amorphous Si alternating with regions of SiO2, fabricated in a complex process that included sputtering. A photonic crystal of the type to be exploited according to the present proposal is said to be one-dimensional (1D) because its contrasting dielectric materials would be stacked in parallel planar layers; in other words, there would be spatial periodicity in one dimension only. The processes of designing and fabricating 1D photonic crystal superprisms would be simpler and, hence, would cost less than do those for 3D photonic crystal superprisms. As in 3D structures, 1D photonic crystals may be used in applications such as wavelength-division multiplexing. In the extended-range configuration, it is also suitable for spectrometry applications. As an engineered structure or artificially engineered material, a photonic crystal can exhibit optical properties not commonly found in natural substances. Prior research had revealed several classes of photonic crystal structures for which the propagation of electromagnetic radiation is forbidden in certain frequency ranges, denoted photonic bandgaps. It had also been found that in narrow frequency bands just outside the photonic bandgaps, the angular wavelength dispersion of electromagnetic waves propagating in photonic crystal superprisms is much stronger than is the angular wavelength dispersion obtained

  15. A 1-D dusty plasma photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Mitu, M. L.; Ticoş, C. M.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.; Scurtu, A.

    2013-09-21

    It is demonstrated numerically that a 1-D plasma crystal made of micron size cylindrical dust particles can, in principle, work as a photonic crystal for terahertz waves. The dust rods are parallel to each other and arranged in a linear string forming a periodic structure of dielectric-plasma regions. The dispersion equation is found by solving the waves equation with the boundary conditions at the dust-plasma interface and taking into account the dielectric permittivity of the dust material and plasma. The wavelength of the electromagnetic waves is in the range of a few hundred microns, close to the interparticle separation distance. The band gaps of the 1-D plasma crystal are numerically found for different types of dust materials, separation distances between the dust rods and rod diameters. The distance between levitated dust rods forming a string in rf plasma is shown experimentally to vary over a relatively wide range, from 650 μm to about 1350 μm, depending on the rf power fed into the discharge.

  16. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  17. Additive discrete 1D linear canonical transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Healy, John J.; Guo, Chang-liang; Sheridan, John T.

    2015-09-01

    The continuous linear canonical transforms (LCT) can describe a wide variety of wave field propagations through paraxial (first order) optical systems. Digital algorithms to numerically calculate the LCT are therefore important in modelling scalar wave field propagations and are also of interest for many digital signal processing applications. The continuous LCT is additive, but discretization can remove this property. In this paper we discuss three special cases of the LCT for which constraints can be identified to ensure the DLCT is additive.

  18. 1D-1D Coulomb drag in a 6 Million Mobility Bi-layer Heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilodeau, Simon; Laroche, Dominique; Xia, Jian-Sheng; Lilly, Mike; Reno, John; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Gervais, Guillaume

    We report Coulomb drag measurements in vertically-coupled quantum wires. The wires are fabricated in GaAs/AlGaAs bilayer heterostructures grown from two different MBE chambers: one at Sandia National Laboratories (1.2M mobility), and the other at Princeton University (6M mobility). The previously observed positive and negative drag signals are seen in both types of devices, demonstrating the robustness of the result. However, attempts to determine the temperature dependence of the drag signal in the 1D regime proved challenging in the higher mobility heterostructure (Princeton), in part because of difficulties in aligning the wires within the same transverse subband configuration. Nevertheless, this work, performed at the Microkelvin laboratory of the University of Florida, is an important proof-of-concept for future investigations of the temperature dependence of the 1D-1D drag signal down to a few mK. Such an experiment could confirm the Luttinger charge density wave interlocking predicted to occur in the wires. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  19. On the origin of multi-step spin transition behaviour in 1D nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiruta, Daniel; Jureschi, Catalin-Maricel; Linares, Jorge; Dahoo, Pierre Richard; Garcia, Yann; Rotaru, Aurelian

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the spin state switching mechanism in spin crossover (SCO) nanoparticles, a special attention is given to three-step thermally induced SCO behavior in 1D chains. An additional term is included in the standard Ising-like Hamiltonian to account for the border interaction between SCO molecules and its local environment. It is shown that this additional interaction, together with the short range interaction, drives the multi-steps thermal hysteretic behavior in 1D SCO systems. The relation between a polymeric matrix and this particular multi-step SCO phenomenon is discussed accordingly. Finally, the environmental influence on the SCO system's size is analyzed as well.

  20. Understanding 1D Electrostatic Dust Levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartzell, C. M.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Electrostatically-dominated dust motion has been hypothesized since the Lunar Horizon Glow was observed by the Surveyor spacecraft. The hypothesized occurence of this phenomenon was naturally extended to asteroids due to their small gravities. Additionally, it has been suggested that the dust ponds observed on Eros by the NEAR mission may be created by electrostatically-dominated dust transport. Previous attempts to numerically model dust motion on the Moon and Eros have been stymied by poorly understood dust launching mechanisms. As a result, the initial velocity and charge of dust particles used in numerical simulations may or may not have any relevance to the actual conditions occurring in situ. It has been seen that properly tuned initial states (velocity and charge) result in dust particles levitating above the surface in both 1D and 2D simulations. Levitation is of interest to planetary scientists since it provides a way to quickly redistribute the surface dust particles over a body. However, there is currently no method to predict whether or not a certain initial state will result in levitation. We have developed a method to provide constraints on the initial states that result in levitation as a function of dust particle size and central body gravity. Additionally, our method can be applied to several models of the plasma sheath. Thus, we limit the guesswork involved in determining which initial conditions result in levitation. We provide a more detailed understanding of levitation phenomena couched in terms of the commonly recognized spring-mass system. This method of understanding dust motion removes the dependency on the launching mechanism, which remains fraught with controversy. Once a feasible dust launching mechanism is identified (be it micrometeoroid bombardment or electrostatic lofting), our method will allow the community to quickly ascertain if dust levitation will occur in situ or if it is simply a numerical artifact. In addition to

  1. Graphs on uniform points in [0,1]d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Martin J. B.; Russo, Ralph P.; Yang, King J.

    1995-06-01

    Statistical problems in pattern or structure recognition for a random multidimensional point set may be addressed by variations on the random graph model of Erdos and Renyui. The imposition of graph structure with a variable edge criterion on a large random point set allows a search for signature quantities or behavior under the given distributional hypothesis. The work is motivated by the question of how to make statistical inferences from sensed mine field data. This article describes recent results obtained in the following special cases. On independent random points U1,...,Un distributed uniformly on [0,1]d, a random graph Gn(x) is constructed in which two distinct such points are joined by an edge if the l(infinity )-distance between them is at most some prescribed value 0 = 2.

  2. Human serotonin 1D receptor is encoded by a subfamily of two distinct genes: 5-HT1D alpha and 5-HT1D beta.

    PubMed Central

    Weinshank, R L; Zgombick, J M; Macchi, M J; Branchek, T A; Hartig, P R

    1992-01-01

    The serotonin 1D (5-HT1D) receptor is a pharmacologically defined binding site and functional receptor site. Observed variations in the properties of 5-HT1D receptors in different tissues have led to the speculation that multiple receptor proteins with slightly different properties may exist. We report here the cloning, deduced amino acid sequences, pharmacological properties, and second-messenger coupling of a pair of human 5-HT1D receptor genes, which we have designated 5-HT1D alpha and 5-HT1D beta due to their strong similarities in sequence, pharmacological properties, and second-messenger coupling. Both genes are free of introns in their coding regions, are expressed in the human cerebral cortex, and can couple to inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. The pharmacological binding properties of these two human receptors are very similar, and match closely the pharmacological properties of human, bovine, and guinea pig 5-HT1D sites. Both receptors exhibit high-affinity binding of sumatriptan, a new anti-migraine medication, and thus are candidates for the pharmacological site of action of this drug. Images PMID:1565658

  3. Static sign language recognition using 1D descriptors and neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solís, José F.; Toxqui, Carina; Padilla, Alfonso; Santiago, César

    2012-10-01

    A frame work for static sign language recognition using descriptors which represents 2D images in 1D data and artificial neural networks is presented in this work. The 1D descriptors were computed by two methods, first one consists in a correlation rotational operator.1 and second is based on contour analysis of hand shape. One of the main problems in sign language recognition is segmentation; most of papers report a special color in gloves or background for hand shape analysis. In order to avoid the use of gloves or special clothing, a thermal imaging camera was used to capture images. Static signs were picked up from 1 to 9 digits of American Sign Language, a multilayer perceptron reached 100% recognition with cross-validation.

  4. EXTENSION OF THE 1D FOUR-GROUP ANALYTIC NODAL METHOD TO FULL MULTIGROUP

    SciTech Connect

    B. D. Ganapol; D. W. Nigg

    2008-09-01

    In the mid 80’s, a four-group/two-region, entirely analytical 1D nodal benchmark appeared. It was readily acknowledged that this special case was as far as one could go in terms of group number and still achieve an analytical solution. In this work, we show that by decomposing the solution to the multigroup diffusion equation into homogeneous and particular solutions, extension to any number of groups is a relatively straightforward exercise using the mathematics of linear algebra.

  5. Transfer Matrix Approach to 1d Random Band Matrices: Density of States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbina, Mariya; Shcherbina, Tatyana

    2016-08-01

    We study the special case of n× n 1D Gaussian Hermitian random band matrices, when the covariance of the elements is determined by the matrix J=(-W^2triangle +1)^{-1} . Assuming that n≥ CW log W≫ 1 , we prove that the averaged density of states coincides with the Wigner semicircle law up to the correction of order W^{-1}.

  6. Brady 1D seismic velocity model ambient noise prelim

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mellors, Robert J.

    2013-10-25

    Preliminary 1D seismic velocity model derived from ambient noise correlation. 28 Green's functions filtered between 4-10 Hz for Vp, Vs, and Qs were calculated. 1D model estimated for each path. The final model is a median of the individual models. Resolution is best for the top 1 km. Poorly constrained with increasing depth.

  7. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  8. Phosphorylation and desensitization of alpha1d-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    García-Sáinz, J A; Vázquez-Cuevas, F G; Romero-Avila, M T

    2001-01-01

    In rat-1 fibroblasts stably expressing rat alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors, noradrenaline and PMA markedly decreased alpha(1d)-adrenoceptor function (noradrenaline-elicited increases in calcium in whole cells and [(35)S]guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate binding in membranes), suggesting homologous and heterologous desensitizations. Photoaffinity labelling, Western blotting and immunoprecipitation identified alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors as a broad band of 70-80 kDa. alpha(1d)-Adrenoceptors were phosphorylated in the basal state and noradrenaline and PMA increased it. The effect of noradrenaline was concentration-dependent (EC(50) 75 nM), rapid (maximum at 1 min) and transient. Phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation was concentration-dependent (EC(50) 25 nM), slightly slower (maximum at 5 min) and stable for at least 60 min. Inhibitors of protein kinase C decreased the effect of phorbol esters but not that of noradrenaline. Evidence of cross-talk of alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors with receptors endogenously expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts was given by the ability of endothelin, lysophosphatidic acid and bradykinin to induce alpha(1d)-adrenoceptor phosphorylation. In summary, it is shown for the first time here that alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors are phosphoproteins and that receptor phosphorylation is increased by the natural ligand, noradrenaline, by direct activation of protein kinase C and via cross-talk with other receptors endogenously expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts. Receptor phosphorylation has functional repercussions. PMID:11171057

  9. Special Days, Special Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jacqueline

    2001-01-01

    Presents unique ways to create special rituals that recognize individual students' achievements and milestones. Ideas include throwing a send-off party for a student who is moving; holding monthly birthday luncheons; choosing an ambassador to accompany new students around school; and making a lost tooth container that students can use to safely…

  10. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia in Glut1D on Ketogenic Diet.

    PubMed

    Klepper, Joerg; Leiendecker, Baerbel; Heussinger, Nicole; Lausch, Ekkehart; Bosch, Friedrich

    2016-04-01

    High-fat ketogenic diets are the only treatment available for Glut1 deficiency (Glut1D). Here, we describe an 8-year-old girl with classical Glut1D responsive to a 3:1 ketogenic diet and ethosuximide. After 3 years on the diet a gradual increase of blood lipids was followed by rapid, severe asymptomatic hypertriglyceridemia (1,910 mg/dL). Serum lipid apheresis was required to determine liver, renal, and pancreatic function. A combination of medium chain triglyceride-oil and a reduction of the ketogenic diet to 1:1 ratio normalized triglyceride levels within days but triggered severe myoclonic seizures requiring comedication with sultiam. Severe hypertriglyceridemia in children with Glut1D on ketogenic diets may be underdiagnosed and harmful. In contrast to congenital hypertriglyceridemias, children with Glut1D may be treated effectively by dietary adjustments alone. PMID:26902182

  11. 60. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, D LOOP STEAM GENERATOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, D LOOP STEAM GENERATOR AND MAIN COOLANT PUMP LOOKING NORTHEAST (LOCATION OOO) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  12. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1).

    PubMed

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. PMID:25088042

  13. TBC1D24 genotype–phenotype correlation

    PubMed Central

    Balestrini, Simona; Milh, Mathieu; Castiglioni, Claudia; Lüthy, Kevin; Finelli, Mattea J.; Verstreken, Patrik; Cardon, Aaron; Stražišar, Barbara Gnidovec; Holder, J. Lloyd; Lesca, Gaetan; Mancardi, Maria M.; Poulat, Anne L.; Repetto, Gabriela M.; Banka, Siddharth; Bilo, Leonilda; Birkeland, Laura E.; Bosch, Friedrich; Brockmann, Knut; Cross, J. Helen; Doummar, Diane; Félix, Temis M.; Giuliano, Fabienne; Hori, Mutsuki; Hüning, Irina; Kayserili, Hulia; Kini, Usha; Lees, Melissa M.; Meenakshi, Girish; Mewasingh, Leena; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Peluso, Silvio; Mey, Antje; Rice, Gregory M.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Taylor, Jenny C.; Troester, Matthew M.; Stanley, Christine M.; Ville, Dorothee; Walkiewicz, Magdalena; Falace, Antonio; Fassio, Anna; Lemke, Johannes R.; Biskup, Saskia; Tardif, Jessica; Ajeawung, Norbert F.; Tolun, Aslihan; Corbett, Mark; Gecz, Jozef; Afawi, Zaid; Howell, Katherine B.; Oliver, Karen L.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; de Falco, Fabrizio A.; Oliver, Peter L.; Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phenotypic spectrum associated with mutations in TBC1D24. Methods: We acquired new clinical, EEG, and neuroimaging data of 11 previously unreported and 37 published patients. TBC1D24 mutations, identified through various sequencing methods, can be found online (http://lovd.nl/TBC1D24). Results: Forty-eight patients were included (28 men, 20 women, average age 21 years) from 30 independent families. Eighteen patients (38%) had myoclonic epilepsies. The other patients carried diagnoses of focal (25%), multifocal (2%), generalized (4%), and unclassified epilepsy (6%), and early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (25%). Most patients had drug-resistant epilepsy. We detail EEG, neuroimaging, developmental, and cognitive features, treatment responsiveness, and physical examination. In silico evaluation revealed 7 different highly conserved motifs, with the most common pathogenic mutation located in the first. Neuronal outgrowth assays showed that some TBC1D24 mutations, associated with the most severe TBC1D24-associated disorders, are not necessarily the most disruptive to this gene function. Conclusions: TBC1D24-related epilepsy syndromes show marked phenotypic pleiotropy, with multisystem involvement and severity spectrum ranging from isolated deafness (not studied here), benign myoclonic epilepsy restricted to childhood with complete seizure control and normal intellect, to early-onset epileptic encephalopathy with severe developmental delay and early death. There is no distinct correlation with mutation type or location yet, but patterns are emerging. Given the phenotypic breadth observed, TBC1D24 mutation screening is indicated in a wide variety of epilepsies. A TBC1D24 consortium was formed to develop further research on this gene and its associated phenotypes. PMID:27281533

  14. Electronic and Transport Properties of Quasi-1D Wires of Biological Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oetzel, Björn; Matthes, Lars; Tandetzky, Falk; Ortmann, Frank; Bechstedt, Friedhelm; Hannewald, Karsten

    2010-03-01

    In the search for organic materials with good charge-transport properties, artificial stacks of biological molecules are considered attractive candidates [1,2]. In this spirit, we present ab-initio DFT calculations of the structural, electronic, and quantum-transport properties of quasi-1D wires based on guanine and eumelanin molecules [3]. Hereby, a special focus is put on the results for the electronic bandwidths and the consequences for potential applications. [4pt] [1] R. di Felice et al., Phys. Rev. B 65, 045104 (2001) [0pt] [2] P. Meredith et al., Pigment Cell Res. 19, 572 (2006) [0pt] [3] B. Oetzel et al. (unpublished)

  15. Prediction of car cabin environment by means of 1D and 3D cabin model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišer, J.; Pokorný, J.; Jícha, M.

    2012-04-01

    Thermal comfort and also reduction of energy requirements of air-conditioning system in vehicle cabins are currently very intensively investigated and up-to-date issues. The article deals with two approaches of modelling of car cabin environment; the first model was created in simulation language Modelica (typical 1D approach without cabin geometry) and the second one was created in specialized software Theseus-FE (3D approach with cabin geometry). Performance and capabilities of this tools are demonstrated on the example of the car cabin and the results from simulations are compared with the results from the real car cabin climate chamber measurements.

  16. Polar discontinuities and 1D interfaces in monolayered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Gordillo, Rafael; Pruneda, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Interfaces are the birthplace of a multitude of fascinating discoveries in fundamental science, and have enabled modern electronic devices, from transistors, to lasers, capacitors or solar cells. These interfaces between bulk materials are always bi-dimensional (2D) 'surfaces'. However the advent of graphene and other 2D crystals opened up a world of possibilities, as in this case the interfaces become one-dimensional (1D) lines. Although the properties of 1D nanoribbons have been extensively discussed in the last few years, 1D interfaces within infinite 2D systems had remained mostly unexplored until very recently. These include grain boundaries in polycrystalline samples, or interfaces in hybrid 2D sheets composed by segregated domains of different materials (as for example graphene/BN hybrids, or chemically different transition metal dichalcogenides). As for their 2D counterparts, some of these 1D interfaces exhibit polar characteristics, and can give rise to fascinating new physical properties. Here, recent experimental discoveries and theoretical predictions on the polar discontinuities that arise at these 1D interfaces will be reviewed, and the perspectives of this new research topic, discussed.

  17. PC-1D installation manual and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    PC-1D is a software package for personal computers that uses finite-element analysis to solve the fully-coupled two-carrier semiconductor transport equations in one dimension. This program is particularly useful for analyzing the performance of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, but can be applied to any bipolar device whose carrier flows are primarily one-dimensional. This User's Guide provides the information necessary to install PC-1D, define a problem for solution, solve the problem, and examine the results. Example problems are presented which illustrate these steps. The physical models and numerical methods utilized are presented in detail. This document supports version 3.1 of PC-1D, which incorporates faster numerical algorithms with better convergence properties than previous versions of the program. 51 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. The GIRAFFE Archive: 1D and 3D Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, F.; Jégouzo, I.; Tajahmady, F.; Normand, J.; Chilingarian, I.

    2013-10-01

    The GIRAFFE Archive (http://giraffe-archive.obspm.fr) contains the reduced spectra observed with the intermediate and high resolution multi-fiber spectrograph installed at VLT/UT2 (ESO). In its multi-object configuration and the different integral field unit configurations, GIRAFFE produces 1D spectra and 3D spectra. We present here the status of the archive and the different functionalities to select and download both 1D and 3D data products, as well as the present content. The two collections are available in the VO: the 1D spectra (summed in the case of integral field observations) and the 3D field observations. These latter products can be explored using the VO Paris Euro3D Client (http://voplus.obspm.fr/ chil/Euro3D).

  19. Nanodamage and Nanofailure of 1d Zno Nanomaterials and Nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peifeng; Yang, Ya; Huang, Yunhua; Zhang, Yue

    2012-08-01

    One-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanomaterials include nanowires, nanobelts, and nanorods etc. The extensive applied fields and excellent properties of 1D ZnO nanomaterials can meet the requests of the electronic and electromechanical devices for "smaller, faster and colder", and would be applied in new energy convention, environmental protection, information science and technology, biomedical, security and defense fields. While micro porous, etching pits nanodamage and brittle fracture, dissolving, functional failure nanofailure phenomena of 1D ZnO nanomaterials and nanodevices are observed in some practical working environments like illumination, currents or electric fields, external forces, and some chemical gases or solvents. The more important thing is to discuss the mechanism and reduce or prohibit their generation.

  20. Resonant indirect exchange in 1D semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhansky, I. V.; Krainov, I. V.; Averkiev, N. S.; Lähderanta, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider resonant indirect exchange interaction between magnetic centers in 1D nanostructures. The magnetic centers are assumed to be coupled to the 1D conducting channel by the quantum tunneling which can be of resonant character. The indirect exchange between the centers is mediated by the free carriers of the channel. The two cases of quadratic and linear energy dispersion of the 1D free carriers are considered. The former case is attributed to conventional semiconductor (InGaAs based to be concrete) nanowires or nanowhiskers, while the latter case is associated with carbon nanotubes with magnetic adatoms. We demonstrate that whenever the energy of a bound state at the magnetic center lies within the continuum energy spectra of the delocalized carriers in the channel the indirect exchange is strongly enhanced due to effective tunnel hybridization of the bound states with the continuum.

  1. GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    KALYANAPU, ALFRED; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N.; BURIAN, STEVEN J.

    2007-01-17

    This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.

  2. Optical properties of LEDs with patterned 1D photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hronec, P.; Kuzma, A.; Å kriniarová, J.; Kováč, J.; Benčurová, A.; Haščík, Å.; Nemec, P.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we focus on the application of the one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PhC) structures on the top of Al0.295Ga0.705As/GaAs multi-quantum well light emitting diode (MQW LED). 1D PhC structures with periods of 600 nm, 700 nm, 800 nm, and 900 nm were fabricated by the E-Beam Direct Write (EBDW) Lithography. Effect of 1D PhC period on the light extraction enhancement was studied. 1D PhC LED radiation profiles were obtained from Near Surface Light Emission Images (NSLEI). Measurements showed the strongest light extraction enhancement using 800 nm period of PhC. Investigation of PhC LED radiation profiles showed strong light decoupling when light reaches PhC structure. Achieved LEE was from 22.6% for 600 nm PhC LED to 47.0% for 800 nm PhC LED. LED with PhC structure at its surface was simulated by FDTD simulation method under excitation of appropriate launch field.

  3. NEW FEATURES OF HYDRUS-1D, VERSION 3.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper briefly summarizes new features in version 3.0 of HYDRUS-1D, released in May 2005, as compared to version 2.1. The new features are a) new approaches to simulate preferential and nonequilibrium water flow and solute transport, b) a new hysteresis module that avoids the effects of pumpin...

  4. A 1D wavelet filtering for ultrasound images despeckling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahdouh, Sonia; Dubois, Mathieu; Frenoux, Emmanuelle; Osorio, Angel

    2010-03-01

    Ultrasound images appearance is characterized by speckle, shadows, signal dropout and low contrast which make them really difficult to process and leads to a very poor signal to noise ratio. Therefore, for main imaging applications, a denoising step is necessary to apply successfully medical imaging algorithms on such images. However, due to speckle statistics, denoising and enhancing edges on these images without inducing additional blurring is a real challenging problem on which usual filters often fail. To deal with such problems, a large number of papers are working on B-mode images considering that the noise is purely multiplicative. Making such an assertion could be misleading, because of internal pre-processing such as log compression which are done in the ultrasound device. To address those questions, we designed a novel filtering method based on 1D Radiofrequency signal. Indeed, since B-mode images are initially composed of 1D signals and since the log compression made by ultrasound devices modifies noise statistics, we decided to filter directly the 1D Radiofrequency signal envelope before log compression and image reconstitution, in order to conserve as much information as possible. A bi-orthogonal wavelet transform is applied to the log transform of each signal and an adaptive 1D split and merge like algorithm is used to denoise wavelet coefficients. Experiments were carried out on synthetic data sets simulated with Field II simulator and results show that our filter outperforms classical speckle filtering methods like Lee, non-linear means or SRAD filters.

  5. Non-cooperative Brownian donkeys: A solvable 1D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez de Cisneros, B.; Reimann, P.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    A paradigmatic 1D model for Brownian motion in a spatially symmetric, periodic system is tackled analytically. Upon application of an external static force F the system's response is an average current which is positive for F < 0 and negative for F > 0 (absolute negative mobility). Under suitable conditions, the system approaches 100% efficiency when working against the external force F.

  6. 1D design style implications for mask making and CEBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smayling, Michael C.

    2013-09-01

    At advanced nodes, CMOS logic is being designed in a highly regular design style because of the resolution limitations of optical lithography equipment. Logic and memory layouts using 1D Gridded Design Rules (GDR) have been demonstrated to nodes beyond 12nm.[1-4] Smaller nodes will require the same regular layout style but with multiple patterning for critical layers. One of the significant advantages of 1D GDR is the ease of splitting layouts into lines and cuts. A lines and cuts approach has been used to achieve good pattern fidelity and process margin to below 12nm.[4] Line scaling with excellent line-edge roughness (LER) has been demonstrated with self-aligned spacer processing.[5] This change in design style has important implications for mask making: • The complexity of the masks will be greatly reduced from what would be required for 2D designs with very complex OPC or inverse lithography corrections. • The number of masks will initially increase, as for conventional multiple patterning. But in the case of 1D design, there are future options for mask count reduction. • The line masks will remain simple, with little or no OPC, at pitches (1x) above 80nm. This provides an excellent opportunity for continual improvement of line CD and LER. The line pattern will be processed through a self-aligned pitch division sequence to divide pitch by 2 or by 4. • The cut masks can be done with "simple OPC" as demonstrated to beyond 12nm.[6] Multiple simple cut masks may be required at advanced nodes. "Coloring" has been demonstrated to below 12nm for two colors and to 8nm for three colors. • Cut/hole masks will eventually be replaced by e-beam direct write using complementary e-beam lithography (CEBL).[7-11] This transition is gated by the availability of multiple column e-beam systems with throughput adequate for high- volume manufacturing. A brief description of 1D and 2D design styles will be presented, followed by examples of 1D layouts. Mask complexity for 1

  7. Minimum 1D P- and S- Velocity Models for Montenegro and Vicinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucic, Ljiljana; Kissling, Edi; Spakman, Wim; Glavatovic, Branislav

    2015-04-01

    The territory of Montenegro and its vicinity are characterized by high-seismicity rate and very complex tectonics. Namely, southern Adria microplate subducts beneath Eurasia, forming the Dinarides fold-and-thrust belt which spreads through whole Montenegro and the western Balkans. Present-day lithosphere structure of the Adria-Dinarides collision zone in general is not constrained very well and, consequently, there is a lack of three-dimensional (3D) velocity models in this region. For these reasons, high resolution 3D tomography modeling of this area is considered to be of great importance. As part of preparatory phase for conducting a 3D local earthquake tomography study, a substantial amount of waveform data was collected, from all surroundings national seismic networks including 130 seismic stations from 11 countries. The data set comprises waveforms from 1452 earthquakes in the region recorded during time period 1990 - 2014. The collected data were obtained in different formats and the data base was harmonized by converting and integrating all data to miniseed format. The potential resolution of collected data for seismic tomography purpose was analyzed by ray density testing, using specially developed software for this specific purpose. The result is expressed as the number of rays between selected group of earthquake hypocenters and seismic stations, penetrating through the 3D model of the Earth crust and it documents the great potential of the data set for 3D seismic tomography. As a prerequisite to 3D tomography and for consistent high-precision earthquake locations, a minimum 1D velocity model has been calculated. The data set of around 400 earthquakes was selected from the main database and consistent wave onsets picking was performed, including seismic phase interpretation and its quality assessment. This highly consistent travel time data set is used for calculation of 1D velocity models for the region under study. The minimum 1D models were derived

  8. Numerical simulations of heavily polluted fine-grained sediment remobilization using 1D, 1D+, and 2D channel schematization.

    PubMed

    Kaiglová, Jana; Langhammer, Jakub; Jiřinec, Petr; Janský, Bohumír; Chalupová, Dagmar

    2015-03-01

    This article used various hydrodynamic and sediment transport models to analyze the potential and the limits of different channel schematizations. The main aim was to select and evaluate the most suitable simulation method for fine-grained sediment remobilization assessment. Three types of channel schematization were selected to study the flow potential for remobilizing fine-grained sediment in artificially modified channels. Schematization with a 1D cross-sectional horizontal plan, a 1D+ approach, splitting the riverbed into different functional zones, and full 2D mesh, adopted in MIKE by the DHI modeling suite, was applied to the study. For the case study, a 55-km stretch of the Bílina River, in the Czech Republic, Central Europe, which has been heavily polluted by the chemical and coal mining industry since the mid-twentieth century, was selected. Long-term exposure to direct emissions of toxic pollutants including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) resulted in deposits of pollutants in fine-grained sediments in the riverbed. Simulations, based on three hydrodynamic model schematizations, proved that for events not exceeding the extent of the riverbed profile, the 1D schematization can provide comparable results to a 2D model. The 1D+ schematization can improve accuracy while keeping the benefits of high-speed simulation and low requirements of input DEM data, but the method's suitability is limited by the channel properties. PMID:25687259

  9. 1D Josephson quantum interference grids: diffraction patterns and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucci, M.; Badoni, D.; Corato, V.; Merlo, V.; Ottaviani, I.; Salina, G.; Cirillo, M.; Ustinov, A. V.; Winkler, D.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the magnetic response of transmission lines with embedded Josephson junctions and thus generating a 1D underdamped array. The measured multi-junction interference patterns are compared with the theoretical predictions for Josephson supercurrent modulations when an external magnetic field couples both to the inter-junction loops and to the junctions themselves. The results provide a striking example of the analogy between Josephson phase modulation and 1D optical diffraction grid. The Fiske resonances in the current-voltage characteristics with voltage spacing {Φ0}≤ft(\\frac{{\\bar{c}}}{2L}\\right) , where L is the total physical length of the array, {Φ0} the magnetic flux quantum and \\bar{c} the speed of light in the transmission line, demonstrate that the discrete line supports stable dynamic patterns generated by the ac Josephson effect interacting with the cavity modes of the line.

  10. A Bayesian Algorithm for Reading 1D Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Ender; Coughlan, James

    2010-01-01

    The 1D barcode is a ubiquitous labeling technology, with symbologies such as UPC used to label approximately 99% of all packaged goods in the US. It would be very convenient for consumers to be able to read these barcodes using portable cameras (e.g. mobile phones), but the limited quality and resolution of images taken by these cameras often make it difficult to read the barcodes accurately. We propose a Bayesian framework for reading 1D barcodes that models the shape and appearance of barcodes, allowing for geometric distortions and image noise, and exploiting the redundant information contained in the parity digit. An important feature of our framework is that it doesn’t require that every barcode edge be detected in the image. Experiments on a publicly available dataset of barcode images explore the range of images that are readable, and comparisons with two commercial readers demonstrate the superior performance of our algorithm. PMID:20428491

  11. Morphodynamics and sediment tracers in 1-D (MAST-1D): 1-D sediment transport that includes exchange with an off-channel sediment reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauer, J. Wesley; Viparelli, Enrica; Piégay, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Bed material transported in geomorphically active gravel bed rivers often has a local source at nearby eroding banks and ends up sequestered in bars not far downstream. However, most 1-D numerical models for gravel transport assume that gravel originates from and deposits on the channel bed. In this paper, we present a 1-D framework for simulating morphodynamic evolution of bed elevation and size distribution in a gravel-bed river that actively exchanges sediment with its floodplain, which is represented as an off-channel sediment reservoir. The model is based on the idea that sediment enters the channel at eroding banks whose elevation depends on total floodplain sediment storage and on the average elevation of the floodplain relative to the channel bed. Lateral erosion of these banks occurs at a specified rate that can represent either net channel migration or channel widening. Transfer of material out of the channel depends on a typical bar thickness and a specified lateral exchange rate due either to net channel migration or narrowing. The model is implemented using an object oriented framework that allows users to explore relationships between bank supply, bed structure, and lateral change rates. It is applied to a ∼50-km reach of the Ain River, France, that experienced significant reduction in sediment supply due to dam construction during the 20th century. Results are strongly sensitive to lateral exchange rates, showing that in this reach, the supply of sand and gravel at eroding banks and the sequestration of gravel in point bars can have strong influence on overall reach-scale sediment budgets.

  12. Waves in a 1D electrorheological dusty plasma lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M.

    2015-08-01

    The behavior of waves in a one-dimensional (1D) dusty plasma lattice where the dust interacts via Yukawa and electric dipole interactions is discussed theoretically. This study is motivated by recent reports on electrorheological dusty plasmas (e.g. Ivlev et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 095003) where the dipole interaction arises due to an external uniaxial AC electric field that distorts the Debye sphere surrounding each grain. Application to possible dusty plasma experimental parameters is discussed.

  13. Nonreciprocity of edge modes in 1D magnonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenkov, I.; Kalyabin, D.; Osokin, S.; Klos, J. W.; Krawczyk, M.; Nikitov, S.

    2015-03-01

    Spin waves propagation in 1D magnonic crystals is investigated theoretically. Mathematical model based on plane wave expansion method is applied to different types of magnonic crystals, namely bi-component magnonic crystal with symmetric/asymmetric boundaries and ferromagnetic film with periodically corrugated top surface. It is shown that edge modes in magnonic crystals may exhibit nonreciprocal behaviour at much lower frequencies than in homogeneous films.

  14. Constructing 3D interaction maps from 1D epigenomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun; Chen, Zhao; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Mengchi; Medovoy, David; Whitaker, John W.; Ding, Bo; Li, Nan; Zheng, Lina; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The human genome is tightly packaged into chromatin whose functional output depends on both one-dimensional (1D) local chromatin states and three-dimensional (3D) genome organization. Currently, chromatin modifications and 3D genome organization are measured by distinct assays. An emerging question is whether it is possible to deduce 3D interactions by integrative analysis of 1D epigenomic data and associate 3D contacts to functionality of the interacting loci. Here we present EpiTensor, an algorithm to identify 3D spatial associations within topologically associating domains (TADs) from 1D maps of histone modifications, chromatin accessibility and RNA-seq. We demonstrate that active promoter–promoter, promoter–enhancer and enhancer–enhancer associations identified by EpiTensor are highly concordant with those detected by Hi-C, ChIA-PET and eQTL analyses at 200 bp resolution. Moreover, EpiTensor has identified a set of interaction hotspots, characterized by higher chromatin and transcriptional activity as well as enriched TF and ncRNA binding across diverse cell types, which may be critical for stabilizing the local 3D interactions. PMID:26960733

  15. Development of 1D Liner Compression Code for IDL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    A 1D liner compression code is developed to model liner implosion dynamics in the Inductively Driven Liner Experiment (IDL) where FRC plasmoid is compressed via inductively-driven metal liners. The driver circuit, magnetic field, joule heating, and liner dynamics calculations are performed at each time step in sequence to couple these effects in the code. To obtain more realistic magnetic field results for a given drive coil geometry, 2D and 3D effects are incorporated into the 1D field calculation through use of correction factor table lookup approach. Commercial low-frequency electromagnetic fields solver, ANSYS Maxwell 3D, is used to solve the magnetic field profile for static liner condition at various liner radius in order to derive correction factors for the 1D field calculation in the code. The liner dynamics results from the code is verified to be in good agreement with the results from commercial explicit dynamics solver, ANSYS Explicit Dynamics, and previous liner experiment. The developed code is used to optimize the capacitor bank and driver coil design for better energy transfer and coupling. FRC gain calculations are also performed using the liner compression data from the code for the conceptual design of the reactor sized system for fusion energy gains.

  16. Enhancing Solar Cell Efficiencies through 1-D Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The current global energy problem can be attributed to insufficient fossil fuel supplies and excessive greenhouse gas emissions resulting from increasing fossil fuel consumption. The huge demand for clean energy potentially can be met by solar-to-electricity conversions. The large-scale use of solar energy is not occurring due to the high cost and inadequate efficiencies of existing solar cells. Nanostructured materials have offered new opportunities to design more efficient solar cells, particularly one-dimensional (1-D) nanomaterials for enhancing solar cell efficiencies. These 1-D nanostructures, including nanotubes, nanowires, and nanorods, offer significant opportunities to improve efficiencies of solar cells by facilitating photon absorption, electron transport, and electron collection; however, tremendous challenges must be conquered before the large-scale commercialization of such cells. This review specifically focuses on the use of 1-D nanostructures for enhancing solar cell efficiencies. Other nanostructured solar cells or solar cells based on bulk materials are not covered in this review. Major topics addressed include dye-sensitized solar cells, quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells, and p-n junction solar cells.

  17. Examining Prebiotic Chemistry Using O(^1D) Insertion Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Brian M.; Laas, Jacob C.; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus

    2013-06-01

    Aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol are all prebiotic molecules expected to form via photo-driven grain surface chemistry in the interstellar medium (ISM). These molecules are expected to be precursors for larger, biologically-relevant molecules in the ISM such as sugars and amino acids. These three molecules have not yet been detected in the ISM because of the lack of available rotational spectra. A high resolution (sub)millimeter spectrometer coupled to a molecular source is being used to study these molecules using O(^1D) insertion reactions. The O(^1D) chemistry is initiated using an excimer laser, and the products of the insertion reactions are adiabatically cooled using a supersonic expansion. Experimental parameters are being optimized by examination of methanol formed from O(^1D) insertion into methane. Theoretical studies of the structure and reaction energies for aminomethanol, methanediol, and methoxymethanol have been conducted to guide the laboratory studies once the methanol experiment has been optimized. The results of the calculations and initial experimental results will be presented.

  18. Non-linearity in Bayesian 1-D magnetotelluric inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rongwen; Dosso, Stan E.; Liu, Jianxin; Dettmer, Jan; Tong, Xiaozhong

    2011-05-01

    This paper applies a Bayesian approach to examine non-linearity for the 1-D magnetotelluric (MT) inverse problem. In a Bayesian formulation the posterior probability density (PPD), which combines data and prior information, is interpreted in terms of parameter estimates and uncertainties, which requires optimizing and integrating the PPD. Much work on 1-D MT inversion has been based on (approximate) linearized solutions, but more recently fully non-linear (numerical) approaches have been applied. This paper directly compares results of linearized and non-linear uncertainty estimation for 1-D MT inversion; to do so, advanced methods for both approaches are applied. In the non-linear formulation used here, numerical optimization is carried out using an adaptive-hybrid algorithm. Numerical integration applies Metropolis-Hastings sampling, rotated to a principal-component parameter space for efficient sampling of correlated parameters, and employing non-unity sampling temperatures to ensure global sampling. Since appropriate model parametrizations are generally not known a priori, both under- and overparametrized approaches are considered. For underparametrization, the Bayesian information criterion is applied to determine the number of layers consistent with the resolving power of the data. For overparametrization, prior information is included which favours simple structure in a manner similar to regularized inversion. The data variance and/or trade-off parameter regulating data and prior information are treated in several ways, including applying fixed optimal estimates (an empirical Bayesian approach) or including them as hyperparameters in the sampling (hierarchical Bayesian). The latter approach has the benefit of accounting for the uncertainty in the hyperparameters in estimating model parameter uncertainties. Non-linear and linearized inversion results are compared for synthetic test cases and for the measured COPROD1 MT data by considering marginal probability

  19. Spatial coherence of polaritons in a 1D channel

    SciTech Connect

    Savenko, I. G.; Iorsh, I. V.; Kaliteevski, M. A.; Shelykh, I. A.

    2013-01-15

    We analyze time evolution of spatial coherence of a polariton ensemble in a quantum wire (1D channel) under constant uniform resonant pumping. Using the theoretical approach based on the Lindblad equation for a one-particle density matrix, which takes into account the polariton-phonon and excitonexciton interactions, we study the behavior of the first-order coherence function g{sup 1} for various pump intensities and temperatures in the range of 1-20 K. Bistability and hysteresis in the dependence of the first-order coherence function on the pump intensity is demonstrated.

  20. Structural stability of a 1D compressible viscoelastic fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Xiaokai; Yong, Wen-An

    2016-07-01

    This paper is concerned with a compressible viscoelastic fluid model proposed by Öttinger. Although the model has a convex entropy, the Hessian matrix of the entropy does not symmetrize the system of first-order partial differential equations due to the non-conservative terms in the constitutive equation. We show that the corresponding 1D model is symmetrizable hyperbolic and dissipative and satisfies the Kawashima condition. Based on these, we prove the global existence of smooth solutions near equilibrium and justify the compatibility of the model with the Navier-Stokes equations.

  1. Phthalocyanine based 1D nanowires for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Rajan; Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.

    2012-06-01

    1D nanowires (NWs) of Cu (II) 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-Phthalocyanine (CuPc(OBu)8) molecule have been grown on different substrates by cost effective solution processing technique. The density of NWs is found to be strongly dependent on the concentration of solution. The possible formation mechanism of these structures is π-π interaction between phthalocyanine molecules. The improved conductivity of these NWs as compared to spin coated film indicates their potential for molecular device applications.

  2. Coherent thermal conductance of 1-D photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschikin, Maria; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2012-10-01

    We present an exact calculation of coherent thermal conductance in 1-D multilayer photonic crystals using the S-matrix method. In particular, we study the thermal conductance in a bilayer structure of Si/vacuum or Al2O3/vacuum slabs by means of the exact radiative heat flux expression. Based on the results obtained for the Al2O3/vacuum structure we show by comparison with previous works that the material losses and (localized) surface modes supported by the inner layers play a fundamental role and cannot be omitted in the definition of thermal conductance. Our results could have significant implications in the conception of efficient thermal barriers.

  3. Deconvolution/identification techniques for 1-D transient signals

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, D.M.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses a variety of nonparametric deconvolution and identification techniques that we have developed for application to 1-D transient signal problems. These methods are time-domain techniques that use direct methods for matrix inversion. Therefore, they are not appropriate for large data'' problems. These techniques involve various regularization methods and permit the use of certain kinds of a priori information in estimating the unknown. These techniques have been implemented in a package using standard FORTRAN that should make the package readily transportable to most computers. This paper is also meant to be an instruction manual for the package. 25 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Quasi-1D physics in metal-organic frameworks: MIL-47(V) from first principles

    PubMed Central

    Jaeken, Jan W; De Baerdemacker, Stijn; Lejaeghere, Kurt; Van Speybroeck, Veronique

    2014-01-01

    Summary The geometric and electronic structure of the MIL-47(V) metal-organic framework (MOF) is investigated by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Special focus is placed on the relation between the spin configuration and the properties of the MOF. The ground state is found to be antiferromagnetic, with an equilibrium volume of 1554.70 Å3. The transition pressure of the pressure-induced large-pore-to-narrow-pore phase transition is calculated to be 82 MPa and 124 MPa for systems with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic chains, respectively. For a mixed system, the transition pressure is found to be a weighted average of the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic transition pressures. Mapping DFT energies onto a simple-spin Hamiltonian shows both the intra- and inter-chain coupling to be antiferromagnetic, with the latter coupling constant being two orders of magnitude smaller than the former, suggesting the MIL-47(V) to present quasi-1D behavior. The electronic structure of the different spin configurations is investigated and it shows that the band gap position varies strongly with the spin configuration. The valence and conduction bands show a clear V d-character. In addition, these bands are flat in directions orthogonal to VO6 chains, while showing dispersion along the the direction of the VO6 chains, similar as for other quasi-1D materials. PMID:25383285

  5. Evaluation of 2 1-D cloud models for the analysis of VAS soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmitt, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluation of the satellite Visual Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VISSR) has begun to document several of its critical shortcomings as far as numerical cloud models are concerned: excessive smoothing of thermal inversions; imprecise measurement of boundary layer moisture; and tendency to exaggerate atmospheric stability. The sensitivity of 1-D cloud models to their required inputs is stressed with special attention to those parameters obtained from atmospheric soundings taken by the VAS or rawinsonde. In addition to performing model experiments using temperature and moisture profiles having the general characteristics of VAS soundings, standard input sensitivity tests were made and 1-D model performance was compared with observations and the results of a 2-D model experiment using AVE/VAS data (Atmospheric Variability Experiment). Although very encouraging, the results are not sufficient to make any specific conclusions. In general, the VAS soundings are likely to be inadequate to provide the cloud base (and subcloud layer) information needed for inputs to current cumulus models. Above cloud base, the tendency to exaggerate the stability of the atmosphere requires solution before meaningful model experiments are run.

  6. Computing 1-D atomic densities in macromolecular simulations: The density profile tool for VMD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgino, Toni

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have a prominent role in biophysics and drug discovery due to the atomistic information they provide on the structure, energetics and dynamics of biomolecules. Specialized software packages are required to analyze simulated trajectories, either interactively or via scripts, to derive quantities of interest and provide insight for further experiments. This paper presents the Density Profile Tool, a package that enhances the Visual Molecular Dynamics environment with the ability to interactively compute and visualize 1-D projections of various density functions of molecular models. We describe how the plugin is used to perform computations both via a graphical interface and programmatically. Results are presented for realistic examples, all-atom bilayer models, showing how mass and electron densities readily provide measurements such as membrane thickness, location of structural elements, and how they compare to X-ray diffraction experiments.

  7. Quasi 1-D Analysis of a Circular, Compressible, Turbulent Jet Laden with Water Droplets. Appendix C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Recent experimental studies indicate that presence of small amount of liquid droplets reduces the Overall Sound Pressure Level (OASPL) of a jet. Present study is aimed at numerically investigating the effect of liquid particles on the overall flow quantities of a heated, compressible round jet. The jet is assumed perfectly expanded. A quasi-1D model was developed for this purpose which uses area-averaged quantities that satisfy integral conservation equations. Special attention is given to represent the early development region since it is acoustically important. Approximate velocity and temperature profiles were assumed in this region to evaluate entrainment rate. Experimental correlations were used to obtain spreading rate of shear layer. The base flow thus obtained is then laden with water droplets at the exit of the nozzle. Mass, momentum and energy coupling between the two phases is represented using empirical relations. Droplet size and mass loading are varied to observe their effect on flow variables.

  8. Vibron properties in quasi 1D molecular structures: the case of two parallel unshifted macromolecuar chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čevizović, D.; Petković, S.; Galović, S.; Reshetnyak, A.; Chizhov, A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the hopping mechanism of the vibron excitation transport in the system of two parallel unshifted 1D macromolecuar chains in the framework of non-adiabatic polaron theory. We suppose that the vibron interaction with thermal oscillations of the macromolecular structural elements will result in vibron self-trapping and the formation of the partial dressed vibron state. We also suppose that quasiparticle motion takes place via a sequence of random sitejumps, in each of which the quasiparticle can migrate either to the first neighbor site of the macromolecular chain. With use of the modified Holstein polaron model, we calculate the vibron effective mass in dependence of the basic system parameters and temperature. Special attention is paid to the influence of interchain coupling on vibron dressing. We find that for certain values of the system parameters the quasiparticle mass abruptly changes.

  9. Blood flow quantification using 1D CFD parameter identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosig, Richard; Kowarschik, Markus; Maday, Peter; Katouzian, Amin; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir

    2014-03-01

    Patient-specific measurements of cerebral blood flow provide valuable diagnostic information concerning cerebrovascular diseases rather than visually driven qualitative evaluation. In this paper, we present a quantitative method to estimate blood flow parameters with high temporal resolution from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) image sequences. Using a 3D DSA dataset and a 2D+t DSA sequence, the proposed algorithm employs a 1D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for estimation of time-dependent flow values along a cerebral vessel, combined with an additional Advection Diffusion Equation (ADE) for contrast agent propagation. The CFD system, followed by the ADE, is solved with a finite volume approximation, which ensures the conservation of mass. Instead of defining a new imaging protocol to obtain relevant data, our cost function optimizes the bolus arrival time (BAT) of the contrast agent in 2D+t DSA sequences. The visual determination of BAT is common clinical practice and can be easily derived from and be compared to values, generated by a 1D-CFD simulation. Using this strategy, we ensure that our proposed method fits best to clinical practice and does not require any changes to the medical work flow. Synthetic experiments show that the recovered flow estimates match the ground truth values with less than 12% error in the mean flow rates.

  10. Validation of 3D/1D Analysis of ICRF Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanesio, D.; Lancellotti, V.; Kyrytsya, V.; Maggiora, R.; Vecchi, G.; Parisot, A.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2004-11-01

    An innovative tool has been realized for the 3D/1D simulation of Ion Cyclotron Radio Frequency (ICRF), i.e. accounting for antennas in a realistic 3D geometry and with an accurate 1D plasma model. The approach to the problem is based on an integral-equation formulation for the self-consistent evaluation of the current distribution on the conductors. The environment has been subdivided in two coupled region: the plasma region and the vacuum region. The two problems are linked by means of electromagnetic current distribution on the aperture between the two regions. The plasma enters the formalism via a surface impedance matrix for this reason any plasma model can be used. The source term directly models the TEM mode of the coax feeding the antenna and the current in the coax is determined self-consistently, giving the input impedance/admittance of the antenna itself. The suite, called TOPICA, has been used in the design of various ICRF antennas and also for the performance prediction of the ALCATOR C-MOD D and E antenna. An extensive set of comparisons between measured and simulated antenna parameters during ALCATOR C-MOD operation will be presented.

  11. Engineered atom-light interactions in 1D photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Michael J.; Hung, Chen-Lung; Yu, Su-Peng; Goban, Akihisa; Muniz, Juan A.; Hood, Jonathan D.; Norte, Richard; McClung, Andrew C.; Meenehan, Sean M.; Cohen, Justin D.; Lee, Jae Hoon; Peng, Lucas; Painter, Oskar; Kimble, H. Jeff

    2014-05-01

    Nano- and microscale optical systems offer efficient and scalable quantum interfaces through enhanced atom-field coupling in both resonators and continuous waveguides. Beyond these conventional topologies, new opportunities emerge from the integration of ultracold atomic systems with nanoscale photonic crystals. One-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides can be engineered for both stable trapping configurations and strong atom-photon interactions, enabling novel cavity QED and quantum many-body systems, as well as distributed quantum networks. We present the experimental realization of such a nanophotonic quantum interface based on a nanoscale photonic crystal waveguide, demonstrating a fractional waveguide coupling of Γ1 D /Γ' of 0 . 32 +/- 0 . 08 , where Γ1 D (Γ') is the atomic emission rate into the guided (all other) mode(s). We also discuss progress towards intra-waveguide trapping of ultracold Cs. This work was supported by the IQIM, an NSF Physics Frontiers Center with support from the Moore Foundation, the DARPA ORCHID program, the AFOSR QuMPASS MURI, the DoD NSSEFF program, NSF, and the Kavli Nanoscience Institute (KNI) at Caltech.

  12. Specialized Science

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism. PMID:24421049

  13. Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Ray, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on special needs instruction and technology: (1) "Hawaii Special Education Teacher Induction" (Kalena Oliva and Quinn Avery); (2) "The Impact of Group v Individual Use of Hypermedia-Based Instruction" (Lewis R. Johnson, Louis P. Semrau, and Gail E. Fitzgerald); (3) "Assistive Technology Meets…

  14. Designing Classroom Curriculum for Personalized Learning. Module 1D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Dianne L.; And Others

    This teacher training module is designed to help teachers design curriculum and teaching to accommodate student diversity. The approach locates decisions with groups of teachers, creates new roles for both general and special educators, and redesigns the Individualized Education Program. After an introduction and overview, the first section…

  15. Magnetic behavior of some 1D Cu chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Roger D.; Gomez-García, Carlos J.; Ghosh, Ashutosh

    2004-05-01

    The magnetic properties of three 1D copper(II) salts are reported. The compound Cu(14ane)Cu(N 3) 4 contains alternating site chains with weak FM coupling with J/k=0.635 K . Magnetization studies are reported on Cu(TIM)CuCl 4, an alternating site, alternating FM/AFM exchange system with J FM/k=29.7 K and J AFM/k=-8.66 K. (HPy) 2Cu 3Cl 8.2H 2O contains FM chains composed of alternating Cu 2Cl 62- dimers and CuCl 2(H 2O) 2 monomers, with intradimer coupling J 1/k=17.35 K and dimer-monomer coupling J 2/k=1.93 K .

  16. Quadratic Finite Element Method for 1D Deterministic Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Tolar, Jr., D R; Ferguson, J M

    2004-01-06

    In the discrete ordinates, or SN, numerical solution of the transport equation, both the spatial ({und r}) and angular ({und {Omega}}) dependences on the angular flux {psi}{und r},{und {Omega}}are modeled discretely. While significant effort has been devoted toward improving the spatial discretization of the angular flux, we focus on improving the angular discretization of {psi}{und r},{und {Omega}}. Specifically, we employ a Petrov-Galerkin quadratic finite element approximation for the differencing of the angular variable ({mu}) in developing the one-dimensional (1D) spherical geometry S{sub N} equations. We develop an algorithm that shows faster convergence with angular resolution than conventional S{sub N} algorithms.

  17. Electron Energy Levels in the 1D-2D Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Michael; Sanjeev, Kumar; Thomas, Kalarikad; Creeth, Graham; English, David; Ritchie, David; Griffiths, Jonathan; Farrer, Ian; Jones, Geraint

    Using GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures we have investigated the behaviour of electron energy levels with relaxation of the potential confining a 2D electron gas into a 1D configuration. In the ballistic regime of transport, when the conductance shows quantized plateaux, different types of behaviour are found according to the spins of interacting levels, whether a magnetic field is applied and lifting of the momentum degeneracy with a source-drain voltage. We have observed both crossing and anti-crossing of levels and have investigated the manner in which they can be mutually converted. In the presence of a magnetic field levels can cross and lock together as the confinement is altered in a way which is characteristic of parallel channels. The overall behaviour is discussed in terms of electron interactions and the wavefunction flexibility allowed by the increasing two dimensionality of the electron distribution as the confinement is weakened. Work supported by UK EPSRC.

  18. Directed enzymatic activation of 1-D DNA tiles.

    PubMed

    Garg, Sudhanshu; Chandran, Harish; Gopalkrishnan, Nikhil; LaBean, Thomas H; Reif, John

    2015-02-24

    The tile assembly model is a Turing universal model of self-assembly where a set of square shaped tiles with programmable sticky sides undergo coordinated self-assembly to form arbitrary shapes, thereby computing arbitrary functions. Activatable tiles are a theoretical extension to the Tile assembly model that enhances its robustness by protecting the sticky sides of tiles until a tile is partially incorporated into a growing assembly. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate a simplified version of the Activatable tile assembly model. In particular, we demonstrate the simultaneous assembly of protected DNA tiles where a set of inert tiles are activated via a DNA polymerase to undergo linear assembly. We then demonstrate stepwise activated assembly where a set of inert tiles are activated sequentially one after another as a result of attachment to a growing 1-D assembly. We hope that these results will pave the way for more sophisticated demonstrations of activated assemblies. PMID:25625898

  19. Robust recognition of 1D barcodes using Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwinell, John; Bian, Peng; Bian, Long Xiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for the recognition of 1D barcodes using the Hough transform, which is highly robust regarding the typical degraded image. The algorithm addresses various typical image distortions, such as inhomogeneous illumination, reflections, damaged barcode or blurriness etc. Other problems arise from recognizing low quality printing (low contrast or poor ink receptivity). Traditional approaches are unable to provide a fast solution for handling such complex and mixed noise factors. A multi-level method offers a better approach to best manage competing constraints of complex noise and fast decode. At the lowest level, images are processed in gray scale. At the middle level, the image is transformed into the Hough domain. At the top level, global results, including missing information, is processed within a global context including domain heuristics as well as OCR. The three levels work closely together by passing information up and down between levels.

  20. Axion string dynamics I: 2+1D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Leesa M.; Moore, Guy D.

    2016-05-01

    If the axion exists and if the initial axion field value is uncorrelated at causally disconnected points, then it should be possible to predict the efficiency of cosmological axion production, relating the axionic dark matter density to the axion mass. The main obstacle to making this prediction is correctly treating the axion string cores. We develop a new algorithm for treating the axionic string cores correctly in 2+1 dimensions. When the axionic string cores are given their full physical string tension, axion production is about twice as efficient as in previous simulations. We argue that the string network in 2+1 dimensions should behave very differently than in 3+1 dimensions, so this result cannot be simply carried over to the physical case. We outline how to extend our method to 3+1D axion string dynamics.

  1. MX chains: 1-D analog of CuO planes

    SciTech Connect

    Gammel, J.T.; Batistic, I.; Bishop, A.R.; Loh, E.Y. Jr.; Marianer, S.

    1989-01-01

    We study a two-band Peierls-Hubbard model for halogen-bridged mixed-valence transition metal linear chain complexes (MX chains). We include electron-electron correlations (both Hubbard and PPP-like expressions) using several techniques including calculations in the zero-hopping limit, exact diagonalization of small systems, mean field approximation, and a Gutzwiller-like Ansatz for quantum phonons. The adiabatic optical absorption and phonon spectra for both photo-excited and doping induced defects (kinks, polarons, bipolarons, and excitons) are discussed. A long period phase which occurs even at commensurate filling for certain parameter values may be related to twinning. The effect of including the electron-phonon in addition to the electron-electron interaction on the polaron/bipolaron (pairing) competition is especially interesting when this class of compounds is viewed as a 1-D analog of high-temperature superconductors. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Effective theory of black holes in the 1/D expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2015-06-01

    The gravitational field of a black hole is strongly localized near its horizon when the number of dimensions D is very large. In this limit, we can effectively replace the black hole with a surface in a background geometry (e.g. Minkowski or Anti-deSitter space). The Einstein equations determine the effective equations that this `black hole surface' (or membrane) must satisfy. We obtain them up to next-to-leading order in 1/ D for static black holes of the Einstein-(A)dS theory. To leading order, and also to next order in Minkowski backgrounds, the equations of the effective theory are the same as soap-film equations, possibly up to a redshift factor. In particular, the Schwarzschild black hole is recovered as a spherical soap bubble. Less trivially, we find solutions for `black droplets', i.e. black holes localized at the boundary of AdS, and for non-uniform black strings.

  3. A 1-D morphodynamic model of postglacial valley incision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunnicliffe, Jon F.; Church, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Chilliwack River is typical of many Cordilleran valley river systems that have undergone dramatic Holocene degradation of valley fills that built up over the course of Pleistocene glaciation. Downstream controls on base level, mainly blockage of valleys by glaciers, led to aggradation of significant glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine valley fills and fan deposits, subsequently incised by fluvial action. Models of such large-scale, long-term degradation present a number of important challenges since the evolution of model parameters, such as the rate of bedload transport and grain size characteristics, are governed by the nature of the deposit. Sediment sampling in the Chilliwack Valley reveals a complex sequence of very coarse to fine textural modes. We present a 1-D numerical morphodynamic model for the river-floodplain system tailored to conditions in the valley. The model is adapted to dynamically adjust channel width to optimize sediment transporting capacity and to integrate relict valley fill material as the channel incises through valley deposits. Sensitivity to model parameters is studied using four principal criteria: profile concavity, rate of downstream grain size fining, bed surface sand content, and the timescale to equilibrium. Model results indicate that rates of abrasion and coarsening of the grain size distributions exert the strongest controls on all of the interrelated model performance criteria. While there are a number of difficulties in satisfying all model criteria simultaneously, results indicate that 1-D models of valley bottom sedimentary systems can provide a suitable framework for integrating results from sediment budget studies and chronologies of sediment evacuation established from dating.

  4. The Extended Family of CD1d-Restricted NKT Cells: Sifting through a Mixed Bag of TCRs, Antigens, and Functions

    PubMed Central

    Macho-Fernandez, Elodie; Brigl, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells comprise a family of specialized T cells that recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d. Based on their T cell receptor (TCR) usage and antigen specificities, CD1d-restricted NKT cells have been divided into two main subsets: type I NKT cells that use a canonical invariant TCR α-chain and recognize α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), and type II NKT cells that use a more diverse αβ TCR repertoire and do not recognize α-GalCer. In addition, α-GalCer-reactive NKT cells that use non-canonical αβ TCRs and CD1d-restricted T cells that use γδ or δ/αβ TCRs have recently been identified, revealing further diversity among CD1d-restricted T cells. Importantly, in addition to their distinct antigen specificities, functional differences are beginning to emerge between the different members of the CD1d-restricted T cell family. In this review, while using type I NKT cells as comparison, we will focus on type II NKT cells and the other non-invariant CD1d-restricted T cell subsets, and discuss our current understanding of the antigens they recognize, the formation of stimulatory CD1d/antigen complexes, the modes of TCR-mediated antigen recognition, and the mechanisms and consequences of their activation that underlie their function in antimicrobial responses, anti-tumor immunity, and autoimmunity. PMID:26284062

  5. 1D Tight-Binding Models Render Quantum First Passage Time "Speakable"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjith, V.; Kumar, N.

    2015-12-01

    The calculation of First Passage Time (moreover, even its probability density in time) has so far been generally viewed as an ill-posed problem in the domain of quantum mechanics. The reasons can be summarily seen in the fact that the quantum probabilities in general do not satisfy the Kolmogorov sum rule: the probabilities for entering and non-entering of Feynman paths into a given region of space-time do not in general add up to unity, much owing to the interference of alternative paths. In the present work, it is pointed out that a special case exists (within quantum framework), in which, by design, there exists one and only one available path (i.e., door-way) to mediate the (first) passage -no alternative path to interfere with. Further, it is identified that a popular family of quantum systems - namely the 1d tight binding Hamiltonian systems - falls under this special category. For these model quantum systems, the first passage time distributions are obtained analytically by suitably applying a method originally devised for classical (stochastic) mechanics (by Schroedinger in 1915). This result is interesting especially given the fact that the tight binding models are extensively used in describing everyday phenomena in condense matter physics.

  6. Special Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Phil

    1986-01-01

    Specialized publications such as "Opera News,""Gourmet," and "Forbes" can bring an institution's story to targeted audiences. The experiences of Chautauqua Institution are described. Some of the benefits of marketing articles to these publications are discussed. (MLW)

  7. Special Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavendel, Giuliana

    1977-01-01

    Discusses problems involved in maintaining special scientific or engineering libraries, including budget problems, remote storage locations, rental computer retrieval systems, protecting trade secrets, and establishing a magnetic tape library. (MLH)

  8. 3D/1D Analysis of ICRF Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiora, Riccardo; Lancellotti, Vito; Vecchi, Giuseppe

    2003-10-01

    An innovative tool has been realized for the 3D/1D simulation of Ion Cyclotron Radio Frequency (ICRF), i.e. accounting for antennas in a realistic 3D geometry and with an accurate 1D plasma model. The approach to the problem is based on an integral-equation formulation for the self-consistent evaluation of the current distribution on the conductors. The environment has been subdivided in two coupled region: the plasma region and the vacuum region. The two problems are linked by means of a magnetic current (electric field) distribution on the aperture between the two regions. In the vacuum region all the calculations are executed in the spatial domain while in the plasma region an extraction in the spectral domain of some integrals is employed that permits to significantly reduce the integration support and to obtain a high numerical efficiency leading to the practical possibility of using a large number of sub-domain (rectangular or triangular) basis functions on each solid conductor of the system. The plasma enters the formalism of the plasma region via a surface impedance matrix; for this reason any plasma model can be used; at present the FELICE code has been adopted, that affords density and temperature profiles, and FLR effects. The source term directly models the TEM mode of the coax feeding the antenna and the current in the coax is determined self-consistently, giving the input impedance/admittance of the antenna itself. Calculation of field distributions (both magnetic and electric), useful for sheath considerations, is included. This tool has been implemented in a suite, called TOPICA, that is modular and applicable to ICRF antenna structures of arbitrary shape. This new simulation tool can assist during the detailed design phase and for this reason can be considered a "Virtual Prototyping Laboratory" (VPL). The TOPICA suite has been tested against assessed codes and against measurements and data of mock-ups and existing antennas. The VPL is being used in

  9. Dynamic decoupling in the presence of 1D random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Arnab; Chakraborty, Ipsita; Bhattacharyya, Rangeet

    2016-05-01

    In the recent past, many dynamic decoupling sequences have been proposed for the suppression of decoherence of spins connected to thermal baths of various natures. Dynamic decoupling schemes for suppressing decoherence due to Gaussian diffusion have also been developed. In this work, we study the relative performances of dynamic decoupling schemes in the presence of a non-stationary Gaussian noise such as a 1D random walk. Frequency domain analysis is not suitable to determine the performances of various dynamic decoupling schemes in suppressing decoherence due to such a process. Thus, in this work, we follow a time domain calculation to arrive at the following conclusions: in the presence of such a noise, we show that (i) the traditional Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) sequence outperforms Uhrig’s dynamic decoupling scheme, (ii) CPMG remains the optimal sequence for suppression of decoherence due to random walk in the presence of an external field gradient. Later, the theoretical predictions are experimentally verified by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on spin 1/2 particles diffusing in a liquid medium.

  10. 1-D Numerical Analysis of RBCC Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Samuel S.

    1998-01-01

    An RBCC engine combines air breathing and rocket engines into a single engine to increase the specific impulse over an entire flight trajectory. Considerable research pertaining to RBCC propulsion was performed during the 1960's and these engines were revisited recently as a candidate propulsion system for either a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) or two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) launch vehicle. There are a variety of RBCC configurations that had been evaluated and new designs are currently under development. However, the basic configuration of all RBCC systems is built around the ejector scramjet engine originally developed for the hypersonic airplane. In this configuration, a rocket engine plays as an ejector in the air-augmented initial acceleration mode, as a fuel injector in scramjet mode and the rocket in all rocket mode for orbital insertion. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a useful tool for the analysis of complex transport processes in various components in RBCC propulsion systems. The objective of the present research was to develop a transient 1-D numerical model that could be used to predict flow behavior throughout a generic RBCC engine following a flight path.

  11. Spectral functions of 1D Peierls and Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voit, Johannes

    1998-03-01

    We construct the spectral function of the Luther-Emery model which describes one-dimensional Peierls and Mott insulators with a spin resp. charge gap, using symmetries and known limits and equivalences to other models. For the Peierls insulator, we find a true singularity with interaction dependent exponents on the gapped spin dispersion and a finite maximum depending on the magnitude of the spin gap, on a charge dispersion shifted by Δ_σ, as well as strong shadow bands with the same functional form as the main bands. For 1D Mott insulators, one or two singularities with universal inverse-square-root singularities are found depending on whether the charge velocity is larger or smaller than the spin velocity. The shadow band has a single singularity on the renormalized charge dispersion. These results could apply to the description of photoemission experiments in systems like K_0.3 Mo O_3, TTF-TCNQ, or Sr Cu O_2.

  12. 1D X-ray Beam Compressing Monochromators

    SciTech Connect

    Korytar, D.; Dobrocka, E.; Konopka, P.; Zaprazny, Z.; Ferrari, C.; Mikulik, P.; Vagovic, P.; Ac, V.; Erko, A.; Abrosimov, N.

    2010-04-06

    A total beam compression of 5 and 10 corresponding to the asymmetry angles of 9 deg. and 12 deg. is achieved with V-5 and V-10 monochromators, respectively, in standard single crystal pure germanium (220) X-ray beam compressing (V-shaped) monochromators for CuKalpha{sub 1} radiation. A higher 1D compression of X-ray beam is possible using larger angles of asymmetry, however it is achieved at the expense of the total intensity, which is decreased due to the refraction effect. To increase the monochromator intensity, several ways are considered both theoretically and experimentally. Linearly graded germanium rich Ge{sub x}Si{sub (1-x)} single crystal was used to prepare a V-21 single crystal monochromator with 15 deg. asymmetry angles (compression factor of 21). Its temperature gradient version is discussed for CuKalpha{sub 1} radiation. X-ray diffraction measurements on the graded GeSi monochromator showed more than 3-times higher intensity at the output compared with that of a pure Ge monochromator.

  13. 1-D Modeling of Massive Particle Injection (MPI) in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, W.; Parks, P. B.; Izzo, V. A.

    2008-11-01

    A 1-D Fast Current Quench (FCQ) model is developed to study current evolution and runaway electron suppression under massive density increase. The model consists of coupled toroidal electric field and energy equations, and it is solved numerically for DIII-D and ITER operating conditions. Simulation results suggest that fast shutdown by D2 liquid jet/pellet injection is in principle achievable for the desired plasma cooling time (˜15 ms for DIII-D and ˜50 ms for ITER) under ˜150x or higher densification. The current density and pressure profile are practically unaltered during the initial phase of jet propagation when dilution cooling dominates. With subsequent radiation cooling, the densified discharge enters the strongly collisional regime where Pfirsch-Schluter thermal diffusion can inhibit current contraction on the magnetic axis. Often the 1/1 kink instability, addressed by Kadomtsev's magnetic reconnection model, can be prevented. Our results are compared with NIMROD simulations in which the plasma is suddenly densified by ˜100x and experiences instantaneous dilution cooling, allowing for use of actual (lower) Lundquist numbers.

  14. Effective-range signatures in quasi-1D matter waves: sound velocity and solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgarlata, F.; Mazzarella, G.; Salasnich, L.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate ultracold and dilute bosonic atoms under strong transverse harmonic confinement using a 1D modified Gross-Pitaevskii equation (1D MGPE), which accounts for the energy dependence of the two-body scattering amplitude within an effective-range expansion. We study sound waves and solitons of the quasi-1D system, comparing the 1D MGPE results with the 1D GPE ones. We find that when the finite-size nature of the interaction is taken into account, the speed of sound and the density profiles of both dark and bright solitons show relevant quantitative changes with respect to predictions given by the standard 1D GPE.

  15. Signal-noise separation based on self-similarity testing in 1D-timeseries data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, Philippe A.

    2015-08-01

    The continuous improvement of the resolution delivered by modern instrumentation is a cost-intensive part of any new space- or ground-based observatory. Typically, scientists later reduce the resolution of the obtained raw-data, for example in the spatial, spectral, or temporal domain, in order to suppress the effects of noise in the measurements. In practice, only simple methods are used that just smear out the noise, instead of trying to remove it, so that the noise can nomore be seen. In high-precision 1D-timeseries data, this usually results in an unwanted quality-loss and corruption of power spectra at selected frequency ranges. Novel methods exist that are based on non-local averaging, which would conserve much of the initial resolution, but these methods are so far focusing on 2D or 3D data. We present here a method specialized for 1D-timeseries, e.g. as obtained by magnetic field measurements from the recently launched MMS satellites. To identify the noise, we use a self-similarity testing and non-local averaging method in order to separate different types of noise and signals, like the instrument noise, non-correlated fluctuations in the signal from heliospheric sources, and correlated fluctuations such as harmonic waves or shock fronts. In power spectra of test data, we are able to restore significant parts of a previously know signal from a noisy measurement. This method also works for high frequencies, where the background noise may have a larger contribution to the spectral power than the signal itself. We offer an easy-to-use software tools set, which enables scientists to use this novel technique on their own noisy data. This allows to use the maximum possible capacity of the instrumental hardware and helps to enhance the quality of the obtained scientific results.

  16. Constraint directed CAD tool for automatic latency-optimal implementation of 1-D and 2-D Fourier transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, J. Gregory

    2002-07-01

    A specialized CAD tool is described that will take a user's high level code description of a non-uniform affinely indexed algorithm and automatically generate abstract latency-optimal systolic arrays. Emphasis has been placed on ease of use and the ability to either force conformation to specific design criteria or perform unconstrained explorations. How such design goals are achieved is illustrated in the context of LU decomposition and the matrix Lyapunov equation. The tool is then used to generate new 1-D and 2-D hardware efficient systolic arrays for the discreet Fourier transform that take advantage of the use of the radix-4 matrix decomposition.

  17. Synthesis and properties of a few 1-D cobaltous fumarates

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, Sanchay J.; Das, Birinchi K.

    2012-08-15

    Metal fumarates are often studied in the context of metal organic framework solids. Preparation, structure and properties of three cobalt(II) fumarates, viz. [Co(fum)(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O 1, [Co(fum)(py){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] 2, and [Co(fum)(4-CNpy){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] 3 (fum=fumarate, py=pyridine, 4-CNpy=4-cyanopyridine) are described. All three are chain polymers involving bridging fumarato ligands between each pair of octahedral Co(II) centres, but while the first one is zigzag in structure, the latter two are linear. Indexed powder X-ray diffraction patterns, solid state electronic spectra and magnetic properties of the species are reported. Thermal decomposition behaviour of the compounds suggests that they may be suitable as precursors to make Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} via pyrolysis below 600 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: Structure and properties of three chain-polymeric cobalt(II) fumarates are described. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three fumarate bridged 1-D coordination polymers of cobalt(II) are reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer While Co(II) fumarate pentahydrate is zigzag, the species having both pyridine and water as co-ligands are linear in structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prominent lines in the powder X-ray diffraction patterns have been indexed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal decomposition of the species yields Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} as the final product.

  18. Dynamical functions of a 1D correlated quantum liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmelo, J. M. P.; Bozi, D.; Penc, K.

    2008-10-01

    The dynamical correlation functions in one-dimensional electronic systems show power-law behaviour at low energies and momenta close to integer multiples of the charge and spin Fermi momenta. These systems are usually referred to as Tomonaga-Luttinger liquids. However, near well defined lines of the (k,ω) plane the power-law behaviour extends beyond the low-energy cases mentioned above, and also appears at higher energies, leading to singular features in the photoemission spectra and other dynamical correlation functions. The general spectral-function expressions derived in this paper were used in recent theoretical studies of the finite-energy singular features in photoemission of the organic compound tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) metallic phase. They are based on a so-called pseudofermion dynamical theory (PDT), which allows us to systematically enumerate and describe the excitations in the Hubbard model starting from the Bethe ansatz, as well as to calculate the charge and spin object phase shifts appearing as exponents of the power laws. In particular, we concentrate on the spin-density m\\rightarrow 0 limit and on effects in the vicinity of the singular border lines, as well as close to half filling. Our studies take into account spectral contributions from types of microscopic processes that do not occur for finite values of the spin density. In addition, the specific processes involved in the spectral features of TTF-TCNQ are studied. Our results are useful for the further understanding of the unusual spectral properties observed in low-dimensional organic metals and also provide expressions for the one- and two-atom spectral functions of a correlated quantum system of ultracold fermionic atoms in a 1D optical lattice with on-site two-atom repulsion.

  19. Evidence against dopamine D1/D2 receptor heteromers

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Aliya L.; Yano, Hideaki; Trifilieff, Pierre; Vishwasrao, Harshad D.; Biezonski, Dominik; Mészáros, József; Sibley, David R.; Kellendonk, Christoph; Sonntag, Kai C.; Graham, Devon L.; Colbran, Roger J.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Javitch, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Hetero-oligomers of G-protein-coupled receptors have become the subject of intense investigation because their purported potential to manifest signaling and pharmacological properties that differ from the component receptors makes them highly attractive for the development of more selective pharmacological treatments. In particular, dopamine D1 and D2 receptors have been proposed to form hetero-oligomers that couple to Gαq proteins, and SKF83959 has been proposed to act as a biased agonist that selectively engages these receptor complexes to activate Gαq and thus phospholipase C. D1/D2 heteromers have been proposed as relevant to the pathophysiology and treatment of depression and schizophrenia. We used in vitro bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), ex vivo analyses of receptor localization and proximity in brain slices, and behavioral assays in mice to characterize signaling from these putative dimers/oligomers. We were unable to detect Gαq or Gα11 protein coupling to homomers or heteromers of D1 or D2 receptors using a variety of biosensors. SKF83959-induced locomotor and grooming behaviors were eliminated in D1 receptor knockout mice, verifying a key role for D1-like receptor activation. In contrast, SKF83959-induced motor responses were intact in D2 receptor and Gαq knockout mice, as well as in knock-in mice expressing a mutant Ala286-CaMKIIα, that cannot autophosphorylate to become active. Moreover, we found that in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, even in neurons in which D1 and D2 receptor promoters are both active, the receptor proteins are segregated and do not form complexes. These data are not compatible with SKF83959 signaling through Gαq or through a D1–D2 heteromer and challenge the existence of such a signaling complex in the adult animals that we used for our studies. PMID:25560761

  20. A new general 1-D vadose zone flow solution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogden, Fred L.; Lai, Wencong; Steinke, Robert C.; Zhu, Jianting; Talbot, Cary A.; Wilson, John L.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed an alternative to the one-dimensional partial differential equation (PDE) attributed to Richards (1931) that describes unsaturated porous media flow in homogeneous soil layers. Our solution is a set of three ordinary differential equations (ODEs) derived from unsaturated flux and mass conservation principles. We used a hodograph transformation, the Method of Lines, and a finite water-content discretization to produce ODEs that accurately simulate infiltration, falling slugs, and groundwater table dynamic effects on vadose zone fluxes. This formulation, which we refer to as "finite water-content", simulates sharp fronts and is guaranteed to conserve mass using a finite-volume solution. Our ODE solution method is explicitly integrable, does not require iterations and therefore has no convergence limits and is computationally efficient. The method accepts boundary fluxes including arbitrary precipitation, bare soil evaporation, and evapotranspiration. The method can simulate heterogeneous soils using layers. Results are presented in terms of fluxes and water content profiles. Comparing our method against analytical solutions, laboratory data, and the Hydrus-1D solver, we find that predictive performance of our finite water-content ODE method is comparable to or in some cases exceeds that of the solution of Richards' equation, with or without a shallow water table. The presented ODE method is transformative in that it offers accuracy comparable to the Richards (1931) PDE numerical solution, without the numerical complexity, in a form that is robust, continuous, and suitable for use in large watershed and land-atmosphere simulation models, including regional-scale models of coupled climate and hydrology.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and physical properties of 1D nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, Peter Mchael

    The roster of materials exhibiting metal---insulator transitions with sharply discontinuous switching of electrical conductivity close to room temperature remains rather sparse despite the fundamental interest in the electronic instabilities manifested in such materials and the plethora of potential technological applications, ranging from frequency-agile metamaterials to electrochromic coatings and Mott field-effect transistors. Vanadium oxide bronzes with the general formula MxV2O 5, provide a wealth of compositions and frameworks where strong electron correlation can be systematically (albeit thus far only empirically) tuned. Charge fluctuations along the quasi-1D frameworks of MxV 2O5 bronzes have evinced much recent interest owing to the manifestation of colossal metal---insulator transitions and superconductivity. We start with a general review on the phase transitions, both electronic and structural, of vanadium oxide bronzes in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, we demonstrate an unprecedented reversible transformation between double-layered (delta) and tunnel (beta) quasi-1D geometries for nanowires of a divalent vanadium bronze CaxV2O5 (x ˜0.23) upon annealing-induced dehydration and hydrothermally-induced hydration. Such a facile hydration/dehydration-induced interconversion between two prominent quasi-1D structures (accompanied by a change in charge ordering motifs) has not been observed in the bulk and is posited to result from the ease of propagation of crystallographic slip processes across the confined nanowire widths for the delta→beta conversion and the facile diffusion of water molecules within the tunnel geometries for the beta→delta reversion. We demonstrate in Chapter 3 unprecedented pronounced metal-insulator transitions induced by application of a voltage for nanowires of a vanadium oxide bronze with intercalated divalent cations, beta-PbxV 2O5 (x ˜0.33). The induction of the phase transition through application of an electric field at room

  2. Synthesis, characterization, and physical properties of 1D nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, Peter Mchael

    The roster of materials exhibiting metal---insulator transitions with sharply discontinuous switching of electrical conductivity close to room temperature remains rather sparse despite the fundamental interest in the electronic instabilities manifested in such materials and the plethora of potential technological applications, ranging from frequency-agile metamaterials to electrochromic coatings and Mott field-effect transistors. Vanadium oxide bronzes with the general formula MxV2O 5, provide a wealth of compositions and frameworks where strong electron correlation can be systematically (albeit thus far only empirically) tuned. Charge fluctuations along the quasi-1D frameworks of MxV 2O5 bronzes have evinced much recent interest owing to the manifestation of colossal metal---insulator transitions and superconductivity. We start with a general review on the phase transitions, both electronic and structural, of vanadium oxide bronzes in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, we demonstrate an unprecedented reversible transformation between double-layered (delta) and tunnel (beta) quasi-1D geometries for nanowires of a divalent vanadium bronze CaxV2O5 (x ˜0.23) upon annealing-induced dehydration and hydrothermally-induced hydration. Such a facile hydration/dehydration-induced interconversion between two prominent quasi-1D structures (accompanied by a change in charge ordering motifs) has not been observed in the bulk and is posited to result from the ease of propagation of crystallographic slip processes across the confined nanowire widths for the delta→beta conversion and the facile diffusion of water molecules within the tunnel geometries for the beta→delta reversion. We demonstrate in Chapter 3 unprecedented pronounced metal-insulator transitions induced by application of a voltage for nanowires of a vanadium oxide bronze with intercalated divalent cations, beta-PbxV 2O5 (x ˜0.33). The induction of the phase transition through application of an electric field at room

  3. SCCRO3 (DCUN1D3) Antagonizes the Neddylation and Oncogenic Activity of SCCRO (DCUN1D1)*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guochang; Stock, Cameron; Bommeljé, Claire C.; Weeda, Víola B.; Shah, Kushyup; Bains, Sarina; Buss, Elizabeth; Shaha, Manish; Rechler, Willi; Ramanathan, Suresh Y.; Singh, Bhuvanesh

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cullin-RING type ubiquitination E3 ligases is regulated by neddylation, a process analogous to ubiquitination that culminates in covalent attachment of the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 to cullins. As a component of the E3 for neddylation, SCCRO/DCUN1D1 plays a key regulatory role in neddylation and, consequently, cullin-RING ligase activity. The essential contribution of SCCRO to neddylation is to promote nuclear translocation of the cullin-ROC1 complex. The presence of a myristoyl sequence in SCCRO3, one of four SCCRO paralogues present in humans that localizes to the membrane, raises questions about its function in neddylation. We found that although SCCRO3 binds to CAND1, cullins, and ROC1, it does not efficiently bind to Ubc12, promote cullin neddylation, or conform to the reaction processivity paradigms, suggesting that SCCRO3 does not have E3 activity. Expression of SCCRO3 inhibits SCCRO-promoted neddylation by sequestering cullins to the membrane, thereby blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, SCCRO3 inhibits SCCRO transforming activity. The inhibitory effects of SCCRO3 on SCCRO-promoted neddylation and transformation require both an intact myristoyl sequence and PONY domain, confirming that membrane localization and binding to cullins are required for in vivo functions. Taken together, our findings suggest that SCCRO3 functions as a tumor suppressor by antagonizing the neddylation activity of SCCRO. PMID:25349211

  4. Structure of an α-Helical Peptide and Lipopeptide Bound to the Nonclassical Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I Molecule CD1d.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Enrico; Wang, Jing; Zajonc, Dirk M

    2016-05-13

    Mouse CD1d is a nonclassical MHC molecule able to present lipids and glycolipids to a specialized subset of T cells known as natural killer T cells. The antigens presented by CD1d have been shown to cover a broad range of chemical structures and to follow precise rules determining the potency of the antigen in the context of T cell activation. Together with lipids, initial reports suggested that CD1d can also bind and present hydrophobic peptides with (F/W)XX(I/L/M)XXW. However, the exact location of peptide binding and the molecular basis for the required motif are currently unknown. Here we present the crystal structure of the first peptide identified to bind CD1d, p99, and show that it binds in the antigen-binding groove of CD1d in a manner compatible with its presentation to T cell receptors. Interestingly, the peptide adopts an α-helical conformation, which orients the motif residues toward its deep binding groove, therefore explaining the molecular requirements for peptide binding. Moreover, we demonstrate that a lipopeptide version of the same peptide is able to bind CD1d in a similar conformation, identifying another class of molecules binding this antigen-presenting molecule. PMID:27006394

  5. Special Advocate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Weele, Maribeth

    1992-01-01

    Thomas Hehir, special education chief of Chicago Public Schools, is evangelist of integrating children with disabilities into regular classrooms. By completely reorganizing department viewed as political patronage dumping ground, Hehir has made remarkable progress in handling large number of children awaiting evaluation and placement in special…

  6. Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, L.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The special theory of relativity (SR), developed by ALBERT EINSTEIN in 1905, represents a revolutionary change in the human conception of the nature of space and time. According to SR, space and time are not absolute but must be viewed as components of a single entity, SPACE-TIME. This idea has numerous important implications, both conceptual and practical....

  7. Special Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiant, Sarah K.; Lynch, Clifford; Nevins, Kate; Juergens, Bonnie

    1998-01-01

    Contains three special reports: developments in copyright law, 1997 (World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) legislation, Ashcroft Bill, No Electronic Theft Act, database protection, Conference on Fair Use (CONFU), judicial decisions, principles for licensing electronic resources, and Uniform Commercial Code Article 2B); Internet2 and the…

  8. Specialized Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Carol; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Six articles discuss librarians as mediators in special circumstances. Highlights include the reference librarian and the information paraprofessional; effective reference mediation for nontraditional public library users, including mentally impaired patrons and illiterate adults; the academic librarian's role in the education process; and…

  9. PPM1D exerts its oncogenic properties in human pancreatic cancer through multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo; Guo, Bo-Min; Kang, Jie; Deng, Xian-Zhao; Fan, You-Ben; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Ai, Kai-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Protein phosphatase, Mg(2+)/Mn(2+) dependent, 1D (PPM1D) is emerging as an oncogene by virtue of its negative control on several tumor suppressor pathways. However, the clinical significance of PPM1D in pancreatic cancer (PC) has not been defined. In this study, we determined PPM1D expression in human PC tissues and cell lines and their irrespective noncancerous controls. We subsequently investigated the functional role of PPM1D in the migration, invasion, and apoptosis of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 PC cells in vitro and explored the signaling pathways involved. Furthermore, we examined the role of PPM1D in PC tumorigenesis in vivo. Our results showed that PPM1D is overexpressed in human PC tissues and cell lines and significantly correlated with tumor growth and metastasis. PPM1D promotes PC cell migration and invasion via potentiation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway through downregulation of apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2 (ASPP2). In contrast to PPM1D, our results showed that ASPP2 is downregulated in PC tissues. Additionally, PPM1D suppresses PC cell apoptosis via inhibition of the p38 MAPK/p53 pathway through both dephosphorylation of p38 MAPK and downregulation of ASPP2. Furthermore, PPM1D promotes PC tumor growth in vivo. Our results demonstrated that PPM1D is an oncogene in PC. PMID:26714478

  10. Preliminary abatement device evaluation: 1D-2D KGM cyclone design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are predominately used in controlling cotton gin particulate matter (PM) emissions. The most commonly used cyclone designs are the 2D-2D and 1D-3D; however other designs such as the 1D-2D KGM have or are currently being used. A 1D-2D cyclone has a barrel length equal to the barrel diamete...

  11. From nonfinite to finite 1D arrays of origami tiles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsai Chin; Rahman, Masudur; Norton, Michael L

    2014-06-17

    average solution structures for blocks is more readily achieved using computer models than using direct imaging methods. The development of scalable 1D-origami arrays composed of uniquely addressable components is a logical, if not necessary, step in the evolution of higher order fully addressable structures. Our research into the fabrication of arrays has led us to generate a listing of several important areas of future endeavor. Of high importance is the re-enforcement of the mechanical properties of the building blocks and the organization of multiple arrays on a surface of technological importance. While addressing this short list of barriers to progress will prove challenging, coherent development along each of these lines of inquiry will accelerate the appearance of commercial scale molecular manufacturing. PMID:24803094

  12. Solution-Based Electro-Orientation Spectroscopy for the Automated, Quantitative Characterization and Sorting of 1D Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Cevat; Shan, Jerry; Yi, Jingang; Feldman, Leonard; Durand, Corentin; Li, An-Ping

    2014-11-01

    The electrical-transport properties of 1D nanomaterials are often poorly known and vary with size and surface effects. Traditional quantitative characterization methods require specialized facilities and are usually slow, invasive and not suitable for the large number of measurements needed to statistically characterize samples with a heterogeneous distribution of properties. Here, we introduce a contactless, solution-based method to rapidly and quantitatively measure the electrical properties of 1D nanomaterials based on their transient alignment behavior in AC electric fields of different frequencies. The electro-orientation method can be automated and is compatible with further solution-based techniques for nanowire alignment and assembly, including electrophoresis, dielectrophoresis and flow control. We demonstrate the accuracy of the solution-based method using a variety of insulating, semiconducting and metallic nanowires, and show that electro-orientation spectroscopy can detect true nanoscale surface effects on the electrical conductivity of 1D nanomaterials. We further discuss our progress toward implementing the method in a microfluidic device capable of automated electrical characterization and sorting of nanowires and nanotubes.

  13. Special Rules for Special Ed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Julie J.

    2000-01-01

    School districts are on safer legal ground if they recommend appropriate educational services for each special-needs child, convene parents and school personnel for Individual Education Plan meetings, make placement decisions based on individualized, thorough evaluations; document alternative options; develop behavior-management programs, and use…

  14. Genetic variation in aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) affects the expression and activity of multiple cytochrome P450s.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Amarjit S; Thirumaran, Ranjit K; Yasuda, Kazuto; Yang, Xia; Fan, Yiping; Strom, Stephen C; Schuetz, Erin G

    2013-08-01

    Human liver gene regulatory (Bayesian) network analysis was previously used to identify a cytochrome P450 (P450) gene subnetwork with Aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) as a key regulatory driver of this subnetwork. This study assessed the biologic importance of AKR1D1 [a key enzyme in the synthesis of bile acids, ligand activators of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), known transcriptional regulators of P450s] to hepatic P450 expression. Overexpression of AKR1D1 in primary human hepatocytes led to increased expression of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6. Conversely, AKR1D1 knockdown decreased expression of these P450s. We resequenced AKR1D1 from 98 donor livers and identified a 3'-untranslated region (UTR) (rs1872930) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) significantly associated with higher AKR1D1 mRNA expression. AKR1D1 3'-UTR-luciferase reporter studies showed that the variant allele resulted in higher luciferase activity, suggesting that the SNP increases AKR1D1 mRNA stability and/or translation efficiency. Consistent with AKR1D1's putative role as a driver of the P450 subnetwork, the AKR1D1 3'-UTR SNP was significantly associated with increased hepatic mRNA expression of multiple P450s (CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6) and CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, and CYP2B6 activities. After adjusting for multiple testing, the association remained significant for AKR1D1, CYP2C9, and CYP2C8 mRNA expression and CYP2C8 activity. These results provide new insights into the variation in expression and activity of P450s that can account for interindividual differences in drug metabolism/efficacy and adverse drug events. In conclusion, we provide the first experimental evidence supporting a role for AKR1D1 as a key genetic regulator of the P450 network. PMID:23704699

  15. 1D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volker, Arno; van Zon, Tim; Hsu, Mick; Boogert, Lennart

    2016-02-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Cost reduction while maintaining a high level of reliability and safety of installations is a major challenge. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. In case of bottom of the line corrosion, i.e., a single corrosion pit, a simpler approach may be followed. Guided waves are propagated around the circumference of a pipe. In case of wall loss, the phase of the signal changes which is used to estimate the local wall thickness profile. A special EMAT sensor has been developed, which works in a pit-catch configuration at the 12 o'clock position using highly dispersive guided waves. In order to improve the sensitivity, an inversion in performed on multiple orders of circumferential passes. Experimental results are presented on different pipes containing artificial and real defects.

  16. Special Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhouse, Nicholas M. J.

    This course on special relativity emphasizes the coordinate-free and tensorial approach to Einstein's theory. The author encourages the reader to look at problems from a four-dimensional point of view, so preparing them for further study in relativistic physics, gravitation and cosmology. The book will be especially appealing to students with a mathematical bent and those who like brevity and clarity of reasoning.

  17. EEF1D modulates proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Flores, Isadora L; Kawahara, Rebeca; Miguel, Márcia C C; Granato, Daniela C; Domingues, Romênia R; Macedo, Carolina C S; Carnielli, Carolina M; Yokoo, Sami; Rodrigues, Priscila C; Monteiro, Bárbara V B; Oliveira, Carine E; Salmon, Cristiane R; Nociti, Francisco H; Lopes, Márcio A; Santos-Silva, Alan; Winck, Flavia V; Coletta, Ricardo D; Paes Leme, Adriana F

    2016-05-01

    EEF1D (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1δ) is a subunit of the elongation factor 1 complex of proteins that mediates the elongation process during protein synthesis via enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome. Although the functions of EEF1D in the translation process are recognized, EEF1D expression was found to be unbalanced in tumours. In the present study, we demonstrate the overexpression of EEF1D in OSCC (oral squamous cell carcinoma), and revealed that EEF1D and protein interaction partners promote the activation of cyclin D1 and vimentin proteins. EEF1D knockdown in OSCC reduced cell proliferation and induced EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) phenotypes, including cell invasion. Taken together, these results define EEF1D as a critical inducer of OSCC proliferation and EMT. PMID:26823560

  18. Grid Cell Responses in 1D Environments Assessed as Slices through a 2D Lattice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, KiJung; Lewallen, Sam; Kinkhabwala, Amina A; Tank, David W; Fiete, Ila R

    2016-03-01

    Grid cells, defined by their striking periodic spatial responses in open 2D arenas, appear to respond differently on 1D tracks: the multiple response fields are not periodically arranged, peak amplitudes vary across fields, and the mean spacing between fields is larger than in 2D environments. We ask whether such 1D responses are consistent with the system's 2D dynamics. Combining analytical and numerical methods, we show that the 1D responses of grid cells with stable 1D fields are consistent with a linear slice through a 2D triangular lattice. Further, the 1D responses of comodular cells are well described by parallel slices, and the offsets in the starting points of the 1D slices can predict the measured 2D relative spatial phase between the cells. From these results, we conclude that the 2D dynamics of these cells is preserved in 1D, suggesting a common computation during both types of navigation behavior. PMID:26898777

  19. Holographic description of non-supersymmetric orbifolded D1-D5-P solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Bidisha; Turton, David; Virmani, Amitabh

    2015-11-01

    Non-supersymmetric black hole microstates are of great interest in the context of the black hole information paradox. We identify the holographic description of the general class of non-supersymmetric orbifolded D1-D5-P supergravity solutions found by Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener. This class includes both completely smooth solutions and solutions with conical defects, and in the near-decoupling limit these solutions describe degrees of freedom in the cap region. The CFT description involves a general class of states obtained by fractional spectral flow in both left-moving and right-moving sectors, generalizing previous work which studied special cases in this class. We compute the massless scalar emission spectrum and emission rates in both gravity and CFT and find perfect agreement, thereby providing strong evidence for our proposed identification. We also investigate the physics of ergoregion emission as pair creation for these orbifolded solutions. Our results represent the largest class of non-supersymmetric black hole microstate geometries with identified CFT duals presently known.

  20. Adaptive multi-grid method for a periodic heterogeneous medium in 1-D

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, J.; Belsky, V.

    1995-12-31

    A multi-grid method for a periodic heterogeneous medium in 1-D is presented. Based on the homogenization theory special intergrid connection operators have been developed to imitate a low frequency response of the differential equations with oscillatory coefficients. The proposed multi-grid method has been proved to have a fast rate of convergence governed by the ratio q/(4-q), where o

  1. Measurement-induced disturbance and thermal negativity in 1D optical lattice chain

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jin-Liang; Lin-Wang; Long, Gui-Lu

    2013-03-15

    We study the measurement-induced disturbance (MID) in a 1D optical lattice chain with nonlinear coupling. Special attention is paid to the difference between the thermal entanglement and MID when considering the influences of the linear coupling constant, nonlinear coupling constant and external magnetic field. It is shown that MID is more robust than thermal entanglement against temperature T and external magnetic field B, and MID may reveal more properties about quantum correlations of the system, which can be seen from the point of view that MID can be nonzero when there is no thermal entanglement and MID can detect the critical point of quantum phase transition at finite temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nonlinear coupling constant can strengthen the quantum correlation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MID is more robust than entanglement against temperature and magnetic field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MID exhibits more information about quantum correlation than entanglement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MID can detect the critical point of quantum phase transition at finite temperature.

  2. A Deconstruction Lattice Description of the D1/D5 Brane World-Volume Gauge Theory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Giedt, Joel

    2011-01-01

    I genermore » alize the deconstruction lattice formulation of Endres and Kaplan to two-dimensional super-QCD with eight supercharges, denoted by (4,4), and bifundamental matter. I specialize to a particularly interesting (4,4) gauge theory, with gauge group U ( N c ) × U ( N f ) , and U ( N f ) being weakly gauged. It describes the infrared limit of the D1/D5 brane system, which has been studied extensively as an example of the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence. The construction here preserves two supercharges exactly and has a lattice structure quite similar to that which has previously appeared in the deconstruction approach, that is, site, link, and diagonal fields with both the Bose and Fermi statistics. I remark on possible applications of the lattice theory that would test the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence, particularly one that would exploit the recent worldsheet instanton analysis of Chen and Tong.« less

  3. Non-supersymmetric D1/D5, F/NS5 and closed string tachyon condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J. X.; Roy, Shibaji; Wang, Zhao-Long; Wu, Rong-Jun

    2009-09-01

    We construct the intersecting non-supersymmetric (non-susy) D1/D5 solution of type IIB string theory. While, as usual, the solution is charged under an electric two-form and an electric six-form gauge field, it also contains a non-susy chargeless (non-BPS) D0-brane. The S-dual of this solution is the non-susy F/NS5 solution. We show how these solutions nicely interpolate between the corresponding black (or non-extremal) solutions and the Kaluza-Klein (KK) "bubble of nothing" (BON) by continuously changing some parameters characterizing the solutions from one set of values to another. We show, by a time symmetric general bubble initial data analysis, that the final bubbles in these cases are static and stable and the interpolations can be physically interpreted as closed string tachyon condensation. As special cases, we recover the transition of two charge black F-string to BON, considered by Horowitz, and also the transition from AdS 3 black hole to global AdS 3.

  4. A New 2D-Transport, 1D-Diffusion Approximation of the Boltzmann Transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Edward

    2013-06-17

    The work performed in this project consisted of the derivation, implementation, and testing of a new, computationally advantageous approximation to the 3D Boltz- mann transport equation. The solution of the Boltzmann equation is the neutron flux in nuclear reactor cores and shields, but solving this equation is difficult and costly. The new “2D/1D” approximation takes advantage of a special geometric feature of typical 3D reactors to approximate the neutron transport physics in a specific (ax- ial) direction, but not in the other two (radial) directions. The resulting equation is much less expensive to solve computationally, and its solutions are expected to be sufficiently accurate for many practical problems. In this project we formulated the new equation, discretized it using standard methods, developed a stable itera- tion scheme for solving the equation, implemented the new numerical scheme in the MPACT code, and tested the method on several realistic problems. All the hoped- for features of this new approximation were seen. For large, difficult problems, the resulting 2D/1D solution is highly accurate, and is calculated about 100 times faster than a 3D discrete ordinates simulation.

  5. LOCA hydroloads calculations with multidimensional nonlinear fluid/structure interaction. Volume 1: STEALTH 1D single-phase fluid studies. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Santee, G.E. Jr.; Mortensen, G.A.; Caraher, D.L.

    1980-04-01

    This report, which is the first in a series of reports for RP-1065, describes the first step in the stepwise approach for developing the methodology to assess the hydroloads on a large PWR during the subcooled portions of a hypothetical LOCA. The first step in the methodology considers enhancements and special modifications to the 1D STEALTH computer code in order that acoustic phenomena in piping and vessel networks may be simulated. The resulting code is termed 1D STEALTH-HYDRO. The 1D STEALTH-HYDRO enhancements consist of three control volume models to simulate area changes, orifices, and tees in piping networks. The theory of the control volume models is described.

  6. Magnetic responses in 1D mesoscopic rings and cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Santanu K.

    2006-03-01

    I investigated a detailed study of persistent current and low-field magnetic susceptibility in one-dimensional mesoscopic rings and cylinders threaded by slowly varying magnetic flux φ in the tight-binding model. In perfect rings described by constant number of electrons Ne, current shows only saw-tooth variation with φ, while for those rings described by constant chemical potential μ, current varies saw-tooth like for some special choices of μ, but in all other cases it shows kink-like structures. On the other hand, in perfect cylinders I get both saw-tooth and kink-like structures in persistent current whether these cylinders are described by constant Ne or μ. In presence of impurity, current gets a continuous variation with φ only for the rings described by constant Ne, while in all other cases it depends on the choice of μ. My exact calculation predicts that the diamagnetic and paramagnetic sign of the low-field currents can be determined exactly for the rings described by constant Ne. In perfect rings, I get only diamagnetic currents both for odd and even Ne, while in presence of impurity current always shows diamagnetic sign for the rings with odd Ne and paramagnetic sign for the rings with even Ne. Both for the perfect and disordered rings described by constant μ the sign of the current cannot be mentioned exactly since it depends on the choice of μ and disordered configurations. Similar arguments are also true for the cylinders those are described either by constant Ne or by constant μ since the sign of the current in these systems depends on Ne, μ and disordered configurations.

  7. Endogenous N-terminal Domain Cleavage Modulates α1D-Adrenergic Receptor Pharmacodynamics.

    PubMed

    Kountz, Timothy S; Lee, Kyung-Soon; Aggarwal-Howarth, Stacey; Curran, Elizabeth; Park, Ji-Min; Harris, Dorathy-Ann; Stewart, Aaron; Hendrickson, Joseph; Camp, Nathan D; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Wang, Edith H; Scott, John D; Hague, Chris

    2016-08-26

    The α1D-adrenergic receptor (ADRA1D) is a key regulator of cardiovascular, prostate, and central nervous system functions. This clinically relevant G protein-coupled receptor has proven difficult to study, as it must form an obligate modular homodimer containing the PDZ proteins scribble and syntrophin or become retained in the endoplasmic reticulum as non-functional protein. We previously determined that targeted removal of the N-terminal (NT) 79 amino acids facilitates ADRA1D plasma membrane expression and agonist-stimulated functional responses. However, whether such an event occurs in physiological contexts was unknown. Herein, we report the ADRA1D is subjected to innate NT processing in cultured human cells. SNAP near-infrared imaging and tandem-affinity purification revealed the ADRA1D is expressed as both full-length and NT truncated forms in multiple human cell lines. Serial truncation mapping identified the cleavage site as Leu(90)/Val(91) in the 95-amino acid ADRA1D NT domain, suggesting human cells express a Δ1-91 ADRA1D species. Tandem-affinity purification MS/MS and co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicate NT processing of ADRA1D is not required to form scribble-syntrophin macromolecular complexes. Yet, label-free dynamic mass redistribution signaling assays demonstrate that Δ1-91 ADRA1D agonist responses were greater than WT ADRA1D. Mutagenesis of the cleavage site nullified the processing event, resulting in ADRA1D agonist responses less than the WT receptor. Thus, we propose that processing of the ADRA1D NT domain is a physiological mechanism employed by cells to generate a functional ADRA1D isoform with optimal pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:27382054

  8. Optical bullets in (2+1)D photonic structures and their interaction with localized defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohnal, Tomas

    2005-11-01

    This dissertation studies light propagation in Kerr-nonlinear two dimensional waveguides with a Bragg resonant, periodic structure in the propagation direction. The model describing evolution of the electric field envelopes is the system of 2D Nonlinear Coupled Mode Equations (2D CME). The periodic structure induces a range of frequencies (frequency gap) in which linear waves do not propagate. It is shown that, similarly to the ID case of a fiber grating, the 2D nonlinear system supports localized solitary wave solutions, referred to as 2D gap solitons, which have frequencies inside the linear gap and can travel at, any speed smaller than or equal to the speed of light in the corresponding homogeneous medium. Such solutions are constructed numerically via Newton's iteration. Convergence is obtained only near the upper edge of the gap. Gap solitons with a nonzero velocity are constructed by numerically following a bifurcation curve parameterized by the velocity v. It is shown that gap solitons are saddle points of the corresponding Hamiltonian functional and that no (constrained) local minima of the Hamiltonian exist. The linear stability problem is formulated and reasons for the failure of the standard Hamiltonian PDE approach for determining linear stability are discussed. In the second part of the dissertation interaction of 2D gap solitons with localized defects is studied and trapping of slow enough 2D gap solitons is demonstrated. This study builds on [JOSA B 19, 1635 (2002)], where such trapping of 1D gap solitons is considered. Analogously to this 1D problem trapping in the 2D model is explained as a resonant energy transfer into one or more defect modes existent for the particular defect. For special localized defects exact linear modes are found explicitly via the separation of variables. Numerical computation of linear defect modes is used for more general defects. Corresponding nonlinear modes are then constructed via Newton's iteration by following a

  9. Molecular characterization of the maize Rp1-D rust resistance haplotype and its mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, N; Drake, J; Ayliffe, M; Sun, Q; Ellis, J; Hulbert, S; Pryor, T

    1999-01-01

    The Rp1-D gene for resistance to maize common rust (Puccinia sorghi) is a member of a complex locus (haplotype) composed of Rp1-D and approximately eight other gene homologs. The identity of Rp1-D was demonstrated by using two independent gene-tagging approaches with the transposons Mutator and Dissociation. PIC20, a disease resistance (R) gene analog probe previously mapped to the rp1 locus, detected insertion of Dissociation in an Rp1-D mutation and excision in three revertants. Independent libraries probed with the PIC20 or Mutator probes resulted in isolation of the same gene sequence. Rp1-D belongs to the nucleotide binding site, leucine-rich repeat class of R genes. However, unlike the rust resistance genes M and L6 from flax, the maize Rp1-D gene does not encode an N-terminal domain with similarity to the signal transduction domains of the Drosophila Toll protein and mammalian interleukin-1 receptor. Although the abundance of transcripts of genes from the rp1 complex changed with leaf age, there was no evidence of any change due to inoculation with avirulent or virulent rust biotypes. A set of 27 Rp1-D mutants displayed at least nine different deletions of Rp1-D gene family members that were consistent with unequal crossing-over events. One mutation (Rp1-D*-24) resulted in deletion of all but one gene family member. Other unique deletions were observed in the disease lesion mimic Rp1-D*-21 and the partially susceptible mutant Rp1-D*-5. Different rp1 specificities have distinct DNA fingerprints (haplotypes). Analysis of recombinants between rp1 specificities indicated that recombination had occurred within the rp1 gene complex. Similar analyses indicated that the rust R genes at the rp5 locus, 2 centimorgans distal to rp1, are not closely related to Rp1-D. PMID:10402435

  10. Molecular characterization of the maize Rp1-D rust resistance haplotype and its mutants.

    PubMed

    Collins, N; Drake, J; Ayliffe, M; Sun, Q; Ellis, J; Hulbert, S; Pryor, T

    1999-07-01

    The Rp1-D gene for resistance to maize common rust (Puccinia sorghi) is a member of a complex locus (haplotype) composed of Rp1-D and approximately eight other gene homologs. The identity of Rp1-D was demonstrated by using two independent gene-tagging approaches with the transposons Mutator and Dissociation. PIC20, a disease resistance (R) gene analog probe previously mapped to the rp1 locus, detected insertion of Dissociation in an Rp1-D mutation and excision in three revertants. Independent libraries probed with the PIC20 or Mutator probes resulted in isolation of the same gene sequence. Rp1-D belongs to the nucleotide binding site, leucine-rich repeat class of R genes. However, unlike the rust resistance genes M and L6 from flax, the maize Rp1-D gene does not encode an N-terminal domain with similarity to the signal transduction domains of the Drosophila Toll protein and mammalian interleukin-1 receptor. Although the abundance of transcripts of genes from the rp1 complex changed with leaf age, there was no evidence of any change due to inoculation with avirulent or virulent rust biotypes. A set of 27 Rp1-D mutants displayed at least nine different deletions of Rp1-D gene family members that were consistent with unequal crossing-over events. One mutation (Rp1-D*-24) resulted in deletion of all but one gene family member. Other unique deletions were observed in the disease lesion mimic Rp1-D*-21 and the partially susceptible mutant Rp1-D*-5. Different rp1 specificities have distinct DNA fingerprints (haplotypes). Analysis of recombinants between rp1 specificities indicated that recombination had occurred within the rp1 gene complex. Similar analyses indicated that the rust R genes at the rp5 locus, 2 centimorgans distal to rp1, are not closely related to Rp1-D. PMID:10402435

  11. Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.

    2012-06-01

    To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.

  12. Tunable Design of Structural Colors Produced by Pseudo-1D Photonic Crystals of Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Tong, Liping; Qi, Wei; Wang, Mengfan; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2016-07-01

    It is broadly observed that graphene oxide (GO) films appear transparent with a thickness of about several nanometers, whereas they appear dark brown or almost black with thickness of more than 1 μm. The basic color mechanism of GO film on a sub-micrometer scale, however, is not well understood. This study reports on GO pseudo-1D photonic crystals (p1D-PhCs) exhibiting tunable structural colors in the visible wavelength range owing to its 1D Bragg nanostructures. Striking structural colors of GO p1D-PhCs could be tuned by simply changing either the volume or concentration of the aqueous GO dispersion during vacuum filtration. Moreover, the quantitative relationship between thickness and reflection wavelength of GO p1D-PhCs has been revealed, thereby providing a theoretical basis to rationally design structural colors of GO p1D-PhCs. The spectral response of GO p1D-PhCs to humidity is also obtained clearly showing the wavelength shift of GO p1D-PhCs at differently relative humidity values and thus encouraging the integration of structural color printing and the humidity-responsive property of GO p1D-PhCs to develop a visible and fast-responsive anti-counterfeiting label. The results pave the way for a variety of potential applications of GO in optics, structural color printing, sensing, and anti-counterfeiting. PMID:27171200

  13. Comparative effects of nodularin and microcystin-LR in zebrafish: 1. Uptake by organic anion transporting polypeptide Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1).

    PubMed

    Faltermann, Susanne; Prétôt, René; Pernthaler, Jakob; Fent, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and nodularin are hepatotoxins produced by several cyanobacterial species. Their toxicity is based on active cellular uptake and subsequent inhibition of protein phosphatases PP1/2A, leading to hyperphosphorylation and cell death. To date, uptake of MC-LR and nodularin in fish is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of the organic anion transporting polypeptide Oatp1d1 in zebrafish (drOatp1d1, Slco1d1) in cellular uptake in zebrafish. We stably transfected CHO and HEK293 cell lines expressing drOatp1d1. In both transfectants, uptake of MC-LR and nodularin was demonstrated by competitive inhibition of uptake with fluorescent substrate lucifer yellow. Direct uptake of MC-LR was demonstrated by immunostaining, and indirectly by the high cytotoxicity in stable transfectants. By means of a synthesized fluorescent labeled MC-LR derivative, direct uptake was further confirmed in HEK293 cells expressing drOatp1d1. Additionally, uptake and toxicity was investigated in the permanent zebrafish liver cell line ZFL. These cells had only a low relative abundance of drOatp1d1, drOatp2b1 and drOatp1f transcripts, which correlated with the lack of MC-LR induced cytotoxicity and transcriptional changes of genes indicative of endoplasmic reticulum stress, a known effect of this toxin. Our study demonstrates that drOatp1d1 functions as an uptake transporter for both MC-LR and nodularin in zebrafish. PMID:26769064

  14. Potent neutralizing anti-CD1d antibody reduces lung cytokine release in primate asthma model

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Jonathan; Clarke, Adam W; Shim, Doris; Mabon, David; Tian, Chen; Windloch, Karolina; Buhmann, Chris; Corazon, Beau; Lindgren, Matilda; Pollard, Matthew; Domagala, Teresa; Poulton, Lynn; Doyle, Anthony G

    2015-01-01

    CD1d is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells involved in triggering cell populations, particularly natural killer T (NKT) cells, to release high levels of cytokines. NKT cells are implicated in asthma pathology and blockade of the CD1d/NKT cell pathway may have therapeutic potential. We developed a potent anti-human CD1d antibody (NIB.2) that possesses high affinity for human and cynomolgus macaque CD1d (KD ∼100 pM) and strong neutralizing activity in human primary cell-based assays (IC50 typically <100 pM). By epitope mapping experiments, we showed that NIB.2 binds to CD1d in close proximity to the interface of CD1d and the Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain. Together with data showing that NIB.2 inhibited stimulation via CD1d loaded with different glycolipids, this supports a mechanism whereby NIB.2 inhibits NKT cell activation by inhibiting Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain interactions with CD1d, independent of the lipid antigen in the CD1d antigen-binding cleft. The strong in vitro potency of NIB.2 was reflected in vivo in an Ascaris suum cynomolgus macaque asthma model. Compared with vehicle control, NIB.2 treatment significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of Ascaris-induced cytokines IL-5, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist, and significantly reduced baseline levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, IL-12/23p40, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and VEGF. At a cellular population level NIB.2 also reduced numbers of BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and blood eosinophils and basophils. We demonstrate that anti-CD1d antibody blockade of the CD1d/NKT pathway modulates inflammatory parameters in vivo in a primate inflammation model, with therapeutic potential for diseases where the local cytokine milieu is critical. PMID:25751125

  15. Mapping of the serotonin 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} autoreceptor gene (HTR1D) on chromosome 1 using a silent polymorphism in the coding region

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, N.; Lappalainen, J.; Linnoila, M.

    1995-04-24

    Serotonin (5-HT){sub ID} receptors are 5-HT release-regulating autoreceptors in the human brain. Abnormalities in brain 5-HT function have been hypothesized in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism, mood disorders, eating disorders, impulsive violent behavior, and alcoholism. Thus, mutations occurring in 5-HT autoreceptors may cause or increase the vulnerability to any of these conditions. 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} and 5-HT{sub 1D{Beta}} subtypes have been previously localized to chromosomes 1p36.3-p34.3 and 6q13, respectively, using rodent-human hybrids and in situ localization. In this communication, we report the detection of a 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} receptor gene polymorphism by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the coding sequence. The polymorphism was used for fine scale linkage mapping of 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} on chromosome 1. This polymorphism should also be useful for linkage studies in populations and in families. Our analysis also demonstrates that functionally significant coding sequence variants of the 5-HT{sub 1D{alpha}} are probably not abundant either among alcoholics or in the general population. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Electronic-to-vibrational energy transfer efficiency in the O/1 D/-N2 and O/1 D/-CO systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, T. G.; Black, G.

    1974-01-01

    With the aid of a molecular resonance fluorescence technique, which utilizes optical pumping from the v = 1 level of the ground state of CO by A 1 Pi-X 1 Sigma radiation, a study is made of the efficiency of E-V transfer from O(1 D) to CO. O(1 D) is generated at a known rate by O2 photodissociation at 1470 A in an intermittent mode, and the small modulation of the fluorescent signal associated with CO (v = 1) above the normal thermal background is interpreted in terms of E-V transfer efficiency. The CO (v = 1) lifetime in this system is determined mainly by resonance trapping of the IR fundamental band, and is found to be up to ten times longer than the natural radiative lifetime. For CO, (40 plus or minus 8)% of the O(1 D) energy is converted into vibrational energy. By observing the effect of N2 on the CO (v = 1) fluorescent intensity and lifetime, it is possible to obtain the E-V transfer efficiency for the system O(1 D)-N2 relative to that for O(1 D)-CO. The results indicate that the efficiency for N2 is (83 plus or minus 10)% of that for CO.

  17. Tctex1d2 Is a Negative Regulator of GLUT4 Translocation and Glucose Uptake.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoko; Okada, Shuichi; Yamada, Eijiro; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Yamada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    Tctex1d2 (Tctex1 domain containing 2) is an open reading frame that encodes for a functionally unknown protein that contains a Tctex1 domain found in dynein light chain family members. Examination of gene expression during adipogenesis demonstrated a marked increase in Tctex1d2 protein expression that was essentially undetectable in preadipocytes and markedly induced during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Tctex1d2 overexpression significantly inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake. In contrast, Tctex1d2 knockdown significantly increased insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake. However, acute insulin stimulation (up to 30 min) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with overexpression or knockdown of Tctex1d2 had no effect on Akt phosphorylation, a critical signal transduction target required for GLUT4 translocation. Although overexpression of Tctex1d2 had no significant effect on GLUT4 internalization, Tctex1d2 was found to associate with syntaxin 4 in an insulin-dependent manner and inhibit Doc2b binding to syntaxin 4. In addition, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide rescued the Tctex1d2 inhibition of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation by suppressing the Tctex1d2-syntaxin 4 interaction and increasing Doc2b-Synatxin4 interactions. Taking these results together, we hypothesized that Tctex1d2 is a novel syntaxin 4 binding protein that functions as a negative regulator of GLUT4 plasma membrane translocation through inhibition of the Doc2b-syntaxin 4 interaction. PMID:26200093

  18. 2D Axisymmetric vs 1D: A PIC/DSMC Model of Breakdown in Triggered Vacuum Spark Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Stan; Moore, Chris; Boerner, Jeremiah

    2015-09-01

    Last year at GEC14, we presented results of one-dimensional PIC/DSMC simulations of breakdown in triggered vacuum spark gaps. In this talk, we extend the model to two-dimensional axisymmetric and compare the results to the previous 1D case. Specially, we vary the fraction of the cathode that emits electrons and neutrals (holding the total injection rates over the cathode surface constant) and show the effects of the higher dimensionality on the time to breakdown. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrode Based on Cobalt Oxide-Manganese Dioxide-Nickel Oxide Ternary 1D Hybrid Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ashutosh K; Sarkar, Debasish; Karmakar, Keshab; Mandal, Kalyan; Khan, Gobinda Gopal

    2016-08-17

    We report a facile method to design Co3O4-MnO2-NiO ternary hybrid 1D nanotube arrays for their application as active material for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes. This as-prepared novel supercapacitor electrode can store charge as high as ∼2020 C/g (equivalent specific capacitance ∼2525 F/g) for a potential window of 0.8 V and has long cycle stability (nearly 80% specific capacitance retains after successive 5700 charge/discharge cycles), significantly high Coulombic efficiency, and fast response time (∼0.17s). The remarkable electrochemical performance of this unique electrode material is the outcome of its enormous reaction platform provided by its special nanostructure morphology and conglomeration of the electrochemical properties of three highly redox active materials in a single unit. PMID:27430868

  20. Structure and Catalytic Mechanism of Human Steroid 5-Reductase (AKR1D1)

    SciTech Connect

    Costanzo, L.; Drury, J; Christianson, D; Penning, T

    2009-01-01

    Human steroid 5{beta}-reductase (aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1D1) catalyzes reduction of {Delta}{sup 4}-ene double bonds in steroid hormones and bile acid precursors. We have reported the structures of an AKR1D1-NADP{sup +} binary complex, and AKR1D1-NADP{sup +}-cortisone, AKR1D1-NADP{sup +}-progesterone and AKR1D1-NADP{sup +}-testosterone ternary complexes at high resolutions. Recently, structures of AKR1D1-NADP{sup +}-5{beta}-dihydroprogesterone complexes showed that the product is bound unproductively. Two quite different mechanisms of steroid double bond reduction have since been proposed. However, site-directed mutagenesis supports only one mechanism. In this mechanism, the 4-pro-R hydride is transferred from the re-face of the nicotinamide ring to C5 of the steroid substrate. E120, a unique substitution in the AKR catalytic tetrad, permits a deeper penetration of the steroid substrate into the active site to promote optimal reactant positioning. It participates with Y58 to create a 'superacidic' oxyanion hole for polarization of the C3 ketone. A role for K87 in the proton relay proposed using the AKR1D1-NADP{sup +}-5{beta}-dihydroprogesterone structure is not supported.

  1. The FC-1D: The profitable alternative Flying Circus Commercial Aviation Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meza, Victor J.; Alvarez, Jaime; Harrington, Brook; Lujan, Michael A.; Mitlyng, David; Saroughian, Andy; Silva, Alex; Teale, Tim

    1994-01-01

    The FC-1D was designed as an advanced solution for a low cost commercial transport meeting or exceeding all of the 1993/1994 AIAA/Lockheed request for proposal requirements. The driving philosophy behind the design of the FC-1D was the reduction of airline direct operating costs. Every effort was made during the design process to have the customer in mind. The Flying Circus Commercial Aviation Group targeted reductions in drag, fuel consumption, manufacturing costs, and maintenance costs. Flying Circus emphasized cost reduction throughout the entire design program. Drag reduction was achieved by implementation of the aft nacelle wing configuration to reduce cruise drag and increase cruise speeds. To reduce induced drag, rather than increasing the wing span of the FC-1D, spiroids were included in the efficient wing design. Profile and friction drag are reduced by using riblets in place of paint around the fuselage and empennage of the FC-1D. Choosing a single aisle configuration enabled the Flying Circus to optimize the fuselage diameter. Thus, reducing fuselage drag while gaining high structural efficiency. To further reduce fuel consumption a weight reduction program was conducted through the use of composite materials. An additional quality of the FC-1D is its design for low cost manufacturing and assembly. As a result of this design attribute, the FC-1D will have fewer parts which reduces weight as well as maintenance and assembly costs. The FC-1D is affordable and effective, the apex of commercial transport design.

  2. Mycobacterial phosphatidylinositol mannoside is a natural antigen for CD1d-restricted T cells

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Karsten; Scotet, Emmanuel; Niemeyer, Marcus; Koebernick, Heidrun; Zerrahn, Jens; Maillet, Sophie; Hurwitz, Robert; Kursar, Mischo; Bonneville, Marc; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Schaible, Ulrich E.

    2004-01-01

    A group of T cells recognizes glycolipids presented by molecules of the CD1 family. The CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells (NKT cells) are primarily considered to be self-reactive. By employing CD1d-binding and T cell assays, the following structural parameters for presentation by CD1d were defined for a number of mycobacterial and mammalian lipids: two acyl chains facilitated binding, and a polar head group was essential for T cell recognition. Of the mycobacterial lipids tested, only a phosphatidylinositol mannoside (PIM) fulfilled the requirements for CD1d binding and NKT cell stimulation. This PIM activated human and murine NKT cells via CD1d, thereby triggering antigen-specific IFN-γ production and cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and PIM-loaded CD1d tetramers identified a subpopulation of murine and human NKT cells. This phospholipid, therefore, represents a mycobacterial antigen recognized by T cells in the context of CD1d. PMID:15243159

  3. Species Specific Differences of CD1d Oligomer Loading In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Paletta, Daniel; Fichtner, Alina Suzann; Starick, Lisa; Porcelli, Steven A.; Savage, Paul B.; Herrmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    CD1d molecules are MHC class I-like molecules that present glycolipids to iNKT cells. The highly conserved interaction between CD1d:α-Galactosylceramide (αGC) complexes and the iNKT TCR not only defines this population of αβ T cells but can also be used for its direct identification. Therefore, CD1d oligomers are a widely used tool for iNKT cell related investigations. To this end, the lipid chains of the antigen have to be inserted into the hydrophobic pockets of the CD1d binding cleft, often with help of surfactants. In this study, we investigated the influence of different surfactants (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tyloxapol) on in vitro loading of CD1d molecules derived from four different species (human, mouse, rat and cotton rat) with αGC and derivatives carrying modifications of the acyl-chain (DB01-1, PBS44) and a 6-acetamido-6-deoxy-addition at the galactosyl head group (PBS57). We also compared rat CD1d dimers with tetramers and staining of an iNKT TCR transductant was used as readout for loading efficacy. The results underlined the importance of CD1d loading efficacy for proper analysis of iNKT TCR binding and demonstrated the necessity to adjust loading conditions for each oligomer/glycolipid combination. The efficient usage of surfactants as a tool for CD1d loading was revealed to be species-specific and depending on the origin of the CD1d producing cells. Additional variation of surfactant-dependent loading efficacy between tested glycolipids was influenced by the acyl-chain length and the modification of the galactosyl head group with PBS57 showing the least dependence on surfactants and the lowest degree of species-dependent differences. PMID:26599805

  4. On the current drive capability of low dimensional semiconductors: 1D versus 2D

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhu, Y.; Appenzeller, J.

    2015-10-29

    Low-dimensional electronic systems are at the heart of many scaling approaches currently pursuit for electronic applications. Here, we present a comparative study between an array of one-dimensional (1D) channels and its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart in terms of current drive capability. Lastly, our findings from analytical expressions derived in this article reveal that under certain conditions an array of 1D channels can outperform a 2D field-effect transistor because of the added degree of freedom to adjust the threshold voltage in an array of 1D devices.

  5. TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport.

    PubMed

    Schmidts, Miriam; Hou, Yuqing; Cortés, Claudio R; Mans, Dorus A; Huber, Celine; Boldt, Karsten; Patel, Mitali; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Plaza, Jean-Marc; van Beersum, Sylvia E C; Yap, Zhi Min; Letteboer, Stef J F; Taylor, S Paige; Herridge, Warren; Johnson, Colin A; Scambler, Peter J; Ueffing, Marius; Kayserili, Hulya; Krakow, Deborah; King, Stephen M; Beales, Philip L; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Wicking, Carol; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M; Witman, George B

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. We thus define TCTEX1D2 as an integral component of the evolutionarily conserved retrograde IFT machinery. In complex with several IFT dynein light chains, it is required for correct vertebrate skeletal formation but may be functionally redundant under certain conditions. PMID:26044572

  6. TCTEX1D2 mutations underlie Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with impaired retrograde intraflagellar transport

    PubMed Central

    Schmidts, Miriam; Hou, Yuqing; Cortés, Claudio R.; Mans, Dorus A.; Huber, Celine; Boldt, Karsten; Patel, Mitali; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Plaza, Jean-Marc; van Beersum, Sylvia E. C.; Yap, Zhi Min; Letteboer, Stef J. F.; Taylor, S. Paige; Herridge, Warren; Johnson, Colin A.; Scambler, Peter J.; Ueffing, Marius; Kayserili, Hulya; Krakow, Deborah; King, Stephen M.; Beales, Philip L.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Wicking, Carol; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Roepman, Ronald; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Witman, George B.; Al-Turki, Saeed; Anderson, Carl; Anney, Richard; Antony, Dinu; Asimit, Jennifer; Ayub, Mohammad; Barrett, Jeff; Barroso, Inês; Bentham, Jamie; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Blackwood, Douglas; Bobrow, Martin; Bochukova, Elena; Bolton, Patrick; Boustred, Chris; Breen, Gerome; Brion, Marie-Jo; Brown, Andrew; Calissano, Mattia; Carss, Keren; Chatterjee, Krishna; Chen, Lu; Cirak, Sebhattin; Clapham, Peter; Clement, Gail; Coates, Guy; Collier, David; Cosgrove, Catherine; Cox, Tony; Craddock, Nick; Crooks, Lucy; Curran, Sarah; Daly, Allan; Danecek, Petr; Smith, George Davey; Day-Williams, Aaron; Day, Ian; Durbin, Richard; Edkins, Sarah; Ellis, Peter; Evans, David; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fitzpatrick, David; Flicek, Paul; Floyd, Jamie; Foley, A. Reghan; Franklin, Chris; Futema, Marta; Gallagher, Louise; Gaunt, Tom; Geschwind, Daniel; Greenwood, Celia; Grozeva, Detelina; Guo, Xiaosen; Gurling, Hugh; Hart, Deborah; Hendricks, Audrey; Holmans, Peter; Huang, Jie; Humphries, Steve E.; Hurles, Matt; Hysi, Pirro; Jackson, David; Jamshidi, Yalda; Jewell, David; Chris, Joyce; Kaye, Jane; Keane, Thomas; Kemp, John; Kennedy, Karen; Kent, Alastair; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Lachance, Genevieve; Langford, Cordelia; Lee, Irene; Li, Rui; Li, Yingrui; Ryan, Liu; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Lopes, Margarida; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Massimo, Mangino; Marchini, Jonathan; Maslen, John; McCarthy, Shane; McGuffin, Peter; McIntosh, Andrew; McKechanie, Andrew; McQuillin, Andrew; Memari, Yasin; Metrustry, Sarah; Min, Josine; Moayyeri, Alireza; Morris, James; Muddyman, Dawn; Muntoni, Francesco; Northstone, Kate; O'Donovan, Michael; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Onoufriadis, Alexandros; Oualkacha, Karim; Owen, Michael; Palotie, Aarno; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Parker, Victoria; Parr, Jeremy; Paternoster, Lavinia; Paunio, Tiina; Payne, Felicity; Perry, John; Pietilainen, Olli; Plagnol, Vincent; Quail, Michael A.; Quaye, Lydia; Raymond, Lucy; Rehnström, Karola; Brent Richards, J.; Ring, Sue; Ritchie, Graham R S; Savage, David B.; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Semple, Robert K.; Serra, Eva; Shihab, Hashem; Shin, So-Youn; Skuse, David; Small, Kerrin; Smee, Carol; Soler, Artigas María; Soranzo, Nicole; Southam, Lorraine; Spector, Tim; St Pourcain, Beate; St. Clair, David; Stalker, Jim; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Suvisaari, Jaana; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Tian, Jing; Timpson, Nic; Tobin, Martin; Valdes, Ana; van Kogelenberg, Margriet; Vijayarangakannan, Parthiban; Wain, Louise; Walter, Klaudia; Wang, Jun; Ward, Kirsten; Wheeler, Ellie; Whittall, Ros; Williams, Hywel; Williamson, Kathy; Wilson, Scott G.; Wong, Kim; Whyte, Tamieka; ChangJiang, Xu; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zhang, Feng; Zheng, Hou-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of individuals with ciliary chondrodysplasias can shed light on sensitive mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis and cell signalling that are essential to embryonic development and survival. Here we identify TCTEX1D2 mutations causing Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy with partially penetrant inheritance. Loss of TCTEX1D2 impairs retrograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) in humans and the protist Chlamydomonas, accompanied by destabilization of the retrograde IFT dynein motor. We thus define TCTEX1D2 as an integral component of the evolutionarily conserved retrograde IFT machinery. In complex with several IFT dynein light chains, it is required for correct vertebrate skeletal formation but may be functionally redundant under certain conditions. PMID:26044572

  7. Comet Halley O(1D) and H2O production rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee-Sauer, K.; Scherb, F.; Roesler, F. L.; Harlander, J.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-based dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer observations have been made of Comet Halley's forbidden O I 6300 A emission. The 0.2 A resolution of the spectral scans was sufficient to resolve the O I forbidden line emissions from both nearby cometary NH2 and telluric emissions. On the basis of these measurements, the production rate Q of O(1D) was determined; it is then found, by taking into account the photodissociation of H2O and OH as sources of O(1D), that the ratio of H2O/O(1D) production rates is of the order of 6.

  8. GaAs solar cell photoresponse modeling using PC-1D V2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, D. A.; Olsen, L. C.; Dunham, G.; Addis, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    Photoresponse data of high efficiency GaAs solar cells were analyzed using PC-1D V2.1. The approach required to use PC-1D for photoresponse data analysis, and the physical insights gained from performing the analysis are discussed. In particular, the effect of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As heteroface quality was modeled. Photoresponse or spectral quantum efficiency is an important tool in characterizing material quality and predicting cell performance. The strength of the photoresponse measurement lies in the ability to precisely fit the experimental data with a physical model. PC-1D provides a flexible platform for calculations based on these physical models.

  9. Ubiquitination and degradation of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 is regulated by protein palmitoylation

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Chen; Lange, Jeffrey J.; Samovski, Dmitri; Su, Xiong; Liu, Jialiu; Sundaresan, Sinju; Stahl, Philip D.

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •Hominoid-specific oncogene TBC1D3 is targeted to plasma membrane by palmitoylation. •TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. •TBC1D3 palmitoylation governs growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. •Post-translational modifications may regulate oncogenic properties of TBC1D3. -- Abstract: Expression of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 promotes enhanced cell growth and proliferation by increased activation of signal transduction through several growth factors. Recently we documented the role of CUL7 E3 ligase in growth factors-induced ubiquitination and degradation of TBC1D3. Here we expanded our study to discover additional molecular mechanisms that control TBC1D3 protein turnover. We report that TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. The expression of double palmitoylation mutant TBC1D3:C318/325S resulted in protein mislocalization and enhanced growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. Moreover, ubiquitination of TBC1D3 via CUL7 E3 ligase complex was increased by mutating the palmitoylation sites, suggesting that depalmitoylation of TBC1D3 makes the protein more available for ubiquitination and degradation. The results reported here provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern TBC1D3 protein degradation. Dysregulation of these mechanisms in vivo could potentially result in aberrant TBC1D3 expression and promote oncogenesis.

  10. Quasi-one dimensional (Q1D) nanostructures: Synthesis, integration and device application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Chung-Jen

    Quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) nanostructures such as nanotubes and nanowires have been widely regarded as the potential building blocks for nanoscale electronic, optoelectronic and sensing devices. In this work, the content can be divided into three categories: Nano-material synthesis and characterizations, alignment and integration, physical properties and application. The dissertation consists of seven chapters as following. Chapter 1 will give an introduction to low dimensional nano-materials. Chapter 2 explains the mechanism how Q1D nanostructure grows. Chapter 3 describes the methods how we horizontally and vertically align the Q1D nanostructure. Chapter 4 and 5 are the electrical and optical device characterization respectively. Chapter 6 demonstrates the integration of Q1D nanostructures and the device application. The last chapter will discuss the future work and conclusion of the thesis.

  11. Quantum and semi-classical transport in RTDs using NEMO 1-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimeck, G.; Stout, P.; Bowen, R. C.

    2003-01-01

    NEMO 1-D has been developed primarily for the simulation of resonant tunneling diodes, and quantitative and predictive agreements with experimental high performance, high current density devices have been achieved in the past.

  12. Non-uniform black strings and the critical dimension in the 1/D expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2015-10-01

    Non-uniform black strings (NUBS) are studied by the large D effective theory approach. By solving the near-horizon geometry in the 1 /D expansion, we obtain the effective equation for the deformed horizon up to the next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in 1 /D. We also solve the far-zone geometry by the Newtonian approximation. Matching the near and far zones, the thermodynamic variables are computed in the 1 /D expansion. As the result, the large D analysis gives a critical dimension D * ≃ 13 .5 at which the translation-symmetry-breaking phase transition changes between first and second order. This value of D * agrees perfectly, within the precision of the 1 /D expansion, with the result previously obtained by E. Sorkin through the numerical resolution. We also compare our NNLO results for the thermodynamics of NUBS to earlier numerical calculations, and find good agreement within the expected precision.

  13. Pseudo 1-D Micro/Nanofluidic Device for Exact Electrokinetic Responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junsuk; Kim, Ho-Young; Lee, Hyomin; Kim, Sung Jae

    2016-06-28

    Conventionally, a 1-D micro/nanofluidic device, whose nanochannel bridged two microchannels, was widely chosen in the fundamental electrokinetic studies; however, the configuration had intrinsic limitations of the time-consuming and labor intensive tasks of filling and flushing the microchannel due to the high fluidic resistance of the nanochannel bridge. In this work, a pseudo 1-D micro/nanofluidic device incorporating air valves at each microchannel was proposed for mitigating these limitations. High Laplace pressure formed at liquid/air interface inside the microchannels played as a virtual valve only when the electrokinetic operations were conducted. The identical electrokinetic behaviors of the propagation of ion concentration polarization layer and current-voltage responses were obtained in comparison with the conventional 1-D micro/nanofluidic device by both experiments and numerical simulations. Therefore, the suggested pseudo 1-D micro/nanofluidic device owned not only experimental conveniences but also exact electrokinetic responses. PMID:27248856

  14. Modeling blood flow circulation in intracranial arterial networks: a comparative 3D/1D simulation study.

    PubMed

    Grinberg, L; Cheever, E; Anor, T; Madsen, J R; Karniadakis, G E

    2011-01-01

    We compare results from numerical simulations of pulsatile blood flow in two patient-specific intracranial arterial networks using one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) models. Specifically, we focus on the pressure and flowrate distribution at different segments of the network computed by the two models. Results obtained with 1D and 3D models with rigid walls show good agreement in massflow distribution at tens of arterial junctions and also in pressure drop along the arteries. The 3D simulations with the rigid walls predict higher amplitude of the flowrate and pressure temporal oscillations than the 1D simulations with compliant walls at various segments even for small time-variations in the arterial cross-sectional areas. Sensitivity of the flow and pressure with respect to variation in the elasticity parameters is investigated with the 1D model. PMID:20661645

  15. Fluorine substitution enhanced photovoltaic performance of a D-A(1)-D-A(2) copolymer.

    PubMed

    Dang, Dongfeng; Chen, Weichao; Yang, Renqiang; Zhu, Weiguo; Mammo, Wendimagegn; Wang, Ergang

    2013-10-18

    A new alternating donor-acceptor (D-A1-D-A2) copolymer containing two electron-deficient moieties, isoindigo and quinoxaline, was synthesized. The photovoltaic performance of this polymer could be improved by incorporating fluorine atoms into the quinoxaline units, resulting in an efficiency of 6.32%. This result highlights the attractive promise of D-A1-D-A2 copolymers for high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells. PMID:24000353

  16. Actinometric measurement of j(O3-O(1D)) using a luminol detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bairai, Solomon T.; Stedman, Donald H.

    1992-01-01

    The photolysis frequency of ozone to singlet D oxygen atoms has been measured by means of a chemical actinometer using a luminol based detector. The instrument measures j(O3-O(1D)) with a precision of 10 percent. The data collected in winter and spring of 1991 is in agreement with model predictions and previously measured values. Data from a global solar radiometer can be used to estimate the effects of local cloudiness on j(O3-O(1D)).

  17. Protective mucosal immunity mediated by epithelial CD1d and IL-10.

    PubMed

    Olszak, Torsten; Neves, Joana F; Dowds, C Marie; Baker, Kristi; Glickman, Jonathan; Davidson, Nicholas O; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Jobin, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Sotlar, Karl; Wada, Koichiro; Katayama, Kazufumi; Nakajima, Atsushi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Kunito; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Müller, Werner; Snapper, Scott B; Schreiber, Stefan; Kaser, Arthur; Zeissig, Sebastian; Blumberg, Richard S

    2014-05-22

    The mechanisms by which mucosal homeostasis is maintained are of central importance to inflammatory bowel disease. Critical to these processes is the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC), which regulates immune responses at the interface between the commensal microbiota and the host. CD1d presents self and microbial lipid antigens to natural killer T (NKT) cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of colitis in animal models and human inflammatory bowel disease. As CD1d crosslinking on model IECs results in the production of the important regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 (ref. 9), decreased epithelial CD1d expression--as observed in inflammatory bowel disease--may contribute substantially to intestinal inflammation. Here we show in mice that whereas bone-marrow-derived CD1d signals contribute to NKT-cell-mediated intestinal inflammation, engagement of epithelial CD1d elicits protective effects through the activation of STAT3 and STAT3-dependent transcription of IL-10, heat shock protein 110 (HSP110; also known as HSP105), and CD1d itself. All of these epithelial elements are critically involved in controlling CD1d-mediated intestinal inflammation. This is demonstrated by severe NKT-cell-mediated colitis upon IEC-specific deletion of IL-10, CD1d, and its critical regulator microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), as well as deletion of HSP110 in the radioresistant compartment. Our studies thus uncover a novel pathway of IEC-dependent regulation of mucosal homeostasis and highlight a critical role of IL-10 in the intestinal epithelium, with broad implications for diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24717441

  18. Optimization of a cyclic peptide inhibitor of Ser/Thr phosphatase PPM1D (Wip1).

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ryo; Tanoue, Kan; Durell, Stewart R; Chatterjee, Deb K; Jenkins, Lisa M Miller; Appella, Daniel H; Appella, Ettore

    2011-05-31

    PPM1D (PP2Cδ or Wip1) was identified as a wild-type p53-induced Ser/Thr phosphatase that accumulates after DNA damage and classified into the PP2C family. It dephosphorylates and inactivates several proteins critical for cellular stress responses, including p38 MAPK, p53, and ATM. Furthermore, PPM1D is amplified and/or overexpressed in a number of human cancers. Thus, inhibition of its activity could constitute an important new strategy for therapeutic intervention to halt the progression of several different cancers. Previously, we reported the development of a cyclic thioether peptide with low micromolar inhibitory activity toward PPM1D. Here, we describe important improvements in the inhibitory activity of this class of cyclic peptides and also present a binding model based upon the results. We found that specific interaction of an aromatic ring at the X1 position and negative charge at the X5 and X6 positions significantly increased the inhibitory activity of the cyclic peptide, with the optimized molecule having a K(i) of 110 nM. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest inhibitory activity reported for an inhibitor of PPM1D. We further developed an inhibitor selective for PPM1D over PPM1A with a K(i) of 2.9 μM. Optimization of the cyclic peptide and mutagenesis experiments suggest that a highly basic loop unique to PPM1D is related to substrate specificity. We propose a new model for the catalytic site of PPM1D and inhibition by the cyclic peptides that will be useful both for the subsequent design of PPM1D inhibitors and for identification of new substrates. PMID:21528848

  19. Two-loop effective action of O(N) spin models in 1/D expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, T.; Kleinert, H.; Ami, S.

    1984-08-01

    We calculate the two-loop effective action of O(N) spin models on the lattice in a 1/D expansion to order 1/D2. The resulting free energy depends on β = 1/T and the order parameter Φ. It matches the high and low temperature regimes and is quite reliable close to the phase transition where it has a simple Landau expansion.

  20. Validation of a 3D/1D Simulation Tool for ICRF Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiora, R.; Lancellotti, V.; Milanesio, D.; Vecchi, G.; Kyrytsya, V.; Parisot, A.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2005-09-01

    TOPICA is an innovative tool for the simulation of the Ion Cyclotron Radio Frequency (ICRF) antenna systems that incorporates commercial-grade graphic interfaces into a fully 3D self-consistent description of the antenna geometry and an accurate description of the plasma; it can be considered as a "Virtual Prototyping Laboratory" to assist the detailed design phase of the antenna system. Recent theoretical and computational advances of the TOPICA code has allowed to incorporate a CAD drawing capability of the antenna geometry, with fully 3D geometrical modeling, and to combine it with a 1D accurate plasma description that takes into account density and temperature profiles, and FLR effects; the profiles are inserted directly from measured data (when available), or specified analytically by the user. The coaxial feeding line is modeled as such; computation and visualization of relevant parameters (input scattering parameters, current and field distributions, etc.) complete the suite. The approach to the problem is based on an integral-equation formulation for the self-consistent evaluation of the current distribution on the conductors. The environment has been subdivided in two coupled region: the plasma region and the vacuum region. The two problems are linked self-consistently by representing the field continuity in terms of equivalent (unknown) sources. In the vacuum region all the calculations are executed in the spatial (configuration) domain, and this allows triangular-facet description of the arbitrarily shaped conductors and associated currents; in the plasma region a spectral representation of the fields is used, which allows to enter the plasma effect via a surface impedance matrix; for this reason any plasma model can be used, and at present the FELICE code has been adopted; special techniques have been adopted to increase the numerical efficiency. The TOPICA suite has been previously tested against assessed codes and against measurements of mock-ups and

  1. Atypical natural killer T-cell receptor recognition of CD1d-lipid antigens.

    PubMed

    Le Nours, Jérôme; Praveena, T; Pellicci, Daniel G; Gherardin, Nicholas A; Ross, Fiona J; Lim, Ricky T; Besra, Gurdyal S; Keshipeddy, Santosh; Richardson, Stewart K; Howell, Amy R; Gras, Stephanie; Godfrey, Dale I; Rossjohn, Jamie; Uldrich, Adam P

    2016-01-01

    Crucial to Natural Killer T (NKT) cell function is the interaction between their T-cell receptor (TCR) and CD1d-antigen complex. However, the diversity of the NKT cell repertoire and the ensuing interactions with CD1d-antigen remain unclear. We describe an atypical population of CD1d-α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer)-reactive human NKT cells that differ markedly from the prototypical TRAV10-TRAJ18-TRBV25-1(+) type I NKT cell repertoire. These cells express a range of TCR α- and β-chains that show differential recognition of glycolipid antigens. Two atypical NKT TCRs (TRAV21-TRAJ8-TRBV7-8 and TRAV12-3-TRAJ27-TRBV6-5) bind orthogonally over the A'-pocket of CD1d, adopting distinct docking modes that contrast with the docking mode of all type I NKT TCR-CD1d-antigen complexes. Moreover, the interactions with α-GalCer differ between the type I and these atypical NKT TCRs. Accordingly, diverse NKT TCR repertoire usage manifests in varied docking strategies and specificities towards CD1d-α-GalCer and related antigens, thus providing far greater scope for diverse glycolipid antigen recognition. PMID:26875526

  2. PPM1D controls nucleolar formation by up-regulating phosphorylation of nucleophosmin.

    PubMed

    Kozakai, Yuuki; Kamada, Rui; Furuta, Junya; Kiyota, Yuhei; Chuman, Yoshiro; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu

    2016-01-01

    An increase of nucleolar number and size has made nucleoli essential markers for cytology and tumour development. However, the underlying basis for their structural integrity and abundance remains unclear. Protein phosphatase PPM1D was found to be up-regulated in different carcinomas including breast cancers. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that PPM1D regulates nucleolar formation via inducing an increased phosphorylation of the nucleolar protein NPM. We show that PPM1D overexpression induces an increase in the nucleolar number regardless of p53 status. We also demonstrated that specific sequential phosphorylation of NPM is important for nucleolar formation and that PPM1D is a novel upstream regulator of this phosphorylation pathway. These results enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern nucleoli formation by demonstrating that PPM1D regulates nucleolar formation by regulating NPM phosphorylation status through a novel signalling pathway, PPM1D-CDC25C-CDK1-PLK1. PMID:27619510

  3. The SLE-associated Pbx1-d isoform acts as a dominant-negative transcriptional regulator

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, M; Liang, S; Potula, H-HS; Chang, L-J; Morel, L

    2013-01-01

    Pbx1 is a transcription factor involved in multiple cellular processes, including the maintenance of self-renewal of hematopoietic progenitors. We have shown that the CD4 + T-cell expression of a novel splice isoform of Pbx1, Pbx1-d, is associated with lupus susceptibility in the NZM2410 mouse and in lupus patients. The function of Pbx1 in T cells is unknown, but the splicing out of the DNA-binding domain in Pbx1-d predicts a dominant-negative function. In support of this hypothesis, we have shown that Pbx1-d transduction accelerates differentiation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast pregenitors and mimics the effect of short hairpin RNA silencing of Pbx1. Conversely, Pbx1-d transduction reduced the expression of Sox3, a gene strongly transactivated by Pbx1, and Pbx1-d did not bind the Sox3 promoter. These results constitute a first step towards the understanding on how Pbx1-d contributes to systemic autoimmunity in the NZM2410 mouse model as well as in lupus patients. PMID:22992721

  4. Epigenetic activation of a cryptic TBC1D16 transcript enhances melanoma progression by targeting EGFR

    PubMed Central

    Vizoso, Miguel; Ferreira, Humberto J; Lopez-Serra, Paula; Javier Carmona, F; Martínez-Cardús, Anna; Girotti, Maria Romina; Villanueva, Alberto; Guil, Sonia; Moutinho, Catia; Liz, Julia; Portela, Anna; Heyn, Holger; Moran, Sebastian; Vidal, August; Martinez-Iniesta, Maria; Manzano, Jose L; Fernandez-Figueras, Maria Teresa; Elez, Elena; Muñoz-Couselo, Eva; Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Berrocal, Alfonso; Pontén, Fredrik; van den Oord, Joost; Gallagher, William M; Frederick, Dennie T; Flaherty, Keith T; McDermott, Ultan; Lorigan, Paul; Marais, Richard; Esteller, Manel

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is responsible for most cancer-related deaths, and, among common tumor types, melanoma is one with great potential to metastasize. Here we study the contribution of epigenetic changes to the dissemination process by analyzing the changes that occur at the DNA methylation level between primary cancer cells and metastases. We found a hypomethylation event that reactivates a cryptic transcript of the Rab GTPase activating protein TBC1D16 (TBC1D16-47 kDa; referred to hereafter as TBC1D16-47KD) to be a characteristic feature of the metastatic cascade. This short isoform of TBC1D16 exacerbates melanoma growth and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. By combining immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identified RAB5C as a new TBC1D16 target and showed that it regulates EGFR in melanoma cells. We also found that epigenetic reactivation of TBC1D16-47KD is associated with poor clinical outcome in melanoma, while conferring greater sensitivity to BRAF and MEK inhibitors. PMID:26030178

  5. Epigenetic activation of a cryptic TBC1D16 transcript enhances melanoma progression by targeting EGFR.

    PubMed

    Vizoso, Miguel; Ferreira, Humberto J; Lopez-Serra, Paula; Carmona, F Javier; Martínez-Cardús, Anna; Girotti, Maria Romina; Villanueva, Alberto; Guil, Sonia; Moutinho, Catia; Liz, Julia; Portela, Anna; Heyn, Holger; Moran, Sebastian; Vidal, August; Martinez-Iniesta, Maria; Manzano, Jose L; Fernandez-Figueras, Maria Teresa; Elez, Elena; Muñoz-Couselo, Eva; Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Berrocal, Alfonso; Pontén, Fredrik; Oord, Joost van den; Gallagher, William M; Frederick, Dennie T; Flaherty, Keith T; McDermott, Ultan; Lorigan, Paul; Marais, Richard; Esteller, Manel

    2015-07-01

    Metastasis is responsible for most cancer-related deaths, and, among common tumor types, melanoma is one with great potential to metastasize. Here we study the contribution of epigenetic changes to the dissemination process by analyzing the changes that occur at the DNA methylation level between primary cancer cells and metastases. We found a hypomethylation event that reactivates a cryptic transcript of the Rab GTPase activating protein TBC1D16 (TBC1D16-47 kDa; referred to hereafter as TBC1D16-47KD) to be a characteristic feature of the metastatic cascade. This short isoform of TBC1D16 exacerbates melanoma growth and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. By combining immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we identified RAB5C as a new TBC1D16 target and showed that it regulates EGFR in melanoma cells. We also found that epigenetic reactivation of TBC1D16-47KD is associated with poor clinical outcome in melanoma, while conferring greater sensitivity to BRAF and MEK inhibitors. PMID:26030178

  6. The Temporal Evolution of O(1D) Emission in Ionospheric Modification Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogerakis, K. S.; Byler, E. B.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding processes involving atomic oxygen is crucial for the study of energy transfer and transport dynamics in the upper atmosphere. Until recently, the lack of reliable information on the role of O(3P ) collisions in relaxing O(1D) has often led to the assumption that the ionospheric atomic oxygen red line emission decay was controlled by collisions with N2. Laboratory measurements at SRI International have established that the removal rate constants for O(1D) + N2 and O(1D) + O are comparable and therefore O atoms play a major role in the ionospheric O(1D) decay at altitudes between 200 and 300 km. We have previously shown that measuring the O(1D) emission decay following ionospheric modification provides an approach for Remote O-atom Sensing by Ionospheric Excitation (ROSIE). In this report, we present examples of available ionospheric modification data sets from several heating facilities, examine the details of the appearance and decay of the O(1D) emission, and interpret its temporal evolution. This work is supported by the CEDAR Program of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) under grant no. ATM-0737713. The participation of Eleanor B. Byler was made possible by the NSF Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program under grant no. PHY-0649315.

  7. Substrate specificity and inhibitor analyses of human steroid 5β-reductase (AKR1D1)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mo; Drury, Jason E.; Penning, Trevor M.

    2011-01-01

    Human steroid 5β-reductase (Aldo-keto Reductase 1D1) catalyzes the stereospecific NADPH-dependent reduction of the C4-C5 double bond of Δ4-ketosteroids to yield an A/B cis-ring junction. This cis-configuration is crucial for bile acid biosynthesis and plays important roles in steroid metabolism. The biochemical properties of the enzyme have not been thoroughly studied and conflicting data have been reported, partially due to the lack of highly homogeneous protein. In the present study, we systematically determined the substrate specificity of homogeneous human recombinant AKR1D1 using C18, C19, C21, and C27 Δ4-ketosteroids and assessed the pH-rate dependence of the enzyme. Our results show that AKR1D1 proficiently reduced all the steroids tested at physiological pH, indicating AKR1D1 is the only enzyme necessary for all the 5β-steroid metabolite present in humans. Substrate inhibition was observed with C18 to C21 steroids provided that the side-chain at C17 was unsubstituted. This structure activity relationship can be explained by the existence of a small alternative substrate binding pocket revealed by the AKR1D1 crystal structure. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which are potent inhibitors of the related AKR1C enzymes do not inhibit AKR1D1 by contrast chenodeoxycholate and ursodeoxycholate were found to be potent non-competitive inhibitors suggesting that bile-acids may regulate their own synthesis at the level of AKR1D1 inhibition. PMID:21255593

  8. Benchmarks and models for 1-D radiation transport in stochastic participating media

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D S

    2000-08-21

    Benchmark calculations for radiation transport coupled to a material temperature equation in a 1-D slab and 1-D spherical geometry binary random media are presented. The mixing statistics are taken to be homogeneous Markov statistics in the 1-D slab but only approximately Markov statistics in the 1-D sphere. The material chunk sizes are described by Poisson distribution functions. The material opacities are first taken to be constant and then allowed to vary as a strong function of material temperature. Benchmark values and variances for time evolution of the ensemble average of material temperature energy density and radiation transmission are computed via a Monte Carlo type method. These benchmarks are used as a basis for comparison with three other approximate methods of solution. One of these approximate methods is simple atomic mix. The second approximate model is an adaptation of what is commonly called the Levermore-Pomraning model and which is referred to here as the standard model. It is shown that recasting the temperature coupling as a type of effective scattering can be useful in formulating the third approximate model, an adaptation of a model due to Su and Pomraning which attempts to account for the effects of scattering in a stochastic context. This last adaptation shows consistent improvement over both the atomic mix and standard models when used in the 1-D slab geometry but shows limited improvement in the 1-D spherical geometry. Benchmark values are also computed for radiation transmission from the 1-D sphere without material heating present. This is to evaluate the performance of the standard model on this geometry--something which has never been done before. All of the various tests demonstrate the importance of stochastic structure on the solution. Also demonstrated are the range of usefulness and limitations of a simple atomic mix formulation.

  9. Noradrenaline contracts rat retinal arterioles via stimulation of α(1A)- and α(1D)-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Mori, Asami; Hanada, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Kenji; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Ishii, Kunio

    2011-12-30

    The aim of this study was to characterize the α₁-adrenoceptor subtype(s) involved in the noradrenaline-induced contraction of retinal arterioles in rats. In vivo ocular fundus images were captured with a digital camera equipped with a special objective lens. By measuring changes in diameter of retinal arterioles in the fundus images, retinal vascular response was assessed. The systemic blood pressure and heart rate in the animals were also continuously recorded. Following blockade of β₁/β₂-adrenoceptors with propranolol, noradrenaline (0.03-3 μg/kg/min, i.v.) decreased the diameter of retinal arterioles and increased the mean blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose (3 μg/kg/min, i.v.) of noradrenaline caused a small increase in heart rate. The α(1A)-adrenoceptor antagonist RS100329 (0.1 mg/kg, i.v.) and the α(1D)-adrenoceptor antagonist BMY 7378 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly prevented noradrenaline-induced contraction of retinal arterioles and pressor responses whereas the α(1B)-adrenoceptor antagonist L-765314 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) did not. The α(1A)-adrenoceptor agonist, A 61603 (0.03-0.3 μg/kg/min, i.v.), also caused contractile responses of retinal arterioles and pressor responses. These responses were almost completely prevented by RS100329 (0.1 mg/kg, i.v.), but not by BMY 7378 (1 mg/kg, i.v.). These results suggest that the contractile effects of noradrenaline on retinal arterioles and peripheral resistance vessels are, at least in part, mediated by stimulation of α(1A)- and α(1D)-adrenoceptors. Furthermore, it is likely that the α₁-adrenoceptor subtype(s) involved in rat vascular responses are similar in both retinal and peripheral circulation. PMID:22040923

  10. Epitaxial 1D electron transport layers for high-performance perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Gill Sang; Chung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kim, Byeong Jo; Lee, Jin-Wook; Park, Nam-Gyu; Cho, In Sun; Lee, Jung-Kun; Lee, Sangwook; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate high-performance perovskite solar cells with excellent electron transport properties using a one-dimensional (1D) electron transport layer (ETL). The 1D array-based ETL is comprised of 1D SnO2 nanowires (NWs) array grown on a F:SnO2 transparent conducting oxide substrate and rutile TiO2 nanoshells epitaxially grown on the surface of the 1D SnO2 NWs. The optimized devices show more than 95% internal quantum yield at 750 nm, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.2%. The high quantum yield is attributed to dramatically enhanced electron transport in the epitaxial TiO2 layer, compared to that in conventional nanoparticle-based mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) layers. In addition, the open space in the 1D array-based ETL increases the prevalence of uniform TiO2/perovskite junctions, leading to reproducible device performance with a high fill factor. This work offers a method to achieve reproducible, high-efficiency perovskite solar cells with high-speed electron transport. PMID:26324759

  11. Crystal orbital studies on the 1D silic-diyne nanoribbons and nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Bai, Hongcun; Huang, Yuanhe

    2016-02-01

    This work presents crystal orbital studies on novel one-dimensional (1D) nanoscale materials derived from a Si-diyne sheet, based on the density functional theory. The two-dimensional (2D) Si-diyne layer is observed to be carbo-merized silicene, with a similar structure to graphdiyne. The 2D Si-diyne and its 1D ribbons and tubes, of different size and chirality, have been addressed systematically. The low dimensional Si-diyne materials studied exhibit relatively high stability, according to phonon-frequency calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. With comparable diameters, the Si-diyne tubes have lower strain energies than silicene and silicon carbide nanotubes. The Si-diyne layer and its 1D derivatives are all semiconductors, regardless of the size and chirality of the strips and tubes. In addition, the band gaps of the 1D Si-diyne nanoribbons and nanotubes with different chirality, always monotonically decrease as their sizes increases. A quantitative relationship between the band gap and the size of the ribbons and tubes was obtained. The mobility of charge carriers for the 1D Si-diyne structures was also investigated. It was found that both hole and electron mobility of the ribbons and tubes exhibit linear increase with increasing size. The electrons have greater mobility than the holes for each strip and tube. In addition, the mechanical properties of the Si-diyne nanostructures were also investigated by calculation of the Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio. PMID:26744378

  12. Possible Dimensional Crossover to 1D of ^3He Fluid in Nanochannels Observed in Susceptibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Taku; Kurebayashi, Katsuya; Shibatsuji, Ryosuke; Hieda, Mitsunori; Wada, Nobuo

    2016-05-01

    Dimensional crossover to the one-dimensional (1D) state from higher dimensions has been studied for dilute ^3He fluid adsorbed in 2.4 nm ^4He-preplated nanochannels, by susceptibility measurements down to 70 mK using 4.29 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance. In nanochannels, since energy states of ^3He motion perpendicular to the channel axis are discrete, a genuine 1D ^3He fluid is expected when the Fermi energy is less than the first excitation Δ _{01} for azimuthal motion. The susceptibilities χ above 0.3 K show the Curie-law susceptibilities independent of the ^3He density, which are characteristic of nondegenerate fluid in higher dimensions. With decreasing the temperature, a significant reduction of χ T was observed from about 0.3 K for all ^3He densities. It is considered to be due to the dimensional crossover below Δ _{01}˜ 0.5 K to the 1D ^3He state in the semi-degenerate regime above the Fermi temperature. In the 1D state at lower temperatures, T-independent χ were observed for ^3He of 0.019 layers below 0.1 K. It suggests that the 1D ^3He fluid enters the quantum degenerate regime.

  13. A Mathematical Model of T1D Acceleration and Delay by Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Moore, James R; Adler, Fred

    2016-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is often triggered by a viral infection, but the T1D prevalence is rising among populations that have a lower exposure to viral infection. In an animal model of T1D, the NOD mouse, viral infection at different ages may either accelerate or delay disease depending on the age of infection and the type of virus. Viral infection may affect the progression of T1D via multiple mechanisms: triggering inflammation, bystander activation of self-reactive T-cells, inducing a competitive immune response, or inducing a regulatory immune response. In this paper, we create mathematical models of the interaction of viral infection with T1D progression, incorporating each of these four mechanisms. Our goal is to understand how each viral mechanism interacts with the age of infection. The model predicts that each viral mechanism has a unique pattern of interaction with disease progression. Viral inflammation always accelerates disease, but the effect decreases with age of infection. Bystander activation has little effect at younger ages and actually decreases incidence at later ages while accelerating disease in mice that do get the disease. A competitive immune response to infection can decrease incidence at young ages and increase it at older ages, with the effect decreasing over time. Finally, an induced Treg response decreases incidence at any age of infection, but the effect decreases with age. Some of these patterns resemble those seen experimentally. PMID:27030351

  14. Deconvolution of Complex 1D NMR Spectra Using Objective Model Selection.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Travis S; Wilson, Henry D; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S; Kojetin, Douglas J

    2015-01-01

    Fluorine (19F) NMR has emerged as a useful tool for characterization of slow dynamics in 19F-labeled proteins. One-dimensional (1D) 19F NMR spectra of proteins can be broad, irregular and complex, due to exchange of probe nuclei between distinct electrostatic environments; and therefore cannot be deconvoluted and analyzed in an objective way using currently available software. We have developed a Python-based deconvolution program, decon1d, which uses Bayesian information criteria (BIC) to objectively determine which model (number of peaks) would most likely produce the experimentally obtained data. The method also allows for fitting of intermediate exchange spectra, which is not supported by current software in the absence of a specific kinetic model. In current methods, determination of the deconvolution model best supported by the data is done manually through comparison of residual error values, which can be time consuming and requires model selection by the user. In contrast, the BIC method used by decond1d provides a quantitative method for model comparison that penalizes for model complexity helping to prevent over-fitting of the data and allows identification of the most parsimonious model. The decon1d program is freely available as a downloadable Python script at the project website (https://github.com/hughests/decon1d/). PMID:26241959

  15. CD1d-restricted antigen presentation by Vγ9Vδ2-T cells requires trogocytosis.

    PubMed

    Schneiders, Famke L; Prodöhl, Jan; Ruben, Jurjen M; O'Toole, Tom; Scheper, Rik J; Bonneville, Marc; Scotet, Emmanuel; Verheul, Henk M W; de Gruijl, Tanja D; van der Vliet, Hans J

    2014-08-01

    CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) constitute an important immunoregulatory T-cell subset that can be activated by the synthetic glycolipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) and play a dominant role in antitumor immunity. Clinical trials with α-GalCer-pulsed monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) have shown anecdotal antitumor activity in advanced cancer. It was reported that phosphoantigen (pAg)-activated Vγ9Vδ2-T cells can acquire characteristics of professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). Considering the clinical immunotherapeutic applications, Vγ9Vδ2-T APC can offer important advantages over moDC, potentially constituting an attractive novel APC platform. Here, we demonstrate that Vγ9Vδ2-T APC can present antigens to iNKT. However, this does not result from de novo synthesis of CD1d by Vγ9Vδ2-T, but critically depends on trogocytosis of CD1d-containing membrane fragments from pAg-expressing cells. CD1d-expressing Vγ9Vδ2-T cells were able to activate iNKT in a CD1d-restricted and α-GalCer-dependent fashion. Although α-GalCer-loaded moDC outperformed Vγ9Vδ2-T APC on a per cell basis, Vγ9Vδ2-T APC possess unique features with respect to clinical immunotherapeutic application that make them an interesting platform for consideration in future clinical trials. PMID:24934445

  16. Alterations in cellular metabolism modulate CD1d-mediated NKT-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Webb, Tonya J; Carey, Gregory B; East, James E; Sun, Wenji; Bollino, Dominique R; Kimball, Amy S; Brutkiewicz, Randy R

    2016-08-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells play a critical role in the host's innate immune response. CD1d-mediated presentation of glycolipid antigens to NKT cells has been established; however, the mechanisms by which NKT cells recognize infected or cancerous cells remain unclear. 5(')-AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator of lipogenic pathways. We hypothesized that activation of AMPK during infection and malignancy could alter the repertoire of antigens presented by CD1d and serve as a danger signal to NKT cells. In this study, we examined the effect of alterations in metabolism on CD1d-mediated antigen presentation to NKT cells and found that an infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus rapidly increased CD1d-mediated antigen presentation. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF) enhance T-cell effector functions during infection, therefore antigen presenting cells pretreated with pharmacological agents that inhibit glycolysis, induce HIF and activate AMPK were assessed for their ability to induce NKT-cell responses. Pretreatment with 2-deoxyglucose, cobalt chloride, AICAR and metformin significantly enhanced CD1d-mediated NKT-cell activation. In addition, NKT cells preferentially respond to malignant B cells and B-cell lymphomas express HIF-1α. These data suggest that targeting cellular metabolism may serve as a novel means of inducing innate immune responses. PMID:27297969

  17. Special Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha, Ed.; Yeo, Kwang Eung

    The text on special education in Korea is divided into four major sections--a brief history of special education in Korea, the present status of special education in Korea, the special education plan of the Young Kwang Educational Foundation, and directory of schools and classes for the exceptional in Korea. Topics covered include the following:…

  18. Ethics and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, James; French, Peter; Cranston-Gingras, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of ethics in special education focuses on four challenges: (1) examination of special education's history within an ethical framework; (2) articulation of character morality as well as choice morality in special education ethical dilemmas; (3) examination of special education in a liberal democracy; and (4) development of an ethical…

  19. 1D cadmium(II) thiocyanate systems: Synthesis and characterization of three new polymeric 1D cadmium(II) thiocyanato complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, Mohamed R.; Abu-Youssef, Morsy A. M.; Goher, Mohamed A. S.; Sabra, Berry A.; Hafez, Afaf K.; Badr, Ahmed M.-A.; Mautner, Franz A.

    2012-01-01

    Three new cadmium(II) thiocyanato complexes, [{Cd(NCS) 2(val)}·H 2O] n1, [Cd(NCS) 2(3-ampy) 2] n2, and [Cd(NCS) 2(pyrazolinone)] n3, (val = D, L-valine, 3-ampy = 3-aminopyridine and pyrazolinone = 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The X-ray structure analysis revealed di-μ-N,S thiocyanato bridges connecting cadmium centers in a 1D chain with the co-ligand blocking the remaining coordination sites. The structure of complex 1 features six coordinate Cd(II) centers, each cadmium is surrounded by two N atoms and two S atoms from two bridging N,S-thiocyanato groups giving rise to a zigzag 1D chain and two oxygen atoms of the alternating chelating μ-O,O'-valine that coordinates as zwitterionic terminal amino acid. The structure of complex 2 consists of octahedral Cd(II) centers, connected by di-μ-N,S-bridging NCS groups, thus forming a 1D chain system along the [1 0 1] direction. The amino-groups are forming one intra-chain N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond and one interchain N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond to N-atoms of adjacent chains. The structure of 3 reveals di-μ-N,S-NCS doubly bridged unusual penta-coordinated cadmium centers with the alternating monodentate pyrazolinone ligand blocking the fifth coordination site. IR spectra and thermal properties of complexes are reported.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of hexagonally patterned quasi-1D ZnO nanowire arrays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) ZnO nanowire arrays with hexagonal pattern have been successfully synthesized via the vapor transport process without any metal catalyst. By utilizing polystyrene microsphere self-assembled monolayer, sol–gel-derived ZnO thin films were used as the periodic nucleation sites for the growth of ZnO nanowires. High-quality quasi-1D ZnO nanowires were grown from nucleation sites, and the original hexagonal periodicity is well-preserved. According to the experimental results, the vapor transport solid condensation mechanism was proposed, in which the sol–gel-derived ZnO film acting as a seed layer for nucleation. This simple method provides a favorable way to form quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures applicable to diverse fields such as two-dimensional photonic crystal, nanolaser, sensor arrays, and other optoelectronic devices. PMID:24521308

  1. Operational fog monitoring using FY-1D remotely sensed data in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yonglan; Zhang, Guoping; Wang, Maoxin

    2006-12-01

    Fog is a disaster that troubles the people life especially the traffic safety and air quality. NOAA and EOS/MOSDIS data can both be used to monitor the fog disaster, but FY-1D data is the best in China for its timely acquirement that covers the local region. So fog monitoring using FY-1D in China can offer timely fog disaster information for traffic safety forecast and further weather trend analyses. Fog monitoring mainly uses visible and infrared bands which are not very good for fog mapping, however. The paper analyzed the image spectral properties of fog and low stratus to choose the best band combination for optimal fog mapping. The paper proposed the method of using FY-1D data to monitor daytime fog disaster in China.

  2. Spin Excitations and Phonon Anomaly in Quasi-1D Spiral Magneti CuBr2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Chong; Yu, Daiwei; Wang, Lichen; Wang, Fa; Iida, Kazuki; Kamazawa, Kazuya; Wakimoto, Shuichi

    CuBr2 can be considered as a model quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) spin-1/2 magnet, in which the frustrating ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor and antiferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions give rise to a cycloidal magnetic order below TN = 73 K. The removal of inversion symmetry by the magnetic order also makes the material a type-II multiferroic system with a remarkably simple crystal structure. Using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy, we have determined the spin-wave as well as phonon spectra throughout the entire Brillouin zone. The spin-wave spectrum exhibits pronounced anisotropy and magnon damping, consistent with the material's quasi-1D nature and the non-colinear spin structure. The phonon spectrum exhibits dramatic discontinuities in the dispersion across the quasi-1D magnetic wave vector, indicative of strong magnetoelastic coupling and possibly of a spin-orbital texture that comes along with the spin correlations.

  3. A comparison of 1D and 2D LSTM architectures for the recognition of handwritten Arabic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Mohammad Reza; Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Breuel, Thomas M.; Stricker, Didier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an Arabic handwriting recognition method based on recurrent neural network. We use the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) architecture, that have proven successful in different printed and handwritten OCR tasks. Applications of LSTM for handwriting recognition employ the two-dimensional architecture to deal with the variations in both vertical and horizontal axis. However, we show that using a simple pre-processing step that normalizes the position and baseline of letters, we can make use of 1D LSTM, which is faster in learning and convergence, and yet achieve superior performance. In a series of experiments on IFN/ENIT database for Arabic handwriting recognition, we demonstrate that our proposed pipeline can outperform 2D LSTM networks. Furthermore, we provide comparisons with 1D LSTM networks trained with manually crafted features to show that the automatically learned features in a globally trained 1D LSTM network with our normalization step can even outperform such systems.

  4. Carboxyl terminus-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors inhibit the ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Alfonzo-Méndez, Marco A; Castillo-Badillo, Jean A; Romero-Ávila, M Teresa; Rivera, Richard; Chun, Jerold; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

    2016-08-01

    Human α1D-adrenoceptors are G protein-coupled receptors that mediate adrenaline/noradrenaline actions. There is a growing interest in identifying regulatory domains in these receptors and determining how they function. In this work, we show that the absence of the human α1D-adrenoceptor carboxyl tail results in altered ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) and p38 phosphorylation states. Amino terminus-truncated and both amino and carboxyl termini-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors were transfected into Rat-1, HEK293, and B103 cells, and changes in the phosphorylation state of extracellular signal-regulated kinase was assessed using biochemical and biophysical approaches. The phosphorylation state of other protein kinases (p38, MEK1, and Raf-1) was also studied. Noradrenaline-induced ERK phosphorylation in Rat-1 fibroblasts expressing amino termini-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors. However, in cells expressing receptors with both amino and carboxyl termini truncations, noradrenaline-induced activation was abrogated. Interestingly, ERK phosphorylation that normally occurs through activation of endogenous G protein-coupled receptors, EGF receptors, and protein kinase C, was also decreased, suggesting that downstream steps in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway were affected. A similar effect was observed in B103 cells but not in HEK 293 cells. Phosphorylation of Raf-1 and MEK1 was also diminished in Rat-1 fibroblasts expressing amino- and carboxyl-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors. Our data indicate that expression of carboxyl terminus-truncated α1D-adrenoceptors alters ERK and p38 phosphorylation state. PMID:27146292

  5. Characterisation and improvement of j(O1D) filter radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Birger; Heard, Dwayne E.; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Plass-Dülmer, Christian; Schmitt, Rainer; Whalley, Lisa K.

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric O3 → O(1D) photolysis frequencies j(O1D) are crucial parameters for atmospheric photochemistry because of their importance for primary OH formation. Filter radiometers have been used for many years for in situ field measurements of j(O1D). Typically the relationship between the output of the instruments and j(O1D) is non-linear because of changes in the shape of the solar spectrum dependent on solar zenith angles and total ozone columns. These non-linearities can be compensated for by a correction method based on laboratory measurements of the spectral sensitivity of the filter radiometer and simulated solar actinic flux density spectra. Although this correction is routinely applied, the results of a previous field comparison study of several filter radiometers revealed that some corrections were inadequate. In this work the spectral characterisations of seven instruments were revised, and the correction procedures were updated and harmonised considering recent recommendations of absorption cross sections and quantum yields of the photolysis process O3 → O(1D). Previous inconsistencies were largely removed using these procedures. In addition, optical interference filters were replaced to improve the spectral properties of the instruments. Successive determinations of spectral sensitivities and field comparisons of the modified instruments with a spectroradiometer reference confirmed the improved performance. Overall, filter radiometers remain a low-maintenance alternative of spectroradiometers for accurate measurements of j(O1D) provided their spectral properties are known and potential drifts in sensitivities are monitored by regular calibrations with standard lamps or reference instruments.

  6. Modeling of general 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media using EIGER.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, Donald R.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Celepcikay, Ferhat T.; Johnson, William Arthur; Baccarelli, Paolo; Valerio, Guido; Paulotto, Simone; Langston, William L.; Jackson, David R.

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a mixed-potential integral-equation formulation for analyzing 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media. The structures are periodic in one dimension and finite in the other two dimensions. The unit cell consists of an arbitrary-shaped metallic/dielectric structure. The formulation has been implemented in the EIGER{trademark} code in order to obtain the real and complex propagation wavenumbers of the bound and leaky modes of such structures. Validation results presented here include a 1-D periodic planar leaky-wave antenna and a fully 3-D waveguide test case.

  7. Modeling of general 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media with EIGER.

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, Donald R.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Celepcikay, F. T.; Johnson, William Arthur; Baccarelli, Paolo; Valerio, G.; Paulotto, Simone; Langston, William L.; Jackson, David R.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a mixed-potential integral-equation formulation for analyzing 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media. The structures are periodic in one dimension and finite in the other two dimensions. The unit cell consists of an arbitrary-shaped metallic/dielectric structure. The formulation has been implemented in the EIGER{trademark} code in order to obtain the real and complex propagation wavenumbers of the bound and leaky modes of such structures. Validation results presented here include a 1-D periodic planar leaky-wave antenna and a fully 3-D waveguide test case.

  8. Lattice study of (D¯ 1D*)± near-threshold scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Chen, Ying; Gong, Ming; Lei, Yu-Hong; Li, Ning; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yu-Bin; Liu, Zhao-Feng; Ma, Jian-Ping; Wang, Zhan-Lin; Zhang, Jian-Bo; Clqcd Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    In this exploratory lattice study, low-energy near threshold scattering of the (D¯1D*)± meson system is analyzed using lattice QCD with Nf=2 twisted mass fermion configurations. Both s-wave (JP=0-) and p-wave (JP=1+) channels are investigated. It is found that the interaction between the two charmed mesons is attractive near the threshold in both channels. This calculation provides some hints in the searching of resonances or bound states around the threshold of (D¯1D*)± system.

  9. DOPEX-1D2C: A one-dimensional, two-constraint radiation shield optimization code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahti, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    A one-dimensional, two-constraint radiation sheild weight optimization procedure and a computer program, DOPEX-1D2C, is described. The DOPEX-1D2C uses the steepest descent method to alter a set of initial (input) thicknesses of a spherical shield configuration to achieve a minimum weight while simultaneously satisfying two dose-rate constraints. The code assumes an exponential dose-shield thickness relation with parameters specified by the user. Code input instruction, a FORTRAN-4 listing, and a sample problem are given. Typical computer time required to optimize a seven-layer shield is less than 1/2 minute on an IBM 7094.

  10. Epitaxial 1D electron transport layers for high-performance perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Gill Sang; Chung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kim, Byeong Jo; Lee, Jin-Wook; Park, Nam-Gyu; Cho, In Sun; Lee, Jung-Kun; Lee, Sangwook; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate high-performance perovskite solar cells with excellent electron transport properties using a one-dimensional (1D) electron transport layer (ETL). The 1D array-based ETL is comprised of 1D SnO2 nanowires (NWs) array grown on a F:SnO2 transparent conducting oxide substrate and rutile TiO2 nanoshells epitaxially grown on the surface of the 1D SnO2 NWs. The optimized devices show more than 95% internal quantum yield at 750 nm, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.2%. The high quantum yield is attributed to dramatically enhanced electron transport in the epitaxial TiO2 layer, compared to that in conventional nanoparticle-based mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) layers. In addition, the open space in the 1D array-based ETL increases the prevalence of uniform TiO2/perovskite junctions, leading to reproducible device performance with a high fill factor. This work offers a method to achieve reproducible, high-efficiency perovskite solar cells with high-speed electron transport.We demonstrate high-performance perovskite solar cells with excellent electron transport properties using a one-dimensional (1D) electron transport layer (ETL). The 1D array-based ETL is comprised of 1D SnO2 nanowires (NWs) array grown on a F:SnO2 transparent conducting oxide substrate and rutile TiO2 nanoshells epitaxially grown on the surface of the 1D SnO2 NWs. The optimized devices show more than 95% internal quantum yield at 750 nm, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.2%. The high quantum yield is attributed to dramatically enhanced electron transport in the epitaxial TiO2 layer, compared to that in conventional nanoparticle-based mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) layers. In addition, the open space in the 1D array-based ETL increases the prevalence of uniform TiO2/perovskite junctions, leading to reproducible device performance with a high fill factor. This work offers a method to achieve reproducible, high-efficiency perovskite solar cells with high-speed electron transport

  11. Development of novel implants with self-antibacterial performance through in-situ growth of 1D ZnO nanowire.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhao; Li, Tak Lung; Wong, Hoi Man; Chu, Paul K; Kao, Richard Y T; Wu, Shuilin; Leung, Frankie K L; Wong, Tak Man; To, Michael K T; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Yeung, Kelvin W K

    2016-05-01

    To prevent the attachment of bacteria to implant surfaces, the 1D zinc oxide nanowire-coating has been successfully developed on material surfaces by using a custom-made hydrothermal approach. The chemical nature, surface topography and wettability of spike-like 1D ZnO nanowire-coating are comprehensively investigated. The anti-adhesive and antimicrobial properties of 1D nanowire-coating are tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli by using in vitro live/dead staining and scanning electron microscopy. We find that the adhesion of bacteria can be reduced via the special spike-like topography and that the release of Zn(2+) ions can help suppress the growth of attached bacteria. Furthermore, the antimicrobial effect is also evaluated under in vivo conditions by using a rat model infected with bioluminescent S. aureus. The amount of live bacteria in the rat implanted with a nanowire-coated sample is less than that of the control at various time points. Hence, it is believed that the nanowire-coated material is promising for application in orthopaedic implantation after the long-term animal studies have been completed. PMID:26918511

  12. Mississippi Special Olympics: Special Events Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Toni; Cooper, Walter E.

    Provided in the manual are organizational guidelines and suggested activities for a Special Evants segment of the Mississippi Special Olympics Program to encourage participation by low motor functioning, multihandicapped, mentally retarded persons. Information is provided concerning objectives, organizational set-up, guidelines, communication…

  13. SPECIAL CLASSES FOR STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOWELL, G.L.

    A SPECIAL 3-YEAR TRAINING PROGRAM IN FARM POWER AND MACHINERY WAS DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE FOR DIFFERENT LEVELS OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT AND TO HELP MEET THE NEED FOR SKILLED WORKERS IN THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA AREA. CHANGES IN THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT OF STUDENTS TRANSFERRED FROM REGULAR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CLASSES TO THE SPECIAL CLASSES PROVIDE A MORE…

  14. 1. D Street (south) facade (short side) and 9th Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. D Street (south) facade (short side) and 9th Street (west) facade (long side). North of the D Street facade is the Edward Abner Building (413-415 9th Street) and north of it is the Ferree Building (417 9th Street). - PMI Parking Garage, 403-407 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Localized self-heating in large arrays of 1D nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Monereo, O; Illera, S; Varea, A; Schmidt, M; Sauerwald, T; Schütze, A; Cirera, A; Prades, J D

    2016-03-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer a promising path towards highly efficient heating and temperature control in integrated microsystems. The so called self-heating effect can be used to modulate the response of solid state gas sensor devices. In this work, efficient self-heating was found to occur at random networks of nanostructured systems with similar power requirements to highly ordered systems (e.g. individual nanowires, where their thermal efficiency was attributed to the small dimensions of the objects). Infrared thermography and Raman spectroscopy were used to map the temperature profiles of films based on random arrangements of carbon nanofibers during self-heating. Both the techniques demonstrate consistently that heating concentrates in small regions, the here-called "hot-spots". On correlating dynamic temperature mapping with electrical measurements, we also observed that these minute hot-spots rule the resistance values observed macroscopically. A physical model of a random network of 1D resistors helped us to explain this observation. The model shows that, for a given random arrangement of 1D nanowires, current spreading through the network ends up defining a set of spots that dominate both the electrical resistance and power dissipation. Such highly localized heating explains the high power savings observed in larger nanostructured systems. This understanding opens a path to design highly efficient self-heating systems, based on random or pseudo-random distributions of 1D nanostructures. PMID:26868599

  16. CD1d-restricted peripheral T cell lymphoma in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Bachy, Emmanuel; Urb, Mirjam; Chandra, Shilpi; Robinot, Rémy; Bricard, Gabriel; de Bernard, Simon; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Gazzo, Sophie; Blond, Olivier; Khurana, Archana; Baseggio, Lucile; Heavican, Tayla; Ffrench, Martine; Crispatzu, Giuliano; Mondière, Paul; Schrader, Alexandra; Taillardet, Morgan; Thaunat, Olivier; Martin, Nadine; Dalle, Stéphane; Le Garff-Tavernier, Magali; Salles, Gilles; Lachuer, Joel; Hermine, Olivier; Asnafi, Vahid; Roussel, Mikael; Lamy, Thierry; Herling, Marco; Iqbal, Javeed; Buffat, Laurent; Marche, Patrice N; Gaulard, Philippe; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Defrance, Thierry; Genestier, Laurent

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a heterogeneous entity of neoplasms with poor prognosis, lack of effective therapies, and a largely unknown pathophysiology. Identifying the mechanism of lymphomagenesis and cell-of-origin from which PTCLs arise is crucial for the development of efficient treatment strategies. In addition to the well-described thymic lymphomas, we found that p53-deficient mice also developed mature PTCLs that did not originate from conventional T cells but from CD1d-restricted NKT cells. PTCLs showed phenotypic features of activated NKT cells, such as PD-1 up-regulation and loss of NK1.1 expression. Injections of heat-killed Streptococcus pneumonia, known to express glycolipid antigens activating NKT cells, increased the incidence of these PTCLs, whereas Escherichia coli injection did not. Gene expression profile analyses indicated a significant down-regulation of genes in the TCR signaling pathway in PTCL, a common feature of chronically activated T cells. Targeting TCR signaling pathway in lymphoma cells, either with cyclosporine A or anti-CD1d blocking antibody, prolonged mice survival. Importantly, we identified human CD1d-restricted lymphoma cells within Vδ1 TCR-expressing PTCL. These results define a new subtype of PTCL and pave the way for the development of blocking anti-CD1d antibody for therapeutic purposes in humans. PMID:27069116

  17. On the extrema of a nonconvex functional with double-well potential in 1D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, David Yang; Lu, Xiaojun

    2016-06-01

    This paper mainly investigates the extrema of a nonconvex functional with double-well potential in 1D through the approach of nonlinear differential equations. Based on the canonical duality method, the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equation with Neumann boundary condition can be converted into a cubic dual algebraic equation, which will help find the local extrema for the primal problem.

  18. Quasi 1-D Study of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Blowdown Gasdynamics and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2002-01-01

    Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) offer potential performance improvements over conventional designs, but represent a challenging modeling task. A quasi 1-D, finite-rate chemistry CFD model for a PDRE is described and implemented. A parametric study of the effect of blowdown pressure ratio on the performance of several different PDRE nozzle configurations is reported.

  19. Canonical decomposition of magnetotelluric responses: Experiment on 1D anisotropic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ze-qiu; Wei, Wen-bo; Ye, Gao-feng; Jin, Sheng; Jing, Jian-en

    2015-08-01

    Horizontal electrical heterogeneity of subsurface earth is mostly originated from structural complexity and electrical anisotropy, and local near-surface electrical heterogeneity will severely distort regional electromagnetic responses. Conventional distortion analyses for magnetotelluric soundings are primarily physical decomposition methods with respect to isotropic models, which mostly presume that the geoelectric distribution of geological structures is of local and regional patterns represented by 3D/2D models. Due to the widespread anisotropy of earth media, the confusion between 1D anisotropic responses and 2D isotropic responses, and the defects of physical decomposition methods, we propose to conduct modeling experiments with canonical decomposition in terms of 1D layered anisotropic models, and the method is one of the mathematical decomposition methods based on eigenstate analyses differentiated from distortion analyses, which can be used to recover electrical information such as strike directions, and maximum and minimum conductivity. We tested this method with numerical simulation experiments on several 1D synthetic models, which turned out that canonical decomposition is quite effective to reveal geological anisotropic information. Finally, for the background of anisotropy from previous study by geological and seismological methods, canonical decomposition is applied to real data acquired in North China Craton for 1D anisotropy analyses, and the result shows that, with effective modeling and cautious interpretation, canonical decomposition could be another good method to detect anisotropy of geological media.

  20. HYDRUS-1D Modeling of an Irrigated Agricultural Plot with Application to Aquifer Recharge Estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of methods are available for estimating aquifer recharge in semi-arid regions, each with advantages and disadvantages. We are investigating a procedure for estimating recharge in an irrigated basin. The method involves computing irrigation return flows based on HYDRUS-1D modeling of root z...

  1. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of 1D TiO2 nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Julieta; Alarcón, Hugo; López, Alcides; Candal, Roberto; Acosta, Dwight; Rodriguez, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Nanowire/nanorod TiO(2) structures of approximately 8 nm in diameter and around 1,000 nm long were synthesized by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of two different TiO(2) nanopowders. The first precursor was TiO(2) obtained by the sol-gel process (SG-TiO(2)); the second was the well-known commercial TiO(2) P-25 (P25-TiO(2)). Anatase-like 1D TiO(2) nanostructures were obtained in both cases. The one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures synthesized from SG-TiO(2) powders turned into rod-like nanostructures after annealing at 400 °C for 2 h. Conversely, the nanostructures synthesized from P25-TiO(2) preserved the tubular structure after annealing, displaying a higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area than the first system (279 and 97 m²/g, respectively). Despite the higher surface area shown by the 1D nanostructures, in both cases the photocatalytic activity was lower than for the P25-TiO(2) powder. However, the rod-like nanostructures obtained from SG-TiO(2) displayed slightly higher efficiency than the sol-gel prepared powders. The lower photocatalytic activity of the nanostructures with respect to P-25 can be associated with the lower crystallinity of 1D TiO(2) in both materials. PMID:25259484

  2. Observing the 1D-3D Crossover in a Spin-Imbalanced Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelle, Melissa C.; Fry, Jacob A.; Olsen, Ben A.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2016-05-01

    Trapped two-component Fermi gases phase separate into superfluid and normal phases when their spin populations are imbalanced. In 3D, a balanced superfluid core is surrounded by shells of partially polarized and normal phases, while in 1D, the balanced superfluid occupies the low density wings. We explored the crossover from 3D to 1D using a two-spin component ultracold atomic gas of 6 Li prepared in the lowest two hyperfine sublevels, where the interactions are tuned by a Feshbach resonance. The atoms are confined to 1D tubes where the tunneling rate t between tubes is varied by changing the depth of a 2D optical lattice. We observe the transition from 1D to 3D-like phase separation by varying t and interaction strength which changes the pair binding energy ɛB. We find a universal scaling of the dimensional crossover with t /ɛB , in agreement with previous theory. The crossover region is believed to be the most promising to find the exotic FFLO superfluid phase. Supported by the NSF and the Welch Foundation.

  3. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    PubMed Central

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748–12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  4. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d.

    PubMed

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C; Malhi, Ripan S

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748-12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  5. Toward Structural Correctness: Aquatolide and the Importance of 1D Proton NMR FID Archiving

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The revision of the structure of the sesquiterpene aquatolide from a bicyclo[2.2.0]hexane to a bicyclo[2.1.1]hexane structure using compelling NMR data, X-ray crystallography, and the recent confirmation via full synthesis exemplify that the achievement of “structural correctness” depends on the completeness of the experimental evidence. Archived FIDs and newly acquired aquatolide spectra demonstrate that archiving and rigorous interpretation of 1D 1H NMR data may enhance the reproducibility of (bio)chemical research and curb the growing trend of structural misassignments. Despite being the most accessible NMR experiment, 1D 1H spectra encode a wealth of information about bonds and molecular geometry that may be fully mined by 1H iterative full spin analysis (HiFSA). Fully characterized 1D 1H spectra are unideterminant for a given structure. The corresponding FIDs may be readily submitted with publications and collected in databases. Proton NMR spectra are indispensable for structural characterization even in conjunction with 2D data. Quantum interaction and linkage tables (QuILTs) are introduced for a more intuitive visualization of 1D J-coupling relationships, NOESY correlations, and heteronuclear experiments. Overall, this study represents a significant contribution to best practices in NMR-based structural analysis and dereplication. PMID:26812443

  6. On the self-assembly of TiOx into 1D NP network nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redel, Engelbert; Sai Kiran Chakravadhanula, Venkata; Lan, Yanhua; Natzeck, Carsten; Heissler, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    Here, we report for the first time a ‘ligand free’ method of designing 1D TiOx supramolecular network materials, which starts from Ti bare metal powder. Each TiOx oxidation step has been carefully investigated with different analytical techniques, including high resolution transmission electron microscopy/high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRTEM/HRSEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements. The self-assembly of TiOx nanoparticles (NPs) into 1D supramolecular nanoparticle networks is induced by the formation of mixed valent TiII,III species. The synthesis starts with etching a bare Ti surface, followed by a continuous oxidation of TiOx clusters and NPs, and it finally ends with the self-assembly into rigid 1D NPs chains. Today, such self-assembled 1D NP TiOx network materials are bridging the gap between the nanoscale and the macroscopic material world and will further provide interesting research opportunities.

  7. Toward Structural Correctness: Aquatolide and the Importance of 1D Proton NMR FID Archiving.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Guido F; Niemitz, Matthias; Bisson, Jonathan; Lodewyk, Michael W; Soldi, Cristian; Shaw, Jared T; Tantillo, Dean J; Saya, Jordy M; Vos, Klaas; Kleinnijenhuis, Roel A; Hiemstra, Henk; Chen, Shao-Nong; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Friesen, J Brent

    2016-02-01

    The revision of the structure of the sesquiterpene aquatolide from a bicyclo[2.2.0]hexane to a bicyclo[2.1.1]hexane structure using compelling NMR data, X-ray crystallography, and the recent confirmation via full synthesis exemplify that the achievement of "structural correctness" depends on the completeness of the experimental evidence. Archived FIDs and newly acquired aquatolide spectra demonstrate that archiving and rigorous interpretation of 1D (1)H NMR data may enhance the reproducibility of (bio)chemical research and curb the growing trend of structural misassignments. Despite being the most accessible NMR experiment, 1D (1)H spectra encode a wealth of information about bonds and molecular geometry that may be fully mined by (1)H iterative full spin analysis (HiFSA). Fully characterized 1D (1)H spectra are unideterminant for a given structure. The corresponding FIDs may be readily submitted with publications and collected in databases. Proton NMR spectra are indispensable for structural characterization even in conjunction with 2D data. Quantum interaction and linkage tables (QuILTs) are introduced for a more intuitive visualization of 1D J-coupling relationships, NOESY correlations, and heteronuclear experiments. Overall, this study represents a significant contribution to best practices in NMR-based structural analysis and dereplication. PMID:26812443

  8. Energy transformation of plasmonic photocatalytic oxidation on 1D quantum well of platinum thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hung Ji; Liu, Bo-Heng

    2015-12-01

    The energy transformation of vertical incident light into energy for a chemical reaction is demonstrated in the endothermic oxidation of ammonium ions in a spinning disk reactor. The plasmonic enhancement on photocatalytic reaction demonstrated the generation of quantum hot charge on 1D quantum well of platinum thin film.

  9. Build up An Operational Flood Simulation from Existing 1D Channel Flow Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Che-Hao; Hsu, Chih-Tsung; Wu, Shiang-Jen; Lien, Ho-Cheng; Shen, Jhih-Cyuan; Chung, Ming-Ko

    2016-04-01

    Several 2D flood simulations will be developed for urban area in recent years in Taiwan. Original ideas focus on the static flood maps produced by the 2D flood simulation with respect to design events, which could be useful no matter for planning or disaster awareness. However, an extra bonus is expected to see if we can reuse the 2D flood simulation framework for operational use or not. Such a project goal inspire us to setup a standard operation procedure before any progress from existing 1D channel flow works. 3 key issues are taken into account in the SOP: 1. High Resolution Terrain: A 1m resolution digital terrain model (DTM) is considered as a reference. The Channels and structures should be setup in 1D channel flow works if we can identify under such high resolution. One should examine the existing 1D channel flow works consistent with the DTM or not. 2. Meteo Stations Referenced: Real time precipitation would be send to referenced location in RR models during an operational forecast. Existing 1D channels flow works are usually specifically for design events which are not necessarily equipped with such references. 3. Time Consuming: A full scale 2D flood simulation needs a lot of computation resources. A solution should be derived within practical time limits. Under the above consideration, some impacts and procedures will be analyzed and developed to setup the SOP for further model modification.

  10. 2D/1D approximations to the 3D neutron transport equation. I: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, B. W.; Larsen, E. W.

    2013-07-01

    A new class of '2D/1D' approximations is proposed for the 3D linear Boltzmann equation. These approximate equations preserve the exact transport physics in the radial directions x and y and diffusion physics in the axial direction z. Thus, the 2D/1D equations are more accurate approximations of the 3D Boltzmann equation than the conventional 3D diffusion equation. The 2D/1D equations can be systematically discretized, to yield accurate simulation methods for 3D reactor core problems. The resulting solutions will be more accurate than 3D diffusion solutions, and less expensive to generate than standard 3D transport solutions. In this paper, we (i) show that the simplest 2D/1D equation has certain desirable properties, (ii) systematically discretize this equation, and (iii) derive a stable iteration scheme for solving the discrete system of equations. In a companion paper [1], we give numerical results that confirm the theoretical predictions of accuracy and iterative stability. (authors)

  11. Formation of 1D adsorbed water structures on CaO(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xunhua; Bhattacharya, Saswata; Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Scheffler, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the interaction of water with oxide surfaces is of fundamental importance for basic and engineering sciences. Recently, a spontaneous formation of one-dimensional (1D) adsorbed water structures have been observed on CaO(001). Interestingly, at other alkaline earth metal oxides, in particular MgO(001) and SrO(001), such structures have not been found experimentally. We calculate the relative stability of adsorbed water structures on the three oxides using density-functional theory combined with the ab initio atomistic thermodynamics. Low-energy structures at different coverages are obtained with a first-principles genetic algorithm. Finite-temperature vibrational spectra are calculated using ab initio molecular dynamics. We find a range of (T, p) conditions where 1D structures are thermodynamically stable on CaO(001). The orientation and vibrational spectra of the 1D structures are in agreement with the experiments. The formation of the 1D structures is found to be actuated by a symmetry breaking in the adsorbed water tetramer, as well as by a balance between water-water and water-substrate interactions, determined by the lattice constant of the oxide.

  12. Millimeter and Submillimeter Studies of O(^1D) Insertion Reactions to Form Molecules of Astrophysical Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Brian; Wehres, Nadine; Deprince, Bridget Alligood; Roy, Althea A. M.; Laas, Jacob; Widicus Weaver, Susanna L.

    2015-06-01

    While both the number of detected interstellar molecules and their chemical complexity continue to increase, understanding of the processes leading to their formation is lacking. Our research group combines laboratory spectroscopy, observational astronomy, and astrochemical modeling for an interdisciplinary examination of the chemistry of star and planet formation. This talk will focus on our laboratory studies of O(^1D) insertion reactions with organic molecules to produce molecules of astrophysical interest. By employing these reactions in a supersonic expansion, we are able to produce interstellar organic reaction intermediates that are unstable under terrestrial conditions; we then probe the products using millimeter and submillimeter spectroscopy. We benchmarked this setup using the well-studied O(^1D) + methane reaction to form methanol. After optimizing methanol production, we moved on to study the O(^1D) + ethylene reaction to form vinyl alcohol (CH_2CHOH), and the O(^1D) + methyl amine reaction to form aminomethanol (NH_2CH_2OH). Vinyl alcohol measurements have now been extended up to 450 GHz, and the associated spectral analysis is complete. A possible detection of aminomethanol has also been made, and continued spectral studies and analysis are underway. We will present the results from these experiments and discuss future applications of these molecular and spectroscopic techniques.

  13. A new EEG measure using the 1D cluster variation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maren, Alianna J.; Szu, Harold H.

    2015-05-01

    A new information measure, drawing on the 1-D Cluster Variation Method (CVM), describes local pattern distributions (nearest-neighbor and next-nearest neighbor) in a binary 1-D vector in terms of a single interaction enthalpy parameter h for the specific case where the fractions of elements in each of two states are the same (x1=x2=0.5). An example application of this method would be for EEG interpretation in Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs), especially in the frontier of invariant biometrics based on distinctive and invariant individual responses to stimuli containing an image of a person with whom there is a strong affiliative response (e.g., to a person's grandmother). This measure is obtained by mapping EEG observed configuration variables (z1, z2, z3 for next-nearest neighbor triplets) to h using the analytic function giving h in terms of these variables at equilibrium. This mapping results in a small phase space region of resulting h values, which characterizes local pattern distributions in the source data. The 1-D vector with equal fractions of units in each of the two states can be obtained using the method for transforming natural images into a binarized equi-probability ensemble (Saremi & Sejnowski, 2014; Stephens et al., 2013). An intrinsically 2-D data configuration can be mapped to 1-D using the 1-D Peano-Hilbert space-filling curve, which has demonstrated a 20 dB lower baseline using the method compared with other approaches (cf. SPIE ICA etc. by Hsu & Szu, 2014). This CVM-based method has multiple potential applications; one near-term one is optimizing classification of the EEG signals from a COTS 1-D BCI baseball hat. This can result in a convenient 3-D lab-tethered EEG, configured in a 1-D CVM equiprobable binary vector, and potentially useful for Smartphone wireless display. Longer-range applications include interpreting neural assembly activations via high-density implanted soft, cellular-scale electrodes.

  14. Crystal orbital studies on the 1D silic-diyne nanoribbons and nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ying; Bai, Hongcun; Huang, Yuanhe

    2016-02-01

    This work presents crystal orbital studies on novel one-dimensional (1D) nanoscale materials derived from a Si-diyne sheet, based on the density functional theory. The two-dimensional (2D) Si-diyne layer is observed to be carbo-merized silicene, with a similar structure to graphdiyne. The 2D Si-diyne and its 1D ribbons and tubes, of different size and chirality, have been addressed systematically. The low dimensional Si-diyne materials studied exhibit relatively high stability, according to phonon-frequency calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. With comparable diameters, the Si-diyne tubes have lower strain energies than silicene and silicon carbide nanotubes. The Si-diyne layer and its 1D derivatives are all semiconductors, regardless of the size and chirality of the strips and tubes. In addition, the band gaps of the 1D Si-diyne nanoribbons and nanotubes with different chirality, always monotonically decrease as their sizes increases. A quantitative relationship between the band gap and the size of the ribbons and tubes was obtained. The mobility of charge carriers for the 1D Si-diyne structures was also investigated. It was found that both hole and electron mobility of the ribbons and tubes exhibit linear increase with increasing size. The electrons have greater mobility than the holes for each strip and tube. In addition, the mechanical properties of the Si-diyne nanostructures were also investigated by calculation of the Young’s modulus and the Poisson’s ratio.

  15. Role of α1D -adrenoceptors in vascular wall hypertrophy during angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Ortíz, I A; Rodríguez-Hernández, S N; López-Guerrero, J J; Del Valle-Mondragón, L; López-Sánchez, P; Touyz, R M; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2015-09-01

    The in vivo effect of continuous angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion on arterial blood pressure, vascular hypertrophy and α1 -adrenoceptors (α1 -ARs) expression was explored. Alzet(®) minipumps filled with Ang II (200 ng kg(-1)  min(-1) ) were subcutaneously implanted in male Wistar rats (3 months-old). Groups of rats were also treated with losartan, an AT1 R antagonist, or with BMY 7378, a selective α1D -AR antagonist. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff; after 2 or 4 weeks of treatment, vessels were isolated for functional and structural analyses. Angiotensin II increased systolic blood pressure. Phenylephrine-induced contraction in aorta was greater (40% higher) in Ang II-treated rats than in the controls, and similar effect occurred with KCl 80 mm. Responses in tail arteries were not significantly different among the different groups. Angiotensin II decreased α1D -ARs without modifying the other α1 -ARs and induced an increase in media thickness (hypertrophy) in aorta, while no structural change occurred in tail artery. Losartan prevented and reversed hypertension and hypertrophy, while BMY 7378 prevented and reversed the aorta's hypertrophic response, without preventing or reversing hypertension. Findings indicate that Ang II-induced aortic hypertrophic response involves Ang II-AT1 Rs and α1D -ARs. Angiotensin II-induced α1D -AR-mediated vascular remodeling occurs independently of hypertension. Findings identify a α1D -AR-mediated process whereby Ang II influences aortic hypertrophy independently of blood pressure elevation. PMID:26845248

  16. Deletion of the Rab GAP Tbc1d1 modifies glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hargett, Stefan R; Walker, Natalie N; Hussain, Syed S; Hoehn, Kyle L; Keller, Susanna R

    2015-08-01

    Tbc1d1 is a Rab GTPase-activating protein (GAP) implicated in regulating intracellular retention and cell surface localization of the glucose transporter GLUT4 and thus glucose uptake in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Tbc1d1 is most abundant in skeletal muscle but is expressed at varying levels among different skeletal muscles. Previous studies with male Tbc1d1-deficient (Tbc1d1(-/-)) mice on standard and high-fat diets established a role for Tbc1d1 in glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis. Here we describe similar, but also additional abnormalities in male and female Tbc1d1(-/-) mice. We corroborate that Tbc1d1 loss leads to skeletal muscle-specific and skeletal muscle type-dependent abnormalities in GLUT4 expression and glucose uptake in female and male mice. Using subcellular fractionation, we show that Tbc1d1 controls basal intracellular GLUT4 retention in large skeletal muscles. However, cell surface labeling of extensor digitorum longus muscle indicates that Tbc1d1 does not regulate basal GLUT4 cell surface exposure as previously suggested. Consistent with earlier observations, female and male Tbc1d1(-/-) mice demonstrate increased energy expenditure and skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation. Interestingly, we observe sex-dependent differences in in vivo phenotypes. Female, but not male, Tbc1d1(-/-) mice have decreased body weight and impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, but only male Tbc1d1(-/-) mice show increased lipid clearance after oil gavage. We surmise that similar changes at the tissue level cause differences in whole-body metabolism between male and female Tbc1d1(-/-) mice and between male Tbc1d1(-/-) mice in different studies due to variations in body composition and nutrient handling. PMID:26015432

  17. Modeling of impurity spectroscopy in the divertor and SOL of DIII-D using the 1D multifluid model NEWT1D

    SciTech Connect

    West, W.P.; Evans, T.E.; Brooks, N.H.

    1996-10-01

    NEWT1D, a one dimensional multifluid model of the scrape-off layer and divertor plasma, has been used to model the plasma including the distribution of carbon ionization states in the SOL and divertor of ELMing H-mode at two injected power levels in DIII-D. Comparison of the code predictions to the measured divertor and scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma density and temperature shows good agreement. Comparison of the predicted line emissions to the spectroscopic data suggests that physically sputtered carbon from the strike point is not transported up the flux tube; a distributed source of carbon a few centimeters up the flux tube is required to achieve reasonable agreement.

  18. Special Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abang, Theresa B.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the special education system in Nigeria, focusing on integration; training of special educators; medical, health, and welfare services for children with disabilities; recreational facilities; employment opportunities; national planning; and problems and successes. (JDD)

  19. Codes with special correlation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumert, L. D.

    1964-01-01

    Uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets

  20. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, L.; Jamieson, L.H.; Gannon, D.B.; Siegel, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book is based on a workshop which dealt with array processors. Topics considered include algorithmic specialization using VLSI, innovative architectures, signal processing, speech recognition, image processing, specialized architectures for numerical computations, and general-purpose computers.

  1. Mentorship of Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Jennifer Booker; Schroth-Cavataio, Georganne

    2012-01-01

    The national shortage and exceptionally high attrition rate of special education teachers are impediments to serving students with special needs. Given that only 64 percent of special education teachers have access to a mentor compared with 86 percent of general education teachers, this book meets an essential need for attracting, retaining, and…

  2. Special Effects Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Jennifer; Valenta, Carol

    This guide accompanies "Special Effects," a 40-minute IMAX film and "Special Effects II", a multimedia, interactive traveling exhibit designed by the California Museum of Science and Industry. The exhibit focuses on the underlying scientific and technical processes of special effects from the earliest motion picture to state-of-the-art digital…

  3. Mentoring Special Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Keith E.; Edwards, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Mentorship is critical for career development. Members of special populations are at increased risk of information shortfalls and advice that is not framed with cultural sensitivity. Special knowledge and skills are needed to successfully mentor members of ethnic minority and other special populations. Midlevel and senior scientists need…

  4. Assessing Special Educational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfendale, Sheila, Ed.

    This essays in this book contain valuable and up-to-date information about current issues and developments in assessing special educational needs. The context of the book is the mainstream setting in the United Kingdom. The aim of these chapters is to consider special needs in inclusive education, consistent with British special needs legislation.…

  5. O(1D) kinetic study of key ozone depleting substances and greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Fleming, Eric L; Jackman, Charles H; Burkholder, James B

    2013-03-28

    A key stratospheric loss process for ozone depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is reaction with the O((1)D) atom. In this study, rate coefficients, k, for the O((1)D) atom reaction were measured for the following key halocarbons: chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) CFCl3 (CFC-11), CF2Cl2 (CFC-12), CFCl2CF2Cl (CFC-113), CF2ClCF2Cl (CFC-114), CF3CF2Cl (CFC-115); hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3CClF2 (HCFC-142b); and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) CHF3 (HFC-23), CHF2CF3 (HFC-125), CH3CF3 (HFC-143a), and CF3CHFCF3 (HFC-227ea). Total rate coefficients, kT, corresponding to the loss of the O((1)D) atom, were measured over the temperature range 217-373 K using a competitive reactive technique. kT values for the CFC and HCFC reactions were >1 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), except for CFC-115, and the rate coefficients for the HFCs were in the range (0.095-0.72) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Rate coefficients for the CFC-12, CFC-114, CFC-115, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea reactions were observed to have a weak negative temperature dependence, E/R ≈ -25 K. Reactive rate coefficients, kR, corresponding to the loss of the halocarbon, were measured for CFC-11, CFC-115, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HFC-23, HFC-125, HFC-143a, and HFC-227ea using a relative rate technique. The reactive branching ratio obtained was dependent on the composition of the halocarbon and the trend in O((1)D) reactivity with the extent of hydrogen and chlorine substitution is discussed. The present results are critically compared with previously reported kinetic data and the discrepancies are discussed. 2D atmospheric model calculations were used to evaluate the local and global annually averaged atmospheric lifetimes of the halocarbons and the contribution of O((1)D) chemistry to their atmospheric loss. The O((1)D) reaction was found to be a major global loss process for CFC-114 and CFC-115 and a secondary global loss process for the other molecules included

  6. Dynamics of reactions O((1)D)+C(6)H(6) and C(6)D(6).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Fen; Liang, Chi-Wei; Lin, Jim J; Lee, Yuan-Pern; Ogilvie, J F; Xu, Z F; Lin, M C

    2008-11-01

    The reaction between O((1)D) and C(6)H(6) (or C(6)D(6)) was investigated with crossed-molecular-beam reactive scattering and time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. From the crossed-molecular-beam experiments, four product channels were identified. The major channel is the formation of three fragments CO+C(5)H(5)+H; the channels for formation of C(5)H(6)+CO and C(6)H(5)O+H from O((1)D)+C(6)H(6) and OD+C(6)D(5) from O((1)D)+C(6)D(6) are minor. The angular distributions for the formation of CO and H indicate a mechanism involving a long-lived collision complex. Rotationally resolved infrared emission spectra of CO (11)D)+C(6)H(6) and [CO]/[OD]>2.9 for O((1)D)+C(6)D(6) is consistent with the expectation for an abstraction reaction. The mechanism of the reaction may be understood from considering the energetics of the intermediate species and transition states calculated at the G2M(CC5) level of theory for the O((1)D)+C(6)H(6) reaction. The experimentally observed branching ratios and deuterium isotope effect are consistent with those predicted from calculations. PMID:19045343

  7. TCTEX1D4 Interactome in Human Testis: Unraveling the Function of Dynein Light Chain in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Maria João; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Morais-Santos, Filipa; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Studies were designed to identify the TCTEX1D4 interactome in human testis, with the purpose of unraveling putative protein complexes essential to male reproduction and thus novel TCTEX1D4 functions. TCTEX1D4 is a dynein light chain that belongs to the DYNT1/TCTEX1 family. In spermatozoa, it appears to be important to sperm motility, intraflagellar transport, and acrosome reaction. To contribute to the knowledge on TCTEX1D4 function in testis and spermatozoa, a yeast two-hybrid assay was performed in testis, which allowed the identification of 40 novel TCTEX1D4 interactors. Curiously, another dynein light chain, TCTEX1D2, was identified and its existence demonstrated for the first time in human spermatozoa. Immunofluorescence studies proved that TCTEX1D2 is an intra-acrosomal protein also present in the midpiece, suggesting a role in cargo movement in human spermatozoa. Further, an in silico profile of TCTEX1D4 revealed that most TCTEX1D4 interacting proteins were not previously characterized and the ones described present a very broad nature. This reinforces TCTEX1D4 as a dynein light chain that is capable of interacting with a variety of functionally different proteins. These observations collectively contribute to a deeper molecular understanding of the human spermatozoa function. PMID:24606217

  8. Ubiquitination and degradation of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 is regulated by protein palmitoylation

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Chen; Lange, Jeffrey J.; Samovski, Dmitri; Su, Xiong; Liu, Jialiu; Sundaresan, Sinju; Stahl, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    Expression of the hominoid-specific oncoprotein TBC1D3 promotes enhanced cell growth and proliferation by increased activation of signal transduction through several growth factors. Recently we documented the role of CUL7 E3 ligase in growth factors-induced ubiquitination and degradation of TBC1D3. Here we expanded our study to discover additional molecular mechanisms that control TBC1D3 protein turnover. We report that TBC1D3 is palmitoylated on two cysteine residues: 318 and 325. The expression of double palmitoylation mutant TBC1D3:C318/325S resulted in protein mislocalization and enhanced growth factors-induced TBC1D3 degradation. Moreover, ubiquitination of TBC1D3 via CUL7 E3 ligase complex was increased by mutating the palmitoylation sites, suggesting that depalmitoylation of TBC1D3 makes the protein more available for ubiquitination and degradation. The results reported here provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern TBC1D3 protein degradation. Dysregulation of these mechanisms in-vivo could potentially result in aberrant TBC1D3 expression and promote oncogenesis. PMID:23578663

  9. Generation and characterization of CD1d-specific single-domain antibodies with distinct functional features.

    PubMed

    Lameris, Roeland; de Bruin, Renée C G; van Bergen En Henegouwen, Paul M P; Verheul, Henk M; Zweegman, Sonja; de Gruijl, Tanja D; van der Vliet, Hans J

    2016-09-01

    Ligation of the CD1d antigen-presenting molecule by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can trigger important biological functions. For therapeutic purposes camelid-derived variable domain of heavy-chain-only antibodies (VHH) have multiple advantages over mAbs because they are small, stable and have low immunogenicity. Here, we generated 21 human CD1d-specific VHH by immunizing Lama glama and subsequent phage display. Two clones induced maturation of dendritic cells, one clone induced early apoptosis in CD1d-expressing B lymphoblasts and multiple myeloma cells, and another clone blocked recognition of glycolipid-loaded CD1d by CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells. In contrast to reported CD1d-specific mAbs, these CD1d-specific VHH have the unique characteristic that they induce specific and well-defined biological effects. This feature, combined with the above-indicated general advantages of VHH, make the CD1d-specific VHH generated here unique and useful tools to exploit both CD1d ligation as well as disruption of CD1d-iNKT interactions in the treatment of cancer or inflammatory disorders. PMID:27312006

  10. Hyperbranched quasi-1D TiO2 nanostructure for hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ghadirzadeh, Ali; Passoni, Luca; Grancini, Giulia; Terraneo, Giancarlo; Li Bassi, Andrea; Petrozza, Annamaria; Di Fonzo, Fabio

    2015-04-15

    The performance of hybrid solar cells is strongly affected by the device morphology. In this work, we demonstrate a poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)/TiO2 hybrid solar cell where the TiO2 photoanode comprises an array of tree-like hyperbranched quasi-1D nanostructures self-assembled from the gas phase. This advanced architecture enables us to increase the power conversion efficiency to over 1%, doubling the efficiency with respect to state of the art devices employing standard mesoporous titania photoanodes. This improvement is attributed to several peculiar features of this array of nanostructures: high interfacial area; increased optical density thanks to the enhanced light scattering; and enhanced crystallization of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) inside the quasi-1D nanostructure. PMID:25822757

  11. Microstates of the D1-D5-Kaluza-Klein monopole system

    SciTech Connect

    Bena, Iosif; Kraus, Per

    2005-07-15

    We find supergravity solutions corresponding to all U(1)xU(1) invariant chiral primaries of the D1-D5-KK system. These solutions are 1/8 BPS, carry angular momentum, and are asymptotically flat in the 3+1 dimensional sense. They can be thought of as representing the ground states of the four-dimensional black hole constructed from the D1-D5-KK-P system. Demanding the absence of unphysical singularities in our solutions determines all free parameters, and gives precise agreement with the quantum numbers expected from the CFT point of view. The physical mechanism behind the smoothness of the solutions is that the D1 branes and D5 branes expand into a KK-monopole supertube in the transverse space of the original KK monopole.

  12. Na-ion dynamics in Quasi-1D compound NaV2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Månsson, M.; Umegaki, I.; Nozaki, H.; Higuchi, Y.; Kawasaki, I.; Watanabe, I.; Sakurai, H.; Sugiyama, J.

    2014-12-01

    We have used the pulsed muon source at ISIS to study high-temperature Na-ion dynamics in the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) metallic antiferromagnet NaV2O4. By performing systematic zero-field and longitudinal-field measurements as a function of temperature we clearly distinguish that the hopping rate increases exponentially above Tdiff ≈ 250 K. The data is well fitted to an Arrhenius type equation typical for a diffusion process, showing that the Na-ions starts to be mobile above Tdiff. Such results make this compound very interesting for the tuning of Q1D magnetism using atomic-scale ion-texturing through the periodic potential from ordered Na-vacancies. Further, it also opens the door to possible use of NaV2O4 and related compounds in energy related applications.

  13. X(3872) as the {sup 1}D{sub 2} charmonium

    SciTech Connect

    Kalashnikova, Yu. S.; Nefediev, A. V.

    2013-12-15

    The {sup 1}D{sub 2} charmonium assignment for the X(3872) is considered, which is compatible with the 2{sup −+} quantum numbers, as favoured by the BABAR Collaboration analysis presented recently for the π{sup +}π{sup −}π{sup 0}J/ψ decay mode. It is demonstrated that established properties of the X(3872) are in a drastic conflict with the {sup 1}D{sub 2}c c-bar assignment. Furthermore, it is argued that a combined analysis of the data for different decay channels of the X, with the help of theoretical formulae which meet a number of constraints imposed by phenomenology, results in a suitable description of the experimental data for the X compatible with its quantum numbers 1{sup ++}.

  14. Slice imaging of nitric acid photodissociation: The O({sup 1}D) + HONO channel

    SciTech Connect

    Herath, Nuradhika; Everhart, Stephanie C.; Suits, Arthur G.; Vasyuntinskii, Oleg S.

    2011-01-21

    We report an imaging study of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) photodissociation near 204 nm with detection of O({sup 1}D), one of the major decomposition products in this region. The images show structure reflecting the vibrational distribution of the HONO coproduct and significant angular anisotropy that varies with recoil speed. The images also show substantial alignment of the O({sup 1}D) orbital, which is analyzed using an approximate treatment that reveals that the polarization is dominated by incoherent, high order contributions. The results offer additional insight into the dynamics of the dissociation of nitric acid through the S{sub 3} (2 {sup 1}A{sup '}) excited state, resolving an inconsistency in previously reported angular distributions, and pointing the way to future studies of the angular momentum polarization.

  15. Channel specific rate constants for reactions of O(1D) with HCl and HBr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wine, P. H.; Wells, J. R.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    The absolute rate coefficients and product yields for reactions of O(1D) with HCl(1) and HBr(2) at 287 K are presently determined by means of the time-resolved resonance fluorescence detection of O(3P) and H(2S) in conjunction with pulsed laser photolysis of O3/HX/He mixtures. Total rate coefficients for O(1D) removal are found to be, in units of 10 to the -10th cu cm/molecule per sec, k(1) = 1.50 + or - 0.18 and k(2) 1.48 + or - 0.16; the absolute accuracy of these rate coefficients is estimated to be + or - 20 percent.

  16. 1D Scaling with Ablation for K-Shell Radiation from Stainless Steel Wire Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Dasgupta, A.; Davis, J.; Clark, R. W.; Jones, B.; Cuneo, M.; Coverdale, C. A.; Deeney, C.

    2009-01-21

    A 1D Lagrangian magnetohydrodynamic z-pinch simulation code is extended to include wire ablation. The plasma transport coefficients are calibrated to reproduce the K-shell yields measured on the Z generator for three stainless steel arrays of diameter 55 mm and masses ranging from 1.8 to 2.7 mg. The resulting 1D scaling model is applied to a larger SS array (65 mm and 2.5 mg) on the refurbished Z machine. Simulation results predict a maximum K-shell yield of 77 kJ for an 82 kV charging voltage. This maximum drops to 42 kJ at 75 kV charging. Neglecting the ablation precursor leads to a {approx}10% change in the calculated yield.

  17. Positron-sensitive vacancy-type centres in the nitrides: 1D-ACAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunov, N. Yu.; Emtsev, V. V.; Mikhailin, A. V.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2003-12-01

    The measurements of one-dimensional angular correlation of the annihilation radiation (1D-ACAR) have been carried out for BN, AlN, and GaN as well as for some related materials that have been used as the reference samples for the analysis of results. The electron-positron ion radii reconstructed by 1D-ACAR for the cation and anion sublattices of the nitrides as well as the estimated average electron density around the positron suggest that: (a) the positron annihilates in the vacancy complexes NGaVN in GaN and NAlVN in AlN, and (b) the cation nearest neighbours are, probably, shifted inward to the VN vacancy where the electron density is sufficiently lower in comparison with that estimated for the bulk.

  18. Localized self-heating in large arrays of 1D nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monereo, O.; Illera, S.; Varea, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sauerwald, T.; Schütze, A.; Cirera, A.; Prades, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer a promising path towards highly efficient heating and temperature control in integrated microsystems. The so called self-heating effect can be used to modulate the response of solid state gas sensor devices. In this work, efficient self-heating was found to occur at random networks of nanostructured systems with similar power requirements to highly ordered systems (e.g. individual nanowires, where their thermal efficiency was attributed to the small dimensions of the objects). Infrared thermography and Raman spectroscopy were used to map the temperature profiles of films based on random arrangements of carbon nanofibers during self-heating. Both the techniques demonstrate consistently that heating concentrates in small regions, the here-called ``hot-spots''. On correlating dynamic temperature mapping with electrical measurements, we also observed that these minute hot-spots rule the resistance values observed macroscopically. A physical model of a random network of 1D resistors helped us to explain this observation. The model shows that, for a given random arrangement of 1D nanowires, current spreading through the network ends up defining a set of spots that dominate both the electrical resistance and power dissipation. Such highly localized heating explains the high power savings observed in larger nanostructured systems. This understanding opens a path to design highly efficient self-heating systems, based on random or pseudo-random distributions of 1D nanostructures.One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer a promising path towards highly efficient heating and temperature control in integrated microsystems. The so called self-heating effect can be used to modulate the response of solid state gas sensor devices. In this work, efficient self-heating was found to occur at random networks of nanostructured systems with similar power requirements to highly ordered systems (e.g. individual nanowires, where their thermal

  19. Lipid and glycolipid antigens of CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells

    PubMed Central

    Venkataswamy, Manjunatha M.; Porcelli, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of their relatively limited antigen receptor repertoire, CD1d-restricted NKT cells recognize a surprisingly diverse range of lipid and glycolipid antigens. Recent studies of natural and synthetic CD1d presented antigens provide an increasingly detailed picture of how the specific structural features of these lipids and glycolipids influence their ability to be presented to NKT cells and stimulate their diverse immunologic functions. Particularly for synthetic analogues of α-galactosylceramides which have been the focus of intense recent investigation, it is becoming clear that the design of glycolipid antigens with the ability to precisely control the specific immunologic activities of NKT cells is likely to be feasible. The emerging details of the mechanisms underlying the structure-activity relationship of NKT cell antigens will assist greatly in the design and production of immunomodulatory agents for the precise manipulation of NKT cells and the many other components of the immune system that they influence. PMID:19945296

  20. Two canonical conjugate pairs at the horizon of a D 1 D 5 black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Merav; Rosenblum, Levy

    2015-12-01

    The Euclidean opening angle at the r -tE surface, Θr -tE at the horizon of a black hole, is canonically conjugate to the black hole entropy. We prove that for a D 1 D 5 black hole there exists in addition to this pair, another canonical pair: the opening angle at the r -y surface, Θr -y, and a Wald-like term SW r -y. This leads to an uncertainty at Θr -y which suggests that the surface r -y is actually a superposition of surfaces with different conical singularities. This corresponds to the same type of singularities obtained by string theory excitations of a D 1 D 5 black hole.

  1. The Dmca1D channel mediates Ca(2+) inward currents in Drosophila embryonic muscles.

    PubMed

    Hara, Yusuke; Koganezawa, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    We studied, in a genetic model organism, Drosophila melanogaster, the channel mechanisms underlying membrane excitation in the embryonic body wall muscle whose biophysical properties have been poorly characterized. The inward current underlying the action potential was solely mediated by a high-threshold class of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, which exhibited slow inactivation, Ca(2+) permeability with saturation at high [Ca(2+)]OUT, and sensitivity to a Ca(2+) channel blocker, Cd(2+). The Ca(2+) current in the embryonic muscle was completely eliminated in Dmca1D mutants, indicating that the Dmca1D-encoded Ca(2+) channel is the major mediator of inward currents in the body wall muscles throughout the embryonic and larval stages. PMID:26004544

  2. Evaluated rate constants for selected HCFC's and HFC's with OH and O((sup)1D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampson, Robert F.; Kurylo, Michael J.; Sander, Stanley P.

    1990-01-01

    The chemistry of HCFC's and HFC's in the troposphere is controlled by reactions with OH in which a hydrogen atom is abstracted from the halocarbon to form water and a halo-alkyl radical. The halo-alkyl radical subsequently reacts with molecular oxygen to form a peroxy radical. The reactions of HCFC's and HFC's with O(exp1D) atoms are unimportant in the troposphere, but may be important in producing active chlorine of OH in the stratosphere. Here, the rate constants for the reactions of OH and O(exp1D) with many HFC's and HCFC's are evaluated. Recommendations are given for the five HCFC's and three HFC's specified by AFEAS as primary alternatives as well as for all other isomers of C1 and C2 HCFC's and HFC's where rate data exist. In addition, recommendations are included for CH3CCl3, CH2Cl2, and CH4.

  3. Bifurcations of families of 1D-tori in 4D symplectic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onken, Franziska; Lange, Steffen; Ketzmerick, Roland; Bäcker, Arnd

    2016-06-01

    The regular structures of a generic 4d symplectic map with a mixed phase space are organized by one-parameter families of elliptic 1d-tori. Such families show prominent bends, gaps, and new branches. We explain these features in terms of bifurcations of the families when crossing a resonance. For these bifurcations, no external parameter has to be varied. Instead, the longitudinal frequency, which varies along the family, plays the role of the bifurcation parameter. As an example, we study two coupled standard maps by visualizing the elliptic and hyperbolic 1d-tori in a 3d phase-space slice, local 2d projections, and frequency space. The observed bifurcations are consistent with the analytical predictions previously obtained for quasi-periodically forced oscillators. Moreover, the new families emerging from such a bifurcation form the skeleton of the corresponding resonance channel.

  4. Verification and comparison of four numerical schemes for a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Fullana, Jose-Maria; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    A reliable and fast numerical scheme is crucial for the 1D simulation of blood flow in compliant vessels. In this paper, a 1D blood flow model is incorporated with a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic arterial wall. This leads to a nonlinear hyperbolic-parabolic system, which is then solved with four numerical schemes, namely: MacCormack, Taylor-Galerkin, monotonic upwind scheme for conservation law and local discontinuous Galerkin. The numerical schemes are tested on a single vessel, a simple bifurcation and a network with 55 arteries. The numerical solutions are checked favorably against analytical, semi-analytical solutions or clinical observations. Among the numerical schemes, comparisons are made in four important aspects: accuracy, ability to capture shock-like phenomena, computational speed and implementation complexity. The suitable conditions for the application of each scheme are discussed. PMID:25145651

  5. Measuring Spin-Charge Separation in a 1D Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Jacob A.; Revelle, Melissa C.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2016-05-01

    We present progress on measurement of spin-charge separation in a two-component, strongly interacting, 1D gas of fermionic lithium. A characteristic feature of interacting 1D Fermi gases is that the velocity of a charge excitation propagates faster than a spin excitation. We create an excitation by applying a dipole force at the center of the cloud using a sheet of light. Depending on the detuning of this beam, we can either excite both spin species equally (charge excitation) or preferentially (spin excitation). Once this beam is turned off, the excitations propagate to the edges of the atomic cloud at a velocity determined by coupling strength. A magnetically tuned Feshbach resonance enables us to vary this coupling and map out the velocities of spin and charge excitations. Supported by an ARO MURI Grant, NSF, and The Welch Foundation

  6. The structure and electronic properties of copper iodide 1D nanocrystals within single walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, N. A.; Kumskov, A. S.; Zhigalina, V. G.; Verbitskiy, N. I.; Yashina, L. V.; Chuvilin, A. L.; Vasiliev, A. L.; Eliseev, A. A.

    2013-11-01

    Copper iodide one-dimensional nanocrystals within single walled carbon nanotubes (1D CuI@SWCNTs), i.e. meta-nanotubes [1], were investigated by high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM). In meta-nanotubes of diameter Dm = 1.3-1.4 nm produced by arc-discharge (AD) method close-packed hexagonal or deformed cubic 1D crystal anion sublattices were observed with cations in octahedral or tetrahedral positions. These two sublattices reversibly transform to one another. In catalysed chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) meta-nanotubes of diameters Dm = 1.5-2.0 nm cubic anion sublattices are formed. For diameters >=2.0 nm three-dimensional (3D) crystallization is observed.

  7. Towards 1D nanolines on a monolayered supramolecular network adsorbed on a silicon surface.

    PubMed

    Makoudi, Younes; Beyer, Matthieu; Lamare, Simon; Jeannoutot, Judicael; Palmino, Frank; Chérioux, Frédéric

    2016-06-16

    The growth of 3D extended periodic networks made up of π-conjugated molecules on semi-conductor surfaces is of interest for the integration of nano-components in the future generations of smart devices. In the work presented in this article, we successfully achieved the formation of bilayered networks on a silicon surface including 1D-isolated nanolines in the second layer. Firstly, we observed the formation of a 2D large-scale supramolecular network in the plane of a silicon surface through the deposition of tailored molecules. Then using the same molecules, a second-layer, based on 1D nanolines, grew above the first layer, thanks to a template effect. Mono- or bi-layered networks were found to be stable from 100 K up to room temperature. These networks were investigated by scanning tunnel microscopy imaging under an ultra-high vacuum (UHV-STM). PMID:27273449

  8. Membranes having aligned 1-D nanoparticles in a matrix layer for improved fluid separation

    DOEpatents

    Revanur, Ravindra; Lulevich, Valentin; Roh, Il Juhn; Klare, Jennifer E.; Kim, Sangil; Noy, Aleksandr; Bakajin, Olgica

    2015-12-22

    Membranes for fluid separation are disclosed. These membranes have a matrix layer sandwiched between an active layer and a porous support layer. The matrix layer includes 1-D nanoparticles that are vertically aligned in a porous polymer matrix, and which substantially extend through the matrix layer. The active layer provides species-specific transport, while the support layer provides mechanical support. A matrix layer of this type has favorable surface morphology for forming the active layer. Furthermore, the pores that form in the matrix layer tend to be smaller and more evenly distributed as a result of the presence of aligned 1-D nanoparticles. Improved performance of separation membranes of this type is attributed to these effects.

  9. 1-D seismic velocity model and hypocenter relocation using double difference method around West Papua region

    SciTech Connect

    Sabtaji, Agung E-mail: agung.sabtaji@bmkg.go.id; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.

  10. Zero finite-temperature charge stiffness within the half-filled 1D Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Carmelo, J.M.P.; Gu, Shi-Jian; Sacramento, P.D.

    2013-12-15

    Even though the one-dimensional (1D) Hubbard model is solvable by the Bethe ansatz, at half-filling its finite-temperature T>0 transport properties remain poorly understood. In this paper we combine that solution with symmetry to show that within that prominent T=0 1D insulator the charge stiffness D(T) vanishes for T>0 and finite values of the on-site repulsion U in the thermodynamic limit. This result is exact and clarifies a long-standing open problem. It rules out that at half-filling the model is an ideal conductor in the thermodynamic limit. Whether at finite T and U>0 it is an ideal insulator or a normal resistor remains an open question. That at half-filling the charge stiffness is finite at U=0 and vanishes for U>0 is found to result from a general transition from a conductor to an insulator or resistor occurring at U=U{sub c}=0 for all finite temperatures T>0. (At T=0 such a transition is the quantum metal to Mott–Hubbard-insulator transition.) The interplay of the η-spin SU(2) symmetry with the hidden U(1) symmetry beyond SO(4) is found to play a central role in the unusual finite-temperature charge transport properties of the 1D half-filled Hubbard model. -- Highlights: •The charge stiffness of the half-filled 1D Hubbard model is evaluated. •Its value is controlled by the model symmetry operator algebras. •We find that there is no charge ballistic transport at finite temperatures T>0. •The hidden U(1) symmetry controls the U=0 phase transition for T>0.

  11. Uranium(VI) coordination polymers with pyromellitate ligand: Unique 1D channel structures and diverse fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingjie; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Price, Jason R.; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Zhaoming; Kong, Linggen; Čejka, Jiří; Lu, Kim; Lumpkin, Gregory R.

    2015-03-15

    Three new coordination polymers of uranium(VI) with pyromellitic acid (H{sub 4}btca) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. (ED)[(UO{sub 2})(btca)]·(DMSO)·3H{sub 2}O (1) (ED=ethylenediammonium; DMSO=dimethylsulfoxide) has a lamellar structure with intercalation of ED and DMSO. (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 6}O{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}(btca)]·~6H{sub 2}O (2) has a 3D framework built from 7-fold coordinated uranyl trinuclear units and btca ligands with 1D diamond-shaped channels (~8.5 Å×~8.6 Å). [(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(btca)]·4H{sub 2}O (3) has a 3D network constructed by two types of 7-fold coordinated uranium polyhedron. The unique μ{sub 5}-coordination mode of btca in 3 enables the formation of 1D olive-shaped large channels (~4.5 Å×~19 Å). Vibrational modes, thermal stabilities and fluorescence properties have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Table of content: three new uranium(VI) coordination polymers with pyromellitic acid (H{sub 4}btca) have been synthesized via room temperature and hydrothermal synthesis methods, and structurally characterized. Two to three dimensional (3D) frameworks are revealed. All 3D frameworks have unique 1D large channels. Their vibrational modes, thermal stabilities and photoluminescence properties have been investigated. - Highlights: • Three new coordination polymers of U(VI) with pyromellitic acid (H{sub 4}btca). • Structures from a 2D layer to 3D frameworks with unique 1D channels. • Unusual µ{sub 5}-(η{sub 1}:η{sub 2}:η{sub 1}:η{sub 2:}η{sub 1}) coordination mode of btca ligand. • Vibrational modes, thermal stabilities and luminescent properties reported.

  12. Lacunarity analysis of raster datasets and 1D, 2D, and 3D point patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Pinliang

    2009-10-01

    Spatial scale plays an important role in many fields. As a scale-dependent measure for spatial heterogeneity, lacunarity describes the distribution of gaps within a set at multiple scales. In Earth science, environmental science, and ecology, lacunarity has been increasingly used for multiscale modeling of spatial patterns. This paper presents the development and implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) software extension for lacunarity analysis of raster datasets and 1D, 2D, and 3D point patterns. Depending on the application requirement, lacunarity analysis can be performed in two modes: global mode or local mode. The extension works for: (1) binary (1-bit) and grey-scale datasets in any raster format supported by ArcGIS and (2) 1D, 2D, and 3D point datasets as shapefiles or geodatabase feature classes. For more effective measurement of lacunarity for different patterns or processes in raster datasets, the extension allows users to define an area of interest (AOI) in four different ways, including using a polygon in an existing feature layer. Additionally, directionality can be taken into account when grey-scale datasets are used for local lacunarity analysis. The methodology and graphical user interface (GUI) are described. The application of the extension is demonstrated using both simulated and real datasets, including Brodatz texture images, a Spaceborne Imaging Radar (SIR-C) image, simulated 1D points on a drainage network, and 3D random and clustered point patterns. The options of lacunarity analysis and the effects of polyline arrangement on lacunarity of 1D points are also discussed. Results from sample data suggest that the lacunarity analysis extension can be used for efficient modeling of spatial patterns at multiple scales.

  13. 2D/1D approximations to the 3D neutron transport equation. II: Numerical comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, B. W.; Collins, B.; Larsen, E. W.

    2013-07-01

    In a companion paper [1], (i) several new '2D/1D equations' are introduced as accurate approximations to the 3D Boltzmann transport equation, (ii) the simplest of these approximate equations is systematically discretized, and (iii) a theoretically stable iteration scheme is developed to solve the discrete equations. In this paper, numerical results are presented that confirm the theoretical predictions made in [1]. (authors)

  14. Scattering coefficients and gray-body factor for 1D BEC acoustic black holes: Exact results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Alessandro; Balbinot, Roberto; Anderson, Paul R.

    2016-03-01

    A complete set of exact analytic solutions to the mode equation is found in the region exterior to the acoustic horizon for a class of 1D Bose-Einstein condensate acoustic black holes. From these, analytic expressions for the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor are obtained. The results are used to verify previous predictions regarding the behaviors of the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor in the low-frequency limit.

  15. From 1D to 3D: Tunable Sub-10 nm Gaps in Large Area Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ziwei; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Yu, Ye; Ai, Bin; Möhwald, Helmuth; Chiechi, Ryan C; Yang, Joel K W; Zhang, Gang

    2016-04-20

    Tunable sub-10 nm 1D nanogaps are fabricated based on nanoskiving. The electric field in different sized nanogaps is investigated theoretically and experimentally, yielding nonmonotonic dependence and an optimized gap-width (5 nm). 2D nanogap arrays are fabricated to pack denser gaps combining surface patterning techniques. Innovatively, 3D multistory nanogaps are built via a stacking procedure, processing higher integration, and much improved electric field. PMID:26890027

  16. Recent developments in testing techniques for elastic mechanical properties of 1-D nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weidong; Li, Shuai; Zhang, Hongti; Lu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional (1-D) nanomaterials exhibit great potentials in their applications to functional materials, nano-devices and systems owing to their excellent properties. In the past decade, considerable studies have been done, with new patents being developed, on these 1-D building blocks for for their mechanical properties, especially elastic properties, which provide a solid foundation for the design of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and predictions of reliability and longevity for their devices. This paper reviews some of the recent investigations on techniques as well as patents available for the quantitative characterization of the elastic behaviors of various 1-D nanomaterials, with particular focus on on-chip testing system. The review begins with an overview of major testing methods for 1-D nanostructures' elastic properties, including nanoindentation testing, AFM (atomic force microscopy) testing, in situ SEM (scanning electron microscopy) testing, in situ TEM (transmission electron microscopy) testing and the testing system on the basis of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) technology, followed by advantages and challenges of each testing approach. This review also focuses on the MEMS-based testing apparatus, which can be actuated and measured inside SEM and TEM with ease, allowing users to highly magnify the continuous images of the specimen while measuring load electronically and independently. The combination of on-chip technologies and the in situ electron microscopy is expected to be a potential testing technique for nanomechanics. Finally, details are presented on the key challenges and possible solutions in the implementation of the testing techniques referred above. PMID:25986228

  17. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana red pap1-D cells metabolically programmed by auxins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong; Shi, Ming-Zhu; Xie, De-Yu

    2014-04-01

    Red pap1-D cells of Arabidopsis thaliana have been cloned from production of anthocyanin pigmentation 1-Dominant (pap1-D) plants. The red cells are metabolically programmed to produce high levels of anthocyanins by a WD40-bHLH-MYB complex that is composed of the TTG1, TT8/GL3 and PAP1 transcription factors. Here, we report that indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in these red cells. Seven concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, 2.2, 9, 18 and 27 μM) were tested for the three auxins. IAA and 2,4-D at 2.2-27 μM reduced anthocyanin levels. NAA at 0-0.2 μM or above 9 μM also decreased anthocyanin levels, but from 0.4 to 9 μM, it increased them. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis identified seven cyanin molecules that were produced in red pap1-D cells, and their levels were affected by auxins. The expression levels of ten genes, including six transcription factors (TTG1, EGL3, MYBL2, TT8, GL3 and PAP1) and four pathway genes (PAL1, CHS, DFR and ANS) involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were analyzed upon various auxin treatments. The resulting data showed that 2,4-D, NAA and IAA control anthocyanin biosynthesis by regulating the expression of TT8, GL3 and PAP1 as well as genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, such as DFR and ANS. In addition, the expression of MYBL2, PAL1 and CHS in red pap1-D and wild-type cells differentially respond to the three auxins. Our data demonstrate that the three auxins regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in metabolically programmed red cells via altering the expression of transcription factor genes and pathway genes. PMID:24370633

  18. Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method applied to the 1-D spherical neutron transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Machorro, Eric . E-mail: machorro@amath.washington.edu

    2007-04-10

    Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods are used to estimate solutions to the non-scattering 1-D spherical neutron transport equation. Various trial and test spaces are compared in the context of a few sample problems whose exact solution is known. Certain trial spaces avoid unphysical behaviors that seem to plague other methods. Comparisons with diamond differencing and simple corner-balancing are presented to highlight these improvements.

  19. Subscale study of engine bellmouth inlet vortices in test cell R1D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, James A.; Hiers, Robert S., Jr.

    1995-05-01

    A technology program was conducted in Test Cell R1D concerning bellmouth flow quality. Flow visualization was used to determine the presence of inlet vortices. It was shown that these vortices can be eliminated using a 45-deg conical extension attached to the bellmouth inlet. Design guidelines were developed to assist in determining acceptable cone angles and axial and radial gaps between the conical extension and the bellmouth inlet.

  20. 1D and 2D simulations of seismic wave propagation in fractured media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Thomas; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Fractures and cracks have a significant influence on the propagation of seismic waves. Their presence causes reflections and scattering and makes the medium effectively anisotropic. We present a numerical approach to simulation of seismic waves in fractured media that does not require direct modelling of the fracture itself, but uses the concept of linear slip interfaces developed by Schoenberg (1980). This condition states that at an interface between two imperfectly bonded elastic media, stress is continuous across the interface while displacement is discontinuous. It is assumed that the jump of displacement is proportional to stress which implies a jump in particle velocity at the interface. We use this condition as a boundary condition to the elastic wave equation and solve this equation in the framework of a Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin scheme using a velocity-stress formulation. We use meshes with tetrahedral elements to discretise the medium. Each individual element face may be declared as a slip interface. Numerical fluxes have been derived by solving the 1D Riemann problem for slip interfaces with elastic and viscoelastic rheology. Viscoelasticity is realised either by a Kelvin-Voigt body or a Standard Linear Solid. These fluxes are not limited to 1D and can - with little modification - be used for simulations in higher dimensions as well. The Nodal Discontinuous Galerkin code "neXd" developed by Lambrecht (2013) is used as a basis for the numerical implementation of this concept. We present examples of simulations in 1D and 2D that illustrate the influence of fractures on the seismic wavefield. We demonstrate the accuracy of the simulation through comparison to an analytical solution in 1D.

  1. Development of a hybrid deterministic/stochastic method for 1D nuclear reactor kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terlizzi, Stefano; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero

    2015-12-01

    A new method has been implemented for solving the time-dependent neutron transport equation efficiently and accurately. This is accomplished by coupling the hybrid stochastic-deterministic steady-state coarse-mesh radiation transport (COMET) method [1,2] with the new predictor-corrector quasi-static method (PCQM) developed at Politecnico di Torino [3]. In this paper, the coupled method is implemented and tested in 1D slab geometry.

  2. Development of a hybrid deterministic/stochastic method for 1D nuclear reactor kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Terlizzi, Stefano; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang

    2015-12-31

    A new method has been implemented for solving the time-dependent neutron transport equation efficiently and accurately. This is accomplished by coupling the hybrid stochastic-deterministic steady-state coarse-mesh radiation transport (COMET) method [1,2] with the new predictor-corrector quasi-static method (PCQM) developed at Politecnico di Torino [3]. In this paper, the coupled method is implemented and tested in 1D slab geometry.

  3. Homochiral 3D metal-organic frameworks from chiral 1D rods: 6-way helical packing.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sung Min; Moon, Dohyun; Jeong, Kyung Seok; Kim, Jaheon; Thallapally, Praveen K; Jeong, Nakcheol

    2011-09-01

    The chiral 3D MOFs resulted from the packing of chiral 1D SBBs were studied. It was demonstrated that the final packing pattern is sensitively dependent on the dimension of SBBs. In addition, we were able to identify a new plywood-like network from ligand 2H(2) exhibiting an unprecedented six-way chiral helical packing motif, which extends the list of invariant rod packings. PMID:21773637

  4. Mosaic PPM1D mutations are associated with predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Ruark, Elise; Snape, Katie; Humburg, Peter; Loveday, Chey; Bajrami, Ilirjana; Brough, Rachel; Rodrigues, Daniel Nava; Renwick, Anthony; Seal, Sheila; Ramsay, Emma; Duarte, Silvana Del Vecchio; Rivas, Manuel A; Warren-Perry, Margaret; Zachariou, Anna; Campion-Flora, Adriana; Hanks, Sandra; Murray, Anne; Ansari Pour, Naser; Douglas, Jenny; Gregory, Lorna; Rimmer, Andrew; Walker, Neil M; Yang, Tsun-Po; Adlard, Julian W; Barwell, Julian; Berg, Jonathan; Brady, Angela F; Brewer, Carole; Brice, Glen; Chapman, Cyril; Cook, Jackie; Davidson, Rosemarie; Donaldson, Alan; Douglas, Fiona; Eccles, Diana; Evans, D Gareth; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Henderson, Alex; Izatt, Louise; Kumar, Ajith; Lalloo, Fiona; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Morrison, Patrick J; Paterson, Joan; Porteous, Mary; Rogers, Mark T; Shanley, Susan; Walker, Lisa; Gore, Martin; Houlston, Richard; Brown, Matthew A; Caufield, Mark J; Deloukas, Panagiotis; McCarthy, Mark I; Todd, John A; Turnbull, Clare; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Ashworth, Alan; Antoniou, Antonis C; Lord, Christopher J; Donnelly, Peter; Rahman, Nazneen

    2013-01-17

    Improved sequencing technologies offer unprecedented opportunities for investigating the role of rare genetic variation in common disease. However, there are considerable challenges with respect to study design, data analysis and replication. Using pooled next-generation sequencing of 507 genes implicated in the repair of DNA in 1,150 samples, an analytical strategy focused on protein-truncating variants (PTVs) and a large-scale sequencing case-control replication experiment in 13,642 individuals, here we show that rare PTVs in the p53-inducible protein phosphatase PPM1D are associated with predisposition to breast cancer and ovarian cancer. PPM1D PTV mutations were present in 25 out of 7,781 cases versus 1 out of 5,861 controls (P = 1.12 × 10(-5)), including 18 mutations in 6,912 individuals with breast cancer (P = 2.42 × 10(-4)) and 12 mutations in 1,121 individuals with ovarian cancer (P = 3.10 × 10(-9)). Notably, all of the identified PPM1D PTVs were mosaic in lymphocyte DNA and clustered within a 370-base-pair region in the final exon of the gene, carboxy-terminal to the phosphatase catalytic domain. Functional studies demonstrate that the mutations result in enhanced suppression of p53 in response to ionizing radiation exposure, suggesting that the mutant alleles encode hyperactive PPM1D isoforms. Thus, although the mutations cause premature protein truncation, they do not result in the simple loss-of-function effect typically associated with this class of variant, but instead probably have a gain-of-function effect. Our results have implications for the detection and management of breast and ovarian cancer risk. More generally, these data provide new insights into the role of rare and of mosaic genetic variants in common conditions, and the use of sequencing in their identification. PMID:23242139

  5. Quantum fluctuations of a 1D bosonic gas in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruostekoski, Janne

    2005-05-01

    We numerically study the quantum dynamics of a 1D bosonic gas in a shallow optical lattice for both static and time-dependent lattices. In particular, we model the strongly damped dipole oscillations which have recently been observed experimentally at NIST by Fertig et al. cond-mat/0410491. We find a qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed damping rates which can be explained as being due to zero temperature quantum fluctuations.

  6. Rapid anti-depressant and anxiolytic actions following dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer inactivation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Maurice Y F; Perreault, Melissa L; Bambico, Francis R; Jones-Tabah, Jace; Cheung, Marco; Fan, Theresa; Nobrega, José N; George, Susan R

    2015-12-01

    A role for the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in the pathophysiology of depression has become increasingly evident. Specifically, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to be elevated in the nucleus accumbens of depressed patients and to positively contribute to depression-like behaviour in rodents. The dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer exhibits significant expression in NAc and has also been shown to enhance BDNF expression and signalling in this region. We therefore examined the effects of D1-D2 heteromer stimulation in rats by SKF 83959, or its inactivation by a selective heteromer-disrupting TAT-D1 peptide on depression- and anxiety-like behaviours in non-stressed animals and in animals exposed to chronic unpredictable stress. SKF 83959 treatment significantly enhanced the latency to immobility in the forced swim test, increased the latency to drink condensed milk and reduced total milk consumption in the novelty-induced hypophagia test, and additionally reduced the total time spent in the open arms in the elevated plus maze test. These pro-depressant and anxiogenic effects of SKF 83959 were consistently abolished or attenuated by TAT-D1 peptide pre-treatment, signifying the behaviours were mediated by the D1-D2 heteromer. More importantly, in animals exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), TAT-D1 peptide treatment alone induced significant and rapid anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects in two tests for CUS-induced anhedonia-like reactivity and in the novelty-suppressed feeding test. Together these findings indicate a positive role for the D1-D2 heteromer in mediating depression- and anxiety-like behaviours and suggest its possible value as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:26431907

  7. Quantitative 3D electromagnetic field determination of 1D nanostructures from single projection.

    PubMed

    Phatak, C; de Knoop, L; Houdellier, F; Gatel, C; Hÿtch, M J; Masseboeuf, A

    2016-05-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanostructures have been regarded as the most promising building blocks for nanoelectronics and nanocomposite material systems as well as for alternative energy applications. Although they result in confinement of a material, their properties and interactions with other nanostructures are still very much three-dimensional (3D) in nature. In this work, we present a novel method for quantitative determination of the 3D electromagnetic fields in and around 1D nanostructures using a single electron wave phase image, thereby eliminating the cumbersome acquisition of tomographic data. Using symmetry arguments, we have reconstructed the 3D magnetic field of a nickel nanowire as well as the 3D electric field around a carbon nanotube field emitter, from one single projection. The accuracy of quantitative values determined here is shown to be a better fit to the physics at play than the value obtained by conventional analysis. Moreover the 3D reconstructions can then directly be visualized and used in the design of functional 3D architectures built using 1D nanostructures. PMID:26998702

  8. E-beam to complement optical lithography for 1D layouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, David K.; Liu, Enden D.; Smayling, Michael C.; Prescop, Ted

    2011-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is moving to highly regular designs, or 1D gridded layouts, to enable scaling to advanced nodes, as well as improve process latitude, chip size and chip energy consumption. The fabrication of highly regular ICs is straightforward. Poly and metal layers are arranged into 1D layouts. These 1D layouts facilitate a two-step patterning approach: a line-creation step, followed by a line-cutting step, to form the desired IC pattern (See Figure 1). The first step, line creation, can be accomplished with a variety of lithography techniques including 193nm immersion (193i) and Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP). It appears feasible to create unidirectional parallel lines to at least 11 nm half-pitch, with two applications of SADP for pitch division by four. Potentially, this step can also be accomplished with interference lithography or directed self assembly in the future. The second step, line cutting, requires an extremely high-resolution lithography technique. At advanced nodes, the only options appear to be the costly quadruple patterning with 193i, or EUV or E-Beam Lithography (EBL). This paper focuses on the requirements for a lithography system for "line cutting", using EBL to complement Optical. EBL is the most cost-effective option for line cutting at advanced nodes for HVM.

  9. Measuring the Speed of Sound in a 1D Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Jacob; Revelle, Melissa; Hulet, Randall

    2016-05-01

    We report measurements of the speed of sound in a two-spin component, 1D gas of fermionic lithium. The 1D system is an array of one-dimensional tubes created by a 2D optical lattice. By increasing the lattice depth, the tunneling between tubes is sufficiently small to make each an independent 1D system. To measure the speed of sound, we create a density notch at the center of the atom cloud using a sheet of light tuned far from resonance. The dipole force felt by both spin states will be equivalent, so this notch can be thought of as a charge excitation. Once this beam is turned off, the notch propagates to the edge of the atomic cloud with a velocity that depends on the strength of interatomic interactions. We control interactions using a magnetically tuned Feshbach resonance, allowing us to measure the speed of sound over a wide range of interaction. This method may be used to extract the Luttinger parameter vs. interaction strength. Supported by an ARO MURI Grant, NSF, and The Welch Foundation.

  10. Modulatory role of a constitutively active population of alpha(1D)-adrenoceptors in conductance arteries.

    PubMed

    Ziani, Khalid; Gisbert, Regina; Noguera, Maria Antonia; Ivorra, Maria Dolores; D'Ocon, Pilar

    2002-02-01

    A constitutively active population of alpha(1D)-adrenoceptors in iliac and proximal, distal, and small mesenteric rat arteries was studied. The increase in resting tone (IRT) that evidences it was observed only in iliac and proximal mesenteric and was inhibited by prazosin (pIC(50) = 9.57), 5-methylurapidil (pIC(50) = 7.61), and BMY 7378 (pIC(50) = 8.77). Chloroethylchlonidine (100 micromol/l) did not affect IRT, but when added before the other antagonists it blocked their effect. The potency shown by BMY 7378 confirms the alpha(1D)-subtype as responsible for IRT. BMY 7378 displayed greater inhibition of adrenergic responses in iliac (pIC(50) = 7.57 +/- 0.11) and proximal mesenteric arteries (pIC(50) = 8.05 +/- 0.2) than in distal (pIC(50) = 6.94 +/- 0.13) or small mesenteric arteries (pIC(50) = 6.30 +/- 0.14), which confirms the functional role of the alpha(1D)-adrenoceptor in iliac and proximal mesenteric arteries. This subtype prevents abrupt changes in iliac and proximal mesenteric artery caliber when the agonist disappears, and this modulatory role is evidenced by the slower decay in the response to norepinephrine after removal. PMID:11788394

  11. Effects of curcumin on synapses in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice.

    PubMed

    He, Yingkun; Wang, Pengwen; Wei, Peng; Feng, Huili; Ren, Ying; Yang, Jinduo; Rao, Yingxue; Shi, Jing; Tian, Jinzhou

    2016-06-01

    Significant losses of synapses have been demonstrated in studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but structural and functional changes in synapses that depend on alterations of the postsynaptic density (PSD) area occur prior to synaptic loss and play a crucial role in the pathology of AD. Evidence suggests that curcumin can ameliorate the learning and memory deficits of AD. To investigate the effects of curcumin on synapses, APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice (an AD model) were used, and the ultra-structures of synapses and synapse-associated proteins were observed. Six months after administration, few abnormal synapses were observed upon electron microscopy in the hippocampal CA1 areas of the APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice. The treatment of the mice with curcumin resulted in improvements in the quantity and structure of the synapses. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses revealed that the expressions of PSD95 and Shank1 were reduced in the hippocampal CA1 areas of the APPswe/PS1dE9 double transgenic mice, but curcumin treatment increased the expressions of these proteins. Our findings suggest that curcumin improved the structure and function of the synapses by regulating the synapse-related proteins PSD95 and Shank1. PMID:26957323

  12. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Extreme Nanowires and Other 1D Systems

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David C.; Spencer, Joseph H.; Sloan, Jeremy; McDonnell, Liam P.; Trewhitt, Harrison; Kashtiban, Reza J.; Faulques, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper briefly describes how nanowires with diameters corresponding to 1 to 5 atoms can be produced by melting a range of inorganic solids in the presence of carbon nanotubes. These nanowires are extreme in the sense that they are the limit of miniaturization of nanowires and their behavior is not always a simple extrapolation of the behavior of larger nanowires as their diameter decreases. The paper then describes the methods required to obtain Raman spectra from extreme nanowires and the fact that due to the van Hove singularities that 1D systems exhibit in their optical density of states, that determining the correct choice of photon excitation energy is critical. It describes the techniques required to determine the photon energy dependence of the resonances observed in Raman spectroscopy of 1D systems and in particular how to obtain measurements of Raman cross-sections with better than 8% noise and measure the variation in the resonance as a function of sample temperature. The paper describes the importance of ensuring that the Raman scattering is linearly proportional to the intensity of the laser excitation intensity. It also describes how to use the polarization dependence of the Raman scattering to separate Raman scattering of the encapsulated 1D systems from those of other extraneous components in any sample. PMID:27168195

  13. Realizing 1-D conducting channel between oppositely gated regions in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Janghee; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Lee, Hu-Jong

    The band gap of bilayer graphene (BLG) can be tuned by applying an external electric field perpendicular to the plane of a BLG sheet. If direction of the electric fields in two adjacent regions in BLG are opposite, one-dimensional (1-D) conducting channel emerges at the boundary between two regions with chiral nature. In this presentation, we introduce a method for fabricating two pairs of split-gates attached to BLG, which is sandwiched between two atomically clean hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) single crystals and thus allows ballistic transport of carriers at least within the device size. Current-voltage characteristics show a large transport gap, which is comparable to the results obtained from optical measurements and numerical calculations. Opening the band gap in two adjacent regions of the BLG flake by oppositely gated electric fields, we observed metallic behavior in transport characteristics along the boundary between the two regions although the resistance of two gapped regions are a few hundreds of k Ω. These results indicate that a 1-D conducting channel formed between the two regions where the induced band gaps were inverted to each other. The formation of this 1-D conducting channel mimics the topological edge conducting channels emerging at the boundary of a two-dimensional topological insulator and may be utilized for applying BLG to valleytronics

  14. Holographic memory system based on projection recording of computer-generated 1D Fourier holograms.

    PubMed

    Betin, A Yu; Bobrinev, V I; Donchenko, S S; Odinokov, S B; Evtikhiev, N N; Starikov, R S; Starikov, S N; Zlokazov, E Yu

    2014-10-01

    Utilization of computer generation of holographic structures significantly simplifies the optical scheme that is used to record the microholograms in a holographic memory record system. Also digital holographic synthesis allows to account the nonlinear errors of the record system to improve the microholograms quality. The multiplexed record of holograms is a widespread technique to increase the data record density. In this article we represent the holographic memory system based on digital synthesis of amplitude one-dimensional (1D) Fourier transform holograms and the multiplexed record of these holograms onto the holographic carrier using optical projection scheme. 1D Fourier transform holograms are very sensitive to orientation of the anamorphic optical element (cylindrical lens) that is required for encoded data object reconstruction. The multiplex record of several holograms with different orientation in an optical projection scheme allowed reconstruction of the data object from each hologram by rotating the cylindrical lens on the corresponding angle. Also, we discuss two optical schemes for the recorded holograms readout: a full-page readout system and line-by-line readout system. We consider the benefits of both systems and present the results of experimental modeling of 1D Fourier holograms nonmultiplex and multiplex record and reconstruction. PMID:25322249

  15. Dynamics of the reactions of O(1D) with HCl, DCl, and Cl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumi, Yutaka; Tonokura, Kenichi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Obi, Kinichi

    1993-05-01

    The reactions O(1D)+HCl→OH+Cl (1a) and OCl+H (1b), O(1D)+DCl→OD+Cl (2a) and OCl+D (2b), and O(1D)+Cl2→OCl+Cl (3) are studied at an average collision energy of 7.6, 7.7, and 8.8 kcal/mol for (1), (2), and (3), respectively. H, D, and Cl atoms are detected by the resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization technique. The average kinetic energies released to the products are estimated from Doppler profile measurements of the product atoms. The relative yields [OCl+H]/[OH+Cl] and [OCl+D]/[OD+Cl] are directly measured, and a strong isotope effect (H/D) on the relative yields is found. The fine-structure branding ratios [Cl(2P1/2]/[Cl(2P3/2)] of the reaction products are also measured. The results suggest that nonadiabatic couplings take place at the exit channels of the reactions (1a) and (2a), while the reaction (3) is totally adiabatic.

  16. Neutronic analysis of the 1D and 1E banks reflux detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-12-21

    Two H Canyon neutron monitoring systems for early detection of postulated abnormal reflux conditions in the Second Uranium Cycle 1E and 1D Mixer-Settle Banks have been designed and built. Monte Carlo neutron transport simulations using the general purpose, general geometry, n-particle MCNP code have been performed to model expected response of the monitoring systems to varying conditions.The confirmatory studies documented herein conclude that the 1E and 1D neutron monitoring systems are able to achieve adequate neutron count rates for various neutron source and detector configurations, thereby eliminating excessive integration count time. Neutron count rate sensitivity studies are also performed. Conversely, the transport studies concluded that the neutron count rates are statistically insensitive to nitric acid content in the aqueous region and to the transition region length. These studies conclude that the 1E and 1D neutron monitoring systems are able to predict the postulated reflux conditions for all examined perturbations in the neutron source and detector configurations. In the cases examined, the relative change in the neutron count rates due to postulated transitions from normal {sup 235}U concentration levels to reflux levels remain satisfactory detectable.

  17. Study of phase transformation and crystal structure for 1D carbon-modified titania ribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Lihui Zhang, Fang; Li, Jinxia

    2014-02-15

    One-dimensional hydrogen titanate ribbons were successfully prepared with hydrothermal reaction in a highly basic solution. A series of one-dimensional carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons were prepared via calcination of the mixture of hydrogen titanate ribbons and sucrose solution under N{sub 2} flow at different temperatures. The phase transformation process of hydrogen titanate ribbons was investigated by in-situ X-ray diffraction at various temperatures. Besides, one-dimensional carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons calcined at different temperatures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, diffuse reflectance ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and so on. Carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons showed one-dimensional ribbon crystal structure and various crystal phases of TiO{sub 2}. After being modified with carbon, a layer of uniform carbon film was coated on the surface of TiO{sub 2} ribbons, which improved their adsorption capacity for methyl orange as a model organic pollutant. One-dimensional carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons also exhibited enhanced visible-light absorbance with the increase of calcination temperatures. - Highlights: • The synthesis of 1D carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons. • The phase transformation of 1D carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} ribbons. • 1D carbon-modified TiO{sub 2} exhibites enhanced visible-light absorbance.

  18. Optical properties of graphene nanostructures from first-principles: from 1D to 0D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varsano, Daniele; Prezzi, Deborah; Ruini, Alice; Molinari, Elisa

    2010-03-01

    The possibility of patterning graphene sheets in a controllable manner to design semiconducting low-dimensional nanostructures opens exciting opportunities also in view of novel phenomena occurring under light excitation as well as nanoscale optoelectronics applications. We discuss the main characteristics of optical excitations in quasi-1D armchair graphene nanoribbons (A-GNRs) by means of ab-initio many-body calculations [1]. Our theoretical approach includes both self-energy corrections and excitonic effects through the GW-BSE formalism, providing full understanding of excited-state properties. Electron-hole interaction is found to suppress the van Hove singularities -as known for other 1D systems- and introduces strongly bound excitonic peaks. Starting from these ideal structures, we discuss the effect of width modulation on confinement and optical response [2]. Our results show that edge-modulated A-GNRs are efficient systems for the creation of carbon-based QD structures with prominent exciton localization features. [1] D. Prezzi, D. Varsano, A. Ruini, A. Marini, and E. Molinari, Phys. Rev. B 77, 041404 (2008). [2] D. Prezzi, D. Varsano, A. Ruini, and E. Molinari, to be published (2009)

  19. Mechanisms of action of the 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Stewart J; Rapoport, Alan M; Sheftell, Fred D

    2002-07-01

    Recent studies of the pathophysiology of migraine provide evidence that the headache phase is associated with multiple physiologic actions. These actions include the release of vasoactive neuropeptides by the trigeminovascular system, vasodilation of intracranial extracerebral vessels, and increased nociceptive neurotransmission within the central trigeminocervical complex. The 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonists, collectively known as triptans, are a major advance in the treatment of migraine. The beneficial effects of the triptans in patients with migraine are related to their multiple mechanisms of action at sites implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine. These mechanisms are mediated by 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors and include vasoconstriction of painfully dilated cerebral blood vessels, inhibition of the release of vasoactive neuropeptides by trigeminal nerves, and inhibition of nociceptive neurotransmission. The high affinity of the triptans for 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors and their favorable pharmacologic properties contribute to the beneficial effects of these drugs, including rapid onset of action, effective relief of headache and associated symptoms, and low incidence of adverse effects. PMID:12117355

  20. Surface defect inspection of TFT-LCD panels based on 1D Fourier method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Teng-da; Lu, Rong-sheng

    2016-01-01

    Flat panel displays have been used in a wide range of electronic devices. The defects on their surfaces are an important factor affecting the product quality. Automated optical inspection (AOI) method is an important and effective means to perform the surface defection inspection. In this paper, a kind of defect extraction algorithm based on one dimensional (1D) Fourier theory for the surface defect extraction with periodic texture background is introduced. In the algorithm, the scanned surface images are firstly transformed from time domain to frequency domain by 1D Fourier transform. The periodic texture background on the surface is then removed by using filtering methods in the frequency domain. Then, a dual-threshold statistical control method is applied to separate the defects from the surface background. Traditional 1D Fourier transform scheme for detecting ordinary defects is very effective; however, the method is not where the defect direction is close to horizontal in periodic texture background. In order to tackle the problem, a mean threshold method based on faultless image is put forward. It firstly calculates the upper and lower control limits of the every reconstructed line scanned image with faultless and then computes the averages of the upper and lower limits. The averages then act as the constant double thresholds to extract the defects. The experimental results of different defects show that the method developed in the paper is very effective for TFT-LCD panel surface defect inspection even in the circumstance that the defect directions are close to horizontal.

  1. 1D Metallo-Dielectric Photonic Crystals as Selective Emitters for Thermophotovoltaic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanaswamy, Arvind; Cybulski, James; Chen, Gang

    2004-11-01

    Spectrally selective thermal radiators that are easy to fabricate is a key ingredient in increasing the efficiency of thermophotovoltaic energy converters. 2D and 3D photonic crystals have been proposed as selective emitters with good control over spectral emission and fabricated. Due to their structural complexity, they are difficult to fabricate. 1D photonic crystals have not been analyzed completely for their spectral emission characteristics. Using a method of dyadic Green's function technique and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we have analyzed thermal emission from planarly layered periodic media. 1D photonic crystals made of alternate layers of ultra-thin metallic films in-between dielectric layers exhibit selective emission properties ideal for thermophotovoltaic applications with GaSb photovoltaic cells. By varying the thickness of the dielectric layer, the frequency around which the emitters transitions from lower emissivity to higher emissivity can be altered. It is possible to increase this transition frequency to optical frequencies by replacing the metallic film with a high band gap semiconductor like SiC. Preliminary results from experiments on 1D photonic crystals made of alternating layers of tungsten and alumina will be presented.

  2. Recessive TBC1D24 Mutations Are Frequent in Moroccan Non-Syndromic Hearing Loss Pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Bakhchane, Amina; Charif, Majida; Salime, Sara; Boulouiz, Redouane; Nahili, Halima; Roky, Rachida

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the TBC1D24 gene are responsible for four neurological presentations: infantile epileptic encephalopathy, infantile myoclonic epilepsy, DOORS (deafness, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, mental retardation and seizures) and NSHL (non-syndromic hearing loss). For the latter, two recessive (DFNB86) and one dominant (DFNA65) mutations have so far been identified in consanguineous Pakistani and European/Chinese families, respectively. Here we report the results of a genetic study performed on a large Moroccan cohort of deaf patients that identified three families with compound heterozygote mutations in TBC1D24. Four novel mutations were identified, among which, one c.641G>A (p.Arg214His) was present in the three families, and has a frequency of 2% in control Moroccan population with normal hearing, suggesting that it acts as an hypomorphic variant leading to restricted deafness when combined with another recessive severe mutation. Altogether, our results show that mutations in TBC1D24 gene are a frequent cause (>2%) of NSHL in Morocco, and that due to its possible compound heterozygote recessive transmission, this gene should be further considered and screened in other deaf cohorts. PMID:26371875

  3. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Extreme Nanowires and Other 1D Systems.

    PubMed

    Smith, David C; Spencer, Joseph H; Sloan, Jeremy; McDonnell, Liam P; Trewhitt, Harrison; Kashtiban, Reza J; Faulques, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper briefly describes how nanowires with diameters corresponding to 1 to 5 atoms can be produced by melting a range of inorganic solids in the presence of carbon nanotubes. These nanowires are extreme in the sense that they are the limit of miniaturization of nanowires and their behavior is not always a simple extrapolation of the behavior of larger nanowires as their diameter decreases. The paper then describes the methods required to obtain Raman spectra from extreme nanowires and the fact that due to the van Hove singularities that 1D systems exhibit in their optical density of states, that determining the correct choice of photon excitation energy is critical. It describes the techniques required to determine the photon energy dependence of the resonances observed in Raman spectroscopy of 1D systems and in particular how to obtain measurements of Raman cross-sections with better than 8% noise and measure the variation in the resonance as a function of sample temperature. The paper describes the importance of ensuring that the Raman scattering is linearly proportional to the intensity of the laser excitation intensity. It also describes how to use the polarization dependence of the Raman scattering to separate Raman scattering of the encapsulated 1D systems from those of other extraneous components in any sample. PMID:27168195

  4. Characterisation of J(O1D) at Cape Grim 2000-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, S. R.

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the rate of production of excited oxygen atoms due to the photolysis of ozone (J(O1D)) have been derived from radiation measurements carried out at Cape Grim, Tasmania (40.6° S, 144.7° E). The individual measurements have a total uncertainty of 16 % (1σ). These estimates agree well with model estimates of clear-sky photolysis rates. Observations spanning 2000-2005 have been used to quantify the impact of season, clouds and ozone column amount. The annual cycle of J(O1D) has been investigated via monthly means. These means show an interannual variation (monthly standard deviation) of 9 %, but in midsummer and midwinter this reduces to 3-5 %. Variations in solar zenith angle and total column ozone explain 86 % of the observed variability in the measured photolysis rates. The impact of total column ozone, expressed as a radiation amplification factor (RAF), is found to be ~ 1.53, in agreement with model estimates. This ozone dependence explains 20 % of the variation observed at medium solar zenith angles (30-50°). The impact of clouds results in a median reduction of 30 % in J(O1D) for the same solar zenith angle range. Including estimates of cloudiness derived from long-wave radiation measurements resulted in a statistically significant fit to observations, but the quality of the fit did not increase significantly as measured by the adjusted R2.

  5. Self-assembly of functional molecules into 1D crystalline nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanbing; Xu, Liang; Liu, Huibiao; Li, Yongjun; Che, Chi-Ming; Li, Yuliang

    2015-02-01

    Self-assembled functional nanoarchitectures are employed as important nanoscale building blocks for advanced materials and smart miniature devices to fulfill the increasing needs of high materials usage efficiency, low energy consumption, and high-performance devices. One-dimensional (1D) crystalline nanostructures, especially molecule-composed crystalline nanostructures, attract significant attention due to their fascinating infusion structure and functionality which enables the easy tailoring of organic molecules with excellent carrier mobility and crystal stability. In this review, we discuss the recent progress of 1D crystalline self-assembled nanostructures of functional molecules, which include both a small molecule-derived and a polymer-based crystalline nanostructure. The basic principles of the molecular structure design and the process engineering of 1D crystalline nanostructures are also discussed. The molecular building blocks, self-assembly structures, and their applications in optical, electrical, and photoelectrical devices are overviewed and we give a brief outlook on crucial issues that need to be addressed in future research endeavors. PMID:25523368

  6. Toward a consistent use of overshooting parametrizations in 1D stellar evolution codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viallet, M.; Meakin, C.; Prat, V.; Arnett, D.

    2015-08-01

    Several parametrizations for overshooting in 1D stellar evolution calculations coexist in the literature. These parametrizations are used somewhat arbitrarily in stellar evolution codes, based on what works best for a given problem or even for the historical reasons related to the development of each code. We point out that these different parametrizations correspond to different physical regimes of overshooting, depending on whether the effects of radiation are dominant, marginal, or negligible. Our analysis is based on previously published theoretical results, as well as on multidimensional hydrodynamical simulations of stellar convection where the interaction between the convective region and a stably stratified region is observed. Although the underlying hydrodynamical processes are the same, the outcome of the overshooting process is profoundly affected by radiative effects. Using a simple picture of the scales involved in the overshooting process, we show how three regimes are obtained, depending on the importance of radiative effects. These three regimes correspond to the different behaviors observed in hydrodynamical simulations so far and to the three types of parametrizations used in 1D codes. We suggest that the existing parametrizations for overshooting should coexist in 1D stellar evolution codes and should be applied consistently at convective boundaries depending on the local physical conditions.

  7. Can oriented-attachment be an efficient growth mechanism for the synthesis of 1D nanocrystals via atomic layer deposition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Kechun; He, Weidong

    2015-09-01

    One-dimensional (1D) nanocrystals, such as nanorods and nanowires, have received extensive attention in the nanomaterials field due to their large surface areas and 1D confined transport properties. Oriented attachment (OA) is now recognized as a major growth mechanism for efficiently synthesizing 1D nanocrystals. Recently, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been modified to be a powerful vapor-phase technique with which to synthesize 1D OA nanorods/nanowires with high efficiency and quality by increasing the temperature and purging time. In this invited mini-review, we look into the advantages of OA and high-temperature ALD, and investigate the potential of employing the OA growth mechanism for the synthesis of 1D nanocrystals via modified ALD, aiming to provide guidance to researchers in the fields of both OA and ALD for efficient synthesis of 1D nanocrystals.

  8. TBC1D5 and the AP2 complex regulate ATG9 trafficking and initiation of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Doris; Dikic, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The RabGAP protein TBC1D5 controls cellular endomembrane trafficking processes and binds the retromer subunit VPS29 and the ubiquitin-like protein ATG8 (LC3). Here, we describe that TBC1D5 also associates with ATG9 and the active ULK1 complex during autophagy. Moreover, ATG9 and TBC1D5 interact with clathrin and the AP2 complex. Depletion of TBC1D5 leads to missorting of ATG9 to late endosomes upon activation of autophagy, whereas inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis or AP2 depletion alters ATG9 trafficking and its association with TBC1D5. Taken together, our data show that TBC1D5 and the AP2 complex are important novel regulators of the rerouting of ATG9-containing vesicular carriers toward sites of autophagosome formation. PMID:24603492

  9. Development of 1D Particle-in-Cell Code and Simulation of Plasma-Wall Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Laura P.

    This thesis discusses the development of a 1D particle-in-cell (PIC) code and the analysis of plasma-wall interactions. The 1D code (Plasma and Wall Simulation -- PAWS) is a kinetic simulation of plasma done by treating both electrons and ions as particles. The goal of this thesis is to study near wall plasma interaction to better understand the mechanism that occurs in this region. The main focus of this investigation is the effects that secondary electrons have on the sheath profile. The 1D code is modeled using the PIC method. Treating both the electrons and ions as macroparticles the field is solved on each node and weighted to each macro particle. A pre-ionized plasma was loaded into the domain and the velocities of particles were sampled from the Maxwellian distribution. An important part of this code is the boundary conditions at the wall. If a particle hits the wall a secondary electron may be produced based on the incident energy. To study the sheath profile the simulations were run for various cases. Varying background neutral gas densities were run with the 2D code and compared to experimental values. Different wall materials were simulated to show their effects of SEE. In addition different SEE yields were run, including one study with very high SEE yields to show the presence of a space charge limited sheath. Wall roughness was also studied with the 1D code using random angles of incidence. In addition to the 1D code, an external 2D code was also used to investigate wall roughness without secondary electrons. The roughness profiles where created upon investigation of wall roughness inside Hall Thrusters based off of studies done on lifetime erosion of the inner and outer walls of these devices. The 2D code, Starfish[33], is a general 2D axisymmetric/Cartesian code for modeling a wide a range of plasma and rarefied gas problems. These results show that higher SEE yield produces a smaller sheath profile and that wall roughness produces a lower SEE yield

  10. Hydrothermally processed 1D hydroxyapatite: Mechanism of formation and biocompatibility studies.

    PubMed

    Stojanović, Zoran S; Ignjatović, Nenad; Wu, Victoria; Žunič, Vojka; Veselinović, Ljiljana; Škapin, Srečo; Miljković, Miroslav; Uskoković, Vuk; Uskoković, Dragan

    2016-11-01

    Recent developments in bone tissue engineering have led to an increased interest in one-dimensional (1D) hydroxyapatite (HA) nano- and micro-structures such as wires, ribbons and tubes. They have been proposed for use as cell substrates, reinforcing phases in composites and carriers for biologically active substances. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 1D HA structures using an optimized, urea-assisted, high-yield hydrothermal batch process. The one-pot process, yielding HA structures composed of bundles of ribbons and wires, was typified by the simultaneous occurrence of a multitude of intermediate reactions, failing to meet the uniformity criteria over particle morphology and size. To overcome these issues, the preparation procedure was divided to two stages: dicalcium phosphate platelets synthesized in the first step were used as a precursor for the synthesis of 1D HA in the second stage. Despite the elongated particle morphologies, both the precursor and the final product exhibited excellent biocompatibility and caused no reduction of viability when tested against osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in 2D culture up to the concentration of 2.6mg/cm(2). X-ray powder diffraction combined with a range of electron microscopies and laser diffraction analyses was used to elucidate the formation mechanism and the microstructure of the final particles. The two-step synthesis involved a more direct transformation of DCP to 1D HA with the average diameter of 37nm and the aspect ratio exceeding 100:1. The comparison of crystalline domain sizes along different crystallographic directions showed no signs of significant anisotropy, while indicating that individual nanowires are ordered in bundles in the b crystallographic direction of the P63/m space group of HA. Intermediate processes, e.g., dehydration of dicalcium phosphate, are critical for the formation of 1D HA alongside other key aspects of this phase transformation, it must be investigated in more detail in the continuous

  11. Solar influence on the O(1D) dayglow emission rate: Global-scale measurements by WINDII on UARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. P.; Shepherd, G. G.

    2004-04-01

    More than 130,000 emission rate profiles of the O(1D) dayglow (630 nm) were observed by WINDII during 1991-1995, which provide an unprecedented resource for studying the O(1D) layer, and related physics and chemistry in the thermosphere and ionosphere. This article describes the general properties of the O(1D) emission layer and an empirical model derived from WINDII measurements for the O(1D) emission rate as a function of the solar zenith angle and solar irradiance using the F10.7 cm flux as a proxy.

  12. Low Temperature Rate Constants for the Reactions of O((1)D) with N2, O2, and Ar.

    PubMed

    Grondin, Romain; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Hickson, Kevin M

    2016-07-14

    The kinetics of the gas-phase quenching reactions O((1)D) + N2, O((1)D) + O2, and O((1)D) + Ar have been studied over the 50-296 K temperature range using the Laval nozzle method. O((1)D) atoms were created in situ by the pulsed photolysis of O3 precursor molecules at 266 nm. Rate constants for these processes were measured directly, following the decay of O((1)D) atoms through vacuum ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence at 115.215 nm. For the O((1)D) + N2 and O((1)D) + O2 reactions, the quenching efficiencies are seen to increase as the temperature falls. For the O((1)D) + N2 system, this indicates the likely influence of the intermediate complex lifetime on the quenching rate through nonadiabatic processes. For the O((1)D) + O2 system, which is considerably more complex, this behavior could result from the interactions between several potential energy surfaces. PMID:26814664

  13. Computational Study and Analysis of Structural Imperfections in 1D and 2D Photonic Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    K.R. Maskaly

    2005-06-01

    Dielectric reflectors that are periodic in one or two dimensions, also known as 1D and 2D photonic crystals, have been widely studied for many potential applications due to the presence of wavelength-tunable photonic bandgaps. However, the unique optical behavior of photonic crystals is based on theoretical models of perfect analogues. Little is known about the practical effects of dielectric imperfections on their technologically useful optical properties. In order to address this issue, a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code is employed to study the effect of three specific dielectric imperfections in 1D and 2D photonic crystals. The first imperfection investigated is dielectric interfacial roughness in quarter-wave tuned 1D photonic crystals at normal incidence. This study reveals that the reflectivity of some roughened photonic crystal configurations can change up to 50% at the center of the bandgap for RMS roughness values around 20% of the characteristic periodicity of the crystal. However, this reflectivity change can be mitigated by increasing the index contrast and/or the number of bilayers in the crystal. In order to explain these results, the homogenization approximation, which is usually applied to single rough surfaces, is applied to the quarter-wave stacks. The results of the homogenization approximation match the FDTD results extremely well, suggesting that the main role of the roughness features is to grade the refractive index profile of the interfaces in the photonic crystal rather than diffusely scatter the incoming light. This result also implies that the amount of incoherent reflection from the roughened quarterwave stacks is extremely small. This is confirmed through direct extraction of the amount of incoherent power from the FDTD calculations. Further FDTD studies are done on the entire normal incidence bandgap of roughened 1D photonic crystals. These results reveal a narrowing and red-shifting of the normal incidence bandgap with

  14. Coupled 1D-3D hydrodynamic modelling, with application to the Pearl River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twigt, Daniel J.; de Goede, Erik D.; Zijl, Firmijn; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Chiu, Alex Y. W.

    2009-12-01

    Within the hydrodynamic modelling community, it is common practice to apply different modelling systems for coastal waters and river systems. Whereas for coastal waters 3D finite difference or finite element grids are commonly used, river systems are generally modelled using 1D networks. Each of these systems is tailored towards specific applications. Three-dimensional coastal water models are designed to model the horizontal and vertical variability in coastal waters and are less well suited for representing the complex geometry and cross-sectional areas of river networks. On the other hand, 1D river network models are designed to accurately represent complex river network geometries and complex structures like weirs, barrages and dams. A disadvantage, however, is that they are unable to resolve complex spatial flow variability. In real life, however, coastal oceans and rivers interact. In deltaic estuaries, both tidal intrusion of seawater into the upstream river network and river discharge into open waters play a role. This is frequently approached by modelling the systems independently, with off-line coupling of the lateral boundary forcing. This implies that the river and the coastal model run sequentially, providing lateral discharge (1D) and water level (3D) forcing to each other without the possibility of direct feedback or interaction between these processes. An additional disadvantage is that due to the time aggregation usually applied to exchanged quantities, mass conservation is difficult to ensure. In this paper, we propose an approach that couples a 3D hydrodynamic modelling system for coastal waters (Delft3D) with a 1D modelling system for river hydraulics (SOBEK) online. This implies that contrary to off-line coupling, the hydrodynamic quantities are exchanged between the 1D and 3D domains during runtime to resolve the real-time exchange and interaction between the coastal waters and river network. This allows for accurate and mass conserving

  15. Emerging role for AS160/TBC1D4 and TBC1D1 in the regulation of GLUT4 traffic

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Kei; Holman, Geoffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    Vesicular traffic of the glucose transporter GLUT4 occurs in response to insulin, muscle contraction, and metabolic stimuli that lead to changes in the energy status of the cell. These stimuli are associated with linked kinase cascades that lead to changes in glucose uptake that meet the energy challenges imposed on the highly regulated cell types in insulin-responsive tissues. The need to mechanistically link these kinase-associated stimuli to identifiable intermediates in vesicular traffic has long been known but has been difficult to fulfill. The Rab-GTPase-activating proteins AS160 and TBC1D1 have now emerged as strong candidates to fill this void. Here we review the initial discovery of these proteins as phosphorylated substrates for Akt and the more recent emerging data that indicate that these proteins are substrates for additional kinases that are downstream of contraction and energy status signaling. The mechanism of coupling these phosphorylated proteins to vesicle traffic appears to be dependent on linking to small GTPase of the Rab family. We examine the current state of a hypothesis that suggests that phosphorylation of the Rab-GTPase-activating proteins leads to increased GTP loading of Rab proteins on GLUT4 vesicles and subsequently to increased interaction with Rab effectors that control GLUT4 vesicle translocation. PMID:18477703

  16. A marching in space and time (MAST) solver of the shallow water equations. Part I: The 1D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aricò, C.; Tucciarelli, T.

    2007-05-01

    A new approach is presented for the numerical solution of the complete 1D Saint-Venant equations. At each time step, the governing system of partial differential equations (PDEs) is split, using a fractional time step methodology, into a convective prediction system and a diffusive correction system. Convective prediction system is further split into a convective prediction and a convective correction system, according to a specified approximated potential. If a scalar exact potential of the flow field exists, correction vanishes and the solution of the convective correction system is the same solution of the prediction system. Both convective prediction and correction systems are shown to have at each x - t point a single characteristic line, and a corresponding eigenvalue equal to the local velocity. A marching in space and time (MAST) technique is used for the solution of the two systems. MAST solves a system of two ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in each computational cell, using for the time discretization a self-adjusting fraction of the original time step. The computational cells are ordered and solved according to the decreasing value of the potential in the convective prediction step and to the increasing value of the same potential in the convective correction step. The diffusive correction system is solved using an implicit scheme, that leads to the solution of a large linear system, with the same order of the cell number, but sparse, symmetric and well conditioned. The numerical model shows unconditional stability with regard of the Courant-Friedrichs-Levi (CFL) number, requires no special treatment of the source terms and a computational effort almost proportional to the cell number. Several tests have been carried out and results of the proposed scheme are in good agreement with analytical solutions, as well as with experimental data.

  17. Numerical study and topology optimization of 1D periodic bimaterial phononic crystal plates for bandgaps of low order Lamb waves.

    PubMed

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad

    2015-03-01

    The optimum topology of bimaterial phononic crystal (PhCr) plates with one-dimensional (1D) periodicity to attain maximum relative bandgap width of low order Lamb waves is computationally investigated. The evolution of optimized topology with respect to filling fraction of constituents, alternatively stiff scattering inclusion, is explored. The underlying idea is to develop PhCr plate structures with high specific bandgap efficiency at particular filling fraction, or further with multiscale functionality through gradient of optimized PhCr unitcell all over the lattice array. Multiobjective genetic algorithm (GA) is employed in this research in conjunction with finite element method (FEM) for topology optimization of silicon-tungsten PhCr plate unitcells. A specialized FEM model is developed and verified for dispersion analysis of plate waves and calculation of modal response. Modal band structure of regular PhCr plate unitcells with centric scattering layer is studied as a function of aspect ratio and filling fraction. Topology optimization is then carried out for a few aspect ratios, with and without prescribed symmetry, over various filling fractions. The efficiency of obtained solutions is verified as compared to corresponding regular centric PhCr plate unitcells. Moreover, being inspired by the obtained optimum topologies, definite and easy to produce topologies are proposed with enhanced bandgap efficiency as compared to centric unitcells. Finally a few cases are introduced to evaluate the frequency response of finite PhCr plate structures produced by achieved topologies and also to confirm the reliability of calculated modal band structures. Cases made by consecutive unitcells of different filling fraction are examined in order to attest the bandgap efficiency and multiscale functionality of such graded PhCr plate structures. PMID:25468146

  18. Nested 1D-2D approach for urban surface flood modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murla, Damian; Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Floods in urban areas as a consequence of sewer capacity exceedance receive increased attention because of trends in urbanization (increased population density and impermeability of the surface) and climate change. Despite the strong recent developments in numerical modeling of water systems, urban surface flood modeling is still a major challenge. Whereas very advanced and accurate flood modeling systems are in place and operation by many river authorities in support of flood management along rivers, this is not yet the case in urban water management. Reasons include the small scale of the urban inundation processes, the need to have very high resolution topographical information available, and the huge computational demands. Urban drainage related inundation modeling requires a 1D full hydrodynamic model of the sewer network to be coupled with a 2D surface flood model. To reduce the computational times, 0D (flood cones), 1D/quasi-2D surface flood modeling approaches have been developed and applied in some case studies. In this research, a nested 1D/2D hydraulic model has been developed for an urban catchment at the city of Gent (Belgium), linking the underground sewer (minor system) with the overland surface (major system). For the overland surface flood modelling, comparison was made of 0D, 1D/quasi-2D and full 2D approaches. The approaches are advanced by considering nested 1D-2D approaches, including infiltration in the green city areas, and allowing the effects of surface storm water storage to be simulated. An optimal nested combination of three different mesh resolutions was identified; based on a compromise between precision and simulation time for further real-time flood forecasting, warning and control applications. Main streets as mesh zones together with buildings as void regions constitute one of these mesh resolution (3.75m2 - 15m2); they have been included since they channel most of the flood water from the manholes and they improve the accuracy of

  19. Collision induced state-to-state energy transfer dynamics between the 2u ((1)D2) and 2g ((1)D2) ion-pair states of I2.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Shoma; Nakano, Yukio; Araki, Mitsunori; Ishiwata, Takashi; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2016-06-01

    We report the first observation of collision induced state-to-state energy transfer from the 2u ((1)D2) (v2u = 3-7) ion-pair state of I2 using a perturbation facilitated optical-optical double resonance technique through the c (1)Πg∼ B (3)Π(0) hyperfine mixed double-faced valence state as the intermediate state. The excitation of the 2u ((1)D2) state yielded the weak UV fluorescence from the wide range of vibrational levels in the nearby 2g ((1)D2) state. The vibrational distribution in the 2g ((1)D2) state derived by the Franck-Condon simulation of the UV fluorescence showed that the population in the 2u ((1)D2) state transfers mostly to the 2g ((1)D2) vibronic levels which are located energetically above the laser-prepared level. The radiative lifetimes and the self-quenching rate constants were determined to be 21.3 ± 0.1 and 44.6 ± 0.8 ns, and (1.30 ± 0.01) × 10(-9) and (2.26 ± 0.17) × 10(-9) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the 2u ((1)D2) (v2u = 3) and 2g ((1)D2) (v2g = 5) states, respectively. The rate constant for the 2u ((1)D2) - 2g ((1)D2) collision induced state-to-state energy transfer was also evaluated to be (1.89 ± 0.01), (3.07 ± 0.07), and (3.77 ± 0.05) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the v2u = 3, 5, and 7 levels, respectively. The very large self-quenching cross sections for the ion-pair states of I2 could be explained by the harpoon mechanism. PMID:27165483

  20. Supersymmetric configurations in the rotating D1-D5 system andpp-waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maoz, Liat

    Two families of supersymmetric configurations are considered. One is the 1/4 supersymmetric D1--D5 system with angular momentum, and the other is a family of pp-waves of type IIB string theory with some supersymmetry. In the first part of the thesis some configurations of the D1--D5 system are examined which give conical singularities in AdS 3 as their near horizon limit. It is shown that they can be made non-singular by adding angular momentum to the brane system. The smooth asymptotically flat solutions constructed this way are used to obtain global AdS 3 as the near horizon geometry. Using the relation of the D1--D5 system to the oscillating string, a large family of supergravity solutions is constructed which describe BPS excitations on AdS3 x S 3 with angular momentum on S3. These solutions take into account the full back reaction on the metric, and can be viewed as Kaluza-Klein monopole "supertubes", which are completely non-singular geometries. The different chiral primaries of the dual CFT are identified with these different supergravity solutions. This part is adapted from the papers [1], [2]. In its second part, a general class of supersymmetric pp-wave solutions of type IIB string theory is constructed, such that the superstring worldsheet action in light cone gauge is that of an interacting massive field theory. It is shown that when the light cone Lagrangian has (2.2) supersymmetry, one can find backgrounds that lead to arbitrary superpotentials on the worldsheet. Both flat and curved transverse spaces are considered. In particular, the background giving rise to the N = 2 sine Gordon theory on the worldsheet is analyzed. Massive mirror symmetry relates it to the deformed CP1 model (or sausage model) which seems to elude a purely supergravity target space interpretation. These are results which appeared in the paper [3].

  1. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative AFC-1D, AFC-1G and AFC-1H Irradiation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Debra J. Utterbeck; Gray Chang

    2005-09-01

    The U. S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposition and the long-term radiotoxity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. The AFC-1 irradiation experiments on transmutation fuels are expected to provide irradiation performance data on non-fertile and low-fertile fuel forms specifically, irradiation growth and swelling, helium production, fission gas release, fission product and fuel constituent migration, fuel phase equilibria, and fuel-cladding chemical interaction. Contained in this report are the to-date physics evaluations performed on three of the AFC-1 experiments; AFC-1D, AFC-1G and AFC-1H. The AFC-1D irradiation experiment consists of metallic non-fertile fuel compositions with minor actinides for potential use in accelerator driven systems and AFC-1G and AFC-1H irradiation experiments are part of the fast neutron reactor fuel development effort. These experiments are high burnup analogs to previously irradiated experiments and are to be irradiated to = 20 atom % burnup. Results of the evaluations show that AFC-1D will remain in the ATR for approximately 100 additional effective full power days (EFPDs), and AFC-1G and AFC-1H for approximately 300 additional EFPDs in order to reach the desired programmatic burnup. The specific irradiation schedule for these tests will be determined based on future physics evaluations and all results will be documented in subsequent reports.

  2. 5-HT1D receptor inhibits renal sympathetic neurotransmission by nitric oxide pathway in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    García-Pedraza, José-Ángel; García, Mónica; Martín, María-Luisa; Morán, Asunción

    2015-09-01

    Although serotonin has been shown to inhibit peripheral sympathetic outflow, serotonin regulation on renal sympathetic outflow has not yet been elucidated. This study investigated which 5-HT receptor subtypes are involved. Wistar rats were anesthetized (sodium pentobarbital; 60mg/kg, i.p.), and prepared for in situ autoperfused rat kidney, which allows continuous measurement of systemic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and renal perfusion pressure (PP). Electrical stimulation of renal sympathetic nerves resulted in frequency-dependent increases in PP (18.3±1.0, 43.7±2.7 and 66.7±4.0 for 2, 4 and 6Hz, respectively), without altering SBP or HR. 5-HT, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-HT1/7 agonist) (0.00000125-0.1μg/kg each) or l-694,247 (5-HT1D agonist; 0.0125μg/kg) i.a. bolus inhibited vasopressor responses by renal nerve electrical stimulation, unlike i.a. bolus of agonists α-methyl-5-HT (5-HT2), 1-PBG (5-HT3), cisapride (5-HT4), AS-19 (5-HT7), CGS-12066B (5-HT1B) or 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A) (0.0125μg/kg each). The effect of l-694,247 did not affect the exogenous norepinephrine-induced vasoconstrictions, whereas was abolished by antagonist LY310762 (5-HT1D; 1mg/kg) or l-NAME (nitric oxide; 10mg/kg), but not by indomethacin (COX1/2; 2mg/kg) or glibenclamide (ATP-dependent K(+) channel; 20mg/kg). These results suggest that 5-HT mechanism-induced inhibition of rat vasopressor renal sympathetic outflow is mainly mediated by prejunctional 5-HT1D receptors via nitric oxide release. PMID:26003124

  3. O(1D) Reaction with Methane Studied by State Resolved Scattering Distribution Measurements of Methyl Radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshinori

    2014-06-01

    The scattering distributions of state-selected methyl radicals are measured for the O(^1D_2) reaction with methane using a crossed molecular beam ion imaging method at collision energies of 0.9 - 6.8 kcal/mol. The results are compared with the reaction with deuterated methane to examine the isotope effects. The scattering distributions exhibit contributions from both the insertion and abstraction pathways respectively on the ground and excited-state potential energy surfaces. Insertion is the main pathway, and it provides a strongly forward-enhanced angular distribution of methyl radicals. Abstraction is a minor pathway, causing backward scattering of methyl radicals with a discrete speed distribution. From the collision energy dependence of the abstraction/insertion ratio, the barrier height for the abstraction pathway is estimated for O(^1D_2) with CH_4 and CD_4, respectively. The insertion pathway of the O(^1D_2) reaction with CH_4 has a narrower angular width in the forward scattering and a larger insertion/abstraction ratio than the reaction with CD_4, which indicate that the insertion reaction with CH_4 has a larger cross section and a shorter reaction time than the reaction with CD_4. Additionally, while the insertion reaction with CD_4 exhibits strong angular dependence of the CD_3 speed distribution, CH_3 exhibits considerably smaller dependence. The result suggests that, although intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) within the lifetime of the methanol intermediate is restrictive in both isotopomers, relatively more extensive IVR occurs in CD_3OD than CH_3OH, presumably due to the higher vibrational state density.

  4. Universal low-energy physics in 1D strongly repulsive multi-component Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuzhu; He, Peng; Guan, Xi-Wen

    2016-04-01

    It has been shown (Yang and You 2011 Chin. Phys. Lett. 28 020503) that at zero temperature the ground state of the one-dimensional (1D) w-component Fermi gas coincides with that of the spinless Bose gas in the limit ω \\to ∞ . This behavior was experimentally evidenced through quasi-1D tightly trapping ultracold 173Yb atoms in a recent paper (Pagano et al 2014 Nat. Phys. 10 198). However, understanding of low-temperature behavior of Fermi gases with a repulsive interaction requires spin-charge separated conformal field theories of an effective Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid and an antiferromagnetic SU(w) Heisenberg spin chain. Here we analytically derive universal thermodynamics of 1D strongly repulsive fermionic gases with SU(w) symmetry via the Yang-Yang thermodynamic Bethe ansatz method. The analytical free energy and magnetic properties of the systems at low temperature in a weak magnetic field are obtained through the Wiener-Hopf method. In particular, the free energy essentially manifests the spin-charge separated conformal field theories for high-symmetry systems with arbitrary repulsive interaction strength. We also find that the sound velocity of the Fermi gases in the large w limit coincides with that for the spinless Bose gas, whereas the spin velocity vanishes quickly as w becomes large. This indicates strong suppression of the Fermi exclusion statistics by the commutativity feature among the w-component fermions with different spin states in the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid phase. Moreover, the equations of state and critical behavior of physical quantities at finite temperature are analytically derived in terms of the polylogarithm functions in the quantum critical region.

  5. Second order effect of twist deformations in the D1D5 CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Zaq; Hampton, Shaun; Mathur, Samir D.

    2016-04-01

    Thermalization in the D1D5 CFT should occur via interactions caused by the twist operator, which deforms the theory off its free orbifold point. Earlier studies investigating this deformation at first order did not show any definite evidence of thermalization. In this paper we study the deformation to second order, where we do expect to see the effects that should give thermalization. We compute the effect of two twist operators on an initial vacuum state, which generates a squeezed state analogous to the case for a single twist. We obtain expressions for the Bogoliubov coefficients in this 2-twist case.

  6. Effect of low transverse magnetic field on the confinement strength in a quasi-1D wire

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Thomas, K. J.; Smith, L. W.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Jones, G. A. C.; Griffiths, J.; Pepper, M.

    2013-12-04

    Transport measurements in a quasi-one dimensional (1D) quantum wire are reported in the presence of low transverse magnetic field. Differential conductance shows weak quantised plateaus when the 2D electrons are squeezed electrostatically. Application of a small transverse magnetic field (0.2T) enhances the overall degree of quantisation due to the formation of magneto-electric subbands. The results show the role of magnetic field to fine tune the confinement strength in low density wires when interaction gives rise to double row formation.

  7. Thermodynamic nature of vitrification in a 1D model of a structural glass former

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a new spin-glass model with no positional quenched disorder which is regarded as a coarse-grained model of a structural glass-former. The model is analyzed in the 1D case when the number N of states of a primary cell is large. For N → ∞, the model exhibits a sharp freezing transition of the thermodynamic origin. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the glass transition is accompanied by a significant growth of a static length scale ξ pointing to the structural (equilibrium) nature of dynamical slowdown effects in supercooled liquids.

  8. Review of Zero-D and 1-D Models of Blood Flow in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Zero-dimensional (lumped parameter) and one dimensional models, based on simplified representations of the components of the cardiovascular system, can contribute strongly to our understanding of circulatory physiology. Zero-D models provide a concise way to evaluate the haemodynamic interactions among the cardiovascular organs, whilst one-D (distributed parameter) models add the facility to represent efficiently the effects of pulse wave transmission in the arterial network at greatly reduced computational expense compared to higher dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies. There is extensive literature on both types of models. Method and Results The purpose of this review article is to summarise published 0D and 1D models of the cardiovascular system, to explore their limitations and range of application, and to provide an indication of the physiological phenomena that can be included in these representations. The review on 0D models collects together in one place a description of the range of models that have been used to describe the various characteristics of cardiovascular response, together with the factors that influence it. Such models generally feature the major components of the system, such as the heart, the heart valves and the vasculature. The models are categorised in terms of the features of the system that they are able to represent, their complexity and range of application: representations of effects including pressure-dependent vessel properties, interaction between the heart chambers, neuro-regulation and auto-regulation are explored. The examination on 1D models covers various methods for the assembly, discretisation and solution of the governing equations, in conjunction with a report of the definition and treatment of boundary conditions. Increasingly, 0D and 1D models are used in multi-scale models, in which their primary role is to provide boundary conditions for sophisticate, and often patient-specific, 2D and 3D models

  9. Cold beam of isotopically pure Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathod, K. D.; Singh, P. K.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate generation of an isotopically pure beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms by deflection using 1D-optical molasses. Atoms in a collimated thermal beam are first slowed using a Zeeman Slower. They are then subjected to a pair of molasses beams inclined at $45^\\circ$ with respect to the slowed atomic beam. The slowed atoms are deflected and probed at a distance of 160 mm. We demonstrate selective deflection of the bosonic isotope $^{174}$Yb, and the fermionic isotope $^{171}$Yb. Using a transient measurement after the molasses beams are turned on, we find a longitudinal temperature of 41 mK.

  10. Scratched-XY Universality and Phase Diagram of Disordered 1D Bosons in Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    The superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition in a 1D system with weak links belongs to the so-called scratched-XY universality class, provided the irrenormalizable exponent ζ characterizing the distribution of weak links is smaller than 2 / 3 . With a combination of worm-algorithm Monte Carlo simulations and asymptotically exact analytics, we accurately trace the position of the scratched-XY critical line on the ground-state phase diagram of bosonic Hubbard model at unity filling. In particular, we reveal the location of the tricritical point separating the scratched-XY criticality from the Giamarchi-Schulz one.

  11. Thermodynamic nature of vitrification in a 1D model of a structural glass former.

    PubMed

    Semenov, A N

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new spin-glass model with no positional quenched disorder which is regarded as a coarse-grained model of a structural glass-former. The model is analyzed in the 1D case when the number N of states of a primary cell is large. For N → ∞, the model exhibits a sharp freezing transition of the thermodynamic origin. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the glass transition is accompanied by a significant growth of a static length scale ξ pointing to the structural (equilibrium) nature of dynamical slowdown effects in supercooled liquids. PMID:26233148

  12. Monochromatic Neutron Tomography Using 1-D PSD Detector at Low Flux Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashari, N. Abidin; Saleh, J. Mohamad; Abdullah, M. Zaid; Mohamed, A. Aziz; Azman, A.; Jamro, R.

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the monochromatic neutron tomography experiment using the 1-D Position Sensitive Neutron Detector (PSD) located at Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA MARK II Research reactor. Experimental work was performed using monochromatic neutron source from beryllium filter and HOPG crystal monochromator. The principal main aim of this experiment was to test the detector efficiency, image reconstruction algorithm and the usage of 0.5 nm monochromatic neutrons for the neutron tomography setup. Other objective includes gathering important parameters and features to characterize the system.

  13. Exact spin dynamics of inhomogeneous 1-d systems at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danieli, E. P.; Pastawski, H. M.; Levstein, P. R.

    2002-07-01

    The evaluation of spin excitation dynamics in finite 1-d systems of spins {1}/{2} with XY exchange interaction J acquired new interest because NMR experiments at high temperature ( kBT≫ J) confirmed the predicted spin wave behavior of mesoscopic echoes. In this work, we use the Jordan-Wigner transformation to obtain the exact dynamics of inhomogeneous chains and rings where the evolution is reduced to one-body dynamics. For higher dimensions, the spin excitations manifest many-body effects that can be interpreted as a simple dynamics of non-interacting fermions plus a decoherent process.

  14. Functional evaluation of the type 1 diabetes (T1D) susceptibility candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongsoo

    2007-09-01

    Progress has been made in investigating the genetic factors involved in type 1 diabetes (T1D) development for the past few years. While Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping has been useful for both the confirmation and fine-mapping of susceptibility intervals, as well as identification of etiological mutations, identification of specific disease genes has been a challenge and limited to known candidate genes. The overall risk for T1D from the HLA DR and DQ molecules (IDDM1) is determined by combinations of polymorphic alleles. Functional studies indicate that the susceptible and protective HLA-DR and -DQ bind and present non-overlapping peptides. Although consistent linkage evidence was reported for the susceptibility intervals IDDM2, IDDM5 and IDDM12, evidence for most other intervals varies in different data sets. The variable number of tandem repeats at the 5' end of the insulin gene (IDDM2) regulates insulin expression in the thymus. Studies on IDDM5 have led to the discovery of a novel polymorphism 163 A-->G (M55V) in SUMO4 gene, which was found to be associated with T1D patients with Asian origin. Functionally SUMO4 conjugates to IkBalpha and negatively regulates NFkB transcriptional pathway. The M55V substitution reduces the sumoylation activity of the V55 variant, which resulted in higher NFkB dependent transcriptional activity. The polymorphisms of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 gene (CTLA4, IDDM12) encoding a regulatory molecule in the immune system associate with T1D and autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD). The 3' untranslated region of this gene determines the level of soluble CTLA-4. Genetic mapping of variants conferring a small disease risk can identify pathways in complex disorders, as evidenced by quantitative alterations of candidate genes contributing to autoimmune tissue destruction. Moreover, the identification of two transcription factors that, when mutated, are responsible for severe autoimmune disease is leading to a better understanding

  15. Correlation versus surface effects in photoemission of quasi-1D organic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claessen, R.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Sing, M.; Jacobsen, C. S.; Dressel, M.

    2002-03-01

    The absence of spectral weight at the Fermi level in photoemission spectra of quasi-1D organic conductors has been interpreted as possible evidence for an unusual many-body state. We demonstrate that great care must be exercised to draw this conclusion exclusively on the basis of a pseudogap. A detailed surface characterization of the charge transfer salts (TMTSF)2PF6 and TTF-TCNQ shows that signatures of electronic correlations in the valence band spectra are strongly affected by surface effects and may even be completely obscured.

  16. Towards 1D nanolines on a monolayered supramolecular network adsorbed on a silicon surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makoudi, Younes; Beyer, Matthieu; Lamare, Simon; Jeannoutot, Judicael; Palmino, Frank; Chérioux, Frédéric

    2016-06-01

    The growth of 3D extended periodic networks made up of π-conjugated molecules on semi-conductor surfaces is of interest for the integration of nano-components in the future generations of smart devices. In the work presented in this article, we successfully achieved the formation of bilayered networks on a silicon surface including 1D-isolated nanolines in the second layer. Firstly, we observed the formation of a 2D large-scale supramolecular network in the plane of a silicon surface through the deposition of tailored molecules. Then using the same molecules, a second-layer, based on 1D nanolines, grew above the first layer, thanks to a template effect. Mono- or bi-layered networks were found to be stable from 100 K up to room temperature. These networks were investigated by scanning tunnel microscopy imaging under an ultra-high vacuum (UHV-STM).The growth of 3D extended periodic networks made up of π-conjugated molecules on semi-conductor surfaces is of interest for the integration of nano-components in the future generations of smart devices. In the work presented in this article, we successfully achieved the formation of bilayered networks on a silicon surface including 1D-isolated nanolines in the second layer. Firstly, we observed the formation of a 2D large-scale supramolecular network in the plane of a silicon surface through the deposition of tailored molecules. Then using the same molecules, a second-layer, based on 1D nanolines, grew above the first layer, thanks to a template effect. Mono- or bi-layered networks were found to be stable from 100 K up to room temperature. These networks were investigated by scanning tunnel microscopy imaging under an ultra-high vacuum (UHV-STM). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional STM images showing submolecular details of the adsorption of molecules on the surface. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01826b

  17. Investigation of 1-D crustal velocity structure beneath Izmir Gulf and surroundings by using local earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Orhan; Özer, Ćaglar

    2016-04-01

    In this study; we examined one dimensional crustal velocity structure of Izmir gulf and surroundings. We used nearly one thousand high quality (A and B class) earthquake data which recorded by Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) [1], Bogazici University (BU-KOERI) [2] and National Observatory of Athens (NOA) [3,4]. We tried several synthetic tests to understand power of new velocity structure, and examined phase residuals, RMS values and shifting tests. After evaluating these tests; we decided one dimensional velocity structure and minimum 1-D P wave velocities, hypocentral parameter and earthquake locations from VELEST algorithm. Distribution of earthquakes was visibly improved by using new minimum velocity structure.

  18. Simultaneous potential and circuit solution for 1D bounded plasma particle simulation codes

    SciTech Connect

    Verboncoeur, J.P.; Vahedi, V.; Birdsall, C.K. ); Alves, M.V. , S.J. dos Campos )

    1993-02-01

    A general second-order accurate method for solving the combined potential and circuit equations in a one-dimensional electrostatic bounded plasma PIC simulation is presented. The boundary conditions include surface charge on the electrodes, which are connected to a series RLC circuit with driving terms V(t) or l(t). The solution is obtained for planar, cylindrical, and spherical electrodes. The result is a tridiagonal matrix which is readily solved using well-known methods. The method is implemented in the codes PDPL (plasma device planar 1 D), PDC1 (cylindrical), and PDS1 (spherical).

  19. Doped SiO2 telecommunication fibre as a 1-D detector for radiation therapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Rahman, A. T.; Abdul Sani, Siti Fairus; Bradley, D. A.

    2012-02-01

    Present studies concern Ge-doped SiO2 telecommunication fibre as a high spatial resolution 1-D thermoluminescence (TL) system for radiotherapeutic dosimetry. Using tube xray bremsstrahlung sources operating at kilovoltage energies, these fibres have been shown to offer linear response, from < 1Gy up to in excess of 30 Gy. Measurement of the photoelectron dose enhancement resulting from use of a moderately high atomic number medium (iodinated contrast media) demonstrates the fibres to have the local dose sensitivity required of interface dosimetry. In PMMA, the TL yield is ~60% greater in the presence of iodine than in its absence.

  20. SILVA: EDF two-phase 1D annular model of a CFB boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Montat, D.; Fauquet, P.; Lafanechere, L.; Bursi, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    Aiming to improve its knowledge of CFB boilers, EDF has initiated a R and D program including: laboratory work on mock-ups, numerical modelling and on-site tests in CFB power plants. One of the objectives of this program is the development of a comprehensive steady-state 1D model of the solid circulation loop, named SILVA, for plant operation and design evaluation purposes. This paper describes its mathematical and physical modelling. Promising validation of the model on cold mock-up and industrial CFB is presented.

  1. Monochromatic Neutron Tomography Using 1-D PSD Detector at Low Flux Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ashari, N. Abidin; Saleh, J. Mohamad; Abdullah, M. Zaid; Mohamed, A. Aziz; Azman, A.; Jamro, R.

    2008-03-17

    This paper describes the monochromatic neutron tomography experiment using the 1-D Position Sensitive Neutron Detector (PSD) located at Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA MARK II Research reactor. Experimental work was performed using monochromatic neutron source from beryllium filter and HOPG crystal monochromator. The principal main aim of this experiment was to test the detector efficiency, image reconstruction algorithm and the usage of 0.5 nm monochromatic neutrons for the neutron tomography setup. Other objective includes gathering important parameters and features to characterize the system.

  2. Exponentially-convergent Monte Carlo for the 1-D transport equation

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J. R.; Morel, J. E.; Ragusa, J. C.

    2013-07-01

    We define a new exponentially-convergent Monte Carlo method for solving the one-speed 1-D slab-geometry transport equation. This method is based upon the use of a linear discontinuous finite-element trial space in space and direction to represent the transport solution. A space-direction h-adaptive algorithm is employed to restore exponential convergence after stagnation occurs due to inadequate trial-space resolution. This methods uses jumps in the solution at cell interfaces as an error indicator. Computational results are presented demonstrating the efficacy of the new approach. (authors)

  3. Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of 1-D Cerium Oxide Nanomaterials: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kuen-Song; Chowdhury, Sujan

    2010-01-01

    The present work provides a comprehensive overview of the recent progress of research work toward developing new one dimensional (1-D) ceria (CeO2) nanomaterials. The review has been classified into three parts: the preparation procedures with identification of the existing different dimensional ceria nanomaterials, the formation mechanisms, and an analysis of their applications. From literature survey, it is inaugurated that the fundamental structures of the ceria nanomaterials constructively dominate their properties and applications. In addition, this work will also provide a perspective on the future technical trends for the development of different dimensional CeO2 nanomaterials. PMID:20957090

  4. Investigation of Associations between NR1D1, RORA and RORB Genes and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yin-Chieh; Kao, Chung-Feng; Lu, Mong-Liang; Chen, Hsi-Chung; Chen, Po-Yu; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Shen, Winston W.; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Lu, Ru-Band; Kuo, Po-Hsiu

    2015-01-01

    Several genes that are involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms are implicated in the susceptibility to bipolar disorder (BD). The current study aimed to investigate the relationships between genetic variants in NR1D1 RORA, and RORB genes and BD in the Han Chinese population. We conducted a case-control genetic association study with two samples of BD patients and healthy controls. Sample I consisted of 280 BD patients and 200 controls. Sample II consisted of 448 BD patients and 1770 healthy controls. 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NR1D1, RORA, and RORB genes were genotyped using GoldenGate VeraCode assays in sample I, and 492 markers in the three genes were genotyped using Affymetrix Genome-Wide CHB Array in sample II. Single marker and gene-based association analyses were performed using PLINK. A combined p-value for the joining effects of all markers within a gene was calculated using the rank truncated product method. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method was also applied to test gene-gene interactions in sample I. All markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.001). In sample I, the associations with BD were observed for rs4774388 in RORA (OR = 1.53, empirical p-value, P = 0.024), and rs1327836 in RORB (OR = 1.75, P = 0.003). In Sample II, there were 45 SNPs showed associations with BD, and the most significant marker in RORA was rs11639084 (OR = 0.69, P = 0.002), and in RORB was rs17611535 (OR = 3.15, P = 0.027). A combined p-value of 1.6×10−6, 0.7, and 1.0 was obtained for RORA, RORB and NR1D1, respectively, indicting a strong association for RORA with the risk of developing BD. A four way interaction was found among markers in NR1D1, RORA, and RORB with the testing accuracy 53.25% and a cross-validation consistency of 8 out of 10. In sample II, 45 markers had empirical p-values less than 0.05. The most significant markers in RORA and RORB genes were rs11639084 (OR = 0.69, P = 0.002), and rs17611535 (OR = 3.15, P = 0

  5. Injectable composites via functionalization of 1D nanoclays and biodegradable coupling with a polysaccharide hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Del Buffa, Stefano; Rinaldi, Elia; Carretti, Emiliano; Ridi, Francesca; Bonini, Massimo; Baglioni, Piero

    2016-09-01

    The use of injectable materials in minimally invasive surgical procedures could help in facing the bone diseases connected to the ageing of world population. To this aim, materials integrating the rheological properties of biocompatible polymers with the mechanical properties of 1D inorganic nanostructures represent promising scaffolds. Here we describe the preparation of hydrogel composites made of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and halloysite nanotubes (HNT) as injectable materials for the local treatment of bone defects. The rheology and injectability of the materials reflects their structural properties, showing the possibility of successfully injecting the prepared composites over a large range of operative conditions. PMID:27281242

  6. Thermodynamic nature of vitrification in a 1D model of a structural glass former

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, A. N.

    2015-07-28

    We propose a new spin-glass model with no positional quenched disorder which is regarded as a coarse-grained model of a structural glass-former. The model is analyzed in the 1D case when the number N of states of a primary cell is large. For N → ∞, the model exhibits a sharp freezing transition of the thermodynamic origin. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the glass transition is accompanied by a significant growth of a static length scale ξ pointing to the structural (equilibrium) nature of dynamical slowdown effects in supercooled liquids.

  7. KAM Tori for 1D Nonlinear Wave Equationswith Periodic Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chierchia, Luigi; You, Jiangong

    In this paper, one-dimensional (1D) nonlinear wave equations with periodic boundary conditions are considered; V is a periodic smooth or analytic function and the nonlinearity f is an analytic function vanishing together with its derivative at u≡0. It is proved that for ``most'' potentials V(x), the above equation admits small-amplitude periodic or quasi-periodic solutions corresponding to finite dimensional invariant tori for an associated infinite dimensional dynamical system. The proof is based on an infinite dimensional KAM theorem which allows for multiple normal frequencies.

  8. Severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis among youth with type 1 diabetes in the T1D Exchange clinic registry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Severe hypoglycemia (SH) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are common serious acute complications of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of SH and DKA and identify factors related to their occurrence in the T1D Exchange pediatric and young adult cohort. The anal...

  9. 50 CFR Table 1d to Part 660... - At-Sea Whiting Fishery Annual Set-Asides, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false At-Sea Whiting Fishery Annual Set-Asides, 2013 1d Table 1d to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF...

  10. Expression and gene doses changes of the p53-regulator PPM1D in meningiomas: a role in meningioma progression?

    PubMed

    Fukami, Shinjiro; Riemenschneider, Markus J; Kohno, Michihiro; Steiger, Hans Jakob

    2016-07-01

    The aim of our study was to clarify the expression and gene copy number levels of protein phosphatase 1D magnesium-dependent, delta isoform (PPM1D), which is thought to be a regulator of the p53 protein in meningiomas of all three different WHO grades. Genomic DNA and mRNA were extracted from frozen tissues of meningiomas (WHO grade I, 20 cases; grade II, 17 cases; grade III, 20 cases). For analysis of the mRNA expression and gene dosage level of PPM1D, semiquantitative duplex RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR, and semiquantitative duplex PCR were performed. We also analyzed several genes which locate near PPM1D in the genomic locus 17q22-24 using semiquantitative duplex RT-PCR. We found that the mean mRNA expression of PPM1D is higher in WHO grade II and III meningiomas than in grade I tumors. This finding is accompanied by moderate gene dosage increases for PPM1D in meningiomas of higher grades. Other genes located in the vicinity of PPM1D also showed mRNA overexpression in single meningioma cases. For these genes, however, no significant expression differences between meningioma grades could be observed. Thus, PPM1D in the chromosomal location 17q22-24 might be the most relevant candidate gene with respect to a potential functional implication in meningioma progression. PMID:26942600

  11. 50 CFR Table 1d to Part 660... - At-Sea Whiting Fishery Annual Set-Asides, 2011 and 2012.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false At-Sea Whiting Fishery Annual Set-Asides, 2011 and 2012. 1d Table 1d to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES...

  12. 50 CFR Table 1d to Part 660... - At-Sea Whiting Fishery Annual Set-Asides, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false At-Sea Whiting Fishery Annual Set-Asides, 2011 1d Table 1d to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF...

  13. 50 CFR Table 1d to Part 660... - At-Sea Whiting Fishery Annual Set-Asides, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false At-Sea Whiting Fishery Annual Set-Asides, 2013 1d Table 1d to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF...

  14. Recombinant Phage Coated 1D Al2O3 Nanostructures for Controlling the Adhesion and Proliferation of Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juseok; Jeon, Hojeong; Haidar, Ayman; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Veith, Michael; Kim, Youngjun

    2015-01-01

    A novel synthesis of a nanostructured cell adhesive surface is investigated for future stent developments. One-dimensional (1D) Al2O3 nanostructures were prepared by chemical vapor deposition of a single source precursor. Afterwards, recombinant filamentous bacteriophages which display a short binding motif with a cell adhesive peptide (RGD) on p3 and p8 proteins were immobilized on these 1D Al2O3 nanostructures by a simple dip-coating process to study the cellular response of human endothelial EA hy.926. While the cell density decreased on as-deposited 1D Al2O3 nanostructures, we observed enhanced cell proliferation and cell-cell interaction on recombinant phage overcoated 1D Al2O3 nanostructures. The recombinant phage overcoating also supports an isotropic cell spreading rather than elongated cell morphology as we observed on as-deposited Al2O3 1D nanostructures. PMID:26090458

  15. Laser flash photolysis of ozone - O/1D/ quantum yields in the fall-off region 297-325 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, J. C.; Watson, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of the quantum yield for O(1D) production from ozone photolysis has been determined between 297.5 nm and 325 nm in order to resolve serious discrepancies among previous studies. The results of this investigation are compared to earlier work by calculating atmospheric production rate constants for O(1D). It is found that for the purpose of calculating this rate constant, there is now good agreement among three studies at 298 K. Furthermore, it appears that previous data on the temperature dependence of the O(1D) quantum yield fall-off is adequate for determining the vertical profile of the O(1D) production rate constant. Several experimental difficulties associated with using NO2(asterisk) chemiluminescence to monitor O(1D) have been identified.

  16. Special Education in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Levan; Nam, Sang Seok

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the development and current status of special education in Singapore. Topics include organization of service delivery, integration, teacher training, and achievements. Challenges to improve the quality of special education services through integration opportunities, preservice teacher training, and greater coordination among…

  17. Special Awareness Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granstrom, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The article reports on the organization and implementation of a "Special Needs Awareness Month" in Quincy, Massachusetts. Noted are the heavy involvement of parents in the multiagency planning committee, and the resulting citywide displays, publications, programs, and publicity on children with special needs. (DB)

  18. Special Education in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hanlin; Wang, HongBo

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the history and development of special education in China. The historical review covers antiquity to the 1800s, 1800s to 1900s, 1949 to 1965, and 1966 to 1976. Current special education in China is discussed in terms of laws and regulations and major achievements. Major problems and future prospects are also noted. (Author/DB)

  19. Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Malmgren, Kimber W.

    2009-01-01

    Special education has been gaining intense attention from governments and educators throughout the world. As a developing country, and official candidate for the European Union, Turkey has been working on issues related to special education provision and inclusive education to improve the quality of services for citizens with disabilities. This…

  20. Evaluating Special Education Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, John

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses early research on evaluating services for Australian disabled persons, the Schonell Evaluation Procedure (SEP) developed for use in Activity Therapy Centres (adult continuing education programs), the modification of SEP for use in special schools for children, and emergent and unmet needs for evaluating adult special education…

  1. Special Education Resource System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampert, George J.

    The guide to the Special Education Resource System (SERS) of the Flour Bluff (Texas) school system contains policies and procedures regarding organization, services, and process of the system. Noted is the SERS purpose of providing information and access to appropriate instructional media and materials for special education personnel. Briefly…

  2. Challenges Facing Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 17 selected papers from recent issues of the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," concerning current and emerging challenges facing the field of special education. The book is organized in two parts. Part 1, "Contemporary Challenges," includes the following articles: "Transitions in Early Childhood Special Education: Issues…

  3. Preface: ISBB Special Issue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue is published for the International Society of Biocatalysis and Biotechnology (ISBB). The ISBB special issue is devoted to all areas of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology in which biological systems are developed and/or used for the provision of commercial goods or serv...

  4. Assessing Special Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    Special events defined as being "newsworthy events" are becoming a way of American life. They are also a means for making a lot of money. Examples of special events that are cited most frequently are often the most minor of events; e.g., the open house, the new business opening day gala, or a celebration of some event in an organization. Little…

  5. Handbook of Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M., Ed.; Hallahan, Daniel P., Ed.

    Intended to serve as a basic reference work for students and professionals in special education, the book contains 34 author contributed chapters concerned with the conceptual foundations of special education, service delivery systems, curriculum and methods, and child and child/environmental management. Chapters have the following titles and…

  6. Special Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…

  7. Special Education in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Sultana S.; Munir, Shirin Z.

    1992-01-01

    This review of special education in Bangladesh describes the prevalence of major disabilities and government and nongovernment programs for children with various types of disabilities. The paper concludes that most special education is supported by nongovernment organizations and that implementation has been restricted by economic constraints.…

  8. Special Education Teacher Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was special education teachers, who remained in the teaching field 5 or more years. Through the use of qualitative mixed-methods study, variables contributing to their longevity were explored. Research indicates that 50% of special education teachers leave the field within five years of employment (Alliance for Education,…

  9. Calibration of Axisymmetric and Quasi-1D Solvers for High Enthalpy Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, P. E.; Gochberg, L. A.; Tokarcik-Polsky, S.; Venkatapathy, E.; Deiwert, G. S.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed paper will present a numerical investigation of the flow characteristics and boundary layer development in the nozzles of high enthalpy shock tunnel facilities used for hypersonic propulsion testing. The computed flow will be validated against existing experimental data. Pitot pressure data obtained at the entrance of the test cabin will be used to validate the numerical simulations. It is necessary to accurately model the facility nozzles in order to characterize the test article flow conditions. Initially the axisymmetric nozzle flow will be computed using a Navier Stokes solver for a range of reservoir conditions. The calculated solutions will be compared and calibrated against available experimental data from the DLR HEG piston-driven shock tunnel and the 16-inch shock tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The Reynolds number is assumed to be high enough at the throat that the boundary layer flow is assumed turbulent at this point downstream. The real gas affects will be examined. In high Mach number facilities the boundary layer is thick. Attempts will be made to correlate the boundary layer displacement thickness. The displacement thickness correlation will be used to calibrate the quasi-1D codes NENZF and LSENS in order to provide fast and efficient tools of characterizing the facility nozzles. The calibrated quasi-1D codes will be implemented to study the effects of chemistry and the flow condition variations at the test section due to small variations in the driver gas conditions.

  10. Dimensional phase transition from 1D behavior to a 3D Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelster, Axel; Morath, Denis; Straßel, Dominik; Eggert, Sebastian

    The emergence of new properties from low-dimensional building blocks is a universal theme in different areas in physics. The investigation of transitions between isolated and coupled low-dimensional systems promises to reveal new phenomena and exotic phases. Interacting 1D bosons, which are coupled in a two-dimensional array, are maybe the most fundamental example of a system which illustrates the concept of a dimensional phase transition. However, recent experiments using ultracold gases have shown a surprising discrepancy between theory and experiment and it is far from obvious if the power laws from the underlying 1D theory can predict the transition temperature and order parameter correctly for all interaction strengths. Using a combination of large-scale Quantum Monte-Carlo simulations and chain mean-field calculations, we show that the behavior of the ordering temperature as a function of inter-chain coupling strength does not follow a universal powerlaw, but also depends strongly on the filling

  11. A 1-D model study of Arctic sea-ice salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griewank, P. J.; Notz, D.

    2014-03-01

    We use a 1-D model to study how salinity evolves in Arctic sea ice. To do so, we first explore how sea-ice surface melt and flooding can be incorporated into the 1-D thermodynamic SAMSIM sea-ice model presented by Griewank and Notz (2013). We introduce flooding and a flushing parametrization which treats sea ice as a hydraulic network of horizontal and vertical fluxes. Forcing SAMSIM with 36 years of ERA-interim atmospheric reanalysis data, we obtain a modeled Arctic sea-ice salinity that agrees well with ice-core measurements. The simulations hence allow us to identify the main drivers of the observed mean salinity profile in Arctic sea ice. Our results show a 1.5-4 g kg-1 decrease of bulk salinity via gravity drainage after ice growth has ceased and before flushing sets in, which hinders approximating bulk salinity from ice thickness beyond the first growth season. In our simulations, salinity variability of first-year ice is mostly restricted to the top 20 cm. We find that ice thickness, thermal resistivity, freshwater column, and stored energy change by less than 5% on average when the full salinity parametrization is replaced with a prescribed salinity profile. We conclude that for earth system models the impact of fully parametrizing the Arctic temporal salinity evolution is too small to justify the increase in computational cost and model complexity.

  12. Spin-Polarized Fermi Gases in 1D, 3D, and Crossover Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Jacob A.; Revelle, Melissa C.; Olsen, Ben A.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2015-05-01

    We report recent results on mapping the superfluid transition as a function of atomic interaction and global spin polarization in a two-component, 3D gas of fermionic lithium. The atomic interactions are controlled using a Feshbach resonance to tune between the strongly interacting BEC regime and the weakly interacting BCS regime. Previously, a 3D gas was found to have an unpolarized superfluid core that is enclosed by polarized shells. By applying a 2D optical lattice we confine our gas in one-dimensional tubes. In this 1D gas, in contrast to the 3D gas, we found a partially polarized superfluid core and either fully polarized or fully paired wings depending on the overall spin polarization. In the current experiment, we have mapped the phase diagram of the 1D/3D crossover by increasing the inter-tube coupling. The exotic superfluid state, FFLO, is predicted to occupy a large portion of the phase diagram in the crossover regime, making it an ideal location in parameter space for its detection. ARO, NSF, ONR, and The Welch Foundation.

  13. Atomic layer deposition on phase-shift lithography generated photoresist patterns for 1D nanochannel fabrication.

    PubMed

    Güder, Firat; Yang, Yang; Krüger, Michael; Stevens, Gregory B; Zacharias, Margit

    2010-12-01

    A versatile, low-cost, and flexible approach is presented for the fabrication of millimeter-long, sub-100 nm wide 1D nanochannels with tunable wall properties (wall thickness and material) over wafer-scale areas on glass, alumina, and silicon surfaces. This approach includes three fabrication steps. First, sub-100 nm photoresist line patterns were generated by near-field contact phase-shift lithography (NFC-PSL) using an inexpensive homemade borosilicate mask (NFC-PSM). Second, various metal oxides were directly coated on the resist patterns with low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD). Finally, the remaining photoresist was removed via an acetone dip, and then planar nanochannel arrays were formed on the substrate. In contrast to all the previous fabrication routes, the sub-100 nm photoresist line patterns produced by NFC-PSL are directly employed as a sacrificial layer for the creation of nanochannels. Because both the NFC-PSL and the ALD deposition are highly reproducible processes, the strategy proposed here can be regarded as a general route for nanochannel fabrication in a simplified and reliable manner. In addition, the fabricated nanochannels were used as templates to synthesize various organic and inorganic 1D nanostructures on the substrate surface. PMID:21047101

  14. CD1d- and MR1-Restricted T Cells in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Peter A.; Anantha, Ram V.; Shaler, Christopher R.; McCormick, John K.; Haeryfar, S.M. Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulated immune responses to infection, such as those encountered in sepsis, can be catastrophic. Sepsis is typically triggered by an overwhelming systemic response to an infectious agent(s) and is associated with high morbidity and mortality even under optimal critical care. Recent studies have implicated unconventional, innate-like T lymphocytes, including CD1d- and MR1-restricted T cells as effectors and/or regulators of inflammatory responses during sepsis. These cell types are typified by invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, variant NKT (vNKT) cells, and mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. iNKT and vNKT cells are CD1d-restricted, lipid-reactive cells with remarkable immunoregulatory properties. MAIT cells participate in antimicrobial defense, and are restricted by major histocompatibility complex-related protein 1 (MR1), which displays microbe-derived vitamin B metabolites. Importantly, NKT and MAIT cells are rapid and potent producers of immunomodulatory cytokines. Therefore, they may be considered attractive targets during the early hyperinflammatory phase of sepsis when immediate interventions are urgently needed, and also in later phases when adjuvant immunotherapies could potentially reverse the dangerous state of immunosuppression. We will highlight recent findings that point to the significance or the therapeutic potentials of NKT and MAIT cells in sepsis and will also discuss what lies ahead in research in this area. PMID:26322041

  15. NOKIN1D: one-dimensional neutron kinetics based on a nodal collocation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdú, G.; Ginestar, D.; Miró, R.; Jambrina, A.; Barrachina, T.; Soler, Amparo; Concejal, Alberto

    2014-06-01

    The TRAC-BF1 one-dimensional kinetic model is a formulation of the neutron diffusion equation in the two energy groups' approximation, based on the analytical nodal method (ANM). The advantage compared with a zero-dimensional kinetic model is that the axial power profile may vary with time due to thermal-hydraulic parameter changes and/or actions of the control systems but at has the disadvantages that in unusual situations it fails to converge. The nodal collocation method developed for the neutron diffusion equation and applied to the kinetics resolution of TRAC-BF1 thermal-hydraulics, is an adaptation of the traditional collocation methods for the discretization of partial differential equations, based on the development of the solution as a linear combination of analytical functions. It has chosen to use a nodal collocation method based on a development of Legendre polynomials of neutron fluxes in each cell. The qualification is carried out by the analysis of the turbine trip transient from the NEA benchmark in Peach Bottom NPP using both the original 1D kinetics implemented in TRAC-BF1 and the 1D nodal collocation method.

  16. Nylon 6,6 electrospun fibres reinforced by amino functionalised 1D and 2D carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Pardo, F.; Martínez-Barrera, G.; Martínez-Hernández, A. L.; Castaño, V. M.; Rivera-Armenta, J. L.; Medellín-Rodríguez, F.; Velasco-Santos, C.

    2012-09-01

    Nylon 6,6 electrospun nanocomposites were prepared and reinforced with 0.1, 0.5 and 1wt.% of 1D and 2D carbon. Both carbon nanotubes and graphene were functionalised with amino groups (f-CNT and f-Ge respectively). The morphology and graphitization changes of carbon nanomaterials were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy; functional groups of modified nanomaterials was analysed by infrared spectroscopy. The mechanical response and the crystallinity of the fibres were measured by dynamical mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and wide angle x-ray diffraction. The morphology and dispersion of the nanomaterials in the nanofibres was studied by scanning electron microscopy and TEM. The storage modulus was improved by 118% for f-CNT and 116% for f-Ge. The mechanical response of the nanocomposites exhibited different behaviour upon loading of 1D and 2D carbon. This trend is consistent with the crystallinity of the nanofibres. This study showed f-CNT resulted in better mechanical properties at the lowest loading. On the other hand f-Ge showed improved reinforcing effect by increasing the filler loading. The two-dimensional structure of graphene was an important factor for the higher crystallinity in the electrospun nanofibres.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1D Lya forest power spectrum (Palanque-Delabrouille+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Yeche, C.; Borde, A.; Le Goff, J.-M.; Rossi, G.; Viel, M.; Aubourg, E.; Bailey, S.; Bautista, J.; Blomqvist, M.; Bolton, A.; Bolton, J. S.; Busca, N. G.; Carithers, B.; Croft, R. A. C.; Dawson, K. S.; Delubac, T.; Font-Ribera, A.; Ho, S.; Kirkby, D.; Lee, K.-G.; Margala, D.; Miralda-Escude, J.; Muna, D.; Myers, A. D.; Noterdaeme, P.; Paris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Pieri, M. M.; Rich, J.; Rollinde, E.; Ross, N. P.; Schlegel, D. J.; Schneider, D. P.; Slosar, A.; Weinberg, D. H.

    2013-09-01

    The files contain the data describing the measured 1D power spectrum and the correlations between bins from the BOSS Lyman-alpha data. table4a.dat and table5a.dat: P1D results obtained with the Fourier transform and the likelihood method respectively, for each k and z bin. cct4b*.dat and cct5b*.dat: Correlation matrices between k bins for each z bin, for the Fourier transform and the likelihood method respectively. There are 12 HDUs, one for each redshift bin from =2.2 (HDU 1, table[45]b1.dat) to =4.4 (HDU 12, table[45]b12.dat). Each HDU contains a binary table with 35 bins x 35 entries for the Fourier transform method, and 32 bins x 32 entries for the likelihood method. The tables contain the correlation coefficients. The scale ki corresponding to entry (or bin) i can be read in the corresponding entry of table4a.dat or table5a.dat. (30 data files).

  18. (7)Li in situ 1D NMR imaging of a lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Klamor, S; Zick, K; Oerther, T; Schappacher, F M; Winter, M; Brunklaus, G

    2015-02-14

    The spatial distribution of charge carriers in lithium ion batteries during current flow is of fundamental interest for a detailed understanding of transport properties and the development of strategies for future improvements of the electrolyte-electrode interface behaviour. In this work we explored the potential of (7)Li 1D in situ NMR imaging for the identification of concentration gradients under constant current load in a battery cell. An electrochemical cell based on PTFE body and a stack of glass microfiber discs that are soaked with a technically relevant electrolyte suitable for high-temperature application and squeezed between a Li metal and a nano-Si-graphite composite electrode was assembled to acquire (7)Li 1D in situ NMR profiles with an improved NMR pulse sequence as function of time and state of charge, thereby visualizing the course of ion concentration during charge and discharge. Surface localized changes of Li concentration were attributed to processes such as solid electrolyte interphase formation or full lithiation of the composite electrode. The method allows the extraction of lithium ion transport properties. PMID:25578436

  19. 1D and 2D Assembly of Plant Viruses for Materials Development

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Wang

    2013-01-11

    The research focused on the development of novel bionanoparticle (BNP)-based materials, especially the assembly of chemically and genetically-tailored BNP at the interface between immiscible fluids. The chemical, physical, dynamical and mechanistic aspects have been studied in this research. In particular, rod-like tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) based anisotropic nanorods were synthesized via RNA or polymer assisted assembling process. Such kind of TMV-rods offers an ideal model system for the mechanistic study of orienting and packing anisotropic nanoparticles, which may have great potential in the applications of photovoltaic and field emission devices. Specific objectives include: 1) Synthesize BNPs with controlled functionality at defined positions; 2) synthesize 1D nanorods with defined length via polymer or RNA assisted assembly of TMV or TMV coat proteins; 3) self-assemble and crosslink BNPs and TMV-nanorods at liquid-liquid interfaces; 4) quantitatively characterize the structural organization of the 1D and 2D BNP-assemblies using both small angle neutron scattering and synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering; and 5) develop methods to apply grazing incidence small angle X-ray/neutron scattering to investigate the assemblies of BNPs.

  20. Distribution of dopamine D1-D4 receptor subtypes in human dorsal vagal complex.

    PubMed

    Hyde, T M; Knable, M B; Murray, A M

    1996-11-01

    The distribution of D1/D5, D2/D3, D2/D3/D4, and individually, putative D2-D4 receptors across the dorsal vagal complex of the human medulla was assessed with quantitative receptor autoradiography. D1/D5 receptors were found in very low levels. D2 receptors were concentrated in the intermediate and medial subnuclei of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMN), while D3 receptors were more homogeneous across the entire NTS, area postrema (AP), and DMN. In contrast, D4 receptors were found almost exclusively in the intermediate and medial subnuclei of the NTS, and in the DMN. These findings suggest that the "D2 family" of receptors is an important component of brain stem mechanisms regulating visceral function, including gastrointestinal systems, such as emesis, along with cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. Compounds with individual selectivity for D2, D3, or D4 receptors may be useful in the manipulation of neural networks regulating these visceral systems. PMID:8923662

  1. SNARK09 - a software package for reconstruction of 2D images from 1D projections.

    PubMed

    Klukowska, Joanna; Davidi, Ran; Herman, Gabor T

    2013-06-01

    The problem of reconstruction of slices and volumes from 1D and 2D projections has arisen in a large number of scientific fields (including computerized tomography, electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy, radiology, radio astronomy and holography). Many different methods (algorithms) have been suggested for its solution. In this paper we present a software package, SNARK09, for reconstruction of 2D images from their 1D projections. In the area of image reconstruction, researchers often desire to compare two or more reconstruction techniques and assess their relative merits. SNARK09 provides a uniform framework to implement algorithms and evaluate their performance. It has been designed to treat both parallel and divergent projection geometries and can either create test data (with or without noise) for use by reconstruction algorithms or use data collected by another software or a physical device. A number of frequently-used classical reconstruction algorithms are incorporated. The package provides a means for easy incorporation of new algorithms for their testing, comparison and evaluation. It comes with tools for statistical analysis of the results and ten worked examples. PMID:23414602

  2. Assessment of improved root growth representation in a 1-D, field scale crop model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miltin Mboh, Cho; Gaiser, Thomas; Ewert, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Many 1-D, field scale crop models over-simplify root growth. The over-simplification of this "hidden half" of the crop may have significant consequences on simulated root water and nutrient uptake with a corresponding reflection on the simulated crop yields. Poor representation of root growth in crop models may therefore constitute a major source of uncertainty propagation. In this study we assess the effect of an improved representation of root growth in a model solution of the model framework SIMPLACE (Scientific Impact assessment and Modeling PLatform for Advanced Crop and Ecosystem management) compared to conventional 1-D approaches. The LINTUL5 crop growth model is coupled to the Hillflow soil water balance model within the SIMPLACE modeling framework (Gaiser et al, 2013). Root water uptake scenarios in the soil hydrological simulator Hillflow (Bronstert, 1995) together with an improved representation of root growth is compared to scenarios for which root growth is simplified. The improvement of root growth is achieved by integrating root growth solutions from R-SWMS (Javaux et al., 2008) into the SIMPLACE model solution. R-SWMS is a three dimensional model for simultaneous modeling of root growth, soil water fluxes and solute transport and uptake. These scenarios are tested by comparing how well the simulated water contents match with the observed soil water dynamics. The impacts of the scenarios on above ground biomass and wheat grain are assessed

  3. Direct Observation of Chiral Topological Solitons in 1D Charge-Density Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Cheon, Sangmo; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Yeom, Han Woong

    2015-03-01

    Macroscopic and classical solitons are easily and ubiquitously found, from tsunami to blood pressure pulses, but those in microscopic scale are hard to observe. While the existence of such topological solitons were predicted theoretically and evidenced indirectly by the transport and infrared spectroscopy measurements, the direct observation has been hampered by their high mobility and small dimension. In this talk, we show direct observation of topological solitons in the quasi-1D charge-density wave (CDW) ground state of indium atomic wires, which are consisting of interacting double Peierls chains. Such solitons exhibit a characteristic spatial variation of the CDW amplitudes as expected from the electronic structure. Furthermore, these solitons have an exotic hidden topology originated by topologically different 4-fold degenerate CDW ground states. Their exotic topology leads to the chirality of 1D topological solitons through interaction between two solitons in the double Peierls chains. Detailed scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy reveal their chiral nature at the atomic scale. This work paves the avenue toward the microscopic exploitation of the peculiar properties of nanoscale chiral solitons.

  4. 1D self-assembly of chemisorbed thymine on Cu(110) driven by dispersion forces.

    PubMed

    Temprano, I; Thomas, G; Haq, S; Dyer, M S; Latter, E G; Darling, G R; Uvdal, P; Raval, R

    2015-03-14

    Adsorption of thymine on a defined Cu(110) surface was studied using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). In addition, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were undertaken in order to further understand the energetics of adsorption and self-assembly. The combination of RAIRS, TPD, and DFT results indicates that an upright, three-point-bonded adsorption configuration is adopted by the deprotonated thymine at room temperature. DFT calculations show that the upright configuration adopted by individual molecules arises as a direct result of strong O-Cu and N-Cu bonds between the molecule and the surface. STM data reveal that this upright thymine motif self-assembles into 1D chains, which are surprisingly oriented along the open-packed [001] direction of the metal surface and orthogonal to the alignment of the functional groups that are normally implicated in H-bonding interactions. DFT modelling of this system reveals that the molecular organisation is actually driven by dispersion interactions, which cause a slight tilt of the molecule and provide the major driving force for assembly into dimers and 1D chains. The relative orientations and distances of neighbouring molecules are amenable for π-π stacking, suggesting that this is an important contributor in the self-assembly process. PMID:25770505

  5. Assessment of a fast electro-optical shutter for 1D spontaneous Raman scattering in flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajrouche, Hassan; Lo, Amath; Vervisch, Pierre; Cessou, Armelle

    2015-07-01

    A critical aspect of 1D single-shot spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) experiments in turbulent flames is the need to ensure highly efficient detection associated with fast temporal gating to remove flame emission. Back-illuminated CCD cameras are remarkable for their high quantum efficiency, large dynamic range, good spatial resolution and low readout noise. However, their full-frame architecture makes these detectors difficult to use for SRS measurements in flame and requires the development of a high-speed shutter. The present work proposes a fast electro-optical shutter composed of a large aperture Pockels cell placed between two crossed polarizers, providing high-speed gating up to 500 ns. The throughput of the shutter and its spatial homogeneity are measured. The angular tolerance of the Pockels cell is determined and its suitability for 1D probing is assessed. Spectra acquired in a premixed methane-air flame show the capacity of the shutter to remove flame emission and increase the signal-to-noise ratio for major Raman species.

  6. Influence of 3D Effects on 1D Aerosol Retrievals in Synthetic, Partially Clouded Scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stap, F. A.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Emde, C.

    2014-12-01

    Most satellite measurements of the microphysical and radiative properties of aerosol near clouds are either strictly screened for, or hindered by sub-pixel cloud contamination. This may change with the advent of a new generation of aerosol retrieval algorithms,intended for multi-angle, multi-wavelength photo-polarimetric instruments such as POLDER3on board PARASOL, which show ability to separate between aerosol and cloud particles.In order to obtain the required computational efficiency these algorithms typically make use of 1D radiative transfer models and are thus unable to account for the 3D effects that occur in actual, partially clouded scenes.Here, we apply an aerosol retrieval algorithm, which employs a 1D radiative transfer code and the independent pixel approximation, on synthetic, 3D, partially cloudedscenes calculated with the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code MYSTIC.The influence of the 3D effects due to clouds on the retrieved microphysical and optical aerosol properties is presented and the ability of the algorithm to retrieve these properties in partially clouded scenes will be discussed.

  7. Public Release of a One Dimensional Version of the Photon Clean Method (PCM1D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Matthew H.; Jernigan, J. G.

    2006-09-01

    We announce the public release of a one dimensional version of the Photon Clean Method (PCM1D). This code is in the general class of "inverse Monte Carlo" methods and is specifically designed to interoperate with the public analysis tools available from the Chandra Science Center and the HEASARC. The tool produces models of event based data on a photon by photon basis. The instrument models are based on the standard ARF and RMF fits files. The resulting models have a high number of degrees of freedom of order the number of photons detected providing an alternative analysis compared to the usual method of fitting models with only a few parameters. The original work on this method is described in ADASS 1996 (Jernigan and Vezie). We thank H. Tananbaum and J. McDowell of the Chandra Science Center, S. Kahn, the RGS/XMM-Newton US team leader, and W. Craig and S. Labov of the I Division of LLNL for their support for the development of the PCM concept. We thank P. Beiersdorfer and the EBIT team for the support to develop the first public version of PCM1D.

  8. CoPc 2D and 1D Arrangement on a Ferromagnetic Surface.

    PubMed

    Annese, Emilia; ViolBarbosa, Carlos E; Rossi, Giorgio; Fujii, Jun

    2016-05-31

    We investigated the growth and electronic properties of Co-phthalocyanine (CoPc) molecule deposited on iron film with different structures (pseudomorph-fcc and bcc) and on iron nanowires by scanning tunnelling microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). CoPc molecules self-assemble in a two-dimensional (2D) arrangement with the molecular plane parallel to the iron surfaces, and the local order is lost after the first layer. The molecule-ferromagnet interaction causes the broadening of Co and N unoccupied molecular states as well as different electronic distribution of N states as a function of the atomic structure of iron surface. The ferromagnetic coupling between the molecule and the iron film is dominated by the electronic interaction between Co and the first Fe layer. CoPc 2D arrangement turns into 1D by using as a template the iron nanowire grown on a facet surface of oxidized Cu(332) surface. CoPc molecules interact weakly with the iron nanowires manifesting a substantial Co 3dz spectral feature in XAS spectrum and the possibility of a magnetic interaction between Co moment and iron nanowires. Both CoPc 2D and 1D arrangements can open up new interesting scenarios to tune the magnetic properties of hybrid interfaces involving metallorganic molecules. PMID:27191039

  9. Optimisation of A 1d-ecosystem Model To Observations In The North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartau, M.; Oschlies, A.

    An optimisation experiment is performed with a vertically resolved, nitrogen based ecosystem model, comprising four state variables (1D-NPZD model): dissolved inor- ganic nitrogen (N), phytoplankton (P), herbivorous zooplankton (Z) and detritus (D). Parameter values of the NPZD-model are optimised while regarding observational data from three locations in the North Atlantic simultaneously: Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS), data of the North Atlantic Bloom Experiment (NABE) and observations from Ocean Weather Ship-India (OWS-INDIA). The simultaneous opti- misation yields a best parameter set which can be utilized for basin wide simulations in coupled physical-biological (general circulation) models of the North Atlantic. After optimisation of the 1D-NPZD model, systematic discrepancies between 14C-fixation rates and modelled primary production are emphasized. Using the optimal parame- ter estimates for coupled 3D-simulations, the biogeochemical fluxes show substantial differences in contrast to previous model results. For instance, rapid recycling of or- ganic matter enhances primary production rates. This becomes most evident within the oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyre.

  10. Structure, electrochemical properties and capacitance performance of polypyrrole electrodeposited onto 1-D crystals of iridium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocka-Żołopa, Monika; Winkler, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Composites of polypyrrole and one-dimensional iridium complex crystals [(C2H5)4N]0.55[IrCl2(CO)2] were prepared by in situ two-step electrodeposition. Initially, iridium complex crystals were formed during [IrCl2(CO)2]- complex oxidation. Next, pyrrole was electropolymerized on the surface of the iridium needles. The morphology of the composite was investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. At positive potentials, the iridium complex crystals and the polypyrrole were oxidized. In aprotic solvents, oxidation of the iridium complex crystals resulted in their dissolution. In water containing tetra(n-butyl)ammonium chlorides, the 1-D iridium complex crystals were reversibly oxidized. The product of the iridium complex oxidation remained on the electrode surface in crystalline form. The iridium complex needles significantly influenced the redox properties of the polymer. The polypyrrole involved electrode processes become more reversible in presence of crystals of iridium complex. The current of polypyrrole oxidation was higher compared to that of pure polypyrrole and the capacitance properties of the polymer were significantly enhanced. A specific capacitance as high as 590 F g-1 was obtained for a composite of polypyrrole and 1-D crystals of the iridium complex in water containing tetra(n-butyl)ammonium chloride. This value is approximately twice as high as the capacitance of the pure polymer deposited onto the electrode surface.

  11. A mass-conservative finite volume predictor-corrector solution of the 1D Richards' equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wencong; Ogden, Fred L.

    2015-04-01

    Numerical solution of the Richards' equation (RE) in variably saturated soils continues to be a challenge due to its highly non-linear behavior. This is particularly true as soils approach saturation and the behavior of the fundamental partial differential equation changes from elliptic to parabolic. In this paper, a finite volume predictor-corrector method with adaptive time-stepping was developed to solve the 1D vertical RE. The numerical method was mass-conservative and non-iterative. In the predictor step, the pressure head-based form of the RE was solved using the cell-centered finite volume method and the pressure head was updated. In the corrector step, the soil water content was calculated by solving the mixed form RE. Five different schemes to evaluate the inter-cell hydraulic conductivity were investigated. The robustness and accuracy of the numerical model were demonstrated through simulation of experimental tests, including free drainage, field infiltration into wet and dry soils, and laboratory infiltration with falling water table. Numerical results were compared against laboratory measurements, simulation results from the Hydrus-1D program, or analytical solution when available. Results showed that the developed scheme is robust and accurate in simulating variably saturated flows with various boundary conditions. The arithmetic mean and Szymkiewicz's mean of inter-cell hydraulic conductivity performed better than other methods especially in the case of infiltration into very dry soil.

  12. DISCOLORATION OF THE WETTED SURFACE IN THE 6.1D DISSOLVER

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Mickalonis, J.; Crapse, K.

    2013-12-18

    During a camera inspection of a failed coil in the 6.1D dissolver, an orange discoloration was observed on a portion of the dissolver wall and coils. At the request of H-Canyon Engineering, the inspection video of the dissolver was reviewed by SRNL to assess if the observed condition (a non-uniform, orange-colored substance on internal surfaces) was a result of corrosion. Although the dissolver vessel and coil corrode during dissolution operations, the high acid conditions are not consistent with the formation of ferrous oxides (i.e., orange/rust-colored corrosion products). In a subsequent investigation, SRNL performed dissolution experiments to determine if residues from the nylon bags used for Pu containment could have generated the orange discoloration following dissolution. When small pieces of a nylon bag were placed in boiling 8 M nitric acid solutions containing other components representative of the H-Canyon process, complete dissolution occurred almost immediately. No residues were obtained even when a nylon mass to volume ratio greater than 100 times the 6.1D dissolver value was used. Degradation products from the dissolution of nylon bags are not responsible for the discoloration observed in the dissolver.

  13. Quasinormal modes of (anti-)de Sitter black holes in the 1 /D expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emparan, Roberto; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2015-04-01

    We use the inverse-dimensional expansion to compute analytically the frequencies of a set of quasinormal modes of static black holes of Einstein-(Anti-)de Sitter gravity, including the cases of spherical, planar or hyperbolic horizons. The modes we study are decoupled modes localized in the near-horizon region, which are the ones that capture physics peculiar to each black hole (such as their instabilities), and which in large black holes contain hydrodynamic behavior. Our results also give the unstable Gregory-Laflamme frequencies of Ricci-flat black branes to two orders higher in 1 /D than previous calculations. We discuss the limits on the accuracy of these results due to the asymptotic but not convergent character of the 1 /D expansion, which is due to the violation of the decoupling condition at finite D. Finally, we compare the frequencies for AdS black branes to calculations in the hydrodynamic expansion in powers of the momentum k. Our results extend up to k 9 for the sound mode and to k 8 for the shear mode.

  14. 1D simulation of polymer flooding including the viscoelastic effect of polymer solution

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Y.; Tang, K.C.; Miyazawa, M.; Tanaka, S. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports that simple simulation models are constructed to predict the performance of 1D polymer flooding. In the models, two phases of oil and polymer solution were assumed to be immiscible with each other. Because the displacing fluid was non-Newtonian, the Buckley-Leverett equation could be modified and a new approach developed to calculate fractional-flow curves. The rheological behavior of polymer solution was modeled with an Ellis type model and a viscoelastic model. To verify the models, two 1D flooding experiments were carried out on 2.8-cm-diameter, 47-cm-long, unconsolidated cores packed with glass beads (70/100 mesh). Porosities of the cores are about 37% and permeabilities are around 26{mu}m{sup 2}. Two white mineral oils of viscosities 25 and 60 mPa {center dot} s and a 200-ppm polyacrylamide solution were used. In each experiment, polymer flooding was done after waterflooding. Initial water saturation was controlled to be almost the same at the start of each flood. The calculated polymer-flooding performances were compared with experimental data. On the other hand, the viscoelastic model predicted fractional-flow curves, oil recovery performances, and breakthrough times of the experiments very well. The viscoelastic effect of polymer solution is thought to play an important role in the improvement of oil recovery.

  15. 1D self-assembly of chemisorbed thymine on Cu(110) driven by dispersion forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temprano, I.; Thomas, G.; Haq, S.; Dyer, M. S.; Latter, E. G.; Darling, G. R.; Uvdal, P.; Raval, R.

    2015-03-01

    Adsorption of thymine on a defined Cu(110) surface was studied using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). In addition, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were undertaken in order to further understand the energetics of adsorption and self-assembly. The combination of RAIRS, TPD, and DFT results indicates that an upright, three-point-bonded adsorption configuration is adopted by the deprotonated thymine at room temperature. DFT calculations show that the upright configuration adopted by individual molecules arises as a direct result of strong O-Cu and N-Cu bonds between the molecule and the surface. STM data reveal that this upright thymine motif self-assembles into 1D chains, which are surprisingly oriented along the open-packed [001] direction of the metal surface and orthogonal to the alignment of the functional groups that are normally implicated in H-bonding interactions. DFT modelling of this system reveals that the molecular organisation is actually driven by dispersion interactions, which cause a slight tilt of the molecule and provide the major driving force for assembly into dimers and 1D chains. The relative orientations and distances of neighbouring molecules are amenable for π-π stacking, suggesting that this is an important contributor in the self-assembly process.

  16. A facile route for 3D aerogels from nanostructured 1D and 2D materials

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Mi; Jung, Hyun Young; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Jung, Yung Joon; Kong, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Aerogels have numerous applications due to their high surface area and low densities. However, creating aerogels from a large variety of materials has remained an outstanding challenge. Here, we report a new methodology to enable aerogel production with a wide range of materials. The method is based on the assembly of anisotropic nano-objects (one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes, nanowires, or two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets) into a cross-linking network from their colloidal suspensions at the transition from the semi-dilute to the isotropic concentrated regime. The resultant aerogels have highly porous and ultrafine three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of 1D (Ag, Si, MnO2, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)) and 2D materials (MoS2, graphene, h-BN) with high surface areas, low densities, and high electrical conductivities. This method opens up a facile route for aerogel production with a wide variety of materials and tremendous opportunities for bio-scaffold, energy storage, thermoelectric, catalysis, and hydrogen storage applications. PMID:23152940

  17. Integrated multicolor detector utilizing 1D photonic bandgap filter with wedge-shaped defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksic, Zoran S.; Petrovic, Radomir; Randjelovic, Danijela; Dankovic, Tatjana; Djuric, Zoran G.; Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Andreas; Hecker, Karl H.

    1999-03-01

    We propose a single-chip multicolor photodetector for micrometers range based on a linear IR semiconductor detector array with an integrated 1D photonic bandgap (PBG) filter. A wedge- shaped defect slab is introduced into the filer instead of one of the layers. The bandgap of the photonic crystal coincides with the spectral sensitivity range of the photodetector array, while the built-in defect gives a transmission peak within the same range. The defect thickness varies along the array length and thus shifts the transmission peak wavelength. The optimized photonic bandgap filter including defect is designed using the transfer matrix method. The peak frequency is tuned by choosing the geometrical parameters of the wedge-shaped defect. In our experiments, thin alternating Si and SiO2 films are sputtered onto the array surface, thus forming a 1D PBG structure. The defect is fabricated by gradually changing the middle Si layer thickness over the width of the array. Its wedge-forming is performed by micromachining or, alternatively, by in-situ oblique deposition within the sputtering system and, possibly, subsequent chemomechanical polishing. The characteristics of the finished PBG structure are measured using an IR spectrophotometer. An increase of the number of PBG layers improves the confinement of transmission peaks and thus decreases the crosstalk between the array elements. Although our multicolor detector is designed for the (3-5) micrometers atmospheric window, it can be straightforward redesigned for any other optical range.

  18. 1D Measurement of Sodium Ion Flow in Hydrogel After a Bath Concentration Jump.

    PubMed

    Roos, R W; Pel, L; Huinink, H P; Huyghe, J M

    2015-07-01

    NMR is used to measure sodium flow driven by a 1D concentration gradient inside poly-acrylamid (pAA) hydrogel. A sodium concentration jump from 0.5 M NaCl to 0 M NaCl is applied at the bottom of a cylindrical pAA sample. The sodium level and hydrogen level are measured as a function of time and position inside the sample for 5 days. Then a reversed step is applied, and ion flow is measured for another 5 days. During the measurement, the cylindrical sample is radially confined and allowed to swell in the axial direction. At the same time, sodium and moisture in the sample are measured on a 1D spatial grid in the axial direction. A quadriphasic mixture model (Huyghe and Janssen in Int J Eng Sci 35:793, 1997) is used to simulate the results and estimate the diffusion coefficient of sodium and chloride. The best fit results were obtained for D[Formula: see text] cm(2)/s and D[Formula: see text] cm(2)/s, at 25 degrees centigrade. Different time constants were observed for swelling and deswelling. PMID:25786888

  19. CD1d Expression and Invariant NKT Cell Responses in Herpesvirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Brian K.; Priatel, John J.; Tan, Rusung

    2015-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a highly conserved subset of unconventional T lymphocytes that express a canonical, semi-invariant T cell receptor and surface markers shared with the natural killer cell lineage. iNKT cells recognize exogenous and endogenous glycolipid antigens restricted by non-polymorphic CD1d molecules, and are highly responsive to the prototypical agonist, α-galactosylceramide. Upon activation, iNKT cells rapidly coordinate signaling between innate and adaptive immune cells through the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, leading to the maturation of antigen-presenting cells, and expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Because of their potent immunoregulatory properties, iNKT cells have been extensively studied and are known to play a pivotal role in mediating immune responses against microbial pathogens including viruses. Here, we review evidence that herpesviruses manipulate CD1d expression to escape iNKT cell surveillance and establish lifelong latency in humans. Collectively, published findings suggest that iNKT cells play critical roles in anti-herpesvirus immune responses and could be harnessed therapeutically to limit viral infection and viral-associated disease. PMID:26161082

  20. Crystal Structures of Human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 (AS160) RabGTPase-activating Protein (RabGAP) Domains Reveal Critical Elements for GLUT4 Translocation

    SciTech Connect

    S Park; W Jin; S Shoelson

    2011-12-31

    We have solved the x-ray crystal structures of the RabGAP domains of human TBC1D1 and human TBC1D4 (AS160), at 2.2 and 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Like the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP domain, whose structure was solved previously in complex with mouse Rab33B, the human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 domains both have 16 {alpha}-helices and no {beta}-sheet elements. We expected the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP/mouse Rab33B structure to predict the corresponding interfaces between cognate mammalian RabGAPs and Rabs, but found that residues were poorly conserved. We further tested the relevance of this model by Ala-scanning mutagenesis, but only one of five substitutions within the inferred binding site of the TBC1D1 RabGAP significantly perturbed catalytic efficiency. In addition, substitution of TBC1D1 residues with corresponding residues from Gyp1p did not enhance catalytic efficiency. We hypothesized that biologically relevant RabGAP/Rab partners utilize additional contacts not described in the yeast Gyp1p/mouse Rab33B structure, which we predicted using our two new human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 structures. Ala substitution of TBC1D1 Met{sup 930}, corresponding to a residue outside of the Gyp1p/Rab33B contact, substantially reduced catalytic activity. GLUT4 translocation assays confirmed the biological relevance of our findings. Substitutions with lowest RabGAP activity, including catalytically dead RK and Met{sup 930} and Leu{sup 1019} predicted to perturb Rab binding, confirmed that biological activity requires contacts between cognate RabGAPs and Rabs beyond those in the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP/mouse Rab33B structure.

  1. Adipocyte-specific CD1d-deficiency mitigates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Masashi; Hoshino, Miyuki; Fujita, Koki; Iizuka, Misao; Fujii, Satoshi; Clingan, Christopher S.; Van Kaer, Luc; Iwabuchi, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that CD1d expression and glycolipid-reactive, CD1d-restricted NKT cells exacerbate the development of obesity and insulin resistance in mice. However, the relevant CD1d-expressing cells that influence the effects of NKT cells on the progression of obesity remain incompletely defined. In this study, we have demonstrated that 3T3-L1 adipocytes can present endogenous ligands to NKT cells, leading to IFN-γ production, which in turn, stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes to enhance expression of CD1d and CCL2, and decrease expression of adiponectin. Furthermore, adipocyte-specific CD1d deletion decreased the size of the visceral adipose tissue mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Accordingly, NKT cells were less activated, IFN-γ production was significantly reduced, and levels of adiponectin were increased in these animals as compared with control mice on HFD. Importantly, macrophage recruitment into the adipose tissue of adipocyte-specific CD1d-deficient mice was significantly blunted. These findings indicate that interactions between NKT cells and CD1d-expressing adipocytes producing endogenous NKT cell ligands play a critical role in the induction of inflammation and functional modulation of adipose tissue that leads to obesity. PMID:27329323

  2. Immunoglobulin-like Transcript 4 (ILT4) Inhibits Lipid Antigen Presentation through Direct CD1d Interaction1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Demin; Wang, Lili; Yu, Li; Freundt, Eric C.; Jin, Boquan; Screaton, Gavin R.; Xu, Xiao-Ning

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d molecules and play an important role in the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Here we report the identification of a membrane-associated protein, immunoglobulin-like transcript 4 (ILT4), as a novel human CD1d receptor that inhibits CD1d-mediated immune responses. We found that native CD1d tetramer generated by mammalian cells was able to specifically bind human monocytes in the peripheral blood, and this binding was at least partly mediated by monocyte-expressed ILT4. The interaction between ILT4 and CD1d involves the two N-terminal domains of ILT4 and the antigen-binding groove of CD1d (α1/α2 domain). This interaction has been identified on the cell surface as well as in the endosomal and lysosomal compartments. Functional analysis showed that ILT4 could block the loading of lipid antigens such as α-GalCer, and consequently inhibited NKT recognition. The interaction between ILT4 and CD1d may provide new insights into the regulation of NKT-mediated immunity. PMID:19124746

  3. Adipocyte-specific CD1d-deficiency mitigates diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Masashi; Hoshino, Miyuki; Fujita, Koki; Iizuka, Misao; Fujii, Satoshi; Clingan, Christopher S; Van Kaer, Luc; Iwabuchi, Kazuya

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that CD1d expression and glycolipid-reactive, CD1d-restricted NKT cells exacerbate the development of obesity and insulin resistance in mice. However, the relevant CD1d-expressing cells that influence the effects of NKT cells on the progression of obesity remain incompletely defined. In this study, we have demonstrated that 3T3-L1 adipocytes can present endogenous ligands to NKT cells, leading to IFN-γ production, which in turn, stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes to enhance expression of CD1d and CCL2, and decrease expression of adiponectin. Furthermore, adipocyte-specific CD1d deletion decreased the size of the visceral adipose tissue mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Accordingly, NKT cells were less activated, IFN-γ production was significantly reduced, and levels of adiponectin were increased in these animals as compared with control mice on HFD. Importantly, macrophage recruitment into the adipose tissue of adipocyte-specific CD1d-deficient mice was significantly blunted. These findings indicate that interactions between NKT cells and CD1d-expressing adipocytes producing endogenous NKT cell ligands play a critical role in the induction of inflammation and functional modulation of adipose tissue that leads to obesity. PMID:27329323

  4. Lysophospholipid presentation by CD1d and recognition by a human Natural Killer T-cell receptor

    SciTech Connect

    López-Sagaseta, Jacinto; Sibener, Leah V.; Kung, Jennifer E.; Gumperz, Jenny; Adams, Erin J.

    2014-10-02

    Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells use highly restricted {alpha}{beta} T cell receptors (TCRs) to probe the repertoire of lipids presented by CD1d molecules. Here, we describe our studies of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) presentation by human CD1d and its recognition by a native, LPC-specific iNKT TCR. Human CD1d presenting LPC adopts an altered conformation from that of CD1d presenting glycolipid antigens, with a shifted {alpha}1 helix resulting in an open A pocket. Binding of the iNKT TCR requires a 7-{angstrom} displacement of the LPC headgroup but stabilizes the CD1d-LPC complex in a closed conformation. The iNKT TCR CDR loop footprint on CD1d-LPC is anchored by the conserved positioning of the CDR3{alpha} loop, whereas the remaining CDR loops are shifted, due in part to amino-acid differences in the CDR3{beta} and J{beta} segment used by this iNKT TCR. These findings provide insight into how lysophospholipids are presented by human CD1d molecules and how this complex is recognized by some, but not all, human iNKT cells.

  5. Evaluation of static pressure drops and PM10 and TSP emissions for modified 1D-3D cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, G.A.; Baker, R.V.; Hughs, S.E.

    1999-12-01

    Five modifications of a standard 1D3D cyclone were tested and compared against the standard 1D3D design in the areas of particulate emissions and static pressure drop across the cyclone. The modifications to the 1D3D design included a 2D2D inlet, a 2D2D air outlet, a D/3 trash exit, an expansion chamber with a D/3 trash exit, and a tapered air outlet duct. The 1D3D modifications that exhibited a significant improvement in reducing both PM10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) emissions were the designs with the 2D2D inlet and air exhaust combined with either the conical D/3 tail cone or the expansion chamber. In reference to the standard 1D3D cyclone, the average reduction in PM10 emissions was 24 to 29% with a 29 to 35% reduction observed in TSP emissions. The modifications with the tapered air outlets did not show any significant improvements in controlling PM10 emissions. However, the modification with the tapered air outlet/expansion chamber combination exhibited statistical significance in reducing TSP emissions by 18% compared to the 1D3D cyclone. All modifications tested exhibited lower static pressure drops than the standard 1D3D.

  6. Full Waveform 3D Synthetic Seismic Algorithm for 1D Layered Anelastic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaiger, H. F.; Aldridge, D. F.; Haney, M. M.

    2007-12-01

    Numerical calculation of synthetic seismograms for 1D layered earth models remains a significant aspect of amplitude-offset investigations, surface wave studies, microseismic event location approaches, and reflection interpretation or inversion processes. Compared to 3D finite-difference algorithms, memory demand and execution time are greatly reduced, enabling rapid generation of seismic data within workstation or laptop computational environments. We have developed a frequency-wavenumber forward modeling algorithm adapted to realistic 1D geologic media, for the purpose of calculating seismograms accurately and efficiently. The earth model consists of N layers bounded by two halfspaces. Each layer/halfspace is a homogeneous and isotropic anelastic (attenuative and dispersive) solid, characterized by a rectangular relaxation spectrum of absorption mechanisms. Compressional and shear phase speeds and quality factors are specified at a particular reference frequency. Solution methodology involves 3D Fourier transforming the three coupled, second- order, integro-differential equations for particle displacements to the frequency-horizontal wavenumber domain. An analytic solution of the resulting ordinary differential system is obtained. Imposition of welded interface conditions (continuity of displacement and stress) at all interfaces, as well as radiation conditions in the two halfspaces, yields a system of 6(N+1) linear algebraic equations for the coefficients in the ODE solution. An optimized inverse 2D Fourier transform to the space domain gives the seismic wavefield on a horizontal plane. Finally, three-component seismograms are obtained by accumulating frequency spectra at designated receiver positions on this plane, followed by a 1D inverse FFT from angular frequency ω to time. Stress-free conditions may be applied at the top or bottom interfaces, and seismic waves are initiated by force or moment density sources. Examples reveal that including attenuation

  7. Assessing the impact of different sources of topographic data on 1-D hydraulic modelling of floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A. Md; Solomatine, D. P.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2015-01-01

    Topographic data, such as digital elevation models (DEMs), are essential input in flood inundation modelling. DEMs can be derived from several sources either through remote sensing techniques (spaceborne or airborne imagery) or from traditional methods (ground survey). The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the light detection and ranging (lidar), and topographic contour maps are some of the most commonly used sources of data for DEMs. These DEMs are characterized by different precision and accuracy. On the one hand, the spatial resolution of low-cost DEMs from satellite imagery, such as ASTER and SRTM, is rather coarse (around 30 to 90 m). On the other hand, the lidar technique is able to produce high-resolution DEMs (at around 1 m), but at a much higher cost. Lastly, contour mapping based on ground survey is time consuming, particularly for higher scales, and may not be possible for some remote areas. The use of these different sources of DEM obviously affects the results of flood inundation models. This paper shows and compares a number of 1-D hydraulic models developed using HEC-RAS as model code and the aforementioned sources of DEM as geometric input. To test model selection, the outcomes of the 1-D models were also compared, in terms of flood water levels, to the results of 2-D models (LISFLOOD-FP). The study was carried out on a reach of the Johor River, in Malaysia. The effect of the different sources of DEMs (and different resolutions) was investigated by considering the performance of the hydraulic models in simulating flood water levels as well as inundation maps. The outcomes of our study show that the use of different DEMs has serious implications to the results of hydraulic models. The outcomes also indicate that the loss of model accuracy due to re-sampling the highest resolution DEM (i.e. lidar 1 m) to lower resolution is much less than the loss of model accuracy due

  8. Higher-order local and non-local correlations for 1D strongly interacting Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandani, EJKP; Römer, Rudolf A.; Tan, Shina; Guan, Xi-Wen

    2016-05-01

    The correlation function is an important quantity in the physics of ultracold quantum gases because it provides information about the quantum many-body wave function beyond the simple density profile. In this paper we first study the M-body local correlation functions, g M , of the one-dimensional (1D) strongly repulsive Bose gas within the Lieb–Liniger model using the analytical method proposed by Gangardt and Shlyapnikov (2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 010401; 2003 New J. Phys. 5 79). In the strong repulsion regime the 1D Bose gas at low temperatures is equivalent to a gas of ideal particles obeying the non-mutual generalized exclusion statistics with a statistical parameter α =1-2/γ , i.e. the quasimomenta of N strongly interacting bosons map to the momenta of N free fermions via {k}i≈ α {k}iF with i=1,\\ldots ,N. Here γ is the dimensionless interaction strength within the Lieb–Liniger model. We rigorously prove that such a statistical parameter α solely determines the sub-leading order contribution to the M-body local correlation function of the gas at strong but finite interaction strengths. We explicitly calculate the correlation functions g M in terms of γ and α at zero, low, and intermediate temperatures. For M = 2 and 3 our results reproduce the known expressions for g 2 and g 3 with sub-leading terms (see for instance (Vadim et al 2006 Phys. Rev. A 73 051604(R); Kormos et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 210404; Wang et al 2013 Phys. Rev. A 87 043634). We also express the leading order of the short distance non-local correlation functions < {{{\\Psi }}}\\dagger ({x}1)\\cdots {{{\\Psi }}}\\dagger ({x}M){{\\Psi }}({y}M)\\cdots {{\\Psi }}({y}1)> of the strongly repulsive Bose gas in terms of the wave function of M bosons at zero collision energy and zero total momentum. Here {{\\Psi }}(x) is the boson annihilation operator. These general formulas of the higher-order local and non-local correlation functions of the 1D Bose gas provide new insights into the

  9. Nanoelectronic Modeling (NEMO): Moving from commercial grade 1-D simulation to prototype 3-D simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimeck, Gerhard

    2001-03-01

    The quantum mechanical functionality of commercially pursued heterostructure devices such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), quantum well infrared photodetectors, and quantum well lasers are enabled by material variations on an atomic scale. The creation of these heterostructure devices is realized in a vast design space of material compositions, layer thicknesses and doping profiles. The full experimental exploration of this design space is unfeasible and a reliable design tool is needed. The Nanoelectronic Modeling tool (NEMO) is one of the first commercial grade attempts for such a modeling tool. NEMO was developed as a general-purpose quantum mechanics-based 1-D device design and analysis tool from 1993-97 by the Central Research Laboratory of Texas Instruments (later Raytheon Systems). NEMO enables(R. Lake, G. Klimeck, R. C. Bowen, and D. Jovanovic, J. Appl. Phys. 81), 7845 (1997). the fundamentally sound inclusion of the required(G. Klimeck et al.), in the 1997 55th Annual Device Research Conference Digest, (IEEE, NJ, 1997), p. 92^,(R. C. Bowen et al.), J. Appl. Phys 81, 3207 (1997). physics: bandstructure, scattering, and charge self-consistency based on the non-equilibrium Green function approach. A new class of devices which require full 3-D quantum mechanics based models is starting to emerge: quantum dots, or in general semiconductor based deca-nano devices. We are currently building a 3-D modeling tool based on NEMO to include the important physics to understand electronic stated in such superscaled structures. This presentation will overview various facets of the NEMO 1-D tool such electron transport physics in RTDs, numerical technology, software engineering and graphical user interface. The lessons learned from that work are now entering the NEMO 3-D development and first results using the NEMO 3-D prototype will be shown. More information about

  10. 1D coordination polymers with polychalcogenides as linkers between metal atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Kysliak, Oleksandr; Beck, Johannes

    2013-07-15

    The reactions of zinc metal with elemental selenium and selenium/sulfur mixtures in liquid ammonia or methylamine under solvothermal conditions in closed glass ampoules at 50 °C lead within some days specifically to [Zn(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Se{sub 4}]{sub n} (1), [Zn(MeNH{sub 2}){sub 2}Se{sub 4}]{sub n} (2), [Zn(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}Se{sub 2.23}S{sub 1.77}]{sub n} (3). From MnCl{sub 2}, Rb{sub 2}Se and excess Se in n-butylamine [Mn({sup n}BuNH{sub 2}){sub 4}Se{sub 6}]{sub n} (4) is obtained after prolonged reaction time at ambient temperature. The compounds are sensitive towards air and loss of NH{sub 3} or the amine ligands. The crystal structures were determined by single crystal diffraction at low temperatures. As a common structural feature, all compounds represent 1D coordination polymers with polychalcogenide chains as linkers between the metal atoms and consist of infinite [M–Ch{sub m}–]{sub n} chains (M=Zn, Mn; Ch{sub m}=Se{sub 4}, (S/Se){sub 4}, Se{sub 6}). The Zn central atoms in 1–3 have tetrahedral coordination with two amine ligands, the Mn atoms in 4 have octahedral coordination with four amine ligands and cis position of the two Se atoms. Raman spectra of 1–3 show the stretching mode vibrations of the Ch{sub 4} groups. The observation of S–S, S–Se, and Se–Se vibration bands in the spectrum of 3 indicates the presence of mixed S/Se polyanions. An optical band gap of 1.86(5) eV was determined for 2 by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. - Graphical abstract: The reaction of Zn and Se in liquid methylamine yields dark red [Zn(NH{sub 2}CH{sub 3})Se{sub 4}], a 1D coordination polymer consisting of helical Zn–Se{sub 4}–Zn– chains. - Highlights: • A series of 1D coordination polymers consisting of metal amine complexes concatenated by polychalcogenide ions is presented. • Syntheses were performed as solvothermal reactions in liquid ammonia, liquid methylamine and n-butylamine. • Crystal structures are dominated by helices [M–Ch{sub m

  11. Specialized Laboratory Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Dangott, Bryan

    2016-03-01

    Some laboratories or laboratory sections have unique needs that traditional anatomic and clinical pathology systems may not address. A specialized laboratory information system (LIS), which is designed to perform a limited number of functions, may perform well in areas where a traditional LIS falls short. Opportunities for specialized LISs continue to evolve with the introduction of new testing methodologies. These systems may take many forms, including stand-alone architecture, a module integrated with an existing LIS, a separate vendor-supplied module, and customized software. This article addresses the concepts underlying specialized LISs, their characteristics, and in what settings they are found. PMID:26851663

  12. The reaction of N/2D/ with O2 as a source of O/1D/ atoms in aurorae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusch, D. W.; Sharp, W. E.; Gerard, J.-C.

    1978-01-01

    The source of O(1D) atoms in the auroral ionosphere is investigated using sounding rocket data. Previously, it has been shown that the conventional sources of O(1D) atoms in the aurora, dissociative recombination of O2(plus) and electron impact excitation of atomic oxygen, fail to explain the measured 6300 A volume emission rate profile. It is suggested that the atom-atom interchange reaction of N(2D) with O2 can be the major source of auroral 6300 A emission if O(1D) is created with high efficiency.

  13. Special Relativity at the Quantum Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Pui K.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the space-time structure as described by the theory of special relativity is a macroscopic manifestation of a more fundamental quantum structure (pre-geometry). Efforts to quantify this idea have come mainly from the area of abstract quantum logic theory. Here we present a preliminary attempt to develop a quantum formulation of special relativity based on a model that retains some geometric attributes. Our model is Feynman's “checker-board” trajectory for a 1-D relativistic free particle. We use this model to guide us in identifying (1) the quantum version of the postulates of special relativity and (2) the appropriate quantum “coordinates”. This model possesses a useful feature that it admits an interpretation both in terms of paths in space-time and in terms of quantum states. Based on the quantum version of the postulates, we derive a transformation rule for velocity. This rule reduces to the Einstein's velocity-addition formula in the macroscopic limit and reveals an interesting aspect of time. The 3-D case, time-dilation effect, and invariant interval are also discussed in term of this new formulation. This is a preliminary investigation; some results are derived, while others are interesting observations at this point. PMID:25531675

  14. Special relativity at the quantum scale.

    PubMed

    Lam, Pui K

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the space-time structure as described by the theory of special relativity is a macroscopic manifestation of a more fundamental quantum structure (pre-geometry). Efforts to quantify this idea have come mainly from the area of abstract quantum logic theory. Here we present a preliminary attempt to develop a quantum formulation of special relativity based on a model that retains some geometric attributes. Our model is Feynman's "checker-board" trajectory for a 1-D relativistic free particle. We use this model to guide us in identifying (1) the quantum version of the postulates of special relativity and (2) the appropriate quantum "coordinates". This model possesses a useful feature that it admits an interpretation both in terms of paths in space-time and in terms of quantum states. Based on the quantum version of the postulates, we derive a transformation rule for velocity. This rule reduces to the Einstein's velocity-addition formula in the macroscopic limit and reveals an interesting aspect of time. The 3-D case, time-dilation effect, and invariant interval are also discussed in term of this new formulation. This is a preliminary investigation; some results are derived, while others are interesting observations at this point. PMID:25531675

  15. Uniform Contractivity in Wasserstein Metric for the Original 1D Kac's Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauray, Maxime

    2016-03-01

    We study here a very popular 1D jump model introduced by Kac: it consists of N velocities encountering random binary collisions at which they randomly exchange energy. We show the uniform (in N) exponential contractivity of the dynamics in a non-standard Monge-Kantorovich-Wasserstein: precisely the MKW metric of order 2 on the energy. The result is optimal in the sense that for each N, the contractivity constant is equal to the L^2 spectral gap of the generator associated to Kac's dynamic. As a corollary, we get an uniform but non optimal contractivity in the MKW metric of order 4. We use a simple coupling that works better that the parallel one. The estimates are simple and new (to the best of our knowledge).

  16. Cooperative microexcitations in 2+1D chain-bundle dusty plasma liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Io, C.-W.; Chan, C.-L.; Lin I

    2010-05-15

    Through direct visualization at the discrete level, the microexcitations in cold 2+1D dusty plasma liquids formed by negatively charged dusts suspended in low pressure gaseous discharges were experimentally investigated, in which the downward ion flow wake field induces strong vertical coupling and chain bundle structure. It is found that the horizontal structure and motion are similar to those of the two-dimensional liquid. Different types of basic cooperative chain excitations: straight vertical chains with small amplitude jittering, chain tilting-restraightening, bundle twisting-restraightening, and chain breaking-reconnection, are observed. The region with good (poor) horizontal structural order prefers the straight (tilted or broken) chains with little (large) titling and tilting rate.

  17. Strong and Weak 2D Topological Superconductivity in Hidden Quasi-1D Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Yao, Hong

    2014-03-01

    Partly motivated by the newly discovered family of bismuth-based superconductors including LaO1-xFxBiS2, we study possible 2D topological superconductivities (TSC) in hidden quasi-1D systems with spin-orbit couplings. By doing RPA calculations and renormalization group (RG) treatment, we theoretically find that in a large portion of the phase diagram with varying interaction strengths and spin-orbit coupling the ground states favors superconductivity with odd-parity pairing, which results in either chiral TSC or time reversal invariant weak-Z2 TSC. We shall discuss several ways to experimentally identify these strong and weak 2D topological superconductivity. Possible applications to the bismuth-based superconductors LaO1-xFxBiS2 will also be remarked.

  18. 1D GAS-DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF SHOCK-WAVE PROCESSES VIA INTERNET

    SciTech Connect

    Khishchenko, K. V.; Levashov, P. R.; Povarnitsyn, M. E.; Zakharenkov, A. S.

    2009-12-28

    We present a Web-interface for 1D simulation of different shock-wave experiments. The choosing of initial parameters, the modeling itself and output data treatment can be made directly via the Internet. The interface is based upon the expert system on shock-wave data and equations of state and contains both the Eulerian and Lagrangian Godunov hydrocodes. The availability of equations of state for a broad set of substances makes this system a useful tool for planning and interpretation of shock-wave experiments. As an example of simulation with the system, results of modeling of multistep shock loading of potassium between polytetrafluoroethylene and stainless steel plates are presented in comparison with experimental data from Shakhray et al.(2005).

  19. Survey of Multi-Material Closure Models in 1D Lagrangian Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Maeng, Jungyeoul Brad; Hyde, David Andrew Bulloch

    2015-07-28

    Accurately treating the coupled sub-cell thermodynamics of computational cells containing multiple materials is an inevitable problem in hydrodynamics simulations, whether due to initial configurations or evolutions of the materials and computational mesh. When solving the hydrodynamics equations within a multi-material cell, we make the assumption of a single velocity field for the entire computational domain, which necessitates the addition of a closure model to attempt to resolve the behavior of the multi-material cells’ constituents. In conjunction with a 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, we present a variety of both the popular as well as more recently proposed multi-material closure models and survey their performances across a spectrum of examples. We consider standard verification tests as well as practical examples using combinations of fluid, solid, and composite constituents within multi-material mixtures. Our survey provides insights into the advantages and disadvantages of various multi-material closure models in different problem configurations.

  20. Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration. PMID:26145177

  1. Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling Methods for 1D Seismic and EM Data Inversion

    2008-09-22

    This software provides several Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling methods for the Bayesian model developed for inverting 1D marine seismic and controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) data. The current software can be used for individual inversion of seismic AVO and CSEM data and for joint inversion of both seismic and EM data sets. The structure of the software is very general and flexible, and it allows users to incorporate their own forward simulation codes and rockmore » physics model codes easily into this software. Although the softwae was developed using C and C++ computer languages, the user-supplied codes can be written in C, C++, or various versions of Fortran languages. The software provides clear interfaces for users to plug in their own codes. The output of this software is in the format that the R free software CODA can directly read to build MCMC objects.« less

  2. Pressure Sensor via Optical Detection Based on a 1D Spin Transition Coordination Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Jureschi, Cătălin M.; Linares, Jorge; Rotaru, Aurelian; Ritti, Marie Hélène; Parlier, Michel; Dîrtu, Marinela M.; Wolff, Mariusz; Garcia, Yann

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the suitability of using the 1D spin crossover coordination polymer [Fe(4-(2′-hydroxyethyl)-1,2,4-triazole)3]I2·H2O, known to crossover around room temperature, as a pressure sensor via optical detection using various contact pressures up to 250 MPa. A dramatic persistent colour change is observed. The experimental data, obtained by calorimetric and Mössbauer measurements, have been used for a theoretical analysis, in the framework of the Ising-like model, of the thermal and pressure induced spin state switching. The pressure (P)-temperature (T) phase diagram calculated for this compound has been used to obtain the P-T bistability region. PMID:25621610

  3. Structural transformation in monolayer materials: a 2D to 1D transformation.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Kasra; Attariani, Hamed; LeSar, Richard A

    2016-07-20

    Reducing the dimensions of materials to atomic scales results in a large portion of atoms being at or near the surface, with lower bond order and thus higher energy. At such scales, reduction of the surface energy and surface stresses can be the driving force for the formation of new low-dimensional nanostructures, and may be exhibited through surface relaxation and/or surface reconstruction, which can be utilized for tailoring the properties and phase transformation of nanomaterials without applying any external load. Here we used atomistic simulations and revealed an intrinsic structural transformation in monolayer materials that lowers their dimension from 2D nanosheets to 1D nanostructures to reduce their surface and elastic energies. Experimental evidence of such transformation has also been revealed for one of the predicted nanostructures. Such transformation plays an important role in bi-/multi-layer 2D materials. PMID:27388501

  4. Periodic solutions for a 1D-model with nonlocal velocity via mass transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Lucas C. F.; Valencia-Guevara, Julio C.

    2016-05-01

    This paper concerns periodic solutions for a 1D-model with nonlocal velocity given by the periodic Hilbert transform. There is a rich literature showing, via numerics and rigorous analysis, that this model presents singular behavior of solutions. For instance, they can blow up by forming mass-concentration. We develop a global well-posedness theory for periodic measure initial data that allows, in particular, to analyze how the model evolves from those singularities. Our results are based on periodic mass transport theory and the abstract gradient flow theory in metric spaces developed by Ambrosio et al. (2005). A viscous version of the model is also analyzed and inviscid limit properties are obtained.

  5. Refractive Index Sensor Based on a 1D Photonic Crystal in a Microfluidic Channel

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Pedro S.; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Kutter, Jörg P.; Mogensen, Klaus B.

    2010-01-01

    A refractive index sensor has been fabricated in silicon oxynitride by standard UV lithography and dry etching processes. The refractive index sensor consists of a 1D photonic crystal (PhC) embedded in a microfluidic channel addressed by fiber-terminated planar waveguides. Experimental demonstrations performed with several ethanol solutions ranging from a purity of 96.00% (n = 1.36356) to 95.04% (n = 1.36377) yielded a sensitivity (Δλ/Δn) of 836 nm/RIU and a limit of detection (LOD) of 6 × 10−5 RIU, which is, however, still one order of magnitude higher than the theoretical lower limit of the limit of detection 1.3 × 10−6 RIU. PMID:22294930

  6. Staggered grid leap-frog scheme for the (2+1)D Dirac equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, René; Pötz, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A numerical scheme utilizing a grid which is staggered in both space and time is proposed for the numerical solution of the (2+1)D Dirac equation in the presence of an external electromagnetic potential. It preserves the linear dispersion relation of the free Weyl equation for wave vectors aligned with the grid and facilitates the implementation of open (absorbing) boundary conditions via an imaginary potential term. This explicit scheme has second order accuracy in space and time. A functional for the norm is derived and shown to be conserved. Stability conditions are derived. Several numerical examples, ranging from generic to specific to textured topological insulator surfaces, demonstrate the properties of the scheme which can handle general electromagnetic potential landscapes.

  7. Initial Stage of the Microwave Ionization Wave Within a 1D Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, V. E.; Rakova, E. I.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2016-06-01

    The dynamics of the microwave breakdown in a gas is simulated numerically within a simple 1D model which takes into account such processes as the impact ionization of gas molecules, the attachment of electrons to neutral molecules, and plasma diffusion. Calculations are carried out for different spatial distributions of seed electrons with account for reflection of the incident electromagnetic wave from the plasma. The results reveal considerable dependence of the ionization wave evolution on the relation between the field frequency and gas pressure, as well as on the existence of extended rarefied halo of seed electrons. At relatively low gas pressures (or high field frequencies), the breakdown process is accompanied by the stationary ionization wave moving towards the incident electromagnetic wave. In the case of a high gas pressure (or a relatively low field frequency), the peculiarities of the breakdown are associated with the formation of repetitive jumps of the ionization front.

  8. An anti-symmetric exclusion process for two particles on an infinite 1D lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, J. R.; Harris, S.; Giuggioli, L.

    2011-12-01

    A system of two biased, mutually exclusive random walkers on an infinite 1D lattice is studied whereby the intrinsic bias of one particle is equal and opposite to that of the other. The propagator for this system is solved exactly and expressions for the mean displacement and mean square displacement (MSD) are found. Depending on the nature of the intrinsic bias, the system’s behaviour displays two regimes, characterised by (i) the particles moving towards each other and (ii) away from each other, both qualitatively different from the case of no bias. The continuous-space limit of the propagator is found and is shown to solve a Fokker-Planck equation for two biased, mutually exclusive Brownian particles with equal and opposite drift velocity. Connections to territorial dynamics in animal populations are discussed.

  9. Statistics of scattered photons from a driven three-level emitter in 1D open space

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Dibyendu; Bondyopadhaya, Nilanjan

    2014-01-07

    We derive the statistics of scattered photons from a Λ- or ladder-type three-level emitter (3LE) embedded in a 1D open waveguide. The weak probe photons in the waveguide are coupled to one of the two allowed transitions of the 3LE, and the other transition is driven by a control beam. This system shows electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) which is accompanied with the Autler-Townes splitting (ATS) at a strong driving by the control beam, and some of these effects have been observed recently. We show that the nature of second-order coherence of the transmitted probe photons near two-photon resonance changes from bunching to antibunching to constant as strength of the control beam is ramped up from zero to a higher value where the ATS appears.

  10. O/1D/ and H2O/+/ in comet Bennett 1970. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delsemme, A. H.; Combi, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial distribution of O(1D) in comet Bennett on April 18 implies the existence of an average scale length of about 10,000 km for the source of one or several parents, and an average scale length also of about 10,000 km for their destruction. The spatial distribution of H2O(+) has also been studied sunward and tailward for the same comet and the same date. Two spectra taken 20 minutes apart show recognizable wave patterns moving tailward with a velocity of 17 km/sec. The interaction of the H2O(+) ions with the solar wind gives clues to the onset of the plasma tail. A characteristic time of 800 sec seems to be associated with the instabilities seen at the onset of the tail.

  11. Quantum Diffusion on Molecular Tubes: Universal Scaling of the 1D to 2D Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Chern; Lee, Chee Kong; Moix, Jeremy M.; Knoester, Jasper; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-05-01

    The transport properties of disordered systems are known to depend critically on dimensionality. We study the diffusion coefficient of a quantum particle confined to a lattice on the surface of a tube, where it scales between the 1D and 2D limits. It is found that the scaling relation is universal and independent of the temperature, disorder, and noise parameters, and the essential order parameter is the ratio between the localization length in 2D and the circumference of the tube. Phenomenological and quantitative expressions for transport properties as functions of disorder and noise are obtained and applied to real systems: In the natural chlorosomes found in light-harvesting bacteria the exciton transfer dynamics is predicted to be in the 2D limit, whereas a family of synthetic molecular aggregates is found to be in the homogeneous limit and is independent of dimensionality.

  12. Quantum Diffusion on Molecular Tubes: Universal Scaling of the 1D to 2D Transition.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chern; Lee, Chee Kong; Moix, Jeremy M; Knoester, Jasper; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-05-13

    The transport properties of disordered systems are known to depend critically on dimensionality. We study the diffusion coefficient of a quantum particle confined to a lattice on the surface of a tube, where it scales between the 1D and 2D limits. It is found that the scaling relation is universal and independent of the temperature, disorder, and noise parameters, and the essential order parameter is the ratio between the localization length in 2D and the circumference of the tube. Phenomenological and quantitative expressions for transport properties as functions of disorder and noise are obtained and applied to real systems: In the natural chlorosomes found in light-harvesting bacteria the exciton transfer dynamics is predicted to be in the 2D limit, whereas a family of synthetic molecular aggregates is found to be in the homogeneous limit and is independent of dimensionality. PMID:27232033

  13. Simulation of cirrus clouds with a quasi 2-moment microphysical scheme: a 1D case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinty, J.-P.

    2003-04-01

    Cirrus clouds are receiving a great scientific interest because of their importance on the climate system through their impact on the radiation budget and on the physico-chemical balance of the upper troposphere. In this presentation, we concentrate on the application of a mixed-phase 2-moment microphysical scheme to simulate cirrus cloud properties with various ice nucleation modes. The complete scheme is implemented in the multi-purpose mesoscale model MésoNH with several capabilities (3D real vs. academic flows, grid-nesting, etc.). The 1D FIRE and subvisible test cases of Jensen et al. (1994 and 1996 both in JGR) are selected in the present study. The simulations are performed with a similar a thermo-dynamical and dynamical framework and microphysical results are analysed. Additional variations of some critical input parameters (CCN and IN concentrations, vertical velocity and ice characteristics) are explored to test the sensitivity of the microphysical scheme.

  14. A low power, area efficient fpga based beamforming technique for 1-D CMUT arrays.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bastin; Joseph, Jose; Vanjari, Siva Rama Krishna

    2015-08-01

    A low power area efficient digital beamformer targeting low frequency (2MHz) 1-D linear Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) array is developed. While designing the beamforming logic, the symmetry of the CMUT array is well exploited to reduce the area and power consumption. The proposed method is verified in Matlab by clocking an Arbitrary Waveform Generator(AWG). The architecture is successfully implemented in Xilinx Spartan 3E FPGA kit to check its functionality. The beamforming logic is implemented for 8, 16, 32, and 64 element CMUTs targeting Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) platform at Vdd 1.62V for UMC 90nm technology. It is observed that the proposed architecture consumes significantly lesser power and area (1.2895 mW power and 47134.4 μm(2) area for a 64 element digital beamforming circuit) compared to the conventional square root based algorithm. PMID:26737263

  15. Smooth non-extremal D1-D5-P solutions as charged gravitational instantons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Bidisha; Rocha, Jorge V.; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-08-01

    We present an alternative and more direct construction of the non-super-symmetric D1-D5-P supergravity solutions found by Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener. We show that these solutions — with all three charges and both rotations turned on — can be viewed as a charged version of the Myers-Perry instanton. We present an inverse scattering construction of the Myers-Perry instanton metric in Euclidean five-dimensional gravity. The angular momentum bounds in this construction turn out to be precisely the ones necessary for the smooth microstate geometries. We add charges on the Myers-Perry instanton using appropriate SO(4, 4) hidden symmetry transformations. The full construc-tion can be viewed as an extension and simplification of a previous work by Katsimpouri, Kleinschmidt and Virmani.

  16. Directed electromagnetic wave propagation in 1D metamaterial: Projecting operators method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ampilogov, Dmitrii; Leble, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    We consider a boundary problem for 1D electrodynamics modeling of a pulse propagation in a metamaterial medium. We build and apply projecting operators to a Maxwell system in time domain that allows to split the linear propagation problem to directed waves for a material relations with general dispersion. Matrix elements of the projectors act as convolution integral operators. For a weak nonlinearity we generalize the linear results still for arbitrary dispersion and derive the system of interacting right/left waves with combined (hybrid) amplitudes. The result is specified for the popular metamaterial model with Drude formula for both permittivity and permeability coefficients. We also discuss and investigate stationary solutions of the system related to some boundary regimes.

  17. A 1D Model For Describing Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating At Arbitrary Cyclotron Harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eester, Dirk; Lerche, Ernesto

    2011-12-01

    Both at low and higher cyclotron harmonics, properly accounting for finite Larmor radius effects is crucial in many ICRF heating scenario's creating high energy tails. The present paper discusses an extension of the 1D TOMCAT wave equation solver [1] to arbitrary harmonics and arbitrary wavelengths. Rather than adopting the particle position, the guiding center position is used as the independent variable when writing down an expression for the dielectric response that is suitable for numerical application. This choice of variable yields symmetric and intuitive expressions, and guarantees that a positive definite power absorption is obtained for any of the wave modes in the plasma. Rather than relying on a truncated Taylor series expansion of the dielectric response, an integro-differential approach is proposed. To keep the required computation time for this generalized description reasonable tabulation of integrals is intensively used. An example is provided to illustrate the potential of the new wave code.

  18. Continuous 1D-Metallic Microfibers Web for Flexible Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Kihyon; Ham, Juyoung; Kim, Byoung-Joon; Park, Jae Yong; Lim, Dong Chan; Lee, Joo Yul; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2015-12-16

    We report the use of a continuous 1D-metallic microfibers web (MFW) as transparent electrode for organic solar cells (OSCs). The MFW electrode can be produced with a process that involves simple electrospinning and wet etching of metal thin film. Au MFW exhibits a maximum optical transmittance of 90.8% (at 15 Ω/sq of the sheet resistance) and excellent mechanical flexibility. The MFW structure has an average width in the range from 4 to 6 μm and a junction-free structure, resulting in very smooth surface roughness. The OSCs with Au MFW electrode exhibited a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.50% than the device with an indium tin oxide electrode (PCE = 3.20%). The optical modeling calculation showed that the Au MFW electrode induced light scattering and improved the light absorption in the active layer, resulting in an improved PCE in the OSCs. PMID:26580701

  19. Dynamical properties of spin and subbands populations in 1D quantum wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaseghi, B.; Khordad, R.; Golshan, M. M.

    2006-10-01

    In this paper we study the spin and subbands populations, as functions of time, for electrons in a quasi-1D quantum wire, with spin-orbit coupling (SOC), to which a perpendicular magnetic field is applied. The system is governed by the Hamiltonian which, in the strong magnetic field limit, resembles the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) in quantum optics (QO). Using a procedure similar to that in QO, we explicitly present the time-evolution operator, thereby calculating the spin states and subbands populations as functions of time. We show that the populations exhibit oscillations, depending on the interaction parameters, scale lengths and, particularly, the initial states of the system. Specifically, if the electrons are initially prepared in a maximal coherent superposition of spin states, the expectation values periodically collapse and revive. The collapse-revivals are most profound for the spin along the magnetic field and subbands populations.

  20. 1D Coulomb drag between coupled nanowires formed at oxide interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yuhe; Tomczyk, Michelle; Huang, Mengchen; Lee, Hyungwoo; Eom, Chang-Beom; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy

    ``Coulomb drag'' is a transport phenomenon where Coulomb interaction between two close but electrically isolated conductors induces voltage in one conductor when an electric current is injected in the other conductor. It is a powerful approach to probe electronic correlations. Here we examine 1D electronic correlations in a proximally coupled nanowire system where two parallel nanowires are created with conductive atomic force microscopy at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. Coulomb drag measurements are made by injecting current into one wire (drive wire) and measuring the induced voltage in the other wire (drag wire). This geometry offers experimental insights into the interplay of electron pairing and superconductivity in reduced dimensions. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from DOE DE-SC0014417 (JL).

  1. Experimental demonstration of anomalous nonreciprocal optical response of 1D periodic magnetoplasmonic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halagačka, L.; Vanwolleghem, M.; Vaurette, F.; Ben-Youssef, J.; Gogol, P.; Yam, N.; Postava, K.; Dagens, B.; Pištora, J.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we analyze the optical and transversal magnetooptical (MO) response of magnetoplasmonic (MP) nanostructures. The MP structure is a 1D periodic gold grating fabricated by lift-off technique on the MO dielectric substrate (Bi-substituted yttrium iron garnet BixY3-xFe5O12). Following our recent theoretical work (Opt. Express 21, pp. 2174121755, Sep 2013.), we confirm here experimentally the predicted dependence of the MO response on the geometry of the grating, that is directly attributed to the anticrossing behavior of the Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance in the grating's slits and the surface plasmon resonances (SPPs) at its interfaces. The experimental results were achieved by Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry. Observed fine tuning of the transverse magneto-optic Kerr opens up new possibilities for the design of compact nonreciprocal devices.

  2. Application of MSOR iteration with Newton scheme for solutions of 1D nonlinear porous medium equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, J. V. L.; Sulaiman, J.

    2016-06-01

    This paper considers Newton-MSOR iterative method for solving 1D nonlinear porous medium equation (PME). The basic concept of proposed iterative method is derived from a combination of one step nonlinear iterative method which known as Newton method with Modified Successive Over Relaxation (MSOR) method. The reliability of Newton-MSOR to obtain approximate solution for several PME problems is compared with Newton-Gauss-Seidel (Newton-GS) and Newton-Successive Over Relaxation (Newton-SOR). In this paper, the formulation and implementation of these three iterative methods have also been presented. From four examples of PME problems, numerical results showed that Newton-MSOR method requires lesser number of iterations and computational time as compared with Newton-GS and Newton-SOR methods.

  3. Detecting different correlation regimes in a 1D Bose gas using in-situ absorption imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salces-Carcoba, Francisco; Sugawa, Seiji; Yue, Yuchen; Putra, Andika; Spielman, Ian

    2016-05-01

    We present the realization of a single 1D Bose gas (1DBG) using a tightly focused Laguerre-Gauss beam as a waveguide for a 87Rb cloud. Axial confinement is provided by a weak trap that also sets the final density profile. A homogeneous 1DBG at T = 0 can be fully described by the dimensionless interaction parameter γ ~ 1/n, where n is the linear density; at sufficiently low densities the system becomes strongly interacting. An inhomogeneous (trapped) system can enter this description within the local density approximation (LDA) where the interaction parameter becomes position dependent γ(x) ~ 1/n(x). The system then displays different correlation regimes over its extension which can be detected by measuring its equation of state (EoS) or the density density correlations in real space using in-situ absorption imaging.

  4. Statistical investigation and thermal properties for a 1-D impact system with dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz I., Gabriel; Livorati, André L. P.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-05-01

    The behavior of the average velocity, its deviation and average squared velocity are characterized using three techniques for a 1-D dissipative impact system. The system - a particle, or an ensemble of non-interacting particles, moving in a constant gravitation field and colliding with a varying platform - is described by a nonlinear mapping. The average squared velocity allows to describe the temperature for an ensemble of particles as a function of the parameters using: (i) straightforward numerical simulations; (ii) analytically from the dynamical equations; (iii) using the probability distribution function. Comparing analytical and numerical results for the three techniques, one can check the robustness of the developed formalism, where we are able to estimate numerical values for the statistical variables, without doing extensive numerical simulations. Also, extension to other dynamical systems is immediate, including time dependent billiards.

  5. Alpha 1D- and alpha 1A-adrenoceptors mediate contraction in rat renal artery.

    PubMed

    Villalobos-Molina, R; López-Guerrero, J J; Ibarra, M

    1997-03-19

    To investigate the alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtype(s) mediating contraction in rat renal artery, we have compared the effect of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists, 5-methylurapidil, BMY 7378 (8-(2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl) ethyl) 8-azaspiro (4.5) decane-7,9-dione 2HCl) and chloroethylclonidine on functional responses to noradrenaline. A clear blockade by chloroethylclonidine (10(-4) M) of noradrenaline-induced contraction was observed and, along with this effect. pKB values of 9.12 and 8.40 for BMY 7378 and 9.75 and 10.06 for 5-methylurapidil were obtained, indicating that the renal artery expresses the alpha 1D-adrenoceptor subtype as the one involved in contraction and not only the alpha 1A subtype as has been reported. PMID:9098691

  6. Sonochemically grown 1D ZnO nanostructures and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayam, Yavuz; Rodrigues, Debora; Atalay, Ramazan; Zafer, Ceylan; Okur, Salih; Bala, Rukayya K.; Okyay, Tugba O.; Gültekin, Burak; Caha, Ihsan; Tural, Enis E.; Duyar, Sinem; Özbek, Cebrail; Guler, Telat

    2015-08-01

    Sonochemical growth technique is based upon the chemical effect of ultrasound on chemical reactions. This process is carried out at an ambient atmosphere without the need for a complex experimental set up and additional heating. This method is of significant importance because of it's vital application in various fields. ZnO nanorods were grown on glass substrates without any additional heat or surfactance by sonochemical growth technique. The grown nanostructures were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Sonochemically grown ZnO nanorod networks were characterized for their antibacterial properties toward B.subtilis. These structures were also characterized for their CO sensing properties and photovoltaic performances for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) application. All material characterization and device performances suggest that sonochemsitry can be utilized as an alternative growth method for 1D ZnO nanostructures.

  7. A new subgenotype 2.1d isolates of classical swine fever virus in China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongliang; Leng, Chaoliang; Feng, Liping; Zhai, Hongyue; Chen, Jiazeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Bai, Yun; Ye, Chao; Peng, Jinmei; An, Tongqing; Kan, Yunchao; Cai, Xuehui; Tian, Zhijun; Tong, Guangzhi

    2015-08-01

    The lapinized attenuated vaccine against classical swine fever (CSF) has been used in China for over half a century and has generally prevented large-scale outbreaks in recent years. However, since late 2014, a large number of new cases of CSF were detected in many immunized pig farms in China. Several of these CSV viruses were isolated and characterized. Phylogenetic and genomic sequence analyses indicate that these new isolates, as well as some reference isolates, form a new subgenotype named 2.1d, and share several consistent molecular characteristics. Since these new isolates emerged in disparate geographic regions within 5 months, this suggests that these isolates may be widespread. Given that current vaccines do not appear to provide effective protection against this new subgenotype, further investigation of these strains is urgently needed. PMID:26031602

  8. 1D Superconducting behavior in 4-Angstrom carbon nanotube-zeolite composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wu; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Hang; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Ning; Tang, Zikang; Zhang, Xixiang; Lortz, Rolf; Sheng, Ping

    2010-03-01

    We report 4-probe electrical measurements on a sample of 4-Angstrom carbon nanotubes-zeolite composite that exhibit 1D superconducting behavior. The resistance displays a smooth decrease as a function of temperature that is characteristic of the phase slip fluctuation effects, and the differential resistance measured as a function of current shows a quasigap that is characteristic of the fluctuating condensate. Both data sets show very little variation upon the application of a magnetic field, up to 9 Tesla. These behaviors are explainable in terms of the Langer-Ambegaokar-McCumber-Halperin (LAMH) theory of phase slips. We also show and discuss an interesting phenomenon in which a sharp zero current (bias) peak appears in the differential resistance above 3 K.

  9. Quantum propagation and confinement in 1D systems using the transfer-matrix method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Olivier; Carles, Robert; Pérez, José-Philippe

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this article is to provide some Matlab scripts to the teaching community in quantum physics. The scripts are based on the transfer-matrix formalism and offer a very efficient and versatile tool to solve problems of a physical object (electron, proton, neutron, etc) with one-dimensional (1D) stationary potential energy. Resonant tunnelling through a multiple-barrier or confinement in wells of various shapes is particularly analysed. The results are quantitatively discussed with semiconductor heterostructures, harmonic and anharmonic molecular vibrations, or neutrons in a gravity field. Scripts and other examples (hydrogen-like ions and transmission by a smooth variation of potential energy) are available freely at http://www-loa.univ-lille1.fr/˜pujol in three languages: English, French and Spanish.

  10. Efficient calculation of 1-D periodic Green's functions for leaky-wave applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Baccarelli, Paolo; Johnson, William Arthur; Paulotto, Simone; Jackson, David R.; Wilton, Donald R.; Galli, A.; Valero, G.; Celepcikay, F. T.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper an approach is described for the efficient computation of the mixed-potential scalar and dyadic Green's functions for a one-dimensional periodic (periodic along x direction) array of point sources embedded in a planar stratified structure. Suitable asymptotic extractions are performed on the slowly converging spectral series. The extracted terms are summed back through the Ewald method, modified and optimized to efficiently deal with all the different terms. The accelerated Green's functions allow for complex wavenumbers, and are thus suitable for application to leaky-wave antennas analysis. Suitable choices of the spectral integration paths are made in order to account for leakage effects and the proper/improper nature of the various space harmonics that form the 1-D periodic Green's function.

  11. Fluid friction and wall viscosity of the 1D blood flow model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Nishi, Shohei; Matsukawa, Mami; Ghigo, Arthur; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria

    2016-02-29

    We study the behavior of the pulse waves of water into a flexible tube for application to blood flow simulations. In pulse waves both fluid friction and wall viscosity are damping factors, and difficult to evaluate separately. In this paper, the coefficients of fluid friction and wall viscosity are estimated by fitting a nonlinear 1D flow model to experimental data. In the experimental setup, a distensible tube is connected to a piston pump at one end and closed at another end. The pressure and wall displacements are measured simultaneously. A good agreement between model predictions and experiments was achieved. For amplitude decrease, the effect of wall viscosity on the pulse wave has been shown as important as that of fluid viscosity. PMID:26862041

  12. Optimal modeling of 1D azimuth correlations in the context of Bayesian inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, Michiel B.; Eggers, Hans C.; Trainor, Thomas A.

    2015-09-01

    Analysis and interpretation of spectrum and correlation data from high-energy nuclear collisions is currently controversial because two opposing physics narratives derive contradictory implications from the same data, one narrative claiming collision dynamics is dominated by dijet production and projectile-nucleon fragmentation, the other claiming collision dynamics is dominated by a dense, flowing QCD medium. Opposing interpretations seem to be supported by alternative data models, and current model-comparison schemes are unable to distinguish between them. There is clearly need for a convincing new methodology to break the deadlock. In this study we introduce Bayesian inference (BI) methods applied to angular correlation data as a basis to evaluate competing data models. For simplicity the data considered are projections of two-dimensional (2D) angular correlations onto a 1D azimuth from three centrality classes of 200-GeV Au-Au collisions. We consider several data models typical of current model choices, including Fourier series (FS) and a Gaussian plus various combinations of individual cosine components. We evaluate model performance with BI methods and with power-spectrum analysis. We find that FS-only models are rejected in all cases by Bayesian analysis, which always prefers a Gaussian. A cylindrical quadrupole cos(2 ϕ ) is required in some cases but rejected for 0%-5%-central Au-Au collisions. Given a Gaussian centered at the azimuth origin, "higher harmonics" cos(m ϕ ) for m >2 are rejected. A model consisting of Gaussian +dipole cos(ϕ )+quadrupole cos(2 ϕ ) provides good 1D data descriptions in all cases.

  13. 1D crustal structure from quality seismological data for the Cyprus subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perk, Şükran; Deǧer, Ali; Özbakır, Karabulut, Hayrullah

    2013-04-01

    The eastern Mediterranean is a tectonically complex region, where long-term subduction and accretion processes have shaped the overall evolution. Recently, many seismic tomography studies have shown subducted slabs of the Neo-Tethyan lithosphere, continuing its subduction in the Hellenic trench, stalled in the Cyprus trench and being torn near the intersection between them. Antalya bay is a key region located on the western flank of the Cyprus Subduction Zone (CSZ), close to the junction between the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs. Here deep earthquakes are nucleated, which otherwise cannot be seen anywhere else along the CSZ. For this reason, we focus our attention specifically to the Antalya Bay area but also the remaining parts of the CSZ. Several regional studies have been carried out to define the velocity structure beneath the region but none have been able to locate the CSZ. One of the main reasons for this was the lack of incorporation of a wide seismic network in those regional studies. We compile a large catalog of seismicity and relocate earthquakes to infer 1D local crustal structure using the clusters of seismicity. We used seismic data between 2005 - 2011 which are recorded at more than 335 seismic stations operated by several agencies and portable deployments. The data-set is composed of over 10,000 events and earthquakes can be grouped in several distinct clusters. We defined five of these clusters, where the total number of events is more than 4500, among which we selected over 2000 events with the highest data quality. 1-D local P-wave velocity models are developed using this high quality data-set and the earthquakes are relocated using the local velocity models. The compiled and reanalyzed data will contribute to perform local earthquake tomography. Moreover, obtained local velocity models represent a fundamental step towards an improved seismic tomography studies in a very crucial region in the eastern Mediterranean.

  14. Characterization and thermal stability of cobalt-modified 1-D nanostructured trititanates

    SciTech Connect

    Morgado, Edisson; Abreu, Marco A.S. de

    2009-01-15

    One-dimensional (1-D) nanostructured sodium trititanates were obtained via alkali hydrothermal method and modified with cobalt via ion exchange at different Co concentrations. The resulting cobalt-modified trititanate nanostructures (Co-TTNS) were characterized by TGA, XRD, TEM/SAED, DRS-UV-Vis and N{sub 2} adsorption techniques. Their general chemical formula was estimated as Na{sub x}Co{sub y/2}H{sub 2-x-y}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}.nH{sub 2}O and they maintained the same nanostructured and multilayered nature of the sodium precursor, with the growth direction of nanowires and nanotubes along [010]. As a consequence of the Co{sup 2+} incorporation replacing sodium between trititanate layers, two new diffraction lines became prominent and the interlayer distance was reduced with respect to that of the precursor sodium trititanate. Surface area was slightly increased with cobalt intake whereas pore size distribution was hardly affected. Besides, Co{sup 2+} incorporation in trititanate crystal structure also resulted in enhanced visible light photon absorption as indicated by a strong band-gap narrowing. Morphological and structural thermal transformations of Co-TTNS started nearly 400 deg. C in air and the final products after calcination at 800 deg. C were found to be composed of TiO{sub 2}-rutile, CoTiO{sub 3} and a bronze-like phase with general formula Na{sub 2x}Ti{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}O{sub 2}. - Graphical abstract: Co{sup 2+} incorporation in 1D-trititanate crystal nanostructure (Co-TTNS) causes reduction in interlayer distance by comparison with its sodium precursor (Na-TTNS) and leads to enhanced visible light photon absorption efficiency due to a strong band-gap narrowing.

  15. Community interactive webtool to retrieve Greenland glacier data for 1-D geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrette, Mahé

    2015-04-01

    Marine-terminating, outlet glaciers are challenging to include in conventional Greenland-wide ice sheet models because of the large variation in scale between model grid size (typically 10 km) and outlet glacier width (typically 1-5km), making it a subgrid scale feature. A possible approach to tackle this problem is to use one-dimensional flowline models for the individual glaciers (e.g. Nick et al., 2013, Nature; Enderlin et al 2013a,b, The Cryosphere). Here we present a python- and javascript- based webtool to prepare data required to feed in or validate a flowline model. It is designed primarily to outline the glacier geometry and returns relevant data averaged over cross-sections. The tool currently allows to: visualize 2-D ice sheet data (zoom/pan), quickly switch between datasets (e.g. ice thickness, bedrock elevation, surface velocity) interpolated / transformed on a common grid. draw flowlines from user-input seeds on the map, calculated from a vector field of surface velocity, as an helpful guide for point 3 interactively draw glacier outline (side and middle lines) on top of the data mesh the outlined glacier domain in the horizontal plane extract relevant data into a 1-D longitudinal profile download the result as a netCDF file The project is hosted on github to encourage collaboration, under the open-source MIT Licence. The server-side is written in python (open-source) using the web-framework flask, and the client-side (javascript) makes use of the d3 library for interactive figures. For now it only works locally in a web browser (start server: "python runserver.py"). Data need to be downloaded separately from the original sources. See the README file in the project for information how to use it. Github projects: https://github.com/perrette/webglacier1d (main) https://github.com/perrette/dimarray (dependency)

  16. A Very Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Hilda B.

    1973-01-01

    Granite School District, a suburb of Salt Lake City, Utah, has a staff of 349 teachers and other professional personnel who provide career education and job experience for more than 5,000 special children. (DS)

  17. Special parallel processing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.

  18. Israeli Special Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Israel is sprinkled with a noteworthy representation of special libraries which run the gamut from modest kibbutz efforts to highly technical scientific and humanities libraries. A few examples are discussed here. (Author/CH)

  19. Sport Specialization, Part I

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  20. Regulatory mode shift of Tbc1d1 is required for acquisition of insulin-responsive GLUT4-trafficking activity

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Tbc1d1 is key to skeletal muscle GLUT4 regulation. By using GLUT4 nanometry combined with a cell-based reconstitution model, we uncover a shift in the regulatory mode of Tbc1d1 by showing that Tbc1d1 temporally acquires insulin responsiveness, which triggers GLUT4 trafficking only after an exercise-mimetic stimulus such as aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) pretreatment. The functional acquisition of insulin responsiveness requires Ser-237 phosphorylation and an intact phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) 1 domain. Mutations in PTB1, including R125W (a natural mutant), thus result in complete loss of insulin-responsiveness acquisition, whereas AICAR-responsive GLUT4-liberation activity remains intact. Thus our data provide novel insights into temporal acquisition/memorization of Tbc1d1 insulin responsiveness, relying on the PTB1 domain, possibly a key factor in the beneficial effects of exercise on muscle insulin potency. PMID:23325788

  1. Critical and multicritical semi-random (1 + d)-dimensional lattices and hard objects in d dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, P.; Guitter, E.

    2002-02-01

    We investigate models of (1 + d)D Lorentzian semi-random lattices with one random (space-like) direction and d regular (time-like) ones. We prove a general inversion formula expressing the partition function of these models as the inverse of that of hard objects in d dimensions. This allows for an exact solution of a variety of new models including critical and multicritical generalized (1+1)D Lorentzian surfaces, with fractal dimensions dF = k + 1, k = 1,2,3,... , as well as a new model of (1+2)D critical tetrahedral complexes, with fractal dimension dF = 12/5. Critical exponents and universal scaling functions follow from this solution. We finally establish a general connection between (1 + d)D Lorentzian lattices and directed-site lattice animals in (1 + d) dimensions.

  2. Anti-TGF-β Antibody, 1D11, Ameliorates Glomerular Fibrosis in Mouse Models after the Onset of Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiaoyan; Schnaper, H. William; Matsusaka, Taiji; Pastan, Ira; Ledbetter, Steve; Hayashida, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis is a final common pathway leading to loss of kidney function, in which the fibrogenic cytokine, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), plays a central role. While previous studies showed that TGF-β antagonism by various means prevents fibrosis in mouse models, clinical approaches based on these findings remain elusive. 1D11 is a neutralizing antibody to all three isoforms of TGF-β. In both adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy and NEP25 podocyte ablation nephropathy, thrice-weekly intraperitoneal administration of 1D11 from the day of disease induction until the mice were sacrificed (day 14 for ADR and day 28 for NEP25), significantly reduced glomerular COL1A2 mRNA accumulation and histological changes. Consistent with our previous findings, proteinuria remained overt in the mice treated with 1D11, suggesting distinct mechanisms for proteinuria and fibrogenesis. Podocyte numbers determined by WT1 staining were significantly reduced in NEP25-model glomeruli as expected, while WT1-positive cells were preserved in mice receiving 1D11. Even when 1D11 was administered after the onset of proteinuria on day 3, 1D11 preserved WT1-positive cell numbers in glomeruli and significantly reduced glomerular scar score (2.5 ± 0.2 [control IgG] vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 [1D11], P < 0.05) and glomerular COL1A2 mRNA expression (19.3 ± 4.4 [control IgG] vs. 8.4 ± 2.4 [1D11] fold increase over the healthy control, P < 0.05). Transmission electron microscopy revealed loss of podocytes and denuded glomerular basement membrane in NEP25 mice with disease, whereas podocytes remained attached to the basement membrane, though effaced and swollen, in those receiving 1D11 from day 3. Together, these data suggest that TGF-β neutralization by 1D11 prevents glomerular fibrosis even when started after the onset of proteinuria. While overt proteinuria and podocyte effacement persist, 1D11 prevents total podocytes detachment, which might be a key event activating fibrogenic events in glomeruli

  3. Identification of novel isoforms of dairy goat EEF1D and their mRNA expression characterization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sihuan; Wu, Xianfeng; Pan, Chuanying; Lei, Chuzhao; Dang, Ruihua; Chen, Hong; Lan, Xianyong

    2016-04-25

    Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta (EEF1D) gene encodes guanine nucleotide exchange protein eEF1Bδ, which participates in the eukaryotic protein synthesis, and plays important roles in regulating cell cycling and milk production. This study firstly focused on detecting the isoforms of dairy goat EEF1D gene and their mRNA expression characterization. Herein, two novel isoforms, EEF1Da and EEF1Dc, were identified in dairy goat. The entire coding sequences of EEF1Da and EEF1Dc isoforms were 843bp and 267bp in length, respectively. Goat EEF1Da had complete conserved domains of elongation factor 1 (EF1) family, and the evolution of goat EEF1Da isoform was agreed with the evolution of species. Expression pattern analysis of different isoforms revealed relatively ubiquitous expression of EEF1D and EEF1Da. While EEF1Dc only expressed in heart, lung, kidney, adipose and muscle. Combining with the analysis results of cloning, qRT-PCR and bioinformatics, EEF1Da is the major alternative splicing form of EEF1D gene. Interestingly, qRT-PCR result showed that the highest expression of EEF1D was in adipose, which is the major component of mammary. This result was consistent with the early research that EEF1D expressed highly in the mammary, which indicated that EEF1D played a potential key role in regulating adipose development and milk production. All these findings would provide a foundation for the further research of EEF1D gene and development of dairy goat industry. PMID:26794801

  4. Neurotrophins and cognitive functions in T1D compared with healthy controls: effects of a high-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Tonoli, Cajsa; Heyman, Elsa; Buyse, Luk; Roelands, Bart; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Bailey, Stephen; Pattyn, Nathalie; Berthoin, Serge; Meeusen, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is known to have beneficial effects on cognitive function. This effect is greatly favored by an exercise-induced increase in neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), especially with high-intensity exercises (HIE). As a complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a cognitive decline may occur, mostly ascribed to hypoglycaemia and chronic hyperglycaemia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute HIE on cognitive function and neurotrophins in T1D and matched controls. Ten trained T1D (8 males, 2 females) participants and their matched (by age, sex, fitness level) controls were evaluated on 2 occasions after familiarization: a maximal test to exhaustion and an HIE bout (10 intervals of 60 s at 90% of their maximal wattage followed by 60 s at 50 W). Cognitive tests and analyses of serum BDNF, IGF-1, and free insulin were performed before and after HIE and following 30 min of recovery. At baseline, cognitive performance was better in the controls compared with the T1D participants (p < 0.05). After exercise, no significant differences in cognitive performance were detected. BDNF levels were significantly higher and IGF-1 levels were significantly lower in T1D compared with the control group (p < 0.05) at all time points. Exercise increased BDNF and IGF-1 levels in a comparable percentage in both groups (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although resting levels of serum BDNF and IGF-1 were altered by T1D, comparable increasing effects on BDNF and IGF-1 in T1D and healthy participants were found. Therefore, regularly repeating acute HIE could be a promising strategy for brain health in T1D. PMID:25525862

  5. Arrest of human mitochondrial RNA polymerase transcription by the biological aldehyde adduct of DNA, M1dG

    PubMed Central

    Cline, Susan D.; Lodeiro, M. Fernanda; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Cameron, Craig E.; Arnold, Jamie J.

    2010-01-01

    The biological aldehydes, malondialdehyde and base propenal, react with DNA to form a prevalent guanine adduct, M1dG. The exocyclic ring of M1dG opens to the acyclic N2-OPdG structure when paired with C but remains closed in single-stranded DNA or when mispaired with T. M1dG is a target of nucleotide excision repair (NER); however, NER is absent in mitochondria. An in vitro transcription system with purified human mitochondrial RNA polymerase (POLRMT) and transcription factors, mtTFA and mtTFB2, was used to determine the effect of M1dG on POLRMT elongation. DNA templates contained a single adduct opposite either C or T downstream of either the light-strand (LSP) or heavy-strand (HSP1) promoter for POLRMT. M1dG in the transcribed strand arrested 60–90% POLRMT elongation complexes with greater arrest by the adduct when opposite T. POLRMT was more sensitive to N2-OPdG and M1dG after initiation at LSP, which suggests promoter-specific differences in the function of POLRMT complexes. A closed-ring analog of M1dG, PdG, blocked ≥95% of transcripts originating from either promoter regardless of base pairing, and the transcripts remained associated with POLRMT complexes after stalling at the adduct. This work suggests that persistent M1dG adducts in mitochondrial DNA hinder the transcription of mitochondrial genes. PMID:20671026

  6. Highly Directional 1D Supramolecular Assembly of New Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Based Gel for Organic Solar Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Thool, Gautam Sheel; Narayanaswamy, K; Venkateswararao, A; Naqvi, Sheerin; Gupta, Vinay; Chand, Suresh; Vivekananthan, V; Koner, Rik Rani; Krishnan, Venkata; Singh, Surya Prakash

    2016-05-01

    A new thermoreversible organogel based on diketopyrrolopyrrole dye (DPP-NCO) is reported for the first time and evolved as a new building block for the fabrication of 1D supramolecular assembly. AFM analysis illustrated that its gel state is composed of different sized 1D rods. DPP-NCO gel used as an additive in organic solar cells yields high efficiency of 7.9% owing to better nanophase separation of its active layer. PMID:27079750

  7. Nanoscale stabilization of zintl compounds: 1D ionic Li-P double helix confined inside a carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Alexander S.; Kar, Tapas; Boldyrev, Alexander I.

    2016-02-01

    One-dimensional (1D) ionic nanowires are extremely rare materials due to the difficulty in stabilizing 1D chains of ions under ambient conditions. We demonstrate here a theoretical prediction of a novel hybrid material, a nanotube encapsulated 1D ionic lithium monophosphide (LiP) chain, featuring a unique double-helix structure, which is very unusual in inorganic chemistry. This nanocomposite has been investigated with density functional theory, including molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations. We find that the formation of the LiP double-helical nanowire is facilitated by strong interactions between LiP and CNTs resulting in a charge transfer. This work suggests that nanostructured confinement may be used to stabilize other polyphosphide 1D chains, thus opening new ways to study the chemistry of zintl compounds at the nanoscale.One-dimensional (1D) ionic nanowires are extremely rare materials due to the difficulty in stabilizing 1D chains of ions under ambient conditions. We demonstrate here a theoretical prediction of a novel hybrid material, a nanotube encapsulated 1D ionic lithium monophosphide (LiP) chain, featuring a unique double-helix structure, which is very unusual in inorganic chemistry. This nanocomposite has been investigated with density functional theory, including molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure calculations. We find that the formation of the LiP double-helical nanowire is facilitated by strong interactions between LiP and CNTs resulting in a charge transfer. This work suggests that nanostructured confinement may be used to stabilize other polyphosphide 1D chains, thus opening new ways to study the chemistry of zintl compounds at the nanoscale. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional DOS, band structures, and Bader charges for LiP@SWCNTs. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07713c

  8. Impact of Nanosize on Supercapacitance: Study of 1D Nanorods and 2D Thin-Films of Nickel Oxide.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ranjit A; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Devan, Rupesh S; Liou, Yung; Ma, Yuan-Ron

    2016-04-20

    We synthesized unique one-dimensional (1D) nanorods and two-dimensional (2D) thin-films of NiO on indium-tin-oxide thin-films using a hot-filament metal-oxide vapor deposition technique. The 1D nanorods have an average width and length of ∼100 and ∼500 nm, respectively, and the densely packed 2D thin-films have an average thickness of ∼500 nm. The 1D nanorods perform as parallel units for charge storing. However, the 2D thin-films act as one single unit for charge storing. The 2D thin-films possess a high specific capacitance of ∼746 F/g compared to 1D nanorods (∼230 F/g) using galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements at a current density of 3 A/g. Because the 1D NiO nanorods provide more plentiful surface areas than those of the 2D thin-films, they are fully active at the first few cycles. However, the capacitance retention of the 1D nanorods decays faster than that of the 2D thin-films. Also, the 1D NiO nanorods suffer from instability due to the fast electrochemical dissolution and high nanocontact resistance. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy verifies that the low dimensionality of the 1D NiO nanorods induces the unavoidable effects that lead them to have poor supercapacitive performances. On the other hand, the slow electrochemical dissolution and small contact resistance in the 2D NiO thin-films favor to achieve high specific capacitance and great stability. PMID:27028491

  9. Development of a 1 D hydrodynamic habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibious as basis for sustainable exploitation of hydroelectric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manful, D. Y.; Kaule, G.; Wieprecht, S.; Rees, J.; Hu, W.

    2009-12-01

    Hydroelectric Power (HEP) is proving to be a good alternative to carbon based energy. In the past hydropower especially large scale hydro attracted significant criticism as a result of its impact on the environment. A new breed of hydroelectric dam is in the offing. The aim is to have as little a footprint as possible on the environment in both pre and post construction phases and thus minimize impact on biodiversity whilst producing clean renewable energy. The Bui dam is 400 MW scheme currently under development on the Black Volta River in the Bui national park in Ghana. The reservoir created by the Bui barrage is expected to impact (through inundation) the habitat of two species of hippos know to exist in the park, the Hippopotamus amphibius and the Choeropsis liberiensis. Computer-based models present a unique opportunity to assess quantitatively the impact of the new reservoir on the habitat of the target species in this case the H. amphibious. Until this undertaking, there were very few studies documenting the habitat of the H. amphibious let alone model it. The work and subsequent presentation will show the development of a habitat model for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The Habitat Information retrieval Program based on Streamflow Analysis, in short HIPStrA, is a one dimensional (1D) in-stream, spatially explicit hybrid construct that combines physico-chemical evidence and expert knowledge to forecast river habitat suitability (Hs) for the Hippopotamus amphibius. The version of the model presented is specifically developed to assess the impact of a reservoir created by a hydroelectric dam on potential dwelling areas in the Bui gorge for hippos. Accordingly, this version of HIPStrA simulates a special reservoir suitability index (Rsi), a metric that captures the”hippo friendliness” of any lake or reservoir. The impact of measured and simulated flood events as well as low flows, representing extreme events is also assessed. Recommendations are made for the

  10. Aberrant mRNA processing of the maize Rp1-D rust resistance gene in wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Ayliffe, Michael A; Steinau, Martin; Park, Robert F; Rooke, Lee; Pacheco, Maria G; Hulbert, Scot H; Trick, Harold N; Pryor, Anthony J

    2004-08-01

    The maize Rp1-D gene confers race-specific resistance against Puccinia sorghi (common leaf rust) isolates containing a corresponding avrRp1-D avirulence gene. An Rp1-D genomic clone and a similar Rp1-D transgene regulated by the maize ubiquitin promoter were transformed independently into susceptible maize lines and shown to confer Rp1-D resistance, demonstrating that this resistance can be transferred as a single gene. Transfer of these functional transgenes into wheat and barley did not result in novel resistances when these plants were challenged with isolates of wheat stem rust (P. graminis), wheat leaf rust (P. triticina), or barley leaf rust (P. hordei). Regardless of the promoter employed, low levels of gene expression were observed. When constitutive promoters were used for transgene expression, a majority of Rp1-D transcripts were truncated in the nucleotide binding site-encoding region by premature polyadenylation. This aberrant mRNA processing was unrelated to gene function because an inactive version of the gene also generated such transcripts. These data demonstrate that resistance gene transfer between species may not be limited only by divergence of signaling effector molecules and pathogen avirulence ligands, but potentially also by more fundamental gene expression and transcript processing limitations. PMID:15305606

  11. Identification of the minimum pharmacophore of lipid-phosphatidylserine (PS) binding peptide-peptoid hybrid PPS1D1.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jaspal; Shukla, Satya Prakash; Desai, Tanvi J; Udugamasooriya, D Gomika

    2016-09-15

    We previously reported a unique peptide-peptoid hybrid, PPS1 that specifically recognizes lipid-phosphatidylserine (PS) and a few other negatively charged phospholipids, but not neutral phospholipids, on the cell membrane. The dimeric version of PPS1, i.e., PPS1D1 triggers strong cancer cell cytotoxicity and has been validated in lung cancer models both in vitro and in vivo. Given that PS and other negatively charged phospholipids are abundant in almost all tumor microenvironments, PPS1D1 is an attractive drug lead that can be developed into a globally applicable anti-cancer agent. Therefore, it is extremely important to identify the minimum pharmacophore of PPS1D1. In this study, we have synthesized alanine/sarcosine derivatives as well as truncated derivatives of PPS1D1. We performed ELISA-like competitive binding assay to evaluate the PS-recognition potential and standard MTS cell viability assay on HCC4017 lung cancer cells to validate the cell cytotoxicity effects of these derivatives. Our studies indicate that positively charged residues at the second and third positions, as well as four hydrophobic residues at the fifth through eighth positions, are imperative for the binding and activity of PPS1D1. Methionine at the first position was not essential, whereas the positively charged Nlys at the fourth position was minimally needed, as two derivatives that were synthesized replacing this residue were almost as active as PPS1D1. PMID:27485601

  12. Light-directing chiral liquid crystal nanostructures: from 1D to 3D.

    PubMed

    Bisoyi, Hari Krishna; Li, Quan

    2014-10-21

    Endowing external, remote, and dynamic control to self-organized superstructures with desired functionalities is a principal driving force in the bottom-up nanofabrication of molecular devices. Light-driven chiral molecular switches or motors in liquid crystal (LC) media capable of self-organizing into optically tunable one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) superstructures represent such an elegant system. As a consequence, photoresponsive cholesteric LCs (CLCs), i.e., self-organized 1D helical superstructures, and LC blue phases (BPs), i.e., self-organized 3D periodic cubic lattices, are emerging as a new generation of multifunctional supramolecular 1D and 3D photonic materials in their own right because of their fundamental academic interest and technological significance. These smart stimuli-responsive materials can be facilely fabricated from achiral LC hosts by the addition of a small amount of a light-driven chiral molecular switch or motor. The photoresponsiveness of these materials is a result of both molecular interaction and geometry changes in the chiral molecular switch upon light irradiation. The doped photoresponsive CLCs undergo light-driven pitch modulation and/or helix inversion, which has many applications in color filters, polarizers, all-optical displays, optical lasers, sensors, energy-saving smart devices, and so on. Recently, we have conceptualized and rationally synthesized different light-driven chiral molecular switches that have very high helical twisting powers (HTPs) and exhibit large changes in HTP in different states, thereby enabling wide phototunability of the systems by the addition of very small amounts of the molecular switches into commercially available achiral LCs. The light-driven chiral molecular switches are based on well-recognized azobenzene, dithienylcyclopentene, and spirooxazine derivatives. We have demonstrated high-resolution and lightweight photoaddressable displays without patterned electronics on

  13. Efficient Self Consistent 3D/1D Analysis of ICRF Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiora, R.; Vecchi, G.; Lancellotti, V.; Kyrytsya, V.

    2003-12-01

    An innovative tool has been realized for the 3D/1D simulation of Ion Cyclotron Radio Frequency (ICRF), i.e. accounting for antennas in a realistic 3D geometry and with an accurate 1D plasma model. The approach to the problem is based on an integral-equation formulation for the self-consistent evaluation of the current distribution on the conductors. The environment has been subdivided in two coupled region: the plasma region and the vacuum region. The two problems are linked by means of a magnetic current (electric field) distribution on the aperture between the two regions. In the vacuum region all the calculations are executed in the spatial domain while in the plasma region an extraction in the spectral domain and an analytical evaluation of some integrals are employed that permit to significantly reduce the integration support and to obtain a high numerical efficiency leading to the practical possibility of using a large number of sub-domain basis functions on each solid conductor of the system. The plasma enters the formalism of the plasma region via a surface impedance matrix; for this reason any plasma model can be used; at present the FELICE code has been adopted, that affords density and temperature profiles, and FLR effects. The source term directly models the TEM mode of the coax feeding the antenna and the current in the coax is determined self-consistently, giving the input impedance/admittance of the antenna itself. Calculation of field distributions (both magnetic and electric), useful for sheath considerations, is included. This tool has been implemented in a suite, called TOPICA, that is modular and applicable to ICRF antenna structures of arbitrary shape. This new simulation tool can assist during the detailed design phase and for this reason can be considered a "Virtual Prototyping Laboratory" (VPL). The TOPICA suite has been tested against assessed codes and against measurements and data of mock-ups and existing antennas. The VPL is being used

  14. External fixator configurations in tibia fractures: 1D optimization and 3D analysis comparison.

    PubMed

    Roseiro, Luis M; Neto, M Augusta; Amaro, Ana; Leal, Rogerio P; Samarra, Miguel C

    2014-01-01

    The use of external fixation devices in orthopedic surgery is very common in open tibial fractures. A properly applied fixator may improve the healing process while one improperly applied might delay the healing process. The several external fixator systems used in clinical today, can be categorized into uniplanar-unilateral, uniplanar-bilateral, biplanar and multiplanar. The stability on the fracture focus and, therefore, the fracture healing process, is related with the type of external fixator configuration that is selected. The aim of this study is to discuss the principles for the successful application of unilateral-uniplanar external fixation, the assembly of its components, for the case of a transverse fractures using computational models. In this context, the fixation stiffness characteristics are evaluated using a simplified 1D finite element model for the tibia and external fixator. The beams are modeled with realistic cross-sectional geometry and material properties instead of a simplified model. The VABS (the Variational Asymptotic Beam Section analysis) methodology is used to compute the cross-sectional model for the generalized Timoshenko model, which was embedded in the finite element solver FEAP. The use of Timoshenko beam theory allows accounting for several kinds of loads, including torsion moments. Optimal design is performed with respect to the assembly of fixator components using a genetic algorithm. The optimization procedure is based on the evaluation of an objective function, which is dependent on the displacement at the fracture focus. The initial and optimal results are compared by performing a 3D analysis, for which different three-dimensional finite element models are created. The geometrical model of a tibia is created on the basis of data acquired by CAT scan, made for a healthy tibia of a 22 year old male. The 3D comparison of the 1D optimal results show a clear improvement on the objective function for the several load cases and

  15. Comparison of 1D and 2D modelling with soil erosion model SMODERP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavka, Petr; Weyskrabova, Lenka; Zajicek, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The contribution presents a comparison of a runoff simulated by profile method (1D) and spatially distributed method (2D). Simulation model SMODERP is used for calculation and prediction of soil erosion and surface runoff from agricultural land. SMODERP is physically based model that includes the processes of infiltration (Phillips equation), surface runoff (kinematic wave based equation), surface retention, surface roughness and vegetation impact on runoff. 1D model was developed in past, new 2D model was developed in last two years. The model is being developed at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, CTU in Prague. 2D model was developed as a tool for widespread GIS software ArcGIS. The physical relations were implemented through Python script. This script uses ArcGIS system tools for raster and vectors treatment of the inputs. Flow direction is calculated by Steepest Descent algorithm in the preliminary version of 2D model. More advanced multiple flow algorithm is planned in the next version. Spatially distributed models enable to estimate not only surface runoff but also flow in the rills. Surface runoff is described in the model by kinematic wave equation. Equation uses Manning roughness coefficient for surface runoff. Parameters for five different soil textures were calibrated on the set of forty measurements performed on the laboratory rainfall simulator. For modelling of the rills a specific sub model was created. This sub model uses Manning formula for flow estimation. Numerical stability of the model is solved by Courant criterion. Spatial scale is fixed. Time step is dynamically changed depending on how flow is generated and developed. SMODERP is meant to be used not only for the research purposes, but mainly for the engineering practice. We also present how the input data can be obtained based on available resources (soil maps and data, land use, terrain models, field research, etc.) and how can

  16. A common Greenlandic TBC1D4 variant confers muscle insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Moltke, Ida; Grarup, Niels; Jørgensen, Marit E; Bjerregaard, Peter; Treebak, Jonas T; Fumagalli, Matteo; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Andersen, Marianne A; Nielsen, Thomas S; Krarup, Nikolaj T; Gjesing, Anette P; Zierath, Juleen R; Linneberg, Allan; Wu, Xueli; Sun, Guangqing; Jin, Xin; Al-Aama, Jumana; Wang, Jun; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Pedersen, Oluf; Nielsen, Rasmus; Albrechtsen, Anders; Hansen, Torben

    2014-08-14

    The Greenlandic population, a small and historically isolated founder population comprising about 57,000 inhabitants, has experienced a dramatic increase in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence during the past 25 years. Motivated by this, we performed association mapping of T2D-related quantitative traits in up to 2,575 Greenlandic individuals without known diabetes. Using array-based genotyping and exome sequencing, we discovered a nonsense p.Arg684Ter variant (in which arginine is replaced by a termination codon) in the gene TBC1D4 with an allele frequency of 17%. Here we show that homozygous carriers of this variant have markedly higher concentrations of plasma glucose (β = 3.8 mmol l(-1), P = 2.5 × 10(-35)) and serum insulin (β = 165 pmol l(-1), P = 1.5 × 10(-20)) 2 hours after an oral glucose load compared with individuals with other genotypes (both non-carriers and heterozygous carriers). Furthermore, homozygous carriers have marginally lower concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (β = -0.18 mmol l(-1), P = 1.1 × 10(-6)) and fasting serum insulin (β = -8.3 pmol l(-1), P = 0.0014), and their T2D risk is markedly increased (odds ratio (OR) = 10.3, P = 1.6 × 10(-24)). Heterozygous carriers have a moderately higher plasma glucose concentration 2 hours after an oral glucose load than non-carriers (β = 0.43 mmol l(-1), P = 5.3 × 10(-5)). Analyses of skeletal muscle biopsies showed lower messenger RNA and protein levels of the long isoform of TBC1D4, and lower muscle protein levels of the glucose transporter GLUT4, with increasing number of p.Arg684Ter alleles. These findings are concomitant with a severely decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle, leading to postprandial hyperglycaemia, impaired glucose tolerance and T2D. The observed effect sizes are several times larger than any previous findings in large-scale genome-wide association studies of these traits and constitute further proof of the value of

  17. Cancer Reduces Transcriptome Specialization

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Octavio; Reyes-Valdés, M. Humberto; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2010-01-01

    A central goal of cancer biology is to understand how cells from this family of genetic diseases undergo specific morphological and physiological changes and regress to a de-regulated state of the cell cycle. The fact that tumors are unable to perform most of the specific functions of the original tissue led us to hypothesize that the degree of specialization of the transcriptome of cancerous tissues must be less than their normal counterparts. With the aid of information theory tools, we analyzed four datasets derived from transcriptomes of normal and tumor tissues to quantitatively test the hypothesis that cancer reduces transcriptome specialization. Here, we show that the transcriptional specialization of a tumor is significantly less than the corresponding normal tissue and comparable with the specialization of dedifferentiated embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the drop in specialization in cancerous tissues is largely due to a decrease in expression of genes that are highly specific to the normal organ. This approach gives us a better understanding of carcinogenesis and offers new tools for the identification of genes that are highly influential in cancer progression. PMID:20454660

  18. Assessing the habitability of planets with Earth-like atmospheres with 1D and 3D climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godolt, M.; Grenfell, J. L.; Kitzmann, D.; Kunze, M.; Langematz, U.; Patzer, A. B. C.; Rauer, H.; Stracke, B.

    2016-07-01

    Context. The habitable zone (HZ) describes the range of orbital distances around a star where the existence of liquid water on the surface of an Earth-like planet is in principle possible. The applicability of one-dimensional (1D) climate models for the estimation of the HZ boundaries has been questioned by recent three-dimensional (3D) climate studies. While 3D studies can calculate the water vapor, ice albedo, and cloud feedback self-consistently and therefore allow for a deeper understanding and the identification of relevant climate processes, 1D model studies rely on fewer model assumptions and can be more easily applied to the large parameter space possible for extrasolar planets. Aims: We evaluate the applicability of 1D climate models to estimate the potential habitability of Earth-like extrasolar planets by comparing our 1D model results to those of 3D climate studies in the literature. We vary the two important planetary properties, surface albedo and relative humidity, in the 1D model. These depend on climate feedbacks that are not treated self-consistently in most 1D models. Methods: We applied a cloud-free 1D radiative-convective climate model to calculate the climate of Earth-like planets around different types of main-sequence stars with varying surface albedo and relative humidity profile. We compared the results to those of 3D model calculations available in the literature and investigated to what extent the 1D model can approximate the surface temperatures calculated by the 3D models. Results: The 1D parameter study results in a large range of climates possible for an Earth-sized planet with an Earth-like atmosphere and water reservoir at a certain stellar insolation. At some stellar insolations the full spectrum of climate states could be realized, i.e., uninhabitable conditions due to surface temperatures that are too high or too low as well as habitable surface conditions, depending only on the relative humidity and surface albedo assumed. When

  19. Self-assembling morphologies in a 1D model of two-inclusion-containing lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ling; Cheng, Mingfei; Fang, Jinghuai; Peng, Ju

    2016-08-01

    The self-assembling morphologies in a 1D model of two-inclusion-containing lipid membranes are investigated by using self-consistent field theory. It is found that the shape and overall volume fraction of lipids, the hydrophobic strength and the distance of inclusions play important roles in the morphology of lipid membrane. The membrane consisting of cylindrical lipids with a symmetrical head and tail only forms the well-known normal morphology. However, for the membrane consisting of cone-like lipids with a relatively big head, the increase of the hydrophobic strength of inclusions can realize the membrane transition from the normal morphology to the pore morphologies. With increasing distance between two inclusions, two pores, three pores and four pores appear in turn. Conversely, the increase of the overall volume fraction of lipids can make the membrane undergo a reentrant transition from pore morphologies to normal morphologies. The results may be helpful in our understanding of the pore-forming mechanism.

  20. Analysis of the electric currents in 1D premixed flames under applied voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jie; Belhi, Memdouh; Bisetti, Fabrizio; Casey, Tiernan; Im, Hong G.; Chen, Jyh-Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Studying electric currents in flames has practical aspects such as the determination of the ionic structure of a flame, the analysis of the flame behavior under an electric field and the use of flame electric properties for combustion diagnostics. This study proposes a simplified model to compute the electric currents in lean-to-stoichiometric 1D premixed flames under applied voltages. The Navier-Stokes equations coupled with transport equations for neutral and charged species along with a Poisson equation for the electric potential are solved. The model reproduces qualitatively the voltage-current characteristic found experimentally. The sensitivity of the electric currents to the applied voltage, equivalence ratio, and pressure is studied and the key parameters affecting the saturation current are determined. Results show that the saturation current is controlled by the amount of charged species created by the chemi-ionization reaction. We found that the recombination rate of electrons with cations and transport coefficients of charged species are the most important parameters affecting the voltage at witch saturation occurs. Analytical formulas for the voltage-current characteristic and the potential of saturation are developed and used to explain the obtained results.

  1. Efficient 3D/1D self-consistent integral-equation analysis of ICRH antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiora, R.; Vecchi, G.; Lancellotti, V.; Kyrytsya, V.

    2004-08-01

    This work presents a comprehensive account of the theory and implementation of a method for the self-consistent numerical analysis of plasma-facing ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antenna arrays. The method is based on the integral-equation formulation of the boundary-value problem, solved via a weighted-residual scheme. The antenna geometry (including Faraday shield bars and a recess box) is fairly general and three-dimensional (3D), and the plasma is in the one-dimensional (1D) 'slab' approximation; finite-Larmor radius effects, as well as plasma density and temperature gradients, are considered. Feeding via the voltages in the access coaxial lines is self-consistently accounted throughout and the impedance or scattering matrix of the antenna array obtained therefrom. The problem is formulated in both the dual space (physical) and spectral (wavenumber) domains, which allows the extraction and simple handling of the terms that slow the convergence in the spectral domain usually employed. This paper includes validation tests of the developed code against measured data, both in vacuo and in the presence of plasma. An example of application to a complex geometry is also given.

  2. Giant enhancement of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in ultrathin manganite films via nanoscale 1D periodic depth modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajapitamahuni, Anil; Zhang, Le; Singh, Vijay; Burton, John; Koten, Mak; Shield, Jeffrey; Tsymbal, Evgeny; Hong, Xia

    We report a unusual giant enhancement of in-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) in ultrathin colossal magnetoresistive oxide films due to 1D nanoscale periodic depth modulation. High quality epitaxial thin films of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) of thickness 6 nm were grown on (001) SrTiO3 substrates via off-axis radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The top 2 nm of LSMO films are patterned into periodic nano-stripes using e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. The resulting structure consists of nano-stripes of 2 nm height and 100-200 nm width on top of a 4 nm thick continuous base layer. We employed planar Hall effect measurements to study the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the unpatterned and nanopatterned films. The unpatterned films show a biaxial anisotropy with easy axis along [110]. The extracted anisotropy energy density is ~1.1 x 105 erg/cm3, comparable to previously reported values. In the nanopatterned films, a strong uniaxial anisotropy is developed along one of the biaxial easy axes. The corresponding anisotropy energy density is ~5.6 x 106 erg/cm3 within the nano-striped volume, comparable to that of Co. We attribute the observed uniaxial MCA to MnO6 octahedral rotations/tilts and the enhancement in the anisotropy energy density to the strain gradient within the nano-stripes.

  3. Cake porosity analysis using 1D-3D fractal dimensions in coagulation-microfiltration of NOM.

    PubMed

    Raspati, G S; Leiknes, T O

    2015-01-01

    Fouling during coagulation-ceramic microfiltration of natural organic matter was investigated. Two process configurations (inline coagulation (IC) and tank coagulation (TC)) and two process conditions (types of coagulants-aluminum-based PAX and iron-based PIX-and G-values) were studied. The rate of irreversible fouling corresponding to the increase of initial transmembrane pressure after backwash of IC-PAX was lowest followed by TC-PAX and TC-PIX, while the performance of IC-PIX was found worst. The 1D and 2D fractal analysis revealed that flocs from IC were morphologically different from those of TC, leading to different filtration characteristics. The 3D fractal analysis revealed two groups of morphologically similar flocs: one led to successful filtration experiments, whereas the other led to unsuccessful ones. Cake porosity was found dependent on the floc morphology. Thus, such an approach was found complementary with fouling analysis by means of a membrane fouling model and minimization of fouling phenomenon was achieved by combining the two approaches. PMID:25768221

  4. A tiny gas-sensor system based on 1D photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzidi, A.; Bria, D.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2015-12-01

    We present a gas monitoring system for detecting the gas concentration in ambient air. This sensor is based on a 1D photonic crystal formed by alternating layers of magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and silicon (Si) with an empty layer in the middle. The lamellar cavity (defect layer) will be filled with polluted air that has a refractive index close to that of pure air, varying between n 0  =  1.00 to n 0  =  1.01. The transmission spectrum of this sensor is calculated by the Green function approach. The numerical results show that the transmission peak, which appears in the gap, is caused by the infiltration of impure air into the empty middle layer. This transmission peak can be used for detection purposes in real-time environmental monitoring. The peak frequency is sensitive to the air-gas mixture, and a variation in the refractive index as small as Δn  =  10-5 can be detected. A sensitivity, Δλ/Δn, of 700 nm per refractive index unit (RIU) is achieved with this sensor.

  5. Intra-chain superexchange couplings in quasi-1D 3d transition-metal magnetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hongping; Tang, Yingying; Zhang, Suyun; He, Zhangzhen

    2016-07-13

    The electronic structure and magnetic properties of the quasi-1D transition-metal borates PbMBO4 (M  =  Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co) have been investigated by density functional theory, including electronic correlation. The results evidence PbCrBO4 and PbFeBO4 as antiferromagnetic (AFM) semiconductors (intra-chain AFM and inter-chain FM) and PbMnBO4 as a ferromagnetic (FM) semiconductor (both intra- and inter-chain FM) in accordance with experimental observations. For non-synthesized PbTiBO4, PbVBO4, and PbCoBO4, the ground-state magnetic structures are paramagnetic, FM, and paramagnetic, respectively. In this series of compounds, there are two kinds of superexchange couplings dominating their magnetic properties, i.e. the direction M-M delocalization superexchange and indirect M-O-M correlation superexchange. For PbMBO4 with M (3+) d  (n) , n  ⩽  3 (M  =  V and Cr), the main intra-chain spin coupling is the M-M t 2g-t 2g direct delocalization superexchange, while for PbMBO4 with M (3+) d  (n) , n  >  3 (M  =  Mn and Fe), the main intra-chain spin coupling is the near 90° M-O-M e g-p-e g indirect correlation superexchange. PMID:27213502

  6. Retroviral intasomes search for a target DNA by 1D diffusion which rarely results in integration

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Nathan D.; Lopez Jr, Miguel A.; Hanne, Jeungphill; Peake, Mitchell B.; Lee, Jong-Bong; Fishel, Richard; Yoder, Kristine E.

    2016-01-01

    Retroviruses must integrate their linear viral cDNA into the host genome for a productive infection. Integration is catalysed by the retrovirus-encoded integrase (IN), which forms a tetramer or octamer complex with the viral cDNA long terminal repeat (LTR) ends termed an intasome. IN removes two 3′-nucleotides from both LTR ends and catalyses strand transfer of the recessed 3′-hydroxyls into the target DNA separated by 4–6 bp. Host DNA repair restores the resulting 5′-Flap and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) gap. Here we have used multiple single molecule imaging tools to determine that the prototype foamy virus (PFV) retroviral intasome searches for an integration site by one-dimensional (1D) rotation-coupled diffusion along DNA. Once a target site is identified, the time between PFV strand transfer events is 470 ms. The majority of PFV intasome search events were non-productive. These observations identify new dynamic IN functions and suggest that target site-selection limits retroviral integration. PMID:27108531

  7. Propagation of excitation in long 1D chains: Transition from regular quantum dynamics to stochastic dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Benderskii, V. A.; Kats, E. I.

    2013-01-15

    The quantum dynamics problem for a 1D chain consisting of 2N + 1 sites (N Much-Greater-Than 1) with the interaction of nearest neighbors and an impurity site at the middle differing in energy and in coupling constant from the sites of the remaining chain is solved analytically. The initial excitation of the impurity is accompanied by the propagation of excitation over the chain sites and with the emergence of Loschmidt echo (partial restoration of the impurity site population) in the recurrence cycles with a period proportional to N. The echo consists of the main (most intense) component modulated by damped oscillations. The intensity of oscillations increases with increasing cycle number and matrix element C of the interaction of the impurity site n = 0 with sites n = {+-}1 (0 < C {<=} 1; for the remaining neighboring sites, the matrix element is equal to unity). Mixing of the components of echo from neighboring cycles induces a transition from the regular to stochastic evolution. In the regular evolution region, the wave packet propagates over the chain at a nearly constant group velocity, embracing a number of sites varying periodically with time. In the stochastic regime, the excitation is distributed over a number of sites close to 2N, with the populations varying irregularly with time. The model explains qualitatively the experimental data on ballistic propagation of the vibrational energy in linear chains of CH{sub 2} fragments and predicts the possibility of a nondissipative energy transfer between reaction centers associated with such chains.

  8. An enriched 1D finite element for the buckling analysis of sandwich beam-columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sad Saoud, Kahina; Le Grognec, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Sandwich constructions have been widely used during the last few decades in various practical applications, especially thanks to the attractive compromise between a lightweight and high mechanical properties. Nevertheless, despite the advances achieved to date, buckling still remains a major failure mode for sandwich materials which often fatally leads to collapse. Recently, one of the authors derived closed-form analytical solutions for the buckling analysis of sandwich beam-columns under compression or pure bending. These solutions are based on a specific hybrid formulation where the faces are represented by Euler-Bernoulli beams and the core layer is described as a 2D continuous medium. When considering more complex loadings or non-trivial boundary conditions, closed-form solutions are no more available and one must resort to numerical models. Instead of using a 2D computationally expensive model, the present paper aims at developing an original enriched beam finite element. It is based on the previous analytical formulation, insofar as the skin layers are modeled by Timoshenko beams whereas the displacement fields in the core layer are described by means of hyperbolic functions, in accordance with the modal displacement fields obtained analytically. By using this 1D finite element, linearized buckling analyses are performed for various loading cases, whose results are confronted to either analytical or numerical reference solutions, for validation purposes.

  9. The optimization of high resolution topographic data for 1D hydrodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ales, Ronovsky; Michal, Podhoranyi

    2016-06-01

    The main focus of our research presented in this paper is to optimize and use high resolution topographical data (HRTD) for hydrological modelling. Optimization of HRTD is done by generating adaptive mesh by measuring distance of coarse mesh and the surface of the dataset and adapting the mesh from the perspective of keeping the geometry as close to initial resolution as possible. Technique described in this paper enables computation of very accurate 1-D hydrodynamic models. In the paper, we use HEC-RAS software as a solver. For comparison, we have chosen the amount of generated cells/grid elements (in whole discretization domain and selected cross sections) with respect to preservation of the accuracy of the computational domain. Generation of the mesh for hydrodynamic modelling is strongly reliant on domain size and domain resolution. Topographical dataset used in this paper was created using LiDAR method and it captures 5.9km long section of a catchment of the river Olše. We studied crucial changes in topography for generated mesh. Assessment was done by commonly used statistical and visualization methods.

  10. Monitoring heat-induced changes in soft tissues with 1D transient elastography.

    PubMed

    Benech, Nicolás; Negreira, Carlos A

    2010-03-21

    In this paper 1D transient elastography was employed in fresh bovine skeletal muscle samples to assess the shear elastic modulus mu while the tissue was locally heated by means of an electrical resistance. The investigation is based on the study of the time shift of the shear wave propagation produced by the local temperature variation. The experiments show that the thermal expansion contribution to the time shift is negligible when compared with the shear wave speed variation. In such a case, the quantification of mu as a function of temperature becomes possible. Repeated experiments in different samples lead to a reproducible behavior of mu as a function of temperature. Irreversible elasticity changes are produced when the temperature exceeds a certain critical value T(c). The proposed method allows estimating this value as well as the spatial extension of the resulting thermal lesion. This point is important when considering applications in monitoring focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) because the surrounding normal tissue should remain unaffected. PMID:20197604

  11. Subpixelic measurement of large 1D displacements: principle, processing algorithms, performances and software.

    PubMed

    Guelpa, Valérian; Laurent, Guillaume J; Sandoz, Patrick; Zea, July Galeano; Clévy, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a visual measurement method able to sense 1D rigid body displacements with very high resolutions, large ranges and high processing rates. Sub-pixelic resolution is obtained thanks to a structured pattern placed on the target. The pattern is made of twin periodic grids with slightly different periods. The periodic frames are suited for Fourier-like phase calculations-leading to high resolution-while the period difference allows the removal of phase ambiguity and thus a high range-to-resolution ratio. The paper presents the measurement principle as well as the processing algorithms (source files are provided as supplementary materials). The theoretical and experimental performances are also discussed. The processing time is around 3 µs for a line of 780 pixels, which means that the measurement rate is mostly limited by the image acquisition frame rate. A 3-σ repeatability of 5 nm is experimentally demonstrated which has to be compared with the 168 µm measurement range. PMID:24625736

  12. Coupled Oscillations in a 1D Emulsion of Belousov-Zhabotinsky Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraden, Seth; Delgado, Jorge; Li, Ning; Leda, Marcin; Gonzalez-Ochoa, Hector; Epstein, Irving

    2011-03-01

    We experimentally and computationally study the dynamics of interacting oscillating Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) droplets of ~ 120 μ m diameter separated by perfluorinated oil and arranged in a one-dimensional array (1D). The coupling between BZ droplets is dominated by inhibition and is strongest at low concentrations of malonic acid (MA) and small droplet separations. A microfluidic chip is used for mixing the BZ reactants, forming monodisperse droplets by flow-focusing and directing them into a hydrophobized 100 μ m diameter capillary. For samples composed of many drops and in the absence of well defined initial conditions, the anti-phase attractor, in which adjacent droplets oscillate 180 r out of phase, is observed for strong coupling. When the coupling strength is reduced the initial transients in the phase difference between neighboring droplets persist until the BZ reactants are exhausted. In order to make quantitative comparison with theory, we use photosensitive Ru(bipy)3 2 + -catalyzed BZ droplets and set both boundary and initial conditions of arrays of small numbers of oscillating BZ droplets with a programmable illumination source. In these small collections of droplets, transient patterns decay rapidly and we observe several more complex attractors, including ones in which some adjacent droplets are in-phase. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (CHE-0615507 and MRSEC DMR-0820492).

  13. Specifications of ZnO growth for heterostructure solar cell and PC1D based simulations

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Babar; Ebong, Abasifreke

    2015-01-01

    This data article is related to our recently published article (Hussain et al., in press [1]) where we have proposed a new solar cell model based on n-ZnO as front layer and p-Si as rear region. The ZnO layer will act as an active n-layer as well as antireflection (AR) coating saving considerable processing cost. There are several reports presenting use of ZnO as window/antireflection coating in solar cells (Mansoor et al., 2015; Haq et al., 2014; Hussain et al., 2014; Matsui et al., 2014; Ding et al., 2014 [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]) but, here, we provide data specifically related to simultaneous use of ZnO as n-layer and AR coating. Apart from the information we already published, we provide additional data related to growth of ZnO (with and without Ga incorporation) layers using MOCVD. The data related to PC1D based simulation of internal and external quantum efficiencies with and without antireflection effects of ZnO as well as the effects of doping level in p-Si on current–voltage characteristics have been provided. PMID:26587557

  14. Low Temperature 1D-Ising-like Behaviour of Cobalt Niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsie, Timothy; Kinross, Alison; Dube, Paul; Pomaranski, David; Kycia, Jan; Luke, Graeme

    2013-03-01

    Cobalt niobate, CoNb2O6, is a material that exhibits 1D-Ising-like behaviour at low temperatures, based primarily on chains of spins of the Co2+ atoms. Specific heat and magnetic susceptibility measurements on cobalt niobate have found magnetic transitions at 1.9 K and 2.9 K, in agreement with previous work. Specifically, we have performed specific heat measurements in zero field down to 330 mK and have mapped some of the field dependence of the specific heat above 2 K. The low temperature specific heat measurements show an increasingly long relaxation time, implying that the spins become increasingly decoupled from the lattice with decreasing temperature. We have also been the first group to examine the magnetic properties of this material with muon spin rotation (μSR). This work found that the cobalt moments remain largely dynamic on the microsecond timescale for temperatures well below 1.9 K, indicating that the ground state of CoNb2O6 is more complex than previously thought.

  15. Disorder-induced phase transitions in a quasi 1-D Majorana wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Maria-Theresa; Brouwer, Piet W.; Adagideli, Inanc

    2015-03-01

    In a strictly 1D spinless p-wave superconductor, disorder is known to induce a phase transition between a topologically nontrivial phase and a trivial insulating phase when the mean free path l becomes of the order of the superconducting coherence length ξ. We show that, in constrast, a multichannel spinless p-wave superconductor goes through a series of phase transitions alternating between topologically trivial and nontrivial phases upon increasing the disorder strength. The number of phase transitions equals the channel number N and each phase transition is accompanied by a Dyson singularity in the density of states ν (ɛ) ~ɛ-1| lnɛ | - 3 . The observed behavior is the result of an effective chiral symmetry allowing us to analytically investigate the phase boundaries and the density of states. The latter displays a power-law singularity ν (ɛ) ~ɛ | α | - 1 for small energies ɛ away from the critical points. Using the concept of ``superuniversality,'' we relate the exponent α to the wire's transport properties at zero energy and, hence, to the mean free path and the superconducting coherence length.

  16. von Neumann Stability Analysis of Numerical Solution Schemes for 1D and 2D Euler Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konangi, Santosh; Palakurthi, Nikhil Kumar; Ghia, Urmila

    2014-11-01

    A von Neumann stability analysis is conducted for numerical schemes for the full system of coupled, density-based 1D and 2D Euler equations, closed by an isentropic equation of state. The governing equations are discretized on a staggered grid, which permits equivalence to finite-volume discretization. Presently, first-order accurate spatial and temporal finite-difference techniques are analyzed. The momentum convection term is treated as explicit, semi-implicit or implicit. Density upwind bias is included in the spatial operator of the continuity equation. By combining the discretization techniques, ten solution schemes are formulated. For each scheme, unstable and stable regimes are identified through the stability analysis, and the maximum allowable CFL number is predicted. The predictions are verified for selected schemes, using the Riemann problem at incompressible and compressible Mach numbers. Very good agreement is obtained between the analytically predicted and ``experimentally'' observed CFL values for all cases, thereby validating the analysis. The demonstrated analysis provides an accurate indication of stability conditions for the Euler equations, in contrast to the simplistic conditions arising from model equations, such as the wave equation.

  17. Retroviral intasomes search for a target DNA by 1D diffusion which rarely results in integration.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nathan D; Lopez, Miguel A; Hanne, Jeungphill; Peake, Mitchell B; Lee, Jong-Bong; Fishel, Richard; Yoder, Kristine E

    2016-01-01

    Retroviruses must integrate their linear viral cDNA into the host genome for a productive infection. Integration is catalysed by the retrovirus-encoded integrase (IN), which forms a tetramer or octamer complex with the viral cDNA long terminal repeat (LTR) ends termed an intasome. IN removes two 3'-nucleotides from both LTR ends and catalyses strand transfer of the recessed 3'-hydroxyls into the target DNA separated by 4-6 bp. Host DNA repair restores the resulting 5'-Flap and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) gap. Here we have used multiple single molecule imaging tools to determine that the prototype foamy virus (PFV) retroviral intasome searches for an integration site by one-dimensional (1D) rotation-coupled diffusion along DNA. Once a target site is identified, the time between PFV strand transfer events is 470 ms. The majority of PFV intasome search events were non-productive. These observations identify new dynamic IN functions and suggest that target site-selection limits retroviral integration. PMID:27108531

  18. Theoretical limits of the multistacked 1D and 2D microstructured inorganic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yengel, Emre; Karaagac, Hakan; VJ, Logeeswaran; Islam, M. Saif

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies in monocrystalline semiconductor solar cells are focused on mechanically stacking multiple cells from different materials to increase the power conversion efficiency. Although, the results show promising increase in the device performance, the cost remains as the main drawback. In this study, we calculated the theoretical limits of multistacked 1D and 2D microstructered inorganic monocrstalline solar cells. This system is studied for Si and Ge material pair. The results show promising improvements in the surface reflection due to enhanced light trapping caused by photon-microstructures interactions. The theoretical results are also supported with surface reflection and angular dependent power conversion efficiency measurements of 2D axial microwall solar cells. We address the challenge of cost reduction by proposing to use our recently reported mass-manufacturable fracture-transfer- printing method which enables the use of a monocrystalline substrate wafer for repeated fabrication of devices by consuming only few microns of materials in each layer of devices. We calculated thickness dependent power conversion efficiencies of multistacked Si/Ge microstructured solar cells and found the power conversion efficiency to saturate at 26% with a combined device thickness of 30 μm. Besides having benefits of fabricating low-cost, light weight, flexible, semi-transparent, and highly efficient devices, the proposed fabrication method is applicable for other III-V materials and compounds to further increase the power conversion efficiency above 35% range.

  19. Topological order in 1D super-lattice Bose-Hubbard models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, Michael; Grusdt, Fabian; Hoening, Michael

    2013-05-01

    After the discovery of topological insulators as a new state of matter and their consequent classification for free fermions, the question arises what kind of topological order can be supported by incompressible systems of interacting bosons. We consider a 1D super-lattice Hamiltonian with a non-trivial band structure (the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model) and show that its Mott-insulating (MI) states can be classified by a quantized many-body winding number. This quantization is protected by sub-lattice and time-reversal symmetries, and it allows the implementation of a quantized cyclic pumping process (Thouless pump) in a simple super-lattice Bose-Hubbard model (BHM). For extended BHMs we discuss a connection of such a pump with the fractional quantum Hall effect. Furthermore we show that the quantization of the winding number leads to localized, protected edge states at sharp interfaces between topologically distinct MI phases which can be experimentally realized using Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical superlattices. DMRG simulations show that these edge states manifest themself either in localized density maxima or localized density minima, which can easily be detected. Supported by research center OPTIMAS and graduate school MAINZ.

  20. Cardiac phase extraction in IVUS sequences using 1-D Gabor filters.

    PubMed

    Barajas, Joel; Caballero, Karla L; Rodriguez, Oriol; Radeva, Petia

    2007-01-01

    A main issue in the automatic analysis of Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) images is the presence of periodic changes provoked by heart motion during the cardiac cycle. Although the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal can be used to gate the sequence, few IVUS systems incorporate the ECG-gating option, and the synchronization between them implies several issues. In this paper, we present a fast and robust method to assign a phase in the cardiac cycle to each image in the sequence directly from in vivo clinical IVUS sequences. It is based on the assumption that the vessel wall is significantly brighter than the blood in each IVUS beam. To guarantee stability in this assumption, we use normalized reconstructed images. Then, the wall boundary is extracted for all the radial beams in the sequence and a matrix with these positions is formed. This matrix is filtered using a bank of 1-D Gabor filters centered at the predominant frequency of a given number of windows in the sequence. After filtering, we combine the responses to obtain a unique phase within the cardiac cycle for each image. For this study, we gate the sequence to make the sequence comparable with other ones of the same patient. The method is tested with 12 pullbacks of real patients and 15 synthetic tests. PMID:18001960

  1. HELIOS-CR A 1-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code with inline atomic kinetics modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E.; Woodruff, P. R.

    2006-05-01

    HELIOS-CR is a user-oriented 1D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code to simulate the dynamic evolution of laser-produced plasmas and z-pinch plasmas. It includes an in-line collisional-radiative (CR) model for computing non-LTE atomic level populations at each time step of the hydrodynamics simulation. HELIOS-CR has been designed for ease of use, and is well-suited for experimentalists, as well as graduate and undergraduate student researchers. The energy equations employed include models for laser energy deposition, radiation from external sources, and high-current discharges. Radiative transport can be calculated using either a multi-frequency flux-limited diffusion model, or a multi-frequency, multi-angle short characteristics model. HELIOS-CR supports the use of SESAME equation of state (EOS) tables, PROPACEOS EOS/multi-group opacity data tables, and non-LTE plasma properties computed using the inline CR modeling. Time-, space-, and frequency-dependent results from HELIOS-CR calculations are readily displayed with the HydroPLOT graphics tool. In addition, the results of HELIOS simulations can be post-processed using the SPECT3D Imaging and Spectral Analysis Suite to generate images and spectra that can be directly compared with experimental measurements. The HELIOS-CR package runs on Windows, Linux, and Mac OSX platforms, and includes online documentation. We will discuss the major features of HELIOS-CR, and present example results from simulations.

  2. Modelling hydrology of a single bioretention system with HYDRUS-1D.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yingying; Wang, Huixiao; Chen, Jiangang; Zhang, Shuhan

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out on the effectiveness of bioretention systems to abate stormwater using computer simulation. The hydrologic performance was simulated for two bioretention cells using HYDRUS-1D, and the simulation results were verified by field data of nearly four years. Using the validated model, the optimization of design parameters of rainfall return period, filter media depth and type, and surface area was discussed. And the annual hydrologic performance of bioretention systems was further analyzed under the optimized parameters. The study reveals that bioretention systems with underdrains and impervious boundaries do have some detention capability, while their total water retention capability is extremely limited. Better detention capability is noted for smaller rainfall events, deeper filter media, and design storms with a return period smaller than 2 years, and a cost-effective filter media depth is recommended in bioretention design. Better hydrologic effectiveness is achieved with a higher hydraulic conductivity and ratio of the bioretention surface area to the catchment area, and filter media whose conductivity is between the conductivity of loamy sand and sandy loam, and a surface area of 10% of the catchment area is recommended. In the long-term simulation, both infiltration volume and evapotranspiration are critical for the total rainfall treatment in bioretention systems. PMID:25133240

  3. Apoferritin fibers: a new template for 1D fluorescent hybrid nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Jurado, Rocío; Castello, Fabio; Bondia, Patricia; Casado, Santiago; Flors, Cristina; Cuesta, Rafael; Domínguez-Vera, José M; Orte, Angel; Gálvez, Natividad

    2016-05-01

    Recently, research in the field of protein amyloid fibers has gained great attention due to the use of these materials as nanoscale templates for the construction of functional hybrid materials. The formation of apoferritin amyloid-like protein fibers is demonstrated herein for the first time. The morphology, size and stiffness of these one-dimensional structures are comparable to the fibers formed by β-lactoglobulin, a protein frequently used as a model in the study of amyloid-like fibrillar proteins. Nanometer-sized globular apoferritin is capable of self-assembling to form 1D micrometer-sized structures after being subjected to a heating process. Depending on the experimental conditions, fibers with different morphologies and sizes are obtained. The wire-like protein structure is rich in functional groups and allows chemical functionalization with diverse quantum dots (QD), as well as with different Alexa Fluor (AF) dyes, leading to hybrid fluorescent fibers with variable emission wavelengths, from green to near infrared, depending on the QD and AFs coupled. For fibers containing the pair AF488 and AF647, efficient fluorescence energy transfer from the covalently coupled donor (AF488) to acceptor tags (AF647) takes place. Apoferritin fibers are proposed here as a new promising template for obtaining hybrid functional materials. PMID:27103107

  4. Modelling Hydrology of a Single Bioretention System with HYDRUS-1D

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yingying; Wang, Huixiao; Chen, Jiangang; Zhang, Shuhan

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out on the effectiveness of bioretention systems to abate stormwater using computer simulation. The hydrologic performance was simulated for two bioretention cells using HYDRUS-1D, and the simulation results were verified by field data of nearly four years. Using the validated model, the optimization of design parameters of rainfall return period, filter media depth and type, and surface area was discussed. And the annual hydrologic performance of bioretention systems was further analyzed under the optimized parameters. The study reveals that bioretention systems with underdrains and impervious boundaries do have some detention capability, while their total water retention capability is extremely limited. Better detention capability is noted for smaller rainfall events, deeper filter media, and design storms with a return period smaller than 2 years, and a cost-effective filter media depth is recommended in bioretention design. Better hydrologic effectiveness is achieved with a higher hydraulic conductivity and ratio of the bioretention surface area to the catchment area, and filter media whose conductivity is between the conductivity of loamy sand and sandy loam, and a surface area of 10% of the catchment area is recommended. In the long-term simulation, both infiltration volume and evapotranspiration are critical for the total rainfall treatment in bioretention systems. PMID:25133240

  5. Batch Conversion of 1-D FITS Spectra to Common Graphical Display Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacConnell, Darrell J.; Patterson, A. P.; Wing, R. F.; Costa, E.; Jedrzejewski, R. I.

    2008-09-01

    Authors DJM, RFW, and EC have accumulated about 1000 spectra of cool stars from CTIO, ESO, and LCO over the interval 1985 to 1994 and processed them with the standard IRAF tasks into FITS files of normalized intensity vs. wavelength. With the growth of the Web as a means of exchanging and preserving scientific information, we desired to put the spectra into a Web-readable format. We have searched without success sites such as the Goddard FITS Image Viewer page, http://fits.gsfc.nasa.gov/fits_viewer.html, for a program to convert a large number of 1-d stellar spectra from FITS format into common formats such as PDF, PS, or PNG. Author APP has written a Python script to do this using the PyFITS module and plotting routines from Pylab. The program determines the wavelength calibration using header keywords and creates PNG plots with a legend read from a CSV file that may contain the star name, position, spectral type, etc. It could readily be adapted to perform almost any kind of simple batch processing of astronomical data. The program may be obtained from the first author (jack@stsci.edu). Support for DJM from the research program for CSC astronomers at STScI is gratefully acknowledged. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  6. Microstructural evolution and dielectric properties of 1D AlN powders synthesized by microwave technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VasanthiPillay, V.; Vijayalakshmi, K.

    2012-06-01

    Low temperature synthesis of Aluminum nitride (AlN) powders through NH4Cl assisted nitridation have been studied by microwave technique. The effect of processing time on the synthesis of AlN powders has been investigated. The optimum processing time was determined to be 120 min at 630 W, 200 °C. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction method (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and Impedance analyzer. XRD results revealed that the product has wurtzite phase of AlN. SEM micrographs show a 1D nanorod of AlN with a granular morphology. FTIR spectra exhibit A1 (TO) and E1 (LO) modes of wurtzite AlN. Dielectric properties of the powders were investigated by means of C-V and C-f and ɛ'-f characteristics. The reported results indicate a reasonable quality of the obtained AlN powders with high dielectric constant, suitable for application in the fabrication of specific electronic devices.

  7. Investigating the Response of Greenland Outlet Glaciers to Perturbations Using a 1D Flowline Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrakopoulos, K.; Stearns, L. A.; van der Veen, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past two decades, the behavior of many Greenland tidewater outlet glaciers has been characterized by dramatic acceleration, thinning, and retreat. In some cases this behavior is followed by re-advance, thickening and deceleration. The mechanisms that control glacier stability are not fully understood, and hinder ice sheet mass balance projections. Many studies suggest that accelerations are caused exclusively by processes at the terminus, namely by mechanisms that result in increases in iceberg calving rates. In this study we investigate whether comparable accelerations can initiate at different places along the glacier trunk due to changes in subglacial processes or shear margin evolution. We begin our experiments using a prognostic depth integrated (1-D) flowline model applied to Helheim Glacier, and investigate its flow response to perturbations at the terminus and up-flow. Our work shows that large-scale accelerations could have initiated up-flow far from the terminus. The results of this study will contribute to the long-lasting debate about the role of terminus dynamics, and thus ocean conditions, in modulating ice sheet mass balance.

  8. Experimental method for laser-driven flyer plates for 1-D shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Paisley, D. L.; Luo, S. N.; Swift, D. C.; Loomis, E.; Johnson, R.; Greenfield, S.; Peralta, P.; Koskelo, A.; Tonks, D.

    2007-12-12

    One-dimensional shocks can be generated by impacting flyer plates accelerated to terminal velocities by a confined laser-ablated plasma. Over the past few years, we have developed this capability with our facility-size laser, TRIDENT, capable of {>=}500 Joules at multi-microsecond pulse lengths to accelerate 1-D flyer plates, 8-mm diameter by 0.1-2 mm thick. Plates have been accelerated to terminal velocities of 100 to {>=}500 m/s, with full recovery of the flyer and target for post mortem metallography. By properly tailoring the laser temporal and spatial profile, the expanding confined plasma accelerates the plate away from the transparent sapphire substrate, and decouples the laser parameters from shock pressure profile resulting from the plate impact on a target. Since the flyer plate is in free flight on impact with the target, minimal collateral damage occurs to either. The experimental method to launch these plates to terminal velocity, ancillary diagnostics, and representative experimental data is presented.

  9. Evidence that 5-HT1D receptors mediate inhibition of sympathetic ganglionic transmission in anaesthetized cats.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, J. F.; Martin, G. R.; Ramage, A. G.

    1995-01-01

    In anaesthetized cats, 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) (0.3-300 micrograms kg-1,i.v.) inhibited the postganglionic compound action potential evoked by preganglionic electrical stimulation (0.5 Hz) with a similar potency in the stellate and splanchnic ganglia. In the 5-HT experiments transmission thorough the inferior mesenteric ganglia was also recorded. The maximal inhibitory effect of 5-HT was greater on the stellate and splanchnic ganglia (60 +/- 4 and 52 +/- 5%) than on the inferior mesenteric (15 +/- 2%). The effects of 5-HT were unaffected by pretreatment with antagonists (1 mg kg-1;i.v.) for 5-HT2 (BW501C67), 5-HT1A (WAY-100635) and 5-HT3 receptors (ondansetron). However, responses to both 5-HT and 5-CT were attenuated significantly by GR127935 (1 mg kg-1) except the responses to 5-HT at the inferior mesenteric ganglia. These results are consistent with the involvement of 5-HT1D receptors mediating inhibition of sympathetic ganglionic transmission in vivo. PMID:8528548

  10. Spectral functions in the 1D and 2D Bose Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancic, Robert; Duchon, Eric; Trivedi, Nandini

    2014-03-01

    We use state of the art numerical techniques including quantum Monte Carlo and maximum entropy methods to obtain the low energy excitation spectra in the superfluid and Mott-insulator phases of the Bose Hubbard model. These results are checked in 1D against Bethe Ansatz and tDMRG results and extended to 2D where such approaches are impossible. In the superfluid, we find linearly dispersing Bogoliubov sound modes as well as additional gapped modes broadened by interaction effects. In the Mott insulator, we find evidence for a finite gap and well defined quasiparticle excitations. We examine properties such as the excitation lifetime, density of states, and speed of sound as the system is tuned across the quantum phase transition that separates the superfluid and Mott states. These results provide an important theoretical framework for upcoming ultracold atom experiments in one and two dimensions. We acknowledge support from the NSF DMR-0907275 (R.I., E.D. and N.T.).

  11. Intra-chain superexchange couplings in quasi-1D 3d transition-metal magnetic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Hongping; Tang, Yingying; Zhang, Suyun; He, Zhangzhen

    2016-07-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic properties of the quasi-1D transition-metal borates PbMBO4 (M  =  Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co) have been investigated by density functional theory, including electronic correlation. The results evidence PbCrBO4 and PbFeBO4 as antiferromagnetic (AFM) semiconductors (intra-chain AFM and inter-chain FM) and PbMnBO4 as a ferromagnetic (FM) semiconductor (both intra- and inter-chain FM) in accordance with experimental observations. For non-synthesized PbTiBO4, PbVBO4, and PbCoBO4, the ground-state magnetic structures are paramagnetic, FM, and paramagnetic, respectively. In this series of compounds, there are two kinds of superexchange couplings dominating their magnetic properties, i.e. the direction M–M delocalization superexchange and indirect M–O–M correlation superexchange. For PbMBO4 with M 3+ d  n , n  ⩽  3 (M  =  V and Cr), the main intra-chain spin coupling is the M–M t 2g–t 2g direct delocalization superexchange, while for PbMBO4 with M 3+ d  n , n  >  3 (M  =  Mn and Fe), the main intra-chain spin coupling is the near 90° M–O–M e g–p–e g indirect correlation superexchange.

  12. Sensitivity of groundwater recharge using climatic analogues and HYDRUS-1D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leterme, B.; Mallants, D.; Jacques, D.

    2012-08-01

    The sensitivity of groundwater recharge to different climate conditions was simulated using the approach of climatic analogue stations, i.e. stations presently experiencing climatic conditions corresponding to a possible future climate state. The study was conducted in the context of a safety assessment of a future near-surface disposal facility for low and intermediate level short-lived radioactive waste in Belgium; this includes estimation of groundwater recharge for the next millennia. Groundwater recharge was simulated using the Richards based soil water balance model HYDRUS-1D and meteorological time series from analogue stations. This study used four analogue stations for a warmer subtropical climate with changes of average annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration from -42% to +5% and from +8% to +82%, respectively, compared to the present-day climate. Resulting water balance calculations yielded a change in groundwater recharge ranging from a decrease of 72% to an increase of 3% for the four different analogue stations. The Gijon analogue station (Northern Spain), considered as the most representative for the near future climate state in the study area, shows an increase of 3% of groundwater recharge for a 5% increase of annual precipitation. Calculations for a colder (tundra) climate showed a change in groundwater recharge ranging from a decrease of 97% to an increase of 32% for four different analogue stations, with an annual precipitation change from -69% to -14% compared to the present-day climate.

  13. Application of HYDRUS 1D model for assessment of phenol-soil adsorption dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pal, Supriya; Mukherjee, Somnath; Ghosh, Sudipta

    2014-04-01

    Laboratory-scale batch, vertical, and horizontal column experiments were conducted to investigate the attenuative capacity of a fine-grained clayey soil of local origin in the surrounding of a steel plant wastewater discharge site in West Bengal, India, for removal of phenol. Linear, Langmuir, and Freundlich isotherm plots from batch experimental data revealed that Freundlich isotherm model was reasonably fitted (R (2) = 0.94). The breakthrough column experiments were also carried out with different soil bed heights (5, 10, and 15 cm) under uniform flow to study the hydraulic movements of phenol by evaluating time concentration flow behavior using bromide as a tracer. The horizontal migration test was also conducted in the laboratory using adsorptive phenol and nonreactive bromide tracer to explore the movement of solute in a horizontal distance. The hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients (D) in the vertical and horizontal directions in the soil were estimated using nonlinear least-square parameter optimization method in CXTFIT model. In addition, the equilibrium convection dispersion model in HYDRUS 1D was also examined to simulate the fate and transport of phenol in vertical and horizontal directions using Freundlich isotherm constants and estimated hydrodynamic parameters as input in the model. The model efficacy and validation were examined through statistical parameters such as the coefficient of determination (R (2)), root mean square error and design of index (d). PMID:24407784

  14. Separation of scattering and absorption in 1-D random media. 2: Numerical experiments on stationary problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, R.S.; Xie, X.B.

    1994-12-31

    The theory of spatial distribution of seismic energy density in one dimensional (1D) random media derived in part 1 (Wu, 1993) is tested by numerical experiments using a full wave propagation matrix method. The geometry of numerical experiment mimics the configuration of zero-offset VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) along a borehole. A procedure of octave-band frequency averaging is applied to the measured data to reduce fluctuation of spatial energy distribution, so that stable estimations of medium parameters can be achieved without resorting to ensemble averaging. Results from Monte-Carlo numerical experiments for both infinite random media and finite random slabs with or without bottom reflections show good agreement for dark-to-gray (weak to intermediate scattering compared with absorption) media. When scattering is very strong (when backscattering-absorption ratio S{sub b} > 3), results from single realization fluctuate substantially. However, most the practical situations of sedimentary rocks in the crust fall into the validity region of the energy transfer theory.

  15. 1D-Simulation of Thermonuclear Target Compression and Burning for Laser Facility NIF and LMJ

    SciTech Connect

    Valiev, R. Zh.; Chizhkov, M. N.; Karlyhanov, N. G.; Lusganova, O. V.; Lykov, V. A.; Netsvetayev, D. S.; Timakova, M. S.

    2006-08-03

    The high-power laser facilities NIF and LMJ with the pulse energy as high as 2 MJ are being created in the USA and France. The basic cryogenic indirect-drive targets for thermonuclear ignition on these facilities are a spherical shell from polystyrene doped with oxygen and bromine. (CH+5%O+0,25%Br), whose inner surface is covered with DT-ice layer. The central region of targets is filled with DT-gas. The targets for NIF and LMJ have different external radii (1,11 and 1,215 mm, correspondingly), masses of DT-fuel (210 icy 310 {mu}g), X-ray radiation temperature dependences in time. The thermonuclear yield from the NIF target calculated with LASNEX code is 15 MJ, the yield from the LMJ target calculated with FCI1 code is 25.4 MJ. In RFNC-VNIITF calculations of compression and burning of basic NIF and LMJ targets were performed by using of the 1D ERA code in the spectral diffusion approximation for radiation transfer. We used tabulated opacity calculated by the mean ion model. Thermonuclear yield calculated with ERA code is about 18 MJ for the NIF target and nearly 23 MJ for the LMJ target. Calculated yields are in good agreement with published results. Performed calculations justified the possibility to simulate ICF targets in RFNC-VNIITF. In paper are also presented analysis results of target sensitivity to opacity and X-ray temperature variations.

  16. Label-free optical detection of bacteria on a 1-D photonic crystal of porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chia-Chen; Alvarez, Sara D.; Rang, Camilla U.; Chao, Lin; Sailor, Michael J.

    2009-02-01

    The construction of a specific, label-free, bacteria biosensor using porous silicon 1-D photonic crystals will be described. Bacteria resident on the surface of porous silicon act as scattering centers for light resonant with the photonic crystal; the diffusely scattered light possesses the optical spectrum of the underlying photonic crystal. Using a spectrometer fitted to a light microscope, the bacteria are imaged without using exogenous dyes or labels and are quantified by measuring the intensity of scattered light. In order to selectively bind and identify bacteria using porous Si, we use surface modifications to reduce nonspecific binding to the surface and to engineer bacteria specificity onto the surface. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was adsorbed to the porous Si surface to reduce nonspecific binding of bacteria. The coatings were then chemically activated to immobilize polyclonal antibodies specific to Escherichia coli. Two E. coli strains were used in our study, E. coli DH5α and non-pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strain. The nonpathogenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strain was used to test for antibody specificity. Successful attachment of antibodies was measured using fluorescence microscopy and the scattering method was used to test for bacteria binding specificity.

  17. 75 FR 57859 - Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ..., 2009, (74 FR 67145), VA proposed to amend its regulations pertaining to eligibility for specially... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN21 Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation AGENCY... housing and special home adaptation grants. This final rule incorporates certain provisions from...

  18. Special Issue: "Functional Dendrimers".

    PubMed

    Tomalia, Donald A

    2016-01-01

    This special issue entitled "Functional Dendrimers" focuses on the manipulation of at least six "critical nanoscale design parameters" (CNDPs) of dendrimers including: size, shape, surface chemistry, flexibility/rigidity, architecture and elemental composition. These CNDPs collectively define properties of all "functional dendrimers". This special issue contains many interesting examples describing the manipulation of certain dendrimer CNDPs to create new emerging properties and, in some cases, predictive nanoperiodic property patterns (i.e., dendritic effects). The systematic engineering of CNDPs provides a valuable strategy for optimizing functional dendrimer properties for use in specific applications. PMID:27517890

  19. Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

  20. TCTEX1D4, a novel protein phosphatase 1 interactor: connecting the phosphatase to the microtubule network

    PubMed Central

    Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Vieira, Sandra I.; Esteves, Sara L. C.; Silva, Joana V.; Freitas, Maria João; Brauns, Ann-Kristin; Luers, Georg; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A. B.; Fardilha, Margarida; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Reversible phosphorylation plays an important role as a mechanism of intracellular control in eukaryotes. PPP1, a major eukaryotic Ser/Thr-protein phosphatase, acquires its specificity by interacting with different protein regulators, also known as PPP1 interacting proteins (PIPs). In the present work we characterized a physiologically relevant PIP in testis. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen with a human testis cDNA library, we identified a novel PIP of PPP1CC2 isoform, the T-complex testis expressed protein 1 domain containing 4 (TCTEX1D4) that has recently been described as a Tctex1 dynein light chain family member. The overlay assays confirm that TCTEX1D4 interacts with the different spliced isoforms of PPP1CC. Also, the binding domain occurs in the N-terminus, where a consensus PPP1 binding motif (PPP1BM) RVSF is present. The distribution of TCTEX1D4 in testis suggests its involvement in distinct functions, such as TGFβ signaling at the blood–testis barrier and acrosome cap formation. Immunofluorescence in human ejaculated sperm shows that TCTEX1D4 is present in the flagellum and in the acrosome region of the head. Moreover, TCTEX1D4 and PPP1 co-localize in the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) and microtubules in cell cultures. Importantly, the TCTEX1D4 PPP1BM seems to be relevant for complex formation, for PPP1 retention in the MTOC and movement along microtubules. These novel results open new avenues to possible roles of this dynein, together with PPP1. In essence TCTEX1D4/PPP1C complex appears to be involved in microtubule dynamics, sperm motility, acrosome reaction and in the regulation of the blood–testis barrier. PMID:23789093