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Sample records for 1d optical lattice

  1. Long distance transport of ultracold atoms using a 1D optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Stefan; Thalhammer, Gregor; Winkler, Klaus; Lang, Florian; Hecker Denschlag, Johannes

    2006-08-01

    We study the horizontal transport of ultracold atoms over macroscopic distances of up to 20 cm with a moving 1D optical lattice. By using an optical Bessel beam to form the optical lattice, we can achieve nearly homogeneous trapping conditions over the full transport length, which is crucial in order to hold the atoms against gravity for such a wide range. Fast transport velocities of up to 6 m s-1 (corresponding to about 1100 photon recoils) and accelerations of up to 2600 m s-2 are reached. Even at high velocities the momentum of the atoms is precisely defined with an uncertainty of less than one photon recoil. This allows for construction of an atom catapult with high kinetic energy resolution, which might have applications in novel collision experiments.

  2. Nearest-neighbor detection of atoms in a 1D optical lattice by fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Karski, M; Förster, L; Choi, J M; Alt, W; Widera, A; Meschede, D

    2009-02-06

    We overcome the diffraction limit in fluorescence imaging of neutral atoms in a sparsely filled one-dimensional optical lattice. At a periodicity of 433 nm, we reliably infer the separation of two atoms down to nearest neighbors. We observe light induced losses of atoms occupying the same lattice site, while for atoms in adjacent lattice sites, no losses due to light induced interactions occur. Our method points towards characterization of correlated quantum states in optical lattice systems with filling factors of up to one atom per lattice site.

  3. A technique for individual atom delivery into a crossed vortex bottle beam trap using a dynamic 1D optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Brad A.; Anderson, Dana Z.

    2016-12-01

    We describe a system for loading a single atom from a reservoir into a blue-detuned crossed vortex bottle beam trap using a dynamic 1D optical lattice. The lattice beams are frequency chirped using acousto-optic modulators, which causes the lattice to move along its axial direction and behave like an optical conveyor belt. A stationary lattice is initially loaded with approximately 6000 atoms from a reservoir, and the conveyor belt transports them 1.1 mm from the reservoir to a bottle beam trap, where a single atom is loaded via light-assisted collisions. Photon counting data confirm that an atom can be delivered and loaded into the bottle beam trap 13.1% of the time.

  4. Phase diagram of 1D spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chunlei; Gong, Ming; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2013-03-01

    We consider a one dimensional spin-orbit coupled Fermi gas in optical lattices with open boundary condition. This system belongs to the BDI symmetry class because the Hamiltonian can be made real when the Zeeman field is assumed to be along the z direction, thus the topological superfluid is characterized by Z, instead of Z2 class. In the optical lattice system, each site admits at most two fermions. The system can host plenty of phases depending on the filling factor and the Zeeman field. At finite Zeeman field we observe a strong competition between the topological superfluid phase and the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase. The latter phase is more likely to be observed near the half filling. The spin-orbit coupling plays the role of enhancing the topological superfluid phase and suppressing the FFLO phase, which the Hartree shift plays an utterly opposite role. The possible observation of topological phase is also discussed in the presence of a harmonic trap. This work is supported by ARO, AFOSR, and NSF

  5. Helical Floquet Channels in 1D Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budich, Jan Carl; Hu, Ying; Zoller, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We show how dispersionless channels exhibiting perfect spin-momentum locking can arise in a 1D lattice model. While such spectra are forbidden by fermion doubling in static 1D systems, here we demonstrate their appearance in the stroboscopic dynamics of a periodically driven system. Remarkably, this phenomenon does not rely on any adiabatic assumptions, in contrast to the well known Thouless pump and related models of adiabatic spin pumps. The proposed setup is shown to be experimentally feasible with state-of-the-art techniques used to control ultracold alkaline earth atoms in optical lattices.

  6. Scratched-XY Universality and Phase Diagram of Disordered 1D Bosons in Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris

    The superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition in a 1D system with weak links belongs to the so-called scratched-XY universality class, provided the irrenormalizable exponent ζ characterizing the distribution of weak links is smaller than 2 / 3 . With a combination of worm-algorithm Monte Carlo simulations and asymptotically exact analytics, we accurately trace the position of the scratched-XY critical line on the ground-state phase diagram of bosonic Hubbard model at unity filling. In particular, we reveal the location of the tricritical point separating the scratched-XY criticality from the Giamarchi-Schulz one.

  7. Detecting π-phase superfluids with p-wave symmetry in a quasi-1D optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Hulet, Randall G.; Liu, W. Vincent

    2016-05-01

    We propose an experimental protocol to create a p-wave superfluid in a spin-polarized cold Fermi gas tuned by an s-wave Feshbach resonance. A crucial ingredient is to add an anisotropic 3D optical lattice and tune the fillings of two spins to the s and p band, respectively. The pairing order parameter is confirmed to inherit p-wave symmetry in its center-of-mass motion. We find that it can further develop into a state of unexpected π-phase modulation in a broad parameter regime. Experimental signatures are predicted in the momentum distributions, density of states and spatial densities for a realistic experimental setup. The π-phase p-wave superfluid is reminiscent of the π-state in superconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures but differs in symmetry and physical origin. The spatially-varying phases of the superfluid gap provide a novel approach to synthetic magnetic fields for neutral atoms. It would represent another example of p-wave pairing, first discovered in He-3 liquids. Work supported in part by U.S. ARO, AFOSR, NSF, ONR, Charles E. Kaufman Foundation, and The Pittsburgh Foundation, LPS-MPO-CMTC, JQI-NSF-PFC, ARO-Atomtronics-MURI, the Welch Foundation, ARO-MURI and NSF of China.

  8. Effect of the band structure in a rigorous two-body model with long-range interactions in 1D optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Tom; Simoni, Andrea; Launay, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-01

    We compute scattering and bound state properties for two ultracold molecules in a pure 1D optical lattice. We introduce reference functions with complex quasi-momentum that naturally account for the effect of excited energy bands. Our exact results for a short-range interaction are first compared with the simplest version of the standard Bose-Hubbard (BH) model. Such comparison allows us to highlight the effect of the excited bands, of the non-on-site interaction and of tunneling with distant neighbor, that are not taken into account in the BH model. The effective interaction can depend strongly on the particle quasi-momenta and can present a resonant behavior even in a deep lattice. As a second step, we study scattering of two polar particles in the optical lattice. Peculiar Wigner threshold laws stem from the interplay of the long range dipolar interaction and the presence of the energy bands. We finally assess the validity of an extended Bose-Hubbard model for dipolar gases based on our exact two-body calculations. This work was supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Contract No. ANR-12-BS04-0020-01).

  9. Transport of a Bose gas in 1D disordered lattices at the fluid-insulator transition.

    PubMed

    Tanzi, Luca; Lucioni, Eleonora; Chaudhuri, Saptarishi; Gori, Lorenzo; Kumar, Avinash; D'Errico, Chiara; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni

    2013-09-13

    We investigate the momentum-dependent transport of 1D quasicondensates in quasiperiodic optical lattices. We observe a sharp crossover from a weakly dissipative regime to a strongly unstable one at a disorder-dependent critical momentum. In the limit of nondisordered lattices the observations suggest a contribution of quantum phase slips to the dissipation. We identify a set of critical disorder and interaction strengths for which such critical momentum vanishes, separating a fluid regime from an insulating one. We relate our observation to the predicted zero-temperature superfluid-Bose glass transition.

  10. Optical Lattice Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oates, Chris

    2012-06-01

    Since they were first proposed in 2003 [1], optical lattice clocks have become one of the leading technologies for the next generation of atomic clocks, which will be used for advanced timing applications and in tests of fundamental physics [2]. These clocks are based on stabilized lasers whose frequency is ultimately referenced to an ultra-narrow neutral atom transition (natural linewidths << 1 Hz). To suppress the effects of atomic motion/recoil, the atoms in the sample (˜10^4 atoms) are confined tightly in the potential wells of an optical standing wave (lattice). The wavelength of the lattice light is tuned to its ``magic'' value so as to yield a vanishing net AC Stark shift for the clock transition. As a result lattice clocks have demonstrated the capability of generating high stability clock signals with small absolute uncertainties (˜ 1 part in 10^16). In this presentation I will first give an overview of the field, which now includes three different atomic species. I will then use experiments with Yb performed in our laboratory to illustrate the key features of a lattice clock. Our research has included the development of state-of-the-art optical cavities enabling ultra-high-resolution optical spectroscopy (1 Hz linewidth). Together with the large atom number in the optical lattice, we are able to achieve very low clock instability (< 0.3 Hz in 1 s) [3]. Furthermore, I will show results from some of our recent investigations of key shifts for the Yb lattice clock, including high precision measurements of ultracold atom-atom interactions in the lattice and the dc Stark effect for the Yb clock transition (necessary for the evaluation of blackbody radiation shifts). [4pt] [1] H. Katori, M. Takamoto, V. G. Pal'chikov, and V. D. Ovsiannikov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 173005 (2003). [0pt] [2] Andrei Derevianko and Hidetoshi Katori, Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 331 (2011). [0pt] [3] Y. Y. Jiang, A. D. Ludlow, N. D. Lemke, R. W. Fox, J. A. Sherman, L.-S. Ma, and C. W. Oates

  11. Optical Abelian lattice gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Tagliacozzo, L.; Celi, A.; Zamora, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2013-03-15

    We discuss a general framework for the realization of a family of Abelian lattice gauge theories, i.e., link models or gauge magnets, in optical lattices. We analyze the properties of these models that make them suitable for quantum simulations. Within this class, we study in detail the phases of a U(1)-invariant lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, originally proposed by P. Orland. By using exact diagonalization, we extract the low-energy states for small lattices, up to 4 Multiplication-Sign 4. We confirm that the model has two phases, with the confined entangled one characterized by strings wrapping around the whole lattice. We explain how to study larger lattices by using either tensor network techniques or digital quantum simulations with Rydberg atoms loaded in optical lattices, where we discuss in detail a protocol for the preparation of the ground-state. We propose two key experimental tests that can be used as smoking gun of the proper implementation of a gauge theory in optical lattices. These tests consist in verifying the absence of spontaneous (gauge) symmetry breaking of the ground-state and the presence of charge confinement. We also comment on the relation between standard compact U(1) lattice gauge theory and the model considered in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the quantum simulation of dynamical gauge theories in optical lattices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focus on digital simulation of abelian lattice gauge theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We rediscover and discuss the puzzling phase diagram of gauge magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We detail the protocol for time evolution and ground-state preparation in any phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide two experimental tests to validate gauge theory quantum simulators.

  12. Unity Occupation of Sites in a 3D Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depue, Marshall T.; McCormick, Colin; Winoto, S. Lukman; Oliver, Steven; Weiss, David S.

    1999-03-01

    An average filling factor of one atom per lattice site has been obtained in a submicron scale far-off-resonance optical lattice (FORL). High site occupation is obtained through a compression sequence that includes laser cooling in a 3D FORL and adiabatic toggling between the 3D FORL and a 1D FORL trap. After the highest filling factor is achieved, laser cooling causes collisional loss from lattice sites with more than one atom. Ultimately 44% of the sites have a single atom cooled to near its vibrational ground state. A theoretical model of site occupation based on Poisson statistics agrees well with the experimental results.

  13. Lattice-induced nonadiabatic frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Beloy, K.

    2010-09-15

    We consider the frequency shift in optical lattice clocks which arises from the coupling of the electronic motion to the atomic motion within the lattice. For the simplest of three-dimensional lattice geometries this coupling is shown to affect only clocks based on blue-detuned lattices. We have estimated the size of this shift for the prospective strontium lattice clock operating at the 390-nm blue-detuned magic wavelength. The resulting fractional frequency shift is found to be on the order of 10{sup -18} and is largely overshadowed by the electric quadrupole shift. For lattice clocks based on more complex geometries or other atomic systems, this shift could potentially be a limiting factor in clock accuracy.

  14. Realizing Parafermions in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangli; Gorshkov, Alexey

    2016-05-01

    Parafermions, which are the fractional versions of Majorana fermions, possess more exotic braiding statistics than Majorana fermions and are therefore more powerful from the point of view of topological quantum computing. We propose a scheme to realize parafermionic zero modes in optical lattices, without the use of superconductive paring. With the help of laser assisted tunneling and on-site interactions, two layers of ultracold atoms in distinct hyperfine states can be engineered to host +/- 1 / m fractional quantum Hall states. We then introduce a finite-extent potential barrier that pierces both layers - this gives rise to two counter-propagating edge states that sit on top of each other. Finally, laser induced coupling is used to introduce backscattering between the two edge states and to gap them out. We show that the resulting defects give rise to the topological degeneracy associated with parafermions. We also discuss methods for preparation and detection.

  15. A Deconstruction Lattice Description of the D1/D5 Brane World-Volume Gauge Theory

    DOE PAGES

    Giedt, Joel

    2011-01-01

    I genermore » alize the deconstruction lattice formulation of Endres and Kaplan to two-dimensional super-QCD with eight supercharges, denoted by (4,4), and bifundamental matter. I specialize to a particularly interesting (4,4) gauge theory, with gauge group U ( N c ) × U ( N f ) , and U ( N f ) being weakly gauged. It describes the infrared limit of the D1/D5 brane system, which has been studied extensively as an example of the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence. The construction here preserves two supercharges exactly and has a lattice structure quite similar to that which has previously appeared in the deconstruction approach, that is, site, link, and diagonal fields with both the Bose and Fermi statistics. I remark on possible applications of the lattice theory that would test the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence, particularly one that would exploit the recent worldsheet instanton analysis of Chen and Tong.« less

  16. Subwavelength Lattice Optics by Evolutionary Design

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new class of structured optical materials—lattice opto-materials—that can manipulate the flow of visible light into a wide range of three-dimensional profiles using evolutionary design principles. Lattice opto-materials are based on the discretization of a surface into a two-dimensional (2D) subwavelength lattice whose individual lattice sites can be controlled to achieve a programmed optical response. To access a desired optical property, we designed a lattice evolutionary algorithm that includes and optimizes contributions from every element in the lattice. Lattice opto-materials can exhibit simple properties, such as on- and off-axis focusing, and can also concentrate light into multiple, discrete spots. We expanded the unit cell shapes of the lattice to achieve distinct, polarization-dependent optical responses from the same 2D patterned substrate. Finally, these lattice opto-materials can also be combined into architectures that resemble a new type of compound flat lens. PMID:25380062

  17. 1-D ELECTRO-OPTIC BEAM STEERING DEVICE.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Tsui, Chi Leung

    2011-06-05

    In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of a 1D beam steering device based on planar electro-optic thermal-plastic prisms and a collimator lens array. With the elimination of moving parts, the proposed device is able to overcome the mechanical limitations of present scanning devices, such as fatigue and low operating frequency, while maintaining a small system footprint (~0.5mm×0.5mm). From experimental data, our prototype device is able to achieve a maximum deflection angle of 5.6° for a single stage prism design and 29.2° for a cascaded three prisms stage design. The lens array shows a 4µm collimated beam diameter.

  18. 1-D ELECTRO-OPTIC BEAM STEERING DEVICE

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Tsui, Chi Leung

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of a 1D beam steering device based on planar electro-optic thermal-plastic prisms and a collimator lens array. With the elimination of moving parts, the proposed device is able to overcome the mechanical limitations of present scanning devices, such as fatigue and low operating frequency, while maintaining a small system footprint (~0.5mm×0.5mm). From experimental data, our prototype device is able to achieve a maximum deflection angle of 5.6° for a single stage prism design and 29.2° for a cascaded three prisms stage design. The lens array shows a 4µm collimated beam diameter. PMID:22199458

  19. Anyonic braiding in optical lattices

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuanwei; Scarola, V. W.; Tewari, Sumanta; Das Sarma, S.

    2007-01-01

    Topological quantum states of matter, both Abelian and non-Abelian, are characterized by excitations whose wavefunctions undergo nontrivial statistical transformations as one excitation is moved (braided) around another. Topological quantum computation proposes to use the topological protection and the braiding statistics of a non-Abelian topological state to perform quantum computation. The enormous technological prospect of topological quantum computation provides new motivation for experimentally observing a topological state. Here, we explicitly work out a realistic experimental scheme to create and braid the Abelian topological excitations in the Kitaev model built on a tunable robust system, a cold atom optical lattice. We also demonstrate how to detect the key feature of these excitations: their braiding statistics. Observation of this statistics would directly establish the existence of anyons, quantum particles that are neither fermions nor bosons. In addition to establishing topological matter, the experimental scheme we develop here can also be adapted to a non-Abelian topological state, supported by the same Kitaev model but in a different parameter regime, to eventually build topologically protected quantum gates. PMID:18000038

  20. Cold atoms in a rotating optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foot, Christopher J.

    2009-05-01

    We have demonstrated a novel experimental arrangement which can rotate a two-dimensional optical lattice at frequencies up to several kilohertz. Our arrangement also allows the periodicity of the optical lattice to be varied dynamically, producing a 2D ``accordion lattice'' [1]. The angles of the laser beams are controlled by acousto-optic deflectors and this allows smooth changes with little heating of the trapped cold (rubidium) atoms. We have loaded a BEC into lattices with periodicities ranging from 1.8μm to 18μm, observing the collapse and revival of the diffraction orders of the condensate over a large range of lattice parameters as recently reported by a group in NIST [2]. We have also imaged atoms in situ in a 2D lattice over a range of lattice periodicities. Ultracold atoms in a rotating lattice can be used for the direct quantum simulation of strongly correlated systems under large effective magnetic fields, i.e. the Hamiltonian of the atoms in the rotating frame resembles that of a charged particle in a strong magnetic field. In the future, we plan to use this to investigate a range of phenomena such as the analogue of the fractional quantum Hall effect. [4pt] [1] R. A. Williams, J. D. Pillet, S. Al-Assam, B. Fletcher, M. Shotter, and C. J. Foot, ``Dynamic optical lattices: two-dimensional rotating and accordion lattices for ultracold atoms,'' Opt. Express 16, 16977-16983 (2008) [0pt] [2] J. H. Huckans, I. B. Spielman, B. Laburthe Tolra, W. D. Phillips, and J. V. Porto, Quantum and Classical Dynamics of a BEC in a Large-Period Optical Lattice, arXiv:0901.1386v1

  1. Direct Tunneling Delay Time Measurement in an Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortun, A.; Cabrera-Gutiérrez, C.; Condon, G.; Michon, E.; Billy, J.; Guéry-Odelin, D.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the measurement of the time required for a wave packet to tunnel through the potential barriers of an optical lattice. The experiment is carried out by loading adiabatically a Bose-Einstein condensate into a 1D optical lattice. A sudden displacement of the lattice by a few tens of nanometers excites the micromotion of the dipole mode. We then directly observe in momentum space the splitting of the wave packet at the turning points and measure the delay between the reflected and the tunneled packets for various initial displacements. Using this atomic beam splitter twice, we realize a chain of coherent micron-size Mach-Zehnder interferometers at the exit of which we get essentially a wave packet with a negative momentum, a result opposite to the prediction of classical physics.

  2. Spin-orbit coupling in a strontium optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothwell, Tobias; Bromley, Sarah; Kolkowitz, Shimon; Zhang, Xibo; Wall, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria; Ye, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic gauge fields are a promising tool for creating complex Hamiltonians with ultracold neutral atoms that may mimic the fractional Quantum Hall effect and other topological states. A promising approach is to use spin-orbit coupling to treat an internal degree of freedom as an effective `synthetic' spatial dimension. Here, this synthetic dimension is comprised by the internal ground and excited states used for high-precision clock spectroscopy in a fermionic strontium optical lattice clock. We report on our progress towards this goal in a system where atoms tunnel through a 1D optical lattice during clock interrogation. We present measurements of the lattice band structure under varying Lamb-Dicke parameters and in a regime where s-wave collisions are expected to contribute density dependent frequency shifts.

  3. Optical physics: Magnetic appeal in strained lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepetit, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Using strain to induce a pseudomagnetic field in a photonic lattice at optical frequencies might bring improvements to fields such as photonic crystal fibres, supercontinuum generation and frequency combs.

  4. Colloquium: Physics of optical lattice clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Derevianko, Andrei; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2011-04-01

    Recently invented and demonstrated optical lattice clocks hold great promise for improving the precision of modern time keeping. These clocks aim at the 10{sup -18} fractional accuracy, which translates into a clock that would neither lose nor gain a fraction of a second over an estimated age of the Universe. In these clocks, millions of atoms are trapped and interrogated simultaneously, dramatically improving clock stability. Here the principles of operation of these clocks are discussed and, in particular, a novel concept of magic trapping of atoms in optical lattices. Recently proposed microwave lattice clocks are also highlights and several applications that employ the optical lattice clocks as a platform for precision measurements and quantum information processing.

  5. Colloquium: Physics of optical lattice clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevianko, Andrei; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2011-04-01

    Recently invented and demonstrated optical lattice clocks hold great promise for improving the precision of modern time keeping. These clocks aim at the 10-18 fractional accuracy, which translates into a clock that would neither lose nor gain a fraction of a second over an estimated age of the Universe. In these clocks, millions of atoms are trapped and interrogated simultaneously, dramatically improving clock stability. Here the principles of operation of these clocks are discussed and, in particular, a novel concept of magic trapping of atoms in optical lattices. Recently proposed microwave lattice clocks are also highlights and several applications that employ the optical lattice clocks as a platform for precision measurements and quantum information processing.

  6. DESIGN OF THE RCMS LATTICE OPTICS.

    SciTech Connect

    CARDONA,J.; KEWISCH,J.; PEGGS,S.

    2002-06-02

    THE RAPID CYCLING MEDICAL SYNCHROTRON (RCMS) IS DESIGNED TO BE A VERY LIGHT AND INEXPENSIVE ACCELERATOR. THIS IS POSSIBLE DUE TO THE SMALL BEAM SIZE THAT HAS BEEN CHOSEN EARLY DURING THE DESIGN STAGE. THIS CHOICE HAS IMPLICATIONS IN THE DESIGN OF THE LATTICE OPTICS. IN THIS PAPER, WE PRESENT AN OVERVIEW OF THE RCMS OPTICS LATTICE, THE KIND OF MAGNETS TO BE USED AND ALSO A DESCRIPTION OF A SPECIAL OPTIC MODULE THAT MATCHES THE ROTATING GANTRY WITH THE REST OF THE FIXED ACCELERATOR. TECHNIQUESDEVELOPED TO WIN ADDITIONAL SPACE BETWEEN QUADRUPOLES WITHOUT DISTRUBING BETA FUNCTIONS ARE ALSO PRESENTED.

  7. Fermionic Optical Lattices: A Computational Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-22

    Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 optical lattices, degenerate quantum gases , quantum control, correlation...with a different wavelength. We systematically determine the real - and momentum-space properties of these states. The crossover from 3D to two...fermions in square lattices. The phases are systematically characterized by the symmetry of the order parameter and the real - and momentum-space

  8. The optical potential on the lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Agadjanov, Dimitri; Doring, Michael; Mai, Maxim; MeiBner, Ulf -G.; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2016-06-08

    The extraction of hadron-hadron scattering parameters from lattice data by using the Luscher approach becomes increasingly complicated in the presence of inelastic channels. We propose a method for the direct extraction of the complex hadron-hadron optical potential on the lattice, which does not require the use of the multi-channel Luscher formalism. Furthermore, this method is applicable without modifications if some inelastic channels contain three or more particles.

  9. Cold bosons in noisy optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachenmayer, Johannes; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter; Daley, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    Cold atoms in optical lattices open the possibility to experimentally study strongly interacting many-body quantum systems with controllable parameters. A key challenge to prepare interesting quantum states in these systems is to achieve sufficiently low temperatures. At these temperatures a deep theoretical understanding of possible heating processes and how they affect the characteristics of the quantum state becomes essential. In every realistic experiment there exist many sources of noise that cause phase and amplitude fluctuations in the standing laser waves that form the optical lattice potential. This classical noise can lead to heating and a significant change of the quantum state. We study the stochastic many-body non-equilibrium dynamics of bosons in an optical lattice and determine how the state changes depending on the characteristics of the noise. We do this by solving time-dependent stochastic many-body Schr"odinger equations, both analytically and numerically.

  10. Quantum Computation with Neutral Atoms at Addressable Optical Lattice Sites and Atoms in Confined Geometries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-13

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We have performed a set of experiments using arrays of 1D Bose gases in various configurations. Uncoupled 1D gases have been...used to study the limits of statistical mechanics near integrable points. We have shown that nearly integrable gases thermalize at an even slower...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 ultracold atoms, optical lattices, 1D gases

  11. Enhancement of long-range correlations in a 2D vortex lattice by an incommensurate 1D disorder potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillamon, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.; Cordoba, R.; Sese, J.; de Teresa, J. M.; Ibarra, R.

    In two dimensional (2D) systems, theory has proposed that random disorder destroys long range correlations driving a transition to a glassy state. Here, I will discuss new insights into this issue obtained through the direct visualization of the critical behaviour of a 2D superconducting vortex lattice formed in a thin film with a smooth 1D thickness modulation. Using scanning tunneling microscopy at 0.1K, we have tracked the modification in the 2D vortex arrangements induced by the 1D thickness modulation while increasing the vortex density by three orders of magnitude. Upon increasing the field, we observed a two-step order-disorder transition in the 2D vortex lattice mediated by the appearance of dislocations and disclinations and accompanied by an increase in the local vortex density fluctuations. Through a detailed analysis of correlation functions, we find that the transition is driven by the incommensurate 1D thickness modulation. We calculate the critical points and exponents and find that they are well above theoretical expectation for random disorder. Our results show that long range 1D correlations in random potentials enhance the stability range of the ordered phase in a 2D vortex lattice. Work supported by Spanish MINECO, CIG Marie Curie Grant, Axa Research Fund and FBBVA.

  12. Optical Lattice Gases of Interacting Fermions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-02

    theoretical research supported by this grant focused on discovering new phases of quantum matter for ultracold fermionic atoms or molecules confined in optical...Communications, including a review paper on the orbital physics of cold atoms in optical lattices [1] and a book chapter on topological insulators of cold... atoms [14]. A few significant results are highlighted below. 1. Novel phases of cold atoms on higher orbital bands. The research team discovered

  13. Ultra-Cold Atoms on Optical Lattices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Parag

    2009-01-01

    The field of ultra-cold atoms, since the achievement of Bose-Einstein Condensation (Anderson et al., 1995; Davis et al., 1995; Bradley et al., 1995), have seen an immensely growing interest over the past decade. With the creation of optical lattices, new possibilities of studying some of the widely used models in condensed matter have opened up.…

  14. Atomic Current across an Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev, Alexey V.; Kolovsky, Andrey R.; Madronero, Javier; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2006-02-10

    We devise a microscopic model for the emergence of a collision-induced, fermionic atomic current across a tilted optical lattice. Tuning the--experimentally controllable--parameters of the microscopic dynamics allows us to switch from Ohmic to negative differential conductance.

  15. Controlling polar molecules in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Kotochigova, S.; Tiesinga, E.

    2006-04-15

    We theoretically investigate the interaction of polar molecules with optical lattices and microwave fields. We demonstrate the existence of frequency windows in the optical domain where the complex internal structure of the molecule does not influence the trapping potential of the lattice. In such frequency windows the Franck-Condon factors are so small that near-resonant interaction of vibrational levels of the molecule with the lattice fields have a negligible contribution to the polarizability, and light-induced decoherences are kept to a minimum. In addition, we show that microwave fields can induce a tunable dipole-dipole interaction between ground-state rotationally symmetric (J=0) molecules. A combination of a carefully chosen lattice frequency and microwave-controlled interaction between molecules will enable trapping of polar molecules in a lattice and possibly realize molecular quantum logic gates. Our results are based on ab initio relativistic electronic structure calculations of the polar KRb and RbCs molecules combined with calculations of their rovibrational motion.

  16. Ultracold Quantum Gases in Hexagonal Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengstock, Klaus

    2010-03-01

    Hexagonal structures occur in a vast variety of systems, ranging from honeycombs of bees in life sciences to carbon nanotubes in material sciences. The latter, in particular its unfolded two-dimensional layer -- Graphene -- has rapidly grown to one of the most discussed topics in condensed-matter physics. Not only does it show proximity to various carbon-based materials but also exceptional properties owing to its unusual energy spectrum. In quantum optics, ultracold quantum gases confined in periodic light fields have shown to be very general and versatile instruments to mimic solid state systems. However, so far nearly all experiments were performed in cubic lattice geometries only. Here we report on the first experimental realization of ultracold quantum gases in a state-dependent, two-dimensional, Graphene-like optical lattice with hexagonal symmetry. The lattice is realized via a spin-dependent optical lattice structure with alternating σ^+ and σ^- -sites and thus constitutes a so called `magnetic'-lattice with `antiferromagnetic'-structure. Atoms with different spin orientation can be loaded to specific lattice sites or -- depending on the parameters -- to the whole lattice. As a consequence e.g. superpositions of a superfluid spin component with a different spin component in the Mott-insulating phase can be realized as well as spin-dependent transport properties, disorder etc. After preparing an antiferromagnetically ordered state we e.g. measure sustainable changes of the transport properties of the atoms. This manifests in a significant reduction of the tunneling as compared to a single-component system. We attribute this observation to a partial tunneling blockade for one spin component induced by population in another spin component localized at alternating lattice sites. Within a Gutzwiller-Ansatz we calculate the phase diagrams for the mixed spin-states and find very good agreement with our experimental results. Moreover, by state-resolved recording

  17. Fibonacci optical lattices for tunable quantum quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K.; Saha, K.; Parameswaran, S. A.; Weld, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a quasiperiodic optical lattice, created by a physical realization of the abstract cut-and-project construction underlying all quasicrystals. The resulting potential is a generalization of the Fibonacci tiling. Calculation of the energies and wave functions of ultracold atoms loaded into such a lattice demonstrate a multifractal energy spectrum, a singular continuous momentum-space structure, and the existence of controllable edge states. These results open the door to cold atom quantum simulation experiments in tunable or dynamic quasicrystalline potentials, including topological pumping of edge states and phasonic spectroscopy.

  18. Resonant and Soliton Transport of Ultracold Atoms on Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubbo, Chester Philipp

    In this thesis, we present a theoretical study of the dynamics of strongly interacting ultracold atoms in optical lattices. At ultracold temperatures, the dynamics cannot be described classically, but instead, must take into account quantum effects. Here, our focus is on transport and precision measurement. We use exact analysis of few-body systems and mean field analysis. For larger systems, we use a numerical approach called the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method which is considered an efficient computational tool for the quantum evolution of 1D systems. After introducing basic concepts, we treat the motional properties of particles in a tilted lattice in a regime where the inter-particle interactions are resonant with the linear potential. In this regime, the dynamics is described by an Ising model with a transverse field which is a basic system to study quantum magnetism and quantum phase transitions. We introduce analytical and numerical methods to draw a simple picture of the dynamics. This helps us to formulate a slinky-like transport scheme that provides full control of the motional direction of particles. After a study of transport on a tilted lattice, we treat the transport of nonlinear waves in strongly interacting systems. These nonlinear waves are called solitons, which are described as local perturbations of a medium that survive after collisions. We identify two species of classical soliton solutions in our system and study their stability under quantum evolution via DMRG. We shift focus from the dynamics related to transport and turn to precision measurements in optical lattice clocks. Here, we investigate one aspect of their limitations which is due to collisions of atoms loaded onto a single site. These collisions introduce a frequency shift in the clock measurement. We provide a microscopic description of the origin of this frequency shift. Our results have motivated improvement in the accuracy and precision of next generation

  19. Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices

    PubMed Central

    Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2015-01-01

    We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose—Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid. PMID:26345721

  20. Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören

    2015-09-08

    We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose-Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid.

  1. Fast dynamics for atoms in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Łącki, Mateusz; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2013-02-08

    Cold atoms in optical lattices allow for accurate studies of many body dynamics. Rapid time-dependent modifications of optical lattice potentials may result in significant excitations in atomic systems. The dynamics in such a case is frequently quite incompletely described by standard applications of tight-binding models (such as, e.g., Bose-Hubbard model or its extensions) that typically neglect the effect of the dynamics on the transformation between the real space and the tight-binding basis. We illustrate the importance of a proper quantum mechanical description using a multiband extended Bose-Hubbard model with time-dependent Wannier functions. We apply it to situations directly related to experiments.

  2. The NIM Sr Optical Lattice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Wang, Q.; Li, Y.; Meng, F.; Lin, B.; Zang, E.; Sun, Z.; Fang, F.; Li, T.; Fang, Z.

    2016-06-01

    A 87Sr optical lattice clock is built at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM) of China. The atoms undergo two stages of laser cooling before being loaded into a horizontal optical lattice at the magic wavelength of 813 nm. After being interrogated by a narrow linewidth 698 nm clock laser pulse, the normalized excitation rate is measured to get the frequency error, which is then used to lock the clock laser to the ultra-narrow 1S0-3P0 clock transition. The total systematic uncertainty of the clock is evaluated to be 2.3 × 10-16, and the absolute frequency of the clock is measured to be 429 228 004 229 873.7(1.4) Hz with reference to the NIM5 cesium fountain.

  3. Spin-1/2 Optical Lattice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, N. D.; Ludlow, A. D.; Barber, Z. W.; Fortier, T. M.; Diddams, S. A.; Jiang, Y.; Jefferts, S. R.; Heavner, T. P.; Parker, T. E.; Oates, C. W.

    2009-08-01

    We experimentally investigate an optical clock based on Yb171 (I=1/2) atoms confined in an optical lattice. We have evaluated all known frequency shifts to the clock transition, including a density-dependent collision shift, with a fractional uncertainty of 3.4×10-16, limited principally by uncertainty in the blackbody radiation Stark shift. We measured the absolute clock transition frequency relative to the NIST-F1 Cs fountain clock and find the frequency to be 518 295 836 590 865.2(0.7) Hz.

  4. Topological defect formation in 1D and 2D spin chains realized by network of optical parametric oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamerly, Ryan; Inaba, Kensuke; Inagaki, Takahiro; Takesue, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2016-09-01

    A network of optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) is used to simulate classical Ising and XY spin chains. The collective nonlinear dynamics of this network, driven by quantum noise rather than thermal fluctuations, seeks out the Ising/XY ground state as the system transitions from below to above the lasing threshold. We study the behavior of this “Ising machine” for three canonical problems: a 1D ferromagnetic spin chain, a 2D square lattice and problems where next-nearest-neighbor couplings give rise to frustration. If the pump turn-on time is finite, topological defects form (domain walls for the Ising model, winding number and vortices for XY) and their density can be predicted from a numerical model involving a linear “growth stage” and a nonlinear “saturation stage”. These predictions are compared against recent data for a 10,000-spin 1D Ising machine.

  5. Quantum theory of cold bosonic atoms in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Tilahun, Dagim; Duine, R. A.; MacDonald, A. H.

    2011-09-15

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices undergo a quantum phase transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator as the lattice potential depth is increased. We describe an approximate theory of interacting bosons in optical lattices which provides a qualitative description of both superfluid and insulator states. The theory is based on a change of variables in which the boson coherent state amplitude is replaced by an effective potential which promotes phase coherence between different number states on each lattice site. It is illustrated here by applying it to uniform and fully frustrated lattice cases but is simple enough that it can be applied to spatially inhomogeneous lattice systems.

  6. Quantum Entanglement in Optical Lattice Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-18

    superfluidity, Physical Review A (02 2013) Yinyin Qian, Ming Gong, Chuanwei Zhang. Many-body Landau -Zener transition in cold-atom double-well...in a Trapped Bose-Einstein Condensate, arXiv:1111.4778v1 (11 2011) Yinyin Qian, Ming Gong, Chuanwei Zhang. Many-body Landau -Zener Transition in...PhysRevA.87.023611 5. Y. Qian, M. Gong, and C. Zhang, Many-body Landau -Zener Transition in Cold Atom Double Well Optical Lattices, Physical Review A 87

  7. On the spectrum of the lattice spin-boson Hamiltonian for any coupling: 1D case

    SciTech Connect

    Muminov, M.; Neidhardt, H.; Rasulov, T.

    2015-05-15

    A lattice model of radiative decay (so-called spin-boson model) of a two level atom and at most two photons is considered. The location of the essential spectrum is described. For any coupling constant, the finiteness of the number of eigenvalues below the bottom of its essential spectrum is proved. The results are obtained by considering a more general model H for which the lower bound of its essential spectrum is estimated. Conditions which guarantee the finiteness of the number of eigenvalues of H below the bottom of its essential spectrum are found. It is shown that the discrete spectrum might be infinite if the parameter functions are chosen in a special form.

  8. Marriage of exact enumeration and 1/d expansion methods: Lattice model of dilute polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemirovsky, A. M.; Freed, Karl F.; Ishinabe, Takao; Douglas, Jack F.

    1992-06-01

    We consider the properties of a self-avoiding polymer chain with nearestneighbor contact energy ɛ on a d-dimensional hypercubic lattice. General theoretical arguments enable us to prescribe the exact analytic form of the n-segment chain partition function C n ,and unknown coefficients for chains of up to 11 segments are determined using exact enumeration data in d=2-6. This exact form provides the main ingredient to produce a large- n expansion in d -1of the chain free energy through fifth order with the full dependence on the contact energy retained. The ɛ-dependent chain connectivity constant and free energy amplitude are evaluated within the d -1expansion to O(d -5). Our general formulation includes for the first time self-avoiding walks, neighboravoiding walks, theta, and collapsed chains as particular limiting cases.

  9. Observation of Stueckelberg oscillations in accelerated optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zenesini, A.; Ciampini, D.; Arimondo, E.; Morsch, O.

    2010-12-15

    We report the experimental observation of Stueckelberg oscillations of matter waves in optical lattices. Extending previous work on Landau-Zener tunneling of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices, we study the effects of the accumulated phase between two successive crossings of the Brillouin zone edge. Our results agree well with a simple model for multiple Landau-Zener tunneling events taking into account the band structure of the optical lattice.

  10. A low maintenance Sr optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, I. R.; Hobson, R.; Bowden, W.; Bridge, E. M.; Donnellan, S.; Curtis, E. A.; Gill, P.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the Sr optical lattice clock apparatus at NPL with particular emphasis on techniques used to increase reliability and minimise the human requirement in its operation. Central to this is a clock-referenced transfer cavity scheme for the stabilisation of cooling and trapping lasers. We highlight several measures to increase the reliability of the clock with a view towards the realisation of an optical time-scale. The clock contributed 502 hours of data over a 25 day period (84% uptime) in a recent measurement campaign with several uninterrupted periods of more than 48 hours. An instability of 2 x 10-17 was reached after 105 s of averaging in an interleaved self-comparison of the clock.

  11. Nuclear spin effects in optical lattice clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Martin M.; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian; Zanon-Willette, Thomas; Foreman, Seth M.; Ye Jun

    2007-08-15

    We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study of the effect of nuclear spin on the performance of optical lattice clocks. With a state-mixing theory including spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions, we describe the origin of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition and the differential g factor between the two clock states for alkaline-earth-metal(-like) atoms, using {sup 87}Sr as an example. Clock frequency shifts due to magnetic and optical fields are discussed with an emphasis on those relating to nuclear structure. An experimental determination of the differential g factor in {sup 87}Sr is performed and is in good agreement with theory. The magnitude of the tensor light shift on the clock states is also explored experimentally. State specific measurements with controlled nuclear spin polarization are discussed as a method to reduce the nuclear spin-related systematic effects to below 10{sup -17} in lattice clocks.

  12. Effect of impurities on the vortex lattice in Bose-Einstein condensates on optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mithun, T.; Porsezian, K.; Dey, Bishwajyoti

    2015-06-01

    We numerically solve the Gross-Pitaeveskii equation to study the Bose-Einstein condensate in the rotating harmonical tarp and co-rotating optical lattice. The effect of a pinning site or impurity shows that it is able to move the vortex lattice center to either left or right depending on the position of the impurity. Also, it is observed that the impurity at the random positions can destroy the vortex lattice and the resulting disordered lattice has more energy.

  13. Intrinsic Localized Modes in Optical Photonic Lattices and Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulides, Demetrios

    -locking and pulse compression. A strong signature of discrete X-wave formation was also demonstrated in such structures. In the last few years, Anderson localization was unequivocally observed in array systems where the transition from ballistic transport to diffusive, and the cross-over to Anderson localization was studied as a function of disorder and nonlinearity. In recent studies synthetic lattices exhibiting parity-time (PT) symmetry were also considered. The interplay of gain and loss in this latter family of structures leads to counterintuitive characteristics and behavior such as non-reciprocal propagation and power oscillations. The realization of discrete array systems at su-bwavelenth scales is another important direction that is nowadays intensively pursued. References 1. D. N. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 424, 817- 823 (2003). 2. F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Reports 463, 1-126 (2008). 3. M Wimmer, A Regensburger, MA Miri, C. Bersch, D.N Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, ''Observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices'' Nature Communications 6, 7782 (2015). Intrinsic Localized Modes in Optical Photonic Lattices and Arrays.

  14. Transport of an interacting Bose gas in 1D disordered lattices

    SciTech Connect

    D'Errico, C.; Chaudhuri, S.; Gori, L.; Kumar, A.; Lucioni, E.; Tanzi, L.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.

    2014-08-20

    We use ultracold atoms in a quasiperiodic lattice to study two outstanding problems in the physics of disordered systems: a) the anomalous diffusion of a wavepacket in the presence of disorder, interactions and noise; b) the transport of a disordered superfluid. a) Our results show that the subdiffusion, observed when interaction alone is present, can be modelled with a nonlinear diffusion equation and the peculiar shape of the expanding density profiles can be connected to the microscopic nonlinear diffusion coefficients. Also when noise alone is present we can describe the observed normal diffusion dynamics by existing microscopic models. In the unexplored regime in which noise and interaction are combined, instead, we observe an anomalous diffusion, that we model with a generalized diffusion equation, where noise- and interaction-induced contributions add each other. b) We find that an instability appearing at relatively large momenta can be employed to locate the fluid-insulator crossover driven by disorder. By investigating the momentum-dependent transport, we observe a sharp crossover from a weakly dissipative regime to a strongly unstable one at a disorder-dependent critical momentum. The set of critical disorder and interaction strengths for which such critical momentum vanishes, can be identified with the separation between a fluid regime and an insulating one and can be related to the predicted zero-temperature superfluid-Bose glass transition.

  15. Colloidal sorting in dynamic optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ryan L.; Spalding, G. C.; Dholakia, K.; MacDonald, M. P.

    2007-08-01

    Passive microfluidic sorting techniques based upon the interaction of particles with an optically defined potential energy landscape have possible advantages over active sorting techniques such as microfluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), including ease of integration into lab-on-a-chip systems, reconfigurability, and scalability. Rather than analysing and deflecting a single-file stream of particles one by one, a passive approach intrinsically aimed at parallel processing may, ultimately, offer greater potential for high throughput. However attempts to sort many particles simultaneously in high density suspensions are inevitably limited by particle particle interactions, which lead to a reduction in the efficiency of the sorting. In this paper we describe two different approaches aimed at reducing colloidal traffic flow problems. We find that continuous translation of the sorting lattice helps to reduce nearest neighbour particle spacing, providing promise for efficiency improvements in future high throughput applications, and that a flashing lattice yields a reduction in unwanted pile-up and spillover effects which otherwise limit the efficiency of sorting.

  16. The strontium optical lattice clock: Optical spectroscopy with sub-hertz accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludlow, Andrew D.

    One of the most well-developed applications of coherent interaction with atoms is atomic frequency standards and clocks. Atomic clocks find significant roles in a number of scientific and technological settings. State-of-the-art, laser-cooled, Cs-fountain microwave clocks have demonstrated impressive frequency measurement accuracy, with fractional uncertainties below the 10-15 level. On the other hand, frequency standards based on optical transitions have made substantial steps forward over the last decade, benefiting from their high operational frequencies. An interesting approach to such an optical standard uses atomic strontium confined in an optical lattice. The tight atomic confinement allows for nearly complete elimination of Doppler and recoil-related effects which can otherwise trouble the precise atomic interrogation. At the same time, the optical lattice is designed to equally perturb the two electronic clock states so that the confinement introduces a net zero shift of the natural transition frequency. This thesis describes the design and realization of an optical frequency standard using 87Sr confined in a 1-D optical lattice. Techniques for atomic manipulation and control are described, including two-stage laser cooling, proper design of atomic confinement in a lattice potential, and optical pumping techniques. With the development of an ultra-stable coherent laser light source, atomic spectral linewidths of the optical clock transition are observed below 2 Hz. High accuracy spectroscopy of the clock transition is carried out utilizing a femtosecond frequency comb referenced to the NIST-F1 Cs fountain. To explore the performance of an improved, spin-polarized Sr standard, a coherent optical phase transfer link is established between JILA and NIST. This enables remote comparison of the Sr standard against optical standards at NIST, such as the cold Ca standard. The high frequency stability of a Sr-Ca comparison (3 x 10-16 at 200 s) is used to make

  17. Development and tests of x-ray multifoil optical system for 1D imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pína, Ladislav; Hudec, René; Inneman, Adolf J.; Baca, Tomas; Blazek, M.; Platkevic, M.; Sieger, Ladislav; Doubravova, Daniela; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Schultz, Ted B.; Dániel, Vladimír.

    2016-09-01

    The proposed wide-field optical system has not been used yet. Described novel approach is based on the use of 1D "Lobster eye" optics in combination with Timepix X-ray detector in the energy range 3 - 40 keV. The proposed project includes theoretical study and a functional sample of the Timepix X-ray detector with multifoil wide-field X-ray "Lobster eye" optics. Using optics to focus X-rays on a detector is necessary in cases where the intensity of impinging X-ray radiation is below the sensitivity of the detector without optic. Generally this is the case of very low light phenomena, or e.g. monitoring astrophysical objects in space. Namely, such optical system could find applications in laboratory spectroscopy systems or in a rocket space experiment. Designed wide-field optical system combined with Timepix X-ray detector is described together with experimental results obtained during laboratory tests.

  18. Lattice gaugefixing and other optics in lattice gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Ken.

    1992-06-01

    We present results from four projects. In the first, quark and gluon propagators and effective masses and {Delta}I = 1/2 Rule operator matching coefficients are computed numerically in gaugefixed lattice QCD. In the second, the same quantities are evaluated analytically in the strong coupling, N {yields} {infinity} limit. In the third project, the Schwinger model is studied in covariant gauges, where we show that the effective electron mass varies with the gauge parameter and that longitudinal gaugefixing ambiguities affect operator product expansion coefficients (analogous to {Delta}I = 1/2 Rule matching coefficients) determined by matching gauge variant matrix elements. However, we find that matching coefficients even if shifted by the unphysical modes are {xi} invariant. In the fourth project, we show that the strong coupling parallelogram lattice Schwinger model as a different thermodynamic limit than the weak coupling continuum limit. As a function of lattice skewness angle these models span the {Delta} = {minus}1 critical line of 6-vertex models which, in turn, have been identified as c = 1 conformal field theories.

  19. Strongly Interacting Fermions in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koetsier, A. O.

    2009-07-01

    presented here concerns fermionic atoms in periodic potential formed by interfering laser beams. Indeed, the standing light wave created by the interfering beams gives rise to a lattice potential because of the Stark effect which couples the electronic energy levels of the atoms to the spatially undulating electric field. Furthermore, fermionic atoms can be prepared in two different hyperfine states corresponding to the the spin-up and spin-down quantum states, and as such mimic electrons moving in the lattice structure of solids. This system is well described by the famous Hubbard model which we introduce in chapter 2 and, under certain conditions, undergoes a phase transition into the Néel state which believed to be a precursor to superconductivity in certain high-temperature superconductors. In chapter 3, we calculate precisely how the Néel state may be achieved in an ultracold fermionic atom gas. When the number of spin-up and spin-down atoms is unequal the system becomes spin-canted and exhibits both ferro- and antiferromagnetic characteristics, as we show in chapter 4. We also find there are topological excitations present in the quantum spin texture known as merons which have never unambiguously been observed before. In order to form a Bose-Einstein condensate, fermionic atoms must first form pairs, and can do so in two contrasting ways. The relationship between these two qualitatively di erent forms of pairing is described in chapter 5, and we examine how these two types of pairs transform into one another in an optical lattice in chapter 6. Finally, chapter 7 is a detailed eld-theoretic study of pairing as it occurs in an ultracold Bose gas. There, we find there is an intriguing bosonic analogy of the two forms of fermion pairing and explore the properties of these pairs.

  20. Collisional Losses, Decoherence, and Frequency Shifts in Optical Lattice Clocks with Bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Lisdat, Ch.; Winfred, J. S. R. Vellore; Middelmann, T.; Riehle, F.; Sterr, U.

    2009-08-28

    We have quantified collisional losses, decoherence and the collision shift in a one-dimensional optical lattice clock on the highly forbidden transition {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} at 698 nm with bosonic {sup 88}Sr. We were able to distinguish two loss channels: inelastic collisions between atoms in the upper and lower clock state and atoms in the upper clock state only. Based on the measured coefficients, we determine the operation parameters at which a 1D-lattice clock with {sup 88}Sr shows no degradation due to collisions on the fractional uncertainty level of 10{sup -16}.

  1. Estimating strong correlations in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertis, J.; Friesdorf, M.; Riofrío, C. A.; Eisert, J.

    2016-11-01

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices provide one of the most promising platforms for analog quantum simulations of complex quantum many-body systems. Large-size systems can now routinely be reached and are already used to probe a large variety of different physical situations, ranging from quantum phase transitions to artificial gauge theories. At the same time, measurement techniques are still limited and full tomography for these systems seems out of reach. Motivated by this observation, we present a method to directly detect and quantify to what extent a quantum state deviates from a local Gaussian description, based on available noise correlation measurements from in situ and time-of-flight measurements. This is an indicator of the significance of strong correlations in ground and thermal states, as Gaussian states are precisely the ground and thermal states of noninteracting models. We connect our findings, augmented by numerical tensor network simulations, to notions of equilibration, disordered systems, and the suppression of transport in Anderson insulators.

  2. Progress towards a permanent electron electric dipole moment search using cold atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solmeyer, Neal E.; Zhu, Kunyan; Weiss, David S.

    2011-05-01

    Observation of a permanent electric dipole moment of the electron would imply CP violating effects not contained in the Standard Model. We present our progress towards measuring the electron EDM using laser-cooled cesium and rubidium atoms trapped in a one dimensional optical lattice. We have collected Cs atoms in a MOT and have launched them 90 cm vertically using two cavity-enhanced optical lattice guides. In that region, which is suitable for measurement, we re-cooled and re-trapped the atoms with an overall transfer efficiency from the MOT of 50%. The two 1D lattice traps thread through three specially-coated glass electric field plates. Very low frequency Ramsey-like spectroscopy will be sensitive to an EDM with an ultimate precision of 3 ×10-30 e-cm.

  3. Comment on 'Feshbach resonances in an optical lattice'

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, Roberto B.; Ho, T.-L.

    2006-01-15

    We point out some logical inconsistencies in the model proposed in [Phys. Rev. A 71, 043604 (2005)] as well as in the calculations performed on it. The proposed model is not able to describe Feshbach resonances in optical lattices.

  4. Matter-wave localization in a weakly perturbed optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yongshan; Adhikari, S. K.

    2011-11-15

    By numerical solution and variational approximation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we studied the localization of a noninteracting and weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate in a weakly perturbed optical lattice in one and three dimensions. The perturbation achieved through a weak delocalizing expulsive or a linear potential as well as a weak localizing harmonic potential removes the periodicity of the optical lattice and leads to localization. We also studied some dynamics of the localized state confirming its stability.

  5. Light-induced atomic elevator in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prants, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    It is shown how an atomic elevator that can elevate falling cold atoms in a vertical optical lattice can be created. The effect appears near resonance owing to the nonlinear interaction between the electronic and mechanical degrees of freedom of an atom, which is responsible for its random walk in rigid optical lattices without any modulation and additional action. Numerical experiments involving spontaneous emission demonstrate that random walk of atoms and light-induced atomic elevator can be observed in a real experiment.

  6. Adiabatic dynamics with classical noise in optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guanglei; Daley, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    The technique of adiabatic state preparation is an interesting potential tool for the realisation of sensitive many-body states with ultra-cold atoms at low temperatures. However, questions remain regarding the influence of classical noise in these adiabatic dynamics. We investigate such dynamics in a situation where a level dressing scheme can make amplitude noise in an optical lattice proportional to the Hamiltonian, leading to a quantum Zeno effect for non-adiabatic transitions. We compute the dynamics using stochastic many-body Schrödinger equation and master equation approaches. Taking the examples of 1D Bose-Hubbard model from Mott insulator phase to superfluid phase and comparing with analytical calculations for a two-level system, we demonstrate that when the total time for the process is limited, properly transformed noise can lead to an increased final fidelity in the state preparation. We consider the dynamics also in the presence of imperfections, studying the resulting heating and dephasing for the many-body states, and identifying optimal regimes for future experiments.

  7. Realizing type-II Weyl points in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastri, Kunal; Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of the Lorentz symmetry-violating "type-II" Weyl semimetal phase has renewed interest in the study of Weyl physics in condensed-matter systems. However, tuning the exceptional properties of this novel state has remained a challenge. Optical lattices, created using standing laser beams, provide a convenient platform to tune tunneling parameters continuously in time. In this paper, we propose a generalized two level system exhibiting type-II Weyl points that can be realized using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. The system is engineered using a three-dimensional lattice with complex π phase tunneling amplitudes. Various unique properties of the type-II Weyl semimetal such as open Fermi surface, anomalous chirality, and topological Fermi arcs can be probed using the proposed optical lattice scheme.

  8. Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2015-07-06

    Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration.

  9. Neutral gas heating via non-resonant optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornella, Barry Michael

    The influence of intense optical lattices on atoms or molecules offers a particularly useful method for energy and momentum deposition into a non-resonant gas. In this investigation, a proof-of-concept experiment was conducted to validate high intensity pulsed optical lattices as a means of creating high temperature gases for a myriad of aerospace, basic physics, and nanotechnology applications. Traditional methods for creating these flows have either involved altering the chemical composition of the initial gas sample through combustion or ionization or relied on laser resonant interactions with internal energy modes through laser pyrolysis. Due to its non-resonant nature, the use of optical lattices might be beneficial compared to existing methods since it provides an arbitrary, localized, high temperature gas that is tunable and does not introduce unwanted chemical species or high ionization concentrations. As an intermediate step toward verifying optical lattice gas heating, a coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering (CRBS) study was also performed to verify the presented methodology. CRBS is a gas diagnostic technique used for non-intrusive probing of gas thermodynamic properties. In addition to the experimental investigation, a complementary numerical study was conducted using a direct simulation Monte Carlo approach. The numerical study used a modified version of SMILE to predict the gas phenomena within the strong optical potential fields. The goal of substantiating optical lattice heating was accomplished by detecting the acoustic wave generated from the heated volume. The magnitude of the resulting acoustic wave was shown to vary with the optical lattice phase velocity, peaking on the order of the gas' most probable speed. The trend with lattice velocity is consistent with both theory and the numerical study and eliminates other possible heating mechanisms such as laser-induced ionization or molecular dissociation. Limitations for the investigated heating

  10. An Optical Lattice Clock with Spin 1/2 Atoms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    89 4.4 Vector Stark shift . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90...ytterbium atoms The first proposal for an optical lattice clock called for spectroscopy of a narrow optical tran- sition in ultracold strontium atoms [40...Since then, experimental groups have begun researching not only strontium (Sr) [70, 71, 72, 73, 74], but also ytterbium (Yb) [75, 76, 77, 78, 79] and

  11. Evolution of the Hofstadter butterfly in a tunable optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktel, Mehmet O.; Unal, Nur; Yilmaz, Firat

    Advances in realizing artificial gauge fields on optical lattices promise experimental detection of topologically non-trivial energy spectra. Self-similar fractal energy structures, known as Hofstadter butterflies, depend sensitively on the geometry of the lattice, as well as the applied magnetic field. The recent demonstration of an adjustable lattice geometry [L. Tarruell et al., Nature 483, 302 (2012)] presents a unique opportunity to study this dependence. We calculate the Hofstadter butterflies that can be obtained in such an adjustable lattice and find three qualitatively different regimes. We show that the existence of Dirac points at zero magnetic field does not imply the topological equivalence of spectra at finite field. As the real-space structure evolves from the checkerboard to the honeycomb lattice, two square lattice Hofstadter butterflies merge to form a honeycomb lattice butterfly in a topologically non-trivial way, as it is accomplished by sequential closing of infinitely many gaps. We discuss the evolution of topological properties with underlying lattice geometry by calculating the Chern numbers and comment on the validity of simulating graphene in such an adjustable lattice

  12. Ultracold polar molecules in a 3D optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer new opportunities for studying quantum magnetism and many-body physics. KRb molecules loaded into a three-dimensional (3D) optical lattice allow one to study such a spin-lattice system in a stable environment without losses arising from chemical reactions. In the case with strong lattice confinement along two directions and a weak lattice potential along the third, we find the loss rate is suppressed by the quantum Zeno effect. In a deep 3D lattice with no tunneling, we observe evidences for spin exchange interactions. We use Ramsey spectroscopy to investigate the spin dynamics. By choosing the appropriate lattice polarizations and implementing a spin echo sequence, the single particle dephasing is largely suppressed, leaving the dipolar exchange interactions as the dominant contribution to the observed dynamics. This is supported by many-body theoretical calculations. While this initial demonstration was done with low lattice fillings, our current experimental efforts are focused on increasing the lattice filling fraction. This will greatly benefit the study of complex many-body dynamics with long-range interactions, such as transport of excitations in an out-of-equilibrium system and spin-orbit coupling in a lattice.

  13. Three-dimensional optical lattice clock with bosonic {sup 88}Sr atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Akatsuka, Tomoya; Takamoto, Masao; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2010-02-15

    We present detailed analyses of our recent experiment on the three-dimensional (3D) optical lattice clock with bosonic {sup 88}Sr atoms in which the collisional frequency shift was suppressed by applying a single-occupancy lattice. Frequency shifts in magnetically induced spectroscopy on the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition ({lambda}=698 nm) of {sup 88}Sr were experimentally investigated by referencing a one-dimensional (1D) lattice clock based on spin-polarized {sup 87}Sr atoms. We discuss that the clock stability is limited by the current laser stability as well as the experimental sequence of the clock operation, which may be improved to {sigma}{sub y}({tau})=2x10{sup -16}/{radical}({tau}) by optimizing the cycle time of the clock operation.

  14. Lattice-cavity solitons in a degenerate optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, O. A.; Lederer, F.

    2007-11-15

    We predict the existence of lattice-cavity solitons for a quadratic nonlinear cavity, where the linear losses are compensated for by the optical pump at second harmonic (degenerate optical parametric oscillator), and which is endowed with a one-dimensional photonic lattice. In the limit of strong discreteness (weak coupling) this kind of soliton solution contains as the subclass the quadratic discrete cavity solitons. The nonlinear coupling between the Bloch waves of different photonics bands allows for the formation of a reach variety of localized solutions. In particular, different types of multiband lattice-cavity solitons can be identified. Most types of lattice-cavity solitons do not have counterparts, neither in conventional planar microresonators nor in genuine discrete systems as an array of weakly coupled cavities. We show that these solitons may destabilize as a consequence of the competition between Bloch waves of different photonic bands.

  15. High-Field Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.N.; Jaksch, D.

    2006-05-12

    We consider interacting bosonic atoms in an optical lattice subject to a large simulated magnetic field. We develop a model similar to a bilayer fractional quantum Hall system valid near simple rational numbers of magnetic flux quanta per lattice cell. Then we calculate its ground state, magnetic lengths, fractional fillings, and find unexpected sign changes in the Hall current. Finally we study methods for detecting these novel features via shot noise and Hall current measurements.

  16. Controlled wave-packet manipulation with driven optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Arlinghaus, Stephan; Holthaus, Martin

    2011-12-15

    Motivated by recent experimental progress achieved with ultracold atoms in kilohertz-driven optical lattices, we provide a theoretical discussion of mechanisms governing the response of a particle in a cosine lattice potential to strong forcing pulses with smooth envelope. Such pulses effectuate adiabatic motion of a wave packet's momentum distribution on quasienergy surfaces created by spatiotemporal Bloch waves. Deviations from adiabaticity can then be deliberately exploited for exerting coherent control and for reaching target states which may not be accessible by other means. As one particular example, we consider an analog of the {pi} pulses known from optical resonance. We also suggest adapting further techniques previously developed for controlling atomic and molecular dynamics by laser pulses to the coherent control of matter waves in shaken optical lattices.

  17. Bloch-Zener oscillations in a tunable optical honeycomb lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Uehlinger, Thomas; Greif, Daniel; Jotzu, Gregor; Esslinger, Tilman; Tarruell, Leticia

    2013-12-04

    Ultracold gases in optical lattices have proved to be a flexible tool to simulate many different phenomena of solid state physics [1, 2]. Recently, optical lattices with complex geometries have been realized [3, 4, 5, 6, 7], paving the way to simulating more realistic systems. The honeycomb structure has recently become accessible in an optical lattice composed of mutually perpendicular laser beams. This lattice structure exhibits topological features in its band structure – the Dirac points. At these points, two energy bands intersect linearly and the particles behave as relativistic Dirac fermions. In optical lattices, Bloch oscillations [8] resolved both in time and in quasi-momentum space can be directly observed. We make use of such Bloch-Zener oscillations to probe the vanishing energy gap at the Dirac points as well as their position in the band structure. In small band gap regions, we observe Landau-Zener tunneling [7, 9] to the second band and the regions of maximum transfer can be identified with the position of the Dirac points.

  18. Coupled matter-wave solitons in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Golam Ali, Sk; Talukdar, B.

    2009-06-15

    We make use of a potential model to study the dynamics of two coupled matter-wave or Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons loaded in optical lattices. With separate attention to linear and nonlinear lattices we find some remarkable differences for response of the system to effects of these lattices. As opposed to the case of linear optical lattice (LOL), the nonlinear lattice (NOL) can be used to control the mutual interaction between the two solitons. For a given lattice wave number k, the effective potentials in which the two solitons move are such that the well (V{sub eff}(NOL)), resulting from the juxtaposition of soliton interaction and nonlinear lattice potential, is deeper than the corresponding well V{sub eff}(LOL). But these effective potentials have opposite k dependence in the sense that the depth of V{sub eff}(LOL) increases as k increases and that of V{sub eff}(NOL) decreases for higher k values. We verify that the effectiveness of optical lattices to regulate the motion of the coupled solitons depends sensitively on the initial locations of the motionless solitons as well as values of the lattice wave number. For both LOL and NOL the two solitons meet each other due to mutual interaction if their initial locations are taken within the potential wells with the difference that the solitons in the NOL approach each other rather rapidly and take roughly half the time to meet as compared with the time needed for such coalescence in the LOL. In the NOL, the soliton profiles can move freely and respond to the lattice periodicity when the separation between their initial locations are as twice as that needed for a similar free movement in the LOL. We observe that, in both cases, slow tuning of the optical lattices by varying k with respect to a time parameter {tau} drags the oscillatory solitons apart to take them to different locations. In our potential model the oscillatory solitons appear to propagate undistorted. But a fully numerical calculation

  19. Coupled matter-wave solitons in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golam Ali, Sk; Talukdar, B.

    2009-06-01

    We make use of a potential model to study the dynamics of two coupled matter-wave or Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons loaded in optical lattices. With separate attention to linear and nonlinear lattices we find some remarkable differences for response of the system to effects of these lattices. As opposed to the case of linear optical lattice (LOL), the nonlinear lattice (NOL) can be used to control the mutual interaction between the two solitons. For a given lattice wave number k, the effective potentials in which the two solitons move are such that the well (Veff(NOL)), resulting from the juxtaposition of soliton interaction and nonlinear lattice potential, is deeper than the corresponding well Veff(LOL). But these effective potentials have opposite k dependence in the sense that the depth of Veff(LOL) increases as k increases and that of Veff(NOL) decreases for higher k values. We verify that the effectiveness of optical lattices to regulate the motion of the coupled solitons depends sensitively on the initial locations of the motionless solitons as well as values of the lattice wave number. For both LOL and NOL the two solitons meet each other due to mutual interaction if their initial locations are taken within the potential wells with the difference that the solitons in the NOL approach each other rather rapidly and take roughly half the time to meet as compared with the time needed for such coalescence in the LOL. In the NOL, the soliton profiles can move freely and respond to the lattice periodicity when the separation between their initial locations are as twice as that needed for a similar free movement in the LOL. We observe that, in both cases, slow tuning of the optical lattices by varying k with respect to a time parameter τ drags the oscillatory solitons apart to take them to different locations. In our potential model the oscillatory solitons appear to propagate undistorted. But a fully numerical calculation indicates that during evolution

  20. Physics of higher orbital bands in optical lattices: a review.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaopeng; Liu, W Vincent

    2016-11-01

    The orbital degree of freedom plays a fundamental role in understanding the unconventional properties in solid state materials. Experimental progress in quantum atomic gases has demonstrated that high orbitals in optical lattices can be used to construct quantum emulators of exotic models beyond natural crystals, where novel many-body states such as complex Bose-Einstein condensates and topological semimetals emerge. A brief introduction of orbital degrees of freedom in optical lattices is given and a summary of exotic orbital models and resulting many-body phases is provided. Experimental consequences of the novel phases are also discussed.

  1. Physics of higher orbital bands in optical lattices: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Liu, W. Vincent

    2016-11-01

    The orbital degree of freedom plays a fundamental role in understanding the unconventional properties in solid state materials. Experimental progress in quantum atomic gases has demonstrated that high orbitals in optical lattices can be used to construct quantum emulators of exotic models beyond natural crystals, where novel many-body states such as complex Bose-Einstein condensates and topological semimetals emerge. A brief introduction of orbital degrees of freedom in optical lattices is given and a summary of exotic orbital models and resulting many-body phases is provided. Experimental consequences of the novel phases are also discussed.

  2. Stability of matter-wave solitons in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sk. Golam; Roy, S. K.; Talukdar, B.

    2010-08-01

    We consider localized states of both single- and two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) confined in a potential resulting from the superposition of linear and nonlinear optical lattices and make use of Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion to investigate the effect of nonlinear lattice on the stability of the soliton solutions in the linear optical lattice (LOL). For the single-component case we show that a weak nonlinear lattice has very little effect on the stability of such solitons while sufficiently strong nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) squeezes them to produce narrow bound states. For two-component condensates we find that when the strength of the NOL (γ1) is less than that of the LOL (V0) a relatively weak intra-atomic interaction (IAI) has little effect on the stability of the component solitons. This is true for both attractive and repulsive IAI. A strong attractive IAI, however, squeezes the BEC solitons while a similar repulsive IAI makes the component solitons wider. For γ1 > V0, only a strong attractive IAI squeezes the BEC solitons but the squeezing effect is less prominent than that found for γ1 < V0. We make useful checks on the results of our semianalytical stability analysis by solving the appropriate Gross-Pitaevskii equations numerically.

  3. Mixtures of bosonic and fermionic atoms in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Albus, Alexander; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Eisert, Jens

    2003-08-01

    We discuss the theory of mixtures of bosonic and fermionic atoms in periodic potentials at zero temperature. We derive a general Bose-Fermi Hubbard Hamiltonian in a one-dimensional optical lattice with a superimposed harmonic trapping potential. We study the conditions for linear stability of the mixture and derive a mean-field criterion for the onset of a bosonic superfluid transition. We investigate the ground-state properties of the mixture in the Gutzwiller formulation of mean-field theory, and present numerical studies of finite systems. The bosonic and fermionic density distributions and the onset of quantum phase transitions to demixing and to a bosonic Mott-insulator are studied as a function of the lattice potential strength. The existence is predicted of a disordered phase for mixtures loaded in very deep lattices. Such a disordered phase possessing many degenerate or quasidegenerate ground states is related to a breaking of the mirror symmetry in the lattice.

  4. Optical lattice polarization effects on magnetically induced optical atomic clock transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.; Oates, C. W.

    2007-08-15

    We derive the frequency shift for a forbidden optical transition J=0{yields}J{sup '}=0 caused by the simultaneous actions of an elliptically polarized lattice field and a static magnetic field. We find that a simple configuration of lattice and magnetic fields leads to a cancellation of this shift to first order in lattice intensity and magnetic field. In this geometry, the second-order lattice intensity shift can be minimized as well by use of optimal lattice polarization. Suppression of these shifts could considerably enhance the performance of the next generation of atomic clocks.

  5. Veselago lensing with ultracold atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leder, Martin; Grossert, Christopher; Weitz, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Veselago pointed out that electromagnetic wave theory allows for materials with a negative index of refraction, in which most known optical phenomena would be reversed. A slab of such a material can focus light by negative refraction, an imaging technique strikingly different from conventional positive refractive index optics, where curved surfaces bend the rays to form an image of an object. Here we demonstrate Veselago lensing for matter waves, using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. A relativistic, that is, photon-like, dispersion relation for rubidium atoms is realized with a bichromatic optical lattice potential. We rely on a Raman π-pulse technique to transfer atoms between two different branches of the dispersion relation, resulting in a focusing that is completely analogous to the effect described by Veselago for light waves. Future prospects of the demonstrated effects include novel sub-de Broglie wavelength imaging applications.

  6. Veselago lensing with ultracold atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leder, Martin; Grossert, Christopher; Weitz, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Veselago pointed out that electromagnetic theory allows for materials with a negative index of refraction, in which most known optical phenomena are reversed. A slab of such a material can focus light by negative refraction, an imaging technique strikingly different from conventional positive refractive index optics, where curved surfaces bend the rays to form an image of an object. Here we demonstrate Veselago lensing for matter waves, using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. A relativistic, i.e. photon-like, dispersion relation for rubidium atoms is realized with a bichromatic optical lattice potential. A Raman pi-pulse technique serves to transfer atoms between two different branches of the dispersion relation, and the relativistic lensing occurs by a backwards propagation of atomic wavepackets on an energetically mirrored branch of the dispersion relation. We observe negative refraction and Veselago lensing both in a one-dimensional geometry and perform a ray-tracing simulation of a two-dimensional Veselago lens.

  7. Veselago lensing with ultracold atoms in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Leder, Martin; Grossert, Christopher; Weitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Veselago pointed out that electromagnetic wave theory allows for materials with a negative index of refraction, in which most known optical phenomena would be reversed. A slab of such a material can focus light by negative refraction, an imaging technique strikingly different from conventional positive refractive index optics, where curved surfaces bend the rays to form an image of an object. Here we demonstrate Veselago lensing for matter waves, using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. A relativistic, that is, photon-like, dispersion relation for rubidium atoms is realized with a bichromatic optical lattice potential. We rely on a Raman π-pulse technique to transfer atoms between two different branches of the dispersion relation, resulting in a focusing that is completely analogous to the effect described by Veselago for light waves. Future prospects of the demonstrated effects include novel sub-de Broglie wavelength imaging applications.

  8. Optical lattice polarization effects on hyperpolarizability of atomic clock transitions.

    PubMed

    Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Ovsiannikov, V D; Pal'chikov, V G

    2006-10-27

    The light-induced frequency shift due to hyperpolarizability (i.e., terms of second-order in intensity) is studied for a forbidden optical transition, J = 0 --> J = 0. A simple universal dependence on the field ellipticity is obtained. This result allows minimization of the second-order light shift with respect to the field polarization for optical lattices operating at a magic wavelength (at which the first-order shift vanishes). We show the possibility for the existence of a magic elliptical polarization, for which the second-order frequency shift vanishes. The optimal polarization of the lattice field can be either linear, circular, or magic elliptical. The obtained results could improve the accuracy of lattice-based atomic clocks.

  9. Strongly interacting bosons in a disordered optical lattice.

    PubMed

    White, M; Pasienski, M; McKay, D; Zhou, S Q; Ceperley, D; Demarco, B

    2009-02-06

    We experimentally probe the properties of the disordered Bose-Hubbard model using an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a 3D disordered optical lattice. Controllable disorder is introduced using a fine-grained optical speckle field with features comparable in size to the lattice spacing along every lattice direction. A precision measurement of the disordering potential is used to compute the single-particle parameters of the system. To constrain theories of the disordered Bose Hubbard model, we have measured the change in condensate fraction as a function of disorder strength for several different ratios of tunneling to interaction energy. We observe disorder-induced, reversible suppression of condensate fraction for superfluid and coexisting superfluid-Mott-insulator phases.

  10. Collisional shifts in optical-lattice atom clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Band, Y. B.; Vardi, A.

    2006-09-15

    We theoretically study the effects of elastic collisions on the determination of frequency standards via Ramsey-fringe spectroscopy in optical-lattice atom clocks. Interparticle interactions of bosonic atoms in multiply occupied lattice sites can cause a linear frequency shift, as well as generate asymmetric Ramsey-fringe patterns and reduce fringe visibility due to interparticle entanglement. We propose a method of reducing these collisional effects in an optical lattice by introducing a phase difference of {pi} between the Ramsey driving fields in adjacent sites. This configuration suppresses site-to-site hopping due to interference of two tunneling pathways, without degrading fringe visibility. Consequently, the probability of double occupancy is reduced, leading to cancellation of collisional shifts.

  11. Reply to ``Comment on `Feshbach resonances in an optical lattice' ''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerscheid, D. B. M.; van Oosten, D.; Stoof, H. T. C.

    2006-01-01

    We show that the Comment by Diener and Ho [Phys. Rev. A 73, 017601 (2006)] is based on the misunderstanding that the Hamiltonian used by Dickerscheid to describe Feshbach resonances in an optical lattice is a microscopic Hamiltonian as opposed to an effective Hamiltonian.

  12. Reply to 'Comment on 'Feshbach resonances in an optical lattice''

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerscheid, D. B. M.; Stoof, H. T. C.; Oosten, D. van

    2006-01-15

    We show that the Comment by Diener and Ho [Phys. Rev. A 73, 017601 (2006)] is based on the misunderstanding that the Hamiltonian used by Dickerscheid et al. to describe Feshbach resonances in an optical lattice is a microscopic Hamiltonian as opposed to an effective Hamiltonian.

  13. Pressure Sensor via Optical Detection Based on a 1D Spin Transition Coordination Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Jureschi, Cătălin M.; Linares, Jorge; Rotaru, Aurelian; Ritti, Marie Hélène; Parlier, Michel; Dîrtu, Marinela M.; Wolff, Mariusz; Garcia, Yann

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the suitability of using the 1D spin crossover coordination polymer [Fe(4-(2′-hydroxyethyl)-1,2,4-triazole)3]I2·H2O, known to crossover around room temperature, as a pressure sensor via optical detection using various contact pressures up to 250 MPa. A dramatic persistent colour change is observed. The experimental data, obtained by calorimetric and Mössbauer measurements, have been used for a theoretical analysis, in the framework of the Ising-like model, of the thermal and pressure induced spin state switching. The pressure (P)-temperature (T) phase diagram calculated for this compound has been used to obtain the P-T bistability region. PMID:25621610

  14. Superfluid qubit systems with ring shaped optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Amico, Luigi; Aghamalyan, Davit; Auksztol, Filip; Crepaz, Herbert; Dumke, Rainer; Kwek, Leong Chuan

    2014-03-06

    We study an experimentally feasible qubit system employing neutral atomic currents. Our system is based on bosonic cold atoms trapped in ring-shaped optical lattice potentials. The lattice makes the system strictly one dimensional and it provides the infrastructure to realize a tunable ring-ring interaction. Our implementation combines the low decoherence rates of neutral cold atoms systems, overcoming single site addressing, with the robustness of topologically protected solid state Josephson flux qubits. Characteristic fluctuations in the magnetic fields affecting Josephson junction based flux qubits are expected to be minimized employing neutral atoms as flux carriers. By breaking the Galilean invariance we demonstrate how atomic currents through the lattice provide an implementation of a qubit. This is realized either by artificially creating a phase slip in a single ring, or by tunnel coupling of two homogeneous ring lattices. The single qubit infrastructure is experimentally investigated with tailored optical potentials. Indeed, we have experimentally realized scaled ring-lattice potentials that could host, in principle, n ~ 10 of such ring-qubits, arranged in a stack configuration, along the laser beam propagation axis. An experimentally viable scheme of the two-ring-qubit is discussed, as well. Based on our analysis, we provide protocols to initialize, address, and read-out the qubit.

  15. Doublon dynamics and polar molecule production in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Covey, Jacob P; Moses, Steven A; Gärttner, Martin; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Miecnikowski, Matthew T; Fu, Zhengkun; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Julienne, Paul S; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah S; Ye, Jun

    2016-04-14

    Polar molecules in an optical lattice provide a versatile platform to study quantum many-body dynamics. Here we use such a system to prepare a density distribution where lattice sites are either empty or occupied by a doublon composed of an interacting Bose-Fermi pair. By letting this out-of-equilibrium system evolve from a well-defined, but disordered, initial condition, we observe clear effects on pairing that arise from inter-species interactions, a higher partial-wave Feshbach resonance and excited Bloch-band population. These observations facilitate a detailed understanding of molecule formation in the lattice. Moreover, the interplay of tunnelling and interaction of fermions and bosons provides a controllable platform to study Bose-Fermi Hubbard dynamics. Additionally, we can probe the distribution of the atomic gases in the lattice by measuring the inelastic loss of doublons. These techniques realize tools that are generically applicable to studying the complex dynamics of atomic mixtures in optical lattices.

  16. Superfluid qubit systems with ring shaped optical lattices

    PubMed Central

    Amico, Luigi; Aghamalyan, Davit; Auksztol, Filip; Crepaz, Herbert; Dumke, Rainer; Kwek, Leong Chuan

    2014-01-01

    We study an experimentally feasible qubit system employing neutral atomic currents. Our system is based on bosonic cold atoms trapped in ring-shaped optical lattice potentials. The lattice makes the system strictly one dimensional and it provides the infrastructure to realize a tunable ring-ring interaction. Our implementation combines the low decoherence rates of neutral cold atoms systems, overcoming single site addressing, with the robustness of topologically protected solid state Josephson flux qubits. Characteristic fluctuations in the magnetic fields affecting Josephson junction based flux qubits are expected to be minimized employing neutral atoms as flux carriers. By breaking the Galilean invariance we demonstrate how atomic currents through the lattice provide an implementation of a qubit. This is realized either by artificially creating a phase slip in a single ring, or by tunnel coupling of two homogeneous ring lattices. The single qubit infrastructure is experimentally investigated with tailored optical potentials. Indeed, we have experimentally realized scaled ring-lattice potentials that could host, in principle, n ~ 10 of such ring-qubits, arranged in a stack configuration, along the laser beam propagation axis. An experimentally viable scheme of the two-ring-qubit is discussed, as well. Based on our analysis, we provide protocols to initialize, address, and read-out the qubit. PMID:24599096

  17. Doublon dynamics and polar molecule production in an optical lattice

    PubMed Central

    Covey, Jacob P.; Moses, Steven A.; Gärttner, Martin; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Fu, Zhengkun; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Julienne, Paul S.; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah S.; Ye, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Polar molecules in an optical lattice provide a versatile platform to study quantum many-body dynamics. Here we use such a system to prepare a density distribution where lattice sites are either empty or occupied by a doublon composed of an interacting Bose-Fermi pair. By letting this out-of-equilibrium system evolve from a well-defined, but disordered, initial condition, we observe clear effects on pairing that arise from inter-species interactions, a higher partial-wave Feshbach resonance and excited Bloch-band population. These observations facilitate a detailed understanding of molecule formation in the lattice. Moreover, the interplay of tunnelling and interaction of fermions and bosons provides a controllable platform to study Bose-Fermi Hubbard dynamics. Additionally, we can probe the distribution of the atomic gases in the lattice by measuring the inelastic loss of doublons. These techniques realize tools that are generically applicable to studying the complex dynamics of atomic mixtures in optical lattices. PMID:27075831

  18. Super-resolution microscopy of single atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Andrea; Robens, Carsten; Alt, Wolfgang; Brakhane, Stefan; Karski, Michał; Reimann, René; Widera, Artur; Meschede, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    We report on image processing techniques and experimental procedures to determine the lattice-site positions of single atoms in an optical lattice with high reliability, even for limited acquisition time or optical resolution. Determining the positions of atoms beyond the diffraction limit relies on parametric deconvolution in close analogy to methods employed in super-resolution microscopy. We develop a deconvolution method that makes effective use of the prior knowledge of the optical transfer function, noise properties, and discreteness of the optical lattice. We show that accurate knowledge of the image formation process enables a dramatic improvement on the localization reliability. This allows us to demonstrate super-resolution of the atoms’ position in closely packed ensembles where the separation between particles cannot be directly optically resolved. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimental methods to precisely reconstruct the point spread function with sub-pixel resolution from fluorescence images of single atoms, and we give a mathematical foundation thereof. We also discuss discretized image sampling in pixel detectors and provide a quantitative model of noise sources in electron multiplying CCD cameras. The techniques developed here are not only beneficial to neutral atom experiments, but could also be employed to improve the localization precision of trapped ions for ultra precise force sensing.

  19. Exploring spin-orbit coupling in a non-degenerate optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Michael L.; Koller, Andrew P.; Li, Shuming; Rey, Ana Maria

    2015-05-01

    Optical lattice clocks have progressed in recent years to become not only precise timekeepers, but also sensitive probes of many-body physics. We consider a 1D optical lattice clock in which the wavelength of the laser that interrogates the clock transition is comparable to the optical lattice spacing. This light-matter coupling imprints a spatially dependent phase on the atomic internal state superposition, and this phase can be interpreted as a spin-orbit coupling. We show that this spin-orbit coupling manifests itself in Ramsey spectroscopy as an s-wave density shift in otherwise identically prepared fermions, even at temperatures significantly larger than the tunneling. Further, we show that Rabi spectroscopy can be mapped to a Hofstadter model on a two-leg ladder with chiral eigenstates. Using a modified Rabi procedure, we show how to extract momentum-resolved signatures of chirality solely by spectroscopic means. The effects of finite temperature, gaussian transverse confinement, and non-separability between transverse and axial degrees of freedom are discussed. This work has been financially supported by JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF-1211914, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI, NDSEG, and NRC.

  20. Strongly Interacting Atom Lasers in Three-Dimensional Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Hen, Itay; Rigol, Marcos

    2010-10-29

    We show that the dynamical melting of a Mott insulator in a three-dimensional lattice leads to condensation at nonzero momenta, a phenomenon that can be used to generate strongly interacting atom lasers in optical lattices. For infinite on-site repulsion, the case considered here, the momenta at which bosons condense are determined analytically and found to have a simple dependence on the hopping amplitudes. The occupation of the condensates is shown to scale linearly with the total number of atoms in the initial Mott insulator. Our results are obtained by using a Gutzwiller-type mean-field approach, gauged against exact-diagonalization solutions of small systems.

  1. Experimentally observed field–gas interaction in intense optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Graul, Jacob S.; Cornella, Barry M.; Ketsdever, Andrew D.; Lilly, Taylor C.; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2013-12-09

    When a gas perturbed by a laser interference pattern, an optical lattice, exhibits a periodic modulation of its refractive index, strong Bragg diffraction of the perturbing light can occur. This scattering reduces the field's ability to further manipulate the gas. Experimental observations of Bragg scattering, evidence of a two-way coupling, are compared to the evolution of the light fields calculated by solutions to the wave equation. Comparison indicates momentum deposition as a prime contributor to the shape of the scattering function vs. lattice velocity, a rationale further supported through additional direct simulation Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Dynamics of matter solitons in weakly modulated optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Brazhnyi, V.A.; Konotop, V.V.; Kuzmiak, V.

    2004-10-01

    It is shown that matter solitons can be effectively managed by means of smooth variations of parameters of optical lattices in which the condensate is loaded. The phenomenon is based on the effect of lattice modulations on the carrier wave transporting the soliton and that is why it is well understood in terms of the effective mass approach, where a particular spatial configuration of the band structure is of primary importance. Linear, parabolic, and spatially localized modulations are considered as case examples. It is shown that these defects can originate an accelerating and oscillating motion of matter solitons as well as they can simulate soliton interactions with attractive and repulsive defects.

  3. Effective Dirac dynamics of ultracold atoms in bichromatic optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Witthaut, D.; Salger, T.; Kling, S.; Grossert, C.; Weitz, M.

    2011-09-15

    We study the dynamics of ultracold atoms in tailored bichromatic optical lattices. By tuning the lattice parameters, one can readily engineer the band structure and realize a Dirac point, i.e., a true crossing of two Bloch bands. The dynamics in the vicinity of such a crossing is described by the one-dimensional Dirac equation, which is rigorously shown beyond the tight-binding approximation. Within this framework we analyze the effects of an external potential and demonstrate numerically that it is possible to demonstrate Klein tunneling with current experimental setups.

  4. Optical-lattice Hamiltonians for relativistic quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kapit, Eliot; Mueller, Erich

    2011-03-15

    We show how interpenetrating optical lattices containing Bose-Fermi mixtures can be constructed to emulate the thermodynamics of quantum electrodynamics (QED). We present models of neutral atoms on lattices in 1+1, 2+1, and 3+1 dimensions whose low-energy effective action reduces to that of photons coupled to Dirac fermions of the corresponding dimensionality. We give special attention to (2+1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED3) and discuss how two of its most interesting features, chiral symmetry breaking and Chern-Simons physics, could be observed experimentally.

  5. Prospects for Optical Clocks with a Blue-Detuned Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Takamoto, M.; Katori, H.; Marmo, S. I.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.; Pal'chikov, V. G.

    2009-02-13

    We investigated the properties of optical lattice clocks operated with a repulsive light-shift potential. The magic wavelength, where light-shift perturbation for the clock transition cancels, was experimentally determined to be 389.889(9) nm for {sup 87}Sr. The hyperpolarizability effects on the clock transition were investigated theoretically. With minimal trapping field perturbation provided by the blue-detuned lattice, the fractional uncertainty due to the hyperpolarizability effects was found to be 2x10{sup -19} in the relevant clock transition.

  6. Mixtures of Strongly Interacting Bosons in Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Buonsante, P.; Penna, V.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.; Vezzani, A.

    2008-06-20

    We investigate the properties of strongly interacting heteronuclear boson-boson mixtures loaded in realistic optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the physics of interfaces. In particular, we numerically reproduce the recent experimental observation that the addition of a small fraction of {sup 41}K induces a significant loss of coherence in {sup 87}Rb, providing a simple explanation. We then investigate the robustness against the inhomogeneity typical of realistic experimental realizations of the glassy quantum emulsions recently predicted to occur in strongly interacting boson-boson mixtures on ideal homogeneous lattices.

  7. Single ions trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Enderlein, Martin; Huber, Thomas; Schneider, Christian; Schaetz, Tobias

    2012-12-07

    We report on three-dimensional optical trapping of single ions in a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by two counterpropagating laser beams. We characterize the trapping parameters of the standing-wave using the ion as a sensor stored in a hybrid trap consisting of a radio-frequency (rf), a dc, and the optical potential. When loading ions directly from the rf into the standing-wave trap, we observe a dominant heating rate. Monte Carlo simulations confirm rf-induced parametric excitations within the deep optical lattice as the main source. We demonstrate a way around this effect by an alternative transfer protocol which involves an intermediate step of optical confinement in a single-beam trap avoiding the temporal overlap of the standing-wave and the rf field. Implications arise for hybrid (rf-optical) and pure optical traps as platforms for ultracold chemistry experiments exploring atom-ion collisions or quantum simulation experiments with ions, or combinations of ions and atoms.

  8. Dynamical phase interferometry of cold atoms in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    London, Uri; Gat, Omri

    2011-12-15

    We study the propagation of cold-atom wave packets in an interferometer with a Mach-Zehnder topology based on the dynamical phase of Bloch oscillation in a weakly forced optical lattice with a narrow potential barrier that functions as a cold-atom wave-packet splitter. We calculate analytically the atomic wave function, and show that the expected number of atoms in the two outputs of the interferometer oscillates rapidly as a function of the angle between the potential barrier and the forcing direction with period proportional to the external potential difference across a lattice spacing divided by the lattice band energy scale. The interferometer can be used as a high-precision force probe whose principle of operation is different from current interferometers based on the overall position of Bloch oscillating wave packets.

  9. Pinning an ion with an intracavity optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Linnet, Rasmus B; Leroux, Ian D; Marciante, Mathieu; Dantan, Aurélien; Drewsen, Michael

    2012-12-07

    We report one-dimensional pinning of a single ion by an optical lattice. A standing-wave cavity produces the lattice potential along the rf-field-free axis of a linear Paul trap. The ion's localization is detected by measuring its fluorescence when excited by standing-wave fields with the same period, but different spatial phases. The experiments agree with an analytical model of the localization process, which we test against numerical simulations. For the best localization achieved, the ion's average coupling to the cavity field is enhanced from 50% to 81(3)% of its maximum possible value, and we infer that the ion is bound in a lattice well with over 97% probability.

  10. Sorting via injection of particle streams into an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Michael P.; Neale, Steven L.; Smith, Ryan L.; Spalding, Gabriel C.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2005-08-01

    The growth of research into microfluidics, especially towards micro-Total Analysis Systems (μTAS), is leading to a demand for highly efficient and accurate methods for analyte delivery, sorting, mixing and analysis. Optical techniques, due to their non-invasive, non-contact properties are ideally suited to integration in to microfluidic systems. One of the key abilities in a μTAS device is the ability to sort microscopic matter. When done optically this typically involves fluorescence detection, management of the information detected and subsequent action such as the actuation of an electric field or electro-mechanical valve. We present here a method whereby the detection of a micro-particle's properties is done passively, with simultaneous separation of those particles. To do this particle streams are injected into a three-dimensional crystal-like lattice of optical intensity maxima. A particle's response to the three-dimensional optical potential landscape formed by the lattice depends on its polarisability. This leads to a sensitivity to size, refractive index and shape. More strongly interacting particles are deflected away from the main flow whilst those that interact weakly are washed straight through the lattice without little or no net deflection. We present analysis of both injection and subsequent re-routing/sorting of particle streams, using body-centred tetragonal and three-dimensional "log-pile" optical lattices to separate both inert colloid and blood cells by refractive index or size. Sorting with an efficiency as high as 96% has been achieved with particle deflections in excess of 45 degrees.

  11. Superlubric-pinned Aubry transition of two dimensional monolayers in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelli, Davide; Vanossi, Andrea; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    Two-dimensional (2D) crystalline colloidal monolayers sliding over a laser-induced optical lattice ``corrugation'' potential emulate friction between ideal crystal surfaces. Static friction is always present when the monolayer and the optical lattices are commensurate, but when they are incommensurate the presence or absence of static friction depends upon the system parameters. In 1D, at the Aubry dynamical phase transition the static friction goes continuously from zero (superlubricity) to finite as the periodic corrugation strength is increased. We look for the Aubry-like transition in the more realistic 2D case of a monolayer in an incommensurate periodic potential using molecular dynamics simulations. Results confirm a clear and sharp 2D superlubric-pinned transition upon increasing corrugation strength. Unlike the 1D Aubry transition which is continuous, the 2D transition is first-order, with a jump of static friction. At the 2D Aubry transition there is no change of symmetry, a sudden rise of the colloid-colloid interaction energy, and a compensating drop of the colloid-corrugation energy. The observability of the superlubric-pinned colloid transition is proposed and discussed. This work has been supported by ERC Advanced Grant N. 320796 MODPHYSFRICT.

  12. Wannier functions using a discrete variable representation for optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Saurabh; Tiesinga, Eite

    2016-09-01

    We propose a numerical method using the discrete variable representation (DVR) for constructing real-valued Wannier functions localized in a unit cell for both symmetric and asymmetric periodic potentials. We apply these results to finding Wannier functions for ultracold atoms trapped in laser-generated optical lattices. Following S. Kivelson [Phys. Rev. B 26, 4269 (1982), 10.1103/PhysRevB.26.4269], for a symmetric lattice with inversion symmetry, we construct Wannier functions as eigenstates of the position operators x ̂, y ̂, and z ̂ restricted to single-particle Bloch functions belonging to one or more bands. To ensure that the Wannier functions are real-valued, we numerically obtain the band structure and real-valued eigenstates using a uniform Fourier grid DVR. We then show, by a comparison of tunneling energies, that the Wannier functions are accurate for both inversion-symmetric and asymmetric potentials to better than 10 significant digits when using double-precision arithmetic. The calculations are performed for an optical lattice with double-wells per unit cell with tunable asymmetry along the x axis and a single sinusoidal potential along the perpendicular directions. Localized functions at the two potential minima within each unit cell are similarly constructed, but using a superposition of single-particle solutions from the two lowest bands. We finally use these localized basis functions to determine the two-body interaction energies in the Bose-Hubbard model and show the dependence of these energies on lattice asymmetry.

  13. Ytterbium optical lattice clock with 10-18 level characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Nathaniel; Sherman, Jeff; Beloy, Kyle; Hinkley, Nathan; Schioppo, Marco; Oates, Chris; Ludlow, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    A recent comparison of two ytterbium-based optical lattice clocks at NIST demonstrated record stability of 1 . 6 parts in 1018 after 25,000s averaging. We report on measurements of the two primary systematic effects that shift the ultra-narrow clock transition, towards a reduction of the clock uncertainty to the 10-18 level. Uncertainty stemming from the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift is largely due to imprecise knowledge of the thermal environment surrounding the atoms. We detail the construction and operation of an in-vacuum, thermally-regulated radiation shield, which permits laser cooling and trapping while enabling an absolute temperature measurement with < 20 mK precision. Additionally, while operation of the optical lattice at the magic wavelength (λm) cancels the scalar Stark shift (since both clock states shift equally), higher-order vector and two-photon hyperpolarizability shifts remain. To evaluate these effects, as well as the polarizability away from λm, we implement a lattice buildup cavity around the atoms. The resulting twenty-fold enhancement of the lattice intensity provides a significant lever arm for precise measurement of these effects.

  14. Superfluid and insulating phases of fermion mixtures in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Iskin, M; Sá de Melo, C A R

    2007-08-24

    The ground state phase diagram of fermion mixtures in optical lattices is analyzed as a function of interaction strength, fermion filling factor, and tunneling parameters. In addition to standard superfluid, phase-separated or coexisting superfluid -- excess-fermion phases found in homogeneous or harmonically trapped systems, fermions in optical lattices have several insulating phases, including a molecular Bose-Mott insulator (BMI), a Fermi-Pauli (band) insulator (FPI), a phase-separated BMI-FPI mixture or a Bose-Fermi checkerboard (BFC). The molecular BMI phase is the fermion mixture counterpart of the atomic BMI found in atomic Bose systems, the BFC or BMI-FPI phases exist in Bose-Fermi mixtures, and lastly the FPI phase is particular to the Fermi nature of the constituent atoms of the mixture.

  15. Observation of discrete diffraction patterns in an optically induced lattice.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jiteng; Wang, Jing; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Xiao, Min

    2015-07-27

    We have experimentally observed the discrete diffraction of light in a coherently prepared multi-level atomic medium. This is achieved by launching a probe beam into an optical lattice induced from the interference of two coupling beams. The diffraction pattern can be controlled through the atomic parameters such as two-photon detuning and temperature, as well as orientations of the coupling and probe beams. Clear diffraction patterns occur only near the two-photon resonance.

  16. Driven optical lattices as strong-field simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Arlinghaus, Stephan; Holthaus, Martin

    2010-06-15

    We argue that ultracold atoms in strongly shaken optical lattices can be subjected to conditions similar to those experienced by electrons in laser-irradiated crystalline solids, but without introducing secondary polarization effects. As a consequence, one can induce nonperturbative multiphoton-like resonances due to the mutual penetration of ac-Stark-shifted Bloch bands. These phenomena can be detected with a combination of currently available laboratory techniques.

  17. Ab Initio Study of Ultracold Polar Molecules in Optical Lattices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    polar molecules by using optical lattices and microwave fields’’, US-Japan Joint Seminar on Coherent Quantum Systems, Breckenridge, USA, August (2006...corresponds to the dissociation energy of both 40K and 87Rb in the energetically lowest hyperfine state . The levels are grouped by the projection quantum ...vibrational state . The J = 1 to J = 2 transition occurs at a larger photon frequency. For the near-resonance frequencies the polarizabilities in Fig

  18. Damped Bloch oscillations of cold atoms in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Kolovsky, A.R.; Ponomarev, A.V.; Korsch, H.J.

    2002-11-01

    The paper studies Bloch oscillations of cold neutral atoms in the optical lattice. The effect of spontaneous emission on the dynamics of the system is analyzed both analytically and numerically. The spontaneous emission is shown to cause (i) the decay of Bloch oscillations with the decrement given by the rate of spontaneous emission and (ii) the diffusive spreading of the atoms with a diffusion coefficient depending on both the rate of spontaneous emission and the Bloch frequency.

  19. Quasi-1D States Confined in a Self-Assembled Organic Super-Lattice of TTF-TCNQ on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Seokmin; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Sumpter, Bobby; Cerdá, Jorge Iribas; Maksymovych, Petro; CNMS Team; ICMM-CSIC Team

    2015-03-01

    Organic charge transfer complexes (CTC) have drawn much attention due to their potential applications to conducting or semiconducting organic thin films and contacts in devices. TTF-TCNQ is a historic organic CTC with one of the highest conductivity values among numerous organic conductors. As a two-component molecular material, TTF-TCNQ in a low-dimension form on a surface naturally creates monolayer super-lattices with corrugated electrostatic potential and adsorbate-induced strain. Generally this will lead to strong confinement of the surface states, although the detailed response of the surface electronic structure remains to be understood. We investigated TTF-TCNQ monolayer films grown on Ag(111), Au(111) and Ag(100) surfaces using STM/STS at 4.3 K. Confinement of sp-derived surface states was indeed ubiquitous, including spontaneous formation of quantum dots and quasi-1D bands. The small periodicity of the lattice caused a complete depopulation of the surface states, with up to 1 eV upshift of the band minimum - much stronger effect than normally observed in assemblies. This also allows us to infer the height of the confining potential using 1D Kronig-Penney model and critically assess the long-standing problem of molecule-surface charge transfer. A portion of this research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  20. Spin–orbit-coupled fermions in an optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolkowitz, S.; Bromley, S. L.; Bothwell, T.; Wall, M. L.; Marti, G. E.; Koller, A. P.; Zhang, X.; Rey, A. M.; Ye, J.

    2016-12-01

    Engineered spin–orbit coupling (SOC) in cold-atom systems can enable the study of new synthetic materials and complex condensed matter phenomena. However, spontaneous emission in alkali-atom spin–orbit-coupled systems is hindered by heating, limiting the observation of many-body effects and motivating research into potential alternatives. Here we demonstrate that spin–orbit-coupled fermions can be engineered to occur naturally in a one-dimensional optical lattice clock. In contrast to previous SOC experiments, here the SOC is both generated and probed using a direct ultra-narrow optical clock transition between two electronic orbital states in 87Sr atoms. We use clock spectroscopy to prepare lattice band populations, internal electronic states and quasi-momenta, and to produce spin–orbit-coupled dynamics. The exceptionally long lifetime of the excited clock state (160 seconds) eliminates decoherence and atom loss from spontaneous emission at all relevant experimental timescales, allowing subsequent momentum- and spin-resolved in situ probing of the SOC band structure and eigenstates. We use these capabilities to study Bloch oscillations, spin–momentum locking and Van Hove singularities in the transition density of states. Our results lay the groundwork for using fermionic optical lattice clocks to probe new phases of matter.

  1. Nonlocal optical properties in periodic lattice of graphene layers.

    PubMed

    Chern, Ruey-Lin; Han, Dezhuan

    2014-02-24

    Based on the effective medium model, nonlocal optical properties in periodic lattice of graphene layers with the period much less than the wavelength are investigated. Strong nonlocal effects are found in a broad frequency range for TM polarization, where the effective permittivity tensor exhibits the Lorentzian resonance. The resonance frequency varies with the wave vector and coincides well with the polaritonic mode. Nonlocal features are manifest on the emergence of additional wave and the occurrence of negative refraction. By examining the characters of the eigenmode, the nonlocal optical properties are attributed to the excitation of plasmons on the graphene surfaces.

  2. Energy logistics in an all-optical adder based on a 1D porous silicon photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushko, E. Ya.

    2011-09-01

    The ideology of a photonic crystal resonator covered with optically nonlinear layers is proposed for binary adder and logic gates of various kinds. The all-optical way to transform a physically added sequence of signals into the logical sequence with corresponding shift of digital units is based on the nonlinear band shift effect. In this work, the electromagnetic field structure for optically linear 1D porous silicon photonic crystal is investigated. The optical parameters of a 1D photonic crystal resonator built on layered porous silicon covered with a nonlinear layer are calculated for various nonlinear materials. An approximate design of an all-optical adder based on 1D porous silicon resonator is considered. The adder heating by powered optical pulses and energy distribution inside the device are analyzed and the problem solution with the use of special semitransparent redirecting mirrors is proposed. It was found that from the point of view of heating the R-scheme of signal processing is more optimal.

  3. Probing many-body interactions in an optical lattice clock

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, A.M.; Gorshkov, A.V.; Kraus, C.V.; Martin, M.J.; Bishof, M.; Swallows, M.D.; Zhang, X.; Benko, C.; Ye, J.; Lemke, N.D.; Ludlow, A.D.

    2014-01-15

    We present a unifying theoretical framework that describes recently observed many-body effects during the interrogation of an optical lattice clock operated with thousands of fermionic alkaline earth atoms. The framework is based on a many-body master equation that accounts for the interplay between elastic and inelastic p-wave and s-wave interactions, finite temperature effects and excitation inhomogeneity during the quantum dynamics of the interrogated atoms. Solutions of the master equation in different parameter regimes are presented and compared. It is shown that a general solution can be obtained by using the so called Truncated Wigner Approximation which is applied in our case in the context of an open quantum system. We use the developed framework to model the density shift and decay of the fringes observed during Ramsey spectroscopy in the JILA {sup 87}Sr and NIST {sup 171}Yb optical lattice clocks. The developed framework opens a suitable path for dealing with a variety of strongly-correlated and driven open-quantum spin systems. -- Highlights: •Derived a theoretical framework that describes many-body effects in a lattice clock. •Validated the analysis with recent experimental measurements. •Demonstrated the importance of beyond mean field corrections in the dynamics.

  4. Strongly interacting fermions in optical lattices and superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Timothy S.

    This dissertation summarizes my recent work regarding systems of strongly interacting fermionic atoms in optical lattices. This work addresses the combination of two experimental techniques that have been the subject of much recent research in ultracold atom physics. One is the use of optical lattices, which provide a means to realize diverse interaction configurations within a clean, controllable system. The other is the use of magnetically tunable Feshbach resonances to control the strength of the interatomic interaction. Together, these techniques offer the possibility of an experimental realization of many important model Hamiltonians of condensed matter physics, and may also lead to the discovery of new physics. Recent study of this system has shown that strong interactions near Feshbach resonance will lead to the population of multiple lattice bands, and that collisions between atoms on neighboring sites cannot be neglected. These effects lead to a complicated Hamiltonian, but one which can be simplified to an effective single-band model equivalent to the generalized Hubbard model (GHM), which is an extension of the Hubbard model that includes correlated hopping terms. My main results concern the study of this model. The strong correlations between the particles make it difficult to definitively determine the many body physics of the GHM. As a first approach to understanding the GHM in optical lattices, I focus mainly on cases where the problem is greatly simplified by allowing interactions among only small groups of lattice sites. This restriction can be implemented in experiments using an optical superlattice potential. Our results include a proposed scheme (based on double-well superlattices) to empirically verify that the GHM describes this system and to directly measure the various parameters of this model. Other results include exact solutions on four-site square plaquettes, which demonstrate that d-wave excitations can occur in the low-energy states

  5. Quantum simulation of frustrated classical magnetism in triangular optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Struck, J; Ölschläger, C; Le Targat, R; Soltan-Panahi, P; Eckardt, A; Lewenstein, M; Windpassinger, P; Sengstock, K

    2011-08-19

    Magnetism plays a key role in modern technology and stimulates research in several branches of condensed matter physics. Although the theory of classical magnetism is well developed, the demonstration of a widely tunable experimental system has remained an elusive goal. Here, we present the realization of a large-scale simulator for classical magnetism on a triangular lattice by exploiting the particular properties of a quantum system. We use the motional degrees of freedom of atoms trapped in an optical lattice to simulate a large variety of magnetic phases: ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and even frustrated spin configurations. A rich phase diagram is revealed with different types of phase transitions. Our results provide a route to study highly debated phases like spin-liquids as well as the dynamics of quantum phase transitions.

  6. Criterion for Bosonic Superfluidity in an Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, Roberto B.; Zhou Qi; Zhai Hui; Ho, T.-L.

    2007-05-04

    We show that the current method of determining superfluidity in optical lattices based on a visibly sharp bosonic momentum distribution n(k) can be misleading, for even a normal Bose gas can have a similarly sharp n(k). We show that superfluidity in a homogeneous system can be detected from the so-called visibility (v) of n(k)--that v must be 1 within O(N{sup -2/3}), where N is the number of bosons. We also show that the T=0 visibility of trapped lattice bosons is far higher than what is obtained in some current experiments, suggesting strong temperature effects and that these states can be normal. These normal states allow one to explore the physics in the quantum critical region.

  7. Synthetic Spin-Orbit Coupling in an Optical Lattice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Michael L.; Koller, Andrew P.; Li, Shuming; Zhang, Xibo; Cooper, Nigel R.; Ye, Jun; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    We propose the use of optical lattice clocks operated with fermionic alkaline-earth atoms to study spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in interacting many-body systems. The SOC emerges naturally during the clock interrogation, when atoms are allowed to tunnel and accumulate a phase set by the ratio of the "magic" lattice wavelength to the clock transition wavelength. We demonstrate how standard protocols such as Rabi and Ramsey spectroscopy that take advantage of the sub-Hertz resolution of state-of-the-art clock lasers can perform momentum-resolved band tomography and determine SOC-induced s -wave collisions in nuclear-spin-polarized fermions. With the use of a second counterpropagating clock beam, we propose a method for engineering controlled atomic transport and study how it is modified by p - and s -wave interactions. The proposed spectroscopic probes provide clean and well-resolved signatures at current clock operating temperatures.

  8. Synthetic Spin-Orbit Coupling in an Optical Lattice Clock.

    PubMed

    Wall, Michael L; Koller, Andrew P; Li, Shuming; Zhang, Xibo; Cooper, Nigel R; Ye, Jun; Rey, Ana Maria

    2016-01-22

    We propose the use of optical lattice clocks operated with fermionic alkaline-earth atoms to study spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in interacting many-body systems. The SOC emerges naturally during the clock interrogation, when atoms are allowed to tunnel and accumulate a phase set by the ratio of the "magic" lattice wavelength to the clock transition wavelength. We demonstrate how standard protocols such as Rabi and Ramsey spectroscopy that take advantage of the sub-Hertz resolution of state-of-the-art clock lasers can perform momentum-resolved band tomography and determine SOC-induced s-wave collisions in nuclear-spin-polarized fermions. With the use of a second counterpropagating clock beam, we propose a method for engineering controlled atomic transport and study how it is modified by p- and s-wave interactions. The proposed spectroscopic probes provide clean and well-resolved signatures at current clock operating temperatures.

  9. Quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J Ignacio; Reznik, Benni

    2016-01-01

    Can high-energy physics be simulated by low-energy, non-relativistic, many-body systems such as ultracold atoms? Such ultracold atomic systems lack the type of symmetries and dynamical properties of high energy physics models: in particular, they manifest neither local gauge invariance nor Lorentz invariance, which are crucial properties of the quantum field theories which are the building blocks of the standard model of elementary particles. However, it turns out, surprisingly, that there are ways to configure an atomic system to manifest both local gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. In particular, local gauge invariance can arise either as an effective low-energy symmetry, or as an exact symmetry, following from the conservation laws in atomic interactions. Hence, one could hope that such quantum simulators may lead to a new type of (table-top) experiments which will be used to study various QCD (quantum chromodynamics) phenomena, such as the confinement of dynamical quarks, phase transitions and other effects, which are inaccessible using the currently known computational methods. In this report, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of lattice gauge theories, and then describe our recent progress in constructing the quantum simulation of Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge theories in 1  +  1 and 2  +  1 dimensions using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.

  10. Optical trapping via guided resonance modes in a Slot-Suzuki-phase photonic crystal lattice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Martínez, Luis Javier; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2012-03-12

    A novel photonic crystal lattice is proposed for trapping a two-dimensional array of particles. The lattice is created by introducing a rectangular slot in each unit cell of the Suzuki-Phase lattice to enhance the light confinement of guided resonance modes. Large quality factors on the order of 10⁵ are predicted in the lattice. A significant decrease of the optical power required for optical trapping can be achieved compared to our previous design.

  11. Dynamical phase diagram of Gaussian wave packets in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, H.; Neff, T.; Fleischmann, R.

    2016-03-01

    We study the dynamics of self-trapping in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) loaded in deep optical lattices with Gaussian initial conditions, when the dynamics is well described by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE). In the literature an approximate dynamical phase diagram based on a variational approach was introduced to distinguish different dynamical regimes: diffusion, self-trapping, and moving breathers. However, we find that the actual DNLSE dynamics shows a completely different diagram than the variational prediction. We calculate numerically a detailed dynamical phase diagram accurately describing the different dynamical regimes. It exhibits a complex structure that can readily be tested in current experiments in BECs in optical lattices and in optical waveguide arrays. Moreover, we derive an explicit theoretical estimate for the transition to self-trapping in excellent agreement with our numerical findings, which may be a valuable guide as well for future studies on a quantum dynamical phase diagram based on the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian.

  12. Dynamical phase diagram of Gaussian wave packets in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Hennig, H; Neff, T; Fleischmann, R

    2016-03-01

    We study the dynamics of self-trapping in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) loaded in deep optical lattices with Gaussian initial conditions, when the dynamics is well described by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE). In the literature an approximate dynamical phase diagram based on a variational approach was introduced to distinguish different dynamical regimes: diffusion, self-trapping, and moving breathers. However, we find that the actual DNLSE dynamics shows a completely different diagram than the variational prediction. We calculate numerically a detailed dynamical phase diagram accurately describing the different dynamical regimes. It exhibits a complex structure that can readily be tested in current experiments in BECs in optical lattices and in optical waveguide arrays. Moreover, we derive an explicit theoretical estimate for the transition to self-trapping in excellent agreement with our numerical findings, which may be a valuable guide as well for future studies on a quantum dynamical phase diagram based on the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian.

  13. Proposals for quantum simulating simple lattice gauge theory models using optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Unmuth-Yockey, Judah; Bazavov, Alexei; Meurice, Yannick; Tsai, Shan-Wen

    We derive an effective spin Hamiltonian for the (1 +1)-dimensional Abelian Higgs model in the strongly coupled region by integrating out the link variables. With finite spin truncations, the Hamiltonian can be matched with a 1-dimensional two-species Bose Hubbard model in the strong-coupling limit that can be implemented with cold atoms on an optical lattice. We study the phase diagram of the original Abelian Higgs model with Monte Carlo simulation and Tensor Renormalization Group methods. The results show a crossover line which terminates near the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition point. The effective quantum Hamiltonian is also studied with the DMRG method, and we find that they have a similar behavior. We discuss practical experimental implementations for our quantum simulator. Species-dependent optical lattices and ladder systems with double-well potentials are considered. We show how to obtain each of the interaction parameters required in the Bose-Hubbard model that we obtained, and confirm the possibility of tuning these interactions to the region in which our mapping is valid. We emphasize that this proposal for quantum simulating a gauge theory uses a manifestly gauge-invariant formulation and Gauss's Law is therefore automatically satisfied. Supported by DoD ARO under Grant No. W911NF-13-1-0119 and by the NSF under Grants No. DMR-1411345.

  14. Controlled and Uncontrolled Disorder in Optical Lattice Emulators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-16

    matter potentially realizable with...Our  work  studies  novel  phases  of   matter  potentially  realizable  with  ultracold  atomic  gases   confined  in... matter  with  optical  lattices.    Our  work  discovered  new  classes  of   many-­‐body  models  that  meet

  15. Ultracold Heteronuclear Molecules in a 3D Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Ospelkaus, C.; Ospelkaus, S.; Humbert, L.; Ernst, P.; Sengstock, K.; Bongs, K.

    2006-09-22

    We report on the creation of ultracold heteronuclear molecules assembled from fermionic {sup 40}K and bosonic {sup 87}Rb atoms in a 3D optical lattice. Molecules are produced at a heteronuclear Feshbach resonance on both the attractive and the repulsive sides of the resonance. We precisely determine the binding energy of the heteronuclear molecules from rf spectroscopy across the Feshbach resonance. We characterize the lifetime of the molecular sample as a function of magnetic field and measure lifetimes between 20 and 120 ms. The efficiency of molecule creation via rf association is measured and is found to decrease as expected for more deeply bound molecules.

  16. Defect-mediated discrete solitons in optically induced photorefractive lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yongyao; Pang Wei; Chen Yongzhu; Yu Zhiqiang; Zhou Jianying; Zhang Huarong

    2009-10-15

    Theoretical analysis to the defect mediated discrete solitons in one- and two-dimensional periodical waveguide lattices is presented. The waveguide arrays with these functional defects are assumed to respond to the light field as an optically induced photorefraction and they are patterned by a holographic technique. It is found that the spatial energy distributions of the solitary waves can be controlled by the defects in the waveguide arrays, and this gives rise to an additional freedom to externally shaping the light field distribution to a special shape.

  17. Metastable superfluidity of repulsive fermionic atoms in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Rosch, Achim; Rasch, David; Binz, Benedikt; Vojta, Matthias

    2008-12-31

    In the fermionic Hubbard model, doubly occupied states have an exponentially large lifetime for strong repulsive interactions U. We show that this property can be used to prepare a metastable s-wave superfluid state for fermionic atoms in optical lattices described by a large-U Hubbard model. When an initial band-insulating state is expanded, the doubly occupied sites Bose condense. A mapping to the ferromagnetic Heisenberg model in an external field allows for a reliable solution of the problem. Nearest-neighbor repulsion and pair hopping are important in stabilizing superfluidity.

  18. Self-guiding of matter waves in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Tristram J.

    2011-04-15

    It is shown numerically that Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices may be localized as self-induced waveguides and that these waveguides may take complex forms, including bends and X junctions. The waveguides are found to support continuous condensate flow, even around multiple right-angle bends. It is demonstrated that pulsed matter-wave transport may also occur along single-site waveguides in the form of solitons and that these solitons may propagate around bends and collide without change of shape or dependence on phase. A scheme based on single-site addressability techniques and the Kibble-Zurek mechanism is proposed for observing these effects.

  19. Fermions in Optical Lattices Swept across Feshbach Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, Roberto B.; Ho, T.-L.

    2006-01-13

    We point out that the recent experiments at ETH on fermions in optical lattices, where a band insulator evolves continuously into states occupying many bands as the system is swept adiabatically across Feshbach resonance, have implications on a wide range of fundamental issues in condensed matter. We derive the effective Hamiltonian of these systems, obtain expressions for their energies and band populations, and point out the increasing quantum entanglement of the ground state during the adiabatic sweep. Our results also explain why only specific regions in k space can be populated after the sweep as found at ETH.

  20. Wilson fermions and axion electrodynamics in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, A; Mazza, L; Rizzi, M; Goldman, N; Lewenstein, M; Martin-Delgado, M A

    2010-11-05

    We show that ultracold Fermi gases in optical superlattices can be used as quantum simulators of relativistic lattice fermions in 3+1 dimensions. By exploiting laser-assisted tunneling, we find an analogue of the so-called naive Dirac fermions, and thus provide a realization of the fermion doubling problem. Moreover, we show how to implement Wilson fermions, and discuss how their mass can be inverted by tuning the laser intensities. In this regime, our atomic gas corresponds to a phase of matter where Maxwell electrodynamics is replaced by axion electrodynamics: a 3D topological insulator.

  1. Unveiling square and triangular optical lattices: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juarez G; Jesus-Silva, Alcenísio J; Alencar, Márcio A R C; Hickmann, Jandir M; Fonseca, Eduardo J S

    2014-02-15

    We study square and triangular optical lattice formation using a diffraction technique with light-possessing orbital angular momentum (OAM). We demonstrate that it is possible to use Fraunhofer diffraction of light by a square aperture to unveil OAM about two times bigger than would be possible with a triangular aperture. We notice that the pattern remains truncated until a topological charge (TC) equal to 20 with good precision. Even though a square pattern cannot be used to determine the TC sign, it is possible to measure high order of the modulus and sign of the TC up to 20, combining patterns of the triangular and square apertures.

  2. Optical lattice clocks near the QPN limit: a tenfold improvement in optical clock stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Travis

    2013-05-01

    Two classes of optical atomic clocks have surpassed microwave frequency standards: single-ion clocks and optical lattice clocks. Single-ion clocks hold the record for the lowest systematic uncertainty; however, many-atom lattice clocks have the potential to outperform single-ion clocks because the standard quantum limit to atomic clock instability (known as quantum projection noise or QPN) scales as 1 /√{Natoms}. For realistic atom numbers and coherence times, QPN-limited lattice clocks could average down to a given stability hundreds of times faster than the best ion clocks. Up to now lattice clocks with 1000 atoms have not shown improvement over the stability of single-ion clocks. Lattice clock stability has been limited by laser noise (via the optical Dick effect). To address this problem, we constructed a new clock laser with a thermal noise floor of 1 ×10-16 -an order of magnitude improvement over our previous clock laser. With this laser, we compare two lattice clocks, reaching instability of 1 ×10-17 in 2000 s for a single clock. This instability is within a factor of 2 of the theoretical QPN limit for 1000 atoms, representing the lowest reported instability for an independent clock. The high stability of many-particle clocks can come at the price of larger systematic uncertainty due to a frequency shift from atomic interactions. To minimize this shift, we use a cavity-enhanced lattice for our second clock. The high circulating power inside the cavity allows for a large trap volume, yielding a density at 2000 atoms that is 27 times smaller (than in our first clock) and permitting us to trap as many as 5 ×104 atoms. For 2000 atoms in our lattice, we measure a value for this shift (which is linear in density) of - 3 . 11 ×10-17 with an uncertainty of 8 . 2 ×10-19.

  3. Bose-Einstein condensation in a frustrated triangular optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, Peter; Huang, Wen-Min; Mathey, L.

    2016-12-01

    The recent experimental condensation of ultracold atoms in a triangular optical lattice with a negative effective tunneling parameter paves the way for the study of frustrated systems in a controlled environment. Here, we explore the critical behavior of the chiral phase transition in such a frustrated lattice in three dimensions. We represent the low-energy action of the lattice system as a two-component Bose gas corresponding to the two minima of the dispersion. The contact repulsion between the bosons separates into intra- and intercomponent interactions, referred to as V0 and V12, respectively. We first employ a Huang-Yang-Luttinger approximation of the free energy. For V12/V0=2 , which corresponds to the bare interaction, this approach suggests a first-order phase transition, at which both the U (1 ) symmetry of condensation and the Z2 symmetry of the emergent chiral order are broken simultaneously. Furthermore, we perform a renormalization-group calculation at one-loop order. We demonstrate that the coupling regime 0 1 we show that V0 flows to a negative value, while V12 increases and remains positive. This results in a breakdown of the effective quartic-field theory due to a cubic anisotropy and, again, suggests a discontinuous phase transition.

  4. Management of matter waves in optical lattices by means of the Feshbach resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Brazhnyi, V.A.; Konotop, V. V.

    2005-09-15

    The mean-field dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates loaded in an optical lattice, confined by a parabolic potential, and subjected to a change of scattering length by means of the Feshbach resonance is considered. The system is described by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation with varying nonlinearity, which in a number of cases is reduced to one-dimensional (1D) perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equations, the particular form of which depends on the relation among the parameters of the problem. We analytically describe the adiabatic dynamics of periodic solutions of the respective NLS equations, provide a numerical study of 1D models confined by a parabolic trap, and carry out numerical simulations of the matter-wave dynamics within the framework of the radially symmetric 3D GP equation. Special attention is paid to processes of generation of trains of bright and dark matter solitons from initially periodic waves. The results of the 1D approximation are compared with direct numerical simulation of the original 3D GP eqation, showing remarkable coincidence for definite regions of parameters.

  5. Quantum state control and characterization in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrskog, Stefan Henrik

    In this dissertation I present experimental work on the measurement and manipulation of the center-of-mass motion of laser-cooled atoms. The first experiment described demonstrates cooling of an atom cloud by 'delta-kick cooling'. A thermal cloud of atoms in a vacuum expands ballistically, generating correlations between position and momentum. An appropriate momentum kick, proportional to position, results in slowing down all the atoms in the cloud. Through this technique a cloud of atoms can be cooled by greater than a factor of 10, preserving phase-space density, but decreasing the number density of atoms. By using laser-cooled atoms, it is also possible to confine atoms in potentials created by the AC-Stark shift of the atomic energy levels. Using interfering lasers to create the Stark shift, atoms are confined in a sinusoidal potential called an optical lattice. After preparing atoms in the lowest-energy band of the lattice, a spatial displacement can create coherent superpositions of many states of the potential. A combination of time delays and secondary displacements allows the measurement of the Q (Husimi) and W (Wigner) quasi-probability distributions, each of which completely characterizes the motional state of the atoms. Alternatively, a shallow lattice that only support two long-lived states can be used. The two-state system may be characterized with far fewer measurements, and furthermore, can be used as a model system for a qubit, a quantum representation of a single bit of information, useful for quantum computation. We demonstrate reconstruction of the density matrix in the 2-state system. The two-state system has be further used to characterize the physical action of an operation. By preparing a complete set of input density matrices we perform quantum process tomography for the intrinsic decoherence of the lattice, and two operations that correspond to single qubit rotations.

  6. Stability improvements for the NIST Yb optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasano, R. J.; Schioppo, M.; McGrew, W. F.; Brown, R. C.; Hinkley, N.; Yoon, T. H.; Beloy, K.; Oates, C. W.; Ludlow, A. D.

    2016-05-01

    To reach the fundamental limit given by quantum projection noise, optical lattice clocks require advanced laser stabilization techniques. The NIST ytterbium clock has benefited from several generations of extremely high finesse optical cavities, with cavity linewidths below 1 kHz. Characterization of the cavity drift rate has allowed compensation to the mHz/s level, improving the medium-term stability of the cavity. Based on recent measurements using Ramsey spectroscopy with synchronous interrogation, we report a fractional instability σy(1s) <=10-16 , dominated by atom number fluctuation noise. We also provide updates on our cryogenic sapphire cavity with a reduced thermal noise floor, which will improve our Dick-limited fractional instability at 1 s to below 10-16. Also at University of Colorado.

  7. Subwavelength optical lattices induced by position-dependent dark states

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Qingqing; Evers, Joerg; Kiffner, Martin; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2011-05-15

    A method for the generation of subwavelength optical lattices based on multilevel dark states is proposed. The dark state is formed by a suitable combination of standing wave light fields, leading to position-dependent populations of the ground states. An additional field coupling dispersively to one of the ground states translates this position dependence into a subwavelength optical potential. We provide two semiclassical approaches to understand the involved physics, and demonstrate that they lead to identical results in a certain meaningful limit. Then we apply a Monte Carlo simulation technique to study the full quantum dynamics of the subwavelength trapping. Finally, we discuss the relevant time scales for the trapping, optimum conditions, and possible implementations.

  8. Accurate Optical Lattice Clock with {sup 87}Sr Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Le Targat, Rodolphe; Baillard, Xavier; Fouche, Mathilde; Brusch, Anders; Tcherbakoff, Olivier; Rovera, Giovanni D.; Lemonde, Pierre

    2006-09-29

    We report a frequency measurement of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition of {sup 87}Sr atoms in an optical lattice clock. The frequency is determined to be 429 228 004 229 879(5) Hz with a fractional uncertainty that is comparable to state-of-the-art optical clocks with neutral atoms in free fall. The two previous measurements of this transition were found to disagree by about 2x10{sup -13}, i.e., almost 4 times the combined error bar and 4 to 5 orders of magnitude larger than the claimed ultimate accuracy of this new type of clocks. Our measurement is in agreement with one of these two values and essentially resolves this discrepancy.

  9. Simulation of non-resonant gas-optical lattice interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kungurtsev, P. V.; Shevyrin, A. A.; Bondar, Ye. A.; Kashkovsky, A. V.; Gimelshein, S. F.; Shneider, M. N.

    2016-10-01

    Self-consistent interaction of a non-resonant optical lattice with a gas of polarizable particles is considered. We investigate periodic modulations of gas density in the field of high-intensity laser radiation from two opposing sources and potential's evolution due to intense Bragg reflection. The self-consistent model of laser field and gas interaction is developed and implemented into the SMILE++ software system based on the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method. We observed noticeable variation of the force acting on the particles in the interaction region, especially in its central part. Taking into account the arising spatial inhomogeneity of the optical potential we demonstrated noticeable effects on the evolution of the self-consistent system if the interaction region has a macroscopic size.

  10. Observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices

    PubMed Central

    Wimmer, Martin; Regensburger, Alois; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Bersch, Christoph; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Peschel, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Controlling light transport in nonlinear active environments is a topic of considerable interest in the field of optics. In such complex arrangements, of particular importance is to devise strategies to subdue chaotic behaviour even in the presence of gain/loss and nonlinearity, which often assume adversarial roles. Quite recently, notions of parity-time (PT) symmetry have been suggested in photonic settings as a means to enforce stable energy flow in platforms that simultaneously employ both amplification and attenuation. Here we report the experimental observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices. Unlike other non-conservative nonlinear arrangements where self-trapped states appear as fixed points in the parameter space of the governing equations, discrete PT solitons form a continuous parametric family of solutions. The possibility of synthesizing PT-symmetric saturable absorbers, where a nonlinear wave finds a lossless path through an otherwise absorptive system is also demonstrated. PMID:26215165

  11. Proposal for generating synthetic magnetic fields in hexagonal optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Binbin; Endres, Manuel; Pekker, David

    2015-05-01

    We propose a new approach to generating synthetic magnetic fields in ultra cold atom systems that does not rely on either Raman transitions nor periodic drive. Instead, we consider a hexagonal optical lattice produced by the intersection of three laser beams at 120 degree angles, where the intensity of one or more of the beams is spatially non-uniform. The resulting optical lattice remains hexagonal, but has spatially varying hopping matrix elements. For atoms near the Dirac points, these spatial variations appear as a gauge field, similar to the fictitious gauge field that is induced for for electrons in strained graphene. We suggest that a robust way to generate a gauge field that corresponds to a uniform flux is to aligning three gaussian beams to intersect in an equilateral triangle. Using realistic experimental parameters, we show how the proposed setup can be used to observe cyclotron motion of an atom cloud - the conventional Hall effect and distinct Landau levels - the integer quantum Hall effect.

  12. Exact matter-wave vortices in a driven optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yan; Hai, Wenhua; Zhou, Zheng

    2013-07-01

    We investigate vortex dynamics of a periodically driven Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a spatially two-dimensional optical lattice. An exact Floquet solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation is obtained for a certain parameter region which can be divided into the phase-jumping and phase-continuing regions. In the former region, the exact solution can describe spatiotemporal evolution of multiple vortices. For a small ratio of driving strength to optical lattice depth the vortices keep nearly unmoved. With the increase of the ratio, the vortices undergo an effective interaction and periodically evolve along some fixed circular orbits that leads the vortex dipoles and quadrupoles to produce and break alternatively. There is a critical ratio in the phase-jumping region beyond which the vortices generate and melt periodically. In the phase-continuing region, the condensate in the exact Floquet state evolves periodically without zero-density nodes. It is numerically demonstrated that the exact solution is stable under an initial perturbation for both parameter regions, except for a subregion of the phase-jumping region in which stability of the condensate is lost. However, the solution is structurally stable under a small parameter perturbation only for the phase-continuing region, while for the whole phase-jumping region the structural stability is destroyed. The results suggest a scheme for creating and controlling matter-wave vortices.

  13. Probing many-body interactions in an optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, A. M.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Kraus, C. V.; Martin, M. J.; Bishof, M.; Swallows, M. D.; Zhang, X.; Benko, C.; Ye, J.; Lemke, N. D.; Ludlow, A. D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a unifying theoretical framework that describes recently observed many-body effects during the interrogation of an optical lattice clock operated with thousands of fermionic alkaline earth atoms. The framework is based on a many-body master equation that accounts for the interplay between elastic and inelastic p-wave and s-wave interactions, finite temperature effects and excitation inhomogeneity during the quantum dynamics of the interrogated atoms. Solutions of the master equation in different parameter regimes are presented and compared. It is shown that a general solution can be obtained by using the so called Truncated Wigner Approximation which is applied in our case in the context of an open quantum system. We use the developed framework to model the density shift and decay of the fringes observed during Ramsey spectroscopy in the JILA 87Sr and NIST 171Yb optical lattice clocks. The developed framework opens a suitable path for dealing with a variety of strongly-correlated and driven open-quantum spin systems.

  14. Gravitational wave detection with optical lattice atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolkowitz, S.; Pikovski, I.; Langellier, N.; Lukin, M. D.; Walsworth, R. L.; Ye, J.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a space-based gravitational wave (GW) detector consisting of two spatially separated, drag-free satellites sharing ultrastable optical laser light over a single baseline. Each satellite contains an optical lattice atomic clock, which serves as a sensitive, narrowband detector of the local frequency of the shared laser light. A synchronized two-clock comparison between the satellites will be sensitive to the effective Doppler shifts induced by incident GWs at a level competitive with other proposed space-based GW detectors, while providing complementary features. The detected signal is a differential frequency shift of the shared laser light due to the relative velocity of the satellites, and the detection window can be tuned through the control sequence applied to the atoms' internal states. This scheme enables the detection of GWs from continuous, spectrally narrow sources, such as compact binary inspirals, with frequencies ranging from ˜3 mHz - 10 Hz without loss of sensitivity, thereby bridging the detection gap between space-based and terrestrial optical interferometric GW detectors. Our proposed GW detector employs just two satellites, is compatible with integration with an optical interferometric detector, and requires only realistic improvements to existing ground-based clock and laser technologies.

  15. Beam evolutions of solitons in strongly nonlocal media with fading optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhi-Ping; Lu, Shi-Zhuan; You, Kai-Ming

    2013-01-01

    We address the impact of imprinted fading optical lattices on the beam evolution of solitons in strongly nonlocal nonlinear media. The results show that the width of the soliton experiences a change with the increasing propagation distance, the critical power for the soliton varies with the lattice fading away, and the soliton breathing is affected by the initial lattice depth and the nonlocality degree.

  16. Ultraviolet laser spectroscopy of neutral mercury in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Mejri, S.; McFerran, J. J.; Yi, L.; Le Coq, Y.; Bize, S.

    2011-09-15

    We present details on the ultraviolet lattice spectroscopy of the (6s{sup 2}) {sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible} (6s6p) {sup 3}P{sub 0} transition in neutral mercury, specifically {sup 199}Hg. Mercury atoms are loaded into a one-dimensional vertically aligned optical lattice from a magneto-optical trap with an rms temperature of {approx}60 {mu}K. We describe aspects of the magneto-optical trapping, the lattice cavity design, and the techniques employed to trap and detect mercury in an optical lattice. The clock-line frequency dependence on lattice depth is measured at a range of lattice wavelengths. We confirm the magic wavelength to be 362.51(0.16) nm. Further observations to those reported by Yi et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 073005 (2011)] are presented regarding the laser excitation of a Wannier-Stark ladder of states.

  17. Quasiparticle Spectrum of 2-d Dirac Vortices in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Laith

    2009-10-01

    Bose-Einstein condensates in a honeycomb optical lattice are described by a nonlinear Dirac equaton (NLDE) in the long wavelength, mean field limit [1]. The upper and lower two-spinor equations decouple and superficially resemble the equations of previously studied NLDE's such as the Soler model for extended fermions. Although much work has been done on NLDE's, the bulk of the literature deals with models with Poincare invariant nonlinearites. In contrast our equations break Poincare symmetry providing an opportunity to study phenomenological models in cosmology and particle physics where this symmetry is not manifest. We obtain and classify localized solutions to our equations for both repulsive and attractive contact interactions. We also derive analogs of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for the lattice and use these to study the stability and low energy spectrum of our solutions showing the existence of stable exotic structures such as vortices with fractional statistics.[4pt] [1] L. H. Haddad and L. D. Carr, ``The Nonlinear Dirac Equation in Bose-Einstein Condensates: Foundation and Symmetries,'' Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, v. 238, p. 1413 (2009). http://arxiv.org/pdf/0803.3039v1

  18. State diagrams for harmonically trapped bosons in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Rigol, Marcos; Batrouni, George G.; Rousseau, Valery G.; Scalettar, Richard T.

    2009-05-15

    We use quantum Monte Carlo simulations to obtain zero-temperature state diagrams for strongly correlated lattice bosons in one and two dimensions under the influence of a harmonic confining potential. Since harmonic traps generate a coexistence of superfluid and Mott insulating domains, we use local quantities such as the quantum fluctuations of the density and a local compressibility to identify the phases present in the inhomogeneous density profiles. We emphasize the use of the 'characteristic density' to produce a state diagram that is relevant to experimental optical lattice systems, regardless of the number of bosons or trap curvature and of the validity of the local-density approximation. We show that the critical value of U/t at which Mott insulating domains appear in the trap depends on the filling in the system, and it is in general greater than the value in the homogeneous system. Recent experimental results by Spielman et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 120402 (2008)] are analyzed in the context of our two-dimensional state diagram, and shown to exhibit a value for the critical point in good agreement with simulations. We also study the effects of finite, but low (T{<=}t/2), temperatures. We find that in two dimensions they have little influence on our zero-temperature results, while their effect is more pronounced in one dimension.

  19. Measuring Z2 topological invariants in optical lattices using interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grusdt, F.; Abanin, D.; Demler, E.

    2014-04-01

    We propose an interferometric method to measure Z2 topological invariants of time-reversal invariant topological insulators realized with optical lattices in two and three dimensions. We suggest two schemes which both rely on a combination of Bloch oscillations with Ramsey interferometry and can be implemented using standard tools of atomic physics. In contrast to topological Zak phase and Chern number, defined for individual one-dimensional and two-dimensional Bloch bands, the formulation of the Z2 invariant involves at least two Bloch bands related by time-reversal symmetry which one must keep track of in measurements. In one of our schemes this can be achieved by the measurement of Wilson loops, which are non-Abelian generalizations of Zak phases. The winding of their eigenvalues is related to the Z2 invariant. We thereby demonstrate that Wilson loops are not just theoretical concepts but can be measured experimentally. For the second scheme we introduce a generalization of time-reversal polarization which is continuous throughout the Brillouin zone. We show that its winding over half the Brillouin zone yields the Z2 invariant. To measure this winding, our protocol only requires Bloch oscillations within a single band, supplemented by coherent transitions to a second band which can be realized by lattice shaking.

  20. Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks.

    PubMed

    Le Targat, R; Lorini, L; Le Coq, Y; Zawada, M; Guéna, J; Abgrall, M; Gurov, M; Rosenbusch, P; Rovera, D G; Nagórny, B; Gartman, R; Westergaard, P G; Tobar, M E; Lours, M; Santarelli, G; Clairon, A; Bize, S; Laurent, P; Lemonde, P; Lodewyck, J

    2013-01-01

    Progress in realizing the SI second had multiple technological impacts and enabled further constraint of theoretical models in fundamental physics. Caesium microwave fountains, realizing best the second according to its current definition with a relative uncertainty of 2-4 × 10(-16), have already been overtaken by atomic clocks referenced to an optical transition, which are both more stable and more accurate. Here we present an important step in the direction of a possible new definition of the second. Our system of five clocks connects with an unprecedented consistency the optical and the microwave worlds. For the first time, two state-of-the-art strontium optical lattice clocks are proven to agree within their accuracy budget, with a total uncertainty of 1.5 × 10(-16). Their comparison with three independent caesium fountains shows a degree of accuracy now only limited by the best realizations of the microwave-defined second, at the level of 3.1 × 10(-16).

  1. Frequency comparison of optical lattice clocks beyond the Dick limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamoto, Masao; Takano, Tetsushi; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2011-05-01

    The supreme accuracy of atomic clocks relies on the universality of atomic transition frequencies. The stability of a clock, meanwhile, measures how quickly the clock's statistical uncertainties are reduced. The ultimate measure of stability is provided by the quantum projection noise, which improves as 1/√N by measuring N uncorrelated atoms. Quantum projection noise limited stabilities have been demonstrated in caesium clocks and in single-ion optical clocks, where the quantum noise overwhelms the Dick effect attributed to local oscillator noise. Here, we demonstrate a synchronous frequency comparison of two optical lattice clocks using 87Sr and 88Sr atoms, respectively, for which the Allan standard deviation reached 1 × 10-17 in an averaging time of 1,600 s by cancelling out the Dick effect to approach the quantum projection noise limit. The scheme demonstrates the advantage of using a large number (N ~ 1,000) of atoms in optical clocks and paves the way to investigating the inherent uncertainties of clocks and relativistic geodesy on a timescale of tens of minutes.

  2. Controlled mode tuning in 1-D 'RIM' plasmonic crystal trench cavities probed with coupled optical emitters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tsung-li; Russell, Kasey J; Cui, Shanying; Hu, Evelyn L

    2013-12-02

    We present a design of plasmonic cavities that consists of two sets of 1-D plasmonic crystal reflectors on a plasmonic trench waveguide. A 'reverse image mold' (RIM) technique was developed to pattern high-resolution silver trenches and to embed emitters at the cavity field maximum, and FDTD simulations were performed to analyze the frequency response of the fabricated devices. Distinct cavity modes were observed from the photoluminescence spectra of the organic dye embedded within these cavities. The cavity geometry facilitates tuning of the modes through a change in cavity dimensions. Both the design and the fabrication technique presented could be extended to making trench waveguide-based plasmonic devices and circuits.

  3. New optical scheme for parallel processing of 1D gray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoliang; Jin, Guofan; Wu, Minxian; Yan, Yingbai

    1994-06-01

    Based on mathematical morphology and digital umbra shading and shadowing algorithm, a new scheme for realizing the fundamental morphological operation of one dimensional gray images is proposed. The mathematical formula for the parallel processing of 1D gray images is summarized; some important conclusions of morphological processing from binary images to gray images are obtained. The advantages of this scheme is simple in structure, high resolution in gray level, and good in parallelism. It can raise the speed of performing morphological processing of gray images greatly and obtain more accurate results.

  4. Dynamics of pattern-loaded fermions in bichromatic optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Matthew D.; Mueller, Erich J.

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by experiments in Munich [M. Schreiber et al., Science 349, 842 (2015)., 10.1126/science.aaa7432], we study the dynamics of interacting fermions initially prepared in charge density wave states in one-dimensional bichromatic optical lattices. The experiment sees a marked lack of thermalization, which has been taken as evidence for an interacting generalization of Anderson localization, dubbed "many-body localization." We model the experiments using an interacting Aubry-Andre model and develop a computationally efficient low-density cluster expansion to calculate the even-odd density imbalance as a function of interaction strength and potential strength. Our calculations agree with the experimental results and shed light on the phenomena. We also explore a two-dimensional generalization. The cluster expansion method we develop should have broad applicability to similar problems in nonequilibrium quantum physics.

  5. General Hubbard Model for Fermions in an Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestner, Jason; Duan, Luming

    2009-03-01

    For two-component fermions in an optical lattice, an effective general Hubbard model (GHM) with tunable on-site attraction/repulsion and occupation-dependent hopping rates emerges from very general arguments [1]. This model is quite interesting, containing as special cases both the t-J and the XXZ models. However, the experimental range of applicability and the connection between the model parameters and the actual experimental parameters must be determined explicitly. To this end, we have used a stochastic variational approach with a correlated gaussian wavefunction to numerically find the eigenstates of two atoms interacting in a 3D few-well trap. By matching the few-site spectrum of the GHM to the variational spectrum obtained, the validity of the model and the relationship between experimental and model parameters are determined. [1] L.-M. Duan, Euro. Phys. Lett. 81, 20001 (2008).

  6. Localization of collisionally inhomogeneous condensates in a bichromatic optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Yongshan; Adhikari, S. K.

    2011-02-15

    By direct numerical simulation and variational solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we studied the stationary and dynamic characteristics of a cigar-shaped, localized, collisionally inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a one-dimensional bichromatic quasiperiodic optical-lattice potential, as used in a recent experiment on the localization of a Bose-Einstein condensate [Roati et al., Nature (London) 453, 895 (2008)]. The effective potential characterizing the spatially modulated nonlinearity is obtained. It is found that the collisional inhomogeneity has influence not only on the central region but also on the tail of the Bose-Einstein condensate. The influence depends on the sign and value of the spatially modulated nonlinearity coefficient. We also demonstrate the stability of the stationary localized state by performing a standard linear stability analysis. Where possible, the numerical results are shown to be in good agreement with the variational results.

  7. Simulating the Wess-Zumino Supersymmetry Model in Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Yue; Yang Kun

    2010-10-08

    We study a cold atom-molecule mixture in two-dimensional optical lattices. We show that, by fine-tuning the atomic and molecular interactions, the Wess-Zumino supersymmetry (SUSY) model in 2+1 dimensions emerges in the low-energy limit and can be simulated in such mixtures. At zero temperature, SUSY is not spontaneously broken, which implies identical relativistic dispersions of the atom and its superpartner, a bosonic diatom molecule. This defining signature of SUSY can be probed by single-particle spectroscopies. Thermal breaking of SUSY at a finite temperature is accompanied by a thermal Goldstone fermion, i.e., phonino excitation. This and other signatures of broken SUSY can also be probed experimentally.

  8. Non-standard Hubbard models in optical lattices: a review.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Omjyoti; Gajda, Mariusz; Hauke, Philipp; Lewenstein, Maciej; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören; Malomed, Boris A; Sowiński, Tomasz; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2015-06-01

    Originally, the Hubbard model was derived for describing the behavior of strongly correlated electrons in solids. However, for over a decade now, variations of it have also routinely been implemented with ultracold atoms in optical lattices, allowing their study in a clean, essentially defect-free environment. Here, we review some of the vast literature on this subject, with a focus on more recent non-standard forms of the Hubbard model. After giving an introduction to standard (fermionic and bosonic) Hubbard models, we discuss briefly common models for mixtures, as well as the so-called extended Bose-Hubbard models, that include interactions between neighboring sites, next-neighbor sites, and so on. The main part of the review discusses the importance of additional terms appearing when refining the tight-binding approximation for the original physical Hamiltonian. Even when restricting the models to the lowest Bloch band is justified, the standard approach neglects the density-induced tunneling (which has the same origin as the usual on-site interaction). The importance of these contributions is discussed for both contact and dipolar interactions. For sufficiently strong interactions, the effects related to higher Bloch bands also become important even for deep optical lattices. Different approaches that aim at incorporating these effects, mainly via dressing the basis, Wannier functions with interactions, leading to effective, density-dependent Hubbard-type models, are reviewed. We discuss also examples of Hubbard-like models that explicitly involve higher p orbitals, as well as models that dynamically couple spin and orbital degrees of freedom. Finally, we review mean-field nonlinear Schrödinger models of the Salerno type that share with the non-standard Hubbard models nonlinear coupling between the adjacent sites. In that part, discrete solitons are the main subject of consideration. We conclude by listing some open problems, to be addressed in the future.

  9. Orbit, optics and chromaticity correction for PS2 negative momentum compaction lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Papaphilippou,Y.; Barranco, J.; Bartmann, W.; Benedikt, M.; Carli, C.; de Maria, R.; Peggs, S.; Trbojevic, D.

    2009-05-04

    The effect of magnet misalignments in the beam orbit and linear optics functions are reviewed and correction schemes are applied to the negative momentum compaction lattice of PS2. Chromaticity correction schemes are also proposed and tested with respect to off-momentum optics properties. The impact of the correction schemes in the dynamic aperture of the lattice is finally evaluated.

  10. Optical signatures of a hypercritical 1D potential in a 2D Dirac metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bor-Yuan; Ni, Guangxin; Pan, Cheng; Fei, Zhe; Cheng, Bin; Lau, Chun Ning; Bockrath, Marc; Basov, Dimitri; Fogler, Michael

    Generation of quasi-bound states in graphene near strong charged perturbations is a solid-state analog of atomic collapse of superheavy elements or particle production by hypothetical cosmic strings. We show, for the case of a linelike perturbation, that as the perturbation grows in strength, quasi-bound states are generated sequentially. Each of these critical events is signaled by a sharp change in the local optical conductivity. Tunable linelike perturbations can be realized in experiment using nanowire or nanotube electrostatic gates. We report measurements of local conductivity for such systems obtained through near-field optical microscopy.

  11. CP(N - 1) quantum field theories with alkaline-earth atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laflamme, C.; Evans, W.; Dalmonte, M.; Gerber, U.; Mejía-Díaz, H.; Bietenholz, W.; Wiese, U.-J.; Zoller, P.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a cold atom implementation to attain the continuum limit of (1 + 1) -d CP(N - 1) quantum field theories. These theories share important features with (3 + 1) -d QCD, such as asymptotic freedom and θ-vacua. Moreover, their continuum limit can be accessed via the mechanism of dimensional reduction. In our scheme, the CP(N - 1) degrees of freedom emerge at low energies from a ladder system of SU(N) quantum spins, where the N spin states are embodied by the nuclear Zeeman states of alkaline-earth atoms, trapped in an optical lattice. Based on Monte Carlo results, we establish that the continuum limit can be demonstrated by an atomic quantum simulation by employing the feature of asymptotic freedom. We discuss a protocol for the adiabatic preparation of the ground state of the system, the real-time evolution of a false θ-vacuum state after a quench, and we propose experiments to unravel the phase diagram at non-zero density.

  12. Development of a strontium optical lattice clock for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Yeshpal

    2016-07-01

    With timekeeping being of paramount importance for modern life, much research and major scientific advances have been undertaken in the field of frequency metrology, particularly over the last few years. New Nobel-prize winning technologies have enabled a new era of atomic clocks; namely the optical clock. These have been shown to perform significantly better than the best microwave clocks reaching an inaccuracy of 1.6x10-18 [1]. With such results being found in large lab based apparatus, the focus now has shifted to portability - to enable the accuracy of various ground based clocks to be measured, and compact autonomous performance - to enable such technologies to be tested in space. This could lead to a master clock in space, improving not only the accuracy of technologies on which modern life has come to require such as GPS and communication networks. But also more fundamentally, this could lead to the redefinition of the second and tests of fundamental physics including applications in the fields of ground based and satellite geodesy, metrology, positioning, navigation, transport and logistics etc. Within the European collaboration, Space Optical Clocks (SOC2) [2-3] consisting of various institutes and industry partners across Europe we have tried to tackle this problem of miniaturisation whilst maintaining stability, accuracy (5x10-17) and robustness whilst keeping power consumption to a minimum - necessary for space applications. We will present the most recent results of the Sr optical clock in SOC2 and also the novel compact design features, new methods employed and outlook. References [1] B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, "An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10-18 level," Nature 506, 71-75 (2014). [2] S. Schiller et al. "Towards Neutral-atom Space Optical Clocks (SOC2): Development of high-performance transportable and breadboard optical clocks and

  13. Stationary and traveling solitons via local dissipation in Bose-Einstein condensates in ring optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Russell; Oppo, Gian-Luca

    2016-10-01

    A model of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a ring optical lattice with atomic dissipations applied at a stationary or at a moving location on the ring is presented. The localized dissipation is shown to generate and stabilize both stationary and traveling lattice solitons. Among many localized solutions, we have generated spatially stationary quasiperiodic lattice solitons and a family of traveling lattice solitons with two intensity peaks per potential well with no counterpart in the discrete case. Collisions between traveling and stationary lattice solitons as well as between two traveling lattice solitons display a critical dependence from the lattice depth. Stable counterpropagating solitons in ring lattices can find applications in gyroscope interferometers with ultracold gases.

  14. Nearly-one-dimensional self-attractive Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Salasnich, L.; Toigo, F.; Cetoli, A.; Malomed, B. A.

    2007-03-15

    Within the framework of a mean-field description, we investigate atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, with attraction between atoms, under the action of a strong transverse confinement and periodic [optical-lattice (OL)] axial potential. Using a combination of the variational approximation, one-dimensional (1D) nonpolynomial Schroedinger equation, and direct numerical solutions of the underlying 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we show that the ground state of the condensate is a soliton belonging to the semi-infinite band gap of the periodic potential. The soliton may be confined to a single cell of the lattice or extended to several cells, depending on the effective self-attraction strength g (which is proportional to the number of atoms bound in the soliton) and depth of the potential, V{sub 0}, the increase of V{sub 0} leading to strong compression of the soliton. We demonstrate that the OL is an effective tool to control the soliton's shape. It is found that, due to the 3D character of the underlying setting, the ground-state soliton collapses at a critical value of the strength, g=g{sub c}, which gradually decreases with the increase of V{sub 0}; under typical experimental conditions, the corresponding maximum number of {sup 7}Li atoms in the soliton, N{sub max}, ranges between 8000 and 4000. Examples of stable multipeaked solitons are also found in the first finite band gap of the lattice spectrum. The respective critical value g{sub c} again slowly decreases with the increase of V{sub 0}, corresponding to N{sub max}{approx_equal}5000.

  15. Low noise optical lattices for a Li-6 Fermi gas microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurenko, Anton; Parsons, Maxwell; Chiu, Christie; Huber, Florian; Blatt, Sebastian; Greiner, Markus

    2015-05-01

    We report on recent progress towards single-site resolved imaging of fermions in an optical lattice. Fermionic 6-Li atoms are trapped in an optical lattice 10 μm below a high-quality reference surface in the image plane of a high resolution (NA 0.85) imaging system. We have created a highly intensity-stable optical lattice whose depth remains adjustable over three orders of magnitude. The high optical resolution enables a band mapping technique that allows detection of less than 1000 atoms in the ground band of the lattice. We use this technique to measure the decay of the radial ground band population and find lifetimes up to 70 seconds, limited by spontaneous scattering of lattice light. ARO DARPA OLE, ARO MURI, NSF, AFOSR MURI, and The Moore Foundation.

  16. Optical anisotropy of quasi-1D rare-earth silicide nanostructures on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandola, S.; Speiser, E.; Esser, N.; Appelfeller, S.; Franz, M.; Dähne, M.

    2017-03-01

    Rare earth metals are known to interact strongly with Si(001) surfaces to form different types of silicide nanostructures. Using STM to structurally characterize Dy and Tb silicide nanostructures on vicinal Si(001), it will be shown that reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) can be used as an optical fingerprint technique to clearly distinguish between the formation of a semiconducting two-dimensional wetting layer and the metallic one-dimensional nanowires. Moreover, the distinctive spectral features can be related to structural units of the nanostructures. RAS spectra of Tb and Dy nanostructures are found to show similar features.

  17. Superfluidity of fermions with repulsive on-site interaction in an anisotropic optical lattice near a Feshbach resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Duan, L.-M.

    2008-07-01

    We present a numerical study on ground state properties of a one-dimensional (1D) general Hubbard model (GHM) with particle-assisted tunnelling rates and repulsive on-site interaction (positive-U), which describes fermionic atoms in an anisotropic optical lattice near a wide Feshbach resonance. For our calculation, we utilize the time evolving block decimation (TEBD) algorithm, which is an extension of the density matrix renormalization group and provides a well-controlled method for 1D systems. We show that the positive-U GHM, when hole-doped from half-filling, exhibits a phase with coexistence of quasi-long-range superfluid and charge-density-wave orders. This feature is different from the property of the conventional Hubbard model with positive-U, indicating the particle-assisted tunnelling mechanism in GHM brings in qualitatively new physics.

  18. Optical reflectance and omnidirectional bandgaps in Fibonacci quasicrystals type 1-D multilayer structures containing exponentially graded material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bipin K.; Thapa, Khem B.; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2013-06-01

    A theoretical study of optical reflectance and reflection bands of 1-D photonic quasi-crystals (Fibonacci type arrangement) composed of exponentially graded material is presented. The proposed structures consist of two different layers, one of them is of constant refractive index (L) and the other one is of exponentially graded refractive index (S) dielectric materials. Four different generations (2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th) of the Fibonacci sequence for 10 periods in one dimension (1-D) are considered and compared in view of their optical reflectance and bandgaps for both TE and TM polarisations. Also, we proposed some heterostructures made by the combination of different Fibonacci generations and their periods to obtain suitable omnidirectional reflection band. We used the transfer matrix method (TMM) to obtain the reflectance, bandgaps and omnidirectional reflectional bandgaps (ODR) of such structures in near infrared spectrum (800-2200 nm) at different angles of incidence. We show that ODR exists in these types of structures. The number of ODRs and total bandgap depend on the Fibonacci generations. Extraordinary ODR bandgaps are obtained in the case of heterostructures formed by the combination of different generations of the Fibonacci sequence. The ODR for these structures is similar to the ODR of photonic crystals containing left-handed materials. This work would be useful to study the Fibonacci type photonic crystals having graded index materials and also it will open new window to design several photonic crystal devices like sensors, reflectors, etc. in the infrared region.

  19. Laser cooling of cesium atoms in far-detuned optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winoto, Sugiharto Lukman

    1999-11-01

    High-density cold Cesium atoms from a transiently compressed magneto-optical trap (MOT) are loaded into far red-detuned optical lattice traps. A subsequent independent laser cooling of the atoms in the trap is shown to be of the polarization gradient cooling (PGC) type. The PGC produces strong localization of atoms in the periodic anti-nodes of lattice sites corresponding to significant occupation of the lattice vibrational ground states. Adiabatic relaxation of the 3D optical lattice trap results in the highest phase-space density achievable for a large number of atoms through a purely optical method of cooling and trapping. The resulting atom cloud is to be loaded into a conservative optical dipole trap for an experimental search of Cesium Bose- Einstein condensation (BEC) through a method of evaporative cooling in the dipole trap.

  20. Atomic Bloch-Zener oscillations and Stückelberg interferometry in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Kling, Sebastian; Salger, Tobias; Grossert, Christopher; Weitz, Martin

    2010-11-19

    We report on experiments investigating quantum transport and band interferometry of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice with a two-band miniband structure, realized with a Fourier-synthesized optical lattice potential. Bloch-Zener oscillations, the coherent superposition of Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunneling between the two bands, are observed. When the relative phase between paths in different bands is varied, an interference signal is observed, demonstrating the coherence of the dynamics in the miniband system. Measured fringe patterns of this Stückelberg interferometer allow us to interferometrically map out the band structure of the optical lattice over the full Brillouin zone.

  1. Atomic Bloch-Zener Oscillations and Stueckelberg Interferometry in Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Kling, Sebastian; Salger, Tobias; Grossert, Christopher; Weitz, Martin

    2010-11-19

    We report on experiments investigating quantum transport and band interferometry of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice with a two-band miniband structure, realized with a Fourier-synthesized optical lattice potential. Bloch-Zener oscillations, the coherent superposition of Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunneling between the two bands, are observed. When the relative phase between paths in different bands is varied, an interference signal is observed, demonstrating the coherence of the dynamics in the miniband system. Measured fringe patterns of this Stueckelberg interferometer allow us to interferometrically map out the band structure of the optical lattice over the full Brillouin zone.

  2. Lattice-Induced Frequency Shifts in Sr Optical Lattice Clocks at the 10{sup -17} Level

    SciTech Connect

    Westergaard, P. G.; Lodewyck, J.; Lecallier, A.; Millo, J.; Lemonde, P.; Lorini, L.; Burt, E. A.; Zawada, M.

    2011-05-27

    We present a comprehensive study of the frequency shifts associated with the lattice potential in a Sr lattice clock by comparing two such clocks with a frequency stability reaching 5x10{sup -17} after a 1 h integration time. We put the first experimental upper bound on the multipolar M1 and E2 interactions, significantly smaller than the recently predicted theoretical upper limit, and give a 30-fold improved upper limit on the effect of hyperpolarizability. Finally, we report on the first observation of the vector and tensor shifts in a Sr lattice clock. Combining these measurements, we show that all known lattice related perturbations will not affect the clock accuracy down to the 10{sup -17} level, even for lattices as deep as 150 recoil energies.

  3. Interferometric 30 m bench for calibrations of 1D scales and optical distance measuring instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unkuri, J.; Rantanen, A.; Manninen, J.; Esala, V.-P.; Lassila, A.

    2012-09-01

    During construction of a new metrology building for MIKES, a 30 m interferometric bench was designed. The objective was to implement a straight, stable, adjustable and multifunctional 30 m measuring bench for calibrations. Special attention was paid to eliminating the effects of thermal expansion and inevitable concrete shrinkage. The linear guide, situated on top of a monolithic concrete beam, comprises two parallel round shafts with adjustable fixtures every 1 m. A carriage is moved along the rail and its position is followed by a reference interferometer. Depending on the measurement task, one or two retro-reflectors are fixed on the carriage. A microscope with a CCD camera and a monitor can be used to detect line mark positions on different line standards. When calibrating optical distance measuring instruments, various targets can be fixed to the carriage. For the most accurate measurements an online Abbe-error correction based on simultaneous carriage pitch measurement by a separate laser interferometer is applied. The bench is used for calibrations of machinist scales, tapes, circometers, electronic distance meters, total stations and laser trackers. The estimated expanded uncertainty for 30 m displacement for highest accuracy calibrations is 2.6 µm.

  4. Non-abelian gauge fields and topological insulators in shaken optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Hauke, Philipp; Tieleman, Olivier; Celi, Alessio; Olschläger, Christoph; Simonet, Juliette; Struck, Julian; Weinberg, Malte; Windpassinger, Patrick; Sengstock, Klaus; Lewenstein, Maciej; Eckardt, André

    2012-10-05

    Time-periodic driving like lattice shaking offers a low-demanding method to generate artificial gauge fields in optical lattices. We identify the relevant symmetries that have to be broken by the driving function for that purpose and demonstrate the power of this method by making concrete proposals for its application to two-dimensional lattice systems: We show how to tune frustration and how to create and control band touching points like Dirac cones in the shaken kagome lattice. We propose the realization of a topological and a quantum spin Hall insulator in a shaken spin-dependent hexagonal lattice. We describe how strong artificial magnetic fields can be achieved for example in a square lattice by employing superlattice modulation. Finally, exemplified on a shaken spin-dependent square lattice, we develop a method to create strong non-abelian gauge fields.

  5. Open Quantum System Studies of Optical Lattices and Nonlinear Optical Cavities: A Comprehensive Development of Atomtronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepino, Ronald A.

    2011-12-01

    A generalized open quantum theory that models the transport properties of bosonic systems is derived from first principles. This theory is shown to correctly describe the long-time behavior of a specific class of non-Markovian system-reservoir interactions. Starting with strongly-interacting bosons in optical lattices, we use this theory to construct a novel, one-to-one analogy with electronic systems, components, and devices. Beginning with the concept of a wire, we demonstrate theoretically the ultracold boson analog of a semiconductor diode, a field-effect transistor, and a bipolar junction transistor. In a manner directly analogous to electronics, we show that it is possible to construct combinatorial logic structures from the fundamental electronic-emulating devices just described. In this sense, our proposal for atomtronic devices is a useful starting point for arrangements with more complex functionality. In addition we show that the behavior of the proposed diode should also be possible utilizing a weakly-interacting, coherent bosonic drive. After demonstrating the formal equivalence between systems comprised of bosons in optical lattices and photons in nonlinear cavity networks, we use the formalism to extend the ideas and concepts developed earlier in ultracold boson systems to nonlinear optical systems. We adapt the open quantum system theory to this new physical environment, and demonstrate theoretically how a few-photon optical diode can be realized in a coupled nonlinear cavity system. An analysis of different practical cavity quantum electrodynamics systems is presented and experimentally-viable candidates are evaluated.

  6. Comparing a mercury optical lattice clock with microwave and optical frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyumenev, R.; Favier, M.; Bilicki, S.; Bookjans, E.; Le Targat, R.; Lodewyck, J.; Nicolodi, D.; Le Coq, Y.; Abgrall, M.; Guéna, J.; De Sarlo, L.; Bize, S.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we report the evaluation of an optical lattice clock based on neutral mercury with a relative uncertainty of 1.7× {10}-16. Comparing this characterized frequency standard to a 133Cs atomic fountain we determine the absolute frequency of the {}1{{{S}}}0\\to {}3{{{P}}}0 transition of 199Hg as {ν }{Hg}=1128 575 290 808 154.62 {Hz}+/- 0.19 {Hz}({statistical})+/- 0.38 {Hz} (systematic), limited solely by the realization of the SI second. Furthermore, by comparing the mercury optical lattice clock to a 87Rb atomic fountain, we determine for the first time to our knowledge the ratio between the 199Hg clock transition and the 87Rb ground state hyperfine transition. Finally we present a direct optical to optical measurement of the 199Hg/87Sr frequency ratio. The obtained value of {ν }{Hg}/{ν }{Sr} = 2.629 314 209 898 909 15 with a fractional uncertainty of 1.8× {10}-16 is in excellent agreement with a similar measurement obtained by Yamanaka et al (2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 230801). This makes this frequency ratio one of the few physical quantities agreed upon by different laboratories to this level of uncertainty. Frequency ratio measurements of the kind reported in this paper have a strong impact for frequency metrology and fundamental physics as they can be used to monitor putative variations of fundamental constants.

  7. Exploring the Néel phase using a compensated optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tsung-Lin; Coleman, Seth T.; Duarte, Pedro M.; Hart, Russell A.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2015-05-01

    We have realized the Fermi-Hubbard model with fermionic 6Li atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. The red-detuned optical lattice is compensated by three additional blue-detuned laser beams which overlap each of the lattice beams, but are not retro-reflected. Using the compensated optical lattice, we have reached temperatures low enough to produce short-range antiferromagnetic (AF) spin correlations, which we detect via Bragg scattering of light. Previously, we reached temperatures down to 1.4 times that of the AFM phase transition, more than a factor of 2 below temperatures obtained previously in 3D optical lattices with fermions. However, the alignment stability of the lattice beams and the lack of tunability of the relative size of the lattice and compensating beam sizes hindered the optimization of the temperature. We have implemented an improved experimental setup which allows us to adjust the lattice beam waist ratios with better long-term stability. We will report on the status of these efforts and our progress on cooling deep into the Néel phase. Work supported by ARO, ONR, NSF and the Welch Foundation.

  8. A LATTICE THEORY OF THE ELECTRO-OPTIC EFFECTS IN SEMICONDUCTORS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A unified lattice theory of the electro - optic effect in semiconductor crystals, which encompasses the piezo-electric and elasto-optic effects, is...presented. Expressions are derived for the constant stress and constant strain electro - optic coefficients and the results are specialized to crystals of the zincblende structure. (Author)

  9. Observation of Landau-Zener tunneling through atomic current in the optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Jieyun; Duan Suqing; Zhang Wei; Zhao Xiangeng

    2009-05-15

    The atomic current in the Fourier-synthesized optical lattices under a constant external force is investigated theoretically. Based on a two-band model, the atomic current is derived by solving the Boltzmann equations. We find that the stationary atomic current changes with the probability of Landau-Zener tunneling, depending on the adjustable energy structure of the optical lattices. In contrast to the classical results of an electron in superlattices given by the Esaki-Tsu equations, the relation between the stationary atomic current and the strength of the external force in optical lattices is modified significantly. Both these characteristics can be taken as an effective way to observe the Landau-Zener tunneling in the optical lattices.

  10. Read-out optical schemes for holographic memory system based on multiplexed computer generated 1D Fourier holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donchenko, Sergey S.; Odinokov, Sergey B.; Bobrinev, Vladimir I.; Betin, Alexandr Y.; Zlokazov, Evgenie Y.

    2015-05-01

    Computer holographic synthesis allows to significantly simplify the recording scheme of microholograms in holographic memory system as the classic high precision holographic setup based on two-beam interference is removed by simple scale reduction projection scheme. Application of computer generated 1D-Fourier holograms provides the possibility of selective reconstruction of the multiplexed holograms with different orientation of data lines by corresponding rotation of anamorphic objective (cylindrical lens), used in the read-out systems. Two configurations of read-out optical scheme were investigated by our team: full-page scheme and line-by-line scheme. In the present article we report the specificities of these schemes and consider their advantages and disadvantages. The results of experimental modeling of both read-out configurations are also presented.

  11. Suppression of photothermal convection of microparticles in two dimensional nanoplasmonic optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Chung; Yossifon, Gilad; Yang, Ya-Tang

    2016-11-01

    Photothermal convection has been a major obstacle for stable particle trapping in plasmonic optical tweezer at high optical power. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to suppress the plasmonic photothermal convection by using vanishingly small thermal expansion coefficient of water at low temperature. A simple square nanoplasmonic array is illuminated with a loosely Gaussian beam to produce a two dimensional optical lattice for trapping of micro particles. We observe stable particle trapping due to near-field optical gradient forces at elevated optical power at low temperature. In contrast, for the same optical power at room temperature, the particles are convected away from the center of the optical lattice without their accumulation. This technique will greatly increase usable optical power and enhance the trapping capability of plasmonic optical tweezer.

  12. Detecting quantum coherence of Bose gases in optical lattices by scattering light intensity in cavity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoji; Xu, Xu; Yin, Lan; Liu, W M; Chen, Xuzong

    2010-07-19

    We propose a new method of detecting quantum coherence of a Bose gas trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice by measuring the light intensity from Raman scattering in cavity. After pump and displacement process, the intensity or amplitude of scattering light is different for different quantum states of a Bose gas, such as superfluid and Mott-Insulator states. This method can also be useful to detect quantum states of atoms with two components in an optical lattice.

  13. Crosstalk comparison of lattice-form optical interleaver with different coupler structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Zhujun; Luo, Fengguang; Luo, Zhixiang

    2009-05-01

    Lattice circuit made from a cascade of couplers and delay-lines is a popular approach for optical interleaver based on planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. Different coupler structures can be employed in the lattice circuit, including 1-stage directional couplers (DCs), 4-stage DCs, and 2-stage multimode interference (MMI) couplers. We fabricated optical interleavers with above three coupler structures, respectively. The experimental results prove that the latter two coupler structures can help to reduce crosstalk, which meets the simulation results well.

  14. Localization and delocalization of ultracold bosonic atoms in finite optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Luehmann, Dirk-Soeren; Pfannkuche, Daniela; Bongs, Kai; Sengstock, Klaus

    2008-02-15

    We study bosonic atoms in small optical lattices by exact diagonalization and observe a striking similarity to the superfluid to Mott insulator transition in macroscopic systems. The momentum distribution, the formation of an energy gap, and the pair correlation function show only a weak size dependence. For noncommensurate filling we reveal in deep lattices a mixture of localized and delocalized particles, which is sensitive to lattice imperfections. Breaking the lattice symmetry causes a Bose-glass-like behavior. We discuss the nature of excited states and orbital effects by using an exact diagonalization technique that includes higher bands.

  15. Three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice on an atom chip with an optically induced fictitious magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Hui

    2010-05-15

    A robust type of three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice on an atom chip combining optically induced fictitious magnetic field with microcurrent-carrying wires is proposed. Compared to the regular optical lattice, the individual trap in this three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice can be easily addressed and manipulated.

  16. Three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice on an atom chip with an optically induced fictitious magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hui

    2010-05-01

    A robust type of three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice on an atom chip combining optically induced fictitious magnetic field with microcurrent-carrying wires is proposed. Compared to the regular optical lattice, the individual trap in this three-dimensional magnetic trap lattice can be easily addressed and manipulated.

  17. Phase-Stable Free-Space Optical Lattices for Trapped Ions.

    PubMed

    Schmiegelow, C T; Kaufmann, H; Ruster, T; Schulz, J; Kaushal, V; Hettrich, M; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Poschinger, U G

    2016-01-22

    We demonstrate control of the absolute phase of an optical lattice with respect to a single trapped ion. The lattice is generated by off-resonant free-space laser beams, and we actively stabilize its phase by measuring its ac-Stark shift on a trapped ion. The ion is localized within the standing wave to better than 2% of its period. The locked lattice allows us to apply displacement operations via resonant optical forces with a controlled direction in phase space. Moreover, we observe the lattice-induced phase evolution of spin superposition states in order to analyze the relevant decoherence mechanisms. Finally, we employ lattice-induced phase shifts for inferring the variation of the ion position over the 157  μm range along the trap axis at accuracies of better than 6 nm.

  18. Phase-Stable Free-Space Optical Lattices for Trapped Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmiegelow, C. T.; Kaufmann, H.; Ruster, T.; Schulz, J.; Kaushal, V.; Hettrich, M.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Poschinger, U. G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate control of the absolute phase of an optical lattice with respect to a single trapped ion. The lattice is generated by off-resonant free-space laser beams, and we actively stabilize its phase by measuring its ac-Stark shift on a trapped ion. The ion is localized within the standing wave to better than 2% of its period. The locked lattice allows us to apply displacement operations via resonant optical forces with a controlled direction in phase space. Moreover, we observe the lattice-induced phase evolution of spin superposition states in order to analyze the relevant decoherence mechanisms. Finally, we employ lattice-induced phase shifts for inferring the variation of the ion position over the 157 μ m range along the trap axis at accuracies of better than 6 nm.

  19. Dynamics of two coupled Bose-Einstein Condensate solitons in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yongshan; Gong, Rongzhou; Li, Hong

    2006-04-17

    The characteristics of two coupled Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) bright solitons trapped in an optical lattice are investigated with the variational approach and direct numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. It is found that the optical lattice can be controllably used to capture and drag the coupled BEC solitons. Its effect depends on the initial location of the BEC solitons, the lattice amplitude and wave-number, and the amplitude of the coupled BEC solitons. The effective interaction between the two coupled solitons is the attractive effect.

  20. Construction of 'resonant' magneto-optical lattices with controlled momentum compaction factor

    SciTech Connect

    Senichev, Yu. V. Chechenin, A. N.

    2007-12-15

    On the basis of the theory of 'resonant' magneto-optical lattices for synchrotrons with complex transition energy developed in [1], methods for construction of such lattices with application to various accelerators are proposed. Apart from allowing elimination of transition energy crossing by accelerated particles, these lattices should meet a number of important requirements. In particular, they must have dispersion-free straight sections intended for accommodation of RF cavities, Siberian snakes and detectors, and a large enough dynamic aperture for minimizing the effect of magnetic optics nonlinearity on the beam parameters after chromaticity correction by sextupoles.

  1. Compact 1D-silicon photonic crystal electro-optic modulator operating with ultra-low switching voltage and energy.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Abdul; Nozaki, Kengo; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko; Shinya, Akihiko; Notomi, Masaya

    2014-11-17

    We demonstrate a small foot print (600 nm wide) 1D silicon photonic crystal electro-optic modulator operating with only a 50 mV swing voltage and 0.1 fJ/bit switching energy at GHz speeds, which are the lowest values ever reported for a silicon electro-optic modulator. A 3 dB extinction ratio is demonstrated with an ultra-low 50 mV swing voltage with a total device energy consumption of 42.8 fJ/bit, which is dominated by the state holding energy. The total energy consumption is reduced to 14.65 fJ/bit for a 300 mV swing voltage while still keeping the switching energy at less than 2 fJ/bit. Under optimum voltage conditions, the device operates with a maximum speed of 3 Gbps with 8 dB extinction ratio, which rises to 11 dB for a 1 Gbps modulation speed.

  2. Bloch Oscillations in Optical and Zeeman Lattices in the Presence of Spin-Orbit Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Zezyulin, Dmitry A.; Torner, Lluis

    2016-11-01

    We address Bloch oscillations of a spin-orbit coupled atom in periodic potentials of two types: optical and Zeeman lattices. We show that in optical lattices the spin-orbit coupling allows controlling the direction of atomic motion and may lead to complete suppression of the oscillations at specific values of the coupling strength. In Zeeman lattices the energy bands are found to cross each other at the boundaries of the Brillouin zone, resulting in period doubling of the oscillations. In all cases, the oscillations are accompanied by rotation of the pseudospin, with a dynamics that is determined by the strength of the spin-orbit coupling. The predicted effects are discussed also in terms of a Wannier-Stark ladder, which in optical lattices consist of two mutually shifted equidistant subladders.

  3. Lattice design of the integrable optics test accelerator and optical stochastic cooling experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Kafka, Gene

    2015-05-01

    The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) storage ring at Fermilab will serve as the backbone for a broad spectrum of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments, and as such, must be designed with signi cant exibility in mind, but without compromising cost e ciency. The nonlinear experiments at IOTA will include: achievement of a large nonlinear tune shift/spread without degradation of dynamic aperture; suppression of strong lattice resonances; study of stability of nonlinear systems to perturbations; and studies of di erent variants of nonlinear magnet design. The ring optics control has challenging requirements that reach or exceed the present state of the art. The development of a complete self-consistent design of the IOTA ring optics, meeting the demands of all planned AARD experiments, is presented. Of particular interest are the precise control for nonlinear integrable optics experiments and the transverse-to-longitudinal coupling and phase stability for the Optical Stochastic Cooling Experiment (OSC). Since the beam time-of- ight must be tightly controlled in the OSC section, studies of second order corrections in this section are presented.

  4. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D Negative-Refraction Metamaterials at Optical Frequencies: Optical Nano-Transmission-Line and Circuit Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engheta, Nader; Alu, Andrea

    2006-03-01

    In recent years metamaterials have offered new possibilities for overcoming some of the intrinsic limitations in wave propagation. Their realization at microwave frequencies has followed two different paths; one consisting of embedding resonant inclusions in a host dielectric, and the other following a transmission-line approach, i.e., building 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D cascades of circuit elements, respectively, as linear, planar or bulk right- or left-handed metamaterials. The latter is known to provide larger bandwidth and better robustness to ohmic losses. Extending these concepts to optical frequencies is a challenging task, due to changes in material response to electromagnetic waves at these frequencies. However, recently we have studied theoretically how it may be possible to have circuit nano-elements at these frequencies by properly exploiting plasmonic resonances. Here we present our theoretical work on translating the circuit concepts of right- and left-handed metamaterials into optical frequencies by applying the analogy between nanoparticles and nanocircuit elements in transmission lines. We discuss how it is possible to synthesize optical negative-refraction metamaterials by properly cascading plasmonic and non-plasmonic elements in 1-D, 2-D and 3-D geometries.

  5. Ab initio calculation of Hubbard parameters for Rydberg-dressed atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chougale, Yashwant; Nath, Rejish

    2016-07-01

    We obtain ab initio the Hubbard parameters for Rydberg-dressed atoms in a one-dimensional (1D) sinusoidal optical lattice on the basis of maximally-localized Wannier states. Finite range, soft-core interatomic interactions become the trait of Rydberg admixed atoms, which can be extended over many neighboring lattice sites. In contrast to dipolar gases, where the interactions follow an inverse cubic law, the key feature of Rydberg-dressed interactions is the possibility of making neighboring couplings to the same magnitude as that of the onsite ones. The maximally-localized Wannier functions (MLWFs) are typically calculated via a spread-minimization procedure (Marzari N and Vanderbilt D 1997 Phys. Rev. B 56 12847) and are always found to be real functions apart from a trivial global phase when an isolated set of Bloch bands are considered. For an isolated single Bloch band, the above procedure reduces to a simple quasi-momentum-dependent unitary phase transformation. Here, instead of minimizing the spread, we employ a diagonal phase transformation which eliminates the imaginary part of the Wannier functions. The resulting Wannier states are found to be maximally localized and in exact agreement with those obtained via a spread-minimization procedure. Using these findings, we calculate the Hubbard couplings from the Rydberg admixed interactions, including dominant density-assisted tunneling (DAT) coefficients. Finally, we provide realistic lattice parameters for the state-of-the-art experimental Rydberg-dressed rubidium setup.

  6. Deriving eigenmode excitation spectrum of synthetic photonic lattices by means of optical heterodyning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikan, A. M.; Vatnik, I. D.; Churkin, D. V.; Sukhorukov, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    A method based on optical heterodyning is proposed for measuring relative optical phases of pulses circulating in synthetic photonic lattices (SPL). The knowledge of the phases can be further used for qualitative reconstruction of an eigenmode excitation spectrum in the SPL.

  7. Trapping of neutral mercury atoms and prospects for optical lattice clocks.

    PubMed

    Hachisu, H; Miyagishi, K; Porsev, S G; Derevianko, A; Ovsiannikov, V D; Pal'chikov, V G; Takamoto, M; Katori, H

    2008-02-08

    We report vapor-cell magneto-optical trapping of Hg isotopes on the (1)S(0)-(3)P(1) intercombination transition. Six abundant isotopes, including four bosons and two fermions, were trapped. Hg is the heaviest nonradioactive atom trapped so far, which enables sensitive atomic searches for "new physics" beyond the standard model. We propose an accurate optical lattice clock based on Hg and evaluate its systematic accuracy to be better than 10;{-18}. Highly accurate and stable Hg-based clocks will provide a new avenue for the research of optical lattice clocks and the time variation of the fine-structure constant.

  8. Trapping of Neutral Mercury Atoms and Prospects for Optical Lattice Clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Hachisu, H.; Takamoto, M.; Katori, H.; Miyagishi, K.; Porsev, S. G.; Derevianko, A.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.; Pal'chikov, V. G.

    2008-02-08

    We report vapor-cell magneto-optical trapping of Hg isotopes on the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 1} intercombination transition. Six abundant isotopes, including four bosons and two fermions, were trapped. Hg is the heaviest nonradioactive atom trapped so far, which enables sensitive atomic searches for ''new physics'' beyond the standard model. We propose an accurate optical lattice clock based on Hg and evaluate its systematic accuracy to be better than 10{sup -18}. Highly accurate and stable Hg-based clocks will provide a new avenue for the research of optical lattice clocks and the time variation of the fine-structure constant.

  9. Matter-wave two-dimensional solitons in crossed linear and nonlinear optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Luz, H. L. F. da; Gammal, A.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Salerno, M.; Tomio, Lauro

    2010-10-15

    The existence of multidimensional matter-wave solitons in a crossed optical lattice (OL) with a linear optical lattice (LOL) in the x direction and a nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) in the y direction, where the NOL can be generated by a periodic spatial modulation of the scattering length using an optically induced Feshbach resonance is demonstrated. In particular, we show that such crossed LOLs and NOLs allow for stabilizing two-dimensional solitons against decay or collapse for both attractive and repulsive interactions. The solutions for the soliton stability are investigated analytically, by using a multi-Gaussian variational approach, with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov necessary criterion for stability; and numerically, by using the relaxation method and direct numerical time integrations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Very good agreement of the results corresponding to both treatments is observed.

  10. Normal Mode Splitting and Mechanical Effects of an Optical Lattice in a Ring Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinner, Julian; Lindholdt, Malik; Nagorny, Boris; Hemmerich, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    A novel regime of atom-cavity physics is explored, arising when large atom samples dispersively interact with high-finesse optical cavities. A stable far-detuned optical lattice of several million rubidium atoms is formed inside an optical ring resonator by coupling equal amounts of laser light to each propagation direction of a longitudinal cavity mode. An adjacent longitudinal mode, detuned by about 3 GHz, is used to perform probe transmission spectroscopy of the system. The atom-cavity coupling for the lattice beams and the probe is dispersive and dissipation results only from the finite photon-storage time. The observation of two well-resolved normal modes demonstrates the regime of strong cooperative coupling. The details of the normal mode spectrum reveal mechanical effects associated with the retroaction of the probe upon the optical lattice.

  11. Normal mode splitting and mechanical effects of an optical lattice in a ring cavity.

    PubMed

    Klinner, Julian; Lindholdt, Malik; Nagorny, Boris; Hemmerich, Andreas

    2006-01-20

    A novel regime of atom-cavity physics is explored, arising when large atom samples dispersively interact with high-finesse optical cavities. A stable far-detuned optical lattice of several million rubidium atoms is formed inside an optical ring resonator by coupling equal amounts of laser light to each propagation direction of a longitudinal cavity mode. An adjacent longitudinal mode, detuned by about 3 GHz, is used to perform probe transmission spectroscopy of the system. The atom-cavity coupling for the lattice beams and the probe is dispersive and dissipation results only from the finite photon-storage time. The observation of two well-resolved normal modes demonstrates the regime of strong cooperative coupling. The details of the normal mode spectrum reveal mechanical effects associated with the retroaction of the probe upon the optical lattice.

  12. Normal Mode Splitting and Mechanical Effects of an Optical Lattice in a Ring Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Klinner, Julian; Lindholdt, Malik; Nagorny, Boris; Hemmerich, Andreas

    2006-01-20

    A novel regime of atom-cavity physics is explored, arising when large atom samples dispersively interact with high-finesse optical cavities. A stable far-detuned optical lattice of several million rubidium atoms is formed inside an optical ring resonator by coupling equal amounts of laser light to each propagation direction of a longitudinal cavity mode. An adjacent longitudinal mode, detuned by about 3 GHz, is used to perform probe transmission spectroscopy of the system. The atom-cavity coupling for the lattice beams and the probe is dispersive and dissipation results only from the finite photon-storage time. The observation of two well-resolved normal modes demonstrates the regime of strong cooperative coupling. The details of the normal mode spectrum reveal mechanical effects associated with the retroaction of the probe upon the optical lattice.

  13. Matter-wave two-dimensional solitons in crossed linear and nonlinear optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Luz, H. L. F.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Gammal, A.; Salerno, M.; Tomio, Lauro

    2010-10-01

    The existence of multidimensional matter-wave solitons in a crossed optical lattice (OL) with a linear optical lattice (LOL) in the x direction and a nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) in the y direction, where the NOL can be generated by a periodic spatial modulation of the scattering length using an optically induced Feshbach resonance is demonstrated. In particular, we show that such crossed LOLs and NOLs allow for stabilizing two-dimensional solitons against decay or collapse for both attractive and repulsive interactions. The solutions for the soliton stability are investigated analytically, by using a multi-Gaussian variational approach, with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov necessary criterion for stability; and numerically, by using the relaxation method and direct numerical time integrations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Very good agreement of the results corresponding to both treatments is observed.

  14. p-Wave Cold Collisions in an Optical Lattice Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke, N. D.; Sherman, J. A.; Oates, C. W.; Ludlow, A. D.; Stecher, J. von; Rey, A. M.

    2011-09-02

    We study ultracold collisions in fermionic ytterbium by precisely measuring the energy shifts they impart on the atoms' internal clock states. Exploiting Fermi statistics, we uncover p-wave collisions, in both weakly and strongly interacting regimes. With the higher density afforded by two-dimensional lattice confinement, we demonstrate that strong interactions can lead to a novel suppression of this collision shift. In addition to reducing the systematic errors of lattice clocks, this work has application to quantum information and quantum simulation with alkaline-earth atoms.

  15. Interaction-induced excited-band condensate in a double-well optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Qi; Das Sarma, S.; Porto, J. V.

    2011-09-15

    We show theoretically that interaction effects in a double-well optical lattice can induce condensates in an excited band. For a symmetric double-well lattice, bosons condense into the bottom of the excited band at the edge of the Brillouin zone if the chemical potential is above a critical value. For an asymmetric lattice, a condensate with zero momentum is automatically induced in the excited band by the condensate in the lowest band. This is due to a combined effect of interaction and lattice potential, which reduces the band gap and breaks the inversion symmetry. Our work can be generalized to a superlattice composed of multiple-well potentials at each lattice site, where condensates can be induced in even higher bands.

  16. Ultracold nonreactive molecules in an optical lattice: connecting chemistry to many-body physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Rick; Ewart, Kevin; Alam, Shah; Wall, Michael; Doçaj, Andris; Hazzard, Kaden

    2016-05-01

    We derive effective lattice models for ultracold bosonic or fermionic nonreactive molecules (NRMs) in an optical lattice. In stark contrast to the standard Hubbard model, which is commonly assumed to accurately describe NRMs, we find that the single on-site interaction parameter U is replaced by a multi-channel interaction. The complex, multi-channel collisional physics is unrelated to dipolar interactions, and so occurs even in the absence of an electric field or for homonuclear molecules. We find a crossover between coherent few-channel models and fully incoherent single-channel models as the lattice depth is increased. We devise ways to control the effective model parameters using external fields and lattice anisotropy. We show that these parameters can be determined in lattice modulation experiments, which measure molecular collision dynamics with a vastly sharper energy resolution than experiments in an ultracold gas. We will report our progress calculating this novel model's ground state phase diagram.

  17. Floquet Realization and Signatures of One-Dimensional Anyons in an Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sträter, Christoph; Srivastava, Shashi C. L.; Eckardt, André

    2016-11-01

    We propose a simple scheme for mimicking the physics of one-dimensional anyons in an optical-lattice experiment. It relies on a bosonic representation of the anyonic Hubbard model to be realized via lattice-shaking-induced resonant tunneling against potential offsets, which are created by a combination of a lattice tilt and strong on-site interactions. No lasers additional to those used for the creation of the optical lattice are required. We also discuss experimental signatures of the continuous interpolation between bosons and fermions when the statistical angle θ is varied from 0 to π . Whereas the real-space density of the bosonic atoms corresponds directly to that of the simulated anyonic model, this is not the case for the momentum distribution. Therefore, we propose to use Friedel oscillations in the density as a probe for continuous fermionization of the bosonic atoms.

  18. Simulating Dirac fermions with Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Alba, E.; Fernandez-Gonzalvo, X.; Mur-Petit, J.; Garcia-Ripoll, J.J.; Pachos, J.K.

    2013-01-15

    In this work we present an optical lattice setup to realize a full Dirac Hamiltonian in 2+1 dimensions. We show how all possible external potentials coupled to the Dirac field can arise from perturbations of the existing couplings of the honeycomb lattice pattern. This greatly simplifies the proposed implementations, requiring only spatial modulations of the intensity of the laser beams to induce complex non-Abelian potentials. We finally suggest several experiments to observe the properties of the quantum field theory in the setup. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work provides a very flexible setup for simulating Dirac fermions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The manuscript contains a detailed study of optical lattice deformations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The link between lattice deformations and effective gauge Hamiltonians is studied.

  19. Weyl points in three-dimensional optical lattices: synthetic magnetic monopoles in momentum space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buljan, Hrvoje; Dubcek, Tena; Kennedy, Colin; Lu, Ling; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-05-01

    We show that Hamiltonians with Weyl points can be realized for ultracold atoms using laser-assisted tunneling in three-dimensional (3D) optical lattices. Weyl points are synthetic magnetic monopoles that exhibit a robust, 3D linear dispersion (e.g., see). They are associated with many interesting topological states of matter, such as Weyl semimetals and chiral Weyl fermions. However, Weyl points have yet to be experimentally observed in any system. We show that this elusive goal is well-within experimental reach with an extension of the techniques recently used to obtain the Harper Hamiltonian. We propose using laser assisted tunneling to create a 3D optical lattice, with specifically designed hopping between lattice sites that breaks inversion symmetry. The design leads to creation of four Weyl points in the Brillouin zone of the lattice, which are verified to be monopoles of the synthetic magnetic field. Supported by the Unity through Knowledge Fund (Grant 5/13).

  20. Resolved Sideband Spectroscopy and Cooling of Strontium in a 532-nm Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aman, James; Hill, Joshua; Killian, T. C.

    2016-05-01

    Resolved sideband cooling is a powerful and well established technique for driving ultracold atoms in optical lattices to the motional ground state of individual lattice sites. Here we present spectroscopy of the narrow 5s21S0 --> 5 s 5 p3P1 transition for neutral strontium-84 in a 532nm optical lattice. Resolved red- and blue-detuned sidebands are observed corresponding to changes in the motional state in the lattice sites. Driving the red sideband, we demonstrate cooling into the ground state, which increases the initial phase-space density before forced evaporative cooling. This is a promising technique for improving the production of strontium quantum degenerate gases. Research supported by the Robert A, Welch Foundation under Grant No. C-1844.

  1. Quantum phases of the extended Bose-Hubbard hamiltonian: possibility of a supersolid state of cold atoms in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Scarola, V W; Das Sarma, S

    2005-07-15

    Cold atom optical lattices typically simulate zero-range Hubbard models. We discuss the theoretical possibility of using excited states of optical lattices to generate extended range Hubbard models. We find that bosons confined to higher bands of optical lattices allow for a rich phase diagram, including the supersolid phase. Using Gutzwiller, mean-field theory we establish the parameter regime necessary to maintain metastable states generated by an extended Bose-Hubbard model.

  2. Ground states of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a one-dimensional laser-assisted optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qing; Hu, Jie; Wen, Lin; Liu, W.-M.; Juzeliūnas, G.; Ji, An-Chun

    2016-11-01

    We study the ground-state behavior of a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) in a Raman-laser-assisted one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice potential forming a multilayer system. We find that, such system can be described by an effective model with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of pseudospin (N-1)/2, where N is the number of layers. Due to the intricate interplay between atomic interactions, SOC and laser-assisted tunnelings, the ground-state phase diagrams generally consist of three phases-a stripe, a plane wave and a normal phase with zero-momentum, touching at a quantum tricritical point. More important, even though the single-particle states only minimize at zero-momentum for odd N, the many-body ground states may still develop finite momenta. The underlying mechanisms are elucidated. Our results provide an alternative way to realize an effective spin-orbit coupling of Bose gas with the Raman-laser-assisted optical lattice, and would also be beneficial to the studies on SOC effects in spinor Bose systems with large spin.

  3. Ground states of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a one-dimensional laser-assisted optical lattice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qing; Hu, Jie; Wen, Lin; Liu, W.-M.; Juzeliūnas, G.; Ji, An-Chun

    2016-01-01

    We study the ground-state behavior of a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) in a Raman-laser-assisted one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice potential forming a multilayer system. We find that, such system can be described by an effective model with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of pseudospin (N-1)/2, where N is the number of layers. Due to the intricate interplay between atomic interactions, SOC and laser-assisted tunnelings, the ground-state phase diagrams generally consist of three phases–a stripe, a plane wave and a normal phase with zero-momentum, touching at a quantum tricritical point. More important, even though the single-particle states only minimize at zero-momentum for odd N, the many-body ground states may still develop finite momenta. The underlying mechanisms are elucidated. Our results provide an alternative way to realize an effective spin-orbit coupling of Bose gas with the Raman-laser-assisted optical lattice, and would also be beneficial to the studies on SOC effects in spinor Bose systems with large spin. PMID:27883037

  4. Driving Defect Modes of Bose-Einstein Condensates in Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Brazhnyi, Valeriy A.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.

    2006-02-17

    We present an approximate analytical theory and direct numerical computation of defect modes of a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded in an optical lattice and subject to an additional localized (defect) potential. Some of the modes are found to be remarkably stable and can be driven along the lattice by means of a defect moving following a steplike function defined by the period of Josephson oscillations and the macroscopic stability of the atoms.

  5. Spin-Orbit-Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates in a One-Dimensional Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamner, C.; Zhang, Yongping; Khamehchi, M. A.; Davis, Matthew J.; Engels, P.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into a translating optical lattice. We experimentally demonstrate the lack of Galilean invariance in the spin-orbit-coupled system, which leads to anisotropic behavior of the condensate depending on the direction of translation of the lattice. The anisotropy is theoretically understood by an effective dispersion relation. We experimentally confirm this theoretical picture by probing the dynamical instability of the system.

  6. Solids and Supersolids of Three-Body Interacting Polar Molecules on an Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Kai P.; Dorier, Julien; Laeuchli, Andreas M.

    2008-10-10

    We study the physics of cold polar molecules loaded into an optical lattice in the regime of strong three-body interactions, as put forward recently by Buechler et al.[Nature Phys. 3, 726 (2007)]. To this end, quantum Monte Carlo simulations, exact diagonalization, and a semiclassical approach are used to explore hard-core bosons on the 2D square lattice which interact solely by long-ranged three-body terms. The resulting phase diagram shows a sequence of solid and supersolid phases. Our findings are directly relevant for future experimental implementations and open a new route towards the discovery of a lattice supersolid phase in experiment.

  7. Roton-maxon excitation spectrum of Bose condensates in a shaken optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Ha, Li-Chung; Clark, Logan W; Parker, Colin V; Anderson, Brandon M; Chin, Cheng

    2015-02-06

    We present experimental evidence showing that an interacting Bose condensate in a shaken optical lattice develops a roton-maxon excitation spectrum, a feature normally associated with superfluid helium. The roton-maxon feature originates from the double-well dispersion in the shaken lattice, and can be controlled by both the atomic interaction and the lattice modulation amplitude. We determine the excitation spectrum using Bragg spectroscopy and measure the critical velocity by dragging a weak speckle potential through the condensate-both techniques are based on a digital micromirror device. Our dispersion measurements are in good agreement with a modified Bogoliubov model.

  8. Dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a horizontally vibrating shallow optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Valizadeh, A.; Jahanbani, Kh.; Kolahchi, M. R.

    2010-02-15

    We consider a solitonic solution of the self-attractive Bose-Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional external potential of a shallow optical lattice with large periodicity when the lattice is horizontally shaken. We investigate the dynamics of the bright soliton through the properties of the fixed points. The special type of bifurcation results in a simple criterion for the stability of the fixed points depending only on the amplitude of the shaking lattice. Because of the similarity of the equations with those of an ac-driven Josephson junction, some results may find applications in other branches of physics.

  9. Vortex Formation of Rotating Bose-Einstein Condensates in Synthetic Magnetic Field with Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    Motivated by recent experiments carried out by Spielman's group at NIST, we study the vortex formation in a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate in synthetic magnetic field confined in a harmonic potential combined with an optical lattice. We obtain numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and compare the vortex formation by synthetic magnetic field method with those by rotating frame method. We conclude that a large angular momentum indeed can be created in the presence of the optical lattice. However, it is still more difficult to rotate the condensate by the synthetic magnetic field than by the rotating frame even if the optical lattice is added, and the chemical potential and energy remain almost unchanged by increasing rotational frequency.

  10. Modeling the Stability of Topological Matter in Optical Lattices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-18

    We find that competing types of spiral order depend strongly on the spin- orbit coupling strength and effective Zeeman field. Fig. 5 shows examples of...show an emergent dispersion due to quantum effects . • Figure 5: Spin structure factors for different quantum phases. The upper panels show the results...apply to other systems: quantum wire arrays containing topological superconductors, quantum Hall effects , fractional Chern insulator lattice models

  11. Low-Entropy States of Neutral Atoms in Polarization-Synthesized Optical Lattices.

    PubMed

    Robens, Carsten; Zopes, Jonathan; Alt, Wolfgang; Brakhane, Stefan; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, Andrea

    2017-02-10

    We create low-entropy states of neutral atoms by utilizing a conceptually new optical-lattice technique that relies on a high-precision, high-bandwidth synthesis of light polarization. Polarization-synthesized optical lattices provide two fully controllable optical lattice potentials, each of them confining only atoms in either one of the two long-lived hyperfine states. By employing one lattice as the storage register and the other one as the shift register, we provide a proof of concept using four atoms that selected regions of the periodic potential can be filled with one particle per site. We expect that our results can be scaled up to thousands of atoms by employing an atom-sorting algorithm with logarithmic complexity, which is enabled by polarization-synthesized optical lattices. Vibrational entropy is subsequently removed by sideband cooling methods. Our results pave the way for a bottom-up approach to creating ultralow-entropy states of a many-body system.

  12. A quantum gas of polar KRb molecules in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Jacob; Miecnikowski, Matthew; Moses, Steven; Fu, Zhengkun; Jin, Deborah; Ye, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold polar molecules provide new opportunities for investigation of strongly correlated many-body spin systems such as many-body localization and quantum magnetism. In an effort to access such phenomena, we load polar KRb molecules into a three-dimensional optical lattice. In this system, we observed many-body spin dynamics between molecules pinned in a deep lattice, even though the filling fraction of the molecules was only 5%. We have recently performed a thorough investigation of the molecule creation process in an optical lattice, and consequently improved our filling fraction to 30% by preparing and overlapping Mott and band insulators of the initial atomic gases. More recently, we switched to a second generation KRb apparatus that will allow application of large, stable electric fields as well as high-resolution addressing and detection of polar molecules in optical lattices. We plan to use these capabilities to study non-equilibrium spin dynamics in an optical lattice with nearly single site resolution. I will present the status and direction of the second generation apparatus.

  13. Low-Entropy States of Neutral Atoms in Polarization-Synthesized Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robens, Carsten; Zopes, Jonathan; Alt, Wolfgang; Brakhane, Stefan; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    We create low-entropy states of neutral atoms by utilizing a conceptually new optical-lattice technique that relies on a high-precision, high-bandwidth synthesis of light polarization. Polarization-synthesized optical lattices provide two fully controllable optical lattice potentials, each of them confining only atoms in either one of the two long-lived hyperfine states. By employing one lattice as the storage register and the other one as the shift register, we provide a proof of concept using four atoms that selected regions of the periodic potential can be filled with one particle per site. We expect that our results can be scaled up to thousands of atoms by employing an atom-sorting algorithm with logarithmic complexity, which is enabled by polarization-synthesized optical lattices. Vibrational entropy is subsequently removed by sideband cooling methods. Our results pave the way for a bottom-up approach to creating ultralow-entropy states of a many-body system.

  14. Detection of antiferromagnetic order by cooling atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tsung-Lin; Teles, Rafael; Hazzard, Kaden; Hulet, Randall; Rice University Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We have realized the Fermi-Hubbard model with fermionic 6 Li atoms in a three-dimensional compensated optical lattice. The compensated optical lattice has provided low enough temperatures to produce short-range antiferromagnetic (AF) spin correlations, which we detect via Bragg scattering of light. Previously, we reached temperatures down to 1.4 times that of the AFM phase transition, more than a factor of 2 below temperatures obtained previously in 3D optical lattices with fermions. In order to further reduce the entropy in the compensated lattice, we implement an entropy conduit - which is a single blue detuned laser beam with a waist size smaller than the overall atomic sample size. This repulsive narrow potential provides a conductive metallic path between the low entropy core and the edges of the atomic sample where atoms may be evaporated. In addition, the entropy conduit may store entropy, thus further lowering the entropy in the core. We will report on the status of these efforts to further cool atoms in the optical lattice. Work supported by ARO MURI Grant, NSF and The Welch Foundation.

  15. Flat bands, Dirac cones, and atom dynamics in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Apaja, V.; Hyrkaes, M.; Manninen, M.

    2010-10-15

    We study atoms trapped with a harmonic confinement in an optical lattice characterized by a flat band and Dirac cones. We show that such an optical lattice can be constructed which can be accurately described with the tight-binding or Hubbard models. In the case of fermions the release of the harmonic confinement removes fast atoms occupying the Dirac cones while those occupying the flat band remain immobile. Using exact diagonalization and dynamics we demonstrate that a similar strong occupation of the flat band does not happen in the bosonic case and furthermore that the mean-field model is not capable of describing the dynamics of the boson cloud.

  16. Design and Analysis of a Bypass Lattice for Optical Stochastic Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zholents, A.; Zolotorev, M.; Wan, W.

    1997-05-01

    An example of the beam line to bypass an optical amplifier in the method of Optical Stochastic Cooling is presented. Specific requirements to the lattice associated with cooling technique are considered. Tolerances to the alignment errors, tilt errors, magnetic field non linearities, power supply ripple are determined. A simple technique for initial tuning of the lattice to circumvent calibration errors of magnets and power supplies is proposed. Tolerances to the beam transverse oscillations and energy oscillations are defined. An experiment to test a bypass with the electron beam extracted from the Booster Synchrotron of the Advance Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory at the energy of 250 MeV is discussed.

  17. A spectral collocation method for a rotating Bose-Einstein condensation in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.-C.; Chen, S.-Y.; Chien, C.-S.; Chen, H.-S.

    2011-06-01

    We extend the study of spectral collocation methods (SCM) in Li et al. (2009) [1] for semilinear elliptic eigenvalue problems to that for a rotating Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) and a rotating BEC in optical lattices. We apply the Lagrange interpolants using the Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto points to derive error bounds for the SCM. The optimal error bounds are derived for both H-norm and L-norm. Extensive numerical experiments on a rotating Bose-Einstein condensation and a rotating BEC in optical lattices are reported. Our numerical results show that the convergence rate of the SCM is exponential, and is independent of the collocation points we choose.

  18. Competing bosonic condensates in optical lattice with a mixture of single and pair hoppings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travin, V. M.; Kopeć, T. K.

    2017-01-01

    A system of ultra-cold atoms with single boson and pair tunneling of bosonic atoms is considered in an optical lattice at arbitrary temperature. A mean-field theory was applied to the extended Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian describing the system in order to investigate the competition between superfluid and pair superfluid as a function of the chemical potential and the temperature. To this end we have applied a method based on the Laplace transform method for the efficient calculation of the statistical sum for the quantum Hamiltonian. These results may be of interest for experiments on cold atom systems in optical lattices.

  19. Linear optics design of negative momentum compaction lattices for PS2

    SciTech Connect

    Papaphilippou,Y.; de Maria,R.; Barranco, J.; Bartmann, W.; Benedikt, M.; Carli, C.; Goddard, B.; Peggs, S.; Trbojevic, D.

    2009-05-04

    In view of the CERN Proton Synchrotron proposed replacement with a new ring (PS2), a detailed optics design has been undertaken following the evaluation of several lattice options. The basic arc module consists of cells providing negative momentum compaction. The straight section is formed with a combination of FODO and quadrupole triplet cells, to accommodate the injection and extraction systems, in particular the H{sup -} injection elements. The arc is matched to the straight section with a dispersion suppressor and matching module. Different lattices are compared with respect to their linear optics functions, tuning flexibility and geometrical acceptance properties.

  20. Stability of binary condensates with spatial modulations of quintic nonlinearities in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mboumba, M. D.; Moubissi, A. B.; Ekogo, T. B.; Belobo Belobo, D.; Ben-Bolie, G. H.; Kofane, T. C.

    2015-10-01

    The stability and collective excitations of binary Bose-Einstein condensates with cubic and quintic nonlinearities in variable anharmonic optical lattices are investigated. By using the variational approach, the influences of the quintic nonlinearities and the shape of the external potential on the stability are discussed in details. It is found that the quintic intraspecies and interspecies interatomic interactions profoundly affect the stability criterion and collective excitations of the system. The shape dependent potential form that characterizes the optical lattice deeply alters the stability regions. Direct numerical simulations of the mean-field coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing the system agree well with the analytical predictions.

  1. Hidden-symmetry-protected quantum pseudo-spin Hall effect in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jing-Min; Chen, Wei

    2016-06-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a Z2 topological insulator in a square optical lattice. Different from the conventional topological insulator protected by the time-reversal symmetry, here the optical lattice possesses a hidden symmetry, which is responsible for the present Z2 topological order. With a properly defined pseudospin, such a topological insulator is characterized by the helical edge states that exhibits pseudo-spin-momentum locking, so it can be considered as a quantum pseudo-spin Hall insulator. The Z2 topological invariant is derived and its experimental detection is discussed as well.

  2. Self-consistent Hartree-Fock approach for interacting bosons in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Qin-Qin; Patton, Kelly R.; Sheehy, Daniel E.

    2014-12-01

    A theoretical study of interacting bosons in a periodic optical lattice is presented. Instead of the commonly used tight-binding approach (applicable near the Mott-insulating regime of the phase diagram), the present work starts from the exact single-particle states of bosons in a cubic optical lattice, satisfying the Mathieu equation, an approach that can be particularly useful at large boson fillings. The effects of short-range interactions are incorporated using a self-consistent Hartree-Fock approximation, and predictions for experimental observables such as the superfluid transition temperature, condensate fraction, and boson momentum distribution are presented.

  3. Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetic Properties of A2Cu5(TeO3)(SO4)3(OH)4 (A = Na, K): The First Compounds with a 1D Kagomé Strip Lattice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yingying; Guo, Wenbin; Xiang, Hongping; Zhang, Suyun; Yang, Ming; Cui, Meiyan; Wang, Nannan; He, Zhangzhen

    2016-01-19

    Two new tellurite-sulfates A2Cu5(TeO3)(SO4)3(OH)4 (A = Na, K) have been synthesized by a conventional hydrothermal method. Both compounds feature 1D kagomé strip structure built by distorted CuO6 octahedra, which can be regarded as the dimensional reduction of kagomé lattice. Magnetic measurements confirmed that the titled compounds possess antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperature, while a field-induced magnetic transition can be observed at critical field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to obtain distorted kagomé strip compounds.

  4. Matter-wave propagation in optical lattices: geometrical and flat-band effects

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, Mekena; Chern, Gia-Wei; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2016-03-17

    Here we report that the geometry of optical lattices can be engineered allowing the study of atomic transport along paths arranged in patterns that are otherwise difficult to probe in the solid state. A question feasible to atomic systems is related to the speed of propagation of matter-waves as a function of the lattice geometry. To address this issue, we have investigated theoretically the quantum transport of non-interacting and weakly-interacting ultracold fermionic atoms in several 2D optical lattice geometries. We find that the triangular lattice has a higher propagation velocity compared to the square lattice, and the cross-linked square lattice has an even faster propagation velocity. The increase results from the mixing of the momentum states which leads to different group velocities in quantum systems. Standard band theory provides an explanation and allows for a systematic way to search and design systems with controllable matter-wave propagation. Moreover, the presence of a flat band such as in a two-leg ladder geometry leads to a dynamical density discontinuity due to its localized atoms. Lastly, we discuss possible realizations of those dynamical phenomena.

  5. A hybrid-trap BEC for radiofrequency-dressed optical lattice experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundblad, Nathan; Moody, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    Recent work in lattice-based ultracold atomic physics has focused on the development of increasingly precise and complex apparatus to push the boundaries of what can be measured with such systems. Historically such experiments have generally been confined to simple-cubic lattices with recent forays into systems both more fertile and more challenging, such as the honeycomb lattice or even the kagome net. We report progress towards nonstandard-geometry optical-lattice experiments using a recently-constructed BEC apparatus at Bates College. We summarize laser system construction, document the design and construction of a spin-flip Zeeman slower, present characterization of the laser cooling process, and present the results of magnetic trapping and evaporative cooling, including recent results showing transfer to a 1064 nm fiber-laser dipole trap and the resulting path to BEC. We also report on progress toward observation of adiabatic eigenstates in radiofrequency-dressed spin-dependent lattices loaded from said BEC, and present plans for observations of toroidal Wannier-function lattices. We also present a discussion of other possible nonstandard-geometry lattices that will be explored with this new apparatus. We acknowledge support from AFOSR and NSF.

  6. The Sr optical lattice clock at JILA: A new record in atomic clock performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Travis; Bloom, Benjamin; Williams, Jason; Campbell, Sara; Bishof, Michael; Zhang, Xibo; Zhang, Wei; Bromley, Sarah; Hutson, Ross; McNally, Rees; Ye, Jun

    2014-05-01

    The exquisite control exhibited over quantum states of individual particles has revolutionized the field of precision measurement, as exemplified by highly accurate atomic clocks. Optical clocks have been the most accurate frequency standards for the better part of a decade, surpassing even the cesium microwave fountains upon which the SI second is based. Two classes of optical clocks have outperformed cesium: single-ion clocks and optical lattice clocks. Historically ion clocks have always been more accurate, and the precision of ion clocks and lattice clocks has been comparable. For years it has been unclear if lattice clocks can overcome key systematics and become more accurate than ion clocks. In this presentation I report the first lattice clock that has surpassed ion clocks in both precision and accuracy. These measurements represent a tenfold improvement in precision and a factor of 20 improvement in accuracy over the previous best lattice clock results. This work paves the way for a better realization of SI units, the development of more sophisticated quantum sensors, and precision tests of the fundamental laws of nature.

  7. Dicke superradiance as nondestructive probe for the state of atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinke, Nicolai ten; Schützhold, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    We present a proposal for a probing scheme utilizing Dicke superradiance to obtain information about ultracold atoms in optical lattices. A probe photon is absorbed collectively by an ensemble of lattice atoms generating a Dicke state. The lattice dynamics (e.g., tunneling) affects the coherence properties of that Dicke state and thus alters the superradiant emission characteristics - which in turn provides insight into the lattice (dynamics). Comparing the Bose-Hubbard and the Fermi-Hubbard model, we find similar superradiance in the strongly interacting Mott insulator regime, but crucial differences in the weakly interacting (superfluid or metallic) phase. Furthermore, we study the possibility to detect whether a quantum phase transition between the two regimes can be considered adiabatic or a quantum quench.

  8. Zitterbewegung with spin-orbit coupled ultracold atoms in a fluctuating optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argonov, V. Yu; Makarov, D. V.

    2016-09-01

    The dynamics of non-interacting ultracold atoms with artificial spin-orbit coupling is considered. Spin-orbit coupling is created using two moving optical lattices with orthogonal polarizations. Our main goal is to study influence of lattice noise on Rabi oscillations. Special attention is paid to the phenomenon of the Zitterbewegung being trembling motion caused by Rabi transitions between states with different velocities. Phase and amplitude fluctuations of lattices are modelled by means of the two-dimensional stochastic Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, also known as harmonic noise. In the the noiseless case the problem is solved analytically in terms of the momentum representation. It is shown that lattice noise significantly extends duration of the Zitterbewegung as compared to the noiseless case. This effect originates from noise-induced decoherence of Rabi oscillations.

  9. Geometric stability spectra of dipolar Bose gases in tunable optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corson, John P.; Wilson, Ryan M.; Bohn, John L.

    2013-07-01

    We examine the stability of quasi-two-dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of weak optical lattices of various geometries. We find that when the condensate possesses a roton-maxon quasiparticle dispersion, the conditions for stability exhibit a strong dependence both on the lattice geometry and the polarization tilt. This results in rich structures in the system's stability diagram akin to spectroscopic signatures. We show how these structures originate from the mode matching of rotons to the perturbing lattice. In the case of a one-dimensional lattice, some of the features emerge only when the polarization axis is tilted into the plane of the condensate. Our results suggest that the stability diagram may be used as a novel means to spectroscopically measure rotons in dipolar condensates.

  10. Toolbox for linear optics in a one-dimensional lattice via minimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compagno, Enrico; Banchi, Leonardo; Bose, Sougato

    2015-08-01

    Tight-binding lattices offer a unique platform in which particles may be either static or mobile depending on the potential barrier between the sites. How to harness this mobility in a many-site lattice for useful operations is still an open question. We show how effective linear opticslike operations between arbitrary lattice sites can be implemented by a minimal local control which introduces a local impurity in the middle of the lattice. In particular we show how striking is the difference of the two possible correlations with and without the impurity. Our scheme enables the observation of the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect between distant wells without moving them next to each other with, e.g., tweezers. Moreover, we show that a tunable Mach-Zehnder interferometer is implemented adding a steplike potential, and we prove the robustness of our linear optics scheme to interparticle interactions.

  11. Bending light via adiabatic optical transition in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices.

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Xu, Lei; Dou, Yiling; Xu, Jingjun; Zhang, Guoquan

    2015-10-29

    Bending light in a controllable way is desired in various applications such as beam steering, navigating and cloaking. Different from the conventional way to bend light by refractive index gradient, transformation optics or special beams through wavefront design such as Airy beams and surface plasmons, we proposed a mechanism to bend light via resonant adiabatic optical transition between Floquet-Bloch (FB) modes from different FB bands in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices. The band structure of longitudinally modulated photonic lattices was calculated by employing the concept of quasi-energy based on the Floquet-Bloch theory, showing the existence of band discontinuities at specific resonant points which cannot be revealed by the coupled-mode theory. Interestingly, different FB bands can be seamlessly connected at these resonant points in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices driven by adiabatically varying the longitudinal modulation period along the propagation direction, which stimulates the adiabatic FB mode transition between different FB bands.

  12. Phases of a two-dimensional bose gas in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-García, K; Compton, R L; Lin, Y-J; Phillips, W D; Porto, J V; Spielman, I B

    2010-09-10

    Ultracold atoms in optical lattices realize simple condensed matter models. We create an ensemble of ≈60 harmonically trapped 2D Bose-Hubbard systems from a 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice and use a magnetic resonance imaging approach to select a few 2D systems for study, thereby eliminating ensemble averaging. Our identification of the transition from superfluid to Mott insulator, as a function of both atom density and lattice depth, is in excellent agreement with a universal state diagram [M. Rigol, Phys. Rev. A 79 053605 (2009)] suitable for our trapped system. In agreement with theory, our data suggest a failure of the local density approximation in the transition region.

  13. Heterodimer of two distinguishable atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Odong, Otim; Sanders, Jerome C.; Javanainen, Juha

    2011-09-15

    Within the Bose-Hubbard model, we theoretically determine the stationary states of two distinguishable atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice and compare with the case of two identical bosons. A heterodimer has odd-parity dissociated states that do not depend on the interactions between the atoms, and the lattice momenta of the two atomic species may have different averages even for a bound state of the dimer. We discuss methods to detect the dimer. The different distributions of the quasimomenta of the two species may be observed in suitable time-of-flight experiments. Also, an asymmetry in the lineshape as a function of the modulation frequency may reveal the presence of the odd-parity dissociated states when a heterodimer is dissociated by modulating the depth of the optical lattice.

  14. Bose-Einstein quantum phase transition in an optical lattice model

    SciTech Connect

    Aizenman, Michael; Lieb, Elliott H.; Seiringer, Robert; Solovej, Jan Philip; Yngvason, Jakob

    2004-08-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in cold gases can be turned on and off by an external potential, such as that presented by an optical lattice. We present a model of this phenomenon which we are able to analyze rigorously. The system is a hard core lattice gas at half of the maximum density and the optical lattice is modeled by a periodic potential of strength {lambda}. For small {lambda} and temperature, BEC is proved to occur, while at large {lambda} or temperature there is no BEC. At large {lambda} the low-temperature states are in a Mott insulator phase with a characteristic gap that is absent in the BEC phase. The interparticle interaction is essential for this transition, which occurs even in the ground state. Surprisingly, the condensation is always into the p=0 mode in this model, although the density itself has the periodicity of the imposed potential.

  15. Bending light via adiabatic optical transition in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bin; Xu, Lei; Dou, Yiling; Xu, Jingjun; Zhang, Guoquan

    2015-01-01

    Bending light in a controllable way is desired in various applications such as beam steering, navigating and cloaking. Different from the conventional way to bend light by refractive index gradient, transformation optics or special beams through wavefront design such as Airy beams and surface plasmons, we proposed a mechanism to bend light via resonant adiabatic optical transition between Floquet-Bloch (FB) modes from different FB bands in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices. The band structure of longitudinally modulated photonic lattices was calculated by employing the concept of quasi-energy based on the Floquet-Bloch theory, showing the existence of band discontinuities at specific resonant points which cannot be revealed by the coupled-mode theory. Interestingly, different FB bands can be seamlessly connected at these resonant points in longitudinally modulated photonic lattices driven by adiabatically varying the longitudinal modulation period along the propagation direction, which stimulates the adiabatic FB mode transition between different FB bands. PMID:26511890

  16. Engineering Stark Potentials for Precision Measurements: Optical Lattice Clock and Electrodynamic Surface Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Hidetoshi; Takamoto, Masao; Hachisu, Hidekazu; Fujiki, Jun; Higashi, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Masami; Kishimoto, Tetsuo

    2005-05-05

    Employing the engineered electric fields, we demonstrate novel platforms for precision measurements with neutral atoms. (1) Applying the light shift cancellation technique, atoms trapped in an optical lattice reveal 50-Hz-narrow optical spectrum, yielding nearly an order of magnitude improvement over existing neutral-atom-based clocks. (2) Surface Stark trap has been developed to manipulate scalar atoms that are intrinsically robust to decoherence.

  17. Matter-wave exact periodic solutions in optical lattices with periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changfu; Zhu, Aijun

    2013-10-01

    Some special matter-wave periodic solutions for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with periodic potential in the multidimensional optical lattices, are obtained through restricting parameters and some balance conditions between the optical potentials and interaction energies. The results show that the same type of periodic solutions in the same dimension possesses the same norm but different phases and they are all bounded. Especially, the numerics shows that two class (2+1)-dimensional periodic solutions are stable.

  18. Amplified short-wavelength light scattered by relativistic electrons in the laser-induced optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriyash, I. A.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Malka, V.; D'Humières, E.; Balcou, Ph.

    2015-05-01

    The scheme of the x-ray free electron laser based on the optical undulator created by two overlapped transverse laser beams is analyzed. A kinetic theoretical description and an ad hoc numerical model are developed to account for the finite energy spread, angular divergence, and the spectral properties of the electron beam in the optical lattice. The theoretical findings are compared to the results of the one- and three-dimensional numerical modeling with the spectral free electron laser code plares.

  19. Multiparticle Entanglement and Spatial Addressability of Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Immanuel F. Bloch Stefan Kuhr Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz Institute Fuer Physik/Quantum Mainz, Germany 55099 EOARD GRANT 07-3090...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Institute Fuer Physik/Quantum Mainz, Germany 55099 8...Entanglement and Spatial Addressability of Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices Prof. Dr. Immanuel Bloch Dr. Stefan Kuhr Johannes

  20. Low-acceleration instability of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; Kostrun, Marijan; Javanainen, Juha

    2004-12-03

    We study a Bose-Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional accelerated optical lattice using the mean-field version of the Bose-Hubbard model. Reminiscent of recent experiments [M. Cristiani et al., Opt. Express 12, 4 (2004)], we find a new type of an instability in this system that occurs in the limit when the acceleration is small.

  1. Effective-mass analysis of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices: Stabilization and levitation

    SciTech Connect

    Pu, H.; Zhang, W.; Meystre, P.; Baksmaty, L.O.; Bigelow, N.P.

    2003-04-01

    We investigate the time evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a periodic optical potential. Using an effective mass formalism, we study the equation of motion for the envelope function modulating the Bloch states of the lattice potential. In particular, we show how the negative effective-mass affects the dynamics of the condensate.

  2. Landau-Zener tunneling of Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Konotop, V.V.; Kevrekidis, P.G.; Salerno, M.

    2005-08-15

    A theory of the nonsymmetric Landau-Zener tunneling of Bose-Einstein condensates in deep optical lattices is presented. It is shown that periodic exchange of matter between the bands is described by a set of linearly coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. The key role of the modulational instability in rendering the interband transitions irreversible is highlighted.

  3. Direct Excitation of the Forbidden Clock Transition in Neutral {sup 174}Yb Atoms Confined to an Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Z.W.; Hoyt, C.W.; Oates, C.W.; Hollberg, L.; Taichenachev, A.V.; Yudin, V.I.

    2006-03-03

    We report direct single-laser excitation of the strictly forbidden (6s{sup 2}){sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible}(6s6p){sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition in {sup 174}Yb atoms confined to a 1D optical lattice. A small ({approx}1.2 mT) static magnetic field was used to induce a nonzero electric dipole transition probability between the clock states at 578.42 nm. Narrow resonance linewidths of 20 Hz (FWHM) with high contrast were observed, demonstrating a resonance quality factor of 2.6x10{sup 13}. The previously unknown ac Stark shift-canceling (magic) wavelength was determined to be 759.35{+-}0.02 nm. This method for using the metrologically superior even isotope can be easily implemented in current Yb and Sr lattice clocks and can create new clock possibilities in other alkaline-earth-like atoms such as Mg and Ca.

  4. Control of diffusion of nanoparticles in an optical vortex lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Ivar; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Sáenz, Juan José

    2016-06-01

    A two-dimensional periodic optical force field, which combines conservative dipolar forces with vortices from radiation pressure, is proposed in order to influence the diffusion properties of optically susceptible nanoparticles. The different deterministic flow patterns are identified. In the low-noise limit, the diffusion coefficient is computed from a mean first passage time and the most probable escape paths are identified for those flow patterns which possess a stable stationary point. Numerical simulations of the associated Langevin equations show remarkable agreement with the analytically deduced expressions. Modifications of the force field are proposed so that a wider range of phenomena could be tested.

  5. Optically induced zener tunneling in one-dimensional lattices.

    PubMed

    Fratalocchi, Andrea; Assanto, Gaetano; Brzdakiewicz, Kasia A; Karpierz, Mirek A

    2006-03-15

    We investigate Landau-Zener tunneling in one-dimensional liquid crystalline waveguide arrays by all-optical impression of acceleration with an additional beam. We derive the Zener model from the governing equations and demonstrate a novel approach to Floquet-Bloch band tunneling.

  6. Imaging and addressing of individual fermionic atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotzky, Stefan; Edge, Graham; Anderson, Rhys; Xu, Peihang; Venu, Vijin; Jervis, Dylan; McKay, Dave; Day, Ryan; Thywissen, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    The implementation of site-resolved imaging of atoms in short-period optical lattices constitutes a milestone achievement in the study of strongly correlated matter with these systems. Its realization with bosons six years ago has boosted progress in the field. In the last year, site-resolved imaging was demonstrated for fermions in five independent experiments. We present our newest results on site-resolved microscopy of ultracold 40 K in a 527nm-period optical lattice. Atoms remain pinned during imaging due to EIT cooling on the 770nm D1 transition. We observe pinning fidelities of up to 96% for an illumination time of 2.6s during which the atoms scatter > 2000 photons. A 0.8NA objective collects the fluorescence light to be imaged onto a EMCCD camera, giving a 600nm -wide PSF. In conjunction with the known lattice geometry, this allows us to reconstruct the lattice-site occupations from the images. The imaging technique is implemented in an apparatus capable of simulating the Fermi-Hubbard model. The use of tomographic tools enables us to select single lattice planes for background free imaging. We also address in-plane patterns with straight and circular boundaries in order to eliminate inhomogeneity effects on the imaging fidelity, or for controlled entropy removal.

  7. Matter-wave propagation in optical lattices: geometrical and flat-band effects

    DOE PAGES

    Metcalf, Mekena; Chern, Gia-Wei; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; ...

    2016-03-17

    Here we report that the geometry of optical lattices can be engineered allowing the study of atomic transport along paths arranged in patterns that are otherwise difficult to probe in the solid state. A question feasible to atomic systems is related to the speed of propagation of matter-waves as a function of the lattice geometry. To address this issue, we have investigated theoretically the quantum transport of non-interacting and weakly-interacting ultracold fermionic atoms in several 2D optical lattice geometries. We find that the triangular lattice has a higher propagation velocity compared to the square lattice, and the cross-linked square latticemore » has an even faster propagation velocity. The increase results from the mixing of the momentum states which leads to different group velocities in quantum systems. Standard band theory provides an explanation and allows for a systematic way to search and design systems with controllable matter-wave propagation. Moreover, the presence of a flat band such as in a two-leg ladder geometry leads to a dynamical density discontinuity due to its localized atoms. Lastly, we discuss possible realizations of those dynamical phenomena.« less

  8. Magnetic field-induced spectroscopy of forbidden optical transitions with application to lattice-based optical atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Oates, C W; Hoyt, C W; Barber, Z W; Hollberg, L

    2006-03-03

    We develop a method of spectroscopy that uses a weak static magnetic field to enable direct optical excitation of forbidden electric-dipole transitions that are otherwise prohibitively weak. The power of this scheme is demonstrated using the important application of optical atomic clocks based on neutral atoms confined to an optical lattice. The simple experimental implementation of this method--a single clock laser combined with a dc magnetic field--relaxes stringent requirements in current lattice-based clocks (e.g., magnetic field shielding and light polarization), and could therefore expedite the realization of the extraordinary performance level predicted for these clocks. We estimate that a clock using alkaline-earth-like atoms such as Yb could achieve a fractional frequency uncertainty of well below 10(-17) for the metrologically preferred even isotopes.

  9. Three-level Haldane-like model on a dice optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrijauskas, T.; Anisimovas, E.; RačiÅ«nas, M.; Mekys, A.; Kudriašov, V.; Spielman, I. B.; JuzeliÅ«nas, G.

    2015-09-01

    We consider ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice of the dice geometry in a tight-binding regime. The atoms experience a laser-assisted tunneling between the nearest neighbor sites of the dice lattice accompanied by the momentum recoil. This allows one to engineer staggered synthetic magnetic fluxes over plaquettes, and thus pave a way towards the realization of topologically nontrivial band structures. In such a lattice the real-valued next-nearest neighbor transitions are not needed to reach a topological regime. Yet, such transitions can increase a variety of the obtained topological phases. The dice lattice represents a triangular Bravais lattice with a three-site basis consisting of a hub site connected to two rim sites. As a consequence, the dice lattice supports three energy bands. From this point of view, our model can be interpreted as a generalization of the paradigmatic Haldane model which is reproduced if one of the two rim sublattices is eliminated. We demonstrate that the proposed upgrade of the Haldane model creates a significant added value, including an easy access to topological semimetal phases relying only on the nearest neighbor coupling, as well as enhanced topological band structures featuring Chern numbers higher than one leading to physics beyond the usual quantum Hall effect. The numerical investigation is supported and complemented by an analytical scheme based on the study of singularities in the Berry connection.

  10. Characterizing the antiferromagnetic ordering of fermions in a compensated optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, P. M.; Hart, R. A.; Yang, T. L.; Liu, X.; Hulet, R. G.; Paiva, T. C. L.; Huse, D.; Scalettar, R.; Trivedi, N.

    2014-05-01

    We realize the Fermi-Hubbard model with fermionic 6Li atoms in a three-dimensional, red-detuned optical lattice. The lattice is compensated by the addition of three blue-detuned gaussian beams which overlap each of the lattice laser beams, but are not retro-reflected. Using the compensated lattice potential, we have reached temperatures low enough to produce antiferromagnetic (AF) spin correlations, which we detect via Bragg scattering of light. The variation of the measured AF correlations as a function of the Hubbard interaction strength, U / t , provides a way to determine the temperature of the atoms in the lattice by comparison with quantum Monte Carlo calculations. This method suggests our temperature is in the range of 2-3 times the Néel ordering temperature. In this poster we present our Bragg scattering results along with our studies of the effect of the compensating potential in helping us cool the atoms in the lattice and also enlarge the size of the AF phase. Work supported by DARPA, ONR, NSF and The Welch Foundation.

  11. Extended Bose Hubbard model of interacting bosonic atoms in optical lattices: From superfluidity to density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzarella, G.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.

    2006-01-15

    For systems of interacting, ultracold spin-zero neutral bosonic atoms, harmonically trapped and subject to an optical lattice potential, we derive an Extended Bose Hubbard (EBH) model by developing a systematic expansion for the Hamiltonian of the system in powers of the lattice parameters and of a scale parameter, the lattice attenuation factor. We identify the dominant terms that need to be retained in realistic experimental conditions, up to nearest-neighbor interactions and nearest-neighbor hoppings conditioned by the on-site occupation numbers. In the mean field approximation, we determine the free energy of the system and study the phase diagram both at zero and at finite temperature. At variance with the standard on site Bose Hubbard model, the zero-temperature phase diagram of the EBH model possesses a dual structure in the Mott insulating regime. Namely, for specific ranges of the lattice parameters, a density wave phase characterizes the system at integer fillings, with domains of alternating mean occupation numbers that are the atomic counterparts of the domains of staggered magnetizations in an antiferromagnetic phase. We show as well that in the EBH model, a zero-temperature quantum phase transition to pair superfluidity is, in principle, possible, but completely suppressed at the lowest order in the lattice attenuation factor. Finally, we determine the possible occurrence of the different phases as a function of the experimentally controllable lattice parameters.

  12. Possibility of triple magic trapping of clock and Rydberg states of divalent atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topcu, T.; Derevianko, A.

    2016-07-01

    We predict the possibility of ‘triply magic’ optical lattice trapping of neutral divalent atoms. In such a lattice, the {}1{{{S}}}0 and {}3{{{P}}}0 clock states and an additional Rydberg state experience identical optical potentials, fully mitigating detrimental effects of the motional decoherence. In particular, we show that this triply magic trapping condition can be satisfied for Yb atom at optical wavelengths and for various other divalent systems (Ca, Mg, Hg and Sr) in the UV region. We assess the quality of triple magic trapping conditions by estimating the probability of excitation out of the motional ground state as a result of the excitations between the clock and the Rydberg states. We also calculate trapping laser-induced photoionization rates of divalent Rydberg atoms at magic frequencies. We find that such rates are below the radiative spontaneous-emission rates, due to the presence of Cooper minima in photoionization cross-sections.

  13. Optical lattice-like cladding waveguides by direct laser writing: fabrication, luminescence, and lasing.

    PubMed

    Nie, Weijie; He, Ruiyun; Cheng, Chen; Rocha, Uéslen; Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, Javier; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng

    2016-05-15

    We report on the fabrication of optical lattice-like waveguide structures in an Nd:YAP laser crystal by using direct femtosecond laser writing. With periodically arrayed laser-induced tracks, the waveguiding cores can be located in either the regions between the neighbored tracks or the central zone surrounded by a number of tracks as outer cladding. The polarization of the femtosecond laser pulses for the inscription has been found to play a critical role in the anisotropic guiding behaviors of the structures. The confocal photoluminescence investigations reveal different stress-induced modifications of the structures inscribed by different polarization of the femtosecond laser beam, which are considered to be responsible for the refractive index changes of the structures. Under optical pump at 808 nm, efficient waveguide lasing at ∼1  μm wavelength has been realized from the optical lattice-like structure, which exhibits potential applications as novel miniature light sources.

  14. Optical resonance problem in metamaterial arrays: a lattice dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wanguo

    2016-11-01

    A systematic dynamic theory is established to deal with the optical collective resonance in metamaterial arrays. As a reference model, we consider an infinite split ring resonator (SRR) array illuminated by a linearly polarized wave and introduce an N-degree-of-freedom forced oscillator equation to simplify the coupled-mode vibration problem. We derive a strict formula of resonance frequency (RF) and its adjustable range from the steady-state response. Unlike a single SRR possesses invariant RF, it successfully explains the mechanism of RF shift effect in the SRR array when the incident angle changes. Instead of full wave analysis, only one or two adjacent resonance modes can give an accurate response line shape. Our approach is applicable for metallic arrays with any N-particle cell at all incident angles and well matched with numerical results. It provides a versatile way to study the vibration dynamics in optical periodic many-body systems.

  15. Optical techniques for Rydberg physics in lattice geometries. A technical guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naber, Julian B.; Vos, Jannie; Rengelink, Robert J.; Nusselder, Rosanne J.; Davtyan, David

    2016-12-01

    We address the technical challenges when performing quantum information experiments with ultracold Rydberg atoms in lattice geometries. We discuss the following key aspects: (i) the coherent manipulation of atomic ground states, (ii) the coherent excitation of Rydberg states, and (iii) spatial addressing of individual lattice sites. We briefly review methods and solutions which have been successfully implemented, and give examples based on our experimental apparatus. This includes an optical phase-locked loop, an intensity and frequency stabilization setup for lasers, and a nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulator.

  16. Magic wavelength to make optical lattice clocks insensitive to atomic motion.

    PubMed

    Katori, Hidetoshi; Hashiguchi, Koji; Il'inova, E Yu; Ovsiannikov, V D

    2009-10-09

    In a standing wave of light, a difference in spatial distributions of multipolar atom-field interactions may introduce atomic-motion dependent clock uncertainties in optical lattice clocks. We show that the magic wavelength can be defined so as to eliminate the spatial mismatch in electric dipole, magnetic dipole, and electric quadrupole interactions for specific combinations of standing waves by allowing a spatially constant light shift arising from the latter two interactions. Experimental prospects of such lattices used with a blue magic wavelength are discussed.

  17. Observation and cancellation of a perturbing dc stark shift in strontium optical lattice clocks.

    PubMed

    Lodewyck, Jérôme; Zawada, Michal; Lorini, Luca; Gurov, Mikhail; Lemonde, Pierre

    2012-03-01

    We report on the observation of a dc Stark frequency shift at the 10-(13) level by comparing two strontium optical lattice clocks. This frequency shift arises from the presence of electric charges trapped on dielectric surfaces placed under vacuum close to the atomic sample. We show that these charges can be eliminated by shining UV light on the dielectric surfaces, and characterize the residual dc Stark frequency shift on the clock transition at the 10-(18) level by applying an external electric field. This study shows that the dc Stark shift can play an important role in the accuracy budget of lattice clocks, and should be duly taken into account.

  18. Quantum Two-breathers Formed by Ultracold Bosonic Atoms in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bing

    2016-06-01

    Two-discrete breathers are the bound states of two localized modes that can appear in classical nonlinear lattices. I investigate the quantum signature of two-discrete breathers in the system of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, which is modeled as Bose-Hubbard model containing n bosons. When the number of bosons is small, I find numerically quantum two-breathers by making use of numerical diagonalization and perturbation theory. For the cases of a large number of bosons, I can successfully construct quantum two-breather states in the Hartree approximation.

  19. Micromagic Clock: Microwave Clock Based on Atoms in an Engineered Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Beloy, K.; Derevianko, A.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2009-03-27

    We propose a new class of atomic microwave clocks based on the hyperfine transitions in the ground state of aluminum or gallium atoms trapped in optical lattices. For such elements magic wavelengths exist at which both levels of the hyperfine doublet are shifted at the same rate by the lattice laser field, canceling its effect on the clock transition. A similar mechanism for the magic wavelengths may work in microwave hyperfine transitions in other atoms which have the fine-structure multiplets in the ground state.

  20. Magic Wavelength to Make Optical Lattice Clocks Insensitive to Atomic Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Hidetoshi; Hashiguchi, Koji; Il'inova, E. Yu.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.

    2009-10-09

    In a standing wave of light, a difference in spatial distributions of multipolar atom-field interactions may introduce atomic-motion dependent clock uncertainties in optical lattice clocks. We show that the magic wavelength can be defined so as to eliminate the spatial mismatch in electric dipole, magnetic dipole, and electric quadrupole interactions for specific combinations of standing waves by allowing a spatially constant light shift arising from the latter two interactions. Experimental prospects of such lattices used with a blue magic wavelength are discussed.

  1. Defect modes of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice with a localized impurity

    SciTech Connect

    Brazhnyi, Valeriy A.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.

    2006-08-15

    We study defect modes of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice with a localized defect within the framework of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. It is shown that for a significant range of parameters the defect modes can be accurately described by an expansion over Wannier functions, whose envelope is governed by the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations with a {delta} impurity. The stability of the defect modes is verified by direct numerical simulations of the underlying Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a periodic and defect potentials. We also discuss possibilities of driving defect modes through the lattice and suggest ideas for their experimental generation.

  2. Bragg resonances and Zener tunneling in quasiperiodic two-dimensional optical lattices and photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shchesnovich, Valery S.

    2007-09-15

    Nonresonant Zener tunneling in decagonal quasiperiodic structures in two spatial dimensions is defined by its relation to Bragg resonance and is studied by direct numerical simulations and an analytical approach. It is shown that, in the shallow lattice limit, the tunneling dynamics about the Bragg resonances is described by the multilevel Landau-Zener-Majorana models, which capture the essential peaks of the complicated Fourier spectrum. The results have applications to dynamics of cold atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates in quasiperiodic optical lattices, light propagation in quasiperiodic photonic crystals, and ultrasonic experiments with quasiperiodic structures.

  3. Atomic Landau-Zener tunneling in Fourier-synthesized optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Salger, Tobias; Geckeler, Carsten; Kling, Sebastian; Weitz, Martin

    2007-11-09

    We report on an experimental study of quantum transport of atoms in variable periodic optical potentials. The band structure of both ratchet-type asymmetric and symmetric lattice potentials is explored. The variable atom potential is realized by superimposing a conventional standing wave potential of lambda/2 spatial periodicity with a fourth-order multiphoton potential of lambda/4 periodicity. We find that the Landau-Zener tunneling rate between the first and the second excited Bloch band depends critically on the relative phase between the two spatial lattice harmonics.

  4. Atomic Landau-Zener Tunneling in Fourier-Synthesized Optical Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Salger, Tobias; Geckeler, Carsten; Kling, Sebastian; Weitz, Martin

    2007-11-09

    We report on an experimental study of quantum transport of atoms in variable periodic optical potentials. The band structure of both ratchet-type asymmetric and symmetric lattice potentials is explored. The variable atom potential is realized by superimposing a conventional standing wave potential of {lambda}/2 spatial periodicity with a fourth-order multiphoton potential of {lambda}/4 periodicity. We find that the Landau-Zener tunneling rate between the first and the second excited Bloch band depends critically on the relative phase between the two spatial lattice harmonics.

  5. Optical lattices of excitons in InGaN/GaN quantum well systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chaldyshev, V. V. Bolshakov, A. S. Zavarin, E. E.; Sakharov, A. V.; Lundin, V. V.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.; Yagovkina, M. A.

    2015-01-15

    Optical lattices of excitons in periodic systems of InGaN quantum wells with GaN barriers are designed, implemented, and investigated. Due to the collective interaction of quasi-two-dimensional excitons with light and a fairly high binding energy of excitons in GaN, optical Bragg reflection at room temperature is significantly enhanced. To increase the resonance optical response of the system, new structures with two quantum wells in a periodic supercell are designed and implemented. Resonance reflection of 40% at room temperatures for structures with 60 periods is demonstrated.

  6. High-Accuracy Measure of Atomic Polarizability in an Optical Lattice Clock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-11

    AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER High-Accuracy Measurement of Atomic Polarizability in an VV911~-11 - 1 -0202 Optical Lattice Clock Sb. GRANT NUMBER...modem optical atomic clock through blackbody radiation. By employing an ultracold, trapped atomic ensemble and high stability optical clock, we...1,U~ (1,’T, TI~ \\ 1\\ ( ,., ) Tl-.~ ~1 ~~1,1~ +.-~~+: ~~~ 1 ··~~~··+~:~+. • ...1 • • ~ +~ ··~~-~ 1S. SUBJECT TERMS atomic frequency standards

  7. Frequency ratios of optical lattice clocks at the 17th decimal place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Hidetoshi

    2016-05-01

    Optical lattice clocks benefit from a low quantum-projection noise by simultaneously interrogating a large number of atoms, which are trapped in an optical lattice tuned to the ``magic wavelength'' to largely cancel out light shift perturbation in the clock transition. About a thousand atoms enable the clocks to achieve 10-18 instability in a few hours of operation, allowing intensive investigation and control of systematic uncertainties. As optical lattice clocks have reached inaccuracies approaching 10-18, it is now the uncertainty of the SI second (~ 10-16) itself that restricts the measurement of the absolute frequencies of such optical clocks. Direct comparisons of optical clocks are, therefore, the only way to investigate and utilize their superb performance beyond the SI second. In this presentation, we report on frequency comparisons of optical lattice clocks with neutral strontium (87 Sr), ytterbium (171 Yb) and mercury (199 Hg) atoms. By referencing cryogenic Sr clocks, we determine frequency ratios, νYb/νSr and νHg/νSr, of a cryogenic Yb clock and a Hg clock with uncertainty at the mid 10-17 level. Such ratios provide an access to search for temporal variation of the fundamental constants. We also present remote comparisons between cryogenic Sr clocks located at RIKEN and the University of Tokyo over a 30-km-long phase-stabilized fiber link. The gravitational red shift Δν /ν0 ~ 1.1× 10-18 Δh cm-1 reads out the height difference of Δh ~ 15 m between the two clocks with uncertainty of 5 cm, which demonstrates a step towards relativistic geodesy. ERATO, JST.

  8. Two-dimensional bright and dark-in-bright dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate solitons on a one-dimensional optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    We study the statics and dynamics of anisotropic, stable, bright and dark-in-bright dipolar quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons on a one-dimensional (1D) optical-lattice (OL) potential. These solitons mobile in a plane perpendicular to a 1D OL trap can have both repulsive and attractive contact interactions. Dark-in-bright solitons are the excited states of bright solitons. The solitons, when subjected to a small perturbation, exhibit sustained breathing oscillation. Dark-in-bright solitons can be created by phase imprinting a bright soliton. At medium velocities the collision between two solitons is found to be quasi-elastic. Results are demonstrated by a numerical simulation of the three-dimensional mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation in three spatial dimensions employing realistic interaction parameters for a dipolar 164Dy BEC.

  9. Coexistence of Mott and superfluid domains of bosons confined in optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanore, Mukesh; Dey, Bishwajyoti

    2015-06-01

    We investigate ground state properties of the attractive Bose-gas confined on square optical lattice and superimposed wine-bottle-bottom or Mexican hat trap potential. The system is modeled by two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model with attractive interactions and inhomogeneous lattice potential. We calculate the energy spectrum, the on-site number fluctuation, local density and local compressibility using numerical exact diagonalization method for incommensurate lattice filling. The trap potential has several degenerate minimum sites distributed along a ring at the wine-bottle-bottom. It is shown that beyond a certain value of the attractive interaction strength there is phase coherent condensate on these degenerate sites with finite value of the on-site number fluctuation and local compressibility giving rise to localized superfluidity or superfluidity on a ring. For the same value of the interaction strength the non-degenerate sites produces Mott region.

  10. Cold atom dynamics in a quantum optical lattice potential.

    PubMed

    Maschler, Christoph; Ritsch, Helmut

    2005-12-31

    We study a generalized cold atom Bose-Hubbard model, where the periodic optical potential is formed by a cavity field with quantum properties. On the one hand, the common coupling of all atoms to the same mode introduces cavity-mediated long-range atom-atom interactions, and, on the other hand, atomic backaction on the field introduces atom-field entanglement. This modifies the properties of the associated quantum phase transitions and allows for new correlated atom-field states, including superposition of different atomic quantum phases. After deriving an approximative Hamiltonian including the new long-range interaction terms, we exhibit central physical phenomena at generic configurations of few atoms in few wells. We find strong modifications of population fluctuations and next-nearest-neighbor correlations near the phase transition point.

  11. Controlling chaos of a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into a moving optical Fourier-synthesized lattice.

    PubMed

    Chacón, R; Bote, D; Carretero-González, R

    2008-09-01

    We study the chaotic properties of steady-state traveling-wave solutions of the particle number density of a Bose-Einstein condensate with an attractive interatomic interaction loaded into a traveling optical lattice of variable shape. We demonstrate theoretically and numerically that chaotic traveling steady states can be reliably suppressed by small changes of the traveling optical lattice shape while keeping the remaining parameters constant. We find that the regularization route as the optical lattice shape is continuously varied is fairly rich, including crisis phenomena and period-doubling bifurcations. The conditions for a possible experimental realization of the control method are discussed.

  12. Realization of the Harper Hamiltonian with Artificial Gauge Fields in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Hirokazu; Siviloglou, Georgios; Kennedy, Colin; Burton, William Cody; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Systems of charged particles in magnetic fields have led to many discoveries in science-such as the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects-and have become important paradigms of quantum many-body physics. We have proposed and implemented a scheme which realizes the Harper Hamiltonian, a lattice model for charged particles in magnetic fields, whose energy spectrum is the fractal Hofstadter butterfly. We experimentally realize this Hamiltonian for ultracold, charge neutral bosonic particles of 87Rb in a two-dimensional optical lattice by creating an artificial gauge field using laser-assisted tunneling and a potential energy gradient provided by gravity. Laser-assisted tunneling processes are characterized by studying the expansion of the atoms in the lattice. Furthermore, this scheme can be extended to realize spin-orbit coupling and the spin Hall effect for neutral atoms in optical lattices by modifying the motion of atoms in a spin-dependent way by laser recoil and Zeeman shifts created with a magnetic field gradient. Major advantages of our scheme are that it does not rely on near-resonant laser light to couple different spin states and should work even for fermionic particles. Our work is a step towards studying novel topological phenomena with ultracold atoms. Currently at the RAND Corporation.

  13. Chaos and band structure in a three-dimensional optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Boretz, Yingyue; Reichl, L E

    2015-04-01

    Classical chaos is known to affect wave propagation because it signifies the presence of broken symmetries. The effect of chaos has been observed experimentally for matter waves, electromagnetic waves, and acoustic waves. When these three types of waves propagate through a spatially periodic medium, the allowed propagation energies form bands. For energies in the band gaps, no wave propagation is possible. We show that optical lattices provide a well-defined system that allows a study of the effect of chaos on band structure. We have determined the band structure of a body-centered-cubic optical lattice for all theoretically possible couplings, and we find that the band structure for those lattices realizable in the laboratory differs significantly from that expected for the bands in an "empty" body-centered-cubic crystal. However, as coupling is increased, the lattice becomes increasingly chaotic and it becomes possible to produce band structure that has behavior qualitatively similar to the "empty" body-centered-cubic band structure, although with fewer degeneracies.

  14. Energy band gap and optical transition of metal ion modified double crossover DNA lattices.

    PubMed

    Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Ha, Taewoo; Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Choi, Kyujin; Lee, Junwye; Kim, Byeonghoon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Park, Sung Ha

    2014-10-22

    We report on the energy band gap and optical transition of a series of divalent metal ion (Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Co(2+)) modified DNA (M-DNA) double crossover (DX) lattices fabricated on fused silica by the substrate-assisted growth (SAG) method. We demonstrate how the degree of coverage of the DX lattices is influenced by the DX monomer concentration and also analyze the band gaps of the M-DNA lattices. The energy band gap of the M-DNA, between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), ranges from 4.67 to 4.98 eV as judged by optical transitions. Relative to the band gap of a pristine DNA molecule (4.69 eV), the band gap of the M-DNA lattices increases with metal ion doping up to a critical concentration and then decreases with further doping. Interestingly, except for the case of Ni(2+), the onset of the second absorption band shifts to a lower energy until a critical concentration and then shifts to a higher energy with further increasing the metal ion concentration, which is consistent with the evolution of electrical transport characteristics. Our results show that controllable metal ion doping is an effective method to tune the band gap energy of DNA-based nanostructures.

  15. Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Tetsushi; Takamoto, Masao; Ushijima, Ichiro; Ohmae, Noriaki; Akatsuka, Tomoya; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Kuroishi, Yuki; Munekane, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Basara; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2016-10-01

    According to Einstein's theory of relativity, the passage of time changes in a gravitational field. On Earth, raising a clock by 1 cm increases its apparent tick rate by 1.1 parts in 1018, allowing chronometric levelling through comparison of optical clocks. Here, we demonstrate such geopotential measurements by determining the height difference of master and slave clocks separated by 15 km with an uncertainty of 5 cm. A subharmonic of the master clock laser is delivered through a telecom fibre to synchronously operate the distant clocks. Clocks operated under such phase coherence reject clock laser noise and facilitate proposals for linking clocks and interferometers. Taken over half a year, 11 measurements determine the fractional frequency difference between the two clocks to be 1,652.9(5.9) × 10-18, consistent with an independent measurement by levelling and gravimetry. Our system demonstrates a building block for an internet of clocks, which may constitute ‘quantum benchmarks’, serving as height references with dynamic responses.

  16. Systematic studies on the effect of linear lattice optics for space-charge limited beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitterer, M.; Carli, C.; Molodozhentsev, A.; Müller, A.-S.

    2015-12-01

    The HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) project aims to an increase of the luminosity of the LHC by a factor of 10. In order to realize this ambitious goal, the LHC itself has to undergo a major upgrade accompanied by an extensive upgrade of the complete injector complex referred to as LHC injector upgrade (LIU). In the framework of the LIU project, a new rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) as an alternative to the energy upgrade of the existing PS Booster has been proposed. Motivated by the optics studies conducted for this RCS, the more general question of the influence of the linear optics on the machine performance has been raised. In this paper, we want to investigate this question by comparing different lattices with the final aim of identifying lattice characteristics advantageous under strong space-charge effects.

  17. Selective distillation phenomenon in two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in open boundary optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Jun; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the formation of discrete breathers (DBs) and the dynamics of the mixture of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in open boundary optical lattices using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The results show that the coupling of intra- and interspecies interaction can lead to the existence of pure single-species DBs and symbiotic DBs (i.e., two-species DBs). Furthermore, we find that there is a selective distillation phenomenon in the dynamics of the mixture of two-species BECs. One can selectively distil one species from the mixture of two-species BECs and can even control dominant species fraction by adjusting the intra- and interspecies interaction in optical lattices. Our selective distillation mechanism may find potential application in quantum information storage and quantum information processing based on multi-species atoms.

  18. Fractional quantum Hall states of dipolar fermions in a strained optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yuya O.; Ashida, Yuto; Furukawa, Shunsuke

    2016-10-01

    We study strongly correlated ground states of dipolar fermions in a honeycomb optical lattice with spatial variations in hopping amplitudes. Similar to strained graphene, such nonuniform hopping amplitudes produce valley-dependent pseudomagnetic fields for fermions near the two Dirac points, resulting in the formation of Landau levels. The dipole moments aligned perpendicular to the honeycomb plane yield a long-range repulsive interaction. By exact diagonalization in the zeroth-Landau-level basis, we show that this repulsive interaction stabilizes a variety of valley-polarized fractional quantum Hall states such as Laughlin and composite-fermion states. The present system thus offers an intriguing platform for emulating fractional quantum Hall physics in a static optical lattice. We calculate the energy gaps above these incompressible states and discuss the temperature scales required for their experimental realization.

  19. Ultracold two-body dynamics in optical lattices with topological singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghamalyan, Davit; Simoni, Andrea; Launay, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-01

    We study bound levels of two particles trapped in a 2D optical lattice. We use a short-range potential tuned to reproduce typical experimental conditions. Near-threshold bound states are computed using a spectral element discretization approach that guarantees exponential precision in the numerical results. High computational efficiency is attained due to the very sparse nature of the Hamiltonian in this representation. The calculated wavefunction is analyzed both in real and in momentum space. We perform calculations both for standard separable optical potentials and for lattice with topological singularities (Dirac cones) in the band structure. Extension to the calculation of scattering states will be addressed. This work was supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Contract No. ANR-12-BS04-0020-01).

  20. Disorder-induced heating of ultracold neutral plasmas created from atoms in partially filled optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, D.; Sparkes, B. M.

    2016-08-01

    We quantify the disorder-induced heating (DIH) of ultracold neutral plasmas (UCNPs) created from cold atoms in optical lattices with partial filling fractions, using a conservation of energy model involving the spatial correlations of the initial state and the equation of state in thermal equilibrium for a one-component plasma. We show, for experimentally achievable filling fractions, that the ionic Coulomb coupling parameter could be increased to a degree comparable to other proposed DIH-mitigation schemes. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed with compensation for finite-size and periodic boundary effects, which agree with calculations using the model. Reduction of DIH using optical lattices will allow for the study of strongly coupled plasma physics using low-density, low-temperature, laboratory-based plasmas, and lead to improved brightness in UCNP-based cold electron and ion beams, where DIH is otherwise a fundamental limitation to beam focal sizes and diffraction imaging capability.

  1. Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction and Spiral Order in Spin-orbit Coupled Optical Lattices

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ming; Qian, Yinyin; Yan, Mi; Scarola, V. W.; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2015-01-01

    We show that the recent experimental realization of spin-orbit coupling in ultracold atomic gases can be used to study different types of spin spiral order and resulting multiferroic effects. Spin-orbit coupling in optical lattices can give rise to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin interaction which is essential for spin spiral order. By taking into account spin-orbit coupling and an external Zeeman field, we derive an effective spin model in the Mott insulator regime at half filling and demonstrate that the DM interaction in optical lattices can be made extremely strong with realistic experimental parameters. The rich finite temperature phase diagrams of the effective spin models for fermions and bosons are obtained via classical Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:26014458

  2. Selective distillation phenomenon in two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in open boundary optical lattices

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Jun; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the formation of discrete breathers (DBs) and the dynamics of the mixture of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in open boundary optical lattices using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The results show that the coupling of intra- and interspecies interaction can lead to the existence of pure single-species DBs and symbiotic DBs (i.e., two-species DBs). Furthermore, we find that there is a selective distillation phenomenon in the dynamics of the mixture of two-species BECs. One can selectively distil one species from the mixture of two-species BECs and can even control dominant species fraction by adjusting the intra- and interspecies interaction in optical lattices. Our selective distillation mechanism may find potential application in quantum information storage and quantum information processing based on multi-species atoms. PMID:26597592

  3. Controlling and detecting spin correlations of ultracold atoms in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Trotzky, Stefan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Schnorrberger, Ute; Cheinet, Patrick; Bloch, Immanuel

    2010-12-31

    We report on the controlled creation of a valence bond state of delocalized effective-spin singlet and triplet dimers by means of a bichromatic optical superlattice. We demonstrate a coherent coupling between the singlet and triplet states and show how the superlattice can be employed to measure the singlet-fraction employing a spin-blockade effect. Our method provides a reliable way to detect and control nearest-neighbor spin correlations in many-body systems of ultracold atoms. Being able to measure these correlations is an important ingredient in studying quantum magnetism in optical lattices. We furthermore employ a SWAP operation between atoms which are part of different triplets, thus effectively increasing their bond-length. Such a SWAP operation provides an important step towards the massively parallel creation of a multiparticle entangled state in the lattice.

  4. Topological states in a ladder-like optical lattice containing ultracold atoms in higher orbital bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Erhai; Vincent Liu, W.

    2013-02-01

    Topological insulators are classified according to their symmetries. Discovery of them in electronic solids is thus restricted by orbital and crystalline symmetries available in nature. Synthetic quantum matter, such as the recent double-well optical lattices loaded with s and p orbital ultracold atoms, can exploit symmetries and interaction beyond natural conditions. Here we unveil a topological phase of interacting fermionic atoms on a two-leg ladder derived from the above experimental optical lattice by dimension reduction. The topological band structure originates from the staggered phases of sp orbital tunnelling, requiring neither spin-orbit coupling nor other known mechanisms like p-wave pairing, artificial gauge field or rotation. Upon crossing over to two-dimensional coupled ladders, the edge modes from individual ladder form a parity-protected flat band at zero energy. Experimental signatures are found in density correlations and phase transitions to trivial band and Mott insulators.

  5. Artificial topological models based on a one-dimensional spin-dependent optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhen; Pu, Han; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan

    2017-01-01

    Topological matter is a popular topic in both condensed matter and cold-atom research. In the past decades, a variety of models have been identified with fascinating topological features. Some, but not all, of the models can be found in materials. As a fully controllable system, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices provide an ideal platform to simulate and realize these topological models. Here we present a proposal for synthesizing topological models in cold atoms based on a one-dimensional spin-dependent optical lattice potential. In our system, features such as staggered tunneling, staggered Zeeman field, nearest-neighbor interaction, beyond-near-neighbor tunneling, etc. can be readily realized. They underlie the emergence of various topological phases. Our proposal can be realized with current technology and hence has potential applications in quantum simulation of topological matter.

  6. Surface-modified Wannier-Stark states in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maury, A.; Donaire, M.; Gorza, M.-P.; Lambrecht, A.; Guérout, R.

    2016-11-01

    We study the energy spectrum of atoms trapped in a vertical one-dimensional optical lattice in close proximity to a reflective surface. We propose an effective model to describe the interaction between the atoms and the surface at any distance. Our model includes the long-range Casimir-Polder potential together with a short-range Lennard-Jones potential, which are considered nonperturbatively with respect to the optical lattice potential. We find an intricate energy spectrum which contains a pair of loosely bound states localized close to the surface in addition to a surface-modified Wannier-Stark ladder at long distances. Atomic interferometry involving those loosely bound atom-surface states is proposed to probe the adsorption dynamics of atoms on mirrors.

  7. Nonlinear Sensing With Collective States of Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-02

    decimation algorithm , a method that takes into account quantum correlations. B.1. In collaboration with D. Blume and X.Y. Yin at Washington State...Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Nonlinear quantum sensing, quantum metrology, ultracold atoms, optical lattices REPORT...with applications to interaction-based quantum metrology, Physical Review A, (10 2014): 0. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.041602 Khan W Mahmud, Lei Jiang

  8. Fiber-optic signal processor with applications to matrix-vector multiplication and lattice filtering.

    PubMed

    Tur, M; Goodman, J W; Moslehi, B; Bowers, J E; Shaw, H J

    1982-09-01

    A new fiber-optic signal processor is proposed to implement systolic matrix-vector multipliers and lattice filters. 10(9) multiplications/sec can be achieved with currently available components for matrix-vector multiplications that involve Toeplitz matrices. A 2 x 2 (Toeplitz) matrix-vector multiplier has been experimentally demonstrated using single-mode fibers and directional couplers. The filtering characteristics of the device are also discussed.

  9. Investigation of Density Perturbations in Molecular Nitrogen Formed by Pulsed Optical Lattices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    configuration with the appropriate gas properties. During the last 0.02% of the simulation, cells were sampled to give flow field values. With...from the lattice induced gas gratings was measured as a function of ambient pressure and pump energy. The results obtained from the numerical...an Optical Cavity,” Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics, ed. T. Abe, (AIP, New York, 2009), pp. 533-538 8

  10. The Bose-Hubbard model: from Josephson junction arrays to optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruder, C.; Fazio, R.; Schön, G.

    2005-09-01

    [Dedicated to Bernhard Mühlschlegel on the occasion ofhis 80th birthday]The Bose-Hubbard model is a paradigm for the study of strongly correlated bosonic systems. We review some of its properties with emphasis on the implications on quantum phase transitions of Josephson junction arrays and quantum dynamics of topological excitations as well as the properties of ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices.

  11. Optical gain in Si/SiO2 lattice: Experimental evidence with nanosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khriachtchev, Leonid; Räsänen, Markku; Novikov, Sergei; Sinkkonen, Juha

    2001-08-01

    Experimental evidence of population inversion and amplified spontaneous emission was found for Si nanocrystallites embedded in SiO2 surrounding under pumping with 5 ns light pulses at 380, 400, and 500 nm. As an important property, our experiments show a short lifetime of the population inversion allowing a generation of short (a few nanosecond) amplified light pulses in the Si/SiO2 lattice. The estimate for optical gain in the present samples is 6 cm-1 at 720 nm.

  12. Nonlinear patterns in Bose-Einstein condensates in dissipative optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Bludov, Yu. V.; Konotop, V. V.

    2010-01-15

    It is shown that the one-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a dissipative periodic potential, nonlinear losses, and a linear pump allow for the existence of stable nonlinear Bloch states which are attractors. The model describes a Bose-Einstein condensate with inelastic two- and three-body interactions loaded in an optical lattice with losses due to inelastic interactions of the atoms with photons.

  13. Higher-order effects on uncertainties of clocks of Mg atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsiannikov, V. D.; Marmo, S. I.; Mokhnenko, S. N.; Palchikov, V. G.

    2017-01-01

    Multipole, nonlinear and anharmonic effects on the optical-lattice-based clocks of Mg atoms are evaluated theoretically. Dipole polarizabilities, hyperpolarizabilities and multipolar polarizabilities for Mg atoms are calculated in the single-electron approximation with the use of analytical presentations for the wave and Green’s functions in the modified model-potential approach. For comparison, the data are also given for atoms of the group IIb elements (Zn, Cd, Hg).

  14. Visibility of cold atomic gases in optical lattices for finite temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Alexander; Pelster, Axel

    2009-05-15

    In nearly all experiments with ultracold atoms time-of-flight pictures are the only data available. In this paper we present an analytical strong-coupling calculation for those time-of-flight pictures of bosons in a three-dimensional optical lattice in the Mott phase. This allows us to determine the visibility, which quantifies the contrast of peaks in the time-of-flight pictures, and we suggest how to use it as a thermometer.

  15. Delocalizing transition in one-dimensional condensates in optical lattices due to inhomogeneous interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Bludov, Yu. V.; Brazhnyi, V. A.; Konotop, V. V.

    2007-08-15

    It is shown that inhomogeneous nonlinear interactions in a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded in an optical lattice can result in a delocalizing transition in one dimension, which sharply contrasts to the known behavior of discrete and periodic systems with homogeneous nonlinearity. The transition can be originated either by decreasing the amplitude of the linear periodic potential or by the change of the mean value of the periodic nonlinearity. The dynamics of the delocalizing transition is studied.

  16. Analysis of the blackbody-radiation shift in an ytterbium optical lattice clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yi-Lin; Xu, Xin-Ye

    2016-10-01

    We accurately evaluate the blackbody-radiation shift in a 171Yb optical lattice clock by utilizing temperature measurement and numerical simulation. In this work. three main radiation sources are considered for the blackbody-radiation shift, including the heated atomic oven, the warm vacuum chamber, and the room-temperature vacuum windows. The temperatures on the outer surface of the vacuum chamber are measured during the clock operation period by utilizing seven calibrated temperature sensors. Then we infer the temperature distribution inside the vacuum chamber by numerical simulation according to the measured temperatures. Furthermore, we simulate the temperature variation around the cold atoms while the environmental temperature is fluctuating. Finally, we obtain that the total blackbody-radiation shift is -1.289(7) Hz with an uncertainty of 1.25 × 10-17 for our 171Yb optical lattice clock. The presented method is quite suitable for accurately evaluating the blackbody-radiation shift of the optical lattice clock in the case of lacking the sensors inside the vacuum chamber. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821302), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11134003), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA123401), and the Shanghai Excellent Academic Leaders Program of China (Grant No. 12XD1402400).

  17. Quantum phases from competing short- and long-range interactions in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Landig, Renate; Hruby, Lorenz; Dogra, Nishant; Landini, Manuele; Mottl, Rafael; Donner, Tobias; Esslinger, Tilman

    2016-04-28

    Insights into complex phenomena in quantum matter can be gained from simulation experiments with ultracold atoms, especially in cases where theoretical characterization is challenging. However, these experiments are mostly limited to short-range collisional interactions; recently observed perturbative effects of long-range interactions were too weak to reach new quantum phases. Here we experimentally realize a bosonic lattice model with competing short- and long-range interactions, and observe the appearance of four distinct quantum phases--a superfluid, a supersolid, a Mott insulator and a charge density wave. Our system is based on an atomic quantum gas trapped in an optical lattice inside a high-finesse optical cavity. The strength of the short-range on-site interactions is controlled by means of the optical lattice depth. The long (infinite)-range interaction potential is mediated by a vacuum mode of the cavity and is independently controlled by tuning the cavity resonance. When probing the phase transition between the Mott insulator and the charge density wave in real time, we observed a behaviour characteristic of a first-order phase transition. Our measurements have accessed a regime for quantum simulation of many-body systems where the physics is determined by the intricate competition between two different types of interactions and the zero point motion of the particles.

  18. Antiresonant reflection and inhibited coupling in hollow-core square lattice optical fibres.

    PubMed

    Argyros, Alexander; Leon-Saval, Sergio G; Pla, Jarryd; Docherty, Andrew

    2008-04-14

    We propose a guidance mechanism in hollow-core optical fibres dominated by antiresonant reflection from struts of solid material in the cladding. Resonances with these struts determine the high loss bands of the fibres, and vector effects become important in determining the width of these bands through the non-degeneracy of the TE and TM polarised strut modes near cut-off. Away from resonances the light is confined through the inhibited coupling mechanism. This is demonstrated in a square lattice hollow-core microstructured polymer optical fibre.

  19. Bloch oscillations of cold atoms in two-dimensional optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Kolovsky, A. R.; Korsch, H. J.

    2003-06-01

    Bloch oscillations of cold atoms in two-dimensional optical lattices are studied. The cases of separable and nonseparable potentials are compared by simulating the wave-packet dynamics. For these two classes of optical potential, the Bloch oscillations were found to be qualitatively the same in the case of a weak static field but fundamentally different in the case of a strong field. In addition, the dynamics of the atoms in a double-period potential (which can easily be realized in two dimensions) is studied for the regime of a weak static field.

  20. Inner-shell magnetic dipole transition in Tm atoms: A candidate for optical lattice clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukachev, D.; Fedorov, S.; Tolstikhina, I.; Tregubov, D.; Kalganova, E.; Vishnyakova, G.; Golovizin, A.; Kolachevsky, N.; Khabarova, K.; Sorokin, V.

    2016-08-01

    We consider a narrow magneto-dipole transition in the 169Tm atom at the wavelength of 1.14 μ m as a candidate for a two-dimensional-optical lattice clock. Calculating dynamic polarizabilities of the two clock levels [Xe] 4 f136 s2(J =7 /2 ) and [Xe] 4 f136 s2(J =5 /2 ) in the spectral range from 250 to 1200 nm, we find a "magic" wavelength for the optical lattice at 807 nm. Frequency shifts due to black-body radiation (BBR), the van der Waals interaction, the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, and other effects which can perturb the transition frequency are calculated. The transition at 1.14 μ m demonstrates low sensitivity to the BBR shift corresponding to 8 ×10-17 in fractional units at room temperature which makes it an interesting candidate for high-performance optical clocks. The total estimated frequency uncertainty is less than 5 ×10-18 in fractional units. By direct excitation of the 1.14 μ m transition in Tm atoms loaded into an optical dipole trap, we set the lower limit for the lifetime of the upper clock level [Xe] 4 f136 s2(J =5 /2 ) of 112 ms which corresponds to a natural spectral linewidth narrower than 1.4 Hz. The polarizability of the Tm ground state was measured by the excitation of parametric resonances in the optical dipole trap at 532 nm.

  1. Creating topological interfaces and detecting chiral edge modes in a two-dimensional optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, N.; Jotzu, G.; Messer, M.; Görg, F.; Desbuquois, R.; Esslinger, T.

    2016-10-01

    We propose a general scheme to create chiral topological edge modes within the bulk of two-dimensional engineered quantum systems. Our method is based on the implementation of topological interfaces, designed within the bulk of the system, where topologically protected edge modes localize and freely propagate in a unidirectional manner. This scheme is illustrated through an optical-lattice realization of the Haldane model for cold atoms [G. Jotzu et al., Nature (London) 515, 237 (2014), 10.1038/nature13915], where an additional spatially varying lattice potential induces distinct topological phases in separated regions of space. We present two realistic experimental configurations, which lead to linear and radial-symmetric topological interfaces, which both allow one to significantly reduce the effects of external confinement on topological edge properties. Furthermore, the versatility of our method opens the possibility of tuning the position, the localization length, and the chirality of the edge modes, through simple adjustments of the lattice potentials. In order to demonstrate the unique detectability offered by engineered interfaces, we numerically investigate the time evolution of wave packets, indicating how topological transport unambiguously manifests itself within the lattice. Finally, we analyze the effects of disorder on the dynamics of chiral and nonchiral states present in the system. Interestingly, engineered disorder is shown to provide a powerful tool for the detection of topological edge modes in cold-atom setups.

  2. Optical induction of Bessel-like lattices in methyl-red doped liquid crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantashyan, Paytsar; Drampyan, Rafael; Beeckman, Jeroen; Willekens, Oliver; Neyts, Kristiaan

    2015-03-01

    The optical induction of annular photonic lattices by a traveling Bessel beam has been investigated in Methyl-red (MR) doped nematic liquid crystal (LC). Non-diffracting Bessel beams were formed by an axicon. The induced Bessel-like lattice had a ~15 μm period in the radial direction. The lattice was tested by measuring the forward diffracted power of the recording Bessel beam. The dependency on the angle between the polarization of the laser beam and the director of the LC and on the axial position of the LC cell had been investigated. A diffraction efficiency of 14% had been obtained. Investigations have been performed for different MR dye doping concentrations. An erasure time of the lattice of 60 s has been determined by a 532 nm probe Gaussian beam of 2 mW in a LC cell with MR dye concentration of 1.15 wt%. The induced periodically varying refractive index in the LC medium is analogous to microstructured fibers and allows the study of light localization and soliton behavior in highly nonlinear waveguide arrays.

  3. Theoretical description of two ultracold atoms in finite three-dimensional optical lattices using realistic interatomic interaction potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Grishkevich, Sergey; Sala, Simon; Saenz, Alejandro

    2011-12-15

    A theoretical approach is described for an exact numerical treatment of a pair of ultracold atoms interacting via a central potential and that are trapped in a finite three-dimensional optical lattice. The coupling of center-of-mass and relative-motion coordinates is treated using an exact diagonalization (configuration-interaction) approach. The orthorhombic symmetry of an optical lattice with three different but orthogonal lattice vectors is explicitly considered as is the fermionic or bosonic symmetry in the case of indistinguishable particles.

  4. Coherent driving and freezing of bosonic matter wave in an optical Lieb lattice

    PubMed Central

    Taie, Shintaro; Ozawa, Hideki; Ichinose, Tomohiro; Nishio, Takuei; Nakajima, Shuta; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2015-01-01

    Although kinetic energy of a massive particle generally has quadratic dependence on its momentum, a flat, dispersionless energy band is realized in crystals with specific lattice structures. Such macroscopic degeneracy causes the emergence of localized eigenstates and has been a key concept in the context of itinerant ferromagnetism. We report the realization of a “Lieb lattice” configuration with an optical lattice, which has a flat energy band as the first excited state. Our optical lattice potential has various degrees of freedom in its manipulation, which enables coherent transfer of a Bose-Einstein condensate into the flat band. In addition to measuring lifetime of the flat band population for different tight-binding parameters, we investigate the inter-sublattice dynamics of the system by projecting the sublattice population onto the band population. This measurement clearly shows the formation of the localized state with the specific sublattice decoupled in the flat band, and even detects the presence of flat-band breaking perturbations, resulting in the delocalization. Our results will open up the possibilities of exploring the physics of flat bands with a highly controllable quantum system. PMID:26665167

  5. Algorithm of Shaping Multiple-beam Braggs Acousto-optic Diffraction Laser Field Into 1D and 2D Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharchenko, S.; Baturin, A.

    2015-09-01

    Algorithm of solving a direct problem of acousto-optic interaction between laser emission and acoustic signal consisting of a set of equidistant frequency components is proposed. An infinite system of coupled wave differential equations is reduced to eigenvalue problem. The contribution of the higher rediffraction orders is analyzed separately. Inverse problem of finding an optimal set of equidistant frequency components of a driving acoustic signal to form the objective diffraction pattern is also considered and a few optimization approaches are analyzed. A naïve heuristic method of splitting 2D pattern into subframes, each suitable for simultaneous projection by two acousto-optical deflectors driven by multifrequency composite signal, is developed.

  6. Titanium trisulfide (TiS3): a 2D semiconductor with quasi-1D optical and electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Island, Joshua O.; Biele, Robert; Barawi, Mariam; Clamagirand, José M.; Ares, José R.; Sánchez, Carlos; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Ferrer, Isabel J.; D’Agosta, Roberto; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2016-03-01

    We present characterizations of few-layer titanium trisulfide (TiS3) flakes which, due to their reduced in-plane structural symmetry, display strong anisotropy in their electrical and optical properties. Exfoliated few-layer flakes show marked anisotropy of their in-plane mobilities reaching ratios as high as 7.6 at low temperatures. Based on the preferential growth axis of TiS3 nanoribbons, we develop a simple method to identify the in-plane crystalline axes of exfoliated few-layer flakes through angle resolved polarization Raman spectroscopy. Optical transmission measurements show that TiS3 flakes display strong linear dichroism with a magnitude (transmission ratios up to 30) much greater than that observed for other anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Finally, we calculate the absorption and transmittance spectra of TiS3 in the random-phase-approximation (RPA) and find that the calculations are in qualitative agreement with the observed experimental optical transmittance.

  7. Titanium trisulfide (TiS3): a 2D semiconductor with quasi-1D optical and electronic properties

    PubMed Central

    Island, Joshua O.; Biele, Robert; Barawi, Mariam; Clamagirand, José M.; Ares, José R.; Sánchez, Carlos; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Ferrer, Isabel J.; D’Agosta, Roberto; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2016-01-01

    We present characterizations of few-layer titanium trisulfide (TiS3) flakes which, due to their reduced in-plane structural symmetry, display strong anisotropy in their electrical and optical properties. Exfoliated few-layer flakes show marked anisotropy of their in-plane mobilities reaching ratios as high as 7.6 at low temperatures. Based on the preferential growth axis of TiS3 nanoribbons, we develop a simple method to identify the in-plane crystalline axes of exfoliated few-layer flakes through angle resolved polarization Raman spectroscopy. Optical transmission measurements show that TiS3 flakes display strong linear dichroism with a magnitude (transmission ratios up to 30) much greater than that observed for other anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Finally, we calculate the absorption and transmittance spectra of TiS3 in the random-phase-approximation (RPA) and find that the calculations are in qualitative agreement with the observed experimental optical transmittance. PMID:26931161

  8. A study of optical reflectance and localization modes of 1-D Fibonacci photonic quasicrystals using different graded dielectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bipin K.; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present an analytical study on the reflection properties of light through one-dimensional (1-D) quasi-periodic multilayer structures. The considered structures are as follows: F7, F8, F9, (F2)10, (F3)10 and some combinations such as: [(F2)10 (F7) (F2)10], [(F2)10 (F8) (F2)10], [(F3)10 (F7) (F3)10], [(F3)10 (F8) (F3)10], [(F2)10(F3)10], [(F2)10 (F7) (F3)10] and [(F2)10 (F8) (F3)10], where (Fj)n represents n period of the Fibonacci sequence of jth generation. These multilayer structures are considered of two types of layers. One type of layer is considered of graded material like normal, linear or exponential graded material, and the second type of layer is considered of constant refractive index material. Transfer matrix method is utilized to calculate the reflection spectra and localization modes of such structures in the frequency range 150-450 THz. This work would provide the basis of understanding of the effect of graded materials on the reflection and localization modes in Fibonacci photonic quasicrystal structures and obtained spectra can be used in the recognition of grading of materials. The considered heterostructures provide the broad reflection band and some localization modes in the calculated region.

  9. Roton-maxon excitation spectrum of Bose condensates in a shaken optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Li-Chung; Clark, Logan W.; Parker, Colin V.; Xu, Chen-Yu; Chin, Cheng

    2015-05-01

    We present a resonant lattice shaking technique for engineering the dispersion of a cesium Bose condensate. Through phase modulating an optical lattice at a frequency near the band splitting, the dispersion of the condensate can evolve from quadratic to quartic and finally into a double-well structure. We observe effective ferromagnetism in the double-well regime, and atoms form domains within one well in momentum space. We study the elementary excitations of this system by implementing projection-based Bragg spectroscopy and find a roton-maxon feature in the excitation spectrum in agreement with a Bogoliubov calculation. Consistent with Landau's prediction, we observe a suppressed superfluid critical velocity due to the existence of the roton. We will introduce more precise characterizations of the dispersion in an effort to pinpoint the critical point at which the dispersion is purely quartic, and study the dynamics of particles in that case. This work is supported by NSF, ARO and Chicago MRSEC.

  10. Entanglement and the ground state of fermions trapped in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Valencia, J.; Franco, R.; Figueira, M. S.

    2009-10-01

    Using White's density matrix renormalization group technique we calculate entanglement of fermions confined in a one-dimensional trap with an underlying lattice. The system is modeled using a repulsive Hubbard model plus a quadratic potential. Due to the confining potential, metallic and Mott-insulating domains coexist in the system. The entanglement is measured by the on-site entropy and the block entropy, and these quantities are calculated as a function of the local repulsion and the curvature of the trap. We found that local entropy decreases with the curvature for a fixed on-site repulsion. As a function of the on-site repulsion the local entropy first increases and then diminishes. Our most important goal is to show that local and block entropy are useful tools for characterization of the ground states of fermions trapped in optical lattices.

  11. Frequency Ratio of (199)Hg and (87)Sr Optical Lattice Clocks beyond the SI Limit.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Ohmae, Noriaki; Ushijima, Ichiro; Takamoto, Masao; Katori, Hidetoshi

    2015-06-12

    We report on a frequency ratio measurement of a (199)Hg-based optical lattice clock referencing a (87)Sr-based clock. Evaluations of lattice light shift, including atomic-motion-dependent shift, enable us to achieve a total systematic uncertainty of 7.2×10(-17) for the Hg clock. The frequency ratio is measured to be νHg/νSr=2.629 314 209 898 909 60(22) with a fractional uncertainty of 8.4×10(-17), which is smaller than the uncertainty of the realization of the International System of Units (SI) second, i.e., the SI limit.

  12. Shaken not stirred: creating exotic angular momentum states by shaking an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiely, Anthony; Benseny, Albert; Busch, Thomas; Ruschhaupt, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    We propose a method to create higher orbital states of ultracold atoms in the Mott regime of an optical lattice. This is done by periodically modulating the position of the trap minima (known as shaking) and controlling the interference term of the lasers creating the lattice. These methods are combined with techniques of shortcuts to adiabaticity. As an example of this, we show specifically how to create an anti-ferromagnetic type ordering of angular momentum states of atoms. The specific pulse sequences are designed using Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants and a four-level model for each well. The results are compared with numerical simulations of the full Schrödinger equation.

  13. Observation of Nonlinear Looped Band Structure of Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldschmidt, Elizabeth; Koller, Silvio; Brown, Roger; Wyllie, Robert; Wilson, Ryan; Porto, Trey

    2016-05-01

    We study experimentally the stability of excited, interacting states of bosons in a double-well optical lattice in regimes where the nonlinear interactions are expected to induce ``swallow-tail'' looped band structure. By carefully preparing different initial coherent states and observing their subsequent decay, we observe distinct decay rates, which provide direct evidence for multi-valued band structure. The double well lattice both stabilizes the looped band structure and allows for dynamic preparation of different initial states, including states within the loop structure. We confirm our state preparation procedure with dynamic Gross-Pitaevskii calculations. The excited loop states are found to be more stable than dynamically unstable ground states, but decay faster than expected based on a mean-field stability calculation, indicating the importance of correlations beyond a mean-field description. Now at Georgia Tech Research Institute.

  14. Topological Properties of Ultracold Bosons in One-Dimensional Quasiperiodic Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Fuyuki; Tezuka, Masaki; Kawakami, Norio

    2014-08-01

    We analyze the topological properties of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model with a quasiperiodic superlattice potential. This system can be realized in interacting ultracold bosons in an optical lattice in the presence of an incommensurate superlattice potential. We first analyze the quasiperiodic superlattice formed by the cosine function, which we call the Harper-like Bose-Hubbard model. We compute the Chern number and observe gap-closing behavior as the interaction strength U is changed. Also, we discuss the bulk-edge correspondence in our system. Furthermore, we explore the phase diagram as a function of U and a continuous deformation parameter β between the Harper-like model and another important quasiperiodic lattice, the Fibonacci model. We numerically confirm that the incommensurate charge density wave (ICDW) phase is topologically nontrivial and that it is topologically equivalent in the whole ICDW region.

  15. Gap solitons in the nonlinear fractional Schrödinger equation with an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Changming; Dong, Liangwei

    2016-12-15

    We predict the existence of gap solitons in the nonlinear fractional Schrödinger equation (NLFSE) with an imprinted optically harmonic lattice. Symmetric/antisymmetric nonlinear localized modes bifurcate from the lower/upper edge of the first/second band in defocusing/focusing Kerr media. A unique feature we revealed is that, in focusing Kerr media, stable solitons appear in the finite bandgaps with the decrease of the Lévy index, which is in sharp contrast to the standard NLSE with a focusing nonlinearity. Nonlinear bound states composed by in-phase and out-of-phase soliton units supported by the NLFSE are also uncovered. Our work may pave the way for the study of spatial lattice solitons in fractional dimensions.

  16. Beam dynamics in disordered P T -symmetric optical lattices based on eigenstate analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xiankun; Liu, Xueming

    2017-03-01

    Wave functions will experience a localization process when evolving in disordered lattices. Here, we have demonstrated the effects of disordered P T -symmetric potentials on wave-function characteristics in optics based on eigenstate analyses. In weak-disorder cases, by using the tight-binding approximation method, a conclusion is obtained that the increasing of the imaginary part of potential can enhance the diffraction, while the increasing disorder will block the diffraction and lead to localization. In the general case, band theory is used for band-structure analysis of three bands. We find that the disorder has a smaller effect on the higher-order band, which is proved by the beam evolutions. Our work may be instructive for realizing beam path control by manipulating the strengths of disorder and gain and/or loss of lattice.

  17. Experimental Realization of Strong Effective Magnetic Fields in an Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Aidelsburger, M.; Atala, M.; Trotzky, S.; Chen, Y.-A.; Bloch, I.; Nascimbene, S.

    2011-12-16

    We use Raman-assisted tunneling in an optical superlattice to generate large tunable effective magnetic fields for ultracold atoms. When hopping in the lattice, the accumulated phase shift by an atom is equivalent to the Aharonov-Bohm phase of a charged particle exposed to a staggered magnetic field of large magnitude, on the order of 1 flux quantum per plaquette. We study the ground state of this system and observe that the frustration induced by the magnetic field can lead to a degenerate ground state for noninteracting particles. We provide a measurement of the local phase acquired from Raman-induced tunneling, demonstrating time-reversal symmetry breaking of the underlying Hamiltonian. Furthermore, the quantum cyclotron orbit of single atoms in the lattice exposed to the magnetic field is directly revealed.

  18. Proposed formation and dynamical signature of a chiral Bose liquid in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaopeng; Paramekanti, Arun; Hemmerich, Andreas; Liu, W Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Recent experiments on p-orbital atomic bosons have suggested the emergence of a spectacular ultracold superfluid with staggered orbital currents in optical lattices. This raises fundamental questions concerning the effects of thermal fluctuations as well as possible ways of directly observing such chiral order. Here we show via Monte Carlo simulations that thermal fluctuations destroy this superfluid in an unexpected two-step process, unveiling an intermediate normal phase with spontaneously broken time-reversal symmetry, dubbed a 'chiral Bose liquid'. For integer fillings (n≥2) in the chiral Mott regime, thermal fluctuations are captured by an effective orbital Ising model, and Onsager's powerful exact solution is adopted to determine the transition from this intermediate liquid to the para-orbital normal phase at high temperature. A lattice quench is designed to convert the staggered angular momentum, previously thought by experts difficult to directly probe, into coherent orbital oscillations, providing a time-resolved dynamical signature of chiral order.

  19. Flow-induced charge modulation in superfluid atomic fermions loaded into an optical kagome lattice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Sato, Chika; Nikuni, Tetsuro; Tsuchiya, Shunji

    2013-04-05

    We study the superfluid state of atomic fermions in a tunable optical kagome lattice motivated by recent experiments. We show that the imposed superflow induces spatial modulations in the density and order parameter of the pair condensate and leads to a charge modulated superfluid state analogous to a supersolid state. The spatial modulations in the superfluid emerge due to the geometric effect of the kagome lattice that introduces anisotropy in hopping amplitudes of fermion pairs in the presence of superflow. We also study superflow instabilities and find that the critical current limited by the dynamical instability is quite enhanced due to the large density of states associated with the flatband. The charge modulated superfluid state can sustain high temperatures close to the transition temperature that is also enhanced due to the flatband and is therefore realizable in experiments.

  20. 2D Superexchange-mediated magnetization dynamics in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldschmidt, Elizabeth; Brown, Roger; Wyllie, Robert; Koller, Silvio; Foss-Feig, Michael; Porto, Trey

    2015-05-01

    The interplay of magnetic exchange interactions and tunneling underlies many complex quantum phenomena observed in real materials. We study nonequilibrium magnetization dynamics in an extended 2D system by loading effective spin-1/2 bosons into a spin-dependent optical lattice, and we use the lattice to separately control the resonance conditions for tunneling and superexchange. After preparing a nonequilibrium antiferromagnetically ordered state, we observe relaxation dynamics governed by two well-separated rates, which scale with the underlying Hamiltonian parameters associated with superexchange and tunneling. Remarkably, with tunneling off-resonantly suppressed, we are able to observe superexchange-dominated dynamics over two orders of magnitude in magnetic coupling strength, despite the presence of vacancies. In this regime, the measured timescales are in agreement with simple theoretical estimates, but the detailed dynamics of this 2D, strongly-correlated, and far-from-equilibrium quantum system remain out of reach of current computational techniques. Now at Georgia Tech Research Institute.

  1. Interferometric Approach to Measuring Band Topology in 2D Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abanin, Dmitry A.; Kitagawa, Takuya; Bloch, Immanuel; Demler, Eugene

    2013-04-01

    Recently, optical lattices with nonzero Berry’s phases of Bloch bands have been realized. New approaches for measuring Berry’s phases and topological properties of bands with experimental tools appropriate for ultracold atoms need to be developed. In this Letter, we propose an interferometric method for measuring Berry’s phases of two-dimensional Bloch bands. The key idea is to use a combination of Ramsey interference and Bloch oscillations to measure Zak phases, i.e., Berry’s phases for closed trajectories corresponding to reciprocal lattice vectors. We demonstrate that this technique can be used to measure the Berry curvature of Bloch bands, the π Berry’s phase of Dirac points, and the first Chern number of topological bands. We discuss several experimentally feasible realizations of this technique, which make it robust against low-frequency magnetic noise.

  2. LBNE lattice & optics for proton extraction at MI-10 and transport to a target above grade

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, John A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    For the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) at Fermilab 120 GeV/c protons will be transported from the Main Injector (MI) to an on-site production target. The lattice design and optics discussed here has the beam extracted vertically upwards from MI-10 and the keeps the majority of the line at an elevation above the glacial till/rock interface and terminates on a target at 10 ft above grade. The LBNE beamline discussed here is a modular optics design comprised of 3 distinct lattice configurations, including the specialized MI {yields} LBNE matching section and Final Focus. The remainder of the line is defined by six FODO cells, in which the length and phase advance are chosen specifically such that beam size does not exceed that of the MI while also making the most efficient use of space for achromatic insertions. Dispersion generated by variations in the beam trajectory are corrected locally and can not bleed out to corrupt the optics elsewhere in the line. Aperture studies indicate that the line should be able to transport the worst quality beam that the Main Injector might provide. New IDS dipole correctors located at every focusing center provide high-quality orbit control and further ensure that LBNE meets the stringent requirements for environmental protection.

  3. Demonstration of a fast-reconfigurable silicon CMOS optical lattice filter.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Salah; Fontaine, Nicolas K; Djordjevic, Stevan S; Guan, Binbin; Su, Tiehui; Cheung, Stanley; Scott, Ryan P; Pomerene, Andrew T; Seaford, Liberty L; Hill, Craig M; Danziger, Steve; Ding, Zhi; Okamoto, K; Yoo, S J B

    2011-07-04

    We demonstrate a fully-reconfigurable fourth-order optical lattice filter built by cascading identical unit cells consisting of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and a ring resonator. The filter is fabricated using a commercial silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and reconfigured by current injection into p-i-n diodes with a reconfiguration time of less than 10 ns. The experimental results show full control over the single unit cell pole and zero, switching the unit cell transfer function between a notch filter and a bandpass filter, narrowing the notch width down to 400 MHz, and tuning the center wavelength over the full free spectral range (FSR) of 10 GHz. Theoretical and experimental results show tuning dynamics and associated optical losses in the reconfigurable filters. The full-control of each of the four cascaded single unit cells resulted in demonstrations of a number of fourth-order transfer functions. The multimedia experimental data show live tuning and reconfiguration of optical lattice filters.

  4. Transportable Optical Lattice Clock with 7 ×10-17 Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, S. B.; Grotti, J.; Vogt, St.; Al-Masoudi, A.; Dörscher, S.; Häfner, S.; Sterr, U.; Lisdat, Ch.

    2017-02-01

    We present a transportable optical clock (TOC) with Sr 87 . Its complete characterization against a stationary lattice clock resulted in a systematic uncertainty of 7.4 ×10-17, which is currently limited by the statistics of the determination of the residual lattice light shift, and an instability of 1.3 ×10-15/√{τ } with an averaging time τ in seconds. Measurements confirm that the systematic uncertainty can be reduced to below the design goal of 1 ×10-17. To our knowledge, these are the best uncertainties and instabilities reported for any transportable clock to date. For autonomous operation, the TOC has been installed in an air-conditioned car trailer. It is suitable for chronometric leveling with submeter resolution as well as for intercontinental cross-linking of optical clocks, which is essential for a redefinition of the International System of Units (SI) second. In addition, the TOC will be used for high precision experiments for fundamental science that are commonly tied to precise frequency measurements and its development is an important step to space-borne optical clocks.

  5. Chiral phase from three-spin interactions in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    D'Cruz, Christian; Pachos, Jiannis K.

    2005-10-15

    A spin-1/2 chain model that includes three-spin interactions can effectively describe the dynamics of two species of bosons trapped in an optical lattice with a triangular-ladder configuration. A perturbative theoretical approach and numerical study of its ground state is performed that reveals a rich variety of phases and criticalities. We identify phases with periodicity one, two, or three, as well as critical points that belong in the same universality class as the Ising or the three-state Potts model. We establish a range of parameters, corresponding to a large degeneracy present between phases with period 2 and 3, that nests a gapless incommensurate chiral phase.

  6. Trapped Fermi Gases in Rotating Optical Lattices: Realization and Detection of the Topological Hofstadter Insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Umucalilar, R. O.; Oktel, M. Oe.; Zhai Hui

    2008-02-22

    We consider a gas of noninteracting spinless fermions in a rotating optical lattice and calculate the density profile of the gas in an external confinement potential. The density profile exhibits distinct plateaus, which correspond to gaps in the single particle spectrum known as the Hofstadter butterfly. The plateaus result from insulating behavior whenever the Fermi energy lies within a gap. We discuss the necessary conditions to realize the Hofstadter insulator in a cold atom setup and show how the quantized Hall conductance can be measured from density profiles using the Streda formula.

  7. Phase boundary of the boson Mott insulator in a rotating optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Umucalilar, R. O.; Oktel, M. Oe.

    2007-11-15

    We consider the Bose-Hubbard model in a two-dimensional rotating optical lattice and investigate the consequences of the effective magnetic field created by rotation. Using a Gutzwiller-type variational wave function, we find an analytical expression for the Mott insulator (MI)-superfluid (SF) transition boundary in terms of the maximum eigenvalue of the Hofstadter butterfly. The dependence of phase boundary on the effective magnetic field is complex, reflecting the self-similar properties of the single particle energy spectrum. Finally, we argue that fractional quantum Hall phases exist close to the MI-SF transition boundaries, including MI states with particle densities greater than one.

  8. Coherent Addressing of Individual Neutral Atoms in a 3D Optical Lattice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xianli; Corcovilos, Theodore A; Kumar, Aishwarya; Weiss, David S

    2015-07-24

    We demonstrate arbitrary coherent addressing of individual neutral atoms in a 5×5×5 array formed by an optical lattice. Addressing is accomplished using rapidly reconfigurable crossed laser beams to selectively ac Stark shift target atoms, so that only target atoms are resonant with state-changing microwaves. The effect of these targeted single qubit gates on the quantum information stored in nontargeted atoms is smaller than 3×10^{-3} in state fidelity. This is an important step along the path of converting the scalability promise of neutral atoms into reality.

  9. Generating topological optical flux lattices for ultracold atoms by modulated Raman and radio-frequency couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinlong; Xu, Zhi-Fang; You, Li

    2017-01-01

    We propose a scheme to dynamically generate optical flux lattices with nontrivial band topology using amplitude-modulated Raman lasers and radio-frequency (rf) magnetic fields. By tuning the strength of Raman and rf fields, three distinct phases are realized at unit filling for a unit cell. Respectively, these three phases correspond to normal insulator, topological Chern insulator, and semimetal. Nearly nondispersive bands are found to appear in the topological phase, which promises opportunities for investigating strongly correlated quantum states within a simple cold-atom setup. The validity of our proposal is confirmed by comparing the Floquet quasienergies from the evolution operator with the spectrum of the effective Hamiltonian.

  10. Rydberg Spectroscopy in an Optical Lattice: Blackbody Thermometry for Atomic Clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Ovsiannikov, Vitali D.; Derevianko, Andrei; Gibble, Kurt

    2011-08-26

    We show that optical spectroscopy of Rydberg states can provide accurate in situ thermometry at room temperature. Transitions from a metastable state to Rydberg states with principal quantum numbers of 25-30 have 200 times larger fractional frequency sensitivities to blackbody radiation than the strontium clock transition. We demonstrate that magic-wavelength lattices exist for both strontium and ytterbium transitions between the metastable and Rydberg states. Frequency measurements of Rydberg transitions with 10{sup -16} accuracy provide 10 mK resolution and yield a blackbody uncertainty for the clock transition of 10{sup -18}.

  11. Rydberg spectroscopy in an optical lattice: blackbody thermometry for atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Ovsiannikov, Vitali D; Derevianko, Andrei; Gibble, Kurt

    2011-08-26

    We show that optical spectroscopy of Rydberg states can provide accurate in situ thermometry at room temperature. Transitions from a metastable state to Rydberg states with principal quantum numbers of 25-30 have 200 times larger fractional frequency sensitivities to blackbody radiation than the strontium clock transition. We demonstrate that magic-wavelength lattices exist for both strontium and ytterbium transitions between the metastable and Rydberg states. Frequency measurements of Rydberg transitions with 10(-16) accuracy provide 10 mK resolution and yield a blackbody uncertainty for the clock transition of 10(-18).

  12. Chaos control of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a moving optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiying; Feng, Xiuqin; Yao, Zhihai

    2016-07-01

    Chaos control of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) loaded into a moving optical lattice with attractive interaction is investigated on the basis of Lyapunov stability theory. Three methods are designed to control chaos in BEC. As a controller, a bias constant, periodic force, or wavelet function feedback is added to the BEC system. Numerical simulations reveal that chaotic behavior can be well controlled to achieve periodicity by regulating control parameters. Different periodic orbits are available for different control parameters only if the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the system is negative. The abundant effect of chaotic control is also demonstrated numerically. Chaos control can be realized effectively by using our proposed control strategies.

  13. Interaction effects on Wannier functions for bosons in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaoqi; Wu, Biao

    2015-12-01

    We have numerically calculated the single-band Wannier functions for interacting Bose gases in optical lattices with a self-consistent approach. We find that the Wannier functions are broadened by repulsive interaction. The tunneling parameter J and the on-site interaction U computed with the broadened Wannier functions are found to change significantly with the number of atoms per site. Our theory can explain the nonuniform atomic clock shift observed in Campbell et al., Science 313, 649 (2006), 10.1126/science.1130365.

  14. Weyl Points in Three-Dimensional Optical Lattices: Synthetic Magnetic Monopoles in Momentum Space.

    PubMed

    Dubček, Tena; Kennedy, Colin J; Lu, Ling; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Soljačić, Marin; Buljan, Hrvoje

    2015-06-05

    We show that a Hamiltonian with Weyl points can be realized for ultracold atoms using laser-assisted tunneling in three-dimensional optical lattices. Weyl points are synthetic magnetic monopoles that exhibit a robust, three-dimensional linear dispersion, identical to the energy-momentum relation for relativistic Weyl fermions, which are not yet discovered in particle physics. Weyl semimetals are a promising new avenue in condensed matter physics due to their unusual properties such as the topologically protected "Fermi arc" surface states. However, experiments on Weyl points are highly elusive. We show that this elusive goal is well within experimental reach with an extension of techniques recently used in ultracold gases.

  15. Generation of uniform synthetic magnetic fields by split driving of an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creffield, C. E.; Sols, F.

    2014-08-01

    We describe a method to generate a synthetic gauge potential for ultracold atoms held in an optical lattice. Our approach uses a time-periodic driving potential based on quickly alternating two Hamiltonians to engineer the appropriate Aharonov-Bohm phases, and permits the simulation of a uniform tunable magnetic field. We explicitly demonstrate that our split-driving scheme reproduces the behavior of a charged quantum particle in a magnetic field over the complete range of field strengths, and obtain the Hofstadter butterfly band structure for the Floquet quasienergies.

  16. Dynamics and stability of Bose-Einstein solitons in tilted optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, E.; Dominguez-Adame, F.; Gaul, C.; Lima, R. P. A.; Mueller, C. A.

    2010-05-15

    Bloch oscillations of Bose-Einstein condensates realize sensitive matter-wave interferometers. We investigate the dynamics and stability of bright-soliton wave packets in one-dimensional tilted optical lattices with a modulated mean-field interaction g(t). By means of a time-reversal argument, we prove the stability of Bloch oscillations of breathing solitons that would be quasistatically unstable. Floquet theory shows that these breathing solitons can be more stable against certain experimental perturbations than rigid solitons or even noninteracting wave packets.

  17. Quantum Correlations of Two SPIN-1 Particles in the Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jia-Dong; Wu, Tao; Song, Xue-Ke; Ye, Liu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamical behaviors of quantum correlations witnessed by geometric discord and negativity when two three-level spin-1 atoms exist in the optical lattice. The results show that the GD can detect the critical point K = J at finite temperature associated with the quantum phase transition which separates the superfluid phase from the Mott insulator phase, while the negativity cannot. In addition, the system undergoes an entanglement sudden death (ESD), but the GD always exists, meanwhile, the GD is more robust than negativity against temperature T.

  18. Quantum dynamics of hard-core bosons in tilted bichromatic optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Xiaoming; Chen Shu; Wang Yupeng

    2011-09-15

    We study the dynamics of strongly repulsive Bose gas in tilted or driven bichromatic optical lattices. Using the Bose-Fermi mapping and exact numerical method, we calculate the reduced single-particle density matrices, and study the dynamics of the density profile, the momentum distribution, and the condensate fraction. We show the oscillating and breathing mode of the dynamics, and the depletion of condensate for short-time dynamics. For long-time dynamics, we clearly show the reconstruction of system at integer multiples of Bloch-Zener time. We also show how to achieve clear Bloch oscillation and Landau-Zener tunneling for many-particle systems.

  19. Discerning Incompressible and Compressible Phases of Cold Atoms in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarola, V. W.; Pollet, L.; Oitmaa, J.; Troyer, M.

    2009-04-01

    Experiments with cold atoms trapped in optical lattices offer the potential to realize a variety of novel phases but suffer from severe spatial inhomogeneity that can obscure signatures of new phases of matter and phase boundaries. We use a high temperature series expansion to show that compressibility in the core of a trapped Fermi-Hubbard system is related to measurements of changes in double occupancy. This core compressibility filters out edge effects, offering a direct probe of compressibility independent of inhomogeneity. A comparison with experiments is made.

  20. Influence of trapping potentials on the phase diagram of bosonic atoms in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Giampaolo, S.M.; Illuminati, F.; Mazzarella, G.; De Siena, S.

    2004-12-01

    We study the effect of external trapping potentials on the phase diagram of bosonic atoms in optical lattices. We introduce a generalized Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian that includes the structure of the energy levels of the trapping potential, and show that these levels are in general populated both at finite and zero temperature. We characterize the properties of the superfluid transition for this situation and compare them with those of the standard Bose-Hubbard description. We briefly discuss similar behaviors for fermionic systems.

  1. Formation of metallic magnetic clusters in a Kondo-lattice metal: evidence from an optical study.

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, N N; Kugel, K I; Bazhenov, A V; Fursova, T N; Löser, W; Xu, Y; Behr, G; Kusmartsev, F V

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic materials are usually divided into two classes: those with localised magnetic moments, and those with itinerant charge carriers. We present a comprehensive experimental (spectroscopic ellipsomerty) and theoretical study to demonstrate that these two types of magnetism do not only coexist but complement each other in the Kondo-lattice metal, Tb(2)PdSi(3). In this material the itinerant charge carriers interact with large localised magnetic moments of Tb(4f) states, forming complex magnetic lattices at low temperatures, which we associate with self-organisation of magnetic clusters. The formation of magnetic clusters results in low-energy optical spectral weight shifts, which correspond to opening of the pseudogap in the conduction band of the itinerant charge carriers and development of the low- and high-spin intersite electronic transitions. This phenomenon, driven by self-trapping of electrons by magnetic fluctuations, could be common in correlated metals, including besides Kondo-lattice metals, Fe-based and cuprate superconductors.

  2. Formation of metallic magnetic clusters in a Kondo-lattice metal: Evidence from an optical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, N. N.; Kugel, K. I.; Bazhenov, A. V.; Fursova, T. N.; Löser, W.; Xu, Y.; Behr, G.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2012-11-01

    Magnetic materials are usually divided into two classes: those with localised magnetic moments, and those with itinerant charge carriers. We present a comprehensive experimental (spectroscopic ellipsomerty) and theoretical study to demonstrate that these two types of magnetism do not only coexist but complement each other in the Kondo-lattice metal, Tb2PdSi3. In this material the itinerant charge carriers interact with large localised magnetic moments of Tb(4f) states, forming complex magnetic lattices at low temperatures, which we associate with self-organisation of magnetic clusters. The formation of magnetic clusters results in low-energy optical spectral weight shifts, which correspond to opening of the pseudogap in the conduction band of the itinerant charge carriers and development of the low- and high-spin intersite electronic transitions. This phenomenon, driven by self-trapping of electrons by magnetic fluctuations, could be common in correlated metals, including besides Kondo-lattice metals, Fe-based and cuprate superconductors.

  3. Formation of metallic magnetic clusters in a Kondo-lattice metal: Evidence from an optical study

    PubMed Central

    Kovaleva, N. N.; Kugel, K. I.; Bazhenov, A. V.; Fursova, T. N.; Löser, W.; Xu, Y.; Behr, G.; Kusmartsev, F. V.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic materials are usually divided into two classes: those with localised magnetic moments, and those with itinerant charge carriers. We present a comprehensive experimental (spectroscopic ellipsomerty) and theoretical study to demonstrate that these two types of magnetism do not only coexist but complement each other in the Kondo-lattice metal, Tb2PdSi3. In this material the itinerant charge carriers interact with large localised magnetic moments of Tb(4f) states, forming complex magnetic lattices at low temperatures, which we associate with self-organisation of magnetic clusters. The formation of magnetic clusters results in low-energy optical spectral weight shifts, which correspond to opening of the pseudogap in the conduction band of the itinerant charge carriers and development of the low- and high-spin intersite electronic transitions. This phenomenon, driven by self-trapping of electrons by magnetic fluctuations, could be common in correlated metals, including besides Kondo-lattice metals, Fe-based and cuprate superconductors. PMID:23189239

  4. Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas-Rojas, S.; Vicencio, R. A.; Molina, M. I.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.

    2011-09-15

    Modulational instability and discrete matter wave solitons in dipolar BECs, loaded into a deep optical lattice, are investigated analytically and numerically. The process of modulational instability of nonlinear plane matter waves in a dipolar nonlinear lattice is studied and the regions of instability are established. The existence and stability of bulk discrete solitons are analyzed analytically and confirmed by numerical simulations. In marked contrast with the usual discrete nonlinear Schroedinger behavior (no dipolar interactions), we found a region where the two fundamental modes are simultaneously unstable, allowing enhanced mobility across the lattice for large norm values. To study the existence and properties of surface discrete solitons, an analysis of the dimer configuration is performed. The properties of symmetric and antisymmetric modes including stability diagrams and bifurcations are investigated in closed form. For the case of a bulk medium, properties of fundamental on-site and intersite localized modes are analyzed. On-site and intersite surface localized modes are studied, and we find that they do not exist when nonlocal interactions predominate with respect to local ones.

  5. Gap solitons in rocking optical lattices and waveguides with undulating gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Mayteevarunyoo, Thawatchai; Malomed, Boris A.

    2009-07-15

    We report results of a systematic analysis of the stability of one-dimensional solitons in a model including the self-repulsive or attractive cubic nonlinearity and a linear potential represented by a periodically shaking lattice, which was recently implemented in experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates. In optics, the same model applies to undulated waveguiding arrays, which are also available to the experiment. In the case of the repulsive nonlinearity, stability regions are presented, in relevant parameter planes, for fundamental gap solitons and their two-peak and three-peak bound complexes, in the first and second finite band gaps. In the model with the attractive nonlinearity, stability regions are produced for fundamental solitons and their bound states populating the semi-infinite gap. In the first finite and semi-infinite gaps, unstable solitons gradually decay into radiation, while, in the second finite band gap, they are transformed into more complex states, which may represent new species of solitons. For a large amplitude of the rocking-lattice drive, the model is tantamount to that with a 'flashing' lattice potential, which is controlled by periodic sequences of instantaneous kicks. Using this correspondence, we explain generic features of the stability diagrams for the solitons. We also derive a limit case of the latter system, in the form of coupled-mode equations with a 'flashing' linear coupling.

  6. Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Manish Joseph, Joby

    2014-08-04

    We propose a simple and straightforward method to generate spatially variant lattice structures by optical interference lithography method. Using this method, it is possible to independently vary the orientation and period of the two-dimensional lattice. The method consists of two steps which are: numerical synthesis of corresponding phase mask by employing a two-dimensional integrated gradient calculations and experimental implementation of synthesized phase mask by making use of a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. As a working example, we provide the experimental fabrication of a spatially variant square lattice structure which has the possibility to guide a Gaussian beam through a 90° bend by photonic crystal self-collimation phenomena. The method is digitally reconfigurable, is completely scalable, and could be extended to other kind of lattices as well.

  7. Electron and lattice dynamics of transition metal thin films observed by ultrafast electron diffraction and transient optical measurements

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, A.; Shimojima, T.; Nakano, M.; Iwasa, Y.; Ishizaka, K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the ultrafast dynamics of electrons and lattice in transition metal thin films (Au, Cu, and Mo) investigated by a combination of ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and pump-probe optical methods. For a single-crystalline Au thin film, we observe the suppression of the diffraction intensity occuring in 10 ps, which direcly reflects the lattice thermalization via the electron-phonon interaction. By using the two-temperature model, the electron-phonon coupling constant (g) and the electron and lattice temperatures (Te, Tl) are evaluated from UED, with which we simulate the transient optical transmittance. The simulation well agrees with the experimentally obtained transmittance data, except for the slight deviations at the initial photoexcitation and the relaxed quasi-equilibrium state. We also present the results similarly obtained for polycrystalline Au, Cu, and Mo thin films and demonstrate the electron and lattice dynamics occurring in metals with different electron-phonon coupling strengths. PMID:28004010

  8. Loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate into an optical lattice: The excitation of collective modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plata, J.

    2004-03-01

    The dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap with a nonadiabatically loaded optical lattice is studied analytically. As the global effect of the optical potential can be described in terms of a renormalized interaction coupling constant and of an effective mass in the laser direction, a fast loading can be understood as a sudden change of those characteristic parameters. In this approach, a standard scaling transformation is applied to study the resulting dynamics, in particular, the generation of collective modes. The relevance of the excited modes to the interference patterns obtained after free expansion is analyzed. The applicability of trap-frequency adjustments as a strategy for suppressing the loading induced excitations is discussed.

  9. Cold-collision-shift cancellation and inelastic scattering in a Yb optical lattice clock

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlow, A. D.; Lemke, N. D.; Sherman, J. A.; Oates, C. W.; Quemener, G.; Stecher, J. von; Rey, A. M.

    2011-11-15

    Recently, p-wave cold collisions were shown to dominate the density-dependent shift of the clock transition frequency in a {sup 171}Yb optical lattice clock. Here we demonstrate that by operating such a system at the proper excitation fraction, the cold-collision shift is canceled below the 5x10{sup -18} fractional frequency level. We report inelastic two-body loss rates for {sup 3} P{sub 0} -{sup 3} P{sub 0} and {sup 1} S{sub 0} -{sup 3} P{sub 0} scattering. We also measure interaction shifts in an unpolarized atomic sample. Collision measurements for this spin-1/2 {sup 171}Yb system are relevant for high-performance optical clocks as well as strongly interacting systems for quantum information and quantum simulation applications.

  10. Three-dimensional Dirac-like fermions in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Mou; Zhu Shiliang

    2010-12-15

    We present a scheme to realize three-dimensional Dirac-like fermions with an edge-centered cubic optical lattice. We propose a method to construct the optical edge-centered cubic crystals and then determine the parameters required for the description of the systems with a tight-binding model. Interestingly, we show that the low-energy quasiparticles are three-dimensional massive or massless Dirac-like fermions determined by the parameters of the system. In addition, two three-dimensional degenerate flat bands lie between the upper and the lower branches of the Dirac dispersion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Dirac dispersion relation and the flat bands can be verified by the density profile measurement.

  11. Controllable transmission photonic band gap and all-optical switching behaviors of 1-D InAs/GaAs quantum-dot photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhenhua; Xiang, Bowen; Xing, Yunsheng

    2016-12-01

    Transmission optical properties of one-dimensional (1-D) InAs/GaAs quantum-dot photonic crystal (QD-PC), composed of 400 elementary cells, were analyzed by using transfer matrix method. In our calculations, a homogeneous broadening with temperature and other inhomogeneous broadening with quantum dot (QD) size fluctuations are introduced. Our results show that a large optical Stark shift occurs at the high energy edge of the transmission photonic band-gap (TPBG) when, which exhibits the function of light with light, an external laser field acts resonantly on the excitons in the InAs QDs. Utilized this TPBG based on the pump-probe geometry, an all-optical switch can be constructed and the on-off switching extinction ratio (SER) is varied with both the temperature and the inhomogeneity of QDs. Significantly, it still maintains switching behavior and can process the data sequence of return-to-zero codes of 250 Gb/s even if the QD standard deviation of relative size fluctuations (SD-RSF) is up to 3% and the temperature is at 100 K.

  12. Stability of emergent kinetics in optical lattices with artificial spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mengsu; Scarola, V. W.

    2016-10-01

    Artificial spin-orbit coupling in optical lattices can be engineered to tune band structure into extreme regimes where the single-particle band flattens leaving only interparticle interactions to define many-body states of matter. Lin et al. [F. Lin, C. Zhang, and V. W. Scarola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 110404 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.110404] showed that under such conditions interactions lead to a Wigner crystal of fermionic atoms under approximate conditions: no bandwidth or band mixing. The excitations were shown to possess emergent kinetics with fractionalized charge derived entirely from interactions. In this work we use numerical exact diagonalization to study a more realistic model with nonzero bandwidth and band mixing. We map out the stability phase diagram of the Wigner crystal. We find that emergent properties of the Wigner crystal excitations remain stable for realistic experimental parameters. Our results validate the approximations made by Lin et al. and define parameter regimes where strong interaction effects generate emergent kinetics in optical lattices.

  13. Resonantly enhanced tunneling and transport of ultracold atoms on tilted optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Rubbo, Chester P.; Manmana, Salvatore R.; Peden, Brandon M.; Holland, Murray J.; Rey, Ana Maria

    2011-09-15

    We investigate the resonantly enhanced tunneling dynamics of ultracold bosons loaded on a tilted one-dimensional optical lattice, which can be used to simulate a chain of Ising spins and associated quantum phase transitions. The center-of-mass motion after a sudden tilt both at commensurate and incommensurate fillings is obtained via analytic, time-dependent exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization-group methods. We identify a maximum in the amplitude of the center-of-mass oscillations at the quantum critical point of the effective spin system. For the dynamics of incommensurate systems, which cannot be mapped to a spin model, we develop an analytical approach in which the time evolution is obtained by projecting onto resonant families of small clusters. We compare the results of this approach at low fillings to the exact time evolution and find good agreement even at filling factors as large as 2/3. Using this projection onto small clusters, we propose a controllable transport scheme applicable in the context of Atomtronic devices on optical lattices (''slinky scheme'').

  14. Observation of Spin Polarized Clock Transition in 87Sr Optical Lattice Clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Lin, Yi-Ge; Li, Ye; Lin, Bai-Ke; Meng, Fei; Zang, Er-Jun; Li, Tian-Chu; Fang, Zhan-Jun

    2014-12-01

    We report our observation of the spin polarized 1S0 → 3P0 clock transition spectrum in an optical lattice clock based on fermionic 87Sr. The atoms are trapped and pre-cooled to about 2 μK with two stages of laser cooling at 461 nm and 689 nm, respectively. Then the atoms are loaded into an optical lattice formed by the interference of counter-propagating laser beams at 813 nm. An external cavity diode laser at 698 nm, which is stabilized to a high finesse cavity with a linewidth of about 5 Hz and a drift rate of less than 0.2 Hz/s, is used to excite the atoms to the 3P0 state. The π-polarized clock transition spectrum of resolvable mF states is obtained by applying a small bias magnetic field along the polarization axis of the probe beam. A spin polarized clock transition spectrum as narrow as 10 Hz with an 80 ms probe pulse is obtained.

  15. Quantum and classical dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a large-period optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Huckans, J. H.; Spielman, I. B.; Phillips, W. D.; Porto, J. V.; Tolra, B. Laburthe

    2009-10-15

    We experimentally investigate diffraction of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate from a one-dimensional optical lattice. We use a range of lattice periods and timescales, including those beyond the Raman-Nath limit. We compare the results to numerical solutions of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and classical calculations, with quantitative and qualitative agreement, respectively. The classical calculations predict that the envelope of the time-evolving diffraction pattern is shaped by caustics: singularities in the phase-space density of classical trajectories. This behavior becomes increasingly clear as the lattice period grows.

  16. Frequency ratio measurement of 171Yb and 87Sr optical lattice clocks.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Daisuke; Yasuda, Masami; Inaba, Hajime; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Tanabe, Takehiko; Onae, Atsushi; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2014-04-07

    The frequency ratio of the (1)S(0)(F = 1/2)-(3)P(0)(F = 1/2) clock transition in (171)Yb and the (1)S(0)(F = 9/2)-(3)P(0)(F = 9/2) clock transition in (87)Sr is measured by an optical-optical direct frequency link between two optical lattice clocks. We determined the ratio (ν(Yb)/ν(Sr)) to be 1.207 507 039 343 341 2(17) fractional standard uncertainty of 1.4 × 10(-15) [corrected]. The measurement uncertainty of the frequency ratio is smaller than that obtained from absolute frequency measurements using the International Atomic Time (TAI) link. The measured ratio agrees well with that derived from the absolute frequency measurement results obtained at NIST and JILA, Boulder, CO using their Cs-fountain clock. Our measurement enables the first international comparison of the frequency ratios of optical clocks. The measured frequency ratio will be reported to the International Committee for Weights and Measures for a discussion related to the redefinition of the second.

  17. An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10(-18) level.

    PubMed

    Bloom, B J; Nicholson, T L; Williams, J R; Campbell, S L; Bishof, M; Zhang, X; Zhang, W; Bromley, S L; Ye, J

    2014-02-06

    Progress in atomic, optical and quantum science has led to rapid improvements in atomic clocks. At the same time, atomic clock research has helped to advance the frontiers of science, affecting both fundamental and applied research. The ability to control quantum states of individual atoms and photons is central to quantum information science and precision measurement, and optical clocks based on single ions have achieved the lowest systematic uncertainty of any frequency standard. Although many-atom lattice clocks have shown advantages in measurement precision over trapped-ion clocks, their accuracy has remained 16 times worse. Here we demonstrate a many-atom system that achieves an accuracy of 6.4 × 10(-18), which is not only better than a single-ion-based clock, but also reduces the required measurement time by two orders of magnitude. By systematically evaluating all known sources of uncertainty, including in situ monitoring of the blackbody radiation environment, we improve the accuracy of optical lattice clocks by a factor of 22. This single clock has simultaneously achieved the best known performance in the key characteristics necessary for consideration as a primary standard-stability and accuracy. More stable and accurate atomic clocks will benefit a wide range of fields, such as the realization and distribution of SI units, the search for time variation of fundamental constants, clock-based geodesy and other precision tests of the fundamental laws of nature. This work also connects to the development of quantum sensors and many-body quantum state engineering (such as spin squeezing) to advance measurement precision beyond the standard quantum limit.

  18. An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10-18 level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, B. J.; Nicholson, T. L.; Williams, J. R.; Campbell, S. L.; Bishof, M.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, W.; Bromley, S. L.; Ye, J.

    2014-02-01

    Progress in atomic, optical and quantum science has led to rapid improvements in atomic clocks. At the same time, atomic clock research has helped to advance the frontiers of science, affecting both fundamental and applied research. The ability to control quantum states of individual atoms and photons is central to quantum information science and precision measurement, and optical clocks based on single ions have achieved the lowest systematic uncertainty of any frequency standard. Although many-atom lattice clocks have shown advantages in measurement precision over trapped-ion clocks, their accuracy has remained 16 times worse. Here we demonstrate a many-atom system that achieves an accuracy of 6.4×10-18, which is not only better than a single-ion-based clock, but also reduces the required measurement time by two orders of magnitude. By systematically evaluating all known sources of uncertainty, including in situ monitoring of the blackbody radiation environment, we improve the accuracy of optical lattice clocks by a factor of 22. This single clock has simultaneously achieved the best known performance in the key characteristics necessary for consideration as a primary standard--stability and accuracy. More stable and accurate atomic clocks will benefit a wide range of fields, such as the realization and distribution of SI units, the search for time variation of fundamental constants, clock-based geodesy and other precision tests of the fundamental laws of nature. This work also connects to the development of quantum sensors and many-body quantum state engineering (such as spin squeezing) to advance measurement precision beyond the standard quantum limit.

  19. Formation of a Nonlinear Optical Host-Guest Hybrid Material by Tight Confinement of LDS 722 into Aluminophosphate 1D Nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Sola-Llano, Rebeca; Martínez-Martínez, Virginia; Fujita, Yasuhiko; Gómez-Hortigüela, Luis; Alfayate, Almudena; Uji-I, Hiroshi; Fron, Eduard; Pérez-Pariente, Joaquín; López-Arbeloa, Iñigo

    2016-10-24

    In this work, hemicyanine dye LDS 722 is encapsulated into the 1D elliptical nanochannels of MgAPO-11 aluminophosphate by a crystallization inclusion method. The synthesis of the hybrid material has been optimized through a systematic variation of the crystallization conditions in order to obtain pure and large crystals (around 20 μm×30 μm) suitable for optical applications. The tight fitting between the molecular size of the guest dye and the pore dimensions of the host has favored a rigid planar conformation of the dye, restricting its inherent flexibility, which is confirmed by molecular simulations. Consequently, the encapsulation of LDS 722 into MgAPO-11 has led to an astonishing enhancement of the fluorescence with respect to the dye into MgAPO-5, with slightly larger cylindrical channels, and with respect to the dye in solution. Moreover, the perfect alignment of LDS 722 (dye with intrinsic nonlinear-optical properties) along the channels of MgAPO-11 has revealed attractive second-order nonlinear properties, such as second harmonic generation, proven through microscopy measurements in single crystals.

  20. From optical lattice clocks to the measurement of forces in the Casimir regime

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Peter; Lemonde, Pierre; Bize, Sebastien; Landragin, Arnaud; Clairon, Andre; Lambrecht, Astrid

    2007-06-15

    We describe an experiment based on atoms trapped close to a macroscopic surface, to study the interactions between the atoms and the surface at very small separations (0.6-10 {mu}m). In this range the dominant potential is the QED interaction (Casimir-Polder and van der Waals) between the surface and the atom. Additionally, several theoretical models suggest the possibility of Yukawa-type potentials with sub-millimeter range, arising from new physics related to gravity. The proposed setup is very similar to neutral atom optical lattice clocks, but with the atoms trapped in lattice sites close to the reflecting mirror. A sequence of pulses of the probe laser at different frequencies is then used to create an interferometer with a coherent superposition between atomic states at different distances from the mirror (in different lattice sites). Assuming atom interferometry state-of-the-art measurement of the phase difference and a duration of the superposition of about 0.1 s, we expect to be able to measure the potential difference between separated states with an uncertainty of {approx_equal}10{sup -4} Hz. An analysis of systematic effects for different atoms and surfaces indicates no fundamentally limiting effect at the same level of uncertainty, but does influence the choice of atom and surface material. Based on those estimates, we expect that such an experiment would improve the best existing measurements of the atom-wall QED interaction by {>=} 2 orders of magnitude, while gaining up to four orders of magnitude on the best present limits on new interactions in the range between 100 nm and 100 {mu}m.

  1. Tunneling dynamics of superfluid Fermi gases in an accelerating optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Tie Lu; Xue Jukui

    2010-11-15

    The nonlinear Landau-Zener tunneling and the nonlinear Rabi oscillations of superfluid Fermi gases between Bloch bands in an accelerating optical lattice are discussed. Within the hydrodynamic theory and a two-level model, the tunneling probability of superfluid Fermi gases between Bloch bands is obtained. We find that, as the system crosses from the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) side to the BCS side, the tunneling rate is closely related to the particle density: when the density is smaller (larger) than a critical value, the tunneling rate at unitarity is larger (smaller) than that in the BEC limit. This is well explained in terms of an effective interaction and an effective potential. Furthermore, the nonlinear Rabi oscillations of superfluid Fermi gases between the bands are discussed by imposing a periodic modulation on the level bias and the strength of the lattice. Analytical expressions of the critical density for suppressing or enhancing the Rabi oscillations are obtained. It is shown that, as the system crosses from the BEC side to the BCS side, the critical density strongly depends on the modulation parameters (i.e., the modulation amplitude and the modulation frequency). For a fixed density, a high-frequency or low-frequency modulation can suppress or enhance the Rabi oscillations both at unitarity and in the BEC limit. For an intermediate modulation frequency, the Rabi oscillations are chaotic along the entire BEC-BCS crossover, especially, on the BCS side. Interestingly, we find that the modulation of the lattice strength only with an intermediate modulation frequency has significant effect on the Rabi oscillations both in the BEC limit and at unitarity; that is, an intermediate-frequency modulation can enhance the Rabi oscillations, especially on the BCS side.

  2. Finite-momentum Bose-Einstein condensates in shaken two-dimensional square optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Di Liberto, M.; Tieleman, O.; Smith, C. Morais; Branchina, V.

    2011-07-15

    We consider ultracold bosons in a two-dimensional square optical lattice described by the Bose-Hubbard model. In addition, an external time-dependent sinusoidal force is applied to the system, which shakes the lattice along one of the diagonals. The effect of the shaking is to renormalize the nearest-neighbor-hopping coefficients, which can be arbitrarily reduced, can vanish, or can even change sign, depending on the shaking parameter. Therefore, it is necessary to account for higher-order-hopping terms, which are renormalized differently by the shaking, and to introduce anisotropy into the problem. We show that the competition between these different hopping terms leads to finite-momentum condensates with a momentum that may be tuned via the strength of the shaking. We calculate the boundaries between the Mott insulator and the different superfluid phases and present the time-of-flight images expected to be observed experimentally. Our results open up possibilities for the realization of bosonic analogs of the Fulde, Ferrel, Larkin, and Ovchinnikov phase describing inhomogeneous superconductivity.

  3. Quantum Engineering of a Low-Entropy Gas of Heteronuclear Bosonic Molecules in an Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichsöllner, Lukas; Schindewolf, Andreas; Takekoshi, Tetsu; Grimm, Rudolf; Nägerl, Hanns-Christoph

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate a generally applicable technique for mixing two-species quantum degenerate bosonic samples in the presence of an optical lattice, and we employ it to produce low-entropy samples of ultracold Rb 87 Cs 133 Feshbach molecules with a lattice filling fraction exceeding 30%. Starting from two spatially separated Bose-Einstein condensates of Rb and Cs atoms, Rb-Cs atom pairs are efficiently produced by using the superfluid-to-Mott insulator quantum phase transition twice, first for the Cs sample, then for the Rb sample, after nulling the Rb-Cs interaction at a Feshbach resonance's zero crossing. We form molecules out of atom pairs and characterize the mixing process in terms of sample overlap and mixing speed. The dense and ultracold sample of more than 5000 RbCs molecules is an ideal starting point for experiments in the context of quantum many-body physics with long-range dipolar interactions.

  4. Hubbard Model study of Off Diagonally Confined fermions in a 2D Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, Dave; Chiesa, Simone; Scalettar, Richard; Batrouni, George

    2010-03-01

    We report Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of a Hubbard Hamiltonian which incorporates a proposed new method for confining atoms in an optical lattice employing an inhomogeneous array of hopping matrix elements which trap atoms by going to zero at the lattice edges. This has been termed ``Off Diagonal Confinement (ODC)'' [1] to distinguish it from the more conventional use of a parabolic trap coupling to (diagonal) density operators. It has the advantage of producing systems which, while still being inhomogeneous, are entirely in the Mott phase, and allow simulations which are free of the sign problem at low temperatures. We analyze the effects of using ODC traps on the local density, density fluctuation, spin, and pairing correlation functions. Finally, we will discuss the advantages and importance of this new confinement technique for modeling correlated systems. Research supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science SCIDAC program, DOE-DE-FC0206ER25793. [1] V.G. Rousseau et al., arXiv:0909.3543

  5. Inhomogeneous BCS-BEC crossover for trapped cold atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaricci, A.; Privitera, A.; Capone, M.

    2014-05-01

    The BCS-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover in a lattice is a powerful paradigm that describes how a superconductor deviates from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer physics as the attractive interaction increases. Optical lattices loaded with binary mixtures of cold atoms allow one to access this phenomenon experimentally in a clean and controlled way. We show that, however, the possibility to study this phenomenon in actual cold-atoms experiments is limited by the effect of the trapping potential. Real-space dynamical mean-field theory calculations show indeed that interactions and the confining potential conspire to pack the fermions in the center of the trap, which approaches a band insulator when the attraction becomes sizeable. Interestingly, the energy gap is spatially more homogeneous than the superfluid condensate order parameter. We show how this physics reflects in several observables, and we propose an alternative strategy to disentangle the effect of the harmonic potential and measure the intrinsic properties resulting from the interaction strength.

  6. Topological semimetal: a probable new state of quantum optical lattice gases protected by D4 symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai; Liu, W. Vincent; Das Sarma, S.

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate that a novel topological semimetal emerges as a parity-protected critical theory for fermionic atoms loaded in the p and d orbital bands of a two-dimensional optical lattice. The new quantum state is characterized by a parabolic band-degeneracy point with Berry flux 2 π , in sharp contrast to the π flux of Dirac points as in graphene. We prove that this topological liquid is a universal property for all lattices of D4 point group symmetry and the band degeneracy is protected by odd parity. Turning on interparticle repulsive interaction, the system undergoes a phase transition to a topological insulator, whose experimental signature includes chiral gapless domain-wall modes, reminiscent of quantum Hall edge states. KS and SDS acknowledge the support of JQI-NSF-PFC, AFOSR-MURI, ARO-DARPA-OLE and ARO-MURI. W.V.L. is supported by ARO and ARO-DARPA-OLE. We thank the KITP at UCSB for its hospitality where this research is supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY05-51164.

  7. Gauge-invariant implementation of the Abelian-Higgs model on optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazavov, A.; Meurice, Y.; Tsai, S.-W.; Unmuth-Yockey, J.; Zhang, Jin

    2015-10-01

    We present a gauge-invariant effective action for the Abelian-Higgs model (scalar electrodynamics) with a chemical potential μ on a (1 +1 )-dimensional lattice. This formulation provides an expansion in the hopping parameter κ which we test with Monte Carlo simulations for a broad range of the inverse gauge coupling βp l=1 /g2 and small values of the scalar self-coupling λ . In the opposite limit of infinitely large λ , the partition function can be written as a traced product of local tensors which allows us to write exact blocking formulas. Gauss's law is automatically satisfied and the introduction of μ has consequences only if we have an external electric field, g2=0 or an explicit gauge symmetry breaking. The time-continuum limit of the blocked transfer matrix can be obtained numerically and, for g2=0 and a spin-1 truncation, the small volume energy spectrum is identical to the low energy spectrum of a two-species Bose-Hubbard model in the limit of large on-site repulsion. We extend this procedure for finite βp l and derive a spin-1 approximation of the Hamiltonian. It involves new terms corresponding to transitions among the two species in the Bose-Hubbard model. We propose an optical lattice implementation involving a ladder structure.

  8. First-principles study of the electronic, optical properties and lattice dynamics of tantalum oxynitride.

    PubMed

    Li, Pan; Fan, Weiliu; Li, Yanlu; Sun, Honggang; Cheng, Xiufeng; Zhao, Xian; Jiang, Minhua

    2010-08-02

    First-principles calculations of the electronic, optical properties and lattice dynamics of tantalum oxynitride are performed with the density functional theory plane-wave pseudopotential method. The analysis of the electronic structure shows a covalent nature in Ta-N bonds and Ta-O bonds. The hybridization of anion 2p and Ta 5d states results in enhanced dispersion of the valence band, raising the top of the valence band and leading to the visible-light response in TaON. It has a high dielectric constant, and the anisotropy is displayed obviously in the lower energy region. Our calculation indicated that TaON has excellent dielectric properties along [010] direction. Various optical properties, including the reflectivity, absorption coefficient, refractive index, and the energy-loss spectrum are derived from the complex dielectric function. We also present phonon dispersion relation, zone-center optical mode frequency, density of phonon states, and some thermodynamic properties. The experimental IR modes (B(u) at 808 cm(-1) and A(u) at 863 cm(-1)) are reproduced well and assigned to a combination of stretching and bending vibrations for the Ta-N bond and Ta-O bond. The thermodynamic properties of TaON, such as heat capacity and Debye temperature, which were important parameters for the measurement of crystal physical properties, were first given for reference. Our investigations provide useful information for the potential application of this material.

  9. Energy Deposition into a Collisional Gas from Optical Lattices Formed in an Optical Cavity (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-02

    pp. 1344-1347 2 Kuga et al., “Novel Optical Trap of Atoms with a Doughnut Beam,” Physical Review Letters 78, (1997), pp. 4713-4716 3 Dotsenko et...other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a ...Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Energy Deposition into a Collisional Gas from

  10. Optical-lattice-influenced geometry of quasi-two-dimensional binary condensates and quasiparticle spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthar, K.; Angom, D.

    2016-06-01

    We explore the collective excitation of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates (TBECs) confined in quasi-two-dimensional optical lattices. For this we use a set of coupled discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations to describe the system and we employ Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory with the Popov approximation to analyze the quasiparticle spectra at zero temperature. The ground-state geometry, evolution of quasiparticle energies, structure of quasiparticle amplitudes, and dispersion relations are examined in detail. We observe that the TBEC acquires a side-by-side density profile when it is tuned from the miscible to the immiscible phase. In addition, the quasiparticle energies are softened as the system is tuned towards phase separation, but harden after phase separation and mode degeneracies are lifted. In terms of structure, in the miscible phase the quasiparticles have well-defined azimuthal quantum numbers, but that is not the case for the immiscible phase.

  11. Itinerant-localized dual character of a strongly correlated superfluid Bose gas in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Ohashi, Y.; Kitaura, M.; Matsumoto, H.

    2006-03-15

    We investigate a strongly correlated Bose gas in an optical lattice. Extending the standard-basis operator method developed by Haley and Erdoes to a boson Hubbard model, we calculate excitation spectra in the superfluid phase, as well as in the Mott insulating phase, at T=0. In the Mott phase, the excitation spectrum has a finite energy gap, reflecting the localized character of atoms. In the superfluid phase, the excitation spectrum is shown to have an itinerant-localized dual structure, where the gapless Bogoliubov mode (which describes the itinerant character of superfluid atoms) and a band with a finite energy gap coexist. We also show that the rf-tunneling current measurement would give useful information about the duality of a strongly correlated superfluid Bose gas near the superfluid-insulator transition.

  12. Topological insulator and particle pumping in a one-dimensional shaken optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Feng; You, Jia-Bin; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Yang, X. C.; Fazio, R.; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Kwek, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    We propose a simple method to simulate and detect topological insulators with cold atoms trapped in a one-dimensional bichromatic optical lattice subjected to a time-periodic modulation. The tight-binding form of this shaken system is equivalent to the periodically driven Aubry-Andre model. We demonstrate that this model can be mapped into a two-dimensional Chern insulator model, whose energy spectrum hosts a topological phase within an experimentally accessible parameter regime. By tuning the laser phase adiabatically, such one-dimensional system constitutes a natural platform to realize topological particle pumping. We show that the Chern number characterizing the topological features of this system can be measured by detecting the density shift after one cycle of pumping.

  13. Localization of a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a bichromatic optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yongshan; Tang, Gaohui; Adhikari, S. K.

    2014-06-01

    We study the localization of a noninteracting and weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with spin-orbit coupling loaded in a quasiperiodic bichromatic optical lattice potential using the numerical solution and variational approximation of a binary mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation with two pseudospin components. We confirm the existence of the stationary localized states in the presence of the spin-orbit and Rabi couplings for an equal distribution of atoms in the two components. We find that the interaction between the spin-orbit and Rabi couplings favors the localization or delocalization of the BEC depending on the phase difference between the components. We also studied the oscillation dynamics of the localized states for an initial population imbalance between the two components.

  14. Strong interaction effects and criticality of bosons in shaken optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Liu, Boyang; Miao, Jiao; Chin, Cheng; Zhai, Hui

    2014-10-10

    We study the quantum phase transitions and identify a tricritical point between a normal Bose superfluid, a superfluid that breaks additional Z(2) Ising symmetry, and a Mott insulator in a recent shaken optical lattice experiment. We show that near the transition between normal and Z(2) symmetry breaking superfluids, bosons can condense into a momentum state with high or even locally maximum kinetic energies due to the interaction effect. We present a general low-energy effective field theory that treats both the superfluid transition and the Ising transition in a uniform framework. Using the perturbative renormalization group method, we find that the critical behavior of the quantum phase transition belongs to a universality class different from that of a dilute Bose gas.

  15. Pair formation in Fermi systems with population imbalance in one- and two-dimensional optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batrouni, George

    2011-03-01

    I will discuss pairing in fermionic systems in one- and two-dimensional optical lattices with population imbalance. This will be done in the context of the attractive fermionic Hubbard model using the Stochastic Green Function algorithm in d=1 while for d=2 we use Determinant Quantum Monte Carlo. This is the first exact QMC study examining the effects of finite temperature which is very important in experiments on ultra-cold atoms. Our results show that, in the ground state, the dominant pairing mechanism is at nonzero center of mass momentum, i.e. FFLO. I will then discuss the effect of finite temperature in the uniform and confined systems and present finite temperature phase diagrams. The numerical results will be compared with experiments. With M. J. Wolak (CQT, National University of Singapore) and V. G. Rousseau (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University).

  16. Phase separation of trapped spin-imbalanced Fermi gases in one-dimensional optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Heidrich-Meisner, F.; Orso, G.; Feiguin, A. E.

    2010-05-15

    We calculate the density profiles of a trapped spin-imbalanced Fermi gas with attractive interactions in a one-dimensional optical lattice, using both the local-density approximation (LDA) and density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) simulations. Based on the exact equation of state obtained by Bethe ansatz, the LDA predicts that the gas phase separates into shells with a partially polarized core and fully paired wings, the latter occurring below a critical spin polarization. This behavior is also seen in numerically exact DMRG calculations at sufficiently large particle numbers. We show that, unlike in the continuum case, the critical polarization is a nonmonotonic function of the interaction strength and vanishes in the limit of large interactions.

  17. Quench-induced resonant tunneling mechanisms of bosons in an optical lattice with harmonic confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutentakis, G. M.; Mistakidis, S. I.; Schmelcher, P.

    2017-01-01

    The nonequilibrium dynamics of small boson ensembles in a one-dimensional optical lattice is explored upon a sudden quench of an additional harmonic trap from strong to weak confinement. We find that the competition between the initial localization and the repulsive interaction leads to a resonant response of the system for intermediate quench amplitudes, corresponding to avoided crossings in the many-body eigenspectrum with varying final trap frequency. In particular, we show that these avoided crossings can be utilized to prepare the system in a desired state. The dynamical response is shown to depend on both the interaction strength as well as the number of atoms manifesting the many-body nature of the tunneling dynamics.

  18. Self-localization of Bose–Einstein condensates in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Johannes; Fleischmann, Ragnar

    2017-03-01

    Mean field and beyond mean field model calculations of Bose–Einstein condensates trapped in optical lattices have shown that initially homogeneous condensates can evolve into self-trapped, strongly localized states in the presence of weak boundary dissipation, a phenomenon called self-localization. A dynamical phase transition from extended to localized states can be observed when the effective nonlinearity exceeds a critical threshold {{{Λ }}}{eff}{{c}}. We investigate this phase transition to self-localization in the mean field approximation of the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. We quantitatively characterize the properties of the discrete breathers, i.e. the nonlinear localized solutions, at the phase transition. This leads us to propose and numerically verify an analytical lower bound {{{Λ }}}{eff}{{L}} for the critical nonlinearity based on the idea of self-induced Anderson localization.

  19. Inelastic collisions and density-dependent excitation suppression in a {sup 87}Sr optical lattice clock

    SciTech Connect

    Bishof, M.; Martin, M. J.; Swallows, M. D.; Benko, C.; Lin, Y.; Quemener, G.; Rey, A. M.; Ye, J.

    2011-11-15

    We observe two-body loss of {sup 3} P{sub 0} {sup 87}Sr atoms trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice. We measure loss rate coefficients for atomic samples between 1 and 6 {mu}K that are prepared either in a single nuclear-spin sublevel or with equal populations in two sublevels. The measured temperature and nuclear-spin preparation dependence of rate coefficients agree well with calculations and reveal that rate coefficients for distinguishable atoms are only slightly enhanced over those of indistinguishable atoms. We further observe a suppression of excitation and losses during interrogation of the {sup 1} S{sub 0}-{sup 3} P{sub 0} transition as density increases and Rabi frequency decreases, which suggests the presence of strong interactions in our dynamically driven many-body system.

  20. Localization of a Bose-Fermi mixture in a bichromatic optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Yongshan; Adhikari, S. K.

    2011-08-15

    We study the localization of a cigar-shaped superfluid Bose-Fermi mixture in a quasiperiodic bichromatic optical lattice (OL) for interspecies attraction and intraspecies repulsion. The mixture is described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the bosons, coupled to a hydrodynamic mean-field equation for fermions at unitarity. We confirm the existence of the symbiotic localized states in the Bose-Fermi mixture and Anderson localization of the Bose component in the interacting Bose-Fermi mixture on a bichromatic OL. The phase diagram in boson and fermion numbers showing the regions of the symbiotic and Anderson localization of the Bose component is presented. Finally, the stability of symbiotic and Anderson localized states is established under small perturbations.

  1. Multi-peak solitons in PT-symmetric Bessel optical lattices with defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongcheng

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the existence and stability of multi-peak solitons in parity-time-symmetric Bessel optical lattices with defects in nonlinear media. The results demonstrate that there always exists a critical propagation constant μ c for the existence of multi-peak solitons regardless of whether the nonlinearity is self-focusing or self-defocusing. In self-focusing media, multi-peak solitons exist when the propagation constant μ > μ c . In the self-defocusing case, solitons exist only when μ < μ c . Only low-power solitons can propagate stably when random noise perturbations are present. Positive defects help stabilize the propagation of multi-peak solitons when the nonlinearity is self-focusing. When the nonlinearity is self-defocusing, however, multi-peak solitons in negative defects have wider stable regions than those in positive defects.

  2. Topological superfluid state of fermions on a p-band optical square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Jie; He, Jing; Zang, Chun-Li; Kou, Su-Peng

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we study an interacting mixture of ultracold spinless fermions on the s band and bosons on the p band in a 2D square optical lattice, of which the effective model is reduced to a p-band fermionic system with nearest-neighbor attractive interaction. From this effective p-band model, we find a translation symmetry protected Z2 topological superfluid that is characterized by a special fermion parity pattern at high-symmetry points in momentum space k=(0,0), (0,π), (π,0), (π,π). Such Z2 topological superfluid supports the robust Majorana edge modes and a new type of low-energy excitation—(supersymmetric) Z2 link excitation.

  3. The Sagnac effect in optical lattices with laser-assisted tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bo-Nan; Wei, Xiao-Gang; Zhang, Guo-Wan; Li, Jia-Hua; Cheng, Yong-Jie; Xu, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    We propose a scheme to realize rotation sensing through the use of optical lattices with laser-assisted tunneling. We theoretically demonstrate that competition between the rotation and the spin-orbit coupling governs the spin-dependent response of the cyclotron dynamics of the spin-orbit coupled bosons. The Sagnac-type cumulative phase can be read out from the envelope of a beat-frequency time evolution of the population imbalance in the spin-balanced system and enhanced by cyclotron motion. We also theoretically show that the sensitivity limit of the spin-orbit-coupled system to rotational motion can reach 4×10-7 \\text{rads}-1\\text{Hz}-1/2 .

  4. Many-Body Dynamics of Dipolar Molecules in an Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazzard, Kaden R. A.; Gadway, Bryce; Foss-Feig, Michael; Yan, Bo; Moses, Steven A.; Covey, Jacob P.; Yao, Norman Y.; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Ye, Jun; Jin, Deborah S.; Rey, Ana Maria

    2014-11-01

    We use Ramsey spectroscopy to experimentally probe the quantum dynamics of disordered dipolar-interacting ultracold molecules in a partially filled optical lattice, and we compare the results to theory. We report the capability to control the dipolar interaction strength. We find excellent agreement between our measurements of the spin dynamics and theoretical calculations with no fitting parameters, including the dynamics' dependence on molecule number and on the dipolar interaction strength. This agreement verifies the microscopic model expected to govern the dynamics of dipolar molecules, even in this strongly correlated beyond-mean-field regime, and represents the first step towards using this system to explore many-body dynamics in regimes that are inaccessible to current theoretical techniques.

  5. Many-body dynamics of dipolar molecules in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Hazzard, Kaden R A; Gadway, Bryce; Foss-Feig, Michael; Yan, Bo; Moses, Steven A; Covey, Jacob P; Yao, Norman Y; Lukin, Mikhail D; Ye, Jun; Jin, Deborah S; Rey, Ana Maria

    2014-11-07

    We use Ramsey spectroscopy to experimentally probe the quantum dynamics of disordered dipolar-interacting ultracold molecules in a partially filled optical lattice, and we compare the results to theory. We report the capability to control the dipolar interaction strength. We find excellent agreement between our measurements of the spin dynamics and theoretical calculations with no fitting parameters, including the dynamics' dependence on molecule number and on the dipolar interaction strength. This agreement verifies the microscopic model expected to govern the dynamics of dipolar molecules, even in this strongly correlated beyond-mean-field regime, and represents the first step towards using this system to explore many-body dynamics in regimes that are inaccessible to current theoretical techniques.

  6. Dynamics of localization phenomena for hard-core bosons in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Horstmann, Birger; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Roscilde, Tommaso

    2007-10-15

    We investigate the behavior of ultracold bosons in optical lattices with a disorder potential generated via a secondary species frozen in random configurations. The statistics of disorder is associated with the physical state in which the secondary species is prepared. The resulting random potential, albeit displaying algebraic correlations, is found to lead to localization of all single-particle states. We then investigate the real-time dynamics of localization for a hardcore gas of mobile bosons which are brought into sudden interaction with the random potential. Regardless of their initial state and for any disorder strength, the mobile particles are found to reach a steady state characterized by exponentially decaying off-diagonal correlations and by the absence of quasicondensation; when the mobile particles are initially confined in a tight trap and then released in the disorder potential, their expansion is stopped and the steady state is exponentially localized in real space, clearly revealing Anderson localization.

  7. LIGHT SOURCE: Optics for the lattice of the compact storage ring for a Compton X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pei-Cheng; Wang, Yu; Shen, Xiao-Zhe; Huang, Wen-Hui; Yan, Li-Xin; Du, Ying-Chao; Li, Ren-Kai; Tang, Chuan-Xiang

    2009-06-01

    We present two types of optics for the lattice of a compact storage ring for a Compton X-ray source. The optics design for different operation modes of the storage ring are discussed in detail. For the pulse mode optics, an IBS-suppression scheme is applied to optimize the optics for lower IBS emittance growth rate; as for the steady mode, the method to control momentum compact factor is adopted [Gladkikh P, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8, 050702] to obtain stability of the electron beam.

  8. Dynamic localization in optical and Zeeman lattices in the presence of spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Zezyulin, Dmitry A.; Torner, Lluis

    2016-12-01

    The dynamic localization of a two-level atom in a periodic potential under the action of spin-orbit coupling and a weak harmonically varying linear force is studied. We consider optical and Zeeman potentials that are either in phase or out of phase in two spinor components, respectively. The expectation value for the position of the atom after one oscillation period of the linear force is recovered in authentic resonances or in pseudoresonances. The frequencies of the linear force corresponding to authentic resonances are determined by the band structure of the periodic potential and are affected by the spin-orbit coupling. The width or dispersion of the wave packet in authentic resonances is usually minimal. The frequencies corresponding to pseudoresonances do not depend on the type of potential and on the strength of the spin-orbit coupling, while the evolution of excitations at the corresponding frequencies is usually accompanied by significant dispersion. Pseudoresonances are determined by the initial phase of the linear force and by the quasimomentum of the wave packet. Due to the spinor nature of the system, the motion of the atom is accompanied by periodic, but not harmonic, spin oscillations. Under the action of spin-orbit coupling the oscillations of the wave packet can be nearly completely suppressed in optical lattices. Dynamic localization in Zeeman lattices is characterized by doubling of the resonant oscillation periods due to band crossing at the boundary of the Brillouin zone. We also show that higher harmonics in the Fourier expansion of the energy band lead to effective dispersion, which can be strong enough to prevent dynamic localization of the Bloch wave packet.

  9. Suppression of Faraday waves in a Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Capuzzi, Pablo; Gattobigio, Mario; Vignolo, Patrizia

    2011-01-15

    We study the formation of Faraday waves in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of a one-dimensional optical lattice. The waves are parametrically excited by modulating the radial confinement of the condensate close to a transverse breathing mode of the system. For very shallow optical lattices, phonons with a well-defined wave vector propagate along the condensate, as in the absence of the lattice, and we observe the formation of a Faraday pattern. We find that by increasing the potential depth the local sound velocity decreases, and when it equals the condensate local phase velocity, the condensate develops an incoherent superposition of several modes and the parametric excitation of Faraday waves is suppressed.

  10. Mott-insulator state of cold atoms in tilted optical lattices: Doublon dynamics and multilevel Landau-Zener tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolovsky, Andrey R.; Maksimov, Dmitrii N.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the dynamical response of strongly interacting Bose atoms in an adiabatically tilted optical lattice. The analysis is performed in terms of the multilevel Landau-Zener tunneling. Different regimes of tunneling are identified and analytical expressions for the doublon number, which is the quantity measured in laboratory experiments, are derived.

  11. Highly Functional TNTs with Superb Photocatalytic, Optical, and Electronic Performance Achieving Record PV Efficiency of 10.1% for 1D-Based DSSCs.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Li, Yuewen; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Mengal, Naveed; Memon, Anam Ali; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Different nanostructures of TiO2 play an important role in the photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications. TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) have received increasing attention for these applications due to their unique physicochemical properties. Focusing on highly functional TNTs (HF-TNTs) for photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications, this study describes the facile hydrothermal synthesis of HF-TNTs by using commercial and cheaper materials for cost-effective manufacturing. To prove the functionality and applicability, these TNTs are used as scattering structure in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photocatalytic, optical, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), electrochemical impedance spectrum, incident-photon-to-current efficiency, and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy characterizations are proving the functionality of HF-TNTs for DSSCs. HF-TNTs show 50% higher photocatalytic degradation rate and also 68% higher dye loading ability than conventional TNTs (C-TNTs). The DSSCs having HF-TNT and its composite-based multifunctional overlayer show effective light absorption, outstanding light scattering, lower interfacial resistance, longer electron lifetime, rapid electron transfer, and improved diffusion length, and consequently, J SC , quantum efficiency, and record photoconversion efficiency of 10.1% using commercial N-719 dye is achieved, for 1D-based DSSCs. These new and highly functional TNTs will be a concrete fundamental background toward the development of more functional applications in fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, Li-ion batteries, photocatalysis process, ion-exchange/adsorption process, and photoelectrochemical devices.

  12. Direct measurement of lattice dynamics and optical phonon excitation in semiconductor nanocrystals using femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Daniel C; Brown, Kristen E; Young, Ryan M; Wasielewski, Michael R; Schatz, George C; Co, Dick T; Schaller, Richard D

    2013-09-06

    We report femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy measurements of lattice dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals and characterize longitudinal optical (LO) phonon production during confinement-enhanced, ultrafast intraband relaxation. Stimulated Raman signals from unexcited CdSe nanocrystals produce a spectral shape similar to spontaneous Raman signals. Upon photoexcitation, stimulated Raman amplitude decreases owing to experimentally resolved ultrafast phonon generation rates within the lattice. We find a ∼600  fs, particle-size-independent depletion time attributed to hole cooling, evidence of LO-to-acoustic down-conversion, and LO phonon mode softening.

  13. Chaotic quantum ratchets and filters with cold atoms in optical lattices: Properties of Floquet states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Gwang-Ok

    The -kicked rotor is a paradigm of quantum chaos. Its realisation with clouds of cold atoms in pulsed optical lattices demonstrated the well-known quantum chaos phenomenon of 'dynamical localisation'. In those experi ments by several groups world-wide, the £-kicks were applied at equal time intervals. However, recent theoretical and experimental work by the cold atom group at UCL Monteiro et al 2002, Jonckheere et al 2003, Jones et al 2004 showed that novel quantum and classical dynamics arises if the atomic cloud is pulsed with repeating sequences of unequally spaced kicks. In Mon teiro et al 2002 it was found that the energy absorption rates depend on the momentum of the atoms relative to the optical lattice hence a type of chaotic ratchet was proposed. In Jonckheere et al and Jones et al, a possible mechanism for selecting atoms according to their momenta (velocity filter) was investigated. The aim of this thesis was to study the properties of the underlying eigen values and eigenstates. Despite the unequally-spaced kicks, these systems are still time-periodic, so we in fact investigated the Floquet states, which are eigenstates of U(T), the one-period time evolution operator. The Floquet states and corresponding eigenvalues were obtained by diagonalising a ma trix representation of the operator U(T). It was found that the form of the eigenstates enables us to analyse qual itatively the atomic momentum probability distributions, N(p) measured experimentally. In particular, the momentum width of the individual eigen states varies strongly with < p > as expected from the theoretical and ex- perimental results obtained previously. In addition, at specific < p > close to values which in the experiment yield directed motion (ratchet transport), the probability distribution of the individual Floquet states is asymmetric, mirroring the asymmetric N(p) measured in clouds of cesium atoms. In the penultimate chapter, the spectral fluctuations (eigenvalue statis tics) are

  14. Optical-lattice-assisted magnetic phase transition in a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martone, Giovanni I.; Ozawa, Tomoki; Qu, Chunlei; Stringari, Sandro

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the effect of a periodic potential generated by a one-dimensional optical lattice on the magnetic properties of an S =1 /2 spin-orbit-coupled Bose gas. By increasing the lattice strength one can achieve a magnetic phase transition between a polarized and an unpolarized Bloch wave phase, characterized by a significant enhancement of the contrast of the density fringes. If the wave vector of the periodic potential is chosen close to the roton momentum, the transition could take place at very small lattice intensities, revealing the strong enhancement of the response of the system to a weak density perturbation. By solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in the presence of a three-dimensional trapping potential, we shed light on the possibility of observing the magnetic phase transition in currently available experimental conditions.

  15. Entangling strings of neutral atoms in 1D atomic pipeline structures.

    PubMed

    Dorner, U; Fedichev, P; Jaksch, D; Lewenstein, M; Zoller, P

    2003-08-15

    We study a string of neutral atoms with nearest neighbor interaction in a 1D beam splitter configuration, where the longitudinal motion is controlled by a moving optical lattice potential. The dynamics of the atoms crossing the beam splitter maps to a 1D spin model with controllable time dependent parameters, which allows the creation of maximally entangled states of atoms by crossing a quantum phase transition. Furthermore, we show that this system realizes protected quantum memory, and we discuss the implementation of one- and two-qubit gates in this setup.

  16. Zero-temperature phase diagram of Bose-Fermi gaseous mixtures in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, T. P.; Kopec, T. K.

    2010-04-15

    We study the ground-state phase diagram of a mixture of bosonic and fermionic cold atoms confined on two- and three-dimensional optical lattices. The coupling between bosonic fluctuations and fermionic atoms can be attractive or repulsive and has similarities with electron-phonon coupling in crystals. We investigate behavior of the mixtures in the limit, where the Bogoliubov sound velocity that dictates bosonic dynamics is comparable to the Fermi velocity, hence the retardation effects are an important part of the physics. The dynamic Lindhard response function of the fermionic density to changes in the bosonic number of particles above some critical frequency can alter the sign, and consequently the interspecies interaction between particles becomes repulsive in contrast to the static limit (instantaneous and always attractive). Considering the above, we show that the structure of the phase diagrams crucially depends on the difference in masses of the bosons and fermions. We discuss the situations where integrating out the fermionic field provides an additional interaction that can decrease or increase bosonic coherence.

  17. Detecting π -phase superfluids with p -wave symmetry in a quasi-one-dimensional optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Hulet, Randall G.; Liu, W. Vincent

    2016-09-01

    We propose an experimental protocol to study p -wave superfluidity in a spin-polarized cold Fermi gas tuned by an s -wave Feshbach resonance. A crucial ingredient is to add a quasi-one-dimensional optical lattice and tune the fillings of two spins to the s and p band, respectively. The pairing order parameter is confirmed to inherit p -wave symmetry in its center-of-mass motion. We find that it can further develop into a state of unexpected π -phase modulation in a broad parameter regime. Experimental signatures are predicted in the momentum distributions, density of states, and spatial densities for a realistic experimental setup with a shallow trap. The π -phase p -wave superfluid is reminiscent of the π state in superconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures but differs in symmetry and physical origin. The spatially varying phases of the superfluid gap provide an approach to synthetic magnetic fields for neutral atoms. It would represent another example of p -wave pairing, first discovered in 3He liquids.

  18. Direct observation of a sub-Poissonian number distribution of atoms in an optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Itah, Amir; Veksler, Hagar; Lahav, Oren; Blumkin, Alex; Moreno, Coral; Gordon, Carmit; Steinhauer, Jeff

    2010-03-19

    We report single-site resolution in a lattice with tunneling between sites, allowing for an in situ study of stochastic losses. The ratio of the loss rate to the tunneling rate is seen to determine the number fluctuations, and the overall profile of the lattice. Sub-Poissonian number fluctuations are observed. Deriving the lattice beams from a microlens array results in perfect relative stability between beams.

  19. Spectral properties and phase diagram of correlated lattice bosons in an optical cavity within bosonic dynamical mean-field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panas, Jaromir; Kauch, Anna; Byczuk, Krzysztof

    2017-03-01

    We use the Bose-Hubbard model with an effective infinite-range interaction to describe the correlated lattice bosons in an optical cavity. We study both static and spectral properties of such system within the bosonic dynamical mean-field theory, which is the state-of-the-art method for strongly correlated bosonic systems. Both similarities and differences are found and discussed between our results and those obtained within different theoretical methods and experiment.

  20. Vortical Solitons of Three-Dimensional Bose—Einstein Condensates under Both a Bichromatic Optical Lattice and Anharmonic Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng-Bo; Zong, Feng-De; Wang, Ying

    2013-06-01

    We study Bose—Einstein condensate vortical solitons under both a bichromatic optical lattice and anharmonic potential. The vortical solitons are built in the form of a layer-chain structure made up of two fundamental vortices along the bichromatic optical lattice direction, which have not been reported before in the three-dimensional Bose—Einstein condensate. A variation approach is applied to find the optimum initial solutions of vortical solitons. The stabilities of the vortical solitons are confirmed by the numerical simulation of the time-dependent Gross—Pitaevskii equation. In particular, stable Bose—Einstein condensate vortical solitons with fundamental vortices of different atomic numbers in the external potential within a range of experimentally achievable timescales are found. We further manipulate the vortical solitons to an arbitrary position by steadily moving the bichromatic optical lattice, and find a stable region for the successful manipulation of vortical solitons without collapse. These results provide insight into controlling and manipulating the Bose—Einstein condensate vortical solitons for macroscopic quantum applications.

  1. High precision optical spectroscopy and quantum state selected photodissociation of ultracold 88Sr2 molecules in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Mickey Patrick

    Over the past several decades, rapid progress has been made toward the accurate characterization and control of atoms, made possible largely by the development of narrow-linewidth lasers and techniques for trapping and cooling at ultracold temperatures. Extending this progress to molecules will have exciting implications for chemistry, condensed matter physics, and precision tests of physics beyond the Standard Model. These possibilities are all consequences of the richness of molecular structure, which is governed by physics substantially different from that characterizing atomic structure. This same richness of structure, however, increases the complexity of any molecular experiment manyfold over its atomic counterpart, magnifying the difficulty of everything from trapping and cooling to the comparison of theory with experiment. This thesis describes work performed over the past six years to establish the state of the art in manipulation and quantum control of ultracold molecules. Our molecules are produced via photoassociation of ultracold strontium atoms followed by spontaneous decay to a stable ground state. We describe a thorough set of measurements characterizing the rovibrational structure of very weakly bound (and therefore very large) 88Sr2 molecules from several different perspectives, including determinations of binding energies; linear, quadratic, and higher order Zeeman shifts; transition strengths between bound states; and lifetimes of narrow subradiant states. The physical intuition gained in these experiments applies generally to weakly bound diatomic molecules, and suggests extensive applications in precision measurement and metrology. In addition, we present a detailed analysis of the thermally broadened spectroscopic lineshape of molecules in a non-magic optical lattice trap, showing how such lineshapes can be used to directly determine the temperature of atoms or molecules in situ, addressing a long-standing problem in ultracold physics

  2. Tunable spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in deep optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, M.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Gammal, A.; Tomio, Lauro

    2016-10-01

    Binary mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in deep optical lattices and subjected to equal contributions of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (SOC) are investigated in the presence of a periodic time modulation of the Zeeman field. SOC tunability is explicitly demonstrated by adopting a mean-field tight-binding model for the BEC mixture and by performing an averaging approach in the strong modulation limit. In this case, the system can be reduced to an unmodulated vector discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a rescaled SOC tuning parameter α , which depends only on the ratio between amplitude and frequency of the applied Zeeman field. We consider the attractive interaction case and focus on the effect of the SOC tuning on the localized ground states. The dependence of the spectrum of the linear system on α has been analytically characterized. In particular, we show that extremal curves (ground and highest excited states) of the linear spectrum are continuous piecewise functions (together with their derivatives) of α , which consist of a finite number of decreasing band lobes joined by constant lines. This structure also remains in the presence of inter- and intra-species interactions, the nonlinearity mainly introducing a number of localized states in the band gaps. The stability of ground states in the presence of the modulating field has been demonstrated by real-time evolutions of the original (unaveraged) system. Localization properties of the ground state induced by the SOC tuning, and a parameter design for possible experimental observation, have also been discussed.

  3. Symmetric and asymmetric solitons in linearly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Gubeskys, Arthur; Malomed, Boris A.

    2007-06-15

    We study spontaneous symmetry breaking in a system of two parallel quasi-one-dimensional traps (cores), equipped with optical lattices (OLs) and filled with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The cores are linearly coupled by tunneling (the model may also be interpreted in terms of spatial solitons in parallel planar optical waveguides with a periodic modulation of the refractive index). Analysis of the corresponding system of linearly coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPEs) reveals that spectral band gaps of the single GPE split into subgaps. Symmetry breaking in two-component BEC solitons is studied in cases of the attractive (AA) and repulsive (RR) nonlinearity in both traps; the mixed situation, with repulsion in one trap and attraction in the other (RA), is considered too. In all the cases, stable asymmetric solitons are found, bifurcating from symmetric or antisymmetric ones (and destabilizing them), in the AA and RR systems, respectively. In either case, bistability is predicted, with a nonbifurcating stable branch, either antisymmetric or symmetric, coexisting with asymmetric ones. Solitons destabilized by the bifurcation tend to rearrange themselves into their stable asymmetric counterparts. In addition to the fundamental solitons, branches of twisted (odd) solitons in the AA system, and twisted bound states of fundamental solitons in both AA and RR systems, are found too. The impact of a phase mismatch, {delta}, between the OLs in the two cores is also studied. It is concluded that {delta}={pi}/2 only mildly deforms the picture, while {delta}={pi} changes it drastically, replacing the symmetry-breaking bifurcations by pseudobifurcations, with the branch of asymmetric solutions asymptotically approaching its symmetric or antisymmetric counterpart (in the AA and RR system, respectively), rather than splitting off from it. Also considered is a related model, for a binary BEC in a single-core trap with the OL, assuming that the two species (representing

  4. Optical properties, lattice dynamics, and structural phase transition in hexagonal 2 H -BaMn O3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislavchuk, T. N.; Litvinchuk, A. P.; Hu, Rongwei; Jeon, Young Hun; Ji, Sung Dae; Cheong, S.-W.; Sirenko, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Optical properties and lattice dynamics of hexagonal 2 H -BaMn O3 single crystals are studied experimentally in a wide temperature range by means of rotating analyzer ellipsometry and Raman scattering. The magnitude of the direct electronic band gap is found to be Eg=3.2 eV . At room temperature the far-infrared (IR) ellipsometry spectra reveal six IR-active phonons; two of them are polarized along the c axis and four are polarized within the a-b plane. Seven phonon modes are identified in the Raman scattering experiments. Group theoretical mode analysis and complementary density functional theory lattice dynamics calculations are consistent with the 2 H -BaMn O3 structure belonging to the polar P 63m c space group at room temperature. All observed vibrational modes are assigned to specific eigenmodes of the lattice. The neutron diffraction measurements reveal a structural phase transition upon cooling below TC=130 ±5 K , which is accompanied by a lattice symmetry change from P 63m c to P 63c m . Simultaneously, at temperatures below TC several additional IR- and Raman-active modes are detected in experimental spectra. This confirms the occurrence of a structural transition, which is possibly associated with the appearance of electrical polarization along the c axis and a previously known tripling of the primitive cell volume at low temperatures.

  5. 1D to 3D Crossover of a Spin-Imbalanced Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelle, Melissa C.; Fry, Jacob A.; Olsen, Ben A.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2016-12-01

    We have characterized the one-dimensional (1D) to three-dimensional (3D) crossover of a two-component spin-imbalanced Fermi gas of 6Li atoms in a 2D optical lattice by varying the lattice tunneling and the interactions. The gas phase separates, and we detect the phase boundaries using in situ imaging of the inhomogeneous density profiles. The locations of the phases are inverted in 1D as compared to 3D, thus providing a clear signature of the crossover. By scaling the tunneling rate t with respect to the pair binding energy ɛB, we observe a collapse of the data to a universal crossover point at a scaled tunneling value of t˜c=0.025 (7 ).

  6. Quasi-1D Superfluids In A Spin-Imbalanced Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelle, Melissa C.; Olsen, Ben A.; Fry, Jacob A.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally study the phases of an ultracold two-spin component gas of atomic fermions (6Li) confined to 1D tubes formed by a 2D optical lattice. The atoms are prepared in the lowest two hyperfine sublevels where their interactions are tuned by a Feshbach resonance. We previously observed phase separation into a partially-polarized superfluid core and either fully-paired or fully-polarized wings (depending on the spin polarization). In 3D, the phase separation is inverted, such that the cloud center is fully paired. We investigate the transition from a 1D to 3D gas by varying the lattice depth and interaction strength which changes the ratio of the tunneling rate between the tubes to the pair binding energy. The region of parameter space we are exploring is believed to be the most promising region for the exotic FFLO superfluid phase. Supported by ARO, NSF, ONR, and the Welch Foundation.

  7. Optical Bragg, atomic Bragg and cavity QED detections of quantum phases and excitation spectra of ultracold atoms in bipartite and frustrated optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Jinwu; Zhang, K.Y.; Li, Yan; Chen, Yan; Zhang, W.P.

    2013-01-15

    Ultracold atoms loaded on optical lattices can provide unprecedented experimental systems for the quantum simulations and manipulations of many quantum phases and quantum phase transitions between these phases. However, so far, how to detect these quantum phases and phase transitions effectively remains an outstanding challenge. In this paper, we will develop a systematic and unified theory of using the optical Bragg scattering, atomic Bragg scattering or cavity QED to detect the ground state and the excitation spectrum of many quantum phases of interacting bosons loaded in bipartite and frustrated optical lattices. The physically measurable quantities of the three experiments are the light scattering cross sections, the atom scattered clouds and the cavity leaking photons respectively. We show that the two photon Raman transition processes in the three detection methods not only couple to the density order parameter, but also the valence bond order parameter due to the hopping of the bosons on the lattice. This valence bond order coupling is very sensitive to any superfluid order or any valence bond (VB) order in the quantum phases to be probed. These quantum phases include not only the well-known superfluid and Mott insulating phases, but also other important phases such as various kinds of charge density waves (CDW), valence bond solids (VBS), and CDW-VBS phases with both CDW and VBS orders unique to frustrated lattices, and also various kinds of supersolids. We analyze respectively the experimental conditions of the three detection methods to probe these various quantum phases and their corresponding excitation spectra. We also address the effects of a finite temperature and a harmonic trap. We contrast the three scattering methods with recent in situ measurements inside a harmonic trap and argue that the two kinds of measurements are complementary to each other. The combination of both kinds of detection methods could be used to match the combination of

  8. Coherent control of population transfer between vibrational states in an optical lattice via two-path quantum interference.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Chao; Paul, Christopher R; Liu, Xiaoxian; Maneshi, Samansa; Cruz, Luciano S; Steinberg, Aephraim M

    2013-12-06

    We demonstrate coherent control of population transfer between vibrational states in an optical lattice by using interference between a one-phonon transition at 2ω and a two-phonon transition at ω. The ω and 2ω transitions are driven by phase- and amplitude-modulation of the lattice laser beams, respectively. By varying the relative phase of these two pathways, we control the branching ratio between transitions to the first excited state and those to the higher states. Our best result shows a branching ratio of 17±2, which is the highest among coherent control experiments using analogous schemes. Such quantum control techniques may find broad application in suppressing leakage errors in a variety of quantum information architectures.

  9. Quantum Switching at a Mean-Field Instability of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in an Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Shchesnovich, V. S.; Konotop, V. V.

    2009-02-06

    It is shown that bifurcation of the mean-field dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate can be related to the quantum phase transition of the original many-body system. As an example we explore the intraband tunneling in the two-dimensional optical lattice. Such a system allows for easy control by the lattice depth as well as for macroscopic visualization of the phase transition. The system manifests switching between two self-trapping states or from a self-trapping state to a superposition of the macroscopically populated self-trapping states with a steplike variation of the control parameter about the bifurcation point. We have also observed the magnification of the microscopic difference between the even and odd number of atoms to a macroscopically distinguishable dynamics of the system.

  10. Optically induced spin wave dynamics in [Co/Pd]{sub 8} antidot lattices with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, S.; Das, K.; Barman, A.; Klos, J. W.; Gruszecki, P.; Krawczyk, M.; Hellwig, O.

    2014-10-20

    We present an all-optical time-resolved measurement of spin wave (SW) dynamics in a series of antidot lattices based on [Co(0.75 nm)/Pd(0.9 nm)]{sub 8} multilayer (ML) systems with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The spectra depend significantly on the areal density of the antidots. The observed SW modes are qualitatively reproduced by the plane wave method. The interesting results found in our measurements and calculations at small lattice constants can be attributed to the increase of areal density of the shells with modified magnetic properties probably due to distortion of the regular ML structure by the Ga ion bombardment and to increased coupling between localized modes. We propose and discuss the possible mechanisms for this coupling including exchange interaction, tunnelling, and dipolar interactions.

  11. Magnetically stabilized nematic order. II. Critical states and algebraically ordered nematic spin liquids in one-dimensional optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai Hui; Zhou Fei

    2005-07-01

    We investigate the Zeeman-field-driven quantum phase transitions between singlet spin liquids and algebraically ordered O(2) nematic spin liquids of spin-one bosons in one-dimensional optical lattices. We find that the critical behavior is characterized by condensation of hardcore bosons instead of ideal magnons in high-dimensional lattices. Critical exponents are strongly renormalized by hardcore interactions and critical states are equivalent to the free Fermion model up to the Friedel oscillations. We also find that the algebraically ordered nematic spin liquids close to critical points are fully characterized by the Luttinger-liquid dynamics with Luttinger-liquid parameters magnetically tunable. The Bethe ansatz solution has been applied to determine the critical magnetization and nematic correlations.

  12. Bond order via light-induced synthetic many-body interactions of ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F.; Mekhov, Igor B.

    2016-11-01

    We show how bond order emerges due to light mediated synthetic interactions in ultracold atoms in optical lattices in an optical cavity. This is a consequence of the competition between both short- and long-range interactions designed by choosing the optical geometry. Light induces effective many-body interactions that modify the landscape of quantum phases supported by the typical Bose-Hubbard model. Using exact diagonalization of small system sizes in one-dimension, we present the many-body quantum phases the system can support via the interplay between the density and bond (or matter-wave coherence) interactions. We find numerical evidence to support that dimer phases due to bond order are analogous to valence bond states. Different possibilities of light-induced atomic interactions are considered that go beyond the typical atomic system with dipolar and other intrinsic interactions. This will broaden the Hamiltonian toolbox available for quantum simulation of condensed matter physics via atomic systems.

  13. Realizing the Harper Hamiltonian and Spin-Orbit Coupling with Laser-Assisted Tunneling in an Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Colin; Miyake, Hiro; Burton, Cody; Chung, Woo Chang; Siviloglou, Georgios; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    The study of charged particles in a magnetic field has led to paradigm shifts in condensed matter physics including the discovery of topologically ordered states like the quantum Hall and fractional quantum Hall states. Quantum simulation of such systems using neutral atoms has drawn much interest recently in the atomic physics community due to the versatility and defect-free nature of such systems. We discuss our recent experimental realization of the Harper Hamiltonian and strong, uniform effective magnetic fields for neutral particles in an optical lattice. Additionally, our scheme represents a promising system to realize spin-orbit coupling and the quantum spin Hall states without flipping atomic spin states and thus without the intrinsic heating that comes with near-resonant Raman lasers. We point out that our scheme can be implemented all optically through the use of a period-tripling superlattice, offering faster switching times and more precise control than with magnetic field gradients. Finally, we show that this method is very general for engineering novel single particle spectra in an optical lattice and can be used to map out Hofstadter's butterfly.

  14. The Optical Spectrum of LaAlO3: Quasiparticle Energies and the Effect of Lattice Screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Schleife, Andre

    Lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) is a commonly used high- κ dielectric material but its exact optical properties are not well understood. By solving the Bethe-Salpeter Equation for the optical polarization function, which describes the interaction between electrons and holes, a precise prediction of the dielectric function can be obtained. However, for LaAlO3, there are two major problems limiting the computational study: The first problem is that due to the complicated conduction band structure, the quasiparticle effect needs to be taken into account, which makes the calculations costly. We resolved this problem by interpolating accurate eigenenergies computed using a hybrid exchange-correlation functional to a dense k-point grid. Another problem is that for such high- κ materials, the lattice contribution to the dielectric screening may be important. We investigated this by computing the optical spectrum using electronic constant, static dielectric constant and the average of both and found that taking lattice contribution into account significantly reduces excitonic effects. All results are compared to available experiments.

  15. Anderson localization of cold atomic gases with effective spin-orbit interaction in a quasiperiodic optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lu; Pu, Han; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-02-01

    We theoretically investigate the localization properties of a spin-orbit-coupled spin-1/2 particle moving in a one-dimensional quasiperiodic potential, which can be experimentally implemented using cold atoms trapped in a quasiperiodic optical lattice potential and external laser fields. We present the phase diagram in the parameter space of the disorder strength and those related to the spin-orbit coupling. The phase diagram is verified via multifractal analysis of the atomic wave functions and the numerical simulation of diffusion dynamics. We found that spin-orbit coupling can lead to spectra mixing (coexistence of extended and localized states) and the appearance of mobility edges.

  16. Gap solitons in parity-time-symmetric mixed linear-nonlinear optical lattices with fourth-order diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xing; Shi, Zhiwei; Li, Huagang

    2017-01-01

    We report on the existence and stability of fundamental and out-of-phase dipole gap solitons in parity-time (PT)-symmetric mixed linear-nonlinear optical lattices with a fourth-order diffraction. These solitons exist in the semi-infinite gap. For fundamental gap solitons, they can bifurcate from the higher edge of the first Bloch band, solitons are stable in the low power region. For dipole gap solitons, they cannot bifurcate from the higher edge of the first Bloch band, they can stably exist in the moderate power region. The coupling constant of the fourth-order diffraction can influence the stability of these gap solitons.

  17. Role of interactions in 87Rb-40K Bose-Fermi mixtures in a 3D optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Best, Th; Will, S; Schneider, U; Hackermüller, L; van Oosten, D; Bloch, I; Lühmann, D-S

    2009-01-23

    We investigate the effect of interspecies interaction on a degenerate mixture of bosonic 87Rb and fermionic 40K atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice potential. Using a Feshbach resonance, the 87Rb-40K interaction is tuned over a wide range. Through an analysis of the 87Rb momentum distribution, we find a pronounced asymmetry between strong repulsion and strong attraction. In the latter case, we observe a marked shift in the superfluid to Mott insulator transition, which we attribute to a renormalization of the Bose-Hubbard parameters due to self-trapping.

  18. Bose-Einstein condensation of particle-hole pairs in ultracold fermionic atoms trapped within optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chaohong

    2004-09-17

    We investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC, superfluidity) of particle-hole pairs in ultracold fermionic atoms with repulsive interactions and arbitrary polarization, which are trapped within optical lattices. In the strongly repulsive limit, the dynamics of particle-hole pairs can be described by a hard-core Bose-Hubbard model. The insulator-superfluid and charge-density-wave- (CDW) superfluid phase transitions can be induced by decreasing and increasing the potential depths with controlling the trapping laser intensity, respectively. The parameter and polarization dependence of the critical temperatures for the ordered states (BEC and/or CDW) are discussed simultaneously.

  19. Dynamical quantum phase transition of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Anssi; Martikainen, Jani-Petri; Larson, Jonas

    2010-01-15

    We study the dynamics of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate where the two components are coupled via an optical lattice. In particular, we focus on the dynamics as one drives the system through a critical point of a first-order phase transition characterized by a jump in the internal populations. Solving the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we analyze the breakdown of adiabaticity, impact of nonlinear atom-atom scattering, and role of a harmonic trapping potential. Our findings demonstrate that the phase transition is resilient to both contact interaction between atoms and external trapping confinement.

  20. Nonlinear tunneling of Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice: Signatures of quantum collapse and revival

    SciTech Connect

    Shchesnovich, V. S.; Konotop, V. V.

    2007-06-15

    Quantum theory of the intraband resonant tunneling of a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded in a two-dimensional optical lattice is considered. It is shown that the phenomena of quantum collapse and revival can be observed in the fully quantum problem. The mean-field limit of the theory is analyzed using the WKB approximation for discrete equations, establishing in this way a direct connection between the two approaches conventionally used in very different physical contexts. More specifically we show that there exist two different regimes of tunneling and study dependence of quantum collapse and revival on the number of condensed atoms.

  1. Matter waves of Bose-Fermi mixtures in one-dimensional optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Bludov, Yu. V.; Santhanam, J.; Kenkre, V. M.; Konotop, V. V.

    2006-10-15

    We describe solitary wave excitations in a Bose-Fermi mixture loaded in a one-dimensional and strongly elongated lattice. We focus on the mean-field theory under the condition that the fermion number significantly exceeds the boson number, and limit our consideration to lattice amplitudes corresponding to the order of a few recoil energies or less. In such a case, the fermionic atoms display 'metallic' behavior and are well-described by the effective mass approximation. After classifying the relevant cases, we concentrate on gap solitons and coupled gap solitons in the two limiting cases of large and small fermion density, respectively. In the former, the fermionic atoms are distributed almost homogeneously and thus can move freely along the lattice. In the latter, the fermionic density becomes negligible in the potential maxima, and this leads to negligible fermionic current in the linear regime.

  2. Quantum Monte Carlo study of entanglement entropy for dipolar hardcore bosons in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Capogrosso-Sansone, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Entanglement entropy and its scaling with system size provide an alternative way to characterize quantum phases and phase transitions, and can be used to probe topological order. Motivated by the recent theoretical investigation of entanglement properties of the ground-states of hard-core lattice bosons, we use Quantum Monte Carlo simulations, well suited to studying equilibrium properties, to calculate the Renyi entropy and topological entanglement entropy of the ground state of dipolar lattice bosons. In contrast to the traditional observables, these probes allow us to study the emergence of long-range entanglement in the ground state, as well as its dependence on the dipolar coupling. Additionally, in light of recent experimental success in creating low entropy dipolar lattice gases we discuss the possibility of observing these phases experimentally.

  3. Simulating and detecting the quantum spin Hall effect in the kagome optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Guocai; Jiang Shaojian; Sun Fadi; Liu, W. M.; Zhu Shiliang

    2010-11-15

    We propose a model which includes a nearest-neighbor intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and a trimerized Hamiltonian in the kagome lattice and promises to host the transition from the quantum spin Hall insulator to the normal insulator. In addition, we design an experimental scheme to simulate and detect this transition in the ultracold atom system. The lattice intrinsic spin-orbit coupling is generated via the laser-induced-gauge-field method. Furthermore, we establish the connection between the spin Chern number and the spin-atomic density which enables us to detect the quantum spin Hall insulator directly by the standard density-profile technique used in atomic systems.

  4. Coherence of interacting bosons in optical lattices in synthetic magnetic fields with a large number of subbands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grygiel, B.; Patucha, K.; Zaleski, T. A.

    2016-05-01

    We study the behavior of interacting ultracold bosons in optical lattices in synthetic magnetic fields with wide range of in-cell fluxes α =p /q . The problem is similar to the one of an electron moving in a tight-binding scheme in the magnetic field and becomes difficult to tackle for a growing number of magnetic subbands, q . To overcome this, we focus on the interplay of the width, shape, and number of the subbands on the formation of the coherent state of cold bosons. Using the quantum rotor approach, which goes beyond the mean-field approximation, we are able to pinpoint the elements of the band structure, which are the most significant in a proper theoretical description of the synthetic magnetic field in a bosonic lattice system. As a result, we propose a method of reconstruction of the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum by replacing the magnetic subbands with renormalized bands of a square lattice. This allows us to effectively investigate the properties of the studied system for a wide range of magnetic fluxes and their impact on the Mott-insulator-superfluid transition.

  5. Competition between attractive and repulsive interactions in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in an optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Matuszewski, Michal; Malomed, Boris A.; Trippenbach, Marek

    2007-10-15

    We consider effects of interspecies attraction on two-component gap solitons (GSs) in the binary BEC with intraspecies repulsion, trapped in the one-dimensional optical lattice (OL). Systematic simulations of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations corroborate an assumption that, because the effective mass of GSs is negative, the interspecies attraction may split the two-component soliton. Two critical values, {kappa}{sub 1} and {kappa}{sub 2}, of the OL strength ({kappa}) are identified. Two-species GSs with fully overlapping wave functions are stable in strong lattices ({kappa}>{kappa}{sub 1}). In an intermediate region, {kappa}{sub 1}>{kappa}>{kappa}{sub 2}, the soliton splits into a double-humped state with separated components. Finally, in weak lattices ({kappa}<{kappa}{sub 2}), the splitting generates a pair of freely moving single-species GSs. We present and explain the dependence of {kappa}{sub 1} and {kappa}{sub 2} on the number of atoms (total norm), and on the relative strength of the competing interspecies attraction and intraspecies repulsion. The splitting of asymmetric solitons, with unequal norms of the two species, is briefly considered too. It is found and explained that the splitting threshold grows with the increase of the asymmetry.

  6. Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice with Raman-assisted two-dimensional spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jian-Song; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-10-01

    In a recent experiment (Z. Wu, L. Zhang, W. Sun, X.-T. Xu, B.-Z. Wang, S.-C. Ji, Y. Deng, S. Chen, X.-J. Liu, and J.-W. Pan, arXiv:1511.08170 [cond-mat.quant-gas]), a Raman-assisted two-dimensional spin-orbit coupling has been realized for a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice potential. In light of this exciting progress, we study in detail key properties of the system. As the Raman lasers inevitably couple atoms to high-lying bands, the behaviors of the system in both the single- and many-particle sectors are significantly affected. In particular, the high-band effects enhance the plane-wave phase and lead to the emergence of "roton" gaps at low Zeeman fields. Furthermore, we identify high-band-induced topological phase boundaries in both the single-particle and the quasiparticle spectra. We then derive an effective two-band model, which captures the high-band physics in the experimentally relevant regime. Our results not only offer valuable insights into the two-dimensional lattice spin-orbit coupling, but also provide a systematic formalism to model high-band effects in lattice systems with Raman-assisted spin-orbit couplings.

  7. Coherent transverse-optical phonon generation induced by lattice defects in nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. S.; Ryu, H. C.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, H.; Rho, H.; Kim, Y. J.; Lim, Y. S.; Yee, K. J.

    2013-10-01

    We describe our observation of coherent phonon oscillations of X-point zone-boundary transverse-optical (TO) mode, TO(X), in nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs that has been annealed at high temperatures. With the TO(X) mode being forbidden from the Raman selection rule in pure zinc-blende GaAs, the lattice defects have provided additional momentum for phonon generation. Annealing-induced structural modifications were demonstrated through X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman scattering measurements. The polarization dependence of the TO(X) mode was compared with that of the longitudinal optical mode, and the temperature dependence of the TO(X) phonon dephasing was also investigated.

  8. Fabrication and demonstration of square lattice two-dimensional rod-type photonic bandgap crystal optical intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Selin H. G.; Liu, A. Q.; Yu, M. B.; Singh, J.

    2006-05-01

    This paper reports fabrication and demonstration of optical intersections in two-dimensional (2D) rod-type photonic crystal (PhC) structures. High resolution and aspect ratio 2D square lattice PhC waveguide intersections were designed and fabricated for application at the optical communication wavelengths centered at 1550 nm. In the silicon processing front, challenges resolved to overcome issues of drastically reduced process windows caused by the dense PhC rods arrays with critical dimensions (CDs) reduced to only a few hundred nanometers were addressed not only in terms of critical process flow design but also in the development of each processing module. In the lithographic process of deep ultraviolet laser system working at 248 nm, PhC rods of sub-lithographic wavelength CDs (115 nm in radii) were realized in high resolution, even near periphery regions where proximity errors were prone. In the deep etching module, stringent requirements on etch angle control and low sidewall scallops (undulations arising from time multiplexed etch and passivation actions) were satisfied, to prevent catastrophic etch failures, and enable optical quality facets. The successfully fabricated PhCs were also monolithically integrated with large scale optical testing fiber grooves that enabled macro optical fiber assisted coupling to the micro scale PhC devices. In the optical experiments, the transmission and crosstalk properties for the PhC intersection devices with different rod radii at the center of the PhC optical waveguides crossings were measured with repeatability. The properties of the PhC intersections were therefore optimized and verified to correspond well with first principle finite difference time domain simulations.

  9. Optical smoothing of laser imprinting in planar-target experiments on OMEGA EP using multi-FM 1-D smoothing by spectral dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenberger, M.; Shvydky, A.; Marozas, J. A.; Fiksel, G.; Bonino, M. J.; Canning, D.; Collins, T. J. B.; Dorrer, C.; Kessler, T. J.; Kruschwitz, B. E.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2016-09-01

    Direct-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires single-beam smoothing to minimize imprinting of laser nonuniformities that can negatively affect implosion performance. One-dimensional, multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) has been proposed to provide the required smoothing [Marozas et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 55, 294 (2010)]. A prototype multi-FM SSD system has been integrated into the NIF-like beamline of the OMEGA EP Laser System. Experiments have been performed to verify the smoothing performance by measuring Rayleigh-Taylor growth rates in planar targets of laser-imprinted and preimposed surface modulations. Multi-FM 1-D SSD has been observed to reduce imprint levels by ˜50% compared to the nominal OMEGA EP SSD system. The experimental results are in agreement with 2-D DRACO simulations using realistic, time-dependent far-field spot-intensity calculations that emulate the effect of SSD.

  10. Atom-atom correlations in time-of-flight imaging of ultracold bosons in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zaleski, T. A.; Kopec, T. K.

    2011-11-15

    We study the spatial correlations of strongly interacting bosons in a ground state, confined in a two-dimensional square and a three-dimensional cubic lattice. Using the combined Bogoliubov method and the quantum rotor approach, we map the Hamiltonian of strongly interacting bosons onto U(1) phase action in order to calculate the atom-atom correlations' decay along the principal axis and a diagonal of the lattice-plane direction as a function of distance. Lower tunneling rates lead to quicker decays of the correlations, whose character becomes exponential. Finally, correlation functions allow us to calculate quantities that are directly bound to experimental outcomes, namely time-of-flight absorption images and resulting visibility. Our results contain all the characteristic features present in experimental data (transition from Mott insulating blob to superfluid peaks, etc.), emphasizing the usability of the proposed approach.

  11. Dissipative photonic lattice solitons.

    PubMed

    Ultanir, Erdem A; Stegeman, George I; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2004-04-15

    We show that discrete dissipative optical lattice solitons are possible in waveguide array configurations that involve periodically patterned semiconductor optical amplifiers and saturable absorbers. The characteristics of these low-power soliton states are investigated, and their propagation constant eigenvalues are mapped on Floquet-Bloch band diagrams. The prospect of observing such low-power dissipative lattice solitons is discussed in detail.

  12. Effect of geometric lattice design on optical/electrical properties of transparent silver grid for organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ju Won; Lee, Young Tack; Pandey, Rina; Yoo, Tae-Hee; Sang, Byoung-In; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Hwang, Do Kyung; Choi, Won Kook

    2014-11-03

    Silver (Ag) grid transparent electrode is one of the most promising transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) to replace conventional indium tin oxide (ITO). We systematically investigate an effect of geometric lattice modifications on optical and electrical properties of Ag grid electrode. The reference Ag grid with 5 μm width and 100 μm pitch (duty of 0.05) prepared by conventional photo-lithography and lift-off processes shows the sheet resistance of 13.27 Ω/sq, transmittance of 81.1%, and resultant figure of merit (FOM) of 129.05. Three different modified Ag grid electrodes with stripe added-mesh (SAM), triangle-added mesh (TAM), and diagonal-added mesh (DAM) are suggested to improve optical and electrical properties. Although all three of SAM, TAM, and DAM Ag grid electrodes exhibit the lower transmittance values of about 72 - 77%, they showed much decreased sheet resistance of 6 - 8 Ω/sq. As a result, all of the lattice-modified Ag grid electrodes display significant improvement of FOM and the highest value of 171.14 is obtained from DAM Ag grid, which is comparable to that of conventional ITO electrode (175.46). Also, the feasibility of DAM Ag gird electrode for use in organic solar cell is confirmed by finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. Unlike a conventional ITO electrode, DAM Ag grid electrode can induce light scattering and trapping due to the diffuse transmission that compensates for the loss in optical transparency, resulting in comparable light absorption in the photo active layer of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC₆₀BM). P3HT:PC₆₀BM based OSCs with the DAM Ag grid electrode were fabricated, which also showed the potential for ITO-free transparent electrode.

  13. Lars Onsager Prize Talk: A New Challenge for Cold Atom Physics: Achieving the Strongly Correlated Regimes for Cold Atoms in Optical Lattices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tin-Lun

    2008-03-01

    Cold atoms in optical lattices show great promise to generate a whole host of new strongly correlated states and to emulate many theoretical models for strongly interacting electronic systems. However, to reach these strongly correlated regimes, we need to reach unprecedented low temperatures within current experimental settings. To achieve this, it is necessary to remove considerable amount of entropy from the system. Here, we point out a general principle for removing entropies of quantum gases in optical lattices which will allow one to reach some extraordinarily low temperature scales.

  14. Optical smoothing of laser imprinting in planar-target experiments on OMEGA EP using multi-FM 1-D smoothing by spectral dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Hohenberger, M.; Shvydky, A.; Marozas, J. A.; Fiksel, G.; Bonino, M. J.; Canning, D.; Collins, T. J. B.; Dorrer, C.; Kessler, T. J.; Kruschwitz, B. E.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2016-09-07

    Direct-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires single-beam smoothing to minimize imprinting of laser nonuniformities that can negatively affect implosion performance. One-dimensional, multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) has been proposed to provide the required smoothing [J. A. Marozas, J. D. Zuegel, and T. J. B. Collins, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 55, 294 (2010)]. A prototype multi-FM SSD system has been integrated into the NIF-like beamline of the OMEGA EP Laser System. Experiments have been performed to verify the smoothing performance by measuring Rayleigh–Taylor growth rates in planar targets of laser-imprinted and preimposed surface modulations. Multi-FM 1-D SSD has been observed to reduce imprint levels by ~50% compared to the nominal OMEGA EP SSD system. In conclusion, the experimental results are in agreement with 2-D DRACO simulations using realistic, time-dependent far-field spot-intensity calculations that emulate the effect of SSD.

  15. Optical smoothing of laser imprinting in planar-target experiments on OMEGA EP using multi-FM 1-D smoothing by spectral dispersion

    DOE PAGES

    Hohenberger, M.; Shvydky, A.; Marozas, J. A.; ...

    2016-09-07

    Direct-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires single-beam smoothing to minimize imprinting of laser nonuniformities that can negatively affect implosion performance. One-dimensional, multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) has been proposed to provide the required smoothing [J. A. Marozas, J. D. Zuegel, and T. J. B. Collins, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 55, 294 (2010)]. A prototype multi-FM SSD system has been integrated into the NIF-like beamline of the OMEGA EP Laser System. Experiments have been performed to verify the smoothing performance by measuring Rayleigh–Taylor growth rates in planar targets of laser-imprinted and preimposed surface modulations. Multi-FM 1-D SSDmore » has been observed to reduce imprint levels by ~50% compared to the nominal OMEGA EP SSD system. In conclusion, the experimental results are in agreement with 2-D DRACO simulations using realistic, time-dependent far-field spot-intensity calculations that emulate the effect of SSD.« less

  16. Effect of Lattice Screening on Excitonic and Optical Properties in CH3NH3PbI3 Solar Cell Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leveillee, Joshua; Schleife, Andre; Andre Schleife Research Group Team

    Hybrid Organo-Metallic Perovskites have made great strides towards becoming a next generation solar cell material. Though high performing experimental devices have been constructed from these perovskites, the fundamental optical and electronic physics of these systems remains an active area of research. A large lattice dielectric constant in the Methylammonium(CH3NH3)-Lead(Pb)-Iodide(I3) system potentially contributes to the screening of the electron-hole interaction. The strongly increased dielectric screening due to lattice contributions has been suggested to reduce the exciton binding energy and strongly effects the optical band gap. In this study, we seek to understand, from first principles, the interplay between lattice screening and exciton binding energy. We use density functional theory for ground state calculations and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the optical polarization function, from which we calculate optical spectra and excitonic properties. We will discuss differences between lattice and electronic screening and the effect on the optical properties of multiple CH3NH3PbI3 phases. Supported by NSF Grand Number: CBET-1437230.

  17. Exotic quantum clusters and non-equilibrium dynamics of Rydberg excitations in one-dimensional optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Marco

    2016-12-01

    In this mini-review, we report results from M. Mattioli, et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 165302 (2013)], M. Dalmonte, et al. [Phys. Rev. B 92, 045106 (2015)] and M. Mattioli, et al. [New J. Phys. 17, 113039 (2015)], where it is shown that Rydberg atoms trapped in one-dimensional optical lattices are a useful tool to investigate the equilibrium phase diagram and the non-equilibrium dynamics of extended Hubbard models and Kinetically Constrained Models, respectively. Atoms weakly-dressed to an high-lying Rydberg state, which interact with a constant potential extended over several lattice sites, can be in an exotic quantum liquid state, the cluster Luttinger liquid phase [42, 43]. Furthermore, we show how a many-body model of interacting three-level atoms in the V-shaped configuration, where one of the level is a Rydberg state, might relax to equilibrium according to the same rules, so-called kinetic constraints, which are known to reproduce the characteristic dynamical arrest and separation of timescales of real glass-forming materials [62].

  18. Ground state properties and non-equilibrium dynamics of hard-core bosons confined on optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigol, Marcos; Muramatsu, Alejandro

    2004-03-01

    We study by means of an exact approach, a gas of hard core bosons (HCB) confined on optical lattices. The ground state properties of such systems are analyzed. Local incompressible phases appear in the system, like in the case of interacting soft-core bosons [1] and fermions [2,3]. The changes in momentum distribution function and in the natural orbitals (effective single particle states) introduced by the formation of such phases are analyzed. We also study non-equilibrium properties for those systems, which within our numerical approach can be obtained exactly for systems with 200 particles on lattices with 3000 sites. In particular we analyze the free expansion of the gas when it is released from the trap turning off the confining potential. We show that the expansion is non-trivial (as opposed to the fermionic case) and new features to be observed in the experiments are analyzed. [1] G. G. Batrouni, V. Rousseau, R. T. Scalettar, M. Rigol, A. Muramatsu, P. J. H. Denteneer, and M. Troyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 117203 (2002). [2] M. Rigol, A. Muramatsu, G. G. Batrouni, and R. T. Scalettar, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 130403 (2003). [3] M. Rigol and A. Muramatsu, cond-mat/0309670 (2003).

  19. Fractional Mott insulator-to-superfluid transition of Bose-Hubbard model in a trimerized Kagomé optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi-Hui; Li, Peng; Su, Haibin

    2016-06-29

    By generalizing the traditional single-site strong coupling expansion approach to a cluster one, we study the zero-temperature phase diagram of bosonic atoms in a trimerized Kagomé optical lattice. Some new features are present in this system. Due to the strong intra-trimer hopping interaction, there will be a new Mott insulator (MI), which is by definition incompressible but with a fractional filling per trimer. This is different from the traditional MI, which has an integral filling and originates only from the repulsive interaction between particles. We investigate the MI-to-superfluid transition and the nature of the fractional MI by calculating the critical exponents of phase transitions and the low-lying energy excitation spectra of quasiparticles (quasihole). We will show how the low-energy properties of this system can be understood qualitatively as a Bose-Hubbard model in triangular lattice from the point of view of the cluster strong coupling expansion. We also discuss how our results are related to experiment by studying the Bragg spectroscopy.

  20. Fractional Mott insulator-to-superfluid transition of Bose-Hubbard model in a trimerized Kagomé optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi-Hui; Li, Peng; Su, Haibin

    2016-06-01

    By generalizing the traditional single-site strong coupling expansion approach to a cluster one, we study the zero-temperature phase diagram of bosonic atoms in a trimerized Kagomé optical lattice. Some new features are present in this system. Due to the strong intra-trimer hopping interaction, there will be a new Mott insulator (MI), which is by definition incompressible but with a fractional filling per trimer. This is different from the traditional MI, which has an integral filling and originates only from the repulsive interaction between particles. We investigate the MI-to-superfluid transition and the nature of the fractional MI by calculating the critical exponents of phase transitions and the low-lying energy excitation spectra of quasiparticles (quasihole). We will show how the low-energy properties of this system can be understood qualitatively as a Bose-Hubbard model in triangular lattice from the point of view of the cluster strong coupling expansion. We also discuss how our results are related to experiment by studying the Bragg spectroscopy.

  1. Fermi polaron in a one-dimensional quasiperiodic optical lattice: The simplest many-body localization challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Wang, An-Bang; Yi, Su; Liu, Xia-Ji

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the behavior of a moving impurity immersed in a sea of fermionic atoms that are confined in a quasiperiodic (bichromatic) optical lattice within a standard variational approach. We consider both repulsive and attractive contact interactions for such a simple many-body localization problem of Fermi polarons. The variational approach enables us to access relatively large systems and therefore may be used to understand many-body localization in the thermodynamic limit. The energy and wave function of the polaron states are found to be strongly affected by the quasirandom lattice potential and their experimental measurements (i.e., via radio-frequency spectroscopy or quantum gas microscope) therefore provide a sensitive way to underpin the localization transition. We determine a phase diagram by calculating two critical quasirandom disorder strengths, which correspond to the onset of the localization of the ground-state polaron state and the many-body localization of all polaron states, respectively. Our predicted phase diagram could be straightforwardly examined in current cold-atom experiments.

  2. Probing structure-induced optical behavior in a new class of self-activated luminescent 0D/1D CaWO₄ metal oxide – CdSe nanocrystal composite heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Hoy, Jessica; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Li, Zhuo-Qun; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Taylor, Gordon T.; Misewich, James A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.

    2015-01-30

    In this report, we synthesize and characterize the structural and optical properties of novel heterostructures composed of (i) semiconducting nanocrystalline CdSe quantum dot (QDs) coupled with (ii) both one and zero-dimensional (1D and 0D) motifs of self-activated luminescence CaWO₄ metal oxides. Specifically, ~4 nm CdSe QDs have been anchored onto (i) high-aspect ratio 1D nanowires, measuring ~230 nm in diameter and ~3 μm in length, as well as onto (ii) crystalline 0D nanoparticles (possessing an average diameter of ~ 80 nm) of CaWO₄ through the mediation of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a connecting linker. Composite formation was confirmed by complementary electron microscopy and spectroscopy (i.e. IR and Raman) data. In terms of luminescent properties, our results show that our 1D and 0D heterostructures evince photoluminescence (PL) quenching and shortened PL lifetimes of CaWO₄ as compared with unbound CaWO₄. We propose that a photo-induced electron transfer process occurs from CaWO₄ to CdSe QDs, a scenario which has been confirmed by NEXAFS measurements and which highlights a decrease in the number of unoccupied orbitals in the conduction bands of CdSe QDs. By contrast, the PL signature and lifetimes of MPA-capped CdSe QDs within these heterostructures do not exhibit noticeable changes as compared with unbound MPA-capped CdSe QDs. The striking difference in optical behavior between CaWO₄ nanostructures and CdSe QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. In addition, the PL quenching behaviors for CaWO₄ within the heterostructure configuration were examined by systematically varying (i) the quantities and coverage densities of CdSe QDs as well as (ii) the intrinsic morphology (and by extension, the inherent crystallite size) of CaWO₄ itself.

  3. Emerging bosons with three-body interactions from spin-1 atoms in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Mazza, L.; Rizzi, M.; Cirac, J. I.; Lewenstein, M.

    2010-10-15

    We study two many-body systems of bosons interacting via an infinite three-body contact repulsion in a lattice: a pairs quasicondensate induced by correlated hopping and the discrete version of the Pfaffian wave function. We propose to experimentally realize systems characterized by such interaction by means of a proper spin-1 lattice Hamiltonian: spin degrees of freedom are locally mapped into occupation numbers of emerging bosons, in a fashion similar to spin-1/2 and hardcore bosons. Such a system can be realized with ultracold spin-1 atoms in a Mott insulator with a filling factor of 1. The high versatility of these setups allows us to engineer spin-hopping operators breaking the SU(2) symmetry, as needed to approximate interesting bosonic Hamiltonians with three-body hardcore constraint. For this purpose we combine bichromatic spin-independent superlattices and Raman transitions to induce a different hopping rate for each spin orientation. Finally, we illustrate how our setup could be used to experimentally realize the first setup, that is, the transition to a pairs quasicondensed phase of the emerging bosons. We also report on a route toward the realization of a discrete bosonic Pfaffian wave function and list some open problems for reaching this goal.

  4. Spin-orbital exchange of strongly interacting fermions in the p band of a two-dimensional optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenyu; Zhao, Erhai; Liu, W Vincent

    2015-03-13

    Mott insulators with both spin and orbital degeneracy are pertinent to a large number of transition metal oxides. The intertwined spin and orbital fluctuations can lead to rather exotic phases such as quantum spin-orbital liquids. Here, we consider two-component (spin 1/2) fermionic atoms with strong repulsive interactions on the p band of the optical square lattice. We derive the spin-orbital exchange for quarter filling of the p band when the density fluctuations are suppressed, and show that it frustrates the development of long-range spin order. Exact diagonalization indicates a spin-disordered ground state with ferro-orbital order. The system dynamically decouples into individual Heisenberg spin chains, each realizing a Luttinger liquid accessible at higher temperatures compared to atoms confined to the s band.

  5. Superfluid to Normal Fluid Phase Transition in the Bose Gas Trapped in Two-Dimensional Optical Lattices at Finite Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, M. O. C.; de Passos, E. J. V.

    2017-02-01

    We develop the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory at finite temperature for Bose gas trapped in the two-dimensional optical lattice with the on-site energy low enough that the gas presents superfluid properties. We obtain the condensate density as function of the temperature neglecting the anomalous density in the thermodynamics equation. The condensate fraction provides two critical temperature. Below the temperature T_{C1}, there is one condensate fraction. Above two condensate fractions merger up to the critical temperature T_{C2}. At temperatures larger than T_{C2}, the condensate fraction is null and, therefore, the gas is normal fluid. We resume by a finite-temperature phase diagram where three domains can be identified: the normal fluid, the superfluid with one stable condensate fraction and the superfluid with two condensate fractions being unstable one of them.

  6. Superfluidity of fermions with repulsive on-site interaction in an anisotropic optical lattice near a Feshbach resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Duan, Luming

    2008-03-01

    We present numerical analysis of ground state properties of the one-dimensional general Hubbard model (GHM) with particle assisted tunnelling rates and repulsive on-site interaction (positive-U), which describes fermionic atoms in an anisotropic optical lattice near a wide Feshbach resonance. Our calculation uses the time evolving block decimation algorithm, which is an extension of the density matrix renormalization group and provides a well controlled method for one-dimensional systems. We show that the positive-U GHM, when hole doped from half-filling, shows up a phase with coexistence of quasi-long-range superfluid and charge-density-wave orders. This feature is different from the property of the conventional Hubbard model with positive-U, indicting the particle assisted tunneling in the GHM could bring in qualitatively new physics.

  7. Multicriticality and interaction-induced first-order phase transitions in mixtures of ultracold bosons in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anufriiev, S.; Zaleski, T. A.

    2016-10-01

    We study a critical behavior of mixtures of two species of ultracold bosons trapped in an optical lattice. Using mean-field approximation, we determine the ground-state phase diagram of the system for a wide range of parameters. The introduction of interactions between different species of atoms strongly renormalizes the phase diagram. It can alter the critical behavior modifying multicriticality of crossing points and order of phase transitions in their vicinity between mixed and superfluid states. For selected values of model parameters, the behavior of the system falls out of the X Y model universality class, which usually is a hallmark of superfluid phase transition. We supplement our analysis with analytical calculations to explain the observed scenario.

  8. Interactions and collisions of discrete breathers in two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Russell; Oppo, Gian-Luca; Borkowski, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of static and traveling breathers in two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in a one-dimensional optical lattice is modelled within the tight-binding approximation. Two coupled discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations describe the interaction of the condensates in two cases of relevance: a mixture of two ytterbium isotopes and a mixture of (87)Rb and (41)K. Depending on their initial separation, interaction between static breathers of different species can lead to the formation of symbiotic structures and transform one of the breathers from a static into a traveling one. Collisions between traveling and static discrete breathers composed of different species are separated into four distinct regimes ranging from totally elastic when the interspecies interaction is highly attractive to mutual destruction when the interaction is sufficiently large and repulsive. We provide an explanation of the collision features in terms of the interspecies coupling and the negative effective mass of the discrete breathers.

  9. Interactions and collisions of discrete breathers in two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Russell; Oppo, Gian-Luca; Borkowski, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of static and traveling breathers in two-species Bose-Einstein condensates in a one-dimensional optical lattice is modelled within the tight-binding approximation. Two coupled discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations describe the interaction of the condensates in two cases of relevance: a mixture of two ytterbium isotopes and a mixture of 87Rb and 41K. Depending on their initial separation, interaction between static breathers of different species can lead to the formation of symbiotic structures and transform one of the breathers from a static into a traveling one. Collisions between traveling and static discrete breathers composed of different species are separated into four distinct regimes ranging from totally elastic when the interspecies interaction is highly attractive to mutual destruction when the interaction is sufficiently large and repulsive. We provide an explanation of the collision features in terms of the interspecies coupling and the negative effective mass of the discrete breathers.

  10. Multipolar theory of blackbody radiation shift of atomic energy levels and its implications for optical lattice clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Porsev, Sergey G.; Derevianko, Andrei

    2006-08-15

    Blackbody radiation (BBR) shifts of the {sup 3}P{sub 0}-{sup 1}S{sub 0} clock transition in the divalent atoms Mg, Ca, Sr, and Yb are evaluated. The dominant electric-dipole contributions are computed using accurate relativistic many-body techniques of atomic structure. At room temperatures, the resulting uncertainties in the E1 BBR shifts are large and substantially affect the projected 10{sup -18} fractional accuracy of the optical-lattice-based clocks. A peculiarity of these clocks is that the characteristic BBR wavelength is comparable to the {sup 3}P fine-structure intervals. To evaluate relevant M1 and E2 contributions, a theory of multipolar BBR shifts is developed. The resulting corrections, although presently masked by the uncertainties in the E1 contribution, are required at the 10{sup -18} accuracy goal.

  11. Optical conductivity of visons in Z2 spin liquids close to a valence bond solid transition on the kagome lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Yejin; Punk, Matthias; Sachdev, Subir

    2013-06-01

    We consider Z2 spin liquids on the kagome lattice on the verge of a valence bond solid (VBS) transition, where vortex excitations carrying Z2 magnetic flux—so-called visons—condense. We show that these vison excitations can couple directly to the external electromagnetic field, even though they carry neither spin nor charge. This is possible via a magnetoelastic coupling mechanism recently identified. [Potter, Senthil, and Lee, arXiv:1301.3495; Hao, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.85.174432 85, 174432 (2012)] For the case of transitions to a 36-site unit cell VBS state, the corresponding finite ac conductivity has a specific power-law frequency dependence, which is related to the crossover exponent of the quantum critical point. The visons’ contribution to the optical conductivity at transitions to VBS states with a 12-site unit cell vanishes, however.

  12. Bright solitons and self-trapping with a Bose-Einstein condensate of atoms in driven tilted optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Kolovsky, Andrey R.

    2010-07-15

    We discuss a method for creating bright matter solitons by loading a Bose-Einstein condensate of atoms in a driven tilted optical lattice. It is shown that one can realize the self-focusing regime for the wave-packet dynamics by properly adjusting the phase of the driving field with respect to the phase of Bloch oscillations. If atom-atom interactions are larger than some critical value g{sub min}, this self-focusing regime is followed by the formation of bright solitons. Increasing the interactions above another critical value g{sub max} makes this process unstable. Instead of soliton formation one now meets the phenomenon of incoherent self-trapping. In this regime a fraction of atoms is trapped in incoherent localized wave packets, while the remaining atoms spread ballistically.

  13. Modulation of periodic field on the atomic current in optical lattices with Landau-Zener tunneling considered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jie-Yun; Wang, Lan-Yu

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the atomic current in optical lattices under the presence of both constant and periodic external field with Landau-Zener tunneling considered. By simplifying the system to a two-band model, the atomic current is obtained based on the Boltzmann equations. We focus on three situations to discuss the influence of the Landau-Zener tunneling and periodic field on the atomic current. Numerical calculations show the atomic transient current would finally become the stable oscillation, whose amplitude and average value can be further adjusted by the periodic external field. It is concluded that the periodic external field could provide an effective modulation on the atomic current even when the Landau-Zener tunneling probability has almostly become a constant.

  14. Mixed-symmetry localized modes and breathers in binary mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz, H. A.; Brazhnyi, V. A.; Konotop, V. V.; Alfimov, G. L.; Salerno, M.

    2007-07-15

    We study localized modes in binary mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates embedded in one-dimensional optical lattices. We report a diversity of asymmetric modes and investigate their dynamics. We concentrate on the cases where one of the components is dominant, i.e., has a much larger number of atoms than the other one, and where both components have the numbers of atoms of the same order but different symmetries. In the first case we propose a method of systematically obtaining the modes, considering the 'small' component as bifurcating from the continuum spectrum. A generalization of this approach combined with the use of the symmetry of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations allows for obtaining breather modes, which are also presented.

  15. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Chen, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions.

  16. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R.; Chen, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions. PMID:26924255

  17. Efficient Second Harmonic Generation in 3D Nonlinear Optical-Lattice-Like Cladding Waveguide Splitters by Femtosecond Laser Inscription.

    PubMed

    Nie, Weijie; Jia, Yuechen; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Chen, Feng

    2016-02-29

    Integrated photonic devices with beam splitting function are intriguing for a broad range of photonic applications. Through optical-lattice-like cladding waveguide structures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser writing, the light propagation can be engineered via the track-confined refractive index profiles, achieving tailored output beam distributions. In this work, we report on the fabrication of 3D laser-written optical-lattice-like structures in a nonlinear KTP crystal to implement 1 × 4 beam splitting. Second harmonic generation (SHG) of green light through these nonlinear waveguide beam splitter structures provides the capability for the compact visible laser emitting devices. With Type II phase matching of the fundamental wavelength (@ 1064 nm) to second harmonic waves (@ 532 nm), the frequency doubling has been achieved through this three-dimensional beam splitter. Under 1064-nm continuous-wave fundamental-wavelength pump beam, guided-wave SHG at 532 nm are measured with the maximum power of 0.65 mW and 0.48 mW for waveguide splitters (0.67 mW and 0.51 mW for corresponding straight channel waveguides), corresponding to a SH conversion efficiency of approximately ~14.3%/W and 13.9%/W (11.2%/W, 11.3%/W for corresponding straight channel waveguides), respectively. This work paves a way to fabricate compact integrated nonlinear photonic devices in a single chip with beam dividing functions.

  18. Ultracold fermions in a one-dimensional bipartite optical lattice: Metal-insulator transitions driven by shaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Liberto, M.; Malpetti, D.; Japaridze, G. I.; Morais Smith, C.

    2014-08-01

    We theoretically investigate the behavior of a system of fermionic atoms loaded in a bipartite one-dimensional optical lattice that is under the action of an external time-periodic driving force. By using Floquet theory, an effective model is derived. The bare hopping coefficients are renormalized by zeroth-order Bessel functions of the first kind with different arguments for the nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor hopping. The insulating behavior characterizing the system at half filling in the absence of driving is dynamically suppressed, and for particular values of the driving parameter the system becomes either a standard metal or an unconventional metal with four Fermi points. The existence of the four-Fermi-point metal relies on the fact that, as a consequence of the shaking procedure, the next-nearest-neighbor hopping coefficients become significant compared to the nearest-neighbor ones. We use the bosonization technique to investigate the effect of on-site Hubbard interactions on the four-Fermi-point metal-insulator phase transition. Attractive interactions are expected to enlarge the regime of parameters where the unconventional metallic phase arises, whereas repulsive interactions reduce it. This metallic phase is known to be a Luther-Emery liquid (spin-gapped metal) for both repulsive and attractive interactions, contrary to the usual Hubbard model, which exhibits a Mott-insulator phase for repulsive interactions. Ultracold fermions in driven one-dimensional bipartite optical lattices provide an interesting platform for the realization of this long-studied four-Fermi-point unconventional metal.

  19. Applied optics. Gain modulation by graphene plasmons in aperiodic lattice lasers.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, S; Marshall, O P; Folland, T G; Kim, Y-J; Grigorenko, A N; Novoselov, K S

    2016-01-15

    Two-dimensional graphene plasmon-based technologies will enable the development of fast, compact, and inexpensive active photonic elements because, unlike plasmons in other materials, graphene plasmons can be tuned via the doping level. Such tuning is harnessed within terahertz quantum cascade lasers to reversibly alter their emission. This is achieved in two key steps: first, by exciting graphene plasmons within an aperiodic lattice laser and, second, by engineering photon lifetimes, linking graphene's Fermi energy with the round-trip gain. Modal gain and hence laser spectra are highly sensitive to the doping of an integrated, electrically controllable, graphene layer. Demonstration of the integrated graphene plasmon laser principle lays the foundation for a new generation of active, programmable plasmonic metamaterials with major implications across photonics, material sciences, and nanotechnology.

  20. Dissipative quantum dynamics of fermions in optical lattices: A slave-spin approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Jean-Sébastien; Poletti, Dario; Kollath, Corinna

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the influence of a Markovian environment on the dynamics of interacting spinful fermionic atoms in a lattice. To explore the physical phenomena occurring at short times, we develop a method based on a slave-spin representation of fermions that is amenable to the investigation of the dynamics of dissipative systems. We apply this approach to two different dissipative couplings that can occur in current experiments: a coupling via the local density and a coupling via the local double occupancy. We complement our study based on this method, with results obtained using the adiabatic elimination technique and with an exact study of a two-site model. We uncover that the decoherence is slowed down by increasing either the interaction strength or the dissipative coupling (the Zeno effect). We also find, for the coupling to the local double occupancy, that the final steady state can sustain single-particle coherence.

  1. Spin Localization of a Fermi Polaron in a Quasirandom Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, C. W.; Loft, N. J. S.; Öhberg, P.; Zinner, N. T.; Valiente, M.

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the topics of many-body localization (MBL) and one-dimensional strongly interacting few-body systems have received a lot of interest. These two topics have been largely developed separately. However, the generality of the latter as far as external potentials are concerned—including random and quasirandom potentials—and their shared spatial dimensionality, makes it an interesting way of dealing with MBL in the strongly interacting regime. Utilising tools developed for few-body systems we look to gain insight into the localization properties of the spin in a Fermi gas with strong interactions. We observe a delocalized-localized transition over a range of fillings of a quasirandom lattice. We find this transition to be of a different nature for low and high fillings, due to the diluteness of the system for low fillings.

  2. Real-space imaging of a topologically protected edge state with ultracold atoms in an amplitude-chirped optical lattice

    PubMed Central

    Leder, Martin; Grossert, Christopher; Sitta, Lukas; Genske, Maximilian; Rosch, Achim; Weitz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    To describe a mobile defect in polyacetylene chains, Su, Schrieffer and Heeger formulated a model assuming two degenerate energy configurations that are characterized by two different topological phases. An immediate consequence was the emergence of a soliton-type edge state located at the boundary between two regions of different configurations. Besides giving first insights in the electrical properties of polyacetylene materials, interest in this effect also stems from its close connection to states with fractional charge from relativistic field theory. Here, using a one-dimensional optical lattice for cold rubidium atoms with a spatially chirped amplitude, we experimentally realize an interface between two spatial regions of different topological order in an atomic physics system. We directly observe atoms confined in the edge state at the intersection by optical real-space imaging and characterize the state as well as the size of the associated energy gap. Our findings hold prospects for the spectroscopy of surface states in topological matter and for the quantum simulation of interacting Dirac systems. PMID:27767054

  3. Optic phonon bandwidth and lattice thermal conductivity: The case of Li2X ( X=O , S, Se, Te)

    DOE PAGES

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Lindsay, L.; Parker, D. S.

    2016-06-07

    Here, we examine the lattice thermal conductivities ( l) of Li2X (X=O, S, Se, Te) using a first-principles Peierls-Boltzmann transport methodology. We find low l values ranging between 12 and 30 W/m-K despite light Li atoms, a large mass difference between constituent atoms and tightly bunched acoustic branches, all features that give high l in other materials including BeSe (630 W/m-1K-1), BeTe (370 W/m-1K-1) and cubic BAs (3150 W/m-1K-1). Together these results suggest a missing ingredient in the basic guidelines commonly used to understand and predict l. Unlike typical simple systems (e.g., Si, GaAs, SiC), the dominant resistance to heat-carryingmore » acoustic phonons in Li2Se and Li2Te comes from interactions of these modes with two optic phonons. These interactions require significant bandwidth and dispersion of the optic branches, both present in Li2X materials. Finally, these considerations are important for the discovery and design of new materials for thermal management applications, and give a more comprehensive understanding of thermal transport in crystalline solids.« less

  4. Interaction-Driven Topological Insulator in Fermionic Cold Atoms on an Optical Lattice: A Design with a Density Functional Formalism.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Sota; Tsuji, Naoto; Aoki, Hideo

    2015-07-24

    We design an interaction-driven topological insulator for fermionic cold atoms in an optical lattice; that is, we pose the question of whether we can realize in a continuous space a spontaneous symmetry breaking induced by the interatom interaction into a topological Chern insulator. Such a state, sometimes called a "topological Mott insulator," has yet to be realized in solid-state systems, since this requires, in the tight-binding model, large off-site interactions on top of a small on-site interaction. Here, we overcome the difficulty by introducing a spin-dependent potential, where a spin-selective occupation of fermions in A and B sublattices makes the on-site interaction Pauli forbidden, while a sizeable intersite interaction is achieved by a shallow optical potential with a large overlap between neighboring Wannier orbitals. This puts the system away from the tight-binding model, so that we adopt density functional theory for cold atoms, here extended to accommodate noncollinear spin structures emerging in the topological regime, to quantitatively demonstrate the phase transition to the topological Mott insulator.

  5. Lattice dynamics, electronic structure, and optical properties of LiBeSb: A hexagonal ABC-type hyperferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jian-Qing; Zhu, Jian-Hui; Xu, Jie-Wang

    2016-07-01

    The recently discovered hexagonal ABC-type hyperferroelectrics, in which the polarization persists in the presence of the depolarization filed, exhibit a variety of intriguing and potentially useful properties [Garrity et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 127601 (2014)]. For the existing prototype of LiBeSb, we present detailed first-principles calculations concerning the lattice dynamics, electronic structure, and optical properties. An unstable longitudinal optic mode in the high-symmetry structure and a large polarization of 0.5 C/m2 in the polar phase are reported, including the remarkable dependence of Born effective charges on structural distortion. Using the HSE06 hybrid functional, we predict that LiBeSb has a small band-gap of 1.5 eV and shows dominant asymmetric covalent bonding character. Importantly, we find that there are remarkable absorptions in the whole visible spectrum. These features, combined with the enhanced carrier mobility, make LiBeSb as well as the whole family of hexagonal ABC-type hyperferroelectrics as promising candidates for ferroelectric photovoltaic materials with large bulk photovoltaic effect in the visible spectrum.

  6. Measuring the Speed of Sound in a 1D Fermi Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Jacob; Revelle, Melissa; Hulet, Randall

    2016-05-01

    We report measurements of the speed of sound in a two-spin component, 1D gas of fermionic lithium. The 1D system is an array of one-dimensional tubes created by a 2D optical lattice. By increasing the lattice depth, the tunneling between tubes is sufficiently small to make each an independent 1D system. To measure the speed of sound, we create a density notch at the center of the atom cloud using a sheet of light tuned far from resonance. The dipole force felt by both spin states will be equivalent, so this notch can be thought of as a charge excitation. Once this beam is turned off, the notch propagates to the edge of the atomic cloud with a velocity that depends on the strength of interatomic interactions. We control interactions using a magnetically tuned Feshbach resonance, allowing us to measure the speed of sound over a wide range of interaction. This method may be used to extract the Luttinger parameter vs. interaction strength. Supported by an ARO MURI Grant, NSF, and The Welch Foundation.

  7. Atomic loss and gain as a resource for nonequilibrium phase transitions in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everest, B.; Marcuzzi, M.; Lesanovsky, I.

    2016-02-01

    Recent breakthroughs in the experimental manipulation of strongly interacting atomic Rydberg gases in lattice potentials have opened an avenue for the study of many-body phenomena. Considerable efforts are currently being undertaken to achieve clean experimental settings that show a minimal amount of noise and disorder and are close to zero temperature. A complementary direction investigates the interplay between coherent and dissipative processes. Recent experiments have revealed a glimpse into the emergence of a rich nonequilibrium behavior stemming from the competition of laser excitation, strong interactions, and radiative decay of Rydberg atoms. The aim of the present theoretical work is to show that local incoherent loss and gain of atoms can in fact be the source of interesting out-of-equilibrium dynamics. This perspective opens up paths for the exploration of nonequilibrium critical phenomena and, more generally, phase transitions, some of which so far have been rather difficult to study. To demonstrate the richness of the encountered dynamical behavior we consider here three examples. The first two feature local atom loss and gain together with an incoherent excitation of Rydberg states. In this setting either a continuous or a discontinuous phase transition emerges with the former being reminiscent of genuine nonequilibrium transitions of stochastic processes with multiple absorbing states. The third example considers the regime of coherent laser excitation. Here the many-body dynamics is dominated by an equilibrium transition of the "model A" universality class.

  8. New Limits on Coupling of Fundamental Constants to Gravity Using {sup 87}Sr Optical Lattice Clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Blatt, S.; Ludlow, A. D.; Campbell, G. K.; Thomsen, J. W.; Zelevinsky, T.; Boyd, M. M.; Ye, J.; Baillard, X.; Fouche, M.; Le Targat, R.; Brusch, A.; Lemonde, P.; Takamoto, M.; Hong, F.-L.; Katori, H.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2008-04-11

    The {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition frequency {nu}{sub Sr} in neutral {sup 87}Sr has been measured relative to the Cs standard by three independent laboratories in Boulder, Paris, and Tokyo over the last three years. The agreement on the 1x10{sup -15} level makes {nu}{sub Sr} the best agreed-upon optical atomic frequency. We combine periodic variations in the {sup 87}Sr clock frequency with {sup 199}Hg{sup +} and H-maser data to test local position invariance by obtaining the strongest limits to date on gravitational-coupling coefficients for the fine-structure constant {alpha}, electron-proton mass ratio {mu}, and light quark mass. Furthermore, after {sup 199}Hg{sup +}, {sup 171}Yb{sup +}, and H, we add {sup 87}Sr as the fourth optical atomic clock species to enhance constraints on yearly drifts of {alpha} and {mu}.

  9. New limits on coupling of fundamental constants to gravity using 87Sr optical lattice clocks.

    PubMed

    Blatt, S; Ludlow, A D; Campbell, G K; Thomsen, J W; Zelevinsky, T; Boyd, M M; Ye, J; Baillard, X; Fouché, M; Le Targat, R; Brusch, A; Lemonde, P; Takamoto, M; Hong, F-L; Katori, H; Flambaum, V V

    2008-04-11

    The 1S0-3P0 clock transition frequency nuSr in neutral 87Sr has been measured relative to the Cs standard by three independent laboratories in Boulder, Paris, and Tokyo over the last three years. The agreement on the 1 x 10(-15) level makes nuSr the best agreed-upon optical atomic frequency. We combine periodic variations in the 87Sr clock frequency with 199Hg+ and H-maser data to test local position invariance by obtaining the strongest limits to date on gravitational-coupling coefficients for the fine-structure constant alpha, electron-proton mass ratio mu, and light quark mass. Furthermore, after 199Hg+, 171Yb+, and H, we add 87Sr as the fourth optical atomic clock species to enhance constraints on yearly drifts of alpha and mu.

  10. Chaotic spatial soliton rays in smooth two-dimensional optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Khomeriki, R; Leon, J

    2009-11-01

    The light ray of a spatial soliton in an optical film whose refractive index is smoothly modulated (wavelength much larger than the typical soliton width) in both spatial directions is shown to possess chaotic regimes for which the propagation is erratic. This is interpreted as a parametric driven pendulum, obtained by what we believe to be a new perturbative approach of the Maxwell's equation. These findings are then demonstrated to compare well to the eikonal law of light ray propagation (nonlinearity compensates diffraction).

  11. Controlled Lattice-Hardening for Exceptionally Stable and Highly Efficient Organic Electro-Optic (EO) Materials toward Next Generation Optical Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhengwei

    Organic electro-optic (OEO) materials can effectively encode or decode an optical carrier wave with a high-speed electronic data signal. They provide very high modulation efficiency for the development of the next generation optical interconnects with large bandwidth, low power consumption, and cost-effective integration to address the issue of the dramatically increasing data rates. To facilitate the device fabrication, it is highly desirable to implement the well-established semiconductor processes of microelectronics to photonics devices. When applying these processes to photonic devices, the main challenge lies in the thermal stability of both the chemical composition and poling-induced acentric order of EO lattices. In addition to excellent longterm thermal stability at elevated temperatures (80-100 °C), satisfactory short-period stability at a temperature range greater than 250 °C is required. Thus, this dissertation is devoted to the research of seeking OEO materials with remarkable thermal stability and large EO coefficients as a valid near-term solution in chip-to-chip optical interconnects for tera-scale (terabits per second) computing. Herein, a very effective molecular engineering approach of reinforced site isolation has been systematically developed to increase thermal stability of highly polarizable dipolar chromophores. With this novel approach, we succeeded in prolonging the thermal and temporal alignment stability of organic EO materials up to 250 °C with large r33 values (>100 pm/V at the wavelengths of 1310 nm). The success of these material developments has inspired the exploration of new device concepts to take full advantage of organic EO materials with large r33 values.

  12. Many-Body Effects on Optical Carrier Cooling in Intrinsic Semiconductors at Low Lattice Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-11

    Fg, 78.40.Fy, 78.55.Cr I . INTRODUCTION It is well known that the optical properties of an atomic vapor are essentially determined by the properties...equal temperatures in the papers by Rupper et al.12 and by Sheik- Bahae et al.13 for both carriers and phonons cannot be applied to quasiequilibrium...2 + i 0 − 2e2 2 0 b 0 dk k2 rvck 21 − fek − fhk Eek + Ehk + i 02 − Eek + Ehk2 , 4 where 0 is the homogeneous

  13. Phase Transition of Bosons Driven by a Staggered Gauge Field in AN Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Min-Chul

    2013-06-01

    We have studied the ground state properties of hard-core bosons in a two-leg optical ladder in the presence of uniform and staggered frustrations due to an artificial gauge field. By calculating the ground state via the Lanczos method, we find first-order phase transitions tuned by the staggered gauge field between the Meissner and the vortex states. The momentum distributions show that the Meissner state has edge and staggered currents, while the vortex states have vortex-solid or vortex-glass phases in the presence of a staggered field.

  14. Cold-collision-shift Cancellation and Inelastic Scattering in a Yb Optical Lattice Clock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-10

    inelastic two-body loss rates for 3P0-3PO and 1S0-3PO scattering. VVe also measm e interaction shifts in an unpolarized atomic sample. Collision...SUBJECT TERMS atomic frequency standards, atom collisions, optical atomic clocks 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF a. REPORT b...rates for 3P0-3P0 and 1S0-3P0 scattering. We also measure interaction shifts in an unpolarized atomic sample. Collision measurements for this spin-1/2

  15. Probing structure-induced optical behavior in a new class of self-activated luminescent 0D/1D CaWO₄ metal oxide – CdSe nanocrystal composite heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; ...

    2015-01-30

    In this report, we synthesize and characterize the structural and optical properties of novel heterostructures composed of (i) semiconducting nanocrystalline CdSe quantum dot (QDs) coupled with (ii) both one and zero-dimensional (1D and 0D) motifs of self-activated luminescence CaWO₄ metal oxides. Specifically, ~4 nm CdSe QDs have been anchored onto (i) high-aspect ratio 1D nanowires, measuring ~230 nm in diameter and ~3 μm in length, as well as onto (ii) crystalline 0D nanoparticles (possessing an average diameter of ~ 80 nm) of CaWO₄ through the mediation of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a connecting linker. Composite formation was confirmed by complementarymore » electron microscopy and spectroscopy (i.e. IR and Raman) data. In terms of luminescent properties, our results show that our 1D and 0D heterostructures evince photoluminescence (PL) quenching and shortened PL lifetimes of CaWO₄ as compared with unbound CaWO₄. We propose that a photo-induced electron transfer process occurs from CaWO₄ to CdSe QDs, a scenario which has been confirmed by NEXAFS measurements and which highlights a decrease in the number of unoccupied orbitals in the conduction bands of CdSe QDs. By contrast, the PL signature and lifetimes of MPA-capped CdSe QDs within these heterostructures do not exhibit noticeable changes as compared with unbound MPA-capped CdSe QDs. The striking difference in optical behavior between CaWO₄ nanostructures and CdSe QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. In addition, the PL quenching behaviors for CaWO₄ within the heterostructure configuration were examined by systematically varying (i) the quantities and coverage densities of CdSe QDs as well as (ii) the intrinsic morphology (and by extension, the inherent crystallite size) of CaWO₄ itself.« less

  16. Quantum measurement-induced antiferromagnetic order and density modulations in ultracold Fermi gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F.; Mekhov, Igor B.

    2016-08-01

    Ultracold atomic systems offer a unique tool for understanding behavior of matter in the quantum degenerate regime, promising studies of a vast range of phenomena covering many disciplines from condensed matter to quantum information and particle physics. Coupling these systems to quantized light fields opens further possibilities of observing delicate effects typical of quantum optics in the context of strongly correlated systems. Measurement backaction is one of the most funda- mental manifestations of quantum mechanics and it is at the core of many famous quantum optics experiments. Here we show that quantum backaction of weak measurement can be used for tailoring long-range correlations of ultracold fermions, realizing quantum states with spatial modulations of the density and magnetization, thus overcoming usual requirement for a strong interatomic interactions. We propose detection schemes for implementing antiferromagnetic states and density waves. We demonstrate that such long-range correlations cannot be realized with local addressing, and they are a consequence of the competition between global but spatially structured backaction of weak quantum measurement and unitary dynamics of fermions.

  17. Quantum measurement-induced antiferromagnetic order and density modulations in ultracold Fermi gases in optical lattices

    PubMed Central

    Mazzucchi, Gabriel; Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F.; Mekhov, Igor B.

    2016-01-01

    Ultracold atomic systems offer a unique tool for understanding behavior of matter in the quantum degenerate regime, promising studies of a vast range of phenomena covering many disciplines from condensed matter to quantum information and particle physics. Coupling these systems to quantized light fields opens further possibilities of observing delicate effects typical of quantum optics in the context of strongly correlated systems. Measurement backaction is one of the most funda- mental manifestations of quantum mechanics and it is at the core of many famous quantum optics experiments. Here we show that quantum backaction of weak measurement can be used for tailoring long-range correlations of ultracold fermions, realizing quantum states with spatial modulations of the density and magnetization, thus overcoming usual requirement for a strong interatomic interactions. We propose detection schemes for implementing antiferromagnetic states and density waves. We demonstrate that such long-range correlations cannot be realized with local addressing, and they are a consequence of the competition between global but spatially structured backaction of weak quantum measurement and unitary dynamics of fermions. PMID:27510369

  18. Microwave control of atomic motional states in a spin-dependent optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmechri, Noomen; Förster, Leonid; Alt, Wolfgang; Widera, Artur; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Spin-dependent optical potentials allow us to use microwave radiation to manipulate the motional state of trapped neutral atoms (Förster et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 233001). Here, we discuss this method in greater detail, comparing it to the widely employed Raman sideband coupling method. We provide a simplified model for sideband cooling in a spin-dependent potential, and we discuss it in terms of the generalized Lamb-Dicke parameter. Using a master equation formalism, we present a quantitative analysis of the cooling performance for our experiment, which can be generalized to other experimental settings. We additionally use microwave sideband transitions to engineer motional Fock states and coherent states, and we devise a technique for measuring the population distribution of the prepared states.

  19. Nonequilibrium phase transition of interacting bosons in an intra-cavity optical lattice.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiari, M Reza; Hemmerich, A; Ritsch, H; Thorwart, M

    2015-03-27

    We investigate the nonlinear light-matter interaction of a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in an external periodic potential inside an optical cavity which is weakly coupled to vacuum radiation modes and driven by a transverse pump field. Based on a generalized Bose-Hubbard model which incorporates a single cavity mode, we include the collective backaction of the atoms on the cavity light field and determine the nonequilibrium quantum phases within the nonperturbative bosonic dynamical mean-field theory. With the system parameters adapted to recent experiments, we find a quantum phase transition from a normal phase to a self-organized superfluid phase, which is related to the Hepp-Lieb-Dicke superradiance phase transition. For even stronger pumping, a self-organized Mott insulator phase arises.

  20. Impact of inelastic processes on the chaotic dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped into a moving optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchatchueng, Sylvin; Siewe Siewe, Martin; Marie Moukam Kakmeni, François; Tchawoua, Clément

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate with attractive two-body and repulsive three-body interactions between atoms trapped into a moving optical lattice and subjected to some inelastic processes (a linear atomic feeding and two dissipative terms related to dipolar relaxation and three-body recombination). We are interested in finding out how the nonconservative terms mentioned above act on the dynamical behaviour of the condensate, and how they can be used in the control of possible chaotic dynamics. Seeking the wave function of condensate on the form of Bloch waves, we notice that the real amplitude of the condensate is governed by an integro-differential equation. As theoretical tool of prediction of homoclinic and heteroclinic chaos, we use the Melnikov method, which provides two Melnikov functions related to homoclinic and heteroclinic bifurcations. Applying the Melnikov criterion, some regions of instability are plotted in the parameter space and reveal complex dynamics (solitonic stable solutions, weak and strong instabilities leading to collapse, growth-collapse cycles and finally to chaotic oscillations). It comes from some parameter space that coupling the optical intensity and parameters related to atomic feeding and atomic losses (dissipations) as control parameters can help to reduce or annihilate chaotic behaviours of the condensate. Moreover, the theoretical study reveals that there is a certain ratio between the atomic feeding parameter and the parameters related to the dissipation for the occurrence of chaotic oscillations in the dynamics of condensate. The theoretical predictions are verified by numerical simulations (Poincaré sections), and there is a certain reliability of our analytical treatment.