Long distance transport of ultracold atoms using a 1D optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmid, Stefan; Thalhammer, Gregor; Winkler, Klaus; Lang, Florian; Hecker Denschlag, Johannes
2006-08-01
We study the horizontal transport of ultracold atoms over macroscopic distances of up to 20 cm with a moving 1D optical lattice. By using an optical Bessel beam to form the optical lattice, we can achieve nearly homogeneous trapping conditions over the full transport length, which is crucial in order to hold the atoms against gravity for such a wide range. Fast transport velocities of up to 6 m s-1 (corresponding to about 1100 photon recoils) and accelerations of up to 2600 m s-2 are reached. Even at high velocities the momentum of the atoms is precisely defined with an uncertainty of less than one photon recoil. This allows for construction of an atom catapult with high kinetic energy resolution, which might have applications in novel collision experiments.
Phase-Sensitive Detection of Bragg Scattering at 1D Optical Lattices
Slama, S.; Cube, C. von; Deh, B.; Ludewig, A.; Zimmermann, C.; Courteille, Ph.W.
2005-05-20
We report on the observation of Bragg scattering at 1D atomic lattices. Cold atoms are confined by optical dipole forces at the antinodes of a standing wave generated by the two counterpropagating modes of a laser-driven high-finesse ring cavity. By heterodyning the Bragg-scattered light with a reference beam, we obtain detailed information on phase shifts imparted by the Bragg scattering process. Being deep in the Lamb-Dicke regime, the scattered light is not broadened by the motion of individual atoms.
Measurement-induced disturbance and thermal negativity in 1D optical lattice chain
Guo, Jin-Liang; Lin-Wang; Long, Gui-Lu
2013-03-15
We study the measurement-induced disturbance (MID) in a 1D optical lattice chain with nonlinear coupling. Special attention is paid to the difference between the thermal entanglement and MID when considering the influences of the linear coupling constant, nonlinear coupling constant and external magnetic field. It is shown that MID is more robust than thermal entanglement against temperature T and external magnetic field B, and MID may reveal more properties about quantum correlations of the system, which can be seen from the point of view that MID can be nonzero when there is no thermal entanglement and MID can detect the critical point of quantum phase transition at finite temperature. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nonlinear coupling constant can strengthen the quantum correlation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MID is more robust than entanglement against temperature and magnetic field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MID exhibits more information about quantum correlation than entanglement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MID can detect the critical point of quantum phase transition at finite temperature.
Collective Excitations of an Imbalanced Fermion Gas in a 1D Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendoza, R.; Fortes, M.; Solís, M. A.
2014-04-01
The collective excitations that minimize the Helmholtz free energy of a population-imbalanced mixture of a 6Li gas loaded in a quasi one-dimensional optical lattice are obtained. These excitations reveal a rotonic branch after solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation under a generalized random phase approximation based on a single-band Hubbard Hamiltonian. The phase diagram describing stability regions of Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov and Sarma phases is also analyzed.
Formation of Molecules near a Feshbach Resonance in a 1D Optical Lattice
Orso, G.; Pitaevskii, L.P.; Stringari, S.; Wouters, M.
2005-08-05
We study the molecular behavior of two atoms interacting near a Feshbach resonance in the presence of a 1D periodic potential. The critical value of the scattering length needed to produce a molecule and the binding energy at resonance are calculated as a function of the intensity of the periodic potential. Because of the nonseparability of the center of mass and relative motion, the binding energy depends on the quasimomentum of the molecule. This has dramatic consequences on the molecular tunneling properties, which become strongly dependent on the scattering length.
Scratched-XY Universality and Phase Diagram of Disordered 1D Bosons in Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Zhiyuan; Pollet, Lode; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris
The superfluid-insulator quantum phase transition in a 1D system with weak links belongs to the so-called scratched-XY universality class, provided the irrenormalizable exponent ζ characterizing the distribution of weak links is smaller than 2 / 3 . With a combination of worm-algorithm Monte Carlo simulations and asymptotically exact analytics, we accurately trace the position of the scratched-XY critical line on the ground-state phase diagram of bosonic Hubbard model at unity filling. In particular, we reveal the location of the tricritical point separating the scratched-XY criticality from the Giamarchi-Schulz one.
Statistically induced phase transitions and anyons in 1D optical lattices.
Keilmann, Tassilo; Lanzmich, Simon; McCulloch, Ian; Roncaglia, Marco
2011-01-01
Anyons--particles carrying fractional statistics that interpolate between bosons and fermions--have been conjectured to exist in low-dimensional systems. In the context of the fractional quantum Hall effect, quasi-particles made of electrons take the role of anyons whose statistical exchange phase is fixed by the filling factor. Here we propose an experimental setup to create anyons in one-dimensional lattices with fully tuneable exchange statistics. In our setup, anyons are created by bosons with occupation-dependent hopping amplitudes, which can be realized by assisted Raman tunnelling. The statistical angle can thus be controlled in situ by modifying the relative phase of external driving fields. This opens the fascinating possibility of smoothly transmuting bosons via anyons into fermions and of inducing a phase transition by the mere control of the particle statistics as a free parameter. In particular, we demonstrate how to induce a quantum phase transition from a superfluid into an exotic Mott-like state where the particle distribution exhibits plateaus at fractional densities.
Bloch oscillations and mean-field effects of Bose-Einstein condensates in 1D optical lattices.
Morsch, O; Müller, J H; Cristiani, M; Ciampini, D; Arimondo, E
2001-10-01
We have loaded Bose-Einstein condensates into one-dimensional, off-resonant optical lattices and accelerated them by chirping the frequency difference between the two lattice beams. For small values of the lattice well depth, Bloch oscillations were observed. Reducing the potential depth further, Landau-Zener tunneling out of the lowest lattice band, leading to a breakdown of the oscillations, was also studied and used as a probe for the effective potential resulting from mean-field interactions as predicted by Choi and Niu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2022 (1999)]. The effective potential was measured for various condensate densities and trap geometries, yielding good qualitative agreement with theoretical calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chien, Chih-Chun; Zwolak, Michael; di Ventra, Massimiliano
2012-02-01
We consider several non-equilibrium scenarios where ultra-cold atoms are initially loaded into the ground state of a 1D optical lattice. The system is then set out of equilibrium either by inducing a density imbalance or by imposing time-dependent inhomogeneous interactions. To monitor the dynamics, we have implemented the micro-canonical approach to transport [1] which has been previously used to study electron dynamics in nanoscale systems. We have found that by removing particles on the right half of the lattice, fermions form a quasi steady-state current, which can be observed as a plateau in the current as a function of time. In contrast, the bosonic current oscillates and decays to zero in the thermodynamic limit [2]. The difference appears in uniform lattices as well as lattices with a harmonic trap. Further, when light-induced interactions are applied to half of the lattice, we have found, using a Hartree-Fock approximation, a conducting-nonconducting transition in the fermionic case as the interaction increases. Our studies are relevant to recent experiments on transport of ultra-cold atoms and address fundamental issues in nanoscale electronic transport. [4pt] [1] Di Ventra and Todorov,J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004).[0pt] [2] Chien, Zwolak, Di Ventra, arXiv: 1110.1646.
Detecting π-phase superfluids with p-wave symmetry in a quasi-1D optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Hulet, Randall G.; Liu, W. Vincent
2016-05-01
We propose an experimental protocol to create a p-wave superfluid in a spin-polarized cold Fermi gas tuned by an s-wave Feshbach resonance. A crucial ingredient is to add an anisotropic 3D optical lattice and tune the fillings of two spins to the s and p band, respectively. The pairing order parameter is confirmed to inherit p-wave symmetry in its center-of-mass motion. We find that it can further develop into a state of unexpected π-phase modulation in a broad parameter regime. Experimental signatures are predicted in the momentum distributions, density of states and spatial densities for a realistic experimental setup. The π-phase p-wave superfluid is reminiscent of the π-state in superconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures but differs in symmetry and physical origin. The spatially-varying phases of the superfluid gap provide a novel approach to synthetic magnetic fields for neutral atoms. It would represent another example of p-wave pairing, first discovered in He-3 liquids. Work supported in part by U.S. ARO, AFOSR, NSF, ONR, Charles E. Kaufman Foundation, and The Pittsburgh Foundation, LPS-MPO-CMTC, JQI-NSF-PFC, ARO-Atomtronics-MURI, the Welch Foundation, ARO-MURI and NSF of China.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kristensen, Tom; Simoni, Andrea; Launay, Jean-Michel
2016-05-01
We compute scattering and bound state properties for two ultracold molecules in a pure 1D optical lattice. We introduce reference functions with complex quasi-momentum that naturally account for the effect of excited energy bands. Our exact results for a short-range interaction are first compared with the simplest version of the standard Bose-Hubbard (BH) model. Such comparison allows us to highlight the effect of the excited bands, of the non-on-site interaction and of tunneling with distant neighbor, that are not taken into account in the BH model. The effective interaction can depend strongly on the particle quasi-momenta and can present a resonant behavior even in a deep lattice. As a second step, we study scattering of two polar particles in the optical lattice. Peculiar Wigner threshold laws stem from the interplay of the long range dipolar interaction and the presence of the energy bands. We finally assess the validity of an extended Bose-Hubbard model for dipolar gases based on our exact two-body calculations. This work was supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Contract No. ANR-12-BS04-0020-01).
Engineering novel optical lattices.
Windpassinger, Patrick; Sengstock, Klaus
2013-08-01
Optical lattices have developed into a widely used and highly recognized tool to study many-body quantum physics with special relevance for solid state type systems. One of the most prominent reasons for this success is the high degree of tunability in the experimental setups. While at the beginning quasi-static, cubic geometries were mainly explored, the focus of the field has now shifted toward new lattice topologies and the dynamical control of lattice structures. In this review we intend to give an overview of the progress recently achieved in this field on the experimental side. In addition, we discuss theoretical proposals exploiting specifically these novel lattice geometries. PMID:23828639
Phase diagram of a bulk 1d lattice Coulomb gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Démery, V.; Monsarrat, R.; Dean, D. S.; Podgornik, R.
2016-01-01
The exact solution, via transfer matrix, of the simple one-dimensional lattice Coulomb gas (1d LCG) model can reproduce peculiar features of ionic liquid capacitors, such as overscreening, layering, and camel- and bell-shaped capacitance curves. Using the same transfer matrix method, we now compute the bulk properties of the 1d LCG in the constant voltage ensemble. We unveil a phase diagram with rich structure exhibiting low-density disordered and high-density ordered phases, separated by a first-order phase transition at low temperature; the solid state at full packing can be ordered or not, depending on the temperature. This phase diagram, which is strikingly similar to its three-dimensional counterpart, also sheds light on the behaviour of the confined system.
Atomic Fermi gases in optical lattices
Modugno, G.; De Mirandes, E.; Ferlando, F.; Ott, H.; Roati, G.; Inguscio, M.
2005-05-05
We report on the first experiments with atomic Fermi gases in optical lattices. We have studied the properties of non interacting fermions and of an interacting boson-fermion mixture in a 1D lattice in presence of additional linear or harmonic potentials. These systems have allowed to study for the first time the fundamental quantum transport properties of a perfect crystal and to confirm the role of interactions in real crystals. We have found that the combination of Fermi gases and optical lattices can also have important applications, such as high-resolution force sensing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Kevin; Geiger, Zachary; Senaratne, Ruwan; Rajagopal, Shankari; Fujiwara, Kurt; Weld, David; Weld Group Team
2015-05-01
Quasiperiodicity is intimately involved in quantum phenomena from localization to the quantum Hall effect. Recent experimental investigation of quasiperiodic quantum effects in photonic and electronic systems have revealed intriguing connections to topological phenomena. However, such experiments have been limited by the absence of techniques for creating tunable quasiperiodic structures. We propose a new type of quasiperiodic optical lattice, constructed by intersecting a Gaussian beam with a 2D square lattice at an angle with an irrational tangent. The resulting potential, a generalization of the Fibonacci lattice, is a physical realization of the mathematical ``cut-and-project'' construction which underlies all quasiperiodic structures. Calculation of the energies and wavefunctions of atoms loaded into the proposed quasiperiodic lattice demonstrate a fractal energy spectrum and the existence of edge states. We acknowledge support from the ONR (award N00014-14-1-0805), the ARO and the PECASE program (award W911NF-14-1-0154), the AFOSR (award FA9550-12-1-0305), and the Alfred P. Sloan foundation (grant BR2013-110).
Optical Abelian lattice gauge theories
Tagliacozzo, L.; Celi, A.; Zamora, A.; Lewenstein, M.
2013-03-15
We discuss a general framework for the realization of a family of Abelian lattice gauge theories, i.e., link models or gauge magnets, in optical lattices. We analyze the properties of these models that make them suitable for quantum simulations. Within this class, we study in detail the phases of a U(1)-invariant lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions, originally proposed by P. Orland. By using exact diagonalization, we extract the low-energy states for small lattices, up to 4 Multiplication-Sign 4. We confirm that the model has two phases, with the confined entangled one characterized by strings wrapping around the whole lattice. We explain how to study larger lattices by using either tensor network techniques or digital quantum simulations with Rydberg atoms loaded in optical lattices, where we discuss in detail a protocol for the preparation of the ground-state. We propose two key experimental tests that can be used as smoking gun of the proper implementation of a gauge theory in optical lattices. These tests consist in verifying the absence of spontaneous (gauge) symmetry breaking of the ground-state and the presence of charge confinement. We also comment on the relation between standard compact U(1) lattice gauge theory and the model considered in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the quantum simulation of dynamical gauge theories in optical lattices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We focus on digital simulation of abelian lattice gauge theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We rediscover and discuss the puzzling phase diagram of gauge magnets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We detail the protocol for time evolution and ground-state preparation in any phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We provide two experimental tests to validate gauge theory quantum simulators.
Grid Cell Responses in 1D Environments Assessed as Slices through a 2D Lattice.
Yoon, KiJung; Lewallen, Sam; Kinkhabwala, Amina A; Tank, David W; Fiete, Ila R
2016-03-01
Grid cells, defined by their striking periodic spatial responses in open 2D arenas, appear to respond differently on 1D tracks: the multiple response fields are not periodically arranged, peak amplitudes vary across fields, and the mean spacing between fields is larger than in 2D environments. We ask whether such 1D responses are consistent with the system's 2D dynamics. Combining analytical and numerical methods, we show that the 1D responses of grid cells with stable 1D fields are consistent with a linear slice through a 2D triangular lattice. Further, the 1D responses of comodular cells are well described by parallel slices, and the offsets in the starting points of the 1D slices can predict the measured 2D relative spatial phase between the cells. From these results, we conclude that the 2D dynamics of these cells is preserved in 1D, suggesting a common computation during both types of navigation behavior. PMID:26898777
A transportable optical lattice clock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogt, Stefan; Häfner, Sebastian; Grotti, Jacopo; Koller, Silvio; Al-Masoudi, Ali; Sterr, Uwe; Lisdat, Christian
2016-06-01
We present the experimental setup and first results of PTB's transportable 87Sr clock. It consists of a physics package, several compact laser breadboards, and a transportable high finesse cavity for the clock laser. A comparison of the transportable system with our stationary optical lattice clock yields an instability of 2.2 x 10-15 √s/τ for the transportable clock. The current fractional uncertainty of 1 × 10-15 is still limited by the not yet fully evaluated light shift from the free running optical lattice laser operated near the magic wavelength. We are currently improving our transportable system to reach an uncertainty at or below the 10-17 level, which will finaly be limited by the uncertainty in blackbody radiation shift correction.
Species-specific optical lattices
LeBlanc, L. J.; Thywissen, J. H.
2007-05-15
We examine single-frequency optical schemes for species-selective trapping of ultracold alkali-metal atoms. Independently addressing the elements of a binary mixture enables the creation of an optical lattice for one atomic species with little or no effect on the other. We analyze a 'tune-in' scheme, using near-resonant detuning to create a strong potential for one specific element. A 'tune-out' scheme is also developed, in which the trapping wavelength is chosen to lie between two strong transitions of an alkali-metal atom such that the induced dipole moment is zero for that species but is nonzero for any other. We compare these schemes by examining the trap depths and heating rates associated with both. We find that the tune-in scheme is preferable for Li-Na, Li-K, and K-Na mixtures, while the tune-out scheme is preferable for Li-Cs, K-Rb, Rb-Cs, K-Cs, and {sup 39}K-{sup 40}K mixtures. Several applications of species-selective optical lattices are explored, including the creation of a lattice for a single species in the presence of a phononlike background, the tuning of relative effective mass, and the isothermal increase of phase-space density.
Orbital optical lattices with bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kock, T.; Hippler, C.; Ewerbeck, A.; Hemmerich, A.
2016-02-01
This article provides a synopsis of our recent experimental work exploring Bose-Einstein condensation in metastable higher Bloch bands of optical lattices. Bipartite lattice geometries have allowed us to implement appropriate band structures, which meet three basic requirements: the existence of metastable excited states sufficiently protected from collisional band relaxation, a mechanism to excite the atoms initially prepared in the lowest band with moderate entropy increase, and the possibility of cross-dimensional tunneling dynamics, necessary to establish coherence along all lattice axes. A variety of bands can be selectively populated and a subsequent thermalization process leads to the formation of a condensate in the lowest energy state of the chosen band. As examples the 2nd, 4th and 7th bands in a bipartite square lattice are discussed. The geometry of the 2nd and 7th bands can be tuned such that two inequivalent energetically degenerate energy minima arise at the X ±-points at the edge of the 1st Brillouin zone. In this case even a small interaction energy is sufficient to lock the phase between the two condensation points such that a complex-valued chiral superfluid order parameter can emerge, which breaks time reversal symmetry. In the 4th band a condensate can be formed at the Γ-point in the center of the 1st Brillouin zone, which can be used to explore topologically protected band touching points. The new techniques to access orbital degrees of freedom in higher bands greatly extend the class of many-body scenarios that can be explored with bosons in optical lattices.
Formation and Dynamics of Antiferromagnetic Correlations in Tunable Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greif, Daniel; Jotzu, Gregor; Messer, Michael; Desbuquois, Rémi; Esslinger, Tilman
2015-12-01
We report on the observation of antiferromagnetic correlations of ultracold fermions in a variety of optical lattice geometries that are well described by the Hubbard model, including dimers, 1D chains, ladders, isolated and coupled honeycomb planes, as well as square and cubic lattices. The dependence of the strength of spin correlations on the specific geometry is experimentally studied by measuring the correlations along different lattice tunneling links, where a redistribution of correlations between the different lattice links is observed. By measuring the correlations in a crossover between distinct geometries, we demonstrate an effective reduction of the dimensionality for our atom numbers and temperatures. We also investigate the formation and redistribution time of spin correlations by dynamically changing the lattice geometry and studying the time evolution of the system. Time scales ranging from a sudden quench of the lattice geometry to an adiabatic evolution are probed.
Experimental generation of optical coherence lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yahong; Ponomarenko, Sergey A.; Cai, Yangjian
2016-08-01
We report experimental generation and measurement of recently introduced optical coherence lattices. The presented optical coherence lattice realization technique hinges on a superposition of mutually uncorrelated partially coherent Schell-model beams with tailored coherence properties. We show theoretically that information can be encoded into and, in principle, recovered from the lattice degree of coherence. Our results can find applications to image transmission and optical encryption.
Fractionalized topological defects in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xing-Hai; Fan, Wen-Jun; Shi, Jin-Wei; Kou, Su-Peng
2015-10-01
Topological objects are interesting topics in various fields of physics ranging from condensed matter physics to the grand unified and superstring theories. Among those, ultracold atoms provide a playground to study the complex topological objects. In this paper we present a proposal to realize an optical lattice with stable fractionalized topological objects. In particular, we generate the fractionalized topological fluxes and fractionalized skyrmions on two-dimensional optical lattices and fractionalized monopoles on three-dimensional optical lattices. These results offer a new approach to study the quantum many-body systems on optical lattices of ultracold quantum gases with controllable topological defects, including dislocations, topological fluxes and monopoles.
Lattice-induced nonadiabatic frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks
Beloy, K.
2010-09-15
We consider the frequency shift in optical lattice clocks which arises from the coupling of the electronic motion to the atomic motion within the lattice. For the simplest of three-dimensional lattice geometries this coupling is shown to affect only clocks based on blue-detuned lattices. We have estimated the size of this shift for the prospective strontium lattice clock operating at the 390-nm blue-detuned magic wavelength. The resulting fractional frequency shift is found to be on the order of 10{sup -18} and is largely overshadowed by the electric quadrupole shift. For lattice clocks based on more complex geometries or other atomic systems, this shift could potentially be a limiting factor in clock accuracy.
Realizing Parafermions in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Fangli; Gorshkov, Alexey
2016-05-01
Parafermions, which are the fractional versions of Majorana fermions, possess more exotic braiding statistics than Majorana fermions and are therefore more powerful from the point of view of topological quantum computing. We propose a scheme to realize parafermionic zero modes in optical lattices, without the use of superconductive paring. With the help of laser assisted tunneling and on-site interactions, two layers of ultracold atoms in distinct hyperfine states can be engineered to host +/- 1 / m fractional quantum Hall states. We then introduce a finite-extent potential barrier that pierces both layers - this gives rise to two counter-propagating edge states that sit on top of each other. Finally, laser induced coupling is used to introduce backscattering between the two edge states and to gap them out. We show that the resulting defects give rise to the topological degeneracy associated with parafermions. We also discuss methods for preparation and detection.
Optical lattices with micromechanical mirrors
Hammerer, K.; Stannigel, K.; Genes, C.; Zoller, P.; Treutlein, P.; Camerer, S.; Hunger, D.; Haensch, T. W.
2010-08-15
We investigate a setup where a cloud of atoms is trapped in an optical lattice potential of a standing-wave laser field which is created by retroreflection on a micromembrane. The membrane vibrations itself realize a quantum mechanical degree of freedom. We show that the center-of-mass mode of atoms can be coupled to the vibrational mode of the membrane in free space. Via laser cooling of atoms a significant sympathetic cooling effect on the membrane vibrations can be achieved. Switching off laser cooling brings the system close to a regime of strong coherent coupling. This setup provides a controllable segregation between the cooling and coherent dynamics regimes, and allows one to keep the membrane in a cryogenic environment and atoms at a distance in a vacuum chamber.
A Deconstruction Lattice Description of the D1/D5 Brane World-Volume Gauge Theory
Giedt, Joel
2011-01-01
I genermore » alize the deconstruction lattice formulation of Endres and Kaplan to two-dimensional super-QCD with eight supercharges, denoted by (4,4), and bifundamental matter. I specialize to a particularly interesting (4,4) gauge theory, with gauge group U ( N c ) × U ( N f ) , and U ( N f ) being weakly gauged. It describes the infrared limit of the D1/D5 brane system, which has been studied extensively as an example of the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence. The construction here preserves two supercharges exactly and has a lattice structure quite similar to that which has previously appeared in the deconstruction approach, that is, site, link, and diagonal fields with both the Bose and Fermi statistics. I remark on possible applications of the lattice theory that would test the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence, particularly one that would exploit the recent worldsheet instanton analysis of Chen and Tong.« less
Trapping Rydberg Atoms in an Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Sarah E.
2012-06-01
Optical lattice traps for Rydberg atoms are of interest in advanced science and in practical applications. After a brief discussion of these areas of interest, I will review some basics of optical Rydberg-atom trapping. The trapping potential experienced by a Rydberg atom in an optical lattice is given by the spatial average of the free-electron ponderomotive energy weighted by the Rydberg electron's probability distribution. I will then present experimental results on the trapping of ^85Rb Rydberg atoms in a one-dimensional ponderomotive optical lattice (wavelength 1064 nm). The principal methods employed to study the lattice performance are microwave spectroscopy, which is used to measure the lattice's trapping efficiency, and photo-ionization, which is used to measure the dwell time of the atoms in the lattice. I have achieved a 90% trapping efficiency for ^85Rb 50S atoms by inverting the lattice immediately after laser excitation of ground-state atoms into Rydberg states. I have characterized the dwell time of the atoms in the lattice using photo-ionization of 50D5/2 atoms. In continued work, I have explored the dependence of the Rydberg-atom trapping potential on the angular portion of the atomic wavefunction. Distinct angular states exhibit different trapping behavior in the optical lattice, depending on how their wavefunctions are oriented relative to the lattice planes. Specifically, I have measured the lattice potential depth of sublevels of ^85Rb nD atoms (50<=n<=65) in a one-dimensional optical lattice with a transverse DC electric field. The trapping behavior varies substantially for the various angular sublevels, in agreement with theory. The talk will conclude with an outlook into planned experiments.
Subwavelength Lattice Optics by Evolutionary Design
2015-01-01
This paper describes a new class of structured optical materials—lattice opto-materials—that can manipulate the flow of visible light into a wide range of three-dimensional profiles using evolutionary design principles. Lattice opto-materials are based on the discretization of a surface into a two-dimensional (2D) subwavelength lattice whose individual lattice sites can be controlled to achieve a programmed optical response. To access a desired optical property, we designed a lattice evolutionary algorithm that includes and optimizes contributions from every element in the lattice. Lattice opto-materials can exhibit simple properties, such as on- and off-axis focusing, and can also concentrate light into multiple, discrete spots. We expanded the unit cell shapes of the lattice to achieve distinct, polarization-dependent optical responses from the same 2D patterned substrate. Finally, these lattice opto-materials can also be combined into architectures that resemble a new type of compound flat lens. PMID:25380062
Tunneling Dynamics and Gauge Potentials in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutta, S. K.; Teo, B. K.; Raithel, G.
1999-09-01
We study periodic well-to-well tunneling of 87Rb atoms on adiabatic potential surfaces of a 1D optical lattice. The observed dependence of the lowest-band tunneling period on the depth of the adiabatic potential can only be explained by an additional intensity-independent gauge potential predicted by Dum et al. The experimental data are in excellent agreement with our quantum Monte Carlo wave-function simulations and band structure calculations.
Metal-dielectric photonic crystal superlattice: 1D and 2D models and empty lattice approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kichin, G.; Weiss, T.; Gao, H.; Henzie, J.; Odom, T. W.; Tikhodeev, S. G.; Giessen, H.
2012-10-01
Periodic nanostructures are one of the main building blocks in modern nanooptics. They are used for constructing photonic crystals and metamaterials and provide optical properties that can be changed by adjusting the geometrical parameters of the structures. In this paper the optical properties of a photonic crystal slab with a 2D superlattice are discussed. The structure consists of a gold layer with a finite periodic pattern of air holes that is itself repeated periodically with a larger superperiod. We propose simplified 1D and 2D models to understand the physical nature of Wood's anomalies in the optical spectra of the investigated structure. The latter are attributed to the Rayleigh anomalies, surface plasmon Bragg resonances and the hole-localized plasmons.
Direct Tunneling Delay Time Measurement in an Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fortun, A.; Cabrera-Gutiérrez, C.; Condon, G.; Michon, E.; Billy, J.; Guéry-Odelin, D.
2016-07-01
We report on the measurement of the time required for a wave packet to tunnel through the potential barriers of an optical lattice. The experiment is carried out by loading adiabatically a Bose-Einstein condensate into a 1D optical lattice. A sudden displacement of the lattice by a few tens of nanometers excites the micromotion of the dipole mode. We then directly observe in momentum space the splitting of the wave packet at the turning points and measure the delay between the reflected and the tunneled packets for various initial displacements. Using this atomic beam splitter twice, we realize a chain of coherent micron-size Mach-Zehnder interferometers at the exit of which we get essentially a wave packet with a negative momentum, a result opposite to the prediction of classical physics.
Spin-orbit coupling in a strontium optical lattice clock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bothwell, Tobias; Bromley, Sarah; Kolkowitz, Shimon; Zhang, Xibo; Wall, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria; Ye, Jun
2016-05-01
Synthetic gauge fields are a promising tool for creating complex Hamiltonians with ultracold neutral atoms that may mimic the fractional Quantum Hall effect and other topological states. A promising approach is to use spin-orbit coupling to treat an internal degree of freedom as an effective `synthetic' spatial dimension. Here, this synthetic dimension is comprised by the internal ground and excited states used for high-precision clock spectroscopy in a fermionic strontium optical lattice clock. We report on our progress towards this goal in a system where atoms tunnel through a 1D optical lattice during clock interrogation. We present measurements of the lattice band structure under varying Lamb-Dicke parameters and in a regime where s-wave collisions are expected to contribute density dependent frequency shifts.
Direct Tunneling Delay Time Measurement in an Optical Lattice.
Fortun, A; Cabrera-Gutiérrez, C; Condon, G; Michon, E; Billy, J; Guéry-Odelin, D
2016-07-01
We report on the measurement of the time required for a wave packet to tunnel through the potential barriers of an optical lattice. The experiment is carried out by loading adiabatically a Bose-Einstein condensate into a 1D optical lattice. A sudden displacement of the lattice by a few tens of nanometers excites the micromotion of the dipole mode. We then directly observe in momentum space the splitting of the wave packet at the turning points and measure the delay between the reflected and the tunneled packets for various initial displacements. Using this atomic beam splitter twice, we realize a chain of coherent micron-size Mach-Zehnder interferometers at the exit of which we get essentially a wave packet with a negative momentum, a result opposite to the prediction of classical physics. PMID:27419545
Diffusive Public Goods and Coexistence of Cooperators and Cheaters on a 1D Lattice
Scheuring, István
2014-01-01
Many populations of cells cooperate through the production of extracellular materials. These materials (enzymes, siderophores) spread by diffusion and can be applied by both the cooperator and cheater (non-producer) cells. In this paper the problem of coexistence of cooperator and cheater cells is studied on a 1D lattice where cooperator cells produce a diffusive material which is beneficial to the individuals according to the local concentration of this public good. The reproduction success of a cell increases linearly with the benefit in the first model version and increases non-linearly (saturates) in the second version. Two types of update rules are considered; either the cooperative cell stops producing material before death (death-production-birth, DpB) or it produces the common material before it is selected to die (production-death-birth, pDB). The empty space is occupied by its neighbors according to their replication rates. By using analytical and numerical methods I have shown that coexistence of the cooperator and cheater cells is possible although atypical in the linear version of this 1D model if either DpB or pDB update rule is assumed. While coexistence is impossible in the non-linear model with pDB update rule, it is one of the typical behaviors in case of the non-linear model with DpB update rule. PMID:25025985
Diffusive public goods and coexistence of cooperators and cheaters on a 1D lattice.
Scheuring, István
2014-01-01
Many populations of cells cooperate through the production of extracellular materials. These materials (enzymes, siderophores) spread by diffusion and can be applied by both the cooperator and cheater (non-producer) cells. In this paper the problem of coexistence of cooperator and cheater cells is studied on a 1D lattice where cooperator cells produce a diffusive material which is beneficial to the individuals according to the local concentration of this public good. The reproduction success of a cell increases linearly with the benefit in the first model version and increases non-linearly (saturates) in the second version. Two types of update rules are considered; either the cooperative cell stops producing material before death (death-production-birth, DpB) or it produces the common material before it is selected to die (production-death-birth, pDB). The empty space is occupied by its neighbors according to their replication rates. By using analytical and numerical methods I have shown that coexistence of the cooperator and cheater cells is possible although atypical in the linear version of this 1D model if either DpB or pDB update rule is assumed. While coexistence is impossible in the non-linear model with pDB update rule, it is one of the typical behaviors in case of the non-linear model with DpB update rule.
Cold atoms in a rotating optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foot, Christopher J.
2009-05-01
We have demonstrated a novel experimental arrangement which can rotate a two-dimensional optical lattice at frequencies up to several kilohertz. Our arrangement also allows the periodicity of the optical lattice to be varied dynamically, producing a 2D ``accordion lattice'' [1]. The angles of the laser beams are controlled by acousto-optic deflectors and this allows smooth changes with little heating of the trapped cold (rubidium) atoms. We have loaded a BEC into lattices with periodicities ranging from 1.8μm to 18μm, observing the collapse and revival of the diffraction orders of the condensate over a large range of lattice parameters as recently reported by a group in NIST [2]. We have also imaged atoms in situ in a 2D lattice over a range of lattice periodicities. Ultracold atoms in a rotating lattice can be used for the direct quantum simulation of strongly correlated systems under large effective magnetic fields, i.e. the Hamiltonian of the atoms in the rotating frame resembles that of a charged particle in a strong magnetic field. In the future, we plan to use this to investigate a range of phenomena such as the analogue of the fractional quantum Hall effect. [4pt] [1] R. A. Williams, J. D. Pillet, S. Al-Assam, B. Fletcher, M. Shotter, and C. J. Foot, ``Dynamic optical lattices: two-dimensional rotating and accordion lattices for ultracold atoms,'' Opt. Express 16, 16977-16983 (2008) [0pt] [2] J. H. Huckans, I. B. Spielman, B. Laburthe Tolra, W. D. Phillips, and J. V. Porto, Quantum and Classical Dynamics of a BEC in a Large-Period Optical Lattice, arXiv:0901.1386v1
Optical vortex array in spatially varying lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapoor, Amit; Kumar, Manish; Senthilkumaran, P.; Joseph, Joby
2016-04-01
We present an experimental method based on a modified multiple beam interference approach to generate an optical vortex array arranged in a spatially varying lattice. This method involves two steps which are: numerical synthesis of a consistent phase mask by using two-dimensional integrated phase gradient calculations and experimental implementation of produced phase mask by utilizing a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. This method enables an independent variation of the orientation and period of the vortex lattice. As working examples, we provide the experimental demonstration of various spatially variant optical vortex lattices. We further confirm the existence of optical vortices by formation of fork fringes. Such lattices may find applications in size dependent trapping, sorting, manipulation and photonic crystals.
Bloch oscillations in optical dissipative lattices.
Efremidis, Nikolaos K; Christodoulides, Demetrios N
2004-11-01
We show that Bloch oscillations are possible in dissipative optical waveguide lattices with a linearly varying propagation constant. These oscillations occur in spite of the fact that the Bloch wave packet experiences coupling gain and (or) loss. Experimentally, this process can be observed in different settings, such as in laser arrays and lattices of semiconductor optical amplifiers. In addition, we demonstrate that these systems can suppress instabilities arising from preferential mode noise growth.
Trapping Rydberg Atoms in an Optical Lattice
Anderson, S. E.; Younge, K. C.; Raithel, G.
2011-12-23
Rubidium Rydberg atoms are laser excited and subsequently trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice (wavelength 1064 nm). Efficient trapping is achieved by a lattice inversion immediately after laser excitation using an electro-optic technique. The trapping efficiency is probed via analysis of the trap-induced shift of the two-photon microwave transition 50S{yields}51S. The inversion technique allows us to reach a trapping efficiency of 90%. The dependence of the efficiency on the timing of the lattice inversion and on the trap laser power is studied. The dwell time of 50D{sub 5/2} Rydberg atoms in the lattice is analyzed using lattice-induced photoionization.
Colloquium: Physics of optical lattice clocks
Derevianko, Andrei; Katori, Hidetoshi
2011-04-01
Recently invented and demonstrated optical lattice clocks hold great promise for improving the precision of modern time keeping. These clocks aim at the 10{sup -18} fractional accuracy, which translates into a clock that would neither lose nor gain a fraction of a second over an estimated age of the Universe. In these clocks, millions of atoms are trapped and interrogated simultaneously, dramatically improving clock stability. Here the principles of operation of these clocks are discussed and, in particular, a novel concept of magic trapping of atoms in optical lattices. Recently proposed microwave lattice clocks are also highlights and several applications that employ the optical lattice clocks as a platform for precision measurements and quantum information processing.
DESIGN OF THE RCMS LATTICE OPTICS.
CARDONA,J.; KEWISCH,J.; PEGGS,S.
2002-06-02
THE RAPID CYCLING MEDICAL SYNCHROTRON (RCMS) IS DESIGNED TO BE A VERY LIGHT AND INEXPENSIVE ACCELERATOR. THIS IS POSSIBLE DUE TO THE SMALL BEAM SIZE THAT HAS BEEN CHOSEN EARLY DURING THE DESIGN STAGE. THIS CHOICE HAS IMPLICATIONS IN THE DESIGN OF THE LATTICE OPTICS. IN THIS PAPER, WE PRESENT AN OVERVIEW OF THE RCMS OPTICS LATTICE, THE KIND OF MAGNETS TO BE USED AND ALSO A DESCRIPTION OF A SPECIAL OPTIC MODULE THAT MATCHES THE ROTATING GANTRY WITH THE REST OF THE FIXED ACCELERATOR. TECHNIQUESDEVELOPED TO WIN ADDITIONAL SPACE BETWEEN QUADRUPOLES WITHOUT DISTRUBING BETA FUNCTIONS ARE ALSO PRESENTED.
Minimizing nonadiabaticities in optical-lattice loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dolfi, Michele; Kantian, Adrian; Bauer, Bela; Troyer, Matthias
2015-03-01
In the quest to reach lower temperatures of ultracold gases in optical-lattice experiments, nonadiabaticities during lattice loading represent one of the limiting factors that prevent the same low temperatures being reached as in experiments without lattices. Simulating the loading of a bosonic quantum gas into a one-dimensional optical lattice with and without a trap, we find that the redistribution of atomic density inside a global confining potential is by far the dominant source of heating. Based on these results we propose adjusting the trapping potential during loading to minimize changes to the density distribution. Our simulations confirm that a very simple linear interpolation of the trapping potential during loading already significantly decreases the heating of a quantum gas, and we discuss how loading protocols minimizing density redistributions can be designed.
The optical potential on the lattice
Agadjanov, Dimitri; Doring, Michael; Mai, Maxim; MeiBner, Ulf -G.; Rusetsky, Akaki
2016-06-08
The extraction of hadron-hadron scattering parameters from lattice data by using the Luscher approach becomes increasingly complicated in the presence of inelastic channels. We propose a method for the direct extraction of the complex hadron-hadron optical potential on the lattice, which does not require the use of the multi-channel Luscher formalism. Furthermore, this method is applicable without modifications if some inelastic channels contain three or more particles.
Quantum memory in an optical lattice
Nunn, J.; Michelberger, P.; Reim, K. F.; Lee, K. C.; Langford, N. K.; Walmsley, I. A.; Dorner, U.; Jaksch, D.
2010-08-15
Arrays of atoms trapped in optical lattices are appealing as storage media for photons, since motional dephasing of the atoms is eliminated. The regular lattice is also associated with band structure in the dispersion experienced by incident photons. Here we study the influence of this band structure on the efficiency of quantum memories based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and on Raman absorption. We observe a number of interesting effects, such as both reduced and superluminal group velocities, enhanced atom-photon coupling, and anomalous transmission. These effects are ultimately deleterious to the memory efficiency, but they are easily avoided by tuning the optical fields away from the band edges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guillamon, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.; Cordoba, R.; Sese, J.; de Teresa, J. M.; Ibarra, R.
In two dimensional (2D) systems, theory has proposed that random disorder destroys long range correlations driving a transition to a glassy state. Here, I will discuss new insights into this issue obtained through the direct visualization of the critical behaviour of a 2D superconducting vortex lattice formed in a thin film with a smooth 1D thickness modulation. Using scanning tunneling microscopy at 0.1K, we have tracked the modification in the 2D vortex arrangements induced by the 1D thickness modulation while increasing the vortex density by three orders of magnitude. Upon increasing the field, we observed a two-step order-disorder transition in the 2D vortex lattice mediated by the appearance of dislocations and disclinations and accompanied by an increase in the local vortex density fluctuations. Through a detailed analysis of correlation functions, we find that the transition is driven by the incommensurate 1D thickness modulation. We calculate the critical points and exponents and find that they are well above theoretical expectation for random disorder. Our results show that long range 1D correlations in random potentials enhance the stability range of the ordered phase in a 2D vortex lattice. Work supported by Spanish MINECO, CIG Marie Curie Grant, Axa Research Fund and FBBVA.
Ultra-Cold Atoms on Optical Lattices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ghosh, Parag
2009-01-01
The field of ultra-cold atoms, since the achievement of Bose-Einstein Condensation (Anderson et al., 1995; Davis et al., 1995; Bradley et al., 1995), have seen an immensely growing interest over the past decade. With the creation of optical lattices, new possibilities of studying some of the widely used models in condensed matter have opened up.…
Ultracold Quantum Gases in Hexagonal Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sengstock, Klaus
2010-03-01
Hexagonal structures occur in a vast variety of systems, ranging from honeycombs of bees in life sciences to carbon nanotubes in material sciences. The latter, in particular its unfolded two-dimensional layer -- Graphene -- has rapidly grown to one of the most discussed topics in condensed-matter physics. Not only does it show proximity to various carbon-based materials but also exceptional properties owing to its unusual energy spectrum. In quantum optics, ultracold quantum gases confined in periodic light fields have shown to be very general and versatile instruments to mimic solid state systems. However, so far nearly all experiments were performed in cubic lattice geometries only. Here we report on the first experimental realization of ultracold quantum gases in a state-dependent, two-dimensional, Graphene-like optical lattice with hexagonal symmetry. The lattice is realized via a spin-dependent optical lattice structure with alternating σ^+ and σ^- -sites and thus constitutes a so called `magnetic'-lattice with `antiferromagnetic'-structure. Atoms with different spin orientation can be loaded to specific lattice sites or -- depending on the parameters -- to the whole lattice. As a consequence e.g. superpositions of a superfluid spin component with a different spin component in the Mott-insulating phase can be realized as well as spin-dependent transport properties, disorder etc. After preparing an antiferromagnetically ordered state we e.g. measure sustainable changes of the transport properties of the atoms. This manifests in a significant reduction of the tunneling as compared to a single-component system. We attribute this observation to a partial tunneling blockade for one spin component induced by population in another spin component localized at alternating lattice sites. Within a Gutzwiller-Ansatz we calculate the phase diagrams for the mixed spin-states and find very good agreement with our experimental results. Moreover, by state-resolved recording
Fibonacci optical lattices for tunable quantum quasicrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, K.; Saha, K.; Parameswaran, S. A.; Weld, D. M.
2015-12-01
We describe a quasiperiodic optical lattice, created by a physical realization of the abstract cut-and-project construction underlying all quasicrystals. The resulting potential is a generalization of the Fibonacci tiling. Calculation of the energies and wave functions of ultracold atoms loaded into such a lattice demonstrate a multifractal energy spectrum, a singular continuous momentum-space structure, and the existence of controllable edge states. These results open the door to cold atom quantum simulation experiments in tunable or dynamic quasicrystalline potentials, including topological pumping of edge states and phasonic spectroscopy.
Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices.
Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören
2015-09-08
We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose-Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid.
Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices
Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören
2015-01-01
We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose—Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid. PMID:26345721
Honeycomb optical lattices with harmonic confinement
Block, J. Kusk; Nygaard, N.
2010-05-15
We consider the fate of the Dirac points in the spectrum of a honeycomb optical lattice in the presence of a harmonic confining potential. By numerically solving the tight binding model, we calculate the density of states and find that the energy dependence can be understood from analytical arguments. In addition, we show that the density of states of the harmonically trapped lattice system can be understood by application of a local density approximation based on the density of states in the homogeneous lattice. The Dirac points are found to survive locally in the trap as evidenced by the local density of states. Furthermore, they give rise to a distinct spatial profile of a noninteracting Fermi gas.
Twisted complex superfluids in optical lattices.
Jürgensen, Ole; Sengstock, Klaus; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören
2015-01-01
We show that correlated pair tunneling drives a phase transition to a twisted superfluid with a complex order parameter. This unconventional superfluid phase spontaneously breaks the time-reversal symmetry and is characterized by a twisting of the complex phase angle between adjacent lattice sites. We discuss the entire phase diagram of the extended Bose-Hubbard model for a honeycomb optical lattice showing a multitude of quantum phases including twisted superfluids, pair superfluids, supersolids and twisted supersolids. Furthermore, we show that the nearest-neighbor interactions lead to a spontaneous breaking of the inversion symmetry of the lattice and give rise to dimerized density-wave insulators, where particles are delocalized on dimers. For two components, we find twisted superfluid phases with strong correlations between the species already for surprisingly small pair-tunneling amplitudes. Interestingly, this ground state shows an infinite degeneracy ranging continuously from a supersolid to a twisted superfluid. PMID:26345721
The Abelian Higgs model on Optical Lattice?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meurice, Yannick; Tsai, Shan-Wen; Bazavov, Alexei; Zhang, Jin
2015-03-01
We study the Lattice Gauge Theory of the U(1)-Higgs model in 1+1 dimensions in the strongly coupled regime. We discuss the plaquette corrections to the effective theory where link variables are integrated out. We discuss matching with the second-order perturbation theory effective Hamiltonian for various Bose-Hubbard models. This correspondence can be exploited for building a lattice gauge theory simulator on optical lattices. We propose to implement the quantum rotors which appear in the Hamiltonian formulation using Bose mixtures or p-orbitals. Recent progress on magnetic effects in 2+1 dimensions will be discussed. Supported by the Army Research Office of the Department of Defense under Award Number W911NF-13-1-0119.
Strongly correlated quantum walks in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preiss, Philipp M.; Ma, Ruichao; Tai, M. Eric; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Zupancic, Philip; Lahini, Yoav; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus
2015-03-01
Full control over the dynamics of interacting, indistinguishable quantum particles is an important prerequisite for the experimental study of strongly correlated quantum matter and the implementation of high-fidelity quantum information processing. We demonstrate such control over the quantum walk—the quantum mechanical analog of the classical random walk—in the regime where dynamics are dominated by interparticle interactions. Using interacting bosonic atoms in an optical lattice, we directly observed fundamental effects such as the emergence of correlations in two-particle quantum walks, as well as strongly correlated Bloch oscillations in tilted optical lattices. Our approach can be scaled to larger systems, greatly extending the class of problems accessible via quantum walks.
The NIM Sr Optical Lattice Clock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Y.; Wang, Q.; Li, Y.; Meng, F.; Lin, B.; Zang, E.; Sun, Z.; Fang, F.; Li, T.; Fang, Z.
2016-06-01
A 87Sr optical lattice clock is built at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM) of China. The atoms undergo two stages of laser cooling before being loaded into a horizontal optical lattice at the magic wavelength of 813 nm. After being interrogated by a narrow linewidth 698 nm clock laser pulse, the normalized excitation rate is measured to get the frequency error, which is then used to lock the clock laser to the ultra-narrow 1S0-3P0 clock transition. The total systematic uncertainty of the clock is evaluated to be 2.3 × 10-16, and the absolute frequency of the clock is measured to be 429 228 004 229 873.7(1.4) Hz with reference to the NIM5 cesium fountain.
Observations of λ /4 structure in a low-loss radio-frequency-dressed optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundblad, N.; Ansari, S.; Guo, Y.; Moan, E.
2014-11-01
We load a Bose-Einstein condensate into a one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice altered through the use of radio-frequency (rf) dressing. The rf resonantly couples the three levels of the 87Rb F =1 manifold and combines with a spin-dependent "bare" optical lattice to result in adiabatic potentials of variable shape, depth, and spatial frequency content. We choose dressing parameters such that the altered lattice is stable over lifetimes exceeding tens of ms at higher depths than in previous work. We observe significant differences between the BEC momentum distributions of the dressed lattice as compared to the bare lattice, and find general agreement with a 1D band-structure calculation informed by the dressing parameters. Previous work using such lattices was limited by very shallow dressed lattices and strong Landau-Zener tunneling loss between adiabatic potentials, equivalent to failure of the adiabatic criterion. In this work we operate with significantly stronger rf coupling (increasing the avoided-crossing gap between adiabatic potentials), observing dressed lifetimes of interest for optical lattice-based analog solid-state physics.
Deviations from Boltzmann-Gibbs Statistics in Confined Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dechant, Andreas; Kessler, David A.; Barkai, Eli
2015-10-01
We investigate the semiclassical phase-space probability distribution P (x ,p ) of cold atoms in a Sisyphus cooling lattice with an additional harmonic confinement. We pose the question of whether this nonequilibrium steady state satisfies the equivalence of energy and probability. This equivalence is the foundation of Boltzmann-Gibbs and generalized thermostatic statistics, and a prerequisite for the description in terms of a temperature. At large energies, P (x ,p ) depends only on the Hamiltonian H (x ,p ) and the answer to the question is yes. In distinction to the Boltzmann-Gibbs state, the large-energy tails are power laws P (x ,p )∝H (x ,p )-1/D, where D is related to the depth of the optical lattice. At intermediate energies, however, P (x ,p ) cannot be expressed as a function of the Hamiltonian and the equivalence between energy and probability breaks down. As a consequence the average potential and kinetic energy differ and no well-defined temperature can be assigned. The Boltzmann-Gibbs state is regained only in the limit of deep optical lattices. For strong confinement relative to the damping, we derive an explicit expression for the stationary phase-space distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Lei; Qu, Chunlei; Zhang, Chuanwei
2016-06-01
The recent experimental realization of one-dimensional (1D) equal Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (ERD-SOC) for cold atoms provides a disorder-free and highly controllable platform for the implementation and observation of Majorana fermions (MFs), analogous to the broadly studied solid-state nanowire-superconductor heterostructures. However, the corresponding 1D chains of cold atoms possess strong quantum fluctuation, which may destroy the superfluids and MFs. In this paper, we show that such 1D topological chains with MFs may be on demand generated in a two- or three-dimensional nontopological optical lattice with 1D ERD-SOC by modifying local potentials on target locations using experimentally already implemented atomic gas microscopes or patterned (e.g., double- or triple-well) optical lattices. All ingredients in our scheme have been experimentally realized, and the combination of them may pave the way for the experimental observation of MFs in a clean system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamerly, Ryan; Inaba, Kensuke; Inagaki, Takahiro; Takesue, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Mabuchi, Hideo
2016-09-01
A network of optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) is used to simulate classical Ising and XY spin chains. The collective nonlinear dynamics of this network, driven by quantum noise rather than thermal fluctuations, seeks out the Ising/XY ground state as the system transitions from below to above the lasing threshold. We study the behavior of this “Ising machine” for three canonical problems: a 1D ferromagnetic spin chain, a 2D square lattice and problems where next-nearest-neighbor couplings give rise to frustration. If the pump turn-on time is finite, topological defects form (domain walls for the Ising model, winding number and vortices for XY) and their density can be predicted from a numerical model involving a linear “growth stage” and a nonlinear “saturation stage”. These predictions are compared against recent data for a 10,000-spin 1D Ising machine.
Dynamic optical lattices: two-dimensional rotating and accordion lattices for ultracold atoms.
Williams, R A; Pillet, J D; Al-Assam, S; Fletcher, B; Shotter, M; Foot, C J
2008-10-13
We demonstrate a novel experimental arrangement which can rotate a 2D optical lattice at frequencies up to several kilohertz. Ultracold atoms in such a rotating lattice can be used for the direct quantum simulation of strongly correlated systems under large effective magnetic fields, allowing investigation of phenomena such as the fractional quantum Hall effect. Our arrangement also allows the periodicity of a 2D optical lattice to be varied dynamically, producing a 2D accordion lattice.
Propagation of optical coherence lattices in the turbulent atmosphere.
Liu, Xianlong; Yu, Jiayi; Cai, Yangjian; Ponomarenko, Sergey A
2016-09-15
We explore the propagation of recently introduced optical coherence lattices (OCLs) in the turbulent atmosphere. We show that the lattice intensity profile and the spatial degree of coherence will display periodicity reciprocity over long propagation distances even though the lattices are affected by the turbulence. The lattice periodicity reciprocity has been previously conjectured to be advantageous for free-space information transfer and optical communications. We then show how one can increase the distance over which the lattice periodicity reciprocity is preserved in the turbulent atmosphere by engineering input lattice beam parameters. We also show that the OCLs have scintillation indices lower than those of Gaussian beams. PMID:27628352
On the spectrum of the lattice spin-boson Hamiltonian for any coupling: 1D case
Muminov, M.; Neidhardt, H.; Rasulov, T.
2015-05-15
A lattice model of radiative decay (so-called spin-boson model) of a two level atom and at most two photons is considered. The location of the essential spectrum is described. For any coupling constant, the finiteness of the number of eigenvalues below the bottom of its essential spectrum is proved. The results are obtained by considering a more general model H for which the lower bound of its essential spectrum is estimated. Conditions which guarantee the finiteness of the number of eigenvalues of H below the bottom of its essential spectrum are found. It is shown that the discrete spectrum might be infinite if the parameter functions are chosen in a special form.
Nuclear spin effects in optical lattice clocks
Boyd, Martin M.; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Ludlow, Andrew D.; Blatt, Sebastian; Zanon-Willette, Thomas; Foreman, Seth M.; Ye Jun
2007-08-15
We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study of the effect of nuclear spin on the performance of optical lattice clocks. With a state-mixing theory including spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions, we describe the origin of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition and the differential g factor between the two clock states for alkaline-earth-metal(-like) atoms, using {sup 87}Sr as an example. Clock frequency shifts due to magnetic and optical fields are discussed with an emphasis on those relating to nuclear structure. An experimental determination of the differential g factor in {sup 87}Sr is performed and is in good agreement with theory. The magnitude of the tensor light shift on the clock states is also explored experimentally. State specific measurements with controlled nuclear spin polarization are discussed as a method to reduce the nuclear spin-related systematic effects to below 10{sup -17} in lattice clocks.
Hybrid plasmonic lattices with tunable magneto-optical activity.
Kataja, Mikko; Pourjamal, Sara; Maccaferri, Nicolò; Vavassori, Paolo; Hakala, Tommi K; Huttunen, Mikko J; Törmä, Päivi; van Dijken, Sebastiaan
2016-02-22
We report on the optical and magneto-optical response of hybrid plasmonic lattices that consist of pure nickel and gold nanoparticles in a checkerboard arrangement. Diffractive far-field coupling between the individual emitters of the lattices results in the excitation of two orthogonal surface lattice resonance modes. Local analyses of the radiation fields indicate that both the nickel and gold nanoparticles contribute to these collective resonances and, thereby, to the magneto-optical activity of the hybrid arrays. The strong effect of noble metal nanoparticles on the magneto-optical response of hybrid lattices opens up new avenues for the realization of sensitive and tunable magneto-plasmonic nanostructures. PMID:26907022
Transport of an interacting Bose gas in 1D disordered lattices
D'Errico, C.; Chaudhuri, S.; Gori, L.; Kumar, A.; Lucioni, E.; Tanzi, L.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.
2014-08-20
We use ultracold atoms in a quasiperiodic lattice to study two outstanding problems in the physics of disordered systems: a) the anomalous diffusion of a wavepacket in the presence of disorder, interactions and noise; b) the transport of a disordered superfluid. a) Our results show that the subdiffusion, observed when interaction alone is present, can be modelled with a nonlinear diffusion equation and the peculiar shape of the expanding density profiles can be connected to the microscopic nonlinear diffusion coefficients. Also when noise alone is present we can describe the observed normal diffusion dynamics by existing microscopic models. In the unexplored regime in which noise and interaction are combined, instead, we observe an anomalous diffusion, that we model with a generalized diffusion equation, where noise- and interaction-induced contributions add each other. b) We find that an instability appearing at relatively large momenta can be employed to locate the fluid-insulator crossover driven by disorder. By investigating the momentum-dependent transport, we observe a sharp crossover from a weakly dissipative regime to a strongly unstable one at a disorder-dependent critical momentum. The set of critical disorder and interaction strengths for which such critical momentum vanishes, can be identified with the separation between a fluid regime and an insulating one and can be related to the predicted zero-temperature superfluid-Bose glass transition.
Intrinsic Localized Modes in Optical Photonic Lattices and Arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christodoulides, Demetrios
-locking and pulse compression. A strong signature of discrete X-wave formation was also demonstrated in such structures. In the last few years, Anderson localization was unequivocally observed in array systems where the transition from ballistic transport to diffusive, and the cross-over to Anderson localization was studied as a function of disorder and nonlinearity. In recent studies synthetic lattices exhibiting parity-time (PT) symmetry were also considered. The interplay of gain and loss in this latter family of structures leads to counterintuitive characteristics and behavior such as non-reciprocal propagation and power oscillations. The realization of discrete array systems at su-bwavelenth scales is another important direction that is nowadays intensively pursued. References 1. D. N. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, Nature 424, 817- 823 (2003). 2. F. Lederer, G. I. Stegeman, D. N. Christodoulides, G. Assanto, M. Segev and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Reports 463, 1-126 (2008). 3. M Wimmer, A Regensburger, MA Miri, C. Bersch, D.N Christodoulides, and U. Peschel, ''Observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices'' Nature Communications 6, 7782 (2015). Intrinsic Localized Modes in Optical Photonic Lattices and Arrays.
Landau Levels in Strained Optical Lattices.
Tian, Binbin; Endres, Manuel; Pekker, David
2015-12-01
We propose a hexagonal optical lattice system with spatial variations in the hopping matrix elements. Just like in the valley Hall effect in strained graphene, for atoms near the Dirac points the variations in the hopping matrix elements can be described by a pseudomagnetic field and result in the formation of Landau levels. We show that the pseudomagnetic field leads to measurable experimental signatures in momentum resolved Bragg spectroscopy, Bloch oscillations, cyclotron motion, and quantization of in situ densities. Our proposal can be realized by a slight modification of existing experiments. In contrast to previous methods, pseudomagnetic fields are realized in a completely static system avoiding common heating effects and therefore opening the door to studying interaction effects in Landau levels with cold atoms.
Spatial entanglement of bosons in optical lattices.
Cramer, M; Bernard, A; Fabbri, N; Fallani, L; Fort, C; Rosi, S; Caruso, F; Inguscio, M; Plenio, M B
2013-01-01
Entanglement is a fundamental resource for quantum information processing, occurring naturally in many-body systems at low temperatures. The presence of entanglement and, in particular, its scaling with the size of system partitions underlies the complexity of quantum many-body states. The quantitative estimation of entanglement in many-body systems represents a major challenge, as it requires either full-state tomography, scaling exponentially in the system size, or the assumption of unverified system characteristics such as its Hamiltonian or temperature. Here we adopt recently developed approaches for the determination of rigorous lower entanglement bounds from readily accessible measurements and apply them in an experiment of ultracold interacting bosons in optical lattices of ~10(5) sites. We then study the behaviour of spatial entanglement between the sites when crossing the superfluid-Mott insulator transition and when varying temperature. This constitutes the first rigorous experimental large-scale entanglement quantification in a scalable quantum simulator.
Detecting multiatomic composite states in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuklov, Anatoly; Moritz, Henning
2007-01-01
We propose and discuss methods for detecting quasimolecular complexes which are expected to form in strongly interacting optical lattice systems. Particular emphasis is placed on the detection of composite fermions forming in Bose-Fermi mixtures. We argue that, as an indirect indication of the composite fermions and a generic consequence of strong interactions, periodic correlations must appear in the atom shot noise of bosonic absorption images, similar to the bosonic Mott insulator [S. Fölling , Nature (London) 434, 481 (2005)]. The composites can also be detected directly and their quasimomentum distribution measured. This method—an extension of the technique of noise correlation interferometry [E. Altman , Phys. Rev. A 79, 013603 (2004)]—relies on measuring higher order correlations between the bosonic and fermionic shot noise in the absorption images. However, it fails above a certain number of the constituents due to a dramatic increase of uncorrelated noise.
Arnold diffusion in a driven optical lattice.
Boretz, Yingyue; Reichl, L E
2016-03-01
The effect of time-periodic forces on matter has been a topic of growing interest since the advent of lasers. It is known that dynamical systems with 2.5 or more degrees of freedom are intrinsically unstable. As a consequence, time-periodic driven systems can experience large excursions in energy. We analyze the classical and quantum dynamics of rubidium atoms confined to a time-periodic optical lattice with 2.5 degrees of freedom. When the laser polarizations are orthogonal, the system consists of two 1.5 uncoupled dynamical systems. When laser polarizations are turned away from orthogonal, an Arnold web forms and the dynamics undergoes a fundamental change. For parallel polarizations, we find huge random excursions in the rubidium atom energies and significant entanglement of energies in the quantum dynamics. PMID:27078351
Fluctuation-driven topological transition of binary condensates in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suthar, K.; Roy, Arko; Angom, D.
2015-04-01
We show the emergence of a third Goldstone mode in binary condensates at phase separation in quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) optical lattices. We develop the coupled discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations using Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory with the Popov approximation in the Bose-Hubbard model to investigate the mode evolution at zero temperature, in particular, as the system is driven from the miscible to the immiscible phase. We demonstrate that the position exchange of the species in the 87Rb-85Rb system is accompanied by a discontinuity in the excitation spectrum. Our results show that, in quasi-1D optical lattices, the presence of the fluctuations dramatically changes the geometry of the ground-state density profile of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates.
Critical point of a rotating Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Badry, Azza M.; Soliman, Shemi S. M.; Hassan, Ahmed S.
2016-06-01
In this paper, we have considered the critical point (critical atoms' number and the corresponding critical temperature) of rotating condensate bosons trapped in optical lattices. Our system is formed by loading three dimensional harmonically trapped boson atoms into a 1D (axial direction) or 2D (radial direction) optical lattice. The system subjected to rotating with angular velocity Ω around to the axial direction z-axis. We employ the semiclassical approximation to calculate the critical point. Effects of the optical lattice depth, direction (axial or radial) and the rotation rate on the critical point are investigated using the semiclassical approximation. The calculated results showed that the temperature dependence of the critical point is changed in an optical lattice and depends crucially on the rotation rate. The effect of the finite size for one-dimensional optical lattice case, as required by experiment, is discussed. The outcome results furnish useful qualitatively theoretical results for the future Bose-Einstein condensation experiments in such traps.
Strongly Interacting Fermions in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koetsier, A. O.
2009-07-01
presented here concerns fermionic atoms in periodic potential formed by interfering laser beams. Indeed, the standing light wave created by the interfering beams gives rise to a lattice potential because of the Stark effect which couples the electronic energy levels of the atoms to the spatially undulating electric field. Furthermore, fermionic atoms can be prepared in two different hyperfine states corresponding to the the spin-up and spin-down quantum states, and as such mimic electrons moving in the lattice structure of solids. This system is well described by the famous Hubbard model which we introduce in chapter 2 and, under certain conditions, undergoes a phase transition into the Néel state which believed to be a precursor to superconductivity in certain high-temperature superconductors. In chapter 3, we calculate precisely how the Néel state may be achieved in an ultracold fermionic atom gas. When the number of spin-up and spin-down atoms is unequal the system becomes spin-canted and exhibits both ferro- and antiferromagnetic characteristics, as we show in chapter 4. We also find there are topological excitations present in the quantum spin texture known as merons which have never unambiguously been observed before. In order to form a Bose-Einstein condensate, fermionic atoms must first form pairs, and can do so in two contrasting ways. The relationship between these two qualitatively di erent forms of pairing is described in chapter 5, and we examine how these two types of pairs transform into one another in an optical lattice in chapter 6. Finally, chapter 7 is a detailed eld-theoretic study of pairing as it occurs in an ultracold Bose gas. There, we find there is an intriguing bosonic analogy of the two forms of fermion pairing and explore the properties of these pairs.
Collisional Losses, Decoherence, and Frequency Shifts in Optical Lattice Clocks with Bosons
Lisdat, Ch.; Winfred, J. S. R. Vellore; Middelmann, T.; Riehle, F.; Sterr, U.
2009-08-28
We have quantified collisional losses, decoherence and the collision shift in a one-dimensional optical lattice clock on the highly forbidden transition {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} at 698 nm with bosonic {sup 88}Sr. We were able to distinguish two loss channels: inelastic collisions between atoms in the upper and lower clock state and atoms in the upper clock state only. Based on the measured coefficients, we determine the operation parameters at which a 1D-lattice clock with {sup 88}Sr shows no degradation due to collisions on the fractional uncertainty level of 10{sup -16}.
Topological Varma Superfluid in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Liberto, M.; Hemmerich, A.; Morais Smith, C.
2016-10-01
Topological states of matter are peculiar quantum phases showing different edge and bulk transport properties connected by the bulk-boundary correspondence. While noninteracting fermionic topological insulators are well established by now and have been classified according to a tenfold scheme, the possible realization of topological states for bosons has not been explored much yet. Furthermore, the role of interactions is far from being understood. Here, we show that a topological state of matter exclusively driven by interactions may occur in the p band of a Lieb optical lattice filled with ultracold bosons. The single-particle spectrum of the system displays a remarkable parabolic band-touching point, with both bands exhibiting non-negative curvature. Although the system is neither topological at the single-particle level nor for the interacting ground state, on-site interactions induce an anomalous Hall effect for the excitations, carrying a nonzero Chern number. Our work introduces an experimentally realistic strategy for the formation of interaction-driven topological states of bosons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Cheng; Zhang, Teng; Weiss, David
2015-05-01
We present our progress towards measuring the electron EDM using laser-cooled cesium and rubidium atoms trapped in a one dimensional optical lattice. To date, we have collected Cs atoms in two parallel 1D optical lattices that thread three glass electric field plates in a region of well-shielded magnetic fields. As a precursor to the EDM measurement, we have performed a variant of a Hanle effect measurement and used it to study the vector light shifts due to the cavity-built up lattice beams. This gives us a very high sensitivity to the absolute linear polarization of the light, which we have demonstrated to be as good as ~10-8 in fractional power. NSF PHY-13-07096.
Quantum simulation of 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities.
Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhou, Xingxiang; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Jin-Shi; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei
2015-07-06
Orbital angular momentum of light is a fundamental optical degree of freedom characterized by unlimited number of available angular momentum states. Although this unique property has proved invaluable in diverse recent studies ranging from optical communication to quantum information, it has not been considered useful or even relevant for simulating nontrivial physics problems such as topological phenomena. Contrary to this misconception, we demonstrate the incredible value of orbital angular momentum of light for quantum simulation by showing theoretically how it allows to study a variety of important 2D topological physics in a 1D array of optical cavities. This application for orbital angular momentum of light not only reduces required physical resources but also increases feasible scale of simulation, and thus makes it possible to investigate important topics such as edge-state transport and topological phase transition in a small simulator ready for immediate experimental exploration.
Evolution of the Hofstadter butterfly in a tunable optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yılmaz, F.; Ünal, F. Nur; Oktel, M. Ã.-.
2015-06-01
Recent advances in realizing artificial gauge fields on optical lattices promise experimental detection of topologically nontrivial energy spectra. Self-similar fractal energy structures generally known as Hofstadter butterflies depend sensitively on the geometry of the underlying lattice, as well as the applied magnetic field. The recent demonstration of an adjustable lattice geometry [L. Tarruell, D. Greif, T. Uehlinger, G. Jotzu, and T. Esslinger, Nature (London) 483, 302 (2012), 10.1038/nature10871] presents a unique opportunity to study this dependence. In this paper, we calculate the Hofstadter butterflies that can be obtained in such an adjustable lattice and find three qualitatively different regimes. We show that the existence of Dirac points at zero magnetic field does not imply the topological equivalence of spectra at finite field. As the real-space structure evolves from the checkerboard lattice to the honeycomb lattice, two square-lattice Hofstadter butterflies merge to form a honeycomb lattice butterfly. This merging is topologically nontrivial, as it is accomplished by sequential closings of gaps. Ensuing Chern number transfer between the bands can be probed with the adjustable lattice experiments. We also calculate the Chern numbers of the gaps for qualitatively different spectra and discuss the evolution of topological properties with underlying lattice geometry.
Quantum Hall physics with cold atoms in cylindrical optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Łåcki, Mateusz; Pichler, Hannes; Sterdyniak, Antoine; Lyras, Andreas; Lembessis, Vassilis E.; Al-Dossary, Omar; Budich, Jan Carl; Zoller, Peter
2016-01-01
We propose and study various realizations of a Hofstadter-Hubbard model on a cylinder geometry with fermionic cold atoms in optical lattices. The cylindrical optical lattice is created by copropagating Laguerre-Gauss beams, i.e., light beams carrying orbital angular momentum. By strong focusing of the light beams we create a real-space optical lattice in the form of rings, which are offset in energy. A second set of Laguerre-Gauss beams then induces a Raman-hopping between these rings, imprinting phases corresponding to a synthetic magnetic field (artificial gauge field). In addition, by rotating the lattice potential, we achieve a slowly varying flux through the hole of the cylinder, which allows us to probe the Hall response of the system as a realization of Laughlin's thought experiment. We study how in the presence of interactions fractional quantum Hall physics could be observed in this setup.
Neutral gas heating via non-resonant optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornella, Barry Michael
The influence of intense optical lattices on atoms or molecules offers a particularly useful method for energy and momentum deposition into a non-resonant gas. In this investigation, a proof-of-concept experiment was conducted to validate high intensity pulsed optical lattices as a means of creating high temperature gases for a myriad of aerospace, basic physics, and nanotechnology applications. Traditional methods for creating these flows have either involved altering the chemical composition of the initial gas sample through combustion or ionization or relied on laser resonant interactions with internal energy modes through laser pyrolysis. Due to its non-resonant nature, the use of optical lattices might be beneficial compared to existing methods since it provides an arbitrary, localized, high temperature gas that is tunable and does not introduce unwanted chemical species or high ionization concentrations. As an intermediate step toward verifying optical lattice gas heating, a coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering (CRBS) study was also performed to verify the presented methodology. CRBS is a gas diagnostic technique used for non-intrusive probing of gas thermodynamic properties. In addition to the experimental investigation, a complementary numerical study was conducted using a direct simulation Monte Carlo approach. The numerical study used a modified version of SMILE to predict the gas phenomena within the strong optical potential fields. The goal of substantiating optical lattice heating was accomplished by detecting the acoustic wave generated from the heated volume. The magnitude of the resulting acoustic wave was shown to vary with the optical lattice phase velocity, peaking on the order of the gas' most probable speed. The trend with lattice velocity is consistent with both theory and the numerical study and eliminates other possible heating mechanisms such as laser-induced ionization or molecular dissociation. Limitations for the investigated heating
Dissipation-Induced Symmetry Breaking in a Driven Optical Lattice
Gommers, R.; Bergamini, S.; Renzoni, F.
2005-08-12
We analyze the atomic dynamics in an ac driven periodic optical potential which is symmetric in both time and space. We experimentally demonstrate that in the presence of dissipation the symmetry is broken, and a current of atoms through the optical lattice is generated as a result.
E-beam to complement optical lithography for 1D layouts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, David K.; Liu, Enden D.; Smayling, Michael C.; Prescop, Ted
2011-04-01
The semiconductor industry is moving to highly regular designs, or 1D gridded layouts, to enable scaling to advanced nodes, as well as improve process latitude, chip size and chip energy consumption. The fabrication of highly regular ICs is straightforward. Poly and metal layers are arranged into 1D layouts. These 1D layouts facilitate a two-step patterning approach: a line-creation step, followed by a line-cutting step, to form the desired IC pattern (See Figure 1). The first step, line creation, can be accomplished with a variety of lithography techniques including 193nm immersion (193i) and Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP). It appears feasible to create unidirectional parallel lines to at least 11 nm half-pitch, with two applications of SADP for pitch division by four. Potentially, this step can also be accomplished with interference lithography or directed self assembly in the future. The second step, line cutting, requires an extremely high-resolution lithography technique. At advanced nodes, the only options appear to be the costly quadruple patterning with 193i, or EUV or E-Beam Lithography (EBL). This paper focuses on the requirements for a lithography system for "line cutting", using EBL to complement Optical. EBL is the most cost-effective option for line cutting at advanced nodes for HVM.
Quantum Degenerate Strontium in a 3D Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aman, J. A.; Desalvo, B. J.; Killian, T. C.
2014-05-01
We present our experiments with quantum degenerate neutral strontium in a 3-D optical lattice formed with 532 nm light. Precision control and manipulation of quantum degenerate gases in optical lattices allows for the realization and investigation of tunable many-body systems. Strontium, in particular, has been studied extensively in optical lattices due to the narrow 5s21S0 --> 5 s 5 p3Pj transitions for use as an atomic clock. However, in the present work, we take advantage of these narrow transitions together with strontium's unique isotopic properties to investigate interaction regimes inaccessible to alkali atoms. Among the topics we plan to explore are formation of ultracold molecules using an optical Feshbach resonance as well as the effects of dissipation on atom dynamics. This work was supported by Rice University, Shell, the Welch Foundation (C-1579) and the National Science Foundation (PHY-1205946).
Ultracold polar molecules in a 3D optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Bo
2015-05-01
Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer new opportunities for studying quantum magnetism and many-body physics. KRb molecules loaded into a three-dimensional (3D) optical lattice allow one to study such a spin-lattice system in a stable environment without losses arising from chemical reactions. In the case with strong lattice confinement along two directions and a weak lattice potential along the third, we find the loss rate is suppressed by the quantum Zeno effect. In a deep 3D lattice with no tunneling, we observe evidences for spin exchange interactions. We use Ramsey spectroscopy to investigate the spin dynamics. By choosing the appropriate lattice polarizations and implementing a spin echo sequence, the single particle dephasing is largely suppressed, leaving the dipolar exchange interactions as the dominant contribution to the observed dynamics. This is supported by many-body theoretical calculations. While this initial demonstration was done with low lattice fillings, our current experimental efforts are focused on increasing the lattice filling fraction. This will greatly benefit the study of complex many-body dynamics with long-range interactions, such as transport of excitations in an out-of-equilibrium system and spin-orbit coupling in a lattice.
Modugno, M.; Tozzo, C.; Dalfovo, F.
2004-10-01
The occurrence of energetic and dynamical instabilities in a Bose-Einstein condensate moving in a one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice is analyzed by means of the Gross-Pitaevskii theory. Results of full 3D calculations are compared with those of an effective 1D model, the nonpolynomial Schroedinger equation, pointing out the role played by transverse degrees of freedom. The instability thresholds are shown to be scarcely affected by transverse excitations, so that they can be accurately predicted by effective 1D models. Conversely, transverse excitations turn out to be important in characterizing the stability diagram and the occurrence of a complex radial dynamics above the threshold for dynamical instability. This analysis provides a realistic framework to discuss the dissipative dynamics observed in recent experiments.
Twofold PT symmetry in doubly exponential optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cole, J. T.; Makris, K. G.; Musslimani, Z. H.; Christodoulides, D. N.; Rotter, S.
2016-01-01
We introduce a family of non-Hermitian optical potentials that are given in terms of double-exponential periodic functions. The center of PT symmetry is not around zero and the potential satisfies a shifted PT -symmetry relation at two distinct locations. Motivated by wave transmission through thin phase screens and gratings, we examine these refractive index modulations from the perspective of optical lattices that are homogeneous along the propagation direction. The diffraction dynamics, abrupt phase transitions in the eigenvalue spectrum, and exceptional points in the band structure are examined in detail. In addition, the nonlinear properties of wave propagation in Kerr nonlinearity media are studied. In particular, coherent structures such as lattice solitons are numerically identified by applying the spectral renormalization method. The spatial symmetries of such lattice solitons follow the shifted PT -symmetric relations. Furthermore, such lattice solitons have a power threshold and their linear and nonlinear stabilities are critically dependent on their spatial symmetry point.
A mercury optical lattice clock at LNE-SYRTE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Sarlo, L.; Favier, M.; Tyumenev, R.; Bize, S.
2016-06-01
We describe the development of an optical lattice clock based on mercury and the results obtained since the 7 th SFSM. We briefly present a new solution for the cooling laser system and an improved lattice trap that allows us to interrogate a few thousand atoms in parallel. This translates into a fractional short term stability of 1.2 x 10-15 at the clock frequency of 1.129 PHz.
Coupled matter-wave solitons in optical lattices
Golam Ali, Sk; Talukdar, B.
2009-06-15
We make use of a potential model to study the dynamics of two coupled matter-wave or Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons loaded in optical lattices. With separate attention to linear and nonlinear lattices we find some remarkable differences for response of the system to effects of these lattices. As opposed to the case of linear optical lattice (LOL), the nonlinear lattice (NOL) can be used to control the mutual interaction between the two solitons. For a given lattice wave number k, the effective potentials in which the two solitons move are such that the well (V{sub eff}(NOL)), resulting from the juxtaposition of soliton interaction and nonlinear lattice potential, is deeper than the corresponding well V{sub eff}(LOL). But these effective potentials have opposite k dependence in the sense that the depth of V{sub eff}(LOL) increases as k increases and that of V{sub eff}(NOL) decreases for higher k values. We verify that the effectiveness of optical lattices to regulate the motion of the coupled solitons depends sensitively on the initial locations of the motionless solitons as well as values of the lattice wave number. For both LOL and NOL the two solitons meet each other due to mutual interaction if their initial locations are taken within the potential wells with the difference that the solitons in the NOL approach each other rather rapidly and take roughly half the time to meet as compared with the time needed for such coalescence in the LOL. In the NOL, the soliton profiles can move freely and respond to the lattice periodicity when the separation between their initial locations are as twice as that needed for a similar free movement in the LOL. We observe that, in both cases, slow tuning of the optical lattices by varying k with respect to a time parameter {tau} drags the oscillatory solitons apart to take them to different locations. In our potential model the oscillatory solitons appear to propagate undistorted. But a fully numerical calculation
Coupled matter-wave solitons in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golam Ali, Sk; Talukdar, B.
2009-06-01
We make use of a potential model to study the dynamics of two coupled matter-wave or Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons loaded in optical lattices. With separate attention to linear and nonlinear lattices we find some remarkable differences for response of the system to effects of these lattices. As opposed to the case of linear optical lattice (LOL), the nonlinear lattice (NOL) can be used to control the mutual interaction between the two solitons. For a given lattice wave number k, the effective potentials in which the two solitons move are such that the well (Veff(NOL)), resulting from the juxtaposition of soliton interaction and nonlinear lattice potential, is deeper than the corresponding well Veff(LOL). But these effective potentials have opposite k dependence in the sense that the depth of Veff(LOL) increases as k increases and that of Veff(NOL) decreases for higher k values. We verify that the effectiveness of optical lattices to regulate the motion of the coupled solitons depends sensitively on the initial locations of the motionless solitons as well as values of the lattice wave number. For both LOL and NOL the two solitons meet each other due to mutual interaction if their initial locations are taken within the potential wells with the difference that the solitons in the NOL approach each other rather rapidly and take roughly half the time to meet as compared with the time needed for such coalescence in the LOL. In the NOL, the soliton profiles can move freely and respond to the lattice periodicity when the separation between their initial locations are as twice as that needed for a similar free movement in the LOL. We observe that, in both cases, slow tuning of the optical lattices by varying k with respect to a time parameter τ drags the oscillatory solitons apart to take them to different locations. In our potential model the oscillatory solitons appear to propagate undistorted. But a fully numerical calculation indicates that during evolution
Isospin correlations in two-partite hexagonal optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prada, Marta; Richter, Eva-Maria; Pfannkuche, Daniela
2014-07-01
Two-component mixtures in optical lattices reveal a rich variety of different phases. We employ an exact diagonalization method to obtain the relevant correlation functions in hexagonal optical lattices which characterize those phases. We relate the occupation difference of the two species to the magnetic polarization. "Iso" -magnetic correlations disclose the nature of the system, which can be of easy-axis type, bearing phase segregation, or of easy-plane type, corresponding to super-counter-fluidity. In the latter case, the correlations reveal easy-plane segregation, involving a highly entangled state. We identify striking correlated supersolid phases appearing within the superfluid limit.
Physics of higher orbital bands in optical lattices: a review
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiaopeng; Liu, W. Vincent
2016-11-01
The orbital degree of freedom plays a fundamental role in understanding the unconventional properties in solid state materials. Experimental progress in quantum atomic gases has demonstrated that high orbitals in optical lattices can be used to construct quantum emulators of exotic models beyond natural crystals, where novel many-body states such as complex Bose-Einstein condensates and topological semimetals emerge. A brief introduction of orbital degrees of freedom in optical lattices is given and a summary of exotic orbital models and resulting many-body phases is provided. Experimental consequences of the novel phases are also discussed.
Bose-Fermi mixtures in an optical lattice
Sengupta, K.; Majumdar, P.
2007-06-15
We study an atomic Bose-Fermi mixture with unpolarized fermions in an optical lattice. We obtain the Mott ground states of such a system in the limit of the deep optical lattice and discuss the effect of quantum fluctuations on these states. We also study the superfluid-insulator transitions of bosons and metal-insulator transition of fermions in such a mixture within a slave-rotor mean-field approximation, and obtain the corresponding phase diagram. We discuss experimental implications of our results.
Assessment of a fast electro-optical shutter for 1D spontaneous Raman scattering in flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ajrouche, Hassan; Lo, Amath; Vervisch, Pierre; Cessou, Armelle
2015-07-01
A critical aspect of 1D single-shot spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) experiments in turbulent flames is the need to ensure highly efficient detection associated with fast temporal gating to remove flame emission. Back-illuminated CCD cameras are remarkable for their high quantum efficiency, large dynamic range, good spatial resolution and low readout noise. However, their full-frame architecture makes these detectors difficult to use for SRS measurements in flame and requires the development of a high-speed shutter. The present work proposes a fast electro-optical shutter composed of a large aperture Pockels cell placed between two crossed polarizers, providing high-speed gating up to 500 ns. The throughput of the shutter and its spatial homogeneity are measured. The angular tolerance of the Pockels cell is determined and its suitability for 1D probing is assessed. Spectra acquired in a premixed methane-air flame show the capacity of the shutter to remove flame emission and increase the signal-to-noise ratio for major Raman species.
Pressure Sensor via Optical Detection Based on a 1D Spin Transition Coordination Polymer
Jureschi, Cătălin M.; Linares, Jorge; Rotaru, Aurelian; Ritti, Marie Hélène; Parlier, Michel; Dîrtu, Marinela M.; Wolff, Mariusz; Garcia, Yann
2015-01-01
We have investigated the suitability of using the 1D spin crossover coordination polymer [Fe(4-(2′-hydroxyethyl)-1,2,4-triazole)3]I2·H2O, known to crossover around room temperature, as a pressure sensor via optical detection using various contact pressures up to 250 MPa. A dramatic persistent colour change is observed. The experimental data, obtained by calorimetric and Mössbauer measurements, have been used for a theoretical analysis, in the framework of the Ising-like model, of the thermal and pressure induced spin state switching. The pressure (P)-temperature (T) phase diagram calculated for this compound has been used to obtain the P-T bistability region. PMID:25621610
Stability of matter-wave solitons in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Sk. Golam; Roy, S. K.; Talukdar, B.
2010-08-01
We consider localized states of both single- and two-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) confined in a potential resulting from the superposition of linear and nonlinear optical lattices and make use of Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion to investigate the effect of nonlinear lattice on the stability of the soliton solutions in the linear optical lattice (LOL). For the single-component case we show that a weak nonlinear lattice has very little effect on the stability of such solitons while sufficiently strong nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) squeezes them to produce narrow bound states. For two-component condensates we find that when the strength of the NOL (γ1) is less than that of the LOL (V0) a relatively weak intra-atomic interaction (IAI) has little effect on the stability of the component solitons. This is true for both attractive and repulsive IAI. A strong attractive IAI, however, squeezes the BEC solitons while a similar repulsive IAI makes the component solitons wider. For γ1 > V0, only a strong attractive IAI squeezes the BEC solitons but the squeezing effect is less prominent than that found for γ1 < V0. We make useful checks on the results of our semianalytical stability analysis by solving the appropriate Gross-Pitaevskii equations numerically.
Mixtures of bosonic and fermionic atoms in optical lattices
Albus, Alexander; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Eisert, Jens
2003-08-01
We discuss the theory of mixtures of bosonic and fermionic atoms in periodic potentials at zero temperature. We derive a general Bose-Fermi Hubbard Hamiltonian in a one-dimensional optical lattice with a superimposed harmonic trapping potential. We study the conditions for linear stability of the mixture and derive a mean-field criterion for the onset of a bosonic superfluid transition. We investigate the ground-state properties of the mixture in the Gutzwiller formulation of mean-field theory, and present numerical studies of finite systems. The bosonic and fermionic density distributions and the onset of quantum phase transitions to demixing and to a bosonic Mott-insulator are studied as a function of the lattice potential strength. The existence is predicted of a disordered phase for mixtures loaded in very deep lattices. Such a disordered phase possessing many degenerate or quasidegenerate ground states is related to a breaking of the mirror symmetry in the lattice.
Optical lattice polarization effects on magnetically induced optical atomic clock transitions
Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.; Oates, C. W.
2007-08-15
We derive the frequency shift for a forbidden optical transition J=0{yields}J{sup '}=0 caused by the simultaneous actions of an elliptically polarized lattice field and a static magnetic field. We find that a simple configuration of lattice and magnetic fields leads to a cancellation of this shift to first order in lattice intensity and magnetic field. In this geometry, the second-order lattice intensity shift can be minimized as well by use of optimal lattice polarization. Suppression of these shifts could considerably enhance the performance of the next generation of atomic clocks.
Veselago lensing with ultracold atoms in an optical lattice.
Leder, Martin; Grossert, Christopher; Weitz, Martin
2014-01-01
Veselago pointed out that electromagnetic wave theory allows for materials with a negative index of refraction, in which most known optical phenomena would be reversed. A slab of such a material can focus light by negative refraction, an imaging technique strikingly different from conventional positive refractive index optics, where curved surfaces bend the rays to form an image of an object. Here we demonstrate Veselago lensing for matter waves, using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. A relativistic, that is, photon-like, dispersion relation for rubidium atoms is realized with a bichromatic optical lattice potential. We rely on a Raman π-pulse technique to transfer atoms between two different branches of the dispersion relation, resulting in a focusing that is completely analogous to the effect described by Veselago for light waves. Future prospects of the demonstrated effects include novel sub-de Broglie wavelength imaging applications.
Collisional shifts in optical-lattice atom clocks
Band, Y. B.; Vardi, A.
2006-09-15
We theoretically study the effects of elastic collisions on the determination of frequency standards via Ramsey-fringe spectroscopy in optical-lattice atom clocks. Interparticle interactions of bosonic atoms in multiply occupied lattice sites can cause a linear frequency shift, as well as generate asymmetric Ramsey-fringe patterns and reduce fringe visibility due to interparticle entanglement. We propose a method of reducing these collisional effects in an optical lattice by introducing a phase difference of {pi} between the Ramsey driving fields in adjacent sites. This configuration suppresses site-to-site hopping due to interference of two tunneling pathways, without degrading fringe visibility. Consequently, the probability of double occupancy is reduced, leading to cancellation of collisional shifts.
Optical lattice polarization effects on hyperpolarizability of atomic clock transitions.
Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Ovsiannikov, V D; Pal'chikov, V G
2006-10-27
The light-induced frequency shift due to hyperpolarizability (i.e., terms of second-order in intensity) is studied for a forbidden optical transition, J = 0 --> J = 0. A simple universal dependence on the field ellipticity is obtained. This result allows minimization of the second-order light shift with respect to the field polarization for optical lattices operating at a magic wavelength (at which the first-order shift vanishes). We show the possibility for the existence of a magic elliptical polarization, for which the second-order frequency shift vanishes. The optimal polarization of the lattice field can be either linear, circular, or magic elliptical. The obtained results could improve the accuracy of lattice-based atomic clocks.
Excitations of one-dimensional supersolids with optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsueh, C.-H.; Tsai, Y.-C.; Wu, W. C.
2016-06-01
Based on mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii and Bogoliubov-de Gennes approaches, we investigate excitations of a one-dimensional soft-core interacting ultracold Bose gas under the effect of an optical lattice. It is found that no matter how deep the lattice is, at q →0 the lowest mode corresponds to a gapless phonon, ω12=v12q2 , whereas the second lowest mode corresponds to a gapped optical phonon, ω22=Δ2±v22q2 . Determination of the velocities v1,v2 , the gap Δ , and the possible sign change in ω2 upon the change of lattice depth can give decisive measures to the transitions across various supersolid and solid states. The power law v1˜(fs) 1 /2 with fs the superfluid fraction is identified in the present system at the tight-binding regime.
Atom optics simulator of lattice transport phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, Fangzhao; Meier, Eric; Gadway, Bryce
2016-05-01
We report on a novel scheme for studying lattice transport phenomena, based on the controlled momentum-space dynamics of ultracold atomic matter waves. In the effective tight binding models that can be simulated, we demonstrate that this technique allows for a local and time-dependent control over all system parameters, and additionally allows for single-site resolved detection of atomic populations. We demonstrate full control over site-to-site off-diagonal tunneling elements (amplitude and phase) and diagonal site-energies, through the observation of continuous time quantum walks, Bloch oscillations, and negative tunneling. These capabilities open up new prospects in the experimental study of disordered and topological systems.
Doublon dynamics and polar molecule production in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Covey, Jacob P.; Moses, Steven A.; Gärttner, Martin; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Fu, Zhengkun; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Julienne, Paul S.; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah S.; Ye, Jun
2016-04-01
Polar molecules in an optical lattice provide a versatile platform to study quantum many-body dynamics. Here we use such a system to prepare a density distribution where lattice sites are either empty or occupied by a doublon composed of an interacting Bose-Fermi pair. By letting this out-of-equilibrium system evolve from a well-defined, but disordered, initial condition, we observe clear effects on pairing that arise from inter-species interactions, a higher partial-wave Feshbach resonance and excited Bloch-band population. These observations facilitate a detailed understanding of molecule formation in the lattice. Moreover, the interplay of tunnelling and interaction of fermions and bosons provides a controllable platform to study Bose-Fermi Hubbard dynamics. Additionally, we can probe the distribution of the atomic gases in the lattice by measuring the inelastic loss of doublons. These techniques realize tools that are generically applicable to studying the complex dynamics of atomic mixtures in optical lattices.
Doublon dynamics and polar molecule production in an optical lattice
Covey, Jacob P.; Moses, Steven A.; Gärttner, Martin; Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Fu, Zhengkun; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Julienne, Paul S.; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah S.; Ye, Jun
2016-01-01
Polar molecules in an optical lattice provide a versatile platform to study quantum many-body dynamics. Here we use such a system to prepare a density distribution where lattice sites are either empty or occupied by a doublon composed of an interacting Bose-Fermi pair. By letting this out-of-equilibrium system evolve from a well-defined, but disordered, initial condition, we observe clear effects on pairing that arise from inter-species interactions, a higher partial-wave Feshbach resonance and excited Bloch-band population. These observations facilitate a detailed understanding of molecule formation in the lattice. Moreover, the interplay of tunnelling and interaction of fermions and bosons provides a controllable platform to study Bose-Fermi Hubbard dynamics. Additionally, we can probe the distribution of the atomic gases in the lattice by measuring the inelastic loss of doublons. These techniques realize tools that are generically applicable to studying the complex dynamics of atomic mixtures in optical lattices. PMID:27075831
Superfluid qubit systems with ring shaped optical lattices.
Amico, Luigi; Aghamalyan, Davit; Auksztol, Filip; Crepaz, Herbert; Dumke, Rainer; Kwek, Leong Chuan
2014-01-01
We study an experimentally feasible qubit system employing neutral atomic currents. Our system is based on bosonic cold atoms trapped in ring-shaped optical lattice potentials. The lattice makes the system strictly one dimensional and it provides the infrastructure to realize a tunable ring-ring interaction. Our implementation combines the low decoherence rates of neutral cold atoms systems, overcoming single site addressing, with the robustness of topologically protected solid state Josephson flux qubits. Characteristic fluctuations in the magnetic fields affecting Josephson junction based flux qubits are expected to be minimized employing neutral atoms as flux carriers. By breaking the Galilean invariance we demonstrate how atomic currents through the lattice provide an implementation of a qubit. This is realized either by artificially creating a phase slip in a single ring, or by tunnel coupling of two homogeneous ring lattices. The single qubit infrastructure is experimentally investigated with tailored optical potentials. Indeed, we have experimentally realized scaled ring-lattice potentials that could host, in principle, n ~ 10 of such ring-qubits, arranged in a stack configuration, along the laser beam propagation axis. An experimentally viable scheme of the two-ring-qubit is discussed, as well. Based on our analysis, we provide protocols to initialize, address, and read-out the qubit.
Heavy fermions in an optical lattice
Foss-Feig, Michael; Hermele, Michael; Gurarie, Victor; Rey, Ana Maria
2010-11-15
We employ a mean-field theory to study ground-state properties and transport of a two-dimensional gas of ultracold alkaline-earth-metal atoms governed by the Kondo lattice Hamiltonian plus a parabolic confining potential. In a homogenous system, this mean-field theory is believed to give a qualitatively correct description of heavy-fermion metals and Kondo insulators: It reproduces the Kondo-like scaling of the quasiparticle mass in the former and the same scaling of the excitation gap in the latter. In order to understand ground-state properties in a trap, we extend this mean-field theory via local-density approximation. We find that the Kondo insulator gap manifests as a shell structure in the trapped density profile. In addition, a strong signature of the large Fermi surface expected for heavy-fermion systems survives the confinement and could be probed in time-of-flight experiments. From a full self-consistent diagonalization of the mean-field theory, we are able to study dynamics in the trap. We find that the mass enhancement of quasiparticle excitations in the heavy-Fermi liquid phase manifests as slowing of the dipole oscillations that result from a sudden displacement of the trap center.
Super-resolution microscopy of single atoms in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alberti, Andrea; Robens, Carsten; Alt, Wolfgang; Brakhane, Stefan; Karski, Michał; Reimann, René; Widera, Artur; Meschede, Dieter
2016-05-01
We report on image processing techniques and experimental procedures to determine the lattice-site positions of single atoms in an optical lattice with high reliability, even for limited acquisition time or optical resolution. Determining the positions of atoms beyond the diffraction limit relies on parametric deconvolution in close analogy to methods employed in super-resolution microscopy. We develop a deconvolution method that makes effective use of the prior knowledge of the optical transfer function, noise properties, and discreteness of the optical lattice. We show that accurate knowledge of the image formation process enables a dramatic improvement on the localization reliability. This allows us to demonstrate super-resolution of the atoms’ position in closely packed ensembles where the separation between particles cannot be directly optically resolved. Furthermore, we demonstrate experimental methods to precisely reconstruct the point spread function with sub-pixel resolution from fluorescence images of single atoms, and we give a mathematical foundation thereof. We also discuss discretized image sampling in pixel detectors and provide a quantitative model of noise sources in electron multiplying CCD cameras. The techniques developed here are not only beneficial to neutral atom experiments, but could also be employed to improve the localization precision of trapped ions for ultra precise force sensing.
Mixtures of Strongly Interacting Bosons in Optical Lattices
Buonsante, P.; Penna, V.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.; Vezzani, A.
2008-06-20
We investigate the properties of strongly interacting heteronuclear boson-boson mixtures loaded in realistic optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the physics of interfaces. In particular, we numerically reproduce the recent experimental observation that the addition of a small fraction of {sup 41}K induces a significant loss of coherence in {sup 87}Rb, providing a simple explanation. We then investigate the robustness against the inhomogeneity typical of realistic experimental realizations of the glassy quantum emulsions recently predicted to occur in strongly interacting boson-boson mixtures on ideal homogeneous lattices.
Effective Dirac dynamics of ultracold atoms in bichromatic optical lattices
Witthaut, D.; Salger, T.; Kling, S.; Grossert, C.; Weitz, M.
2011-09-15
We study the dynamics of ultracold atoms in tailored bichromatic optical lattices. By tuning the lattice parameters, one can readily engineer the band structure and realize a Dirac point, i.e., a true crossing of two Bloch bands. The dynamics in the vicinity of such a crossing is described by the one-dimensional Dirac equation, which is rigorously shown beyond the tight-binding approximation. Within this framework we analyze the effects of an external potential and demonstrate numerically that it is possible to demonstrate Klein tunneling with current experimental setups.
Prospects for Optical Clocks with a Blue-Detuned Lattice
Takamoto, M.; Katori, H.; Marmo, S. I.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.; Pal'chikov, V. G.
2009-02-13
We investigated the properties of optical lattice clocks operated with a repulsive light-shift potential. The magic wavelength, where light-shift perturbation for the clock transition cancels, was experimentally determined to be 389.889(9) nm for {sup 87}Sr. The hyperpolarizability effects on the clock transition were investigated theoretically. With minimal trapping field perturbation provided by the blue-detuned lattice, the fractional uncertainty due to the hyperpolarizability effects was found to be 2x10{sup -19} in the relevant clock transition.
Optical-lattice Hamiltonians for relativistic quantum electrodynamics
Kapit, Eliot; Mueller, Erich
2011-03-15
We show how interpenetrating optical lattices containing Bose-Fermi mixtures can be constructed to emulate the thermodynamics of quantum electrodynamics (QED). We present models of neutral atoms on lattices in 1+1, 2+1, and 3+1 dimensions whose low-energy effective action reduces to that of photons coupled to Dirac fermions of the corresponding dimensionality. We give special attention to (2+1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED3) and discuss how two of its most interesting features, chiral symmetry breaking and Chern-Simons physics, could be observed experimentally.
Mixtures of strongly interacting bosons in optical lattices.
Buonsante, P; Giampaolo, S M; Illuminati, F; Penna, V; Vezzani, A
2008-06-20
We investigate the properties of strongly interacting heteronuclear boson-boson mixtures loaded in realistic optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the physics of interfaces. In particular, we numerically reproduce the recent experimental observation that the addition of a small fraction of 41K induces a significant loss of coherence in 87Rb, providing a simple explanation. We then investigate the robustness against the inhomogeneity typical of realistic experimental realizations of the glassy quantum emulsions recently predicted to occur in strongly interacting boson-boson mixtures on ideal homogeneous lattices. PMID:18643555
Label-free optical detection of bacteria on a 1-D photonic crystal of porous silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chia-Chen; Alvarez, Sara D.; Rang, Camilla U.; Chao, Lin; Sailor, Michael J.
2009-02-01
The construction of a specific, label-free, bacteria biosensor using porous silicon 1-D photonic crystals will be described. Bacteria resident on the surface of porous silicon act as scattering centers for light resonant with the photonic crystal; the diffusely scattered light possesses the optical spectrum of the underlying photonic crystal. Using a spectrometer fitted to a light microscope, the bacteria are imaged without using exogenous dyes or labels and are quantified by measuring the intensity of scattered light. In order to selectively bind and identify bacteria using porous Si, we use surface modifications to reduce nonspecific binding to the surface and to engineer bacteria specificity onto the surface. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was adsorbed to the porous Si surface to reduce nonspecific binding of bacteria. The coatings were then chemically activated to immobilize polyclonal antibodies specific to Escherichia coli. Two E. coli strains were used in our study, E. coli DH5α and non-pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strain. The nonpathogenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strain was used to test for antibody specificity. Successful attachment of antibodies was measured using fluorescence microscopy and the scattering method was used to test for bacteria binding specificity.
Measuring spin correlations in optical lattices using superlattice potentials
Pedersen, K. G. L.; Andersen, B. M.; Soerensen, A. S.; Bruun, G. M.; Syljuaasen, O. F.
2011-10-15
We suggest two experimental methods for probing both short- and long-range spin correlations of atoms in optical lattices using superlattice potentials. The first method involves an adiabatic doubling of the periodicity of the underlying lattice to probe neighboring singlet (triplet) correlations for fermions (bosons) by the occupation of the resulting vibrational ground state. The second method utilizes a time-dependent superlattice potential to generate spin-dependent transport by any number of prescribed lattice sites, and probes correlations by the resulting number of doubly occupied sites. For experimentally relevant parameters, we demonstrate how both methods yield large signatures of antiferromagnetic correlations of strongly repulsive fermionic atoms in a single shot of the experiment. Lastly, we show how this method may also be applied to probe d-wave pairing, a possible ground-state candidate for the doped repulsive Hubbard model.
Dynamical phase interferometry of cold atoms in optical lattices
London, Uri; Gat, Omri
2011-12-15
We study the propagation of cold-atom wave packets in an interferometer with a Mach-Zehnder topology based on the dynamical phase of Bloch oscillation in a weakly forced optical lattice with a narrow potential barrier that functions as a cold-atom wave-packet splitter. We calculate analytically the atomic wave function, and show that the expected number of atoms in the two outputs of the interferometer oscillates rapidly as a function of the angle between the potential barrier and the forcing direction with period proportional to the external potential difference across a lattice spacing divided by the lattice band energy scale. The interferometer can be used as a high-precision force probe whose principle of operation is different from current interferometers based on the overall position of Bloch oscillating wave packets.
Orso, G.; Stringari, S.; Menotti, C.
2006-11-10
We use Bogoliubov theory to calculate the beyond mean field correction to the equation of state of a weakly interacting Bose gas in the presence of a tight 2D optical lattice. We show that the lattice induces a characteristic 3D to 1D crossover in the behavior of quantum fluctuations. Using the hydrodynamic theory of superfluids, we calculate the corresponding shift of the collective frequencies of a harmonically trapped gas. We find that this correction can be of the order of a few percent and hence easily measurable in current experiments. The behavior of the quantum depletion of the condensate is also discussed.
A quantum gas of polar molecules in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moses, Steven A.
Ultracold polar molecules, because of their long-range, spatially anisotropic interactions, are a new quantum system in which to study novel many-body phenomena. In our lab, we have produced the first quantum gas of 40K 87Rb polar molecules. These molecules were found to undergo exothermic chemical reactions, and this led to interesting studies of chemistry near absolute zero. By creating the molecules at individual sites of a 3D optical lattice, we completely suppress these chemical reactions, and the polar molecule gas becomes stable and lives for tens of seconds. This thesis documents our efforts to explore coherent, many-body phenomena resulting from long-range dipolar interactions in the lattice. By encoding a spin-1/2 system in the rotational states of the molecules, we were able to realize spin-exchange interactions based on a spin Hamiltonian, which is one of the first steps in studying quantum magnetism with polar molecules. While this study was the first realization of such coherent dipolar interactions with polar molecules in a lattice, its full potential was limited by the low lattice filling fractions. Using our ability to exquisitely control the initial atomic gas mixture, we loaded a Mott insulator of Rb and a band insulator of K into the lattice. This quantum synthesis approach led to significantly higher molecular filling fractions and represents the first fully connected system of polar molecules in an optical lattice. This low-entropy quantum gas of polar molecules opens the door to interesting quantum simulations, which should be attainable in the next generation of the experiment.
Superlubric-pinned Aubry transition of two dimensional monolayers in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandelli, Davide; Vanossi, Andrea; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio
Two-dimensional (2D) crystalline colloidal monolayers sliding over a laser-induced optical lattice ``corrugation'' potential emulate friction between ideal crystal surfaces. Static friction is always present when the monolayer and the optical lattices are commensurate, but when they are incommensurate the presence or absence of static friction depends upon the system parameters. In 1D, at the Aubry dynamical phase transition the static friction goes continuously from zero (superlubricity) to finite as the periodic corrugation strength is increased. We look for the Aubry-like transition in the more realistic 2D case of a monolayer in an incommensurate periodic potential using molecular dynamics simulations. Results confirm a clear and sharp 2D superlubric-pinned transition upon increasing corrugation strength. Unlike the 1D Aubry transition which is continuous, the 2D transition is first-order, with a jump of static friction. At the 2D Aubry transition there is no change of symmetry, a sudden rise of the colloid-colloid interaction energy, and a compensating drop of the colloid-corrugation energy. The observability of the superlubric-pinned colloid transition is proposed and discussed. This work has been supported by ERC Advanced Grant N. 320796 MODPHYSFRICT.
Wannier functions using a discrete variable representation for optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paul, Saurabh; Tiesinga, Eite
2016-09-01
We propose a numerical method using the discrete variable representation (DVR) for constructing real-valued Wannier functions localized in a unit cell for both symmetric and asymmetric periodic potentials. We apply these results to finding Wannier functions for ultracold atoms trapped in laser-generated optical lattices. Following S. Kivelson [Phys. Rev. B 26, 4269 (1982), 10.1103/PhysRevB.26.4269], for a symmetric lattice with inversion symmetry, we construct Wannier functions as eigenstates of the position operators x ̂, y ̂, and z ̂ restricted to single-particle Bloch functions belonging to one or more bands. To ensure that the Wannier functions are real-valued, we numerically obtain the band structure and real-valued eigenstates using a uniform Fourier grid DVR. We then show, by a comparison of tunneling energies, that the Wannier functions are accurate for both inversion-symmetric and asymmetric potentials to better than 10 significant digits when using double-precision arithmetic. The calculations are performed for an optical lattice with double-wells per unit cell with tunable asymmetry along the x axis and a single sinusoidal potential along the perpendicular directions. Localized functions at the two potential minima within each unit cell are similarly constructed, but using a superposition of single-particle solutions from the two lowest bands. We finally use these localized basis functions to determine the two-body interaction energies in the Bose-Hubbard model and show the dependence of these energies on lattice asymmetry.
Ytterbium optical lattice clock with 10-18 level characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, Nathaniel; Sherman, Jeff; Beloy, Kyle; Hinkley, Nathan; Schioppo, Marco; Oates, Chris; Ludlow, Andrew
2014-05-01
A recent comparison of two ytterbium-based optical lattice clocks at NIST demonstrated record stability of 1 . 6 parts in 1018 after 25,000s averaging. We report on measurements of the two primary systematic effects that shift the ultra-narrow clock transition, towards a reduction of the clock uncertainty to the 10-18 level. Uncertainty stemming from the blackbody radiation (BBR) shift is largely due to imprecise knowledge of the thermal environment surrounding the atoms. We detail the construction and operation of an in-vacuum, thermally-regulated radiation shield, which permits laser cooling and trapping while enabling an absolute temperature measurement with < 20 mK precision. Additionally, while operation of the optical lattice at the magic wavelength (λm) cancels the scalar Stark shift (since both clock states shift equally), higher-order vector and two-photon hyperpolarizability shifts remain. To evaluate these effects, as well as the polarizability away from λm, we implement a lattice buildup cavity around the atoms. The resulting twenty-fold enhancement of the lattice intensity provides a significant lever arm for precise measurement of these effects.
Quasi-1D States Confined in a Self-Assembled Organic Super-Lattice of TTF-TCNQ on Ag(111)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeon, Seokmin; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Sumpter, Bobby; Cerdá, Jorge Iribas; Maksymovych, Petro; CNMS Team; ICMM-CSIC Team
2015-03-01
Organic charge transfer complexes (CTC) have drawn much attention due to their potential applications to conducting or semiconducting organic thin films and contacts in devices. TTF-TCNQ is a historic organic CTC with one of the highest conductivity values among numerous organic conductors. As a two-component molecular material, TTF-TCNQ in a low-dimension form on a surface naturally creates monolayer super-lattices with corrugated electrostatic potential and adsorbate-induced strain. Generally this will lead to strong confinement of the surface states, although the detailed response of the surface electronic structure remains to be understood. We investigated TTF-TCNQ monolayer films grown on Ag(111), Au(111) and Ag(100) surfaces using STM/STS at 4.3 K. Confinement of sp-derived surface states was indeed ubiquitous, including spontaneous formation of quantum dots and quasi-1D bands. The small periodicity of the lattice caused a complete depopulation of the surface states, with up to 1 eV upshift of the band minimum - much stronger effect than normally observed in assemblies. This also allows us to infer the height of the confining potential using 1D Kronig-Penney model and critically assess the long-standing problem of molecule-surface charge transfer. A portion of this research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.
Superfluid and Insulating Phases of Fermion Mixtures in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iskin, M.; de Melo, C. A. R. Sá
2007-08-01
The ground state phase diagram of fermion mixtures in optical lattices is analyzed as a function of interaction strength, fermion filling factor, and tunneling parameters. In addition to standard superfluid, phase-separated or coexisting superfluid excess-fermion phases found in homogeneous or harmonically trapped systems, fermions in optical lattices have several insulating phases, including a molecular Bose-Mott insulator (BMI), a Fermi-Pauli (band) insulator (FPI), a phase-separated BMI-FPI mixture or a Bose-Fermi checkerboard (BFC). The molecular BMI phase is the fermion mixture counterpart of the atomic BMI found in atomic Bose systems, the BFC or BMI-FPI phases exist in Bose-Fermi mixtures, and lastly the FPI phase is particular to the Fermi nature of the constituent atoms of the mixture.
Towards exciting a Rydberg gas in optical lattices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manjappa, Manukumara; Han, Jingshan; Guo, Ruixiang; Vogt, Thibault; Li, Wenhui; Quantum Matter Group Team
2013-05-01
Rydberg atoms are highly excited atoms with principal quantum number n >10. They have exaggerated properties such as large dipole moment and high polarizability. Large dipole-dipole interactions between Rydberg atoms, which lead to Rydberg blockade and giant non linearity, provide unique opportunities for studying quantum many-body physics. Rydberg excitation of ground state quantum gas in optical lattices has already shown the formation of spatially organized structures and Rydberg dressed systems are promising for entering the strongly correlated regime. Our current project is to study the collective excitation to Rydberg states from a quantum gas of ground state atoms in an optical lattice. In this poster we present the latest development in building up the experimental apparatus and our plans on spectroscopic measurements and spatially imaging of Rydberg excitations. Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore.
Dynamic response of trapped ultracold bosons on optical lattices
Batrouni, G.G.; Assaad, F.F.; Scalettar, R.T.; Denteneer, P.J.H.
2005-09-15
We study the dynamic response of ultracold bosons trapped in one-dimensional optical lattices using Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the boson Hubbard model with a confining potential. The dynamic structure factor reveals the inhomogeneous nature of the low temperature state, which contains coexisting Mott insulator and superfluid regions. We present new evidence for local quantum criticality and discuss implications for the experimental excitation spectrum of {sup 87}Rb atoms confined in one dimension.
Self-similar solitary waves in Bessel optical lattices
Xu Siliu; Liang Jianchu; Yi Lin
2010-01-15
An analytical solitary wave solution to the generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE) with varying coefficients in Bessel optical lattices is obtained based on the self-similar method. Our results indicate that a new family of Bessel (BSL) self-similar spatial solitons can be formed in the Kerr nonlinear media in the confined cylindrical symmetric geometry in sizes. These soliton profiles are rather stable, independent of propagation distance.
Hyperfine spectra of trapped bosons in optical lattices
Hazzard, Kaden R. A.; Mueller, Erich J.
2007-12-15
We calculate the interaction induced inhomogeneous broadening of spectral lines in a trapped Bose gas as a function of the depth of a three-dimensional cubic optical lattice. As observed in recent experiments, we find that the terraced 'wedding-cake' structure of Mott plateaus splits the spectrum into a series of discrete peaks. The spectra are extremely sensitive to density corrugations and trap anharmonicities. For example, even when the majority of the cloud is superfluid the spectrum displays discrete peaks.
Dynamics of Hubbard-Band Quasiparticles in Disordered Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scarola, Vito; Demarco, Brian
Recent experiments use transport of degenerate Fermi gases in optical lattices (Kondov et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 083002 (2015) to probe the interplay of disorder and strong interactions. These experiments find evidence for an intriguing insulating phase where quantum diffusion is completely suppressed by strong disorder. Quantitative interpretation of these experiments remains an open problem that requires inclusion of non-zero entropy, strong interaction, and trapping in an Anderson-Hubbard model. We construct a theory of dynamics of Hubbard-band quasiparticles tailored to trapped optical lattice experiments. We compare the theory directly with center-of-mass transport experiments of Kondov et al. with no fitting parameters. The close agreement between theory and experiments shows that the suppression of transport is only partly due to finite entropy effects. We argue that the complete suppression of transport is consistent with short-time, finite size precursors of Anderson localization of Hubbard-band quasiparticles. The combination of our theoretical framework and optical lattice experiments offers an important platform for studying localization in isolated many-body quantum systems. V.W.S. acknowledges support from AFOSR under Grant FA9550-11-1-0313.
Artificial Staggered Magnetic Field for Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morais Smith, Cristiane
2011-03-01
Uniform magnetic fields are ubiquitous in nature, but this is not the case for staggered magnetic fields. In this talk, I will discuss an experimental set-up for cold atoms recently proposed by us, which allows for the realization of a ``staggered gauge field'' in a 2D square optical lattice. If the lattice is loaded with bosons, it may be described by an effective Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian, with complex and anisotropic hopping coefficients. A very rich phase diagram emerges: besides the usual Mott-insulator and zero-momentum condensate, a new phase with a finite momentum condensate becomes the ground-state at strong gauge fields. By using the technique of Feshbach resonance, the dynamics of a coherent superposition of a vortex-carrying atomic condensate and a conventional zero-momentum molecular condensate can also be studied within the same scheme. On the other hand, if the lattice is loaded with fermions, a highly tunable, graphene-like band structure can be realized, without requiring the honeycomb lattice symmetry. When the system is loaded with a mixture of bosons and two-species fermions, several features of the high-Tc phase diagram can be reproduced. A dome-shaped unconventional superconducting region arises, surrounded by a non-Fermi liquid and a Fermi liquid at low and high doping, respectively. We acknowledge financial support from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).
Optical to microwave clock frequency ratios with a nearly continuous strontium optical lattice clock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lodewyck, Jérôme; Bilicki, Sławomir; Bookjans, Eva; Robyr, Jean-Luc; Shi, Chunyan; Vallet, Grégoire; Le Targat, Rodolphe; Nicolodi, Daniele; Le Coq, Yann; Guéna, Jocelyne; Abgrall, Michel; Rosenbusch, Peter; Bize, Sébastien
2016-08-01
Optical lattice clocks are at the forefront of frequency metrology. Both the instability and systematic uncertainty of these clocks have been reported to be two orders of magnitude smaller than the best microwave clocks. For this reason, a redefinition of the SI second based on optical clocks seems possible in the near future. However, the operation of optical lattice clocks has not yet reached the reliability that microwave clocks have achieved so far. In this paper, we report on the operation of a strontium optical lattice clock that spans several weeks, with more than 80% uptime. We make use of this long integration time to demonstrate a reproducible measurement of frequency ratios between the strontium clock transition and microwave Cs primary and Rb secondary frequency standards.
Optical lattice modulation spectroscopy for spin-orbit coupled bosons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Sarkar, Sangita; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Sengupta, K.
2015-11-01
Interacting bosons with two "spin" states in a lattice show superfluid-insulator phase transitions in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. Depending on the parameter regime, bosons in the superfluid phase can condense to either a zero-momentum state or to one or multiple states with finite momentum, leading to an unconventional superfluid phase. We study the response of such a system to modulation of the optical lattice potential. We show that the change in momentum distribution after lattice modulation shows distinct patterns in the Mott and the superfluid phase and these patterns can be used to detect these phases and the quantum phase transition between them. Further, the momentum-resolved optical modulation spectroscopy can identify both the gapless (Goldstone) and gapped amplitude (Higgs) mode of the superfluid phase and clearly distinguish between the superfluid phases with a zero-momentum condensate and a twisted superfluid phase by looking at the location of these modes in the Brillouin zone. We discuss experiments which can test our theory.
Probing many-body interactions in an optical lattice clock
Rey, A.M.; Gorshkov, A.V.; Kraus, C.V.; Martin, M.J.; Bishof, M.; Swallows, M.D.; Zhang, X.; Benko, C.; Ye, J.; Lemke, N.D.; Ludlow, A.D.
2014-01-15
We present a unifying theoretical framework that describes recently observed many-body effects during the interrogation of an optical lattice clock operated with thousands of fermionic alkaline earth atoms. The framework is based on a many-body master equation that accounts for the interplay between elastic and inelastic p-wave and s-wave interactions, finite temperature effects and excitation inhomogeneity during the quantum dynamics of the interrogated atoms. Solutions of the master equation in different parameter regimes are presented and compared. It is shown that a general solution can be obtained by using the so called Truncated Wigner Approximation which is applied in our case in the context of an open quantum system. We use the developed framework to model the density shift and decay of the fringes observed during Ramsey spectroscopy in the JILA {sup 87}Sr and NIST {sup 171}Yb optical lattice clocks. The developed framework opens a suitable path for dealing with a variety of strongly-correlated and driven open-quantum spin systems. -- Highlights: •Derived a theoretical framework that describes many-body effects in a lattice clock. •Validated the analysis with recent experimental measurements. •Demonstrated the importance of beyond mean field corrections in the dynamics.
Optical lattices with exceptional points in the continuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longhi, Stefano; Della Valle, Giuseppe
2014-05-01
The spectral, dynamical, and topological properties of physical systems described by non-Hermitian (including PT-symmetric) Hamiltonians are deeply modified by the appearance of exceptional points and spectral singularities. Here we show that exceptional points in the continuum can arise in non-Hermitian (yet admitting an entirely real-valued energy spectrum) optical lattices with engineered defects. At an exceptional point, the lattice sustains a bound state with an energy embedded in the spectrum of scattered states, similar to the von Neumann-Wigner bound states in the continuum of Hermitian lattices. However, the dynamical and scattering properties of the bound state at an exceptional point are deeply different from those of ordinary von Neumann-Wigner bound states in a Hermitian system. In particular, the bound state in the continuum at an exceptional point is an unstable state that can secularly grow by an infinitesimal perturbation. Such properties are discussed in details for transport of discretized light in a PT-symmetric array of coupled optical waveguides, which could provide an experimentally accessible system to observe exceptional points in the continuum.
Light scattering by ultracold atoms in an optical lattice
Rist, Stefan; Menotti, Chiara; Morigi, Giovanna
2010-01-15
We investigate theoretically light scattering of photons by ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in the linear regime. A full quantum theory for the atom-photon interactions is developed as a function of the atomic state in the lattice along the Mott-insulator-superfluid phase transition, and the photonic-scattering cross section is evaluated as a function of the energy and of the direction of emission. The predictions of this theory are compared with the theoretical results of a recent work on Bragg scattering in time-of-flight measurements [A.M. Rey et al., Phys. Rev. A 72, 023407 (2005)]. We show that, when performing Bragg spectroscopy with light scattering, the photon recoil gives rise to an additional atomic site-to-site hopping, which can interfere with ordinary tunneling of matter waves and can significantly affect the photonic-scattering cross section.
Tunneling, diffusion, and dissociation of Feshbach molecules in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bailey, Taylor; Bertulani, Carlos A.; Timmermans, Eddy
2012-03-01
The quantum dynamics of an ultracold diatomic molecule tunneling and diffusing in a one-dimensional optical lattice exhibits unusual features. While it is known that the process of quantum tunneling through potential barriers can break up a bound-state molecule into a pair of dissociated atoms, interference and reassociation produce intricate patterns in the time-evolving site-dependent probability distribution for finding atoms and bound-state molecules. We find that the bound-state molecule is unusually resilient against break up at ultralow binding energy Eb (Eb much smaller than the barrier height of the lattice potential). After an initial transient, the bound-state molecule spreads with a width that grows as the square root of time. Surprisingly, the width of the probability of finding dissociated atoms does not increase with time as a power law.
Dynamical properties of ultracold bosons in an optical lattice
Huber, S. D.; Blatter, G.; Altman, E.; Buechler, H. P.
2007-02-15
We study the excitation spectrum of strongly correlated lattice bosons for the Mott-insulating phase and for the superfluid phase close to localization. Within a Schwinger-boson mean-field approach we find two gapped modes in the Mott insulator and the combination of a sound mode (Goldstone) and a gapped (Higgs) mode in the superfluid. To make our findings comparable with experimental results, we calculate the dynamic structure factor as well as the linear response to the optical lattice modulation introduced by Stoeferle et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 130403 (2004)]. We find that the puzzling finite frequency absorption observed in the superfluid phase could be explained via the excitation of the gapped (Higgs) mode. We check the consistency of our results with an adapted f-sum rule and propose an extension of the experimental technique by Stoeferle et al. to further verify our findings.
Synthetic Spin-Orbit Coupling in an Optical Lattice Clock.
Wall, Michael L; Koller, Andrew P; Li, Shuming; Zhang, Xibo; Cooper, Nigel R; Ye, Jun; Rey, Ana Maria
2016-01-22
We propose the use of optical lattice clocks operated with fermionic alkaline-earth atoms to study spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in interacting many-body systems. The SOC emerges naturally during the clock interrogation, when atoms are allowed to tunnel and accumulate a phase set by the ratio of the "magic" lattice wavelength to the clock transition wavelength. We demonstrate how standard protocols such as Rabi and Ramsey spectroscopy that take advantage of the sub-Hertz resolution of state-of-the-art clock lasers can perform momentum-resolved band tomography and determine SOC-induced s-wave collisions in nuclear-spin-polarized fermions. With the use of a second counterpropagating clock beam, we propose a method for engineering controlled atomic transport and study how it is modified by p- and s-wave interactions. The proposed spectroscopic probes provide clean and well-resolved signatures at current clock operating temperatures. PMID:26849600
One-dimensional optical lattices and impenetrable bosons
Cazalilla, M.A. |
2003-05-01
We study the limit of large on-site repulsion of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model at low densities, and derive a strong-coupling effective Hamiltonian. By taking the lattice parameter to zero, the Hamiltonian becomes a continuum model of fermions with attractive interactions. The leading corrections to the internal energy of a hard-core-boson (Tonks) gas as well as the (finite temperature) pair correlations of a strongly interacting Bose gas are calculated. We explore the possibility of realizing, in an optical lattice, a Luttinger liquid with stronger density correlations than the Tonks gas. A quantum phase transition to a charge-density-wave Mott insulator is also discussed.
Synthetic Spin-Orbit Coupling in an Optical Lattice Clock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wall, Michael L.; Koller, Andrew P.; Li, Shuming; Zhang, Xibo; Cooper, Nigel R.; Ye, Jun; Rey, Ana Maria
2016-01-01
We propose the use of optical lattice clocks operated with fermionic alkaline-earth atoms to study spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in interacting many-body systems. The SOC emerges naturally during the clock interrogation, when atoms are allowed to tunnel and accumulate a phase set by the ratio of the "magic" lattice wavelength to the clock transition wavelength. We demonstrate how standard protocols such as Rabi and Ramsey spectroscopy that take advantage of the sub-Hertz resolution of state-of-the-art clock lasers can perform momentum-resolved band tomography and determine SOC-induced s -wave collisions in nuclear-spin-polarized fermions. With the use of a second counterpropagating clock beam, we propose a method for engineering controlled atomic transport and study how it is modified by p - and s -wave interactions. The proposed spectroscopic probes provide clean and well-resolved signatures at current clock operating temperatures.
Spin Gradient Thermometry for Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices
Weld, David M.; Medley, Patrick; Miyake, Hirokazu; Hucul, David; Pritchard, David E.; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2009-12-11
We demonstrate spin gradient thermometry, a new general method of measuring the temperature of ultracold atoms in optical lattices. We realize a mixture of spins separated by a magnetic field gradient. Measurement of the width of the transition layer between the two spin domains serves as a new method of thermometry which is observed to work over a broad range of lattice depths and temperatures, including in the Mott insulator regime. We demonstrate the thermometry using ultracold rubidium atoms, and suggest that interesting spin physics can be realized in this system. The lowest measured temperature is 1 nK, indicating that the system has reached the quantum regime, where insulating shells are separated by superfluid layers.
Birefringent breakup of Dirac fermions on a square optical lattice
Kennett, Malcolm P.; Komeilizadeh, Nazanin; Kaveh, Kamran; Smith, Peter M.
2011-05-15
We introduce a lattice model for fermions in a spatially periodic magnetic field that also has spatially periodic hopping amplitudes. We discuss how this model might be realized with cold atoms in an artificial magnetic field on a square optical lattice. When there is an average flux of half a flux quantum per plaquette, the spectrum of low-energy excitations can be described by massless Dirac fermions in which the usually doubly degenerate Dirac cones split into cones with different ''speeds of light.'' These gapless birefringent Dirac fermions arise because of broken chiral symmetry in the kinetic energy term of the effective low-energy Hamiltonian. We characterize the effects of various perturbations to the low-energy spectrum, including staggered potentials, interactions, and domain-wall topological defects.
Optical lattice clock with atoms confined in a shallow trap
Lemonde, Pierre; Wolf, Peter
2005-09-15
We study the trap depth requirement for the realization of an optical clock using atoms confined in a lattice. We show that site-to-site tunneling leads to a residual sensitivity to the atom dynamics hence requiring large depths [(50-100)E{sub r} for Sr] to avoid any frequency shift or line broadening of the atomic transition at the 10{sup -17}-10{sup -18} level. Such large depths and the corresponding laser power may, however, lead to difficulties (e.g., higher-order light shifts, two-photon ionization, technical difficulties) and therefore one would like to operate the clock in much shallower traps. To circumvent this problem we propose the use of an accelerated lattice. Acceleration lifts the degeneracy between adjacents potential wells which strongly inhibits tunneling. We show that using the Earth's gravity, much shallower traps (down to 5E{sub r} for Sr) can be used for the same accuracy goal.
Zeptonewton force sensing with nanospheres in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranjit, Gambhir; Cunningham, Mark; Casey, Kirsten; Geraci, Andrew A.
2016-05-01
Optically trapped nanospheres in high vacuum experience little friction and hence are promising for ultrasensitive force detection. Here we demonstrate measurement times exceeding 105 s and zeptonewton force sensitivity with laser-cooled silica nanospheres trapped in an optical lattice. The sensitivity achieved exceeds that of conventional room-temperature solid-state force sensors by over an order of magnitude, and enables a variety of applications including electric-field sensing, inertial sensing, and gravimetry. The particle is confined at the antinodes of the optical standing wave, and by studying the motion of a particle which has been moved to an adjacent trapping site, the known spacing of the antinodes can be used to calibrate the displacement spectrum of the particle. Finally, we study the dependence of the trap stability and lifetime on the laser intensity and gas pressure, and examine the heating rate of the particle in vacuum without feedback cooling.
Development of 171Yb optical lattice clock at KRISS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mun, Jongchul; Park, Chang Yong; Yu, Dai-Hyuk; Lee, Won-Kyu; Eon Park, Sang; Kwon, Taeg Yong; Lee, Sang-Bum
2012-06-01
We measured the absolute frequency of the optical clock transition 1S0 (F = 1/2) - 3P0 (F = 1/2) of 171Yb atoms confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice and it was determined to be 518 295 836 590 865.7 (9.2) Hz. The measured frequency was calibrated to the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) by using an optical frequency comb of which frequency was phase-locked to a hydrogen maser as a flywheel oscillator traceable to the UTC. The magic wavelength was also measured as 394 798.48 (79) GHz. The results are in good agreement with two previous measurements of other institutes within the specified uncertainty of this work.
Quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories using ultracold atoms in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Reznik, Benni
2016-01-01
Can high-energy physics be simulated by low-energy, non-relativistic, many-body systems such as ultracold atoms? Such ultracold atomic systems lack the type of symmetries and dynamical properties of high energy physics models: in particular, they manifest neither local gauge invariance nor Lorentz invariance, which are crucial properties of the quantum field theories which are the building blocks of the standard model of elementary particles. However, it turns out, surprisingly, that there are ways to configure an atomic system to manifest both local gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. In particular, local gauge invariance can arise either as an effective low-energy symmetry, or as an exact symmetry, following from the conservation laws in atomic interactions. Hence, one could hope that such quantum simulators may lead to a new type of (table-top) experiments which will be used to study various QCD (quantum chromodynamics) phenomena, such as the confinement of dynamical quarks, phase transitions and other effects, which are inaccessible using the currently known computational methods. In this report, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of lattice gauge theories, and then describe our recent progress in constructing the quantum simulation of Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge theories in 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 dimensions using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.
Quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.
Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J Ignacio; Reznik, Benni
2016-01-01
Can high-energy physics be simulated by low-energy, non-relativistic, many-body systems such as ultracold atoms? Such ultracold atomic systems lack the type of symmetries and dynamical properties of high energy physics models: in particular, they manifest neither local gauge invariance nor Lorentz invariance, which are crucial properties of the quantum field theories which are the building blocks of the standard model of elementary particles. However, it turns out, surprisingly, that there are ways to configure an atomic system to manifest both local gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. In particular, local gauge invariance can arise either as an effective low-energy symmetry, or as an exact symmetry, following from the conservation laws in atomic interactions. Hence, one could hope that such quantum simulators may lead to a new type of (table-top) experiments which will be used to study various QCD (quantum chromodynamics) phenomena, such as the confinement of dynamical quarks, phase transitions and other effects, which are inaccessible using the currently known computational methods. In this report, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of lattice gauge theories, and then describe our recent progress in constructing the quantum simulation of Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge theories in 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 dimensions using ultracold atoms in optical lattices. PMID:26684222
Dynamical phase diagram of Gaussian wave packets in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennig, H.; Neff, T.; Fleischmann, R.
2016-03-01
We study the dynamics of self-trapping in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) loaded in deep optical lattices with Gaussian initial conditions, when the dynamics is well described by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE). In the literature an approximate dynamical phase diagram based on a variational approach was introduced to distinguish different dynamical regimes: diffusion, self-trapping, and moving breathers. However, we find that the actual DNLSE dynamics shows a completely different diagram than the variational prediction. We calculate numerically a detailed dynamical phase diagram accurately describing the different dynamical regimes. It exhibits a complex structure that can readily be tested in current experiments in BECs in optical lattices and in optical waveguide arrays. Moreover, we derive an explicit theoretical estimate for the transition to self-trapping in excellent agreement with our numerical findings, which may be a valuable guide as well for future studies on a quantum dynamical phase diagram based on the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian.
Proposals for quantum simulating simple lattice gauge theory models using optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jin; Unmuth-Yockey, Judah; Bazavov, Alexei; Meurice, Yannick; Tsai, Shan-Wen
We derive an effective spin Hamiltonian for the (1 +1)-dimensional Abelian Higgs model in the strongly coupled region by integrating out the link variables. With finite spin truncations, the Hamiltonian can be matched with a 1-dimensional two-species Bose Hubbard model in the strong-coupling limit that can be implemented with cold atoms on an optical lattice. We study the phase diagram of the original Abelian Higgs model with Monte Carlo simulation and Tensor Renormalization Group methods. The results show a crossover line which terminates near the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition point. The effective quantum Hamiltonian is also studied with the DMRG method, and we find that they have a similar behavior. We discuss practical experimental implementations for our quantum simulator. Species-dependent optical lattices and ladder systems with double-well potentials are considered. We show how to obtain each of the interaction parameters required in the Bose-Hubbard model that we obtained, and confirm the possibility of tuning these interactions to the region in which our mapping is valid. We emphasize that this proposal for quantum simulating a gauge theory uses a manifestly gauge-invariant formulation and Gauss's Law is therefore automatically satisfied. Supported by DoD ARO under Grant No. W911NF-13-1-0119 and by the NSF under Grants No. DMR-1411345.
Investigating Cold Atom Transport in Optical Lattices and Ratchets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Shan; Clements, Ethan; Pollock, Zach; Rapp, Anthony; Ross, Preston; Hachtel, Andrew; Bali, Samir
2015-05-01
We experimentally investigate cold atom transport in optical lattices and ratchets in an undergraduate setting using home-built laser and imaging systems. It is well-known that the transport properties exhibited in these situations by ultracold atoms depart from the usual framework of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics. We describe methods to quantify these departures by tracking the atomic momentum and spatial distribution, and measuring the ``dwell time'' and ``crossover time,'' respectively, in a particular well and between wells. We gratefully acknowledge funding from Miami University Physics Department.
Wilson fermions and axion electrodynamics in optical lattices.
Bermudez, A; Mazza, L; Rizzi, M; Goldman, N; Lewenstein, M; Martin-Delgado, M A
2010-11-01
We show that ultracold Fermi gases in optical superlattices can be used as quantum simulators of relativistic lattice fermions in 3+1 dimensions. By exploiting laser-assisted tunneling, we find an analogue of the so-called naive Dirac fermions, and thus provide a realization of the fermion doubling problem. Moreover, we show how to implement Wilson fermions, and discuss how their mass can be inverted by tuning the laser intensities. In this regime, our atomic gas corresponds to a phase of matter where Maxwell electrodynamics is replaced by axion electrodynamics: a 3D topological insulator.
Floquet engineering with quasienergy bands of periodically driven optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holthaus, Martin
2016-01-01
A primer on the Floquet theory of periodically time-dependent quantum systems is provided, and it is shown how to apply this framework for computing the quasienergy band structure governing the dynamics of ultracold atoms in driven optical cosine lattices. Such systems are viewed here as spatially and temporally periodic structures living in an extended Hilbert space, giving rise to spatio-temporal Bloch waves whose dispersion relations can be manipulated at will by exploiting ac-Stark shifts and multiphoton resonances. The elements required for numerical calculations are introduced in a tutorial manner, and some example calculations are discussed in detail, thereby illustrating future prospects of Floquet engineering.
Dynamics of Weyl quasiparticles in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhi; Wang, Huai-Qiang; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Xing, Ding-Yu
2016-10-01
We investigate the dynamics of the Weyl quasiparticles emerged in an optical lattice where the topological Weyl semimetal and trivial band insulator phases can be adjusted with the on-site energy. The evolution of the density distribution is demonstrated to have an anomalous velocity in the Weyl semimetal but a steady Zitterbewegung effect in the band insulator. Our analysis demonstrates that the chirality of the system can be directly determined from the positions of the atomic center of mass. Furthermore, the amplitude and the period of the relativistic Zitterbewegung oscillations are shown to be observable with the time-of-flight experiments.
Defect-mediated discrete solitons in optically induced photorefractive lattices
Li Yongyao; Pang Wei; Chen Yongzhu; Yu Zhiqiang; Zhou Jianying; Zhang Huarong
2009-10-15
Theoretical analysis to the defect mediated discrete solitons in one- and two-dimensional periodical waveguide lattices is presented. The waveguide arrays with these functional defects are assumed to respond to the light field as an optically induced photorefraction and they are patterned by a holographic technique. It is found that the spatial energy distributions of the solitary waves can be controlled by the defects in the waveguide arrays, and this gives rise to an additional freedom to externally shaping the light field distribution to a special shape.
Wilson Fermions and Axion Electrodynamics in Optical Lattices
Bermudez, A.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Mazza, L.; Rizzi, M.; Goldman, N.; Lewenstein, M.
2010-11-05
We show that ultracold Fermi gases in optical superlattices can be used as quantum simulators of relativistic lattice fermions in 3+1 dimensions. By exploiting laser-assisted tunneling, we find an analogue of the so-called naive Dirac fermions, and thus provide a realization of the fermion doubling problem. Moreover, we show how to implement Wilson fermions, and discuss how their mass can be inverted by tuning the laser intensities. In this regime, our atomic gas corresponds to a phase of matter where Maxwell electrodynamics is replaced by axion electrodynamics: a 3D topological insulator.
Artificial staggered magnetic field for ultracold atoms in optical lattices
Lim, Lih-King; Smith, C. Morais; Hemmerich, Andreas
2010-02-15
A time-dependent optical lattice with staggered particle current in the tight-binding regime was considered that can be described by a time-independent effective lattice model with an artificial staggered magnetic field. The low-energy description of a single-component fermion in this lattice at half-filling is provided by two copies of ideal two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions. The Dirac cones are generally anisotropic and can be tuned by the external staggered flux {phi}. For bosons, the staggered flux modifies the single-particle spectrum such that in the weak coupling limit, depending on the flux {phi}, distinct superfluid phases are realized. Their properties are discussed, the nature of the phase transitions between them is established, and Bogoliubov theory is used to determine their excitation spectra. Then the generalized superfluid-Mott-insulator transition is studied in the presence of the staggered flux and the complete phase diagram is established. Finally, the momentum distribution of the distinct superfluid phases is obtained, which provides a clear experimental signature of each phase in ballistic expansion experiments.
Observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wimmer, Martin; Regensburger, Alois; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Bersch, Christoph; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Peschel, Ulf
2015-07-01
Controlling light transport in nonlinear active environments is a topic of considerable interest in the field of optics. In such complex arrangements, of particular importance is to devise strategies to subdue chaotic behaviour even in the presence of gain/loss and nonlinearity, which often assume adversarial roles. Quite recently, notions of parity-time (PT) symmetry have been suggested in photonic settings as a means to enforce stable energy flow in platforms that simultaneously employ both amplification and attenuation. Here we report the experimental observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices. Unlike other non-conservative nonlinear arrangements where self-trapped states appear as fixed points in the parameter space of the governing equations, discrete PT solitons form a continuous parametric family of solutions. The possibility of synthesizing PT-symmetric saturable absorbers, where a nonlinear wave finds a lossless path through an otherwise absorptive system is also demonstrated.
Accurate Optical Lattice Clock with {sup 87}Sr Atoms
Le Targat, Rodolphe; Baillard, Xavier; Fouche, Mathilde; Brusch, Anders; Tcherbakoff, Olivier; Rovera, Giovanni D.; Lemonde, Pierre
2006-09-29
We report a frequency measurement of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition of {sup 87}Sr atoms in an optical lattice clock. The frequency is determined to be 429 228 004 229 879(5) Hz with a fractional uncertainty that is comparable to state-of-the-art optical clocks with neutral atoms in free fall. The two previous measurements of this transition were found to disagree by about 2x10{sup -13}, i.e., almost 4 times the combined error bar and 4 to 5 orders of magnitude larger than the claimed ultimate accuracy of this new type of clocks. Our measurement is in agreement with one of these two values and essentially resolves this discrepancy.
Generation and detection of atomic spin entanglement in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Han-Ning; Yang, Bing; Reingruber, Andreas; Xu, Xiao-Fan; Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Yu-Ao; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-08-01
Ultracold atoms in optical lattices hold promise for the creation of entangled states for quantum technologies. Here we report on the generation, manipulation and detection of atomic spin entanglement in an optical superlattice. Using a spin-dependent superlattice, atomic spins in the left or right sites can be individually addressed and coherently manipulated with near-unity fidelities by microwave pulses. The spin entanglement of the two atoms in the double wells of the superlattice is generated via the dynamical evolution governed by spin superexchange. By monitoring the collisional atom loss with in situ absorption imaging we measure the spin correlations of the atoms inside the double wells and obtain a lower bound on the entanglement fidelity of 0.79 +/- 0.06, and a violation of a Bell's inequality S = 2.21 +/- 0.08.
Observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices
Wimmer, Martin; Regensburger, Alois; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Bersch, Christoph; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Peschel, Ulf
2015-01-01
Controlling light transport in nonlinear active environments is a topic of considerable interest in the field of optics. In such complex arrangements, of particular importance is to devise strategies to subdue chaotic behaviour even in the presence of gain/loss and nonlinearity, which often assume adversarial roles. Quite recently, notions of parity-time (PT) symmetry have been suggested in photonic settings as a means to enforce stable energy flow in platforms that simultaneously employ both amplification and attenuation. Here we report the experimental observation of optical solitons in PT-symmetric lattices. Unlike other non-conservative nonlinear arrangements where self-trapped states appear as fixed points in the parameter space of the governing equations, discrete PT solitons form a continuous parametric family of solutions. The possibility of synthesizing PT-symmetric saturable absorbers, where a nonlinear wave finds a lossless path through an otherwise absorptive system is also demonstrated. PMID:26215165
Stability improvements for the NIST Yb optical lattice clock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fasano, R. J.; Schioppo, M.; McGrew, W. F.; Brown, R. C.; Hinkley, N.; Yoon, T. H.; Beloy, K.; Oates, C. W.; Ludlow, A. D.
2016-05-01
To reach the fundamental limit given by quantum projection noise, optical lattice clocks require advanced laser stabilization techniques. The NIST ytterbium clock has benefited from several generations of extremely high finesse optical cavities, with cavity linewidths below 1 kHz. Characterization of the cavity drift rate has allowed compensation to the mHz/s level, improving the medium-term stability of the cavity. Based on recent measurements using Ramsey spectroscopy with synchronous interrogation, we report a fractional instability σy(1s) <=10-16 , dominated by atom number fluctuation noise. We also provide updates on our cryogenic sapphire cavity with a reduced thermal noise floor, which will improve our Dick-limited fractional instability at 1 s to below 10-16. Also at University of Colorado.
Optical spectrum and local lattice structure for ruby
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, H.; Kuang, X.-Y.; Mao, A.-J.; Huang, X.-F.
2007-01-01
By diagonalizing the 120×120 complete energy matrices for d3 ion in trigonal crystal field, which contains the electrostatic interaction, the trigonal field as well as the spin-orbit interaction, the unified calculation of the whole optical and EPR spectra for ruby are made. And matrix elements of the Zeeman energy with the magnetic field parallel or perpendicular to the trigonal axis are introduced into the complete energy matrices for obtaining the g factors of the energy levels. It is concluded that zero-field splitting and optical spectra as well as g factors are in good agreement with the experimental data and the distorted local lattice structure is determined firstly results from a stretching of the O2- ions along the C3 axis. The pressure-induced shifts of energy levels, g factors and local lattice structure are also discussed. In particular, all the calculations are carried out successfully within the framework of the crystal-field model which is consistent with the opinion of Macfarlane and Sturge that if all terms within the d3 configuration are included, one need not go outside conventional crystal-field theory.
Quantum simulation of antiferromagnetic spin chains in an optical lattice.
Simon, Jonathan; Bakr, Waseem S; Ma, Ruichao; Tai, M Eric; Preiss, Philipp M; Greiner, Markus
2011-04-21
Understanding exotic forms of magnetism in quantum mechanical systems is a central goal of modern condensed matter physics, with implications for systems ranging from high-temperature superconductors to spintronic devices. Simulating magnetic materials in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition is computationally intractable on classical computers, owing to the extreme complexity arising from quantum entanglement between the constituent magnetic spins. Here we use a degenerate Bose gas of rubidium atoms confined in an optical lattice to simulate a chain of interacting quantum Ising spins as they undergo a phase transition. Strong spin interactions are achieved through a site-occupation to pseudo-spin mapping. As we vary a magnetic field, quantum fluctuations drive a phase transition from a paramagnetic phase into an antiferromagnetic phase. In the paramagnetic phase, the interaction between the spins is overwhelmed by the applied field, which aligns the spins. In the antiferromagnetic phase, the interaction dominates and produces staggered magnetic ordering. Magnetic domain formation is observed through both in situ site-resolved imaging and noise correlation measurements. By demonstrating a route to quantum magnetism in an optical lattice, this work should facilitate further investigations of magnetic models using ultracold atoms, thereby improving our understanding of real magnetic materials.
Micro-resonators coupled to atoms in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geraci, Andrew; Kitching, John
2010-03-01
Recently there has been a convergence of ideas between the fields of solid-state and atomic physics -- examples range from using atoms for quantum simulation of condensed-matter Hamiltonians to physically coupling atoms with solid-state devices such as micro-resonators. In this talk, we discuss an experimental proposal involving an array of cooled microcantilevers coupled to a sample of ultracold atoms trapped near a microfabricated surface [1]. The cantilevers allow individual lattice site addressing for atomic state control and readout, and potentially may be useful in optical lattice quantum computation schemes. Assuming resonators can be cooled to their vibrational ground state, we describe the implementation of a two-qubit controlled-NOT gate with atomic internal states and the motional states of the resonators, along with a protocol for entangling two or more cantilevers on the atom chip using the trapped atoms as an intermediary. Although similar experiments could be carried out with magnetic microchip traps, the optical confinement scheme we consider may exhibit reduced near-field magnetic noise and decoherence. Prospects for using this system for tests of quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales or quantum information processing will be discussed. [4pt] [1] A. Geraci and J. Kitching, Phys. Rev. A 80, 032317 (2009)
Acentric lattice electro-optic materials by rational design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalton, Larry; Robinson, Bruce; Jen, Alex; Ried, Philip; Eichinger, Bruce; Sullivan, Philip; Akelaitis, Andrew; Bale, Denise; Haller, Marnie; Luo, Jingdong; Liu, Sen; Liao, Yi; Firestone, Kimberly; Bhatambrekar, Nishant; Bhattacharjee, Sanchali; Sinness, Jessica; Hammond, Scott; Buker, Nicholas; Snoeberger, Robert; Lingwood, Mark; Rommel, Harry; Amend, Joe; Jang, Sei-Hum; Chen, Antao; Steier, William
2005-08-01
Quantum and statistical mechanical calculations have been used to guide the improvement of the macroscopic electro-optic activity of organic thin film materials to values greater than 300 pm/V at telecommunication wavelengths. Various quantum mechanical methods (Hartree-Fock, INDO, and density functional theory) have been benchmarked and shown to be reliable for estimating trends in molecular first hyperpolarizability, β, for simple variation of donor, bridge, and acceptor structures of charge-transfer (dipolar) chromophores. β values have been increased significantly over the past five years and quantum mechanical calculations suggest that they can be further significantly improved. Statistical mechanical calculations, including pseudo-atomistic Monte Carlo calculations, have guided the design of the super/supramolecular structures of chromophores so that they assemble, under the influence of electric field poling, into macroscopic lattices with high degrees of acentric order. Indeed, during the past year, chromophores doped into single- and multi-chromophore-containing dendrimer materials to form binary glasses have yielded thin films that exhibit electro-optic activities at telecommunication wavelengths of greater than 300 pm/V. Such materials may be viewed as intermediate between chromophore/polymer composites and crystalline organic chromophore materials. Theory suggests that further improvements of electro-optic activity are possible. Auxiliary properties of these materials, including optical loss, thermal and photochemical stability, and processability are discussed. Such organic electro-optic materials have been incorporated into silicon photonic circuitry for active wavelength division multiplexing, reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexing, and high bandwidth optical rectification. A variety of all-organic devices, including stripline, cascaded prism, Fabry-Perot etalon, and ring microresonator devices, have been fabricated and evaluated.
Generalized 1D photopyroelectric technique for optical and thermal characterization of liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balderas-López, J. A.
2012-06-01
The analytical solution for the one-dimensional heat diffusion problem for a three-layer system, in the Beer-Lambert model for light absorption, is used for the implementation of a photopyroelectric (PPE) methodology for thermal and optical characterization of pigments in liquid solution, even for those ones potentially harmful to the pyroelectric sensor, taking the liquid sample's thickness as the only variable. Exponential decay of the PPE amplitude followed by a constant PPE phase for solutions at low pigment concentration, and exponential decay of the PPE amplitude but a linear decrease of the PPE phase for the concentrated ones are theoretically shown, allowing measurements of the optical absorption coefficient (at the wavelength used for the analysis) and the thermal diffusivity for the liquid sample, respectively. This PPE methodology was tested by measuring the thermal diffusivity of a concentrated solution of methylene blue in distilled water and the optical absorption coefficient, at two wavelengths (658 and 785 nm), of water solutions of copper sulfate at various concentrations. These optical parameters were used for measuring the molar absorption coefficient of this last pigment in water solution at these two wavelengths. This last optical property was also measured using a commercial spectrometer, finding very good agreement with the corresponding ones using this PPE technique.
Squeezing out the entropy of fermions in optical lattices
Ho, Tin-Lun; Zhou, Qi
2009-01-01
At present, there is considerable interest in using atomic fermions in optical lattices to emulate the mathematical models that have been used to study strongly correlated electronic systems. Some of these models, such as the 2-dimensional fermion Hubbard model, are notoriously difficult to solve, and their key properties remain controversial despite decades of studies. It is hoped that the emulation experiments will shed light on some of these long-standing problems. A successful emulation, however, requires reaching temperatures as low as 10−12 K and beyond, with entropy per particle far lower than what can be achieved today. Achieving such low-entropy states is an essential step and a grand challenge of the whole emulation enterprise. In this article, we point out a method to literally squeeze the entropy out from a Fermi gas into a surrounding Bose–Einstein condensed gas, which acts as a heat reservoir. This method allows one to reduce the entropy per particle of a lattice Fermi gas to a few percent of the lowest value obtainable today. PMID:19365065
State diagrams for harmonically trapped bosons in optical lattices
Rigol, Marcos; Batrouni, George G.; Rousseau, Valery G.; Scalettar, Richard T.
2009-05-15
We use quantum Monte Carlo simulations to obtain zero-temperature state diagrams for strongly correlated lattice bosons in one and two dimensions under the influence of a harmonic confining potential. Since harmonic traps generate a coexistence of superfluid and Mott insulating domains, we use local quantities such as the quantum fluctuations of the density and a local compressibility to identify the phases present in the inhomogeneous density profiles. We emphasize the use of the 'characteristic density' to produce a state diagram that is relevant to experimental optical lattice systems, regardless of the number of bosons or trap curvature and of the validity of the local-density approximation. We show that the critical value of U/t at which Mott insulating domains appear in the trap depends on the filling in the system, and it is in general greater than the value in the homogeneous system. Recent experimental results by Spielman et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 120402 (2008)] are analyzed in the context of our two-dimensional state diagram, and shown to exhibit a value for the critical point in good agreement with simulations. We also study the effects of finite, but low (T{<=}t/2), temperatures. We find that in two dimensions they have little influence on our zero-temperature results, while their effect is more pronounced in one dimension.
Phases of d-orbital bosons in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinheiro, Fernanda; Matrikainen, Jani-Petri; Larson, Jonas
2015-05-01
We explore the properties of bosonic atoms loaded into the d bands of an isotropic square optical lattice. Following the recent experimental success reported in Zhai et al (2013 Phys. Rev. A 87 063638), in which populating d bands with a 99 % fidelity was demonstrated, we present a theoretical study of the possible phases that can appear in this system. Using the Gutzwiller ansatz for the three d band orbitals we map the boundaries of the Mott insulating phases. For not too large occupation, two of the orbitals are predominantly occupied, while the third, of a slightly higher energy, remains almost unpopulated. In this regime, in the superfluid phase we find the formation of a vortex lattice, where the vortices come in vortex/anti-vortex pairs with two pairs locked to every site. Due to the orientation of the vortices time-reversal symmetry is spontaneously broken. This state also breaks a discrete {{{Z}}2}-symmetry. We further derive an effective spin-1/2 model that describe the relevant physics of the lowest Mott-phase with unit filling. We argue that the corresponding two dimensional phase diagram should be rich with several different phases. We also explain how to generate anti-symmetric spin interactions that can give rise to novel effects like spin canting.
Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks.
Le Targat, R; Lorini, L; Le Coq, Y; Zawada, M; Guéna, J; Abgrall, M; Gurov, M; Rosenbusch, P; Rovera, D G; Nagórny, B; Gartman, R; Westergaard, P G; Tobar, M E; Lours, M; Santarelli, G; Clairon, A; Bize, S; Laurent, P; Lemonde, P; Lodewyck, J
2013-01-01
Progress in realizing the SI second had multiple technological impacts and enabled further constraint of theoretical models in fundamental physics. Caesium microwave fountains, realizing best the second according to its current definition with a relative uncertainty of 2-4 × 10(-16), have already been overtaken by atomic clocks referenced to an optical transition, which are both more stable and more accurate. Here we present an important step in the direction of a possible new definition of the second. Our system of five clocks connects with an unprecedented consistency the optical and the microwave worlds. For the first time, two state-of-the-art strontium optical lattice clocks are proven to agree within their accuracy budget, with a total uncertainty of 1.5 × 10(-16). Their comparison with three independent caesium fountains shows a degree of accuracy now only limited by the best realizations of the microwave-defined second, at the level of 3.1 × 10(-16).
Experimental realization of an optical second with strontium lattice clocks.
Le Targat, R; Lorini, L; Le Coq, Y; Zawada, M; Guéna, J; Abgrall, M; Gurov, M; Rosenbusch, P; Rovera, D G; Nagórny, B; Gartman, R; Westergaard, P G; Tobar, M E; Lours, M; Santarelli, G; Clairon, A; Bize, S; Laurent, P; Lemonde, P; Lodewyck, J
2013-01-01
Progress in realizing the SI second had multiple technological impacts and enabled further constraint of theoretical models in fundamental physics. Caesium microwave fountains, realizing best the second according to its current definition with a relative uncertainty of 2-4 × 10(-16), have already been overtaken by atomic clocks referenced to an optical transition, which are both more stable and more accurate. Here we present an important step in the direction of a possible new definition of the second. Our system of five clocks connects with an unprecedented consistency the optical and the microwave worlds. For the first time, two state-of-the-art strontium optical lattice clocks are proven to agree within their accuracy budget, with a total uncertainty of 1.5 × 10(-16). Their comparison with three independent caesium fountains shows a degree of accuracy now only limited by the best realizations of the microwave-defined second, at the level of 3.1 × 10(-16). PMID:23839206
Frequency comparison of optical lattice clocks beyond the Dick limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takamoto, Masao; Takano, Tetsushi; Katori, Hidetoshi
2011-05-01
The supreme accuracy of atomic clocks relies on the universality of atomic transition frequencies. The stability of a clock, meanwhile, measures how quickly the clock's statistical uncertainties are reduced. The ultimate measure of stability is provided by the quantum projection noise, which improves as 1/√N by measuring N uncorrelated atoms. Quantum projection noise limited stabilities have been demonstrated in caesium clocks and in single-ion optical clocks, where the quantum noise overwhelms the Dick effect attributed to local oscillator noise. Here, we demonstrate a synchronous frequency comparison of two optical lattice clocks using 87Sr and 88Sr atoms, respectively, for which the Allan standard deviation reached 1 × 10-17 in an averaging time of 1,600 s by cancelling out the Dick effect to approach the quantum projection noise limit. The scheme demonstrates the advantage of using a large number (N ~ 1,000) of atoms in optical clocks and paves the way to investigating the inherent uncertainties of clocks and relativistic geodesy on a timescale of tens of minutes.
Quantum phases of bosons in double-well optical lattices
Danshita, I.; Williams, J. E.; Melo, C. A. R. sa de; Clark, C. W.
2007-10-15
We study the superfluid and insulating phases of bosons in double-well optical lattices, and focus on the specific example of a two-legged ladder, which is currently accessible in experiments. We obtain the zero-temperature phase diagram using both mean-field and time-evolving block decimation techniques. We find that the mean-field approach describes the correct phase boundaries only when the intrachain hopping is sufficiently small in comparison to the on-site repulsion. We show the dependence of the phase diagram on the interchain hopping or tilt between double wells. We find that the Mott-insulator phase at unit filling exhibits a nonmonotonic behavior as a function of the tilt parameter, producing a reentrant phase transition between Mott insulator and superfluid phases. Finally, we determine the critical point separating the insulating and superfluid phases at commensurate fillings, where the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition occurs.
Controllable 3D atomic Brownian motor in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dion, C. M.; Sjölund, P.; Petra, S. J. H.; Jonsell, S.; Nylén, M.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Kastberg, A.
2008-06-01
We study a Brownian motor, based on cold atoms in optical lattices, where atomic motion can be induced in a controlled manner in an arbitrary direction, by rectification of isotropic random fluctuations. In contrast with ratchet mechanisms, our Brownian motor operates in a potential that is spatially and temporally symmetric, in apparent contradiction to the Curie principle. Simulations, based on the Fokker-Planck equation, allow us to gain knowledge on the qualitative behaviour of our Brownian motor. Studies of Brownian motors, and in particular ones with unique control properties, are of fundamental interest because of the role they play in protein motors and their potential applications in nanotechnology. In particular, our system opens the way to the study of quantum Brownian motors.
Quantum states of p-band bosons in optical lattices
Collin, A.; Larson, J.; Martikainen, J.-P.
2010-02-15
We study a gas of repulsively interacting bosons in the first excited band of an optical lattice. We explore this p-band physics both within the framework of a standard mean-field theory as well as with the more accurate generalized Gutzwiller ansatz. We find the phase diagrams for two- and three-dimensional systems and characterize the first Mott-states which typically possess an integer or half-integer vortex structure. Furthermore, we find that even though the p-band model has strongly anisotropic kinetic energies and interflavor interaction terms are missing in the lowest band theory, the mean-field theory becomes useful quite rapidly once the transition from the Mott insulator to the superfluid is crossed.
Dynamics of pattern-loaded fermions in bichromatic optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichl, Matthew D.; Mueller, Erich J.
2016-03-01
Motivated by experiments in Munich [M. Schreiber et al., Science 349, 842 (2015)., 10.1126/science.aaa7432], we study the dynamics of interacting fermions initially prepared in charge density wave states in one-dimensional bichromatic optical lattices. The experiment sees a marked lack of thermalization, which has been taken as evidence for an interacting generalization of Anderson localization, dubbed "many-body localization." We model the experiments using an interacting Aubry-Andre model and develop a computationally efficient low-density cluster expansion to calculate the even-odd density imbalance as a function of interaction strength and potential strength. Our calculations agree with the experimental results and shed light on the phenomena. We also explore a two-dimensional generalization. The cluster expansion method we develop should have broad applicability to similar problems in nonequilibrium quantum physics.
Simulating the Wess-Zumino Supersymmetry Model in Optical Lattices
Yu Yue; Yang Kun
2010-10-08
We study a cold atom-molecule mixture in two-dimensional optical lattices. We show that, by fine-tuning the atomic and molecular interactions, the Wess-Zumino supersymmetry (SUSY) model in 2+1 dimensions emerges in the low-energy limit and can be simulated in such mixtures. At zero temperature, SUSY is not spontaneously broken, which implies identical relativistic dispersions of the atom and its superpartner, a bosonic diatom molecule. This defining signature of SUSY can be probed by single-particle spectroscopies. Thermal breaking of SUSY at a finite temperature is accompanied by a thermal Goldstone fermion, i.e., phonino excitation. This and other signatures of broken SUSY can also be probed experimentally.
Optical signatures of a hypercritical 1D potential in a 2D Dirac metal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Bor-Yuan; Ni, Guangxin; Pan, Cheng; Fei, Zhe; Cheng, Bin; Lau, Chun Ning; Bockrath, Marc; Basov, Dimitri; Fogler, Michael
Generation of quasi-bound states in graphene near strong charged perturbations is a solid-state analog of atomic collapse of superheavy elements or particle production by hypothetical cosmic strings. We show, for the case of a linelike perturbation, that as the perturbation grows in strength, quasi-bound states are generated sequentially. Each of these critical events is signaled by a sharp change in the local optical conductivity. Tunable linelike perturbations can be realized in experiment using nanowire or nanotube electrostatic gates. We report measurements of local conductivity for such systems obtained through near-field optical microscopy.
Localization of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices.
Ostrovskaya, Elena A; Kivshar, Yuri S
2004-05-01
We study nonlinear localization of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a one-dimensional optical lattice. Our theory shows that spin-dependent optical lattices can be used to effectively manipulate the nonlinear interactions between the BEC components, and to observe composite localized states of a BEC in both bands and gaps of the matter-wave spectrum.
Orbit, optics and chromaticity correction for PS2 negative momentum compaction lattices
Papaphilippou,Y.; Barranco, J.; Bartmann, W.; Benedikt, M.; Carli, C.; de Maria, R.; Peggs, S.; Trbojevic, D.
2009-05-04
The effect of magnet misalignments in the beam orbit and linear optics functions are reviewed and correction schemes are applied to the negative momentum compaction lattice of PS2. Chromaticity correction schemes are also proposed and tested with respect to off-momentum optics properties. The impact of the correction schemes in the dynamic aperture of the lattice is finally evaluated.
Campo, V. L. Jr.; Capelle, K.; Quintanilla, J.; Hooley, C.
2007-12-14
We propose an experiment to obtain the phase diagram of the fermionic Hubbard model, for any dimensionality, using cold atoms in optical lattices. It is based on measuring the total energy for a sequence of trap profiles. It combines finite-size scaling with an additional 'finite-curvature scaling' necessary to reach the homogeneous limit. We illustrate its viability in the 1D case, simulating experimental data in the Bethe-ansatz local-density approximation. Including experimental errors, the filling corresponding to the Mott transition can be determined with better than 3% accuracy.
CP(N - 1) quantum field theories with alkaline-earth atoms in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laflamme, C.; Evans, W.; Dalmonte, M.; Gerber, U.; Mejía-Díaz, H.; Bietenholz, W.; Wiese, U.-J.; Zoller, P.
2016-07-01
We propose a cold atom implementation to attain the continuum limit of (1 + 1) -d CP(N - 1) quantum field theories. These theories share important features with (3 + 1) -d QCD, such as asymptotic freedom and θ-vacua. Moreover, their continuum limit can be accessed via the mechanism of dimensional reduction. In our scheme, the CP(N - 1) degrees of freedom emerge at low energies from a ladder system of SU(N) quantum spins, where the N spin states are embodied by the nuclear Zeeman states of alkaline-earth atoms, trapped in an optical lattice. Based on Monte Carlo results, we establish that the continuum limit can be demonstrated by an atomic quantum simulation by employing the feature of asymptotic freedom. We discuss a protocol for the adiabatic preparation of the ground state of the system, the real-time evolution of a false θ-vacuum state after a quench, and we propose experiments to unravel the phase diagram at non-zero density.
Towards quantum many-body physics with Sr in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blatt, Sebastian; Jansa, Nejc; Escudero, Rodrigo G.; Heinz, André; Park, Annie Jihyun; Snigirev, Stepan; Dalibard, Jean; Bloch, Immanuel
2016-05-01
Within the last decade, fermionic alkaline earth atoms in optical lattices have become a platform for precision measurements, culminating in the realization of an atomic clock with the currently highest stability and accuracy at the 2 ×10-18 level. In the meantime, quantum degenerate gases of all bosonic and fermionic isotopes of Sr have been realized. With the extension of the quantum gas microscopy technique to fermionic alkali metal atoms, experiments with quantum degenerate gases in optical lattices have taken another step towards full control over the internal and external degrees of freedom of fermions in optical lattices. Here, we report on the construction of a new experiment with quantum degenerate gases of Sr in optical lattices. Our experiment aims to combine the high spatial control over the atomic degrees of freedom from quantum gas microscopy with the precision control over the internal degrees of freedom enabled by optical lattice clock techniques.
Optical bullets in (2+1)D photonic structures and their interaction with localized defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dohnal, Tomas
2005-11-01
This dissertation studies light propagation in Kerr-nonlinear two dimensional waveguides with a Bragg resonant, periodic structure in the propagation direction. The model describing evolution of the electric field envelopes is the system of 2D Nonlinear Coupled Mode Equations (2D CME). The periodic structure induces a range of frequencies (frequency gap) in which linear waves do not propagate. It is shown that, similarly to the ID case of a fiber grating, the 2D nonlinear system supports localized solitary wave solutions, referred to as 2D gap solitons, which have frequencies inside the linear gap and can travel at, any speed smaller than or equal to the speed of light in the corresponding homogeneous medium. Such solutions are constructed numerically via Newton's iteration. Convergence is obtained only near the upper edge of the gap. Gap solitons with a nonzero velocity are constructed by numerically following a bifurcation curve parameterized by the velocity v. It is shown that gap solitons are saddle points of the corresponding Hamiltonian functional and that no (constrained) local minima of the Hamiltonian exist. The linear stability problem is formulated and reasons for the failure of the standard Hamiltonian PDE approach for determining linear stability are discussed. In the second part of the dissertation interaction of 2D gap solitons with localized defects is studied and trapping of slow enough 2D gap solitons is demonstrated. This study builds on [JOSA B 19, 1635 (2002)], where such trapping of 1D gap solitons is considered. Analogously to this 1D problem trapping in the 2D model is explained as a resonant energy transfer into one or more defect modes existent for the particular defect. For special localized defects exact linear modes are found explicitly via the separation of variables. Numerical computation of linear defect modes is used for more general defects. Corresponding nonlinear modes are then constructed via Newton's iteration by following a
Hu Ying; Liang Zhaoxin; Hu Bambi
2010-05-15
We investigate the combined effects of weak disorder and a two-dimensional (2D) optical lattice on the collective excitations of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at zero temperature. Accordingly, we generalize the hydrodynamic equations of superfluid for a weakly interacting Bose gas in a 2D optical lattice to include the effects of weak disorder. Our analytical results for the collective frequencies beyond the mean-field approximation reveal the peculiar role of disorder, interplaying with the 2D optical lattice and interatomic interaction, on elementary excitations along the 3D to 1D crossover. In particular, consequences of disorder on the phonon propagation and surface modes are analyzed in detail. The experimental scenario is also proposed.
Pan, Ting; Qiu, Ciyuan; Wu, Jiayang; Jiang, Xinhong; Liu, Boyu; Yang, Yuxing; Zhou, Huanying; Soref, Richard; Su, Yikai
2015-09-01
We propose and numerically study an on-chip graphene-silicon hybrid electro-optic (EO) modulator operating at the telecommunication band, which is implemented by a compact 1D photonic crystal nanobeam (PCN) cavity coupled to a bus waveguide with a graphene sheet on top. Through electrically tuning the Fermi level of the graphene, both the quality factor and the resonance wavelength can be significantly changed, thus the in-plane lightwave can be efficiently modulated. Based on finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results, the proposed modulator can provide a large free spectral range (FSR) of 125.6 nm, a high modulation speed of 133 GHz, and a large modulation depth of ~12.5 dB in a small modal volume, promising a high performance EO modulator for wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) optical communication systems.
Cooling fermions in optical lattices by faster entropy redistribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teles, Rafael P.; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Paiva, Thereza; Scalettar, Richard T.; Natu, Stefan S.; Hulet, Randall G.; Hazzard, Kaden R. A.
2016-05-01
Lower entropy for fermions in optical lattices would unlock new quantum phases, including antiferromagnetism and potentially superconductivity. We propose a method to cool these systems at temperatures where conventional methods fail: slowly turning on a tightly focused optical potential transports entropy from the Mott insulator to a metallic entropy reservoir formed along the beam. Our scheme places the entropy reservoir close to the targeted cooling region, which allows entropy redistribution to be effective at lower temperatures than in prior proposals. Furthermore we require only a straightforwardly-applied Gaussian potential. We compute the temperatures achieved with this scheme using an analytic T >> t approximation and, for low T, determinantal quantum Monte Carlo. We optimize the waist and depth of the focused beam, and we find that repulsive potentials cool better than attractive ones. We estimate that the time required for entropy transport under nearly adiabatic conditions at these low temperatures is compatible with the system lifetime. Finally, we explore further improvements to cooling enabled by sophisticated potential engineering, e.g. using a spatial light modulator. Work supported by CNPq.
Development of a strontium optical lattice clock for space applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Yeshpal
2016-07-01
With timekeeping being of paramount importance for modern life, much research and major scientific advances have been undertaken in the field of frequency metrology, particularly over the last few years. New Nobel-prize winning technologies have enabled a new era of atomic clocks; namely the optical clock. These have been shown to perform significantly better than the best microwave clocks reaching an inaccuracy of 1.6x10-18 [1]. With such results being found in large lab based apparatus, the focus now has shifted to portability - to enable the accuracy of various ground based clocks to be measured, and compact autonomous performance - to enable such technologies to be tested in space. This could lead to a master clock in space, improving not only the accuracy of technologies on which modern life has come to require such as GPS and communication networks. But also more fundamentally, this could lead to the redefinition of the second and tests of fundamental physics including applications in the fields of ground based and satellite geodesy, metrology, positioning, navigation, transport and logistics etc. Within the European collaboration, Space Optical Clocks (SOC2) [2-3] consisting of various institutes and industry partners across Europe we have tried to tackle this problem of miniaturisation whilst maintaining stability, accuracy (5x10-17) and robustness whilst keeping power consumption to a minimum - necessary for space applications. We will present the most recent results of the Sr optical clock in SOC2 and also the novel compact design features, new methods employed and outlook. References [1] B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, "An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10-18 level," Nature 506, 71-75 (2014). [2] S. Schiller et al. "Towards Neutral-atom Space Optical Clocks (SOC2): Development of high-performance transportable and breadboard optical clocks and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Bipin K.; Thapa, Khem B.; Pandey, Praveen C.
2013-06-01
A theoretical study of optical reflectance and reflection bands of 1-D photonic quasi-crystals (Fibonacci type arrangement) composed of exponentially graded material is presented. The proposed structures consist of two different layers, one of them is of constant refractive index (L) and the other one is of exponentially graded refractive index (S) dielectric materials. Four different generations (2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th) of the Fibonacci sequence for 10 periods in one dimension (1-D) are considered and compared in view of their optical reflectance and bandgaps for both TE and TM polarisations. Also, we proposed some heterostructures made by the combination of different Fibonacci generations and their periods to obtain suitable omnidirectional reflection band. We used the transfer matrix method (TMM) to obtain the reflectance, bandgaps and omnidirectional reflectional bandgaps (ODR) of such structures in near infrared spectrum (800-2200 nm) at different angles of incidence. We show that ODR exists in these types of structures. The number of ODRs and total bandgap depend on the Fibonacci generations. Extraordinary ODR bandgaps are obtained in the case of heterostructures formed by the combination of different generations of the Fibonacci sequence. The ODR for these structures is similar to the ODR of photonic crystals containing left-handed materials. This work would be useful to study the Fibonacci type photonic crystals having graded index materials and also it will open new window to design several photonic crystal devices like sensors, reflectors, etc. in the infrared region.
Nearly-one-dimensional self-attractive Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices
Salasnich, L.; Toigo, F.; Cetoli, A.; Malomed, B. A.
2007-03-15
Within the framework of a mean-field description, we investigate atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, with attraction between atoms, under the action of a strong transverse confinement and periodic [optical-lattice (OL)] axial potential. Using a combination of the variational approximation, one-dimensional (1D) nonpolynomial Schroedinger equation, and direct numerical solutions of the underlying 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we show that the ground state of the condensate is a soliton belonging to the semi-infinite band gap of the periodic potential. The soliton may be confined to a single cell of the lattice or extended to several cells, depending on the effective self-attraction strength g (which is proportional to the number of atoms bound in the soliton) and depth of the potential, V{sub 0}, the increase of V{sub 0} leading to strong compression of the soliton. We demonstrate that the OL is an effective tool to control the soliton's shape. It is found that, due to the 3D character of the underlying setting, the ground-state soliton collapses at a critical value of the strength, g=g{sub c}, which gradually decreases with the increase of V{sub 0}; under typical experimental conditions, the corresponding maximum number of {sup 7}Li atoms in the soliton, N{sub max}, ranges between 8000 and 4000. Examples of stable multipeaked solitons are also found in the first finite band gap of the lattice spectrum. The respective critical value g{sub c} again slowly decreases with the increase of V{sub 0}, corresponding to N{sub max}{approx_equal}5000.
Flat-phase loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate into an optical lattice
Sklarz, Shlomo E.; Friedler, Inbal; Tannor, David J.; Band, Yehuda B.; Williams, Carl J.
2002-11-01
It has been proposed that the adiabatic loading of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) into an optical lattice via the Mott-insulator transition can be used to initialize a quantum computer [D. Jaksch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3108 (1998)]. The loading of a BEC into the lattice without causing band excitation is readily achievable; however, unless one switches on an optical lattice very slowly, the optical lattice causes a phase to accumulate across the condensate. We show analytically and numerically that a cancellation of this effect is possible by adjusting the harmonic trap force constant of the magnetic trap appropriately, thereby facilitating quick loading of an optical lattice for quantum computing purposes. A simple analytical theory is developed for a nonstationary BEC in a harmonic trap.
Demonstration of flat-band image transmission in optically induced Lieb photonic lattices.
Xia, Shiqiang; Hu, Yi; Song, Daohong; Zong, Yuanyuan; Tang, Liqin; Chen, Zhigang
2016-04-01
We present a simple, yet effective, approach for optical induction of Lieb photonic lattices, which typically rely on the femtosecond laser writing technique. Such lattices are established by judiciously overlapping two sublattices (an "egg-crate" lattice and a square lattice) with different periodicities through a self-defocusing photorefractive medium. Furthermore, taking advantage of the superposition of localized flat-band states inherent in the Lieb lattices, we demonstrate distortion-free image transmission in such two-dimensional perovskite-like photonic structures. Our experimental observations find good agreement with numerical simulations.
Interferometric 30 m bench for calibrations of 1D scales and optical distance measuring instruments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unkuri, J.; Rantanen, A.; Manninen, J.; Esala, V.-P.; Lassila, A.
2012-09-01
During construction of a new metrology building for MIKES, a 30 m interferometric bench was designed. The objective was to implement a straight, stable, adjustable and multifunctional 30 m measuring bench for calibrations. Special attention was paid to eliminating the effects of thermal expansion and inevitable concrete shrinkage. The linear guide, situated on top of a monolithic concrete beam, comprises two parallel round shafts with adjustable fixtures every 1 m. A carriage is moved along the rail and its position is followed by a reference interferometer. Depending on the measurement task, one or two retro-reflectors are fixed on the carriage. A microscope with a CCD camera and a monitor can be used to detect line mark positions on different line standards. When calibrating optical distance measuring instruments, various targets can be fixed to the carriage. For the most accurate measurements an online Abbe-error correction based on simultaneous carriage pitch measurement by a separate laser interferometer is applied. The bench is used for calibrations of machinist scales, tapes, circometers, electronic distance meters, total stations and laser trackers. The estimated expanded uncertainty for 30 m displacement for highest accuracy calibrations is 2.6 µm.
Instabilities of bosonic spin currents in optical lattices
Hui, Hoi-Yin; Barnett, Ryan; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Das Sarma, S.
2011-10-15
We analyze the dynamical and energetic instabilities of spin currents in a system of two-component bosons in an optical lattice, with a particular focus on the Neel state. We consider both the weakly interacting superfluid and the strongly interacting Mott insulating limits as well as the regime near the superfluid-insulator transition and establish the criteria for the onset of these instabilities. We use Bogoliubov theory to treat the weakly interacting superfluid regime. Near the Mott transition, we calculate the stability phase diagram within a variational Gutzwiller wave-function approach. In the deep Mott limit we discuss the emergence of the Heisenberg model and calculate the stability diagram within this model. Though the Bogoliubov theory and the Heisenberg model (appropriate for the deep superfluid and the deep Mott-insulating phase, respectively) predict no dynamical instabilities, we find, interestingly, that between these two limiting cases there is a regime of dynamical instability. This result is relevant for the ongoing experimental efforts to realize a stable Neel-ordered state in multicomponent ultracold bosons.
Feshbach-stabilized insulator of bosons in optical lattices.
de Forges de Parny, L; Rousseau, V G; Roscilde, T
2015-05-15
Feshbach resonances-namely, resonances between an unbound two-body (atomic) state and a bound (molecular) state, differing in magnetic moment-are a unique tool to tune the interaction properties of ultracold atoms. Here we show that the spin-changing interactions, coherently coupling the atomic and molecular states, can act as a novel mechanism to stabilize an insulating phase-the Feshbach insulator-for bosons in an optical lattice close to a narrow Feshbach resonance. Making use of quantum Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field theory, we show that the Feshbach insulator appears around the resonance, preventing the system from collapsing when the effective atomic scattering length becomes negative. On the atomic side of the resonance, the transition from condensate to Feshbach insulator has a characteristic first-order nature, due to the simultaneous loss of coherence in the atomic and molecular components. These features appear clearly in the ground-state phase diagram of, e.g., ^{87}Rb around its 414 G resonance, and they are therefore directly amenable to experimental observation. PMID:26024178
Finite temperature quenches of fermions in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Ian G.; Hulet, Randall G.; Hazzard, Kaden R. A.
2016-05-01
Although interaction quenches are known to drive interesting dynamics, most prior work has focused on quenches initiated from states that are well below the system's ordering temperature. Motivated by experiments with ultracold fermions in optical lattices, which currently are outside of this regime, we study interaction quenches in the Fermi-Hubbard model that start from finite-temperature initial states. We show that interesting dynamics occurs even under these conditions. A particularly important scenario is quenching to non-interacting systems, which despite its simplicity has been the focus of recent work as a prototype for integrability and prethermalization. In the limit where the temperature T is much greater than the tunneling t, we find that there is transient growth of short-ranged correlations. However, the steady state created in this case is essentially trivial: it is equivalent to an equilibrium T / t = ∞ state. We find more interesting steady states for large, but finite, T / t . We calculate the associated experimental observables by combining a high- T expansion of the interacting initial state with the exact calculation of the non-interacting dynamics.
Anderson localization in optical lattices with correlated disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fratini, E.; Pilati, S.
2015-12-01
We study the Anderson localization of atomic gases exposed to simple-cubic optical lattices with a superimposed disordered speckle pattern. The two mobility edges in the first band and the corresponding critical filling factors are determined as a function of the disorder strength, ranging from vanishing disorder up to the critical disorder intensity where the two mobility edges merge and the whole band becomes localized. Our theoretical analysis is based both on continuous-space models that take into account the details of the spatial correlation of the speckle pattern, and also on a simplified tight-binding model with an uncorrelated distribution of the on-site energies. The mobility edges are computed via the analysis of the energy-level statistics, and we determine the universal value of the ratio between consecutive level spacings at the mobility edge. We analyze the role of the spatial correlation of the disorder, and we also discuss a qualitative comparison with available experimental data for interacting atomic Fermi gases obtained in the moderate interaction regime.
Atomic Bloch-Zener oscillations and Stückelberg interferometry in optical lattices.
Kling, Sebastian; Salger, Tobias; Grossert, Christopher; Weitz, Martin
2010-11-19
We report on experiments investigating quantum transport and band interferometry of an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice with a two-band miniband structure, realized with a Fourier-synthesized optical lattice potential. Bloch-Zener oscillations, the coherent superposition of Bloch oscillations and Landau-Zener tunneling between the two bands, are observed. When the relative phase between paths in different bands is varied, an interference signal is observed, demonstrating the coherence of the dynamics in the miniband system. Measured fringe patterns of this Stückelberg interferometer allow us to interferometrically map out the band structure of the optical lattice over the full Brillouin zone.
Optical Bloch oscillations and Zener tunneling of Airy beams in ionic-type photonic lattices.
Xiao, Fajun; Zhu, Weiren; Shang, Wuyun; Wang, Meirong; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Sheng; Premaratne, Malin; Zhao, Jianlin
2016-08-01
We report on the existence of optical Bloch oscillations (OBOs) and Zener tunneling (ZT) of Airy beams in ionic-type photonic lattices with a refractive index ramp. Different from their counterparts in uniform lattices, Airy beams undergoing OBOs show an alternatively switched concave and convex trajectory as well as a periodical revival of input beam profiles. Moreover, the ionic-type photonic lattice established in photorefractive crystal exhibits a reconfigurable lattice structure, which provides a flexible way to tune the amplitude and period of the OBOs. Remarkably, it is demonstrated that the band gap of the lattice can be readily controlled by rotating the lattice inducing beam, which forces the ZT rate to follow two significant different decay curves amidst decreasing index gradient. Our results open up new possibilities for all-optical switching, routing and manipulation of Airy beams.
Phase Diagram for a Bose-Einstein Condensate Moving in an Optical Lattice
Mun, Jongchul; Medley, Patrick; Campbell, Gretchen K.; Marcassa, Luis G.; Pritchard, David E.; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2007-10-12
The stability of superfluid currents in a system of ultracold bosons was studied using a moving optical lattice. Superfluid currents in a very weak lattice become unstable when their momentum exceeds 0.5 recoil momentum. Superfluidity vanishes already for zero momentum as the lattice deep reaches the Mott insulator (MI) phase transition. We study the phase diagram for the disappearance of superfluidity as a function of momentum and lattice depth between these two limits. Our phase boundary extrapolates to the critical lattice depth for the superfluid-to-MI transition with 2% precision. When a one-dimensional gas was loaded into a moving optical lattice a sudden broadening of the transition between stable and unstable phases was observed.
Lattice-Induced Frequency Shifts in Sr Optical Lattice Clocks at the 10{sup -17} Level
Westergaard, P. G.; Lodewyck, J.; Lecallier, A.; Millo, J.; Lemonde, P.; Lorini, L.; Burt, E. A.; Zawada, M.
2011-05-27
We present a comprehensive study of the frequency shifts associated with the lattice potential in a Sr lattice clock by comparing two such clocks with a frequency stability reaching 5x10{sup -17} after a 1 h integration time. We put the first experimental upper bound on the multipolar M1 and E2 interactions, significantly smaller than the recently predicted theoretical upper limit, and give a 30-fold improved upper limit on the effect of hyperpolarizability. Finally, we report on the first observation of the vector and tensor shifts in a Sr lattice clock. Combining these measurements, we show that all known lattice related perturbations will not affect the clock accuracy down to the 10{sup -17} level, even for lattices as deep as 150 recoil energies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donchenko, Sergey S.; Odinokov, Sergey B.; Bobrinev, Vladimir I.; Betin, Alexandr Y.; Zlokazov, Evgenie Y.
2015-05-01
Computer holographic synthesis allows to significantly simplify the recording scheme of microholograms in holographic memory system as the classic high precision holographic setup based on two-beam interference is removed by simple scale reduction projection scheme. Application of computer generated 1D-Fourier holograms provides the possibility of selective reconstruction of the multiplexed holograms with different orientation of data lines by corresponding rotation of anamorphic objective (cylindrical lens), used in the read-out systems. Two configurations of read-out optical scheme were investigated by our team: full-page scheme and line-by-line scheme. In the present article we report the specificities of these schemes and consider their advantages and disadvantages. The results of experimental modeling of both read-out configurations are also presented.
Controlled manipulation of light by cooperative response of atoms in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jenkins, Stewart; Ruostekoski, Janne
2013-05-01
We show that atoms in an optical lattice can respond cooperatively to incident light. Such a cooperative response can be employed to precisely control and manipulate light on the subwavelength scale. As an illustration, we consider an optical lattice whose atoms are in a Mott-insulator state with precisely one atom per lattice site. The cooperative response of the atoms originates from strong dipole-dipole interactions mediated by scattered electromagnetic fields. As a result of these interactions, the atoms exhibit collective modes of electronic excitation distributed over the lattice. By tailoring the spatial phase profile of the incident light, one can address specific linear combinations of these modes. We demonstrate how the cooperative response can be used to produce optical excitations at isolated sites in the lattice. This work was supported by the EPSRC and the Leverhulme Trust.
A Next-Generation Apparatus for Lithium Optical Lattice Experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keshet, Aviv
Quantum simulation is emerging as an ambitious and active subfield of atomic physics. This thesis describes progress towards the goal of simulating condensed matter systems, in particular the physics of the Fermi-Hubbard model, using ultracold Lithium atoms in an optical lattice. A major goal of the quantum simulation program is to observe phase transitions of the Hubbard model, into Neal antiferromagnetic phases and d-wave superfluid phases. Phase transitions are generally accompanied by a change in an underlying correlation in a physical system. Such correlations may be most amenable to probing by looking at fluctuations in the system. Experimental techniques for probing density and magnetization fluctuations in a variety of atomic Fermi systems are developed. The suppression of density fluctuations (or atom "shot noise") in an ideal degenerate Fermi gas is observed by absorption imaging of time-of-flight expanded clouds. In-trap measurements of density and magnetization fluctuations are not easy to probe with absorption imaging, due to their extremely high attenuation. A method to probe these fluctuations based on speckle patterns, caused by fluctuations in the index of refraction for a detuned illumination beam, is developed and applied first to weakly interacting and then to strongly interacting in-trap gases. Fluctuation probes such as these will be a crucial tool in future quantum simulation of condensed matter systems. The quantum simulation experiments that we want to perform require a complex sequence of precisely timed computer controlled events. A distributed GUI-based control system designed with such experiments in mind, The Cicero Word Generator, is described. The system makes use of a client-server separation between a user interface for sequence design and a set of output hardware servers. Output hardware servers are designed to use standard National Instruments output cards, but the client-server nature allows this to be extended to other output
Frustrated tunneling of ultracold atoms in a state-dependent optical lattice
Zhou Xiangfa; Chen Zhixin; Zhou Zhengwei; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo Guangcan
2010-02-15
We propose a general method to realize frustrated tunneling of ultracold atoms in a state-dependent optical lattice. Two typical lattice configurations are considered, the square lattice with competing interaction and the kagome lattice with geometrical frustration. The ideal can be extended to implement frustrated tunneling of ultracold atoms in various geometries, which enable us to investigate the physics of frustration in both bosonic and spin systems. We study the mean-field phase diagrams of the considered models and the experimental situations are also discussed.
Frustrated Cooper pairing and f-wave supersolidity in cold-atom optical lattices
Hung, Hsiang-Hsuan; Lee, Wei-Cheng; Wu Congjun
2011-04-01
Geometric frustration in quantum magnetism refers to the fact that magnetic interactions on different bonds cannot be simultaneously minimized. The usual Cooper pairing systems favor uniform spatial distributions of pairing phases among different lattice sites without frustration. In contrast, we propose ''frustrated Cooper pairing'' in non-bipartite lattices which leads to supersolid states of Cooper pairs. Not only the amplitudes of the pairing order parameter but also its signs vary from site to site. This exotic pairing state naturally occurs in the p-orbital bands in optical lattices with ultracold spinless fermions. In the triangular lattice, it exhibits an unconventional supersolid state with the f-wave symmetry.
Systematic Study of the {sup 87}Sr Clock Transition in an Optical Lattice
Ludlow, Andrew D.; Boyd, Martin M.; Zelevinsky, Tanya; Foreman, Seth M.; Blatt, Sebastian; Notcutt, Mark; Ido, Tetsuya; Ye Jun
2006-01-27
With ultracold {sup 87}Sr confined in a magic wavelength optical lattice, we present the most precise study (2.8 Hz statistical uncertainty) to date of the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 0} optical clock transition with a detailed analysis of systematic shifts (19 Hz uncertainty) in the absolute frequency measurement of 429 228 004 229 869 Hz. The high resolution permits an investigation of the optical lattice motional sideband structure. The local oscillator for this optical atomic clock is a stable diode laser with its hertz-level linewidth characterized by an octave-spanning femtosecond frequency comb.
Metastable States of a Gas of Dipolar Bosons in a 2D Optical Lattice
Menotti, C.; Trefzger, C.; Lewenstein, M.
2007-06-08
We investigate the physics of dipolar bosons in a two-dimensional optical lattice. It is known that due to the long-range character of dipole-dipole interaction, the ground state phase diagram of a gas of dipolar bosons in an optical lattice presents novel quantum phases, like checkerboard and supersolid phases. In this Letter, we consider the properties of the system beyond its ground state, finding that it is characterized by a multitude of almost degenerate metastable states, often competing with the ground state. This makes dipolar bosons in a lattice similar to a disordered system and opens possibilities of using them as quantum memories.
Vortex formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a rotating deep optical lattice
Kato, Akira; Nakano, Yuki; Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Matsui, Tetsuo
2011-11-15
We study the dynamics of vortex nucleation and lattice formation in a Bose-Einstein condensate in a rotating square optical lattice by numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Different dynamical regimes of vortex nucleation are found, depending on the depth and period of the optical lattice. We make an extensive comparison with the experiments by R. A. Williams et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 050404 (2010)], especially focusing on the issues of the critical rotation frequency for the first vortex nucleation and the vortex number as a function of rotation frequency.
Realization of uniform synthetic magnetic fields by periodically shaking an optical square lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creffield, C. E.; Pieplow, G.; Sols, F.; Goldman, N.
2016-09-01
Shaking a lattice system, by modulating the location of its sites periodically in time, is a powerful method to create effective magnetic fields in engineered quantum systems, such as cold gases trapped in optical lattices. However, such schemes are typically associated with space-dependent effective masses (tunneling amplitudes) and non-uniform flux patterns. In this work we investigate this phenomenon theoretically, by computing the effective Hamiltonians and quasienergy spectra associated with several kinds of lattice-shaking protocols. A detailed comparison with a method based on moving lattices, which are added on top of a main static optical lattice, is provided. This study allows the identification of novel shaking schemes, which simultaneously provide uniform effective mass and magnetic flux, with direct implications for cold-atom experiments and photonics.
Phase-Stable Free-Space Optical Lattices for Trapped Ions.
Schmiegelow, C T; Kaufmann, H; Ruster, T; Schulz, J; Kaushal, V; Hettrich, M; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Poschinger, U G
2016-01-22
We demonstrate control of the absolute phase of an optical lattice with respect to a single trapped ion. The lattice is generated by off-resonant free-space laser beams, and we actively stabilize its phase by measuring its ac-Stark shift on a trapped ion. The ion is localized within the standing wave to better than 2% of its period. The locked lattice allows us to apply displacement operations via resonant optical forces with a controlled direction in phase space. Moreover, we observe the lattice-induced phase evolution of spin superposition states in order to analyze the relevant decoherence mechanisms. Finally, we employ lattice-induced phase shifts for inferring the variation of the ion position over the 157 μm range along the trap axis at accuracies of better than 6 nm.
Quantum simulation of correlated-hopping models with fermions in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Liberto, M.; Creffield, C. E.; Japaridze, G. I.; Morais Smith, C.
2014-03-01
By using a modulated magnetic field in a Feshbach resonance for ultracold fermionic atoms in optical lattices, we show that it is possible to engineer a class of models usually referred to as correlated-hopping models. These models differ from the Hubbard model in exhibiting additional density-dependent interaction terms that affect the hopping processes. In addition to the spin-SU(2) symmetry, they also possess a charge-SU(2) symmetry, which opens the possibility of investigating the η-pairing mechanism for superconductivity introduced by Yang for the Hubbard model. We discuss the known solution of the model in 1D (where η states have been found in the degenerate manifold of the ground state) and show that, away from the integrable point, quantum Monte Carlo simulations at half filling predict the emergence of a phase with coexisting incommensurate spin and charge order. This work was supported by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) and by the Spanish MICINN through Grant No. FIS-2010-21372 (CEC).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kafka, Gene
The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) storage ring at Fermilab will serve as the backbone for a broad spectrum of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments, and as such, must be designed with significant flexibility in mind, but without compromising cost efficiency. The nonlinear experiments at IOTA will include: achievement of a large nonlinear tune shift/spread without degradation of dynamic aperture; suppression of strong lattice resonances; study of stability of nonlinear systems to perturbations; and studies of different variants of nonlinear magnet design. The ring optics control has challenging requirements that reach or exceed the present state of the art. The development of a complete self-consistent design of the IOTA ring optics, meeting the demands of all planned AARD experiments, is presented. Of particular interest are the precise control for nonlinear integrable optics experiments and the transverse-to-longitudinal coupling and phase stability for the Optical Stochastic Cooling Experiment (OSC). Since the beam time-of-flight must be tightly controlled in the OSC section, studies of second order corrections in this section are presented.
Kafka, Gene
2015-05-01
The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) storage ring at Fermilab will serve as the backbone for a broad spectrum of Advanced Accelerator R&D (AARD) experiments, and as such, must be designed with signi cant exibility in mind, but without compromising cost e ciency. The nonlinear experiments at IOTA will include: achievement of a large nonlinear tune shift/spread without degradation of dynamic aperture; suppression of strong lattice resonances; study of stability of nonlinear systems to perturbations; and studies of di erent variants of nonlinear magnet design. The ring optics control has challenging requirements that reach or exceed the present state of the art. The development of a complete self-consistent design of the IOTA ring optics, meeting the demands of all planned AARD experiments, is presented. Of particular interest are the precise control for nonlinear integrable optics experiments and the transverse-to-longitudinal coupling and phase stability for the Optical Stochastic Cooling Experiment (OSC). Since the beam time-of- ight must be tightly controlled in the OSC section, studies of second order corrections in this section are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chougale, Yashwant; Nath, Rejish
2016-07-01
We obtain ab initio the Hubbard parameters for Rydberg-dressed atoms in a one-dimensional (1D) sinusoidal optical lattice on the basis of maximally-localized Wannier states. Finite range, soft-core interatomic interactions become the trait of Rydberg admixed atoms, which can be extended over many neighboring lattice sites. In contrast to dipolar gases, where the interactions follow an inverse cubic law, the key feature of Rydberg-dressed interactions is the possibility of making neighboring couplings to the same magnitude as that of the onsite ones. The maximally-localized Wannier functions (MLWFs) are typically calculated via a spread-minimization procedure (Marzari N and Vanderbilt D 1997 Phys. Rev. B 56 12847) and are always found to be real functions apart from a trivial global phase when an isolated set of Bloch bands are considered. For an isolated single Bloch band, the above procedure reduces to a simple quasi-momentum-dependent unitary phase transformation. Here, instead of minimizing the spread, we employ a diagonal phase transformation which eliminates the imaginary part of the Wannier functions. The resulting Wannier states are found to be maximally localized and in exact agreement with those obtained via a spread-minimization procedure. Using these findings, we calculate the Hubbard couplings from the Rydberg admixed interactions, including dominant density-assisted tunneling (DAT) coefficients. Finally, we provide realistic lattice parameters for the state-of-the-art experimental Rydberg-dressed rubidium setup.
Optical Study of Interactions in a d-Electron Kondo Lattice with Ferromagnetism
Burch, K. S.; Schafgans, A.; Butch, N. P.; Sayles, T. A.; Maple, M. B.; Sales, Brian C; Mandrus, David; Basov, D. N.
2005-01-01
We report on a comprehensive optical, transport, and thermodynamic study of the Zintl compound Yb{sub 14}MnSb{sub 11}, demonstrating that it is the first ferromagnetic Kondo lattice compound in the underscreened limit. We propose a scenario whereby the combination of Kondo and Jahn-Teller effects provides a consistent explanation of both transport and optical data.
Trapping of neutral mercury atoms and prospects for optical lattice clocks.
Hachisu, H; Miyagishi, K; Porsev, S G; Derevianko, A; Ovsiannikov, V D; Pal'chikov, V G; Takamoto, M; Katori, H
2008-02-01
We report vapor-cell magneto-optical trapping of Hg isotopes on the (1)S(0)-(3)P(1) intercombination transition. Six abundant isotopes, including four bosons and two fermions, were trapped. Hg is the heaviest nonradioactive atom trapped so far, which enables sensitive atomic searches for "new physics" beyond the standard model. We propose an accurate optical lattice clock based on Hg and evaluate its systematic accuracy to be better than 10;{-18}. Highly accurate and stable Hg-based clocks will provide a new avenue for the research of optical lattice clocks and the time variation of the fine-structure constant.
Controlling dipole-dipole frequency shifts in a lattice-based optical atomic clock
Chang, D.E.; Lukin, M.D.; Ye Jun
2004-02-01
Motivated by the ideas of using cold alkaline-earth atoms trapped in an optical lattice for realization of optical atomic clocks, we investigate theoretically the perturbative effects of atom-atom interactions on a clock transition frequency. These interactions are mediated by the dipole fields associated with the optically excited atoms. We predict resonancelike features in the frequency shifts when constructive interference among atomic dipoles occur. We theoretically demonstrate that by fine tuning the coherent dipole-dipole couplings in appropriately designed lattice geometries, the undesirable frequency shifts can be greatly suppressed.
Trapping of Neutral Mercury Atoms and Prospects for Optical Lattice Clocks
Hachisu, H.; Takamoto, M.; Katori, H.; Miyagishi, K.; Porsev, S. G.; Derevianko, A.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.; Pal'chikov, V. G.
2008-02-08
We report vapor-cell magneto-optical trapping of Hg isotopes on the {sup 1}S{sub 0}-{sup 3}P{sub 1} intercombination transition. Six abundant isotopes, including four bosons and two fermions, were trapped. Hg is the heaviest nonradioactive atom trapped so far, which enables sensitive atomic searches for ''new physics'' beyond the standard model. We propose an accurate optical lattice clock based on Hg and evaluate its systematic accuracy to be better than 10{sup -18}. Highly accurate and stable Hg-based clocks will provide a new avenue for the research of optical lattice clocks and the time variation of the fine-structure constant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldman, N.; Gerbier, F.; Lewenstein, M.
2013-07-01
We describe a scheme to engineer non-Abelian gauge potentials on a square optical lattice using laser-induced transitions. We emphasize the case of two-electron atoms, where the electronic ground state g is laser-coupled to a metastable state e within a state-dependent optical lattice. In this scheme, the alternating pattern of lattice sites hosting g and e states depicts a chequerboard structure, allowing for laser-assisted tunnelling along both spatial directions. In this configuration, the nuclear spin of the atoms can be viewed as a ‘flavour’ quantum number undergoing non-Abelian tunnelling along nearest-neighbour links. We show that this technique can be useful to simulate the equivalent of the Haldane quantum Hall model using cold atoms trapped in square optical lattices, offering an interesting route to realize Chern insulators. The emblematic Haldane model is particularly suited to investigate the physics of topological insulators, but requires, in its original form, complex hopping terms beyond nearest-neighbouring sites. In general, this drawback inhibits a direct realization with cold atoms, using standard laser-induced tunnelling techniques. We demonstrate that a simple mapping allows us to express this model in terms of matrix hopping operators that are defined on a standard square lattice. This mapping is investigated for two models that lead to anomalous quantum Hall phases. We discuss the practical implementation of such models, exploiting laser-induced tunnelling methods applied to the chequerboard optical lattice.
Negative refraction of ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices with nonuniform artificial gauge fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ai-Xia; Xue, Ju-Kui
2016-07-01
We theoretically study the reflection and refraction of ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices exposed to a nonuniform artificial magnetic field. The introduction of the nonuniform artificial magnetic field to the optical lattice for suitable designer magnetic potential barrier can lead to a series of intriguing reflection and refraction phenomena of atoms, including reflection, positive refraction, negative refraction and atomic matter wave splitting. Both the occurrence and the distribution of these reflection and refraction scenarios can be coherently controlled by the nonuniform artificial magnetic field. In particular, the regions close to the boundary of reflection demonstrate two more interesting propagation modes, i.e., a reflected branch of atoms comprising a positive or negative refracted branch of atoms with almost same atom population will be excited simultaneously at the magnetic potential barrier. The results can be a guide for the coherent control of the matter waves in optical lattices and the design of new atom optics devices.
Towards quantum simulation with two-electron 173Yb fermions in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Bo; Zou, Yueyang; He, Chengdong; Haciyev, Elnur; Cai, Geyue; Chan, Wing Kin; Huang, Wei; Jo, Gyu-Boong
2016-05-01
Recent development of cooling and manipulating Ytterbium atoms opens a new avenue to investigate unprecedented atomic systems with SU(N) spin symmetry and orbital degrees of freedom. The available metastable states and narrow-line optical transitions of Ytterbium atoms allow for the versatile control of the system. Here, we first describe our apparatus for producing ultracold Ytterbium-173 quantum gases in an optical lattice. A gas of 3 ×104 Ytterbium-173 atoms is routinely produced at T /TF ~ 0 . 3 , and loaded into an optical lattice potential. Then we report our recent progress on the spin orbital (SO) coupling interaction realized in optical lattice. As a novel quantum simulator, cold Ytterbium atoms with SO coupling provide a platform to explore the intriguing topological physics. Funded by the Research Grants Council (RGC) of Hong Kong Project# 16300215.
Matter-wave two-dimensional solitons in crossed linear and nonlinear optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
da Luz, H. L. F.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Gammal, A.; Salerno, M.; Tomio, Lauro
2010-10-01
The existence of multidimensional matter-wave solitons in a crossed optical lattice (OL) with a linear optical lattice (LOL) in the x direction and a nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) in the y direction, where the NOL can be generated by a periodic spatial modulation of the scattering length using an optically induced Feshbach resonance is demonstrated. In particular, we show that such crossed LOLs and NOLs allow for stabilizing two-dimensional solitons against decay or collapse for both attractive and repulsive interactions. The solutions for the soliton stability are investigated analytically, by using a multi-Gaussian variational approach, with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov necessary criterion for stability; and numerically, by using the relaxation method and direct numerical time integrations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Very good agreement of the results corresponding to both treatments is observed.
Matter-wave two-dimensional solitons in crossed linear and nonlinear optical lattices
Luz, H. L. F. da; Gammal, A.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Salerno, M.; Tomio, Lauro
2010-10-15
The existence of multidimensional matter-wave solitons in a crossed optical lattice (OL) with a linear optical lattice (LOL) in the x direction and a nonlinear optical lattice (NOL) in the y direction, where the NOL can be generated by a periodic spatial modulation of the scattering length using an optically induced Feshbach resonance is demonstrated. In particular, we show that such crossed LOLs and NOLs allow for stabilizing two-dimensional solitons against decay or collapse for both attractive and repulsive interactions. The solutions for the soliton stability are investigated analytically, by using a multi-Gaussian variational approach, with the Vakhitov-Kolokolov necessary criterion for stability; and numerically, by using the relaxation method and direct numerical time integrations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Very good agreement of the results corresponding to both treatments is observed.
p-Wave Cold Collisions in an Optical Lattice Clock
Lemke, N. D.; Sherman, J. A.; Oates, C. W.; Ludlow, A. D.; Stecher, J. von; Rey, A. M.
2011-09-02
We study ultracold collisions in fermionic ytterbium by precisely measuring the energy shifts they impart on the atoms' internal clock states. Exploiting Fermi statistics, we uncover p-wave collisions, in both weakly and strongly interacting regimes. With the higher density afforded by two-dimensional lattice confinement, we demonstrate that strong interactions can lead to a novel suppression of this collision shift. In addition to reducing the systematic errors of lattice clocks, this work has application to quantum information and quantum simulation with alkaline-earth atoms.
Anderson localization in optical lattices with speckle disorder
Sucu, Serpil; Aktas, Saban; Okan, S. Erol; Akdeniz, Zehra; Vignolo, Patrizia
2011-12-15
We study the localization properties of noninteracting waves propagating in a speckle-like potential superposed on a one-dimensional lattice. Using a combined decimation-renormalization procedure, we estimate the localization length for a tight-binding Hamiltonian where site energies are square-sinc-correlated random variables. By decreasing the width of the correlation function, the disorder patterns approach a {delta}-correlated disorder, and the localization length becomes almost energy independent in the strong disorder limit. We show that this regime can be reached for a size of the speckle grains on the order of (lower than) four lattice steps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golubeva, Anna; Sotnikov, Andrii; Hofstetter, Walter
2015-10-01
We study the effects of anisotropic hopping amplitudes on quantum phases of ultracold fermions in optical lattices described by the repulsive Fermi-Hubbard model. In particular, using dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) we investigate the dimensional crossover between the isotropic square and the isotropic cubic lattice. We analyze the phase transition from the antiferromagnetic to the paramagnetic state and observe a significant change in the critical temperature: depending on the interaction strength, the anisotropy can lead to both a suppression or increase. We also investigate the localization properties of the system, such as the compressibility and double occupancy. Using the local-density approximation in combination with DMFT we conclude that density profiles can be used to detect the mentioned anisotropy-driven transitions.
Coherent matter waves of a dipolar condensate in two-dimensional optical lattices
Zhang Aixia; Xue Jukui
2010-07-15
The coherent matter waves of a dipolar condensate in deep two-dimensional (2D) tilted and nontilted optical lattices are studied both analytically and numerically. It is shown that, in tilted lattices, by properly designing the sign and the magnitude of the contact interaction and the dipolar interaction, it is possible to control the decoherence of Bloch oscillations. Contrary to the usual short-range interacting Bose system, long-lived Bloch oscillations of the dipolar condensate are achieved when the dipolar interaction, the contact interaction, and the lattice dimension satisfy an analytical condition. Furthermore, we predict that, in untilted lattices, stable coherent 2D moving soliton and breather states of the dipolar condensate exist. This fact is very different from the purely short-range interacting Bose system (where the moving soliton cannot be stabilized in high-dimensional lattices). The dipolar interaction can lead to some novel phenomena that can not appear in short-range interacting BEC system.
Ultracold Nonreactive Molecules in an Optical Lattice: Connecting Chemistry to Many-Body Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doçaj, Andris; Wall, Michael L.; Mukherjee, Rick; Hazzard, Kaden R. A.
2016-04-01
We derive effective lattice models for ultracold bosonic or fermionic nonreactive molecules (NRMs) in an optical lattice, analogous to the Hubbard model that describes ultracold atoms in a lattice. In stark contrast to the Hubbard model, which is commonly assumed to accurately describe NRMs, we find that the single on-site interaction parameter U is replaced by a multichannel interaction, whose properties we elucidate. Because this arises from complex short-range collisional physics, it requires no dipolar interactions and thus occurs even in the absence of an electric field or for homonuclear molecules. We find a crossover between coherent few-channel models and fully incoherent single-channel models as the lattice depth is increased. We show that the effective model parameters can be determined in lattice modulation experiments, which, consequently, measure molecular collision dynamics with a vastly sharper energy resolution than experiments in a free-space ultracold gas.
Ultracold Nonreactive Molecules in an Optical Lattice: Connecting Chemistry to Many-Body Physics.
Doçaj, Andris; Wall, Michael L; Mukherjee, Rick; Hazzard, Kaden R A
2016-04-01
We derive effective lattice models for ultracold bosonic or fermionic nonreactive molecules (NRMs) in an optical lattice, analogous to the Hubbard model that describes ultracold atoms in a lattice. In stark contrast to the Hubbard model, which is commonly assumed to accurately describe NRMs, we find that the single on-site interaction parameter U is replaced by a multichannel interaction, whose properties we elucidate. Because this arises from complex short-range collisional physics, it requires no dipolar interactions and thus occurs even in the absence of an electric field or for homonuclear molecules. We find a crossover between coherent few-channel models and fully incoherent single-channel models as the lattice depth is increased. We show that the effective model parameters can be determined in lattice modulation experiments, which, consequently, measure molecular collision dynamics with a vastly sharper energy resolution than experiments in a free-space ultracold gas.
Interaction-induced excited-band condensate in a double-well optical lattice
Zhou Qi; Das Sarma, S.; Porto, J. V.
2011-09-15
We show theoretically that interaction effects in a double-well optical lattice can induce condensates in an excited band. For a symmetric double-well lattice, bosons condense into the bottom of the excited band at the edge of the Brillouin zone if the chemical potential is above a critical value. For an asymmetric lattice, a condensate with zero momentum is automatically induced in the excited band by the condensate in the lowest band. This is due to a combined effect of interaction and lattice potential, which reduces the band gap and breaks the inversion symmetry. Our work can be generalized to a superlattice composed of multiple-well potentials at each lattice site, where condensates can be induced in even higher bands.
Ultracold nonreactive molecules in an optical lattice: connecting chemistry to many-body physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukherjee, Rick; Ewart, Kevin; Alam, Shah; Wall, Michael; Doçaj, Andris; Hazzard, Kaden
2016-05-01
We derive effective lattice models for ultracold bosonic or fermionic nonreactive molecules (NRMs) in an optical lattice. In stark contrast to the standard Hubbard model, which is commonly assumed to accurately describe NRMs, we find that the single on-site interaction parameter U is replaced by a multi-channel interaction. The complex, multi-channel collisional physics is unrelated to dipolar interactions, and so occurs even in the absence of an electric field or for homonuclear molecules. We find a crossover between coherent few-channel models and fully incoherent single-channel models as the lattice depth is increased. We devise ways to control the effective model parameters using external fields and lattice anisotropy. We show that these parameters can be determined in lattice modulation experiments, which measure molecular collision dynamics with a vastly sharper energy resolution than experiments in an ultracold gas. We will report our progress calculating this novel model's ground state phase diagram.
Weyl points in three-dimensional optical lattices: synthetic magnetic monopoles in momentum space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buljan, Hrvoje; Dubcek, Tena; Kennedy, Colin; Lu, Ling; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Soljacic, Marin
2015-05-01
We show that Hamiltonians with Weyl points can be realized for ultracold atoms using laser-assisted tunneling in three-dimensional (3D) optical lattices. Weyl points are synthetic magnetic monopoles that exhibit a robust, 3D linear dispersion (e.g., see). They are associated with many interesting topological states of matter, such as Weyl semimetals and chiral Weyl fermions. However, Weyl points have yet to be experimentally observed in any system. We show that this elusive goal is well-within experimental reach with an extension of the techniques recently used to obtain the Harper Hamiltonian. We propose using laser assisted tunneling to create a 3D optical lattice, with specifically designed hopping between lattice sites that breaks inversion symmetry. The design leads to creation of four Weyl points in the Brillouin zone of the lattice, which are verified to be monopoles of the synthetic magnetic field. Supported by the Unity through Knowledge Fund (Grant 5/13).
Resolved Sideband Spectroscopy and Cooling of Strontium in a 532-nm Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aman, James; Hill, Joshua; Killian, T. C.
2016-05-01
Resolved sideband cooling is a powerful and well established technique for driving ultracold atoms in optical lattices to the motional ground state of individual lattice sites. Here we present spectroscopy of the narrow 5s21S0 --> 5 s 5 p3P1 transition for neutral strontium-84 in a 532nm optical lattice. Resolved red- and blue-detuned sidebands are observed corresponding to changes in the motional state in the lattice sites. Driving the red sideband, we demonstrate cooling into the ground state, which increases the initial phase-space density before forced evaporative cooling. This is a promising technique for improving the production of strontium quantum degenerate gases. Research supported by the Robert A, Welch Foundation under Grant No. C-1844.
Mechanical and electronic energy eigenstates of neutral Rb atoms in deep optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neuzner, Andreas; Koerber, Matthias; Morin, Olivier; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard
2015-05-01
Optical lattices allow for tight three-dimensional confinement of neutral atoms in quasi-harmonic potentials and have become a standard tool in experimental quantum optics. Applications range from fundamental topics like metrology to applications in quantum communication and quantum information processing. Here we present an experimental characterization of the motional and internal energy eigenstates of optically trapped 87Rb atoms. We implement different spectroscopy techniques based on non-destructive hyperfine state detection using an optical cavity. Applying these techniques, we observe and explain a series of effects like the decoupling of the hyperfine spin due to a tensor lightshift and mechanical effects associated with a small non-orthogonality of the lattice axes. Furthermore, we succeed to exploit the latter for optical cooling of a single atom into the two-dimensional mechanical groundstate in an environment with restricted optical access.
Spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in a one-dimensional optical lattice.
Hamner, C; Zhang, Yongping; Khamehchi, M A; Davis, Matthew J; Engels, P
2015-02-20
We investigate a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into a translating optical lattice. We experimentally demonstrate the lack of Galilean invariance in the spin-orbit-coupled system, which leads to anisotropic behavior of the condensate depending on the direction of translation of the lattice. The anisotropy is theoretically understood by an effective dispersion relation. We experimentally confirm this theoretical picture by probing the dynamical instability of the system.
Spin-Orbit-Coupled Bose-Einstein Condensates in a One-Dimensional Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamner, C.; Zhang, Yongping; Khamehchi, M. A.; Davis, Matthew J.; Engels, P.
2015-02-01
We investigate a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into a translating optical lattice. We experimentally demonstrate the lack of Galilean invariance in the spin-orbit-coupled system, which leads to anisotropic behavior of the condensate depending on the direction of translation of the lattice. The anisotropy is theoretically understood by an effective dispersion relation. We experimentally confirm this theoretical picture by probing the dynamical instability of the system.
Solids and Supersolids of Three-Body Interacting Polar Molecules on an Optical Lattice
Schmidt, Kai P.; Dorier, Julien; Laeuchli, Andreas M.
2008-10-10
We study the physics of cold polar molecules loaded into an optical lattice in the regime of strong three-body interactions, as put forward recently by Buechler et al.[Nature Phys. 3, 726 (2007)]. To this end, quantum Monte Carlo simulations, exact diagonalization, and a semiclassical approach are used to explore hard-core bosons on the 2D square lattice which interact solely by long-ranged three-body terms. The resulting phase diagram shows a sequence of solid and supersolid phases. Our findings are directly relevant for future experimental implementations and open a new route towards the discovery of a lattice supersolid phase in experiment.
Resonant control of cold-atom transport through two optical lattices with a constant relative speed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenaway, M. T.; Balanov, A. G.; Fromhold, T. M.
2013-01-01
We show theoretically that the dynamics of cold atoms in the lowest-energy band of a stationary optical lattice can be transformed and controlled by a second, weaker, periodic potential moving at a constant speed along the axis of the stationary lattice. The atom trajectories exhibit complex behavior, which depends sensitively on the amplitude and speed of the propagating lattice. When the speed and amplitude of the moving potential are low, the atoms are dragged through the static lattice and perform drifting orbits with frequencies an order of magnitude higher than that corresponding to the moving potential. Increasing either the speed or amplitude of the moving lattice induces Bloch-like oscillations within the energy band of the static lattice, which exhibit complex resonances at critical values of the system parameters. In some cases, a very small change in these parameters can reverse the atom's direction of motion. In order to understand these dynamics we present an analytical model, which describes the key features of the atom transport and also accurately predicts the positions of the resonant features in the atom's phase space. The abrupt controllable transitions between dynamical regimes, as well as the associated set of resonances, provide a mechanism for transporting atoms between precise locations in a lattice, as required for using cold atoms to simulate condensed matter or as a stepping stone to quantum information processing. The system also provides a direct quantum simulator of acoustic waves propagating through semiconductor nanostructures in sound analogs of the optical laser (saser).
Creation of a low-entropy quantum gas of polar molecules in an optical lattice.
Moses, Steven A; Covey, Jacob P; Miecnikowski, Matthew T; Yan, Bo; Gadway, Bryce; Ye, Jun; Jin, Deborah S
2015-11-01
Ultracold polar molecules, with their long-range electric dipolar interactions, offer a unique platform for studying correlated quantum many-body phenomena. However, realizing a highly degenerate quantum gas of molecules with a low entropy per particle is challenging. We report the synthesis of a low-entropy quantum gas of potassium-rubidium molecules (KRb) in a three-dimensional optical lattice. We simultaneously load into the optical lattice a Mott insulator of bosonic Rb atoms and a single-band insulator of fermionic K atoms. Then, using magnetoassociation and optical state transfer, we efficiently produce ground-state molecules in the lattice at those sites that contain one Rb and one K atom. The achieved filling fraction of 25% should enable future studies of transport and entanglement propagation in a many-body system with long-range dipolar interactions. PMID:26542566
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Qiang
2016-02-01
Motivated by recent experiments carried out by Spielman's group at NIST, we study the vortex formation in a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate in synthetic magnetic field confined in a harmonic potential combined with an optical lattice. We obtain numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and compare the vortex formation by synthetic magnetic field method with those by rotating frame method. We conclude that a large angular momentum indeed can be created in the presence of the optical lattice. However, it is still more difficult to rotate the condensate by the synthetic magnetic field than by the rotating frame even if the optical lattice is added, and the chemical potential and energy remain almost unchanged by increasing rotational frequency.
Signatures of spatial inversion asymmetry of an optical lattice observed in matter-wave diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, C. K.; Barter, T. H.; Leung, T.-H.; Daiss, S.; Stamper-Kurn, D. M.
2016-06-01
The structure of a two-dimensional honeycomb optical lattice potential with small inversion asymmetry is characterized using coherent diffraction of 87Rb atoms. We demonstrate that even a small potential asymmetry, with peak-to-peak amplitude of ≤2.3 % of the overall lattice potential, can lead to pronounced inversion asymmetry in the momentum-space diffraction pattern. The observed asymmetry is explained quantitatively by considering both Kapitza-Dirac scattering in the Raman-Nath regime and also either perturbative or full-numerical treatment of the band structure of a periodic potential with a weak inversion-symmetry-breaking term. Our results have relevance for both the experimental development of coherent atom optics and the proper interpretation of time-of-flight assays of atomic materials in optical lattices.
Signatures of spatial inversion asymmetry of an optical lattice observed in matter-wave diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Claire K.; Barter, Thomas H.; Leung, Tsz Him; Okano, Masayuki; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M.
2016-05-01
The structure of a two-dimensional honeycomb optical lattice potential with small inversion asymmetry is characterized using coherent diffraction of 87 Rb atoms. We demonstrate that even a small potential asymmetry, with peak-to-peak amplitude of <= 2 . 3 % of the overall lattice potential, can lead to pronounced inversion asymmetry in the momentum-space diffraction pattern. The observed asymmetry is explained quantitatively by considering both Kaptiza-Dirac scattering in the Raman-Nath regime, and also either perturbative or full-numerical treatment of the band structure of a periodic potential with a weak inversion symmetry breaking term. Our results have relevance both for the experimental development of coherent atom optics and also for the proper interpretation of time-of-flight assays of atomic materials in optical lattices. This work was supported by the NSF and the AFOSR through the MURI program.
Measuring the spin Chern number in time-reversal-invariant Hofstadter optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Dan-Wei; Cao, Shuai
2016-10-01
We propose an experimental scheme to directly measure the spin Chern number of the time-reversal-invariant Hofstadter model in optical lattices. We first show that this model can be realized by using ultracold Fermi atoms with two pseudo-spin states encoded by the internal Zeeman states in a square optical lattice and the corresponding topological Bloch bands are characterized by the spin Chern number. We then propose and numerically demonstrate that this topological invariant can be extracted from the shift of the hybrid Wannier center in the optical lattice. By spin-resolved in situ detection of the atomic densities along the transverse direction combined with time-of-flight measurement along another spatial direction, the spin Chern number in this system is directly measured.
Detection of antiferromagnetic order by cooling atoms in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Tsung-Lin; Teles, Rafael; Hazzard, Kaden; Hulet, Randall; Rice University Collaboration
2016-05-01
We have realized the Fermi-Hubbard model with fermionic 6 Li atoms in a three-dimensional compensated optical lattice. The compensated optical lattice has provided low enough temperatures to produce short-range antiferromagnetic (AF) spin correlations, which we detect via Bragg scattering of light. Previously, we reached temperatures down to 1.4 times that of the AFM phase transition, more than a factor of 2 below temperatures obtained previously in 3D optical lattices with fermions. In order to further reduce the entropy in the compensated lattice, we implement an entropy conduit - which is a single blue detuned laser beam with a waist size smaller than the overall atomic sample size. This repulsive narrow potential provides a conductive metallic path between the low entropy core and the edges of the atomic sample where atoms may be evaporated. In addition, the entropy conduit may store entropy, thus further lowering the entropy in the core. We will report on the status of these efforts to further cool atoms in the optical lattice. Work supported by ARO MURI Grant, NSF and The Welch Foundation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, H.; Schleich, T.
Modified Jeener solid-echo pulse sequences are proposed for the measurement of the proton dipolar spin-lattice relaxation time, T1D, of motionally restricted (solid-like) components in the presence of mobile molecular species, such as encountered in biological tissue. A phase-cycled composite-pulse sequence was used for detection of the dipolar signal and cancellation of the Zeeman signal. A homospoil gradient pulse was added to the Jeener echo pulse sequence to enhance dephasing of the transverse magnetization components of mobile species, thereby aiding in elimination of the Zeeman signal during dipolar signal acquisition. A modified Jeener echo sequence incorporating water suppression is also proposed as a means to further depress the Zeeman signal arising from mobile components. The modified Jeener echo sequences were successfully used for the measurement of proton T1D values of solid 2,6-dimethylphenol and Sephadex gels of differing degrees of cross linking and hydration.
Tang, Yingying; Guo, Wenbin; Xiang, Hongping; Zhang, Suyun; Yang, Ming; Cui, Meiyan; Wang, Nannan; He, Zhangzhen
2016-01-19
Two new tellurite-sulfates A2Cu5(TeO3)(SO4)3(OH)4 (A = Na, K) have been synthesized by a conventional hydrothermal method. Both compounds feature 1D kagomé strip structure built by distorted CuO6 octahedra, which can be regarded as the dimensional reduction of kagomé lattice. Magnetic measurements confirmed that the titled compounds possess antiferromagnetic ordering at low temperature, while a field-induced magnetic transition can be observed at critical field. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to obtain distorted kagomé strip compounds.
Dipole-dipole interactions in optical lattices do not follow an inverse cube power law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wall, M. L.; Carr, L. D.
2013-12-01
We study the effective dipole-dipole interactions in ultracold quantum gases on optical lattices as a function of asymmetry in confinement along the principal axes of the lattice. In particular, we study the matrix elements of the dipole-dipole interaction in the basis of lowest band Wannier functions which serve as a set of low-energy states for many-body physics on the lattice. We demonstrate that, for shallow lattices in quasi-reduced dimensional scenarios, the effective interaction between dipoles in an optical lattice is non-algebraic in the inter-particle separation at short to medium distance on the lattice scale and has a long-range power-law tail, in contrast to the pure power-law behavior of the dipole-dipole interaction in free space. The modifications to the free-space interaction can be sizable; we identify differences of up to 36% from the free-space interaction at the nearest-neighbor distance in quasi-one-dimensional arrangements. The interaction difference depends essentially on asymmetry in confinement, due to the d-wave anisotropy of the dipole-dipole interaction. Our results do not depend on statistics, applying to both dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases. Using matrix product state simulations, we demonstrate that use of the correct lattice dipolar interaction leads to significant deviations from many-body predictions using the free-space interaction. Our results are relevant to up and coming experiments with ultracold heteronuclear molecules, Rydberg atoms and strongly magnetic atoms in optical lattices.
Propagation of sound in a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice
Menotti, C.; Kraemer, M.; Stringari, S.; Smerzi, A.; Pitaevskii, L.
2004-08-01
We study the propagation of sound waves in a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice. We find that the velocity of the propagation of sound wave packets decreases with increasing optical lattice depth, as predicted by the Bogoliubov theory. The strong interplay between nonlinearities and the periodicity of the external potential generates phenomena that are not present in the uniform case. Shock waves, for instance, can propagate slower than sound waves, due to the negative curvature of the dispersion relation. Moreover, nonlinear corrections to the Bogoliubov theory appear to be important even with very small density perturbations, inducing a saturation of the amplitude of the sound signal.
Single-qubit rotations in two-dimensional optical lattices with multiqubit addressing
Joo, Jaewoo; Lim, Yuan Liang; Knight, Peter L.; Beige, Almut
2006-10-15
Optical lattices with one atom on each site and interacting via cold controlled collisions provide an efficient way to entangle a large number of qubits with high fidelity. It has already been demonstrated experimentally that this approach is especially suited for the generation of cluster states [O. Mandel et al., Nature 425, 937 (2003)] which reduce the resource requirement for quantum computing to the ability to perform single-qubit rotations and qubit read out. In this paper, we describe how to implement these rotations in one-dimensional and two-dimensional optical lattices without having to address the atoms individually with a laser field.
Response to dynamical modulation of the optical lattice for fermions in the Hubbard model
Xu Zhaoxin; Yang Shuxiang; Sheehy, Daniel E.; Moreno, Juana; Jarrell, Mark; Chiesa, Simone; Su Shiquan; Scalettar, Richard T.
2011-08-15
Fermionic atoms in a periodic optical lattice provide a realization of the single-band Hubbard model. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations along with the maximum-entropy method, we evaluate the effect of a time-dependent perturbative modulation of the optical lattice amplitude on atomic correlations, revealed in the fraction of doubly occupied sites. We find that the effect of modulation depends strongly on the filling--the response of the double occupation is significantly different in the half-filled Mott insulator from that in the doped Fermi liquid region.
Hidden-symmetry-protected quantum pseudo-spin Hall effect in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Jing-Min; Chen, Wei
2016-06-01
We propose a scheme to realize a Z2 topological insulator in a square optical lattice. Different from the conventional topological insulator protected by the time-reversal symmetry, here the optical lattice possesses a hidden symmetry, which is responsible for the present Z2 topological order. With a properly defined pseudospin, such a topological insulator is characterized by the helical edge states that exhibits pseudo-spin-momentum locking, so it can be considered as a quantum pseudo-spin Hall insulator. The Z2 topological invariant is derived and its experimental detection is discussed as well.
Stability of Superfluid and Supersolid Phases of Dipolar Bosons in Optical Lattices
Danshita, Ippei; Sa de Melo, Carlos A. R.
2009-11-27
We perform a stability analysis of superfluid (SF) and supersolid (SS) phases of polarized dipolar bosons in two-dimensional optical lattices at high filling factors and zero temperature, and obtain the phase boundaries between SF, checkerboard SS (CSS), striped SS (SSS), and collapse. We show that the phase diagram can be explored through the application of an external field and the tuning of its direction with respect to the optical lattice plane. In particular, we find a transition between the CSS and SSS phases.
Matter-wave propagation in optical lattices: geometrical and flat-band effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metcalf, Mekena; Chern, Gia-Wei; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Chien, Chih-Chun
2016-04-01
The geometry of optical lattices can be engineered, allowing the study of atomic transport along paths arranged in patterns that are otherwise difficult to probe in the solid state. A question feasible to atomic systems is related to the speed of matter-wave propagation as a function of the lattice geometry. To address this issue, we investigated, theoretically, the quantum transport of noninteracting and weakly-interacting ultracold fermionic atoms in several 2D optical lattice geometries. We find that the triangular lattice has a higher propagation velocity compared to the square lattice, and the cross-linked square lattice has an even faster propagation velocity. The increase results from the mixing of the momentum states which leads to different group velocities in quantum systems. Standard band theory provides an explanation and allows for a systematic way to search and design systems with controllable matter-wave propagation. Moreover, the presence of a flat band such as in a two-leg ladder geometry leads to a dynamical density discontinuity due to its localized atoms. Possible realizations of those dynamical phenomena are discussed.
The Sr optical lattice clock at JILA: A new record in atomic clock performance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicholson, Travis; Bloom, Benjamin; Williams, Jason; Campbell, Sara; Bishof, Michael; Zhang, Xibo; Zhang, Wei; Bromley, Sarah; Hutson, Ross; McNally, Rees; Ye, Jun
2014-05-01
The exquisite control exhibited over quantum states of individual particles has revolutionized the field of precision measurement, as exemplified by highly accurate atomic clocks. Optical clocks have been the most accurate frequency standards for the better part of a decade, surpassing even the cesium microwave fountains upon which the SI second is based. Two classes of optical clocks have outperformed cesium: single-ion clocks and optical lattice clocks. Historically ion clocks have always been more accurate, and the precision of ion clocks and lattice clocks has been comparable. For years it has been unclear if lattice clocks can overcome key systematics and become more accurate than ion clocks. In this presentation I report the first lattice clock that has surpassed ion clocks in both precision and accuracy. These measurements represent a tenfold improvement in precision and a factor of 20 improvement in accuracy over the previous best lattice clock results. This work paves the way for a better realization of SI units, the development of more sophisticated quantum sensors, and precision tests of the fundamental laws of nature.
Coherent control of atomic motion in an optical lattice for precise measurements of gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarallo, Marco; Alberti, Andrea; Poli, Nicola; Prevedelli, Marco; Wang, Fu-Yuan; Tino, Guglielmo
2011-05-01
Coherent control of atomic motion inside an optical lattice allows precise measurement of forces by means amplitude-modulation (AM) driven resonant tunneling. We report about the recently-performed high precision measurements of gravitational acceleration using ultracold strontium atoms trapped in an AM driven vertical optical lattice. We reached an uncertainty Δg / g ~10-7 by measuring at the 5th harmonic of the Bloch oscillation frequency. We analyzed the systematic effects induced by the trapping optical lattice, such as the intensity gradient and the lattice frequency-induced shift. We accurately measured the lattice frequency by means of an fiber link with a home-made frequency comb. The value of g obtained with this microscopic quantum system is consistent with the one we measured with a classical absolute gravimeter. Short-distance measurements of gravity near dielectric surfaces are discussed. These results prospect a new way to new tests of gravity at micrometer scale. A. Alberti et al., New J. Phys. 12, 065037 (2010).
Relaxation Dynamics Of Bose-Fermi Doublons In Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safavi-Naini, Arghavan; Gärttner, Martin; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Wall, Michael L.; Covey, Jacob P.; Moses, Steven A.; Miecnikowski, Matthew T.; Fu, Zhengkun; Rey, Ana Maria; Jin, Deborah S.; Ye, Jun
2016-05-01
Motivated by a recent experiment at JILA we investigate the out-of-equilibrium dynamics of a dilute Fermi-Bose mixture, starting from a well-defined initial state, where each lattice site is either empty or occupied by a Bose-Fermi doublon. Utilizing analytical techniques and numerical simulations using the t-DRMG method, we identify the leading relaxation mechanisms of the doublons. At short times strong interactions tend to hold the doublons together, as previously reported in similar type of experiments made with identical bosons or two component fermions. Since the fermions feel a much shallower lattice than the bosons, the bosons can be visualized as random localization centers for the fermions. However, at longer times the boson tunneling cannot be ignored and additional decay channels unique to Bose-Fermi mixtures become relevant. While cluster expansion allows us to characterize the short time dynamics for dilute arrays, the long time relaxation dynamics at higher densities is strongly correlated. In this regime exact numerical techniques are employed. JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF-1211914, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.
Zitterbewegung with spin-orbit coupled ultracold atoms in a fluctuating optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Argonov, V. Yu; Makarov, D. V.
2016-09-01
The dynamics of non-interacting ultracold atoms with artificial spin-orbit coupling is considered. Spin-orbit coupling is created using two moving optical lattices with orthogonal polarizations. Our main goal is to study influence of lattice noise on Rabi oscillations. Special attention is paid to the phenomenon of the Zitterbewegung being trembling motion caused by Rabi transitions between states with different velocities. Phase and amplitude fluctuations of lattices are modelled by means of the two-dimensional stochastic Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, also known as harmonic noise. In the the noiseless case the problem is solved analytically in terms of the momentum representation. It is shown that lattice noise significantly extends duration of the Zitterbewegung as compared to the noiseless case. This effect originates from noise-induced decoherence of Rabi oscillations.
Bose-Einstein quantum phase transition in an optical lattice model
Aizenman, Michael; Lieb, Elliott H.; Seiringer, Robert; Solovej, Jan Philip; Yngvason, Jakob
2004-08-01
Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in cold gases can be turned on and off by an external potential, such as that presented by an optical lattice. We present a model of this phenomenon which we are able to analyze rigorously. The system is a hard core lattice gas at half of the maximum density and the optical lattice is modeled by a periodic potential of strength {lambda}. For small {lambda} and temperature, BEC is proved to occur, while at large {lambda} or temperature there is no BEC. At large {lambda} the low-temperature states are in a Mott insulator phase with a characteristic gap that is absent in the BEC phase. The interparticle interaction is essential for this transition, which occurs even in the ground state. Surprisingly, the condensation is always into the p=0 mode in this model, although the density itself has the periodicity of the imposed potential.
Hidden nonsymmorphic symmetry in optical lattices with one-dimensional spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hua; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Xie, X. C.
2016-05-01
We uncover the nonsymmorphic symmetry and investigate its effects on the noncollinear band structures of a quasi-two-dimensional optical lattice with synthetic one-dimensional spin-orbit coupling and a tunable Zeeman field. The perpendicular Zeeman field breaks time-reversal symmetry and lifts the Kramers degeneracy which is protected by time-reversal and generalized inversion symmetries. Interestingly, we find that the degeneracy of Bloch bands on the border of the Brillouin zone is immune to the Zeeman field. This degeneracy, reminiscent of that in nonsymmorphic crystals, is protected by the hidden glide-plane symmetry that comprises a physical reflection involving both spatial and spin degrees of freedom followed by a nonprimitive lattice translation. Furthermore, we show that the band degeneracy can be lifted by the glide-plane-symmetry-breaking lattice potential. Finally, we propose to detect these effects by measuring a dynamical structure factor with optical Bragg spectroscopy.
Semiclassical solitons in strongly correlated systems of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices
Demler, Eugene; Maltsev, Andrei
2011-07-15
Highlights: > Dynamics of their formation in strongly correlated systems of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices. > Regime of very strong interactions between atoms, the so-called hard core bosons regime. > Character of soliton excitations is dramatically different from the usual Gross-Pitaevskii regime. - Abstract: We investigate theoretically soliton excitations and dynamics of their formation in strongly correlated systems of ultracold bosonic atoms in two and three dimensional optical lattices. We derive equations of nonlinear hydrodynamics in the regime of strong interactions and incommensurate fillings, when atoms can be treated as hard core bosons. When parameters change in one direction only we obtain Korteweg-de Vries type equation away from half-filling and modified KdV equation at half-filling. We apply this general analysis to a problem of the decay of the density step. We consider stability of one dimensional solutions to transverse fluctuations. Our results are also relevant for understanding nonequilibrium dynamics of lattice spin models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diebel, F.; Boguslawski, M.; Lučić, Nemanja M.; Jović Savić, Dragana M.; Denz, C.
2015-03-01
Light propagation in structured photonic media covers many fascinating wave phenomena resulting from the band structure of the underlying lattice. Recently, the focus turned towards deterministic aperiodic structures exhibiting distinctive band gap properties. To experimentally study these effects, optical induction of photonic refractive index landscapes turned out to be the method of choice to fabricate these structures. In this contribution, we present a paradigm change of photonic lattice design by introducing a holographic optical induction method based on pixel-like spatially multiplexed single-site nondiffracting Bessel beams. This technique allows realizing a huge class of two-dimensional photonic structures, including deterministic aperiodic golden-angle Vogel spirals, as well as Fibonacci lattices.
Bound states and Cooper pairs of molecules in 2D optical lattices bilayer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Camacho-Guardian, A.; Domínguez-Castro, G. A.; Paredes, R.
2016-08-01
We investigate the formation of Cooper pairs, bound dimers and the dimer-dimer elastic scattering of ultra- cold dipolar Fermi molecules confined in a 2D optical lattice bilayer configuration. While the energy and their associated bound states are determined in a variational way, the correlated two-molecule pair is addressed as in the original Cooper formulation. We demonstrate that the 2D lattice confinement favors the formation of zero center mass momentum bound states. Regarding the Cooper pairs binding energy, this depends on the molecule populations in each layer. Maximum binding energies occur for non-zero (zero) pair momentum when the Fermi system is polarized (unpolarized). We find an analytic expression for the dimer-dimer effective interaction in the deep BEC regime. The present analysis represents a route for addressing the BCS-BEC crossover superfluidity in dipolar Fermi gases confined in 2D optical lattices within the current experimental panorama.
Barber, Z.W.; Hoyt, C.W.; Oates, C.W.; Hollberg, L.; Taichenachev, A.V.; Yudin, V.I.
2006-03-03
We report direct single-laser excitation of the strictly forbidden (6s{sup 2}){sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible}(6s6p){sup 3}P{sub 0} clock transition in {sup 174}Yb atoms confined to a 1D optical lattice. A small ({approx}1.2 mT) static magnetic field was used to induce a nonzero electric dipole transition probability between the clock states at 578.42 nm. Narrow resonance linewidths of 20 Hz (FWHM) with high contrast were observed, demonstrating a resonance quality factor of 2.6x10{sup 13}. The previously unknown ac Stark shift-canceling (magic) wavelength was determined to be 759.35{+-}0.02 nm. This method for using the metrologically superior even isotope can be easily implemented in current Yb and Sr lattice clocks and can create new clock possibilities in other alkaline-earth-like atoms such as Mg and Ca.
Katori, Hidetoshi; Takamoto, Masao; Hachisu, Hidekazu; Fujiki, Jun; Higashi, Ryoichi; Yasuda, Masami; Kishimoto, Tetsuo
2005-05-05
Employing the engineered electric fields, we demonstrate novel platforms for precision measurements with neutral atoms. (1) Applying the light shift cancellation technique, atoms trapped in an optical lattice reveal 50-Hz-narrow optical spectrum, yielding nearly an order of magnitude improvement over existing neutral-atom-based clocks. (2) Surface Stark trap has been developed to manipulate scalar atoms that are intrinsically robust to decoherence.
Atom-optics simulator of lattice transport phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meier, Eric J.; An, Fangzhao Alex; Gadway, Bryce
2016-05-01
We experimentally investigate a scheme for studying lattice transport phenomena, based on the controlled momentum-space dynamics of ultracold atomic matter waves. In the effective tight-binding models that can be simulated, we demonstrate that this technique allows for a local and time-dependent control over all system parameters, and additionally allows for single-site resolved detection of atomic populations. We demonstrate full control over site-to-site off-diagonal tunneling elements (amplitude and phase) and diagonal site energies, through the observation of continuous-time quantum walks, Bloch oscillations, and negative tunneling. These capabilities open up new prospects in the experimental study of disordered and topological systems.
Simulation of non-Abelian gauge theories with optical lattices.
Tagliacozzo, L; Celi, A; Orland, P; Mitchell, M W; Lewenstein, M
2013-01-01
Many phenomena occurring in strongly correlated quantum systems still await conclusive explanations. The absence of isolated free quarks in nature is an example. It is attributed to quark confinement, whose origin is not yet understood. The phase diagram for nuclear matter at general temperatures and densities, studied in heavy-ion collisions, is not settled. Finally, we have no definitive theory of high-temperature superconductivity. Though we have theories that could underlie such physics, we lack the tools to determine the experimental consequences of these theories. Quantum simulators may provide such tools. Here we show how to engineer quantum simulators of non-Abelian lattice gauge theories. The systems we consider have several applications: they can be used to mimic quark confinement or to study dimer and valence-bond states (which may be relevant for high-temperature superconductors). PMID:24162080
Simulation of non-Abelian gauge theories with optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tagliacozzo, L.; Celi, A.; Orland, P.; Mitchell, M. W.; Lewenstein, M.
2013-10-01
Many phenomena occurring in strongly correlated quantum systems still await conclusive explanations. The absence of isolated free quarks in nature is an example. It is attributed to quark confinement, whose origin is not yet understood. The phase diagram for nuclear matter at general temperatures and densities, studied in heavy-ion collisions, is not settled. Finally, we have no definitive theory of high-temperature superconductivity. Though we have theories that could underlie such physics, we lack the tools to determine the experimental consequences of these theories. Quantum simulators may provide such tools. Here we show how to engineer quantum simulators of non-Abelian lattice gauge theories. The systems we consider have several applications: they can be used to mimic quark confinement or to study dimer and valence-bond states (which may be relevant for high-temperature superconductors).
Incompressible states of a two-component Fermi gas in a double-well optical lattice
Crepin, Francois; Simon, Pascal; Citro, Roberta
2010-07-15
We propose a scheme to investigate the effect of frustration on the magnetic phase transitions of cold atoms confined in an optical lattice. We also demonstrate how to get two-leg spin ladders with frustrated spin-exchange coupling that display a phase transition from a spin liquid to a fully incompressible state. Further, various experimental quantities are analyzed for describing this phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rakhimov, Abdulla; Askerzade, Iman N.
2014-09-01
We have shown that the critical temperature of a Bose-Einstein condensate to a normal phase transition of noninteracting bosons in cubic optical lattices has a linear dependence on the filling factor, especially at large densities. The condensed fraction exhibits a linear power law dependence on temperature in contrast to the case of ideal homogeneous Bose gases.
Control of diffusion of nanoparticles in an optical vortex lattice.
Zapata, Ivar; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Sáenz, Juan José
2016-06-01
A two-dimensional periodic optical force field, which combines conservative dipolar forces with vortices from radiation pressure, is proposed in order to influence the diffusion properties of optically susceptible nanoparticles. The different deterministic flow patterns are identified. In the low-noise limit, the diffusion coefficient is computed from a mean first passage time and the most probable escape paths are identified for those flow patterns which possess a stable stationary point. Numerical simulations of the associated Langevin equations show remarkable agreement with the analytically deduced expressions. Modifications of the force field are proposed so that a wider range of phenomena could be tested. PMID:27415231
Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Oates, C W; Hoyt, C W; Barber, Z W; Hollberg, L
2006-03-01
We develop a method of spectroscopy that uses a weak static magnetic field to enable direct optical excitation of forbidden electric-dipole transitions that are otherwise prohibitively weak. The power of this scheme is demonstrated using the important application of optical atomic clocks based on neutral atoms confined to an optical lattice. The simple experimental implementation of this method--a single clock laser combined with a dc magnetic field--relaxes stringent requirements in current lattice-based clocks (e.g., magnetic field shielding and light polarization), and could therefore expedite the realization of the extraordinary performance level predicted for these clocks. We estimate that a clock using alkaline-earth-like atoms such as Yb could achieve a fractional frequency uncertainty of well below 10(-17) for the metrologically preferred even isotopes.
Imaging and addressing of individual fermionic atoms in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trotzky, Stefan; Edge, Graham; Anderson, Rhys; Xu, Peihang; Venu, Vijin; Jervis, Dylan; McKay, Dave; Day, Ryan; Thywissen, Joseph
2016-05-01
The implementation of site-resolved imaging of atoms in short-period optical lattices constitutes a milestone achievement in the study of strongly correlated matter with these systems. Its realization with bosons six years ago has boosted progress in the field. In the last year, site-resolved imaging was demonstrated for fermions in five independent experiments. We present our newest results on site-resolved microscopy of ultracold 40 K in a 527nm-period optical lattice. Atoms remain pinned during imaging due to EIT cooling on the 770nm D1 transition. We observe pinning fidelities of up to 96% for an illumination time of 2.6s during which the atoms scatter > 2000 photons. A 0.8NA objective collects the fluorescence light to be imaged onto a EMCCD camera, giving a 600nm -wide PSF. In conjunction with the known lattice geometry, this allows us to reconstruct the lattice-site occupations from the images. The imaging technique is implemented in an apparatus capable of simulating the Fermi-Hubbard model. The use of tomographic tools enables us to select single lattice planes for background free imaging. We also address in-plane patterns with straight and circular boundaries in order to eliminate inhomogeneity effects on the imaging fidelity, or for controlled entropy removal.
Matter-wave propagation in optical lattices: geometrical and flat-band effects
Metcalf, Mekena; Chern, Gia-Wei; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Chien, Chih-Chun
2016-03-17
Here we report that the geometry of optical lattices can be engineered allowing the study of atomic transport along paths arranged in patterns that are otherwise difficult to probe in the solid state. A question feasible to atomic systems is related to the speed of propagation of matter-waves as a function of the lattice geometry. To address this issue, we have investigated theoretically the quantum transport of non-interacting and weakly-interacting ultracold fermionic atoms in several 2D optical lattice geometries. We find that the triangular lattice has a higher propagation velocity compared to the square lattice, and the cross-linked square latticemore » has an even faster propagation velocity. The increase results from the mixing of the momentum states which leads to different group velocities in quantum systems. Standard band theory provides an explanation and allows for a systematic way to search and design systems with controllable matter-wave propagation. Moreover, the presence of a flat band such as in a two-leg ladder geometry leads to a dynamical density discontinuity due to its localized atoms. Lastly, we discuss possible realizations of those dynamical phenomena.« less
Mazzarella, G.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.
2006-01-15
For systems of interacting, ultracold spin-zero neutral bosonic atoms, harmonically trapped and subject to an optical lattice potential, we derive an Extended Bose Hubbard (EBH) model by developing a systematic expansion for the Hamiltonian of the system in powers of the lattice parameters and of a scale parameter, the lattice attenuation factor. We identify the dominant terms that need to be retained in realistic experimental conditions, up to nearest-neighbor interactions and nearest-neighbor hoppings conditioned by the on-site occupation numbers. In the mean field approximation, we determine the free energy of the system and study the phase diagram both at zero and at finite temperature. At variance with the standard on site Bose Hubbard model, the zero-temperature phase diagram of the EBH model possesses a dual structure in the Mott insulating regime. Namely, for specific ranges of the lattice parameters, a density wave phase characterizes the system at integer fillings, with domains of alternating mean occupation numbers that are the atomic counterparts of the domains of staggered magnetizations in an antiferromagnetic phase. We show as well that in the EBH model, a zero-temperature quantum phase transition to pair superfluidity is, in principle, possible, but completely suppressed at the lowest order in the lattice attenuation factor. Finally, we determine the possible occurrence of the different phases as a function of the experimentally controllable lattice parameters.
Three-level Haldane-like model on a dice optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrijauskas, T.; Anisimovas, E.; RačiÅ«nas, M.; Mekys, A.; Kudriašov, V.; Spielman, I. B.; JuzeliÅ«nas, G.
2015-09-01
We consider ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice of the dice geometry in a tight-binding regime. The atoms experience a laser-assisted tunneling between the nearest neighbor sites of the dice lattice accompanied by the momentum recoil. This allows one to engineer staggered synthetic magnetic fluxes over plaquettes, and thus pave a way towards the realization of topologically nontrivial band structures. In such a lattice the real-valued next-nearest neighbor transitions are not needed to reach a topological regime. Yet, such transitions can increase a variety of the obtained topological phases. The dice lattice represents a triangular Bravais lattice with a three-site basis consisting of a hub site connected to two rim sites. As a consequence, the dice lattice supports three energy bands. From this point of view, our model can be interpreted as a generalization of the paradigmatic Haldane model which is reproduced if one of the two rim sublattices is eliminated. We demonstrate that the proposed upgrade of the Haldane model creates a significant added value, including an easy access to topological semimetal phases relying only on the nearest neighbor coupling, as well as enhanced topological band structures featuring Chern numbers higher than one leading to physics beyond the usual quantum Hall effect. The numerical investigation is supported and complemented by an analytical scheme based on the study of singularities in the Berry connection.
Feshbach resonances and BCS-BEC crossover in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Zhaochuan; Radzihovsky, Leo; Gurarie, Victor
2012-02-01
In this talk we study Feshbach resonances of fermionic atoms placed in a periodic potential. We investigate the criteria when such a system can be described by a Hubbard model with variable interaction strength in case of broad resonance, or by a tight binding model of atoms and molecules with can convert into each other on sites of the lattice in case of narrow resonances. Assuming the applicability of these models, we first study the BCS-BEC crossover for broad resonance. We find that while below half filling the system undergoes the conventional crossover from a BCS superconductor to a Bose condensate of molecules, above half filling the nature of the BEC phase changes to that of a condensate of molecules made of holes. Switching our attention to the case of narrow resonance, we find that the crossover takes the system from a BCS to hole-BEC regime, than back to BCS, and finally to a conventional BEC of atomic molecules. In the latter crossover, we find that the size of Cooper pairs/molecules changes non-monotonously, being larger in the BCS and smaller in the BEC regimes. Finally, at a unity filling we find a quantum phase transition from a band insulator to a BCS-BEC superfluid replacing the crossover.
Optical resonance problem in metamaterial arrays: a lattice dynamics approach.
Liu, Wanguo
2016-11-30
A systematic dynamic theory is established to deal with the optical collective resonance in metamaterial arrays. As a reference model, we consider an infinite split ring resonator (SRR) array illuminated by a linearly polarized wave and introduce an N-degree-of-freedom forced oscillator equation to simplify the coupled-mode vibration problem. We derive a strict formula of resonance frequency (RF) and its adjustable range from the steady-state response. Unlike a single SRR possesses invariant RF, it successfully explains the mechanism of RF shift effect in the SRR array when the incident angle changes. Instead of full wave analysis, only one or two adjacent resonance modes can give an accurate response line shape. Our approach is applicable for metallic arrays with any N-particle cell at all incident angles and well matched with numerical results. It provides a versatile way to study the vibration dynamics in optical periodic many-body systems. PMID:27633098
Optical resonance problem in metamaterial arrays: a lattice dynamics approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wanguo
2016-11-01
A systematic dynamic theory is established to deal with the optical collective resonance in metamaterial arrays. As a reference model, we consider an infinite split ring resonator (SRR) array illuminated by a linearly polarized wave and introduce an N-degree-of-freedom forced oscillator equation to simplify the coupled-mode vibration problem. We derive a strict formula of resonance frequency (RF) and its adjustable range from the steady-state response. Unlike a single SRR possesses invariant RF, it successfully explains the mechanism of RF shift effect in the SRR array when the incident angle changes. Instead of full wave analysis, only one or two adjacent resonance modes can give an accurate response line shape. Our approach is applicable for metallic arrays with any N-particle cell at all incident angles and well matched with numerical results. It provides a versatile way to study the vibration dynamics in optical periodic many-body systems.
Surface lattice resonances and magneto-optical response in magnetic nanoparticle arrays
Kataja, M.; Hakala, T. K.; Julku, A.; Huttunen, M. J.; van Dijken, S.; Törmä, P.
2015-01-01
Structuring metallic and magnetic materials on subwavelength scales allows for extreme confinement and a versatile design of electromagnetic field modes. This may be used, for example, to enhance magneto-optical responses, to control plasmonic systems using a magnetic field, or to tailor magneto-optical properties of individual nanostructures. Here we show that periodic rectangular arrays of magnetic nanoparticles display surface plasmon modes in which the two directions of the lattice are coupled by the magnetic field-controllable spin–orbit coupling in the nanoparticles. When breaking the symmetry of the lattice, we find that the optical response shows Fano-type surface lattice resonances whose frequency is determined by the periodicity orthogonal to the polarization of the incident field. In striking contrast, the magneto-optical Kerr response is controlled by the period in the parallel direction. The spectral separation of the response for longitudinal and orthogonal excitations provides versatile tuning of narrow and intense magneto-optical resonances. PMID:25947368
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Topcu, T.; Derevianko, A.
2016-07-01
We predict the possibility of ‘triply magic’ optical lattice trapping of neutral divalent atoms. In such a lattice, the {}1{{{S}}}0 and {}3{{{P}}}0 clock states and an additional Rydberg state experience identical optical potentials, fully mitigating detrimental effects of the motional decoherence. In particular, we show that this triply magic trapping condition can be satisfied for Yb atom at optical wavelengths and for various other divalent systems (Ca, Mg, Hg and Sr) in the UV region. We assess the quality of triple magic trapping conditions by estimating the probability of excitation out of the motional ground state as a result of the excitations between the clock and the Rydberg states. We also calculate trapping laser-induced photoionization rates of divalent Rydberg atoms at magic frequencies. We find that such rates are below the radiative spontaneous-emission rates, due to the presence of Cooper minima in photoionization cross-sections.
Nie, Weijie; He, Ruiyun; Cheng, Chen; Rocha, Uéslen; Rodríguez Vázquez de Aldana, Javier; Jaque, Daniel; Chen, Feng
2016-05-15
We report on the fabrication of optical lattice-like waveguide structures in an Nd:YAP laser crystal by using direct femtosecond laser writing. With periodically arrayed laser-induced tracks, the waveguiding cores can be located in either the regions between the neighbored tracks or the central zone surrounded by a number of tracks as outer cladding. The polarization of the femtosecond laser pulses for the inscription has been found to play a critical role in the anisotropic guiding behaviors of the structures. The confocal photoluminescence investigations reveal different stress-induced modifications of the structures inscribed by different polarization of the femtosecond laser beam, which are considered to be responsible for the refractive index changes of the structures. Under optical pump at 808 nm, efficient waveguide lasing at ∼1 μm wavelength has been realized from the optical lattice-like structure, which exhibits potential applications as novel miniature light sources. PMID:27176954
Realizing the Harper Hamiltonian with Laser-Assisted Tunneling in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyake, Hirokazu; Siviloglou, Georgios A.; Kennedy, Colin J.; Burton, William Cody; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2013-11-01
We experimentally implement the Harper Hamiltonian for neutral particles in optical lattices using laser-assisted tunneling and a potential energy gradient provided by gravity or magnetic field gradients. This Hamiltonian describes the motion of charged particles in strong magnetic fields. Laser-assisted tunneling processes are characterized by studying the expansion of the atoms in the lattice. The band structure of this Hamiltonian should display Hofstadter’s butterfly. For fermions, this scheme should realize the quantum Hall effect and chiral edge states.
Micromagic Clock: Microwave Clock Based on Atoms in an Engineered Optical Lattice
Beloy, K.; Derevianko, A.; Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.
2009-03-27
We propose a new class of atomic microwave clocks based on the hyperfine transitions in the ground state of aluminum or gallium atoms trapped in optical lattices. For such elements magic wavelengths exist at which both levels of the hyperfine doublet are shifted at the same rate by the lattice laser field, canceling its effect on the clock transition. A similar mechanism for the magic wavelengths may work in microwave hyperfine transitions in other atoms which have the fine-structure multiplets in the ground state.
Magic wavelength to make optical lattice clocks insensitive to atomic motion.
Katori, Hidetoshi; Hashiguchi, Koji; Il'inova, E Yu; Ovsiannikov, V D
2009-10-01
In a standing wave of light, a difference in spatial distributions of multipolar atom-field interactions may introduce atomic-motion dependent clock uncertainties in optical lattice clocks. We show that the magic wavelength can be defined so as to eliminate the spatial mismatch in electric dipole, magnetic dipole, and electric quadrupole interactions for specific combinations of standing waves by allowing a spatially constant light shift arising from the latter two interactions. Experimental prospects of such lattices used with a blue magic wavelength are discussed.
Magic Wavelength to Make Optical Lattice Clocks Insensitive to Atomic Motion
Katori, Hidetoshi; Hashiguchi, Koji; Il'inova, E. Yu.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.
2009-10-09
In a standing wave of light, a difference in spatial distributions of multipolar atom-field interactions may introduce atomic-motion dependent clock uncertainties in optical lattice clocks. We show that the magic wavelength can be defined so as to eliminate the spatial mismatch in electric dipole, magnetic dipole, and electric quadrupole interactions for specific combinations of standing waves by allowing a spatially constant light shift arising from the latter two interactions. Experimental prospects of such lattices used with a blue magic wavelength are discussed.
Observation and cancellation of a perturbing dc stark shift in strontium optical lattice clocks.
Lodewyck, Jérôme; Zawada, Michal; Lorini, Luca; Gurov, Mikhail; Lemonde, Pierre
2012-03-01
We report on the observation of a dc Stark frequency shift at the 10-(13) level by comparing two strontium optical lattice clocks. This frequency shift arises from the presence of electric charges trapped on dielectric surfaces placed under vacuum close to the atomic sample. We show that these charges can be eliminated by shining UV light on the dielectric surfaces, and characterize the residual dc Stark frequency shift on the clock transition at the 10-(18) level by applying an external electric field. This study shows that the dc Stark shift can play an important role in the accuracy budget of lattice clocks, and should be duly taken into account.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yong-Jun; Liu, Xian-Feng; Han, Jiu-Rong
2009-12-01
This paper studies the superfluidity of ultracold spin-2 Bose atoms with weak interactions in optical lattices by calculating the excitation energy spectrum using the Bogoliubov approach. The energy spectra exhibit the characteristics of the superfluid-phase explicitly and it finds the nonvanishing critical speeds of superfluid. The obtained results display that the critical speeds of superfluid are different for five spin components and can be controlled by adjusting the lattice parameters in experiments. Finally it discusses the feasibilities of implementing and measuring superfluid.
Dicke superradiance as a nondestructive probe for quantum quenches in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ten Brinke, Nicolai; Schützhold, Ralf
2015-07-01
We study Dicke superradiance as collective and coherent absorption and (time-delayed) emission of photons from an ensemble of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. Since this process depends on the coherence properties of the atoms (e.g., superfluidity), it can be used as a probe for their quantum state. In analogy to pump-probe spectroscopy in solid-state physics, this detection method facilitates the investigation of nonequilibrium phenomena and is less invasive than time-of-flight experiments or direct (projective) measurements of the atom number (or parity) per lattice site, which both destroy properties of the quantum state such as phase coherence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhikari, S. K.
2016-08-01
We study the statics and dynamics of anisotropic, stable, bright and dark-in-bright dipolar quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons on a one-dimensional (1D) optical-lattice (OL) potential. These solitons mobile in a plane perpendicular to a 1D OL trap can have both repulsive and attractive contact interactions. Dark-in-bright solitons are the excited states of bright solitons. The solitons, when subjected to a small perturbation, exhibit sustained breathing oscillation. Dark-in-bright solitons can be created by phase imprinting a bright soliton. At medium velocities the collision between two solitons is found to be quasi-elastic. Results are demonstrated by a numerical simulation of the three-dimensional mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation in three spatial dimensions employing realistic interaction parameters for a dipolar 164Dy BEC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhikari, S. K.
2016-08-01
We study the statics and dynamics of anisotropic, stable, bright and dark-in-bright dipolar quasi-two-dimensional Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) solitons on a one-dimensional (1D) optical-lattice (OL) potential. These solitons mobile in a plane perpendicular to a 1D OL trap can have both repulsive and attractive contact interactions. Dark-in-bright solitons are the excited states of bright solitons. The solitons, when subjected to a small perturbation, exhibit sustained breathing oscillation. Dark-in-bright solitons can be created by phase imprinting a bright soliton. At medium velocities the collision between two solitons is found to be quasi-elastic. Results are demonstrated by a numerical simulation of the three-dimensional mean-field Gross–Pitaevskii equation in three spatial dimensions employing realistic interaction parameters for a dipolar 164Dy BEC.
Valley-spin polarization in the magneto-optical response of square lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yi-Xiang; Wu, Ya-Min
2014-10-01
In this work, we try to investigate the magneto-optical response of the square lattice model, in which the quantum spin Hall effect will occur when spin is introduced to the anisotropy next-nearest-neighboring hoppings. In the presence of Landau level quantization, we analyze the optical absorption spectrum and reveal the valley-spin polarization of the electrons when the total filling factor in the system changes. We also study the optical Hall conductivity behavior to find the signatures of valley-spin polarization. The implications of our results are discussed.
Optical lattices of excitons in InGaN/GaN quantum well systems
Chaldyshev, V. V. Bolshakov, A. S. Zavarin, E. E.; Sakharov, A. V.; Lundin, V. V.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F.; Yagovkina, M. A.
2015-01-15
Optical lattices of excitons in periodic systems of InGaN quantum wells with GaN barriers are designed, implemented, and investigated. Due to the collective interaction of quasi-two-dimensional excitons with light and a fairly high binding energy of excitons in GaN, optical Bragg reflection at room temperature is significantly enhanced. To increase the resonance optical response of the system, new structures with two quantum wells in a periodic supercell are designed and implemented. Resonance reflection of 40% at room temperatures for structures with 60 periods is demonstrated.
Frequency ratios of optical lattice clocks at the 17th decimal place
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katori, Hidetoshi
2016-05-01
Optical lattice clocks benefit from a low quantum-projection noise by simultaneously interrogating a large number of atoms, which are trapped in an optical lattice tuned to the ``magic wavelength'' to largely cancel out light shift perturbation in the clock transition. About a thousand atoms enable the clocks to achieve 10-18 instability in a few hours of operation, allowing intensive investigation and control of systematic uncertainties. As optical lattice clocks have reached inaccuracies approaching 10-18, it is now the uncertainty of the SI second (~ 10-16) itself that restricts the measurement of the absolute frequencies of such optical clocks. Direct comparisons of optical clocks are, therefore, the only way to investigate and utilize their superb performance beyond the SI second. In this presentation, we report on frequency comparisons of optical lattice clocks with neutral strontium (87 Sr), ytterbium (171 Yb) and mercury (199 Hg) atoms. By referencing cryogenic Sr clocks, we determine frequency ratios, νYb/νSr and νHg/νSr, of a cryogenic Yb clock and a Hg clock with uncertainty at the mid 10-17 level. Such ratios provide an access to search for temporal variation of the fundamental constants. We also present remote comparisons between cryogenic Sr clocks located at RIKEN and the University of Tokyo over a 30-km-long phase-stabilized fiber link. The gravitational red shift Δν /ν0 ~ 1.1× 10-18 Δh cm-1 reads out the height difference of Δh ~ 15 m between the two clocks with uncertainty of 5 cm, which demonstrates a step towards relativistic geodesy. ERATO, JST.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clements, Ethan; Ross, Preston; Rapp, Anthony; Cai, Hong; Reigle, Alex; Schlonsky, Eli; Lee, Hoseong; Clemens, James; Bali, Samir
2016-05-01
We experimentally investigate optical lattices using three different methods: pump-probe spectroscopy of vibrational energy levels, photon correlation of light scattered by cold atoms, and fluorescence imaging. Photon correlations of the scattered light can be used to measure lattice dwell times and crossover times between lattice sites. From this information we can derive the diffusion constant which can then be compared to direct measurement via fluorescence imaging. Furthermore, by Fourier transforming the time delayed photon correlations we can obtain the intensity spectrum which can be compared directly to pump-probe spectroscopy of the vibrational energy levels. We plan to carefully study situations in which the atomic transport properties deviate from Boltzman Gibbs statistics.
Lattice-supersolid phase of strongly correlated bosons in an optical cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yongqiang; He, Liang; Hofstetter, Walter
2013-05-01
We numerically simulate strongly correlated ultracold bosons coupled to a high-finesse cavity field, pumped by a laser beam in the transverse direction. Assuming a weak classical optical lattice added in the cavity direction, we model this system by a generalized Bose-Hubbard model, which is solved by means of bosonic dynamical mean-field theory. The complete phase diagram is established, which contains two novel self-organized quantum phases, lattice supersolid and checkerboard solid, in addition to conventional phases such as superfluid and Mott insulator. At finite but low temperature, thermal fluctuations are found to enhance the buildup of the self-organized phases. We demonstrate that cavity-mediated long-range interactions can give rise to stable lattice supersolid and checkerboard solid phases even in the regime of strong s-wave scattering. In the presence of a harmonic trap, we discuss coexistence of these self-organized phases, as relevant to experiments.
Instability of insulating states in optical lattices due to collective phonon excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yukalov, V. I.; Ziegler, K.
2015-02-01
The effect of collective phonon excitations on the properties of cold atoms in optical lattices is investigated. These phonon excitations are collective excitations, whose appearance is caused by intersite atomic interactions correlating the atoms, and they do not arise without such interactions. These collective excitations should not be confused with lattice vibrations produced by an external force. No such force is assumed. But the considered phonons are purely self-organized collective excitations, characterizing atomic oscillations around lattice sites, due to intersite atomic interactions. It is shown that these excitations can essentially influence the possibility of atoms' being localized. The states that would be insulating in the absence of phonon excitations can become delocalized when these excitations are taken into account. This concerns long-range as well as local atomic interactions. To characterize the region of stability, the Lindemann criterion is used.
Coexistence of Mott and superfluid domains of bosons confined in optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khanore, Mukesh; Dey, Bishwajyoti
2015-06-01
We investigate ground state properties of the attractive Bose-gas confined on square optical lattice and superimposed wine-bottle-bottom or Mexican hat trap potential. The system is modeled by two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model with attractive interactions and inhomogeneous lattice potential. We calculate the energy spectrum, the on-site number fluctuation, local density and local compressibility using numerical exact diagonalization method for incommensurate lattice filling. The trap potential has several degenerate minimum sites distributed along a ring at the wine-bottle-bottom. It is shown that beyond a certain value of the attractive interaction strength there is phase coherent condensate on these degenerate sites with finite value of the on-site number fluctuation and local compressibility giving rise to localized superfluidity or superfluidity on a ring. For the same value of the interaction strength the non-degenerate sites produces Mott region.
Effects of Cu Dopant on Lattice and Optical Properties of ZnS Quantum Dots.
Shuhua, Lu; Aiji, Wang; Tingfang, Chen; Yinshu, Wang
2016-04-01
Doped and undoped ZnS colloidal nanocrystals have drawn much attention due to their versatile applications in the fields of optoelectronics and biotechnology. In this paper, Cu doped ZnS quantum dots were synthesized via the simple thermolysis of ethylxanthate salts. The lattice and optical properties of the nanocrystals were then studied in detail. The quantum dot lattice contracted linearly between Cu concentrations of 0.2-2%, while it continued to contract more gradually as Cu concentrations were further increased from 4 to 6%, due in part to the Cu ions located on the surface of the ZnS lattice. Cu incorporation induces a long tail in absorption at long wavelengths. The PL spectrum shows a red shift at first, and then a blue shift with increases in Cu concentration. Cu doped at low concentrations (0.2-1%) enhanced the emission, while high Cu concentrations (2-6%) quenched emissions. PMID:27451716
Spectroscopy for cold atom gases in periodically modulated optical lattice potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tokuno, Akiyuki; Giamarchi, Thierry
2011-03-01
Cold atoms in optical lattices are vigorously studied experimentally and theoretically as one of the candidates for a quantum simulator. At the same time, further development of probes to microscopic structure of systems is needed. We propose a novel spectroscopy in cold atom experiments by use of periodic phase-modulation of optical lattice potentials. Corresponding to the statistics of atoms, we formulate the different observables: The energy absorption rate for bosonic atom gases, and the doublon production rate for fermionic atom gases. These observables are formulated within the linear response theory. Interestingly they are given by the imaginary part of the retarded current-current correlation function which is familiar as a quantity corresponding to an optical conductivity. As an example, we discuss one-dimensional Mott insulating state, and also compare our spectroscopy with another known spectroscopy by amplitude-modulation of an optical lattice. This work was supported in part by the Swiss SNF under MaNEP and division II.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chien, Chih-Chun; Metcalf, Mekena; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Chern, Gia-Wei
2015-05-01
The realizations of interesting optical lattices for ultracold atoms provide opportunities for investigating geometric effects on many-body physics. Thesquare, triangular, honeycomb, kagome lattices, and other geometries have been experimentally demonstrated. When the atoms are driven out of equilibrium by manipulations of the density or trapping potential, their quantum transport can be monitored and fundamental questions regarding transport in isolated systems can be addressed unambiguously. We found that the propagation velocity of the matter wave representing the flowing atoms can be accelerated by tuning the lattice geometry. This acceleration is a pure quantum effect because no shorter path is created as the geometry changes. For lattice geometries supporting a dispersionless flat band, the localized atoms in the flat band do not participate in transport but interfere with the mobile atoms. We found a generic insulating phase exhibiting a density jump in the profile that can be dynamically generated. Interesting spatial patterns may emerge if those flat-band lattices are manipulated, and an analogue of geometric frustration in quantum transport will be presented.
Realization of the Harper Hamiltonian with Artificial Gauge Fields in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyake, Hirokazu; Siviloglou, Georgios; Kennedy, Colin; Burton, William Cody; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2014-03-01
Systems of charged particles in magnetic fields have led to many discoveries in science-such as the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects-and have become important paradigms of quantum many-body physics. We have proposed and implemented a scheme which realizes the Harper Hamiltonian, a lattice model for charged particles in magnetic fields, whose energy spectrum is the fractal Hofstadter butterfly. We experimentally realize this Hamiltonian for ultracold, charge neutral bosonic particles of 87Rb in a two-dimensional optical lattice by creating an artificial gauge field using laser-assisted tunneling and a potential energy gradient provided by gravity. Laser-assisted tunneling processes are characterized by studying the expansion of the atoms in the lattice. Furthermore, this scheme can be extended to realize spin-orbit coupling and the spin Hall effect for neutral atoms in optical lattices by modifying the motion of atoms in a spin-dependent way by laser recoil and Zeeman shifts created with a magnetic field gradient. Major advantages of our scheme are that it does not rely on near-resonant laser light to couple different spin states and should work even for fermionic particles. Our work is a step towards studying novel topological phenomena with ultracold atoms. Currently at the RAND Corporation.
Large-photon-number extraction from individual atoms trapped in an optical lattice
Shotter, M. D.
2011-03-15
The atom-by-atom characterization of quantum gases requires the development of novel measurement techniques. One particularly promising new technique demonstrated in recent experiments uses strong fluorescent laser scattering from neutral atoms confined in a short-period optical lattice to measure the positions of individual atoms in the sample. A crucial condition for the measurements is that atomic hopping between lattice sites must be strongly suppressed despite substantial photon recoil heating. This paper models three-dimensional polarization gradient cooling of atoms trapped within a far-detuned optical lattice. The atomic dynamics are simulated using a hybrid Monte Carlo and master-equation analysis in order to predict the frequency of processes which give rise to degradation or loss of the fluorescent signal during measurements. It is shown, consistently with the experimental results, that there exists a wide parameter range in which the lifetime of strongly fluorescing isolated lattice-trapped atoms is limited by background gas collisions rather than radiative processes. In these cases the total number of scattered photons can be as large as 10{sup 8} per atom. The performance of the technique is related to relevant experimental parameters.
Coherent driving and freezing of bosonic matter wave in an optical Lieb lattice.
Taie, Shintaro; Ozawa, Hideki; Ichinose, Tomohiro; Nishio, Takuei; Nakajima, Shuta; Takahashi, Yoshiro
2015-11-01
Although kinetic energy of a massive particle generally has quadratic dependence on its momentum, a flat, dispersionless energy band is realized in crystals with specific lattice structures. Such macroscopic degeneracy causes the emergence of localized eigenstates and has been a key concept in the context of itinerant ferromagnetism. We report the realization of a "Lieb lattice" configuration with an optical lattice, which has a flat energy band as the first excited state. Our optical lattice potential has various degrees of freedom in its manipulation, which enables coherent transfer of a Bose-Einstein condensate into the flat band. In addition to measuring lifetime of the flat band population for different tight-binding parameters, we investigate the inter-sublattice dynamics of the system by projecting the sublattice population onto the band population. This measurement clearly shows the formation of the localized state with the specific sublattice decoupled in the flat band, and even detects the presence of flat-band breaking perturbations, resulting in the delocalization. Our results will open up the possibilities of exploring the physics of flat bands with a highly controllable quantum system.
Coherent driving and freezing of bosonic matter wave in an optical Lieb lattice.
Taie, Shintaro; Ozawa, Hideki; Ichinose, Tomohiro; Nishio, Takuei; Nakajima, Shuta; Takahashi, Yoshiro
2015-11-01
Although kinetic energy of a massive particle generally has quadratic dependence on its momentum, a flat, dispersionless energy band is realized in crystals with specific lattice structures. Such macroscopic degeneracy causes the emergence of localized eigenstates and has been a key concept in the context of itinerant ferromagnetism. We report the realization of a "Lieb lattice" configuration with an optical lattice, which has a flat energy band as the first excited state. Our optical lattice potential has various degrees of freedom in its manipulation, which enables coherent transfer of a Bose-Einstein condensate into the flat band. In addition to measuring lifetime of the flat band population for different tight-binding parameters, we investigate the inter-sublattice dynamics of the system by projecting the sublattice population onto the band population. This measurement clearly shows the formation of the localized state with the specific sublattice decoupled in the flat band, and even detects the presence of flat-band breaking perturbations, resulting in the delocalization. Our results will open up the possibilities of exploring the physics of flat bands with a highly controllable quantum system. PMID:26665167
Geopotential measurements with synchronously linked optical lattice clocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takano, Tetsushi; Takamoto, Masao; Ushijima, Ichiro; Ohmae, Noriaki; Akatsuka, Tomoya; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Kuroishi, Yuki; Munekane, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Basara; Katori, Hidetoshi
2016-10-01
According to Einstein's theory of relativity, the passage of time changes in a gravitational field. On Earth, raising a clock by 1 cm increases its apparent tick rate by 1.1 parts in 1018, allowing chronometric levelling through comparison of optical clocks. Here, we demonstrate such geopotential measurements by determining the height difference of master and slave clocks separated by 15 km with an uncertainty of 5 cm. A subharmonic of the master clock laser is delivered through a telecom fibre to synchronously operate the distant clocks. Clocks operated under such phase coherence reject clock laser noise and facilitate proposals for linking clocks and interferometers. Taken over half a year, 11 measurements determine the fractional frequency difference between the two clocks to be 1,652.9(5.9) × 10-18, consistent with an independent measurement by levelling and gravimetry. Our system demonstrates a building block for an internet of clocks, which may constitute ‘quantum benchmarks’, serving as height references with dynamic responses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, D.; Sparkes, B. M.
2016-08-01
We quantify the disorder-induced heating (DIH) of ultracold neutral plasmas (UCNPs) created from cold atoms in optical lattices with partial filling fractions, using a conservation of energy model involving the spatial correlations of the initial state and the equation of state in thermal equilibrium for a one-component plasma. We show, for experimentally achievable filling fractions, that the ionic Coulomb coupling parameter could be increased to a degree comparable to other proposed DIH-mitigation schemes. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed with compensation for finite-size and periodic boundary effects, which agree with calculations using the model. Reduction of DIH using optical lattices will allow for the study of strongly coupled plasma physics using low-density, low-temperature, laboratory-based plasmas, and lead to improved brightness in UCNP-based cold electron and ion beams, where DIH is otherwise a fundamental limitation to beam focal sizes and diffraction imaging capability.
Multistable particle-field dynamics in cavity-generated optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winterauer, Dominik J.; Niedenzu, Wolfgang; Ritsch, Helmut
2015-05-01
Polarizable particles trapped in a resonator-sustained optical-lattice potential generate strong position-dependent backaction on the intracavity field. In the quantum regime, particles in different energy bands are connected to different intracavity light intensities and optical-lattice depths. This generates a highly nonlinear coupled particle-field dynamics. For a given pump strength and detuning, a factorizing mean-field approach predicts several self-consistent stationary solutions of strongly distinct photon numbers and motional states. Quantum Monte Carlo wave-function simulations of the master equation confirm these predictions and reveal complex multimodal photon-number and particle-momentum distributions. Using larger nanoparticles in such a setup thus constitutes a well-controllable playground to study nonlinear quantum dynamics and the buildup of macroscopic quantum superpositions at the quantum-classical boundary.
Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction and Spiral Order in Spin-orbit Coupled Optical Lattices
Gong, Ming; Qian, Yinyin; Yan, Mi; Scarola, V. W.; Zhang, Chuanwei
2015-01-01
We show that the recent experimental realization of spin-orbit coupling in ultracold atomic gases can be used to study different types of spin spiral order and resulting multiferroic effects. Spin-orbit coupling in optical lattices can give rise to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin interaction which is essential for spin spiral order. By taking into account spin-orbit coupling and an external Zeeman field, we derive an effective spin model in the Mott insulator regime at half filling and demonstrate that the DM interaction in optical lattices can be made extremely strong with realistic experimental parameters. The rich finite temperature phase diagrams of the effective spin models for fermions and bosons are obtained via classical Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:26014458
Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Jun; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-01-01
We investigate the formation of discrete breathers (DBs) and the dynamics of the mixture of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in open boundary optical lattices using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The results show that the coupling of intra- and interspecies interaction can lead to the existence of pure single-species DBs and symbiotic DBs (i.e., two-species DBs). Furthermore, we find that there is a selective distillation phenomenon in the dynamics of the mixture of two-species BECs. One can selectively distil one species from the mixture of two-species BECs and can even control dominant species fraction by adjusting the intra- and interspecies interaction in optical lattices. Our selective distillation mechanism may find potential application in quantum information storage and quantum information processing based on multi-species atoms. PMID:26597592
Simulating and exploring Weyl semimetal physics with cold atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Dan-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Liang; Wang, Z. D.
2015-07-01
We propose a scheme to simulate and explore Weyl semimetal physics with ultracold fermionic atoms in a two-dimensional square optical lattice subjected to experimentally realizable spin-orbit coupling and an artificial dimension from an external parameter space, which may increase experimental feasibility compared with the cases in three-dimensional optical lattices. It is shown that this system with a tight-binding model is able to describe essentially three-dimensional Weyl semimetals with tunable Weyl points. The relevant topological properties are also addressed by means of the Chern number and the gapless edge states. Furthermore, we illustrate that the mimicked Weyl points can be experimentally detected by measuring the atomic transfer fractions in a Bloch-Zener oscillation, and the characteristic topological invariant can be measured with the particle pumping approach.
Spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate in a tilted optical lattice
Larson, Jonas; Martikainen, Jani-Petri; Collin, Anssi; Sjoeqvist, Erik
2010-10-15
Bloch oscillations appear for a particle in a weakly tilted periodic potential. The intrinsic spin Hall effect is an outcome of a spin-orbit coupling. We demonstrate that both of these phenomena can be realized simultaneously in a gas of weakly interacting ultracold atoms exposed to a tilted optical lattice and to a set of spatially dependent light fields inducing an effective spin-orbit coupling. It is found that both the spin Hall and the Bloch oscillation effects may coexist, showing, however, a strong correlation between the two. These correlations are manifested as a transverse spin current oscillating in-phase with the Bloch oscillations. On top of the oscillations originating from the periodicity of the model, a trembling motion is found which is believed to be atomic Zitterbewegung. It is argued that the damping of these Zitterbewegung oscillations may to a large extent be prevented in the present setup considering a periodic optical lattice potential.
Thermodynamics of strongly interacting fermions in two-dimensional optical lattices
Khatami, Ehsan; Rigol, Marcos
2011-11-15
We study finite-temperature properties of strongly correlated fermions in two-dimensional optical lattices by means of numerical linked cluster expansions, a computational technique that allows one to obtain exact results in the thermodynamic limit. We focus our analysis on the strongly interacting regime, where the on-site repulsion is of the order of or greater than the band width. We compute the equation of state, double occupancy, entropy, uniform susceptibility, and spin correlations for temperatures that are similar to or below the ones achieved in current optical lattice experiments. We provide a quantitative analysis of adiabatic cooling of trapped fermions in two dimensions, by means of both flattening the trapping potential and increasing the interaction strength.
Murphy, D; Sparkes, B M
2016-08-01
We quantify the disorder-induced heating (DIH) of ultracold neutral plasmas (UCNPs) created from cold atoms in optical lattices with partial filling fractions, using a conservation of energy model involving the spatial correlations of the initial state and the equation of state in thermal equilibrium for a one-component plasma. We show, for experimentally achievable filling fractions, that the ionic Coulomb coupling parameter could be increased to a degree comparable to other proposed DIH-mitigation schemes. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed with compensation for finite-size and periodic boundary effects, which agree with calculations using the model. Reduction of DIH using optical lattices will allow for the study of strongly coupled plasma physics using low-density, low-temperature, laboratory-based plasmas, and lead to improved brightness in UCNP-based cold electron and ion beams, where DIH is otherwise a fundamental limitation to beam focal sizes and diffraction imaging capability. PMID:27627236
Controlling coherence via tuning of the population imbalance in a bipartite optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Liberto, Marco Fedele
2015-03-01
The control of transport properties is a key tool at the basis of many technologically relevant effects in condensed matter. The clean and precisely controlled environment of ultracold atoms in optical lattices allows one to prepare simplified but instructive models, which can help to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms. Here we show that by tuning a structural deformation of the unit cell in a bipartite optical lattice, one can induce a phase transition from a superfluid into various Mott insulating phases forming a shell structure in the superimposed harmonic trap. The Mott shells are identified via characteristic features in the visibility of Bragg maxima in momentum spectra. The experimental findings are explained by Gutzwiller mean-field and quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Our system bears similarities with the loss of coherence in cuprate superconductors, known to be associated with the doping induced buckling of the oxygen octahedra surrounding the copper sites.
Controlling coherence via tuning of the population imbalance in a bipartite optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Liberto, M.; Comparin, T.; Kock, T.; Ölschläger, M.; Hemmerich, A.; Smith, C. Morais
2014-12-01
The control of transport properties is a key tool at the basis of many technologically relevant effects in condensed matter. The clean and precisely controlled environment of ultracold atoms in optical lattices allows one to prepare simplified but instructive models, which can help to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms. Here we show that by tuning a structural deformation of the unit cell in a bipartite optical lattice, one can induce a phase transition from a superfluid into various Mott insulating phases forming a shell structure in the superimposed harmonic trap. The Mott shells are identified via characteristic features in the visibility of Bragg maxima in momentum spectra. The experimental findings are explained by Gutzwiller mean-field and quantum Monte Carlo calculations. Our system bears similarities with the loss of coherence in cuprate superconductors, known to be associated with the doping-induced buckling of the oxygen octahedra surrounding the copper sites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iskin, M.; de Melo, C. A. R. Sá
2009-10-01
We analyze the finite temperature phase diagram of fermion mixtures in one-dimensional optical lattices as a function of interaction strength. At low temperatures, the system evolves from an anisotropic three-dimensional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid to an effectively two-dimensional Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) superfluid as the interaction strength increases. We calculate the critical temperature as a function of interaction strength, and identify the region where the dimensional crossover occurs for a specified optical lattice potential. Finally, we show that the dominant vortex excitations near the critical temperature evolve from multiplane elliptical vortex loops in the three-dimensional regime to planar vortex-antivortex pairs in the two-dimensional regime, and we propose a detection scheme for these excitations.
Creation of p-wave Feshbach molecules in selected angular momentum states using an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waseem, Muhammad; Zhang, Zhiqi; Yoshida, Jun; Hattori, Keita; Saito, Taketo; Mukaiyama, Takashi
2016-10-01
We selectively create p-wave Feshbach molecules in the {m}l=+/- 1 orbital angular momentum projection state of 6Li. We use an optical lattice potential to restrict the relative momentum of the atoms such that only the {m}l=+/- 1 molecular state couples to the atoms at the Feshbach resonance. We observe the hollow-centered dissociation profile, which is a clear indication of the selective creation of p-wave molecules in the {m}l=+/- 1 states. We also measure the dissociation energy of the p-wave molecules created in the optical lattice and develop a theoretical formulation to explain the dissociation energy as a function of the magnetic field ramp rate for dissociation. The capability of selecting one of the two closely-residing p-wave Feshbach resonances is useful for the precise characterization of the p-wave Feshbach resonances.
Probe of three-dimensional chiral topological insulators in an optical lattice.
Wang, S-T; Deng, D-L; Duan, L-M
2014-07-18
We propose a feasible experimental scheme to realize a three-dimensional chiral topological insulator with cold fermionic atoms in an optical lattice, which is characterized by an integer topological invariant distinct from the conventional Z(2) topological insulators and has a remarkable macroscopic zero-energy flat band. To probe its property, we show that its characteristic surface states--the Dirac cones--can be probed through time-of-flight imaging or Bragg spectroscopy and the flat band can be detected via measurement of the atomic density profile in a weak global trap. The realization of this novel topological phase with a flat band in an optical lattice will provide a unique experimental platform to study the interplay between interaction and topology and open new avenues for application of topological states.
Inaba, Kensuke; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Igeta, Kazuhiro; Yamashita, Makoto; Tokunaga, Yuuki
2014-12-04
In this study, we propose a method for generating cluster states of atoms in an optical lattice. By utilizing the quantum properties of Wannier orbitals, we create an tunable Ising interaction between atoms without inducing the spin-exchange interactions. We investigate the cause of errors that occur during entanglement generations, and then we propose an error-management scheme, which allows us to create high-fidelity cluster states in a short time.
Visibility of cold atomic gases in optical lattices for finite temperatures
Hoffmann, Alexander; Pelster, Axel
2009-05-15
In nearly all experiments with ultracold atoms time-of-flight pictures are the only data available. In this paper we present an analytical strong-coupling calculation for those time-of-flight pictures of bosons in a three-dimensional optical lattice in the Mott phase. This allows us to determine the visibility, which quantifies the contrast of peaks in the time-of-flight pictures, and we suggest how to use it as a thermometer.
Miyake, Hirokazu; Siviloglou, Georgios A; Puentes, Graciana; Pritchard, David E; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Weld, David M
2011-10-21
We have observed Bragg scattering of photons from quantum degenerate ^{87}Rb atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Bragg scattered light directly probes the microscopic crystal structure and atomic wave function whose position and momentum width is Heisenberg limited. The spatial coherence of the wave function leads to revivals in the Bragg scattered light due to the atomic Talbot effect. The decay of revivals across the superfluid to Mott insulator transition indicates the loss of superfluid coherence.
Miyake, Hirokazu; Siviloglou, Georgios A; Puentes, Graciana; Pritchard, David E; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Weld, David M
2011-10-21
We have observed Bragg scattering of photons from quantum degenerate ^{87}Rb atoms in a three-dimensional optical lattice. Bragg scattered light directly probes the microscopic crystal structure and atomic wave function whose position and momentum width is Heisenberg limited. The spatial coherence of the wave function leads to revivals in the Bragg scattered light due to the atomic Talbot effect. The decay of revivals across the superfluid to Mott insulator transition indicates the loss of superfluid coherence. PMID:22107532
Controlling chaos in a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into a moving optical lattice potential
Wang Zhixia Zhang Xihe; Shen Ke
2008-11-15
The spatial structure of a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into an optical lattice potential is investigated, and spatially chaotic distributions of the condensates are revealed. By means of changing of the s-wave scattering length with a Feshbach resonance, the chaotic behavior can be well controlled to enter into periodicity. Numerical simulation shows that there are different periodic orbits according to different s-wave scattering lengths only if the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the system is negative.
Analysis of the blackbody-radiation shift in an ytterbium optical lattice clock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yi-Lin; Xu, Xin-Ye
2016-10-01
We accurately evaluate the blackbody-radiation shift in a 171Yb optical lattice clock by utilizing temperature measurement and numerical simulation. In this work. three main radiation sources are considered for the blackbody-radiation shift, including the heated atomic oven, the warm vacuum chamber, and the room-temperature vacuum windows. The temperatures on the outer surface of the vacuum chamber are measured during the clock operation period by utilizing seven calibrated temperature sensors. Then we infer the temperature distribution inside the vacuum chamber by numerical simulation according to the measured temperatures. Furthermore, we simulate the temperature variation around the cold atoms while the environmental temperature is fluctuating. Finally, we obtain that the total blackbody-radiation shift is -1.289(7) Hz with an uncertainty of 1.25 × 10-17 for our 171Yb optical lattice clock. The presented method is quite suitable for accurately evaluating the blackbody-radiation shift of the optical lattice clock in the case of lacking the sensors inside the vacuum chamber. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821302), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11134003), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA123401), and the Shanghai Excellent Academic Leaders Program of China (Grant No. 12XD1402400).
Quantum phases from competing short- and long-range interactions in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landig, Renate; Hruby, Lorenz; Dogra, Nishant; Landini, Manuele; Mottl, Rafael; Donner, Tobias; Esslinger, Tilman
2016-04-01
Insights into complex phenomena in quantum matter can be gained from simulation experiments with ultracold atoms, especially in cases where theoretical characterization is challenging. However, these experiments are mostly limited to short-range collisional interactions; recently observed perturbative effects of long-range interactions were too weak to reach new quantum phases. Here we experimentally realize a bosonic lattice model with competing short- and long-range interactions, and observe the appearance of four distinct quantum phases—a superfluid, a supersolid, a Mott insulator and a charge density wave. Our system is based on an atomic quantum gas trapped in an optical lattice inside a high-finesse optical cavity. The strength of the short-range on-site interactions is controlled by means of the optical lattice depth. The long (infinite)-range interaction potential is mediated by a vacuum mode of the cavity and is independently controlled by tuning the cavity resonance. When probing the phase transition between the Mott insulator and the charge density wave in real time, we observed a behaviour characteristic of a first-order phase transition. Our measurements have accessed a regime for quantum simulation of many-body systems where the physics is determined by the intricate competition between two different types of interactions and the zero point motion of the particles.
Quantum phases from competing short- and long-range interactions in an optical lattice.
Landig, Renate; Hruby, Lorenz; Dogra, Nishant; Landini, Manuele; Mottl, Rafael; Donner, Tobias; Esslinger, Tilman
2016-04-28
Insights into complex phenomena in quantum matter can be gained from simulation experiments with ultracold atoms, especially in cases where theoretical characterization is challenging. However, these experiments are mostly limited to short-range collisional interactions; recently observed perturbative effects of long-range interactions were too weak to reach new quantum phases. Here we experimentally realize a bosonic lattice model with competing short- and long-range interactions, and observe the appearance of four distinct quantum phases--a superfluid, a supersolid, a Mott insulator and a charge density wave. Our system is based on an atomic quantum gas trapped in an optical lattice inside a high-finesse optical cavity. The strength of the short-range on-site interactions is controlled by means of the optical lattice depth. The long (infinite)-range interaction potential is mediated by a vacuum mode of the cavity and is independently controlled by tuning the cavity resonance. When probing the phase transition between the Mott insulator and the charge density wave in real time, we observed a behaviour characteristic of a first-order phase transition. Our measurements have accessed a regime for quantum simulation of many-body systems where the physics is determined by the intricate competition between two different types of interactions and the zero point motion of the particles. PMID:27064902
Density-dependent light-assisted tunneling in fermionic optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Wenchao; Morong, William; Demarco, Brian
2016-05-01
Many recent theoretical proposals have discussed the possibility to realize density-dependent tunneling in optical lattices via external periodic driving. These methods enable the simulation of novel many-body quantum phases. Here we present experimental progress on realizing density-dependent tunneling for ultracold 40K atoms trapped in a cubic optical lattice via stimulated Raman transitions. After preparing a spin-polarized gas in the Mott insulator regime of the Hubbard model, a pair of Raman beams is applied to flip the spin of atoms. The Raman beams also introduce an effective density-dependent tunneling that can be tuned by the Raman frequency difference and Rabi rate. The Mott gap inferred from measurements of the fraction of atoms transferred between spin states as the Raman frequency difference is adjusted matches the prediction based on a tight-binding model. We also observe the interaction-dependent tunneling by measuring the fraction of doubly-occupied sites created by the Raman driving. This method allows the engineering of density-dependent tunneling and effective nearest-neighbor interactions in fermionic optical lattices. The authors acknowledge funding from the National Science Foundation (Grant No. PHY15-05468) and the Army Research Office (Grant No. W911NF-12-1-0462).
Observation of Parity-Time Symmetry in Optically Induced Atomic Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Yiqi; Sheng, Jiteng; Yang, Liu; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; He, Bing; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min
2016-09-01
A wide class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians can possess entirely real eigenvalues when they have parity-time (PT) symmetric potentials. Due to their unusual properties, this family of non-Hermitian systems has recently attracted considerable attention in diverse areas of physics, especially in coupled gain-loss waveguides and optical lattices. Given that multi-level atoms can be quite efficient in judiciously synthesizing refractive index profiles, schemes based on atomic coherence have been recently proposed to realize optical potentials with PT-symmetric properties. Here, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time PT-symmetric optical lattices in a coherently-prepared four-level N-type atomic system. By appropriately tuning the pertinent atomic parameters, the onset of PT symmetry breaking is observed through measuring an abrupt phase-shift jump. The experimental realization of such readily reconfigurable and effectively controllable PT-symmetric periodic lattice structures sets a new stage for further exploiting and better understanding the peculiar physical properties of these non-Hermitian systems in atomic settings.
Atom-molecular oscillations of a Bose gas in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinzen, Daniel
2005-05-01
A Bose gas in an optical lattice can undergo a quantum phase transition between a superfluid and a ``Mott insulator'' state [1]. We have created a Mott insulator state of ^87Rb atoms in an optical lattice with a controllable number of atoms per site, and measured its stimulated Raman photoassociation spectrum. We found that higher density samples exhibited a two-peaked spectrum arising from photoassociation in sites with two and three atoms, respectively. The splitting between these peaks provides a measurement of the atom-molecule scattering length. Raman photoassociation of a sample with a central core of Mott insulator with two atoms per site induced macroscopic coherent oscillations between an atomic and a molecular gas, as predicted by Jaksch et al. [2]. Our result implies that at the point of minimum atom number, we have created a molecular quantum gas with one molecule in each lattice site. In addition, we have carried out Bragg spectroscopy of the gas [3], and found evidence of a gap in the excitation spectrum of the insulating state. This work was carried out in collaboration with C. Ryu, Emek Yesilada, Xu Du, and Shoupu Wan. We acknowledge the support of the R.A. Welch Foundation, the N.S.F., and the D.O.E Quantum Optics Initiative. [1] Markus Greiner et al., Nature 415, 39 (2002). [2] D. Jaksch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 040402 (2002). [3] D. Van Oosten et al., cond-mat/0405492 (2004).
Identifying topological edge states in 2D optical lattices using light scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldman, Nathan; Beugnon, Jérôme; Gerbier, Fabrice
2013-02-01
We recently proposed in a Letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255303] a novel scheme to detect topological edge states in an optical lattice, based on a generalization of Bragg spectroscopy. The scope of the present article is to provide a more detailed and pedagogical description of the system - the Hofstadter optical lattice - and probing method. We first show the existence of topological edge states, in an ultra-cold gas trapped in a 2D optical lattice and subjected to a synthetic magnetic field. The remarkable robustness of the edge states is verified for a variety of external confining potentials. Then, we describe a specific laser probe, made from two lasers in Laguerre-Gaussian modes, which captures unambiguous signatures of these edge states. In particular, the resulting Bragg spectra provide the dispersion relation of the edge states, establishing their chiral nature. In order to make the Bragg signal experimentally detectable, we introduce a "shelving method", which simultaneously transfers angular momentum and changes the internal atomic state. This scheme allows to directly visualize the selected edge states on a dark background, offering an instructive view on topological insulating phases, not accessible in solid-state experiments.
Optical NOR logic gate design on square lattice photonic crystal platform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'souza, Nirmala Maria; Mathew, Vincent
2016-05-01
We numerically demonstrate a new configuration of all-optical NOR logic gate with square lattice photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The logic operations are based on interference effect of optical waves. We have determined the operating frequency range by calculating the band structure for a perfectly periodic PhC using plane wave expansion (PWE) method. Response time of this logic gate is 1.98 ps and it can be operated with speed about 513 GB/s. The proposed device consists of four linear waveguides and a square ring resonator waveguides on PhC platform.
Development of a strontium optical lattice clock for the SOC mission on the ISS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Origlia, S.; Schiller, S.; Pramod, M. S.; Smith, L.; Singh, Y.; He, W.; Viswam, S.; Świerad, D.; Hughes, J.; Bongs, K.; Sterr, U.; Lisdat, Ch.; Vogt, S.; Bize, S.; Lodewyck, J.; Le Targat, R.; Holleville, D.; Venon, B.; Gill, P.; Barwood, G.; Hill, I. R.; Ovchinnikov, Y.; Kulosa, A.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E.-M.; Stuhler, J.; Kaenders, W.
2016-04-01
The ESA mission "Space Optical Clock" project aims at operating an optical lattice clock on the ISS in approximately 2023. The scientific goals of the mission are to perform tests of fundamental physics, to enable space-assisted relativistic geodesy and to intercompare optical clocks on the ground using microwave and optical links. The performance goal of the space clock is less than 1 × 10-17 uncertainty and 1 × 10-15 τ-1/2 instability. Within an EU-FP7-funded project, a strontium optical lattice clock demonstrator has been developed. Goal performances are instability below 1 × 10-15 τ-1/2 and fractional inaccuracy 5 × 10-17. For the design of the clock, techniques and approaches suitable for later space application are used, such as modular design, diode lasers, low power consumption subunits, and compact dimensions. The Sr clock apparatus is fully operational, and the clock transition in 88Sr was observed with linewidth as small as 9 Hz.
Inner-shell magnetic dipole transition in Tm atoms: A candidate for optical lattice clocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sukachev, D.; Fedorov, S.; Tolstikhina, I.; Tregubov, D.; Kalganova, E.; Vishnyakova, G.; Golovizin, A.; Kolachevsky, N.; Khabarova, K.; Sorokin, V.
2016-08-01
We consider a narrow magneto-dipole transition in the 169Tm atom at the wavelength of 1.14 μ m as a candidate for a two-dimensional-optical lattice clock. Calculating dynamic polarizabilities of the two clock levels [Xe] 4 f136 s2(J =7 /2 ) and [Xe] 4 f136 s2(J =5 /2 ) in the spectral range from 250 to 1200 nm, we find a "magic" wavelength for the optical lattice at 807 nm. Frequency shifts due to black-body radiation (BBR), the van der Waals interaction, the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, and other effects which can perturb the transition frequency are calculated. The transition at 1.14 μ m demonstrates low sensitivity to the BBR shift corresponding to 8 ×10-17 in fractional units at room temperature which makes it an interesting candidate for high-performance optical clocks. The total estimated frequency uncertainty is less than 5 ×10-18 in fractional units. By direct excitation of the 1.14 μ m transition in Tm atoms loaded into an optical dipole trap, we set the lower limit for the lifetime of the upper clock level [Xe] 4 f136 s2(J =5 /2 ) of 112 ms which corresponds to a natural spectral linewidth narrower than 1.4 Hz. The polarizability of the Tm ground state was measured by the excitation of parametric resonances in the optical dipole trap at 532 nm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khazaei Nezhad, M.; Mahdavi, S. M.; Bahrampour, A. R.; Golshani, M.
2013-10-01
In this paper, the effects of the long-range correlated diagonal disordered optical waveguide arrays in the presence and absence of the positive Kerr nonlinearity are analyzed numerically. The calculated inverse localization length shows that the long-range correlation in a disordered system causes a decrease in the transverse localization in linear optical waveguide arrays. In the presence of positive Kerr nonlinearity, the inverse localization length is increased by increasing the nonlinear parameters in long-range correlated disordered systems in comparison with the uniform distribution disordered systems. This means that the long range correlation causes an enhancement of transverse localization in nonlinear waveguides in contrast with linear waveguide arrays. The calculated participation ratio and effective beamwidth confirm these results for linear and nonlinear systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viter, Roman; Abou Chaaya, Adib; Iatsunskyi, Igor; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Kovalevskis, Kristaps; Erts, Donats; Miele, Philippe; Smyntyna, Valentyn; Bechelany, Mikhael
2015-03-01
We explored for the first time the ability of a three-dimensional polyacrylonitrile/ZnO material—prepared by a combination of electrospinning and atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a new material with a large surface area—to enhance the performance of optical sensors for volatile organic compound (VOC) detection. The photoluminescence (PL) peak intensity of these one-dimensional nanostructures has been enhanced by a factor of 2000 compared to a flat Si substrate. In addition, a phase transition of the ZnO ALD coating from amorphous to crystalline has been observed due to the properties of a polyacrylonitrile nanofiber template: surface strain, roughness, and an increased number of nucleation sites in comparison with a flat Si substrate. The greatly improved PL performance of these nanostructured surfaces could produce exciting materials for implantation in VOC optical sensor applications.
Titanium trisulfide (TiS3): a 2D semiconductor with quasi-1D optical and electronic properties.
Island, Joshua O; Biele, Robert; Barawi, Mariam; Clamagirand, José M; Ares, José R; Sánchez, Carlos; van der Zant, Herre S J; Ferrer, Isabel J; D'Agosta, Roberto; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres
2016-01-01
We present characterizations of few-layer titanium trisulfide (TiS3) flakes which, due to their reduced in-plane structural symmetry, display strong anisotropy in their electrical and optical properties. Exfoliated few-layer flakes show marked anisotropy of their in-plane mobilities reaching ratios as high as 7.6 at low temperatures. Based on the preferential growth axis of TiS3 nanoribbons, we develop a simple method to identify the in-plane crystalline axes of exfoliated few-layer flakes through angle resolved polarization Raman spectroscopy. Optical transmission measurements show that TiS3 flakes display strong linear dichroism with a magnitude (transmission ratios up to 30) much greater than that observed for other anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Finally, we calculate the absorption and transmittance spectra of TiS3 in the random-phase-approximation (RPA) and find that the calculations are in qualitative agreement with the observed experimental optical transmittance. PMID:26931161
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafat, Nadia H.; El-Naggar, Sahar A.; Mostafa, Samia I.
2011-08-01
We suggest ternary structures of dielectric-metal-dielectric photonic structures to be used as optical band pass filters. We theoretically study and evaluate the optical properties of these one-dimensional structures. ZnSe/metal/LiF and SiC/metal/SiO2 with three metals, namely silver, gold and copper, are suggested as the optical filters. We calculated the reflectance and the transmittance of electromagnetic waves (EMW) out of these structures using the transfer matrix method. These calculations take place for the case of normal and oblique incidences using actual measured values for the indices of refraction. Our calculations show that such photonic crystal (PC) filters have a well shaped pass band in the visible range and block efficiently ultraviolet and infrared EMW. Our results show that PCs having silver as the metal layer are preferred to those having gold and copper because of the high transmittance in the visible range. A SiC/Ag/SiO2 filter shows better performance than a ZnSe/Ag/LiF one from the transmittance and the shape of the band points of view. Such a filter shows a well shaped wide band over the range of incident angles from 0° to 80°.
Titanium trisulfide (TiS3): a 2D semiconductor with quasi-1D optical and electronic properties
Island, Joshua O.; Biele, Robert; Barawi, Mariam; Clamagirand, José M.; Ares, José R.; Sánchez, Carlos; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Ferrer, Isabel J.; D’Agosta, Roberto; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres
2016-01-01
We present characterizations of few-layer titanium trisulfide (TiS3) flakes which, due to their reduced in-plane structural symmetry, display strong anisotropy in their electrical and optical properties. Exfoliated few-layer flakes show marked anisotropy of their in-plane mobilities reaching ratios as high as 7.6 at low temperatures. Based on the preferential growth axis of TiS3 nanoribbons, we develop a simple method to identify the in-plane crystalline axes of exfoliated few-layer flakes through angle resolved polarization Raman spectroscopy. Optical transmission measurements show that TiS3 flakes display strong linear dichroism with a magnitude (transmission ratios up to 30) much greater than that observed for other anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Finally, we calculate the absorption and transmittance spectra of TiS3 in the random-phase-approximation (RPA) and find that the calculations are in qualitative agreement with the observed experimental optical transmittance. PMID:26931161
Titanium trisulfide (TiS3): a 2D semiconductor with quasi-1D optical and electronic properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Island, Joshua O.; Biele, Robert; Barawi, Mariam; Clamagirand, José M.; Ares, José R.; Sánchez, Carlos; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Ferrer, Isabel J.; D'Agosta, Roberto; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres
2016-03-01
We present characterizations of few-layer titanium trisulfide (TiS3) flakes which, due to their reduced in-plane structural symmetry, display strong anisotropy in their electrical and optical properties. Exfoliated few-layer flakes show marked anisotropy of their in-plane mobilities reaching ratios as high as 7.6 at low temperatures. Based on the preferential growth axis of TiS3 nanoribbons, we develop a simple method to identify the in-plane crystalline axes of exfoliated few-layer flakes through angle resolved polarization Raman spectroscopy. Optical transmission measurements show that TiS3 flakes display strong linear dichroism with a magnitude (transmission ratios up to 30) much greater than that observed for other anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Finally, we calculate the absorption and transmittance spectra of TiS3 in the random-phase-approximation (RPA) and find that the calculations are in qualitative agreement with the observed experimental optical transmittance.
Fermions in Optical Lattices: Cooling Protocol to Observe Anti-ferromagnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trivedi, Nandini
2011-03-01
Experiments on ultracold atoms in optical lattices have the potential of probing the complex phase diagrams arising from simple Hamiltonians. One of the most challenging problems for an optical lattice emulator is that of cooling fermions to observe interesting broken symmetry phases. In this talk I will discuss recent theoretical progress on this question for the simplest model of interacting fermions: the Hubbard model. We determine the equation of state, the density ρ (μ , T , U / t) , and the entropy of the 3D repulsive Hubbard model using exact determinental Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations. Using the local density approximation (LDA), we calculate the spatial variation of density, entropy density, double-occupancy, local compressibility and local spin correlations for different trap curvatures and interaction strengths U / t . In contrast to a homogeneous system, we show that in a trap we can locally squeeze out the entropy from certain regions and observe antiferromagnetic order, even though the total entropy per particle in the cloud is quite high. We show that significant cooling due to entropy redistribution in the trap can be achieved by two mechanisms: (a) by increasing the lattice depth, and (b) by decompressing the cloud. Our calculations can be an important guide in the race to observe antiferromagnetic order in optical lattices. In collaboration with: Thereza Paiva (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Mohit Randeria (Ohio State), and Richard Scalettar (UC Davis). We acknowledge support from ARO W911NF-08-1-0338 and NSF-DMR 0706203 and the use of computational facilities at the Ohio Sup.
Sudden-quench dynamics of Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer states in deep optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nuske, Marlon; Mathey, L.; Tiesinga, Eite
2016-08-01
We determine the exact dynamics of an initial Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) state of ultracold atoms in a deep hexagonal optical lattice. The dynamical evolution is triggered by a quench of the lattice potential such that the interaction strength Uf is much larger than the hopping amplitude Jf. The quench initiates collective oscillations with frequency | Uf|/2 π in the momentum occupation numbers and imprints an oscillating phase with the same frequency on the BCS order parameter Δ . The oscillation frequency of Δ is not reproduced by treating the time evolution in mean-field theory. In our theory, the momentum noise (i.e., density-density) correlation functions oscillate at frequency | Uf|/2 π as well as at its second harmonic. For a very deep lattice, with zero tunneling energy, the oscillations of momentum occupation numbers are undamped. Nonzero tunneling after the quench leads to dephasing of the different momentum modes and a subsequent damping of the oscillations. The damping occurs even for a finite-temperature initial BCS state, but not for a noninteracting Fermi gas. Furthermore, damping is stronger for larger order parameter and may therefore be used as a signature of the BCS state. Finally, our theory shows that the noise correlation functions in a honeycomb lattice will develop strong anticorrelations near the Dirac point.
Creating topological interfaces and detecting chiral edge modes in a two-dimensional optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldman, N.; Jotzu, G.; Messer, M.; Görg, F.; Desbuquois, R.; Esslinger, T.
2016-10-01
We propose a general scheme to create chiral topological edge modes within the bulk of two-dimensional engineered quantum systems. Our method is based on the implementation of topological interfaces, designed within the bulk of the system, where topologically protected edge modes localize and freely propagate in a unidirectional manner. This scheme is illustrated through an optical-lattice realization of the Haldane model for cold atoms [G. Jotzu et al., Nature (London) 515, 237 (2014), 10.1038/nature13915], where an additional spatially varying lattice potential induces distinct topological phases in separated regions of space. We present two realistic experimental configurations, which lead to linear and radial-symmetric topological interfaces, which both allow one to significantly reduce the effects of external confinement on topological edge properties. Furthermore, the versatility of our method opens the possibility of tuning the position, the localization length, and the chirality of the edge modes, through simple adjustments of the lattice potentials. In order to demonstrate the unique detectability offered by engineered interfaces, we numerically investigate the time evolution of wave packets, indicating how topological transport unambiguously manifests itself within the lattice. Finally, we analyze the effects of disorder on the dynamics of chiral and nonchiral states present in the system. Interestingly, engineered disorder is shown to provide a powerful tool for the detection of topological edge modes in cold-atom setups.
Loading Bose-Einstein-condensed atoms into the ground state of an optical lattice
Julienne, P. S.; Williams, C. J.; Band, Y. B.; Trippenbach, Marek
2005-11-15
We optimize the turning on of a one-dimensional optical potential, V{sub L}(x,t)=S(t)V{sub 0} cos{sup 2}(kx) to obtain the optimal turn-on function S(t) so as to load a Bose-Einstein condensate into the ground state of the optical lattice of depth V{sub 0}. Specifically, we minimize interband excitations at the end of the turn-on of the optical potential at the final ramp time t{sub r}, where S(t{sub r})=1, given that S(0)=0. Detailed numerical calculations confirm that a simple unit cell model is an excellent approximation when the turn-on time t{sub r} is long compared with the inverse of the band excitation frequency and short in comparison with nonlinear time ({Dirac_h}/2{pi})/{mu} where {mu} is the chemical potential of the condensate. We demonstrate using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with an optimal turn-on function S(t) that the ground state of the optical lattice can be loaded with no significant excitation even for times t{sub r} on the order of the inverse band excitation frequency.
Quantum transport of bosonic cold atoms in double-well optical lattices
Qian Yinyin; Gong Ming; Zhang Chuanwei
2011-07-15
We numerically investigate, using the time evolving block decimation algorithm, the quantum transport of ultracold bosonic atoms in a double-well optical lattice through slow and periodic modulation of the lattice parameters (intra- and inter-well tunneling, chemical potential, etc.). The transport of atoms does not depend on the rate of change of the parameters (as along as the change is slow) and can distribute atoms in optical lattices at the quantized level without involving external forces. The transport of atoms depends on the atom filling in each double well and the interaction between atoms. In the strongly interacting region, the bosonic atoms share the same transport properties as noninteracting fermions with quantized transport at the half filling and no atom transport at the integer filling. In the weakly interacting region, the number of the transported atoms is proportional to the atom filling. We show the signature of the quantum transport from the momentum distribution of atoms that can be measured in the time-of-flight image. A semiclassical transport model is developed to explain the numerically observed transport of bosonic atoms in the noninteracting and strongly interacting limits. The scheme may serve as an quantized battery for atomtronics applications.
Coherent driving and freezing of bosonic matter wave in an optical Lieb lattice
Taie, Shintaro; Ozawa, Hideki; Ichinose, Tomohiro; Nishio, Takuei; Nakajima, Shuta; Takahashi, Yoshiro
2015-01-01
Although kinetic energy of a massive particle generally has quadratic dependence on its momentum, a flat, dispersionless energy band is realized in crystals with specific lattice structures. Such macroscopic degeneracy causes the emergence of localized eigenstates and has been a key concept in the context of itinerant ferromagnetism. We report the realization of a “Lieb lattice” configuration with an optical lattice, which has a flat energy band as the first excited state. Our optical lattice potential has various degrees of freedom in its manipulation, which enables coherent transfer of a Bose-Einstein condensate into the flat band. In addition to measuring lifetime of the flat band population for different tight-binding parameters, we investigate the inter-sublattice dynamics of the system by projecting the sublattice population onto the band population. This measurement clearly shows the formation of the localized state with the specific sublattice decoupled in the flat band, and even detects the presence of flat-band breaking perturbations, resulting in the delocalization. Our results will open up the possibilities of exploring the physics of flat bands with a highly controllable quantum system. PMID:26665167
Measurement of an electron's electric dipole moment using Cs atoms trapped in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chin, Cheng; Leiber, Véronique; Vuletić, Vladan; Kerman, Andrew J.; Chu, Steven
2001-03-01
We propose to measure the electron's permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) using cesium atoms trapped in a sparsely populated, trichromatic, far blue-detuned three-dimensional (3D) optical lattice. In the proposed configuration, the atoms can be strongly localized near the nodes of the light field and isolated from each other, leading to a strong suppression of the detrimental effects of atom-atom and atom-field interactions. Three linearly polarized standing waves with different frequencies create an effectively linearly polarized 3D optical lattice and lead to a strong reduction of the tensor light shift, which remains a potential source of systematic error. Other systematics concerning external field instability and gradients and higher-order polarizabilities are discussed. Furthermore, auxiliary atoms can be loaded into the same lattices as effective ``comagnetometers'' to monitor various systematic effects, including magnetic-field fluctuations and imperfect electric-field reversal. We estimate that a sensitivity 100 times higher than the current upper bound for the electron's EDM of 4×10-27 e cm can be achieved with the proposed technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, Hong; Scaramaazza, Jasen; Kain, Ben
2015-05-01
We study superfluid pairings of two-component fermions interacting by exchanging virtual phonons of a dipolar condensate in an optical lattice that preserves the symmetry of D4. We construct, within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory, the matrix representation of the linearized gap equation in the irreducible representations of D4. We find that each matrix element, which is a four-dimensional (4D) integral in momentum space, can be put in a separable form involving a 1D integral, which is only a function of temperature and the chemical potential, and a pairing-specific ``effective'' interaction, which is an analytical function of the parameters that characterize Fermi-Fermi interactions. We analyze the critical temperatures of various competing orders (superfluids with s-, dx2-y2-, dxy-, and g-wave symmetries and density waves) as functions of different system parameters in both the absence and presence of the dipolar interaction. We find that tuning a dipolar interaction can dramatically enhance various unconventional pairings. KITP, University of Santa Barbara; ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.
Interferometric approach to measuring band topology in 2D optical lattices.
Abanin, Dmitry A; Kitagawa, Takuya; Bloch, Immanuel; Demler, Eugene
2013-04-19
Recently, optical lattices with nonzero Berry's phases of Bloch bands have been realized. New approaches for measuring Berry's phases and topological properties of bands with experimental tools appropriate for ultracold atoms need to be developed. In this Letter, we propose an interferometric method for measuring Berry's phases of two-dimensional Bloch bands. The key idea is to use a combination of Ramsey interference and Bloch oscillations to measure Zak phases, i.e., Berry's phases for closed trajectories corresponding to reciprocal lattice vectors. We demonstrate that this technique can be used to measure the Berry curvature of Bloch bands, the π Berry's phase of Dirac points, and the first Chern number of topological bands. We discuss several experimentally feasible realizations of this technique, which make it robust against low-frequency magnetic noise.
Off-resonant many-body quantum carpets in strongly tilted optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz-Arias, Manuel H.; Madroñero, Javier; Parra-Murillo, Carlos A.
2016-04-01
A unit filling Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian embedded in a strong Stark field is studied in the off-resonant regime inhibiting single- and many-particle first-order tunneling resonances. We investigate the occurrence of coherent dipole wavelike propagation along an optical lattice by means of an effective Hamiltonian accounting for second-order tunneling processes. It is shown that dipole wave function evolution in the short-time limit is ballistic and that finite-size effects induce dynamical self-interference patterns known as quantum carpets. We also present the effects of the border right after the first reflection, showing that the wave function diffuses normally with the variance changing linearly in time. This work extends the rich physical phenomenology of tilted one-dimensional lattice systems in a scenario of many interacting quantum particles, the so-called many-body Wannier-Stark system.
Design and construction of a fast imaging system for detection and analysis of optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gillette, Matthew C.
A home built system for imaging optical lattices is presented. Our imaging system uses a repurposed astronomy camera--the complete system costs less than 5,000 while rivaling the performance of a commercially available system which costs 40-50k. The camera must have an extremely low dark current, high quantum efficiency, as well as the ability to take precisely timed millisecond exposures. Using LabVIEW a sequence of precise electronic pulses is created to control the laser beams in order to load the lattice structure with cold atoms. When running a LabVIEW VI at millisecond timescales Windows introduces inaccuracies in pulse timing. A master slave computer setup, called a real time target (RTT) is created in order to keep accuracy to the microsecond level.
Design and Implementation of a Fast Imaging System for Detection of Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gillette, Matthew; Hachtel, Andrew; Clements, Ethan; Zhong, Shan; Ducay, Ray; Bali, Samir
2014-05-01
A home built system for imaging optical lattices is presented. Our imaging system uses a repurposed astronomy camera- the complete system costs less than 5000 while rivaling the performance of a commercially available system which costs 40-50000. The camera must have an extremely low dark current, high quantum efficiency, as well as the ability to take precisely timed millisecond exposures. Using LabVIEW a sequence of precise electronic pulses is created to control the laser beams in order to load the lattice structure with cold atoms. When running a LabVIEW VI at millisecond timescales Windows introduces inaccuracies in pulse timing. A master slave computer setup, called a real time target (RTT) is created in order to increase this accuracy to the microsecond level. We gratefully acknowledge support from the Petroleum Research Fund and Miami University. We acknowledge invaluable help from the Miami University Instrumentation Lab.
Multiple period states of the superfluid Fermi gas in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Sukjin; Dalfovo, Franco; Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Watanabe, Gentaro
2016-02-01
We study multiple period states of a two-component unpolarized superfluid Fermi gas in an optical lattice along the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover. The existence of states whose period is a multiple of the lattice spacing is a direct consequence of the nonlinear behavior of the gas, which is due to the presence of the order parameter associated with superfluidity. By solving Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for a superfluid flow with finite quasimomentum, we find that, in the BCS side of the crossover, the multiple period states can be energetically favorable compared to the normal Bloch states and their survival time against dynamical instability drastically increases, suggesting that these states can be accessible in current experiments, in sharp contrast to the situation in BECs.
Multiple Period States of the Superfluid Fermi Gas in an Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watanabe, Gentaro; Yoon, Sukjin; Dalfovo, Franco; Nakatsukasa, Takashi
2016-09-01
We study multiple period states (i.e., states whose period is a multiple of the lattice constant) of a two-component unpolarized superfluid Fermi gas in an optical lattice along the crossover between the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) states. By solving Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for a superfluid flow with finite quasimomentum, we find that, in the BCS side of the crossover, the multiple period states can be energetically favorable compared to the normal Bloch states and their survival time against dynamical instability drastically increases, suggesting that these states can be accessible in current experiments. This is in sharp contrast to the situation in BECs.
Topological Properties of Ultracold Bosons in One-Dimensional Quasiperiodic Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuda, Fuyuki; Tezuka, Masaki; Kawakami, Norio
2014-08-01
We analyze the topological properties of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model with a quasiperiodic superlattice potential. This system can be realized in interacting ultracold bosons in an optical lattice in the presence of an incommensurate superlattice potential. We first analyze the quasiperiodic superlattice formed by the cosine function, which we call the Harper-like Bose-Hubbard model. We compute the Chern number and observe gap-closing behavior as the interaction strength U is changed. Also, we discuss the bulk-edge correspondence in our system. Furthermore, we explore the phase diagram as a function of U and a continuous deformation parameter β between the Harper-like model and another important quasiperiodic lattice, the Fibonacci model. We numerically confirm that the incommensurate charge density wave (ICDW) phase is topologically nontrivial and that it is topologically equivalent in the whole ICDW region.
Quantum Critical Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Shaken Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Logan W.; Feng, Lei; Ha, Li-Chung; Chin, Cheng
2016-05-01
From condensed matter to cosmology, systems which cross a continuous, symmetry-breaking phase transition are expected to generate topological defects whose density scales universally with the rate at which the phase transition is crossed. We experimentally test the application of this universal Kibble-Zurek scaling prediction to quantum phase transitions by studying ultracold bosons in a shaken optical lattice. When the lattice shaking amplitude crosses a critical threshold, an ordinary Bose condensate transitions to an effectively ferromagnetic pseudo-spinor condensate with discrete, magnetized regions separated by domain walls. We appraise the dynamic scaling laws for both the time at which the domain structure forms and the typical size of the domains by varying the quench rate across the transition. We explore the regime in which the universal prediction applies, as well as potential deviations at extreme quench rates.
Observation of Nonlinear Looped Band Structure of Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldschmidt, Elizabeth; Koller, Silvio; Brown, Roger; Wyllie, Robert; Wilson, Ryan; Porto, Trey
2016-05-01
We study experimentally the stability of excited, interacting states of bosons in a double-well optical lattice in regimes where the nonlinear interactions are expected to induce ``swallow-tail'' looped band structure. By carefully preparing different initial coherent states and observing their subsequent decay, we observe distinct decay rates, which provide direct evidence for multi-valued band structure. The double well lattice both stabilizes the looped band structure and allows for dynamic preparation of different initial states, including states within the loop structure. We confirm our state preparation procedure with dynamic Gross-Pitaevskii calculations. The excited loop states are found to be more stable than dynamically unstable ground states, but decay faster than expected based on a mean-field stability calculation, indicating the importance of correlations beyond a mean-field description. Now at Georgia Tech Research Institute.
Frequency Ratio of (199)Hg and (87)Sr Optical Lattice Clocks beyond the SI Limit.
Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Ohmae, Noriaki; Ushijima, Ichiro; Takamoto, Masao; Katori, Hidetoshi
2015-06-12
We report on a frequency ratio measurement of a (199)Hg-based optical lattice clock referencing a (87)Sr-based clock. Evaluations of lattice light shift, including atomic-motion-dependent shift, enable us to achieve a total systematic uncertainty of 7.2×10(-17) for the Hg clock. The frequency ratio is measured to be νHg/νSr=2.629 314 209 898 909 60(22) with a fractional uncertainty of 8.4×10(-17), which is smaller than the uncertainty of the realization of the International System of Units (SI) second, i.e., the SI limit.
Observation and cancellation of a perturbing dc stark shift in strontium optical lattice clocks.
Lodewyck, Jérôme; Zawada, Michal; Lorini, Luca; Gurov, Mikhail; Lemonde, Pierre
2012-03-01
We report on the observation of a dc Stark frequency shift at the 10-(13) level by comparing two strontium optical lattice clocks. This frequency shift arises from the presence of electric charges trapped on dielectric surfaces placed under vacuum close to the atomic sample. We show that these charges can be eliminated by shining UV light on the dielectric surfaces, and characterize the residual dc Stark frequency shift on the clock transition at the 10-(18) level by applying an external electric field. This study shows that the dc Stark shift can play an important role in the accuracy budget of lattice clocks, and should be duly taken into account. PMID:22481773
Frequency Ratio of (199)Hg and (87)Sr Optical Lattice Clocks beyond the SI Limit.
Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Ohmae, Noriaki; Ushijima, Ichiro; Takamoto, Masao; Katori, Hidetoshi
2015-06-12
We report on a frequency ratio measurement of a (199)Hg-based optical lattice clock referencing a (87)Sr-based clock. Evaluations of lattice light shift, including atomic-motion-dependent shift, enable us to achieve a total systematic uncertainty of 7.2×10(-17) for the Hg clock. The frequency ratio is measured to be νHg/νSr=2.629 314 209 898 909 60(22) with a fractional uncertainty of 8.4×10(-17), which is smaller than the uncertainty of the realization of the International System of Units (SI) second, i.e., the SI limit. PMID:26196788
Density-dependent synthetic magnetism for ultracold atoms in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greschner, Sebastian; Huerga, Daniel; Sun, Gaoyong; Poletti, Dario; Santos, Luis
2015-09-01
Raman-assisted hopping can allow for the creation of density-dependent synthetic magnetism for cold neutral gases in optical lattices. We show that the density-dependent fields lead to a nontrivial interplay between density modulations and chirality. This interplay results in a rich physics for atoms in two-leg ladders, characterized by a density-driven Meissner-superfluid to vortex-superfluid transition, and a nontrivial dependence of the density imbalance between the legs. Density-dependent fields also lead to intriguing physics in square lattices. In particular, it leads to a density-driven transition between a nonchiral and a chiral superfluid, both characterized by nontrivial charge density-wave amplitude. We finally show how the physics due to the density-dependent fields may be easily probed in experiments by monitoring the expansion of doublons and holes in a Mott insulator, which presents a remarkable dependence on quantum fluctuations.
Inter-species entanglement of Bose-Bose mixtures trapped in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
(王 巍, Wei Wang; Penna, Vittorio; Capogrosso-Sansone, Barbara
2016-06-01
In the present work we discuss inter-species entanglement in Bose-Bose mixtures trapped in optical lattices. This work is motivated by the observation that, in the presence of a second component, the MI lobe shifts differently on the hole- and particle-side with respect to the Mott lobe of the single species system (Guglielmino et al 2010 Phys. Rev. A 82 021601; Capogrosso-Sansone et al 2011 Laser Phys. 21 1443). We use perturbation theory, formulated in a Hilbert space decomposed by means of lattice symmetries, in order to show that the nonuniform shift of the Mott lobe is a manifestation of inter-species entanglement which differs in the lowest excited states to remove and add a particle. Our results indicate that inter-species entanglement in mixtures can provide a new perspective in understanding quantum phase transitions. To validate our approach, we compare our results from perturbation theory with quantum Monte Carlo simulations.
Bound states of two bosons in an optical lattice near an association resonance
Sanders, Jerome C.; Odong, Otim; Javanainen, Juha; Mackie, Matt
2011-03-15
We model two bosons in an optical lattice near a Feshbach or photoassociation resonance, focusing on the Bose-Hubbard model in one dimension. Whereas the usual atoms-only theory with a tunable scattering length yields one bound state for a molecular dimer for either an attractive or repulsive atom-atom interaction, for a sufficiently small direct background interaction between the atoms a two-channel atom-molecule theory may give two bound states that represent attractively and repulsively bound dimers occurring simultaneously. Such unusual molecular physics may be observable for an atom-molecule coupling strength comparable to the width of the dissociation continuum of the lattice dimer, which is the case, for instance, with narrow Feshbach resonances in Na, {sup 87}Rb, and {sup 133}Cs or low-intensity photoassociation in {sup 174}Yb.
Experimental Realization of Strong Effective Magnetic Fields in an Optical Lattice
Aidelsburger, M.; Atala, M.; Trotzky, S.; Chen, Y.-A.; Bloch, I.; Nascimbene, S.
2011-12-16
We use Raman-assisted tunneling in an optical superlattice to generate large tunable effective magnetic fields for ultracold atoms. When hopping in the lattice, the accumulated phase shift by an atom is equivalent to the Aharonov-Bohm phase of a charged particle exposed to a staggered magnetic field of large magnitude, on the order of 1 flux quantum per plaquette. We study the ground state of this system and observe that the frustration induced by the magnetic field can lead to a degenerate ground state for noninteracting particles. We provide a measurement of the local phase acquired from Raman-induced tunneling, demonstrating time-reversal symmetry breaking of the underlying Hamiltonian. Furthermore, the quantum cyclotron orbit of single atoms in the lattice exposed to the magnetic field is directly revealed.
Asadi, Reza; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Yu, Quanqiang; Ruan, Shuangchen
2014-06-16
We realize all-optical sensitive phase shifting based on nonlinear out-of-plane coupling to a slab waveguide through Fano resonance of a slab 1-D photonic crystal (PhC). We use a graphene layer as the nonlinear material and change its refractive index by the input light intensity through Kerr nonlinear effect to obtain a shift in the Fano resonance frequency. The Fano resonance and self-focusing effect lead to light-intensity enhancement on the graphene in the PhC, reinforcing the nonlinear effect of refractive index in the graphene. Through finite-difference time-domain simulation, we demonstrate that the phase changing sensitivity obtained can be 4 orders higher than that by a single graphene under the same input light intensity. Moreover the threshold pump intensity for all-optical sensitive phase shifting in the coupled light to the waveguide is as low as ~4 MW per square centimeter. The results are applicable in micro optical integrated circuits for phase shifters, phase modulators, power limiters, and phase logic elements for optical computation, digital phase shift keying in communication systems, and non-contact sensitive signal detectors.
Persistent Scatterer Aided Facade Lattice Extraction in Single Airborne Optical Oblique Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schack, L.; Soergel, U.; Heipke, C.
2015-03-01
We present a new method to extract patterns of regular facade structures from single optical oblique images. To overcome the missing three-dimensional information we incorporate structural information derived from Persistent Scatter (PS) point cloud data into our method. Single oblique images and PS point clouds have never been combined before and offer promising insights into the compatibility of remotely sensed data of different kinds. Even though the appearance of facades is significantly different, many characteristics of the prominent patterns can be seen in both types of data and can be transferred across the sensor domains. To justify the extraction based on regular facade patterns we show that regular facades appear rather often in typical airborne oblique imagery of urban scenes. The extraction of regular patterns is based on well established tools like cross correlation and is extended by incorporating a module for estimating a window lattice model using a genetic algorithm. Among others the results of our approach can be used to derive a deeper understanding of the emergence of Persistent Scatterers and their fusion with optical imagery. To demonstrate the applicability of the approach we present a concept for data fusion aiming at facade lattices extraction in PS and optical data.
LBNE lattice & optics for proton extraction at MI-10 and transport to a target above grade
Johnstone, John A.; /Fermilab
2011-09-01
For the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) at Fermilab 120 GeV/c protons will be transported from the Main Injector (MI) to an on-site production target. The lattice design and optics discussed here has the beam extracted vertically upwards from MI-10 and the keeps the majority of the line at an elevation above the glacial till/rock interface and terminates on a target at 10 ft above grade. The LBNE beamline discussed here is a modular optics design comprised of 3 distinct lattice configurations, including the specialized MI {yields} LBNE matching section and Final Focus. The remainder of the line is defined by six FODO cells, in which the length and phase advance are chosen specifically such that beam size does not exceed that of the MI while also making the most efficient use of space for achromatic insertions. Dispersion generated by variations in the beam trajectory are corrected locally and can not bleed out to corrupt the optics elsewhere in the line. Aperture studies indicate that the line should be able to transport the worst quality beam that the Main Injector might provide. New IDS dipole correctors located at every focusing center provide high-quality orbit control and further ensure that LBNE meets the stringent requirements for environmental protection.
Noise and counting statistics of insulating phases in one-dimensional optical lattices
Lamacraft, Austen
2007-07-15
We discuss the correlation properties of current-carrying states of one-dimensional insulators, which could be realized by applying an impulse to atoms loaded onto an optical lattice. While the equilibrium noise has a gapped spectrum, the quantum uncertainty encoded in the amplitudes for the Zener process gives a zero-frequency contribution out of equilibrium. We derive a general expression for the generating function of the full counting statistics and find that the particle transport obeys binomial statistics with doubled charge, resulting in super-Poissonian noise that originates from the coherent creation of particle-hole pairs.
Quantum Correlations of Two SPIN-1 Particles in the Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Jia-Dong; Wu, Tao; Song, Xue-Ke; Ye, Liu
2014-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the dynamical behaviors of quantum correlations witnessed by geometric discord and negativity when two three-level spin-1 atoms exist in the optical lattice. The results show that the GD can detect the critical point K = J at finite temperature associated with the quantum phase transition which separates the superfluid phase from the Mott insulator phase, while the negativity cannot. In addition, the system undergoes an entanglement sudden death (ESD), but the GD always exists, meanwhile, the GD is more robust than negativity against temperature T.
Dynamics and stability of Bose-Einstein solitons in tilted optical lattices
Diaz, E.; Dominguez-Adame, F.; Gaul, C.; Lima, R. P. A.; Mueller, C. A.
2010-05-15
Bloch oscillations of Bose-Einstein condensates realize sensitive matter-wave interferometers. We investigate the dynamics and stability of bright-soliton wave packets in one-dimensional tilted optical lattices with a modulated mean-field interaction g(t). By means of a time-reversal argument, we prove the stability of Bloch oscillations of breathing solitons that would be quasistatically unstable. Floquet theory shows that these breathing solitons can be more stable against certain experimental perturbations than rigid solitons or even noninteracting wave packets.
Phase separation in optical lattices in a spin-dependent external potential
A-Hai Chen; Gao Xianlong
2010-01-15
We investigate the phase separation in one-dimensional Fermi gases on optical lattices. The density distributions and the magnetization are calculated by means of the density-matrix renormalization method. The phase separation between spin-up and spin-down atoms is induced by the interplay of the spin-dependent harmonic confinement and the strong repulsive interaction between intercomponent fermions. We find the existence of a critical repulsive interaction strength above which the phase separation evolves. By increasing the trap imbalance, the composite phase of the Mott-insulating core is changed into one of the ferromagnetic insulating core, which is incompressible and originates from the Pauli exclusion principle.
Anisotropic pair superfluidity of trapped two-component Bose gases in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yongqiang; He, Liang; Hofstetter, Walter
2013-09-01
We theoretically investigate the pair-superfluid phase of two-component ultracold gases with attractive inter-species interactions in an optical lattice. We establish the phase diagram for filling n = 1 at zero and finite temperatures, by applying bosonic dynamical mean-field theory, and observe stable pair-superfluid and charge-density wave quantum phases for asymmetric hopping of the two species. While the pair superfluid is found to be robust in the presence of a harmonic trap, we observe that it is destroyed already by a small population imbalance of the two species.
Magnetic ordering of three-component ultracold fermionic mixtures in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotnikov, Andrii; Hofstetter, Walter
2014-06-01
We study finite-temperature magnetic phases of three-component mixtures of ultracold fermions with repulsive interactions in optical lattices with simple cubic or square geometry by means of dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). We focus on the case of one particle per site (1/3 band filling) at moderate interaction strength, where we observe a sequence of thermal phase transitions into two- and three-sublattice ordered states by means of the unrestricted real-space generalization of DMFT. From our quantitative analysis we conclude that long-range ordering in three-component mixtures should be observable at comparable temperatures as in two-component mixtures.
Influence of trapping potentials on the phase diagram of bosonic atoms in optical lattices
Giampaolo, S.M.; Illuminati, F.; Mazzarella, G.; De Siena, S.
2004-12-01
We study the effect of external trapping potentials on the phase diagram of bosonic atoms in optical lattices. We introduce a generalized Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian that includes the structure of the energy levels of the trapping potential, and show that these levels are in general populated both at finite and zero temperature. We characterize the properties of the superfluid transition for this situation and compare them with those of the standard Bose-Hubbard description. We briefly discuss similar behaviors for fermionic systems.
Two-component Fermions in Optical Lattice with Spatially Alternating Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoang, Anh-Tuan; Nguyen, Thi-Hai-Yen; Tran, Thi-Thu-Trang; Le, Duc-Anh
2016-10-01
We investigate two-component mass-imbalanced fermions in an optical lattice with spatially modulated interactions by using two-site dynamical mean field theory. At half-filling and zero temperature, the phase diagram of the system is analytically obtained, in which the metallic region is reduced with increasing the mass imbalance. The ground-state properties of the fermionic system are discussed from the behaviors of both the spin-dependent quasi-particle weight at the Fermi level and the double occupancy for each sublattice as functions of the local interaction strengths for various values of the mass imbalance.
Rydberg Spectroscopy in an Optical Lattice: Blackbody Thermometry for Atomic Clocks
Ovsiannikov, Vitali D.; Derevianko, Andrei; Gibble, Kurt
2011-08-26
We show that optical spectroscopy of Rydberg states can provide accurate in situ thermometry at room temperature. Transitions from a metastable state to Rydberg states with principal quantum numbers of 25-30 have 200 times larger fractional frequency sensitivities to blackbody radiation than the strontium clock transition. We demonstrate that magic-wavelength lattices exist for both strontium and ytterbium transitions between the metastable and Rydberg states. Frequency measurements of Rydberg transitions with 10{sup -16} accuracy provide 10 mK resolution and yield a blackbody uncertainty for the clock transition of 10{sup -18}.
Rydberg spectroscopy in an optical lattice: blackbody thermometry for atomic clocks.
Ovsiannikov, Vitali D; Derevianko, Andrei; Gibble, Kurt
2011-08-26
We show that optical spectroscopy of Rydberg states can provide accurate in situ thermometry at room temperature. Transitions from a metastable state to Rydberg states with principal quantum numbers of 25-30 have 200 times larger fractional frequency sensitivities to blackbody radiation than the strontium clock transition. We demonstrate that magic-wavelength lattices exist for both strontium and ytterbium transitions between the metastable and Rydberg states. Frequency measurements of Rydberg transitions with 10(-16) accuracy provide 10 mK resolution and yield a blackbody uncertainty for the clock transition of 10(-18).
Three-component fermionic atoms with repulsive interaction in optical lattices
Miyatake, Shin-ya; Inaba, Kensuke; Suga, Sei-ichiro
2010-02-15
We investigate three-component (colors) repulsive fermionic atoms in optical lattices using the dynamical mean-field theory. Depending on the anisotropy of the repulsive interactions, either a color density-wave state or a color-selective staggered state appears at half filling. In the former state, pairs of atoms with two of the three colors and atoms with the third color occupy different sites alternately. In the latter state, atoms with two of the three colors occupy different sites alternately and atoms with the third color are itinerant throughout the system. When the interactions are isotropic, both states are degenerate. We discuss the results using an effective model.
Proposal for a Chaotic Ratchet Using Cold Atoms in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monteiro, T. S.; Dando, P. A.; Hutchings, N. A.; Isherwood, M. R.
2002-10-01
We investigate a new type of quantum ratchet which may be realized by cold atoms in a double-well optical lattice, pulsed with unequal periods. The classical dynamics is chaotic and we find the classical diffusion rate D is asymmetric in momentum up to a finite time tr. The quantum behavior produces a corresponding asymmetry in the momentum distribution which is ``frozen-in'' by dynamical localization provided the break time t*>=tr. We conclude that the cold atom ratchets require Db/ℏ~1, where b is a small deviation from period-one pulses.
Coherent Addressing of Individual Neutral Atoms in a 3D Optical Lattice.
Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xianli; Corcovilos, Theodore A; Kumar, Aishwarya; Weiss, David S
2015-07-24
We demonstrate arbitrary coherent addressing of individual neutral atoms in a 5×5×5 array formed by an optical lattice. Addressing is accomplished using rapidly reconfigurable crossed laser beams to selectively ac Stark shift target atoms, so that only target atoms are resonant with state-changing microwaves. The effect of these targeted single qubit gates on the quantum information stored in nontargeted atoms is smaller than 3×10^{-3} in state fidelity. This is an important step along the path of converting the scalability promise of neutral atoms into reality.
Zoo of Quantum Phases and Excitations of Cold Bosonic Atoms in Optical Lattices
Alon, Ofir E.; Streltsov, Alexej I.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.
2005-07-15
Quantum phases and phase transitions of weakly to strongly interacting bosonic atoms in deep to shallow optical lattices are described by a single multiorbital mean-field approach in real space. For weakly interacting bosons in one dimension, the critical value of the superfluid to Mott insulator (MI) transition found is in excellent agreement with many-body treatments of the Bose-Hubbard model. For strongly interacting bosons (i) additional MI phases appear, for which two (or more) atoms residing in each site undergo a Tonks-Girardeau-like transition and localize, and (ii) on-site excitation becomes the excitation lowest in energy. Experimental implications are discussed.
Umucalilar, R. O.; Oktel, M. Oe.; Zhai Hui
2008-02-22
We consider a gas of noninteracting spinless fermions in a rotating optical lattice and calculate the density profile of the gas in an external confinement potential. The density profile exhibits distinct plateaus, which correspond to gaps in the single particle spectrum known as the Hofstadter butterfly. The plateaus result from insulating behavior whenever the Fermi energy lies within a gap. We discuss the necessary conditions to realize the Hofstadter insulator in a cold atom setup and show how the quantized Hall conductance can be measured from density profiles using the Streda formula.
Phase boundary of the boson Mott insulator in a rotating optical lattice
Umucalilar, R. O.; Oktel, M. Oe.
2007-11-15
We consider the Bose-Hubbard model in a two-dimensional rotating optical lattice and investigate the consequences of the effective magnetic field created by rotation. Using a Gutzwiller-type variational wave function, we find an analytical expression for the Mott insulator (MI)-superfluid (SF) transition boundary in terms of the maximum eigenvalue of the Hofstadter butterfly. The dependence of phase boundary on the effective magnetic field is complex, reflecting the self-similar properties of the single particle energy spectrum. Finally, we argue that fractional quantum Hall phases exist close to the MI-SF transition boundaries, including MI states with particle densities greater than one.
Schulte, T.; Drenkelforth, S.; Kruse, J.; Ertmer, W.; Arlt, J.; Sacha, K.; Zakrzewski, J.; Lewenstein, M.
2005-10-21
We investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, possible routes towards Anderson-like localization of Bose-Einstein condensates in disordered potentials. The dependence of this quantum interference effect on the nonlinear interactions and the shape of the disorder potential is investigated. Experiments with an optical lattice and a superimposed disordered potential reveal the lack of Anderson localization. A theoretical analysis shows that this absence is due to the large length scale of the disorder potential as well as its screening by the nonlinear interactions. Further analysis shows that incommensurable superlattices should allow for the observation of the crossover from the nonlinear screening regime to the Anderson localized case within realistic experimental parameters.
Chiral phase from three-spin interactions in an optical lattice
D'Cruz, Christian; Pachos, Jiannis K.
2005-10-15
A spin-1/2 chain model that includes three-spin interactions can effectively describe the dynamics of two species of bosons trapped in an optical lattice with a triangular-ladder configuration. A perturbative theoretical approach and numerical study of its ground state is performed that reveals a rich variety of phases and criticalities. We identify phases with periodicity one, two, or three, as well as critical points that belong in the same universality class as the Ising or the three-state Potts model. We establish a range of parameters, corresponding to a large degeneracy present between phases with period 2 and 3, that nests a gapless incommensurate chiral phase.
Equilibration Rates and Negative Absolute Temperatures for Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rapp, Akos; Mandt, Stephan; Rosch, Achim
2010-11-01
As highly tunable interacting systems, cold atoms in optical lattices are ideal to realize and observe negative absolute temperatures, T<0. We show theoretically that, by reversing the confining potential, stable superfluid condensates at finite momentum and T<0 can be created with low entropy production for attractive bosons. They may serve as “smoking gun” signatures of equilibrated T<0. For fermions, we analyze the time scales needed to equilibrate to T<0. For moderate interactions, the equilibration time is proportional to the square of the radius of the cloud and grows with increasing interaction strengths as atoms and energy are transported by diffusive processes.
Compensation of noise in optical lattices via feedback: Low-temperature limit
Ivanova, T. Yu.; Ivanov, D. A.
2008-02-15
We consider the problem of suppression of noise acting on atomic ensembles trapped in optical lattices in the low-energy limit. Noise affecting external degrees of freedom of each atom independently and noise influencing only the center-of-mass (c.m.) mode of the ensemble are addressed. Taking into account the quantum character of the atomic motion, we show that negative feedback loop acting on the c.m. coordinate of the atomic ensemble is able to partially compensate both noise sources mentioned above.
Chaos control of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a moving optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhiying; Feng, Xiuqin; Yao, Zhihai
2016-07-01
Chaos control of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) loaded into a moving optical lattice with attractive interaction is investigated on the basis of Lyapunov stability theory. Three methods are designed to control chaos in BEC. As a controller, a bias constant, periodic force, or wavelet function feedback is added to the BEC system. Numerical simulations reveal that chaotic behavior can be well controlled to achieve periodicity by regulating control parameters. Different periodic orbits are available for different control parameters only if the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the system is negative. The abundant effect of chaotic control is also demonstrated numerically. Chaos control can be realized effectively by using our proposed control strategies.
Menapace, J A; Schaffers, K I; Bayramian, A J; Davis, P J; Ebbers, C A; Wolfe, J E; Caird, J A; Barty, C J
2008-02-26
Advanced magnetorheological finishing (MRF) techniques have been applied to Ti:sapphire crystals to compensate for sub-millimeter lattice distortions that occur during the crystal growing process. Precise optical corrections are made by imprinting topographical structure onto the crystal surfaces to cancel out the effects of the lattice distortion in the transmitted wavefront. This novel technique significantly improves the optical quality for crystals of this type and sets the stage for increasing the availability of high-quality large-aperture sapphire and Ti:sapphire optics in critical applications.
Formation of metallic magnetic clusters in a Kondo-lattice metal: Evidence from an optical study
Kovaleva, N. N.; Kugel, K. I.; Bazhenov, A. V.; Fursova, T. N.; Löser, W.; Xu, Y.; Behr, G.; Kusmartsev, F. V.
2012-01-01
Magnetic materials are usually divided into two classes: those with localised magnetic moments, and those with itinerant charge carriers. We present a comprehensive experimental (spectroscopic ellipsomerty) and theoretical study to demonstrate that these two types of magnetism do not only coexist but complement each other in the Kondo-lattice metal, Tb2PdSi3. In this material the itinerant charge carriers interact with large localised magnetic moments of Tb(4f) states, forming complex magnetic lattices at low temperatures, which we associate with self-organisation of magnetic clusters. The formation of magnetic clusters results in low-energy optical spectral weight shifts, which correspond to opening of the pseudogap in the conduction band of the itinerant charge carriers and development of the low- and high-spin intersite electronic transitions. This phenomenon, driven by self-trapping of electrons by magnetic fluctuations, could be common in correlated metals, including besides Kondo-lattice metals, Fe-based and cuprate superconductors. PMID:23189239
Metallic and Insulating Phases of Interacting Fermions in a 3D Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hackermueller, Lucia
2010-03-01
Ultracold fermions in optical lattices are a promising tool to simulate solid state physics, since they represent an ideal and highly tunable implementation of the Hubbard Hamiltonian. A proof of principle is to demonstrate a Mott insulating state, where repulsive interactions between the atoms lead to an insulating behavior in a half-filled conduction band. In our experiments we study repulsively and attractively interacting ^40K atoms within the combination of a red-detuned dipole trap and a blue detuned lattice. This setup allows us to gradually transform the system from metallic to Mott-insulating and band insulating states. We measure the phase of the system by analyzing the system size and the number of doubly occupied sites and compare our findings to DMFT theory. In addition we investigate the dynamical behavior of interacting fermionic mixtures. We prepare a band insulating system and suddenly release it into a homogenous lattice. We detect a symmetric behavior from a ballistic expansion for non-interacting clouds to a strongly suppressed expansion due to the formation of attractively or repulsively bound pairs. This experiment allows us to study transport properties of the Hubbard model. This work was done together with U.Schneider, S. Will, Th. Best, S. Braun, I. Bloch and with theoretical support from T.A. Costi, R.W. Helmes, D. Rasch, A.Rosch, B. Paredes, M. Moreno-Cardoner, T. Kitagawa, E.Demler.
Tight-binding models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices: general formulation and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modugno, Michele; Ibañez-Azpiroz, Julen; Pettini, Giulio
2016-06-01
Tight-binding models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices can be properly defined by using the concept of maximally localized Wannier functions for composite bands. The basic principles of this approach are reviewed here, along with different applications to lattice potentials with two minima per unit cell, in one and two spatial dimensions. Two independent methods for computing the tight-binding coefficients—one ab initio, based on the maximally localized Wannier functions, the other through analytic expressions in terms of the energy spectrum—are considered. In the one dimensional case, where the tight-binding coefficients can be obtained by designing a specific gauge transformation, we consider both the case of quasi resonance between the two lowest bands, and that between s and p orbitals. In the latter case, the role of the Wannier functions in the derivation of an effective Dirac equation is also reviewed. Then, we consider the case of a two dimensional honeycomb potential, with particular emphasis on the Haldane model, its phase diagram, and the breakdown of the Peierls substitution. Tunable honeycomb lattices, characterized by movable Dirac points, are also considered. Finally, general considerations for dealing with the interaction terms are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khazaei Nezhad, M.; Golshani, M.; Bahrampour, A. R.; Mahdavi, S. M.
2013-05-01
In this paper a simulation of the transverse localization of light in 1D array of optical waveguides in the presence of off-diagonal disorder is presented. Effects of self-focusing and self-defocusing Kerr nonlinearity on the transverse localization of surface and bulk modes of the disordered waveguides array are taken into consideration. The simulation shows that in the off-diagonal disordered array at low nonlinear parameters, the transverse localization of light becomes more than that of the corresponding diagonal disordered array. However by increasing the nonlinear parameters the diagonal disordered array is localized more than the associated off-diagonal disordered array for both surface and bulk modes. It is also found that the surface modes become more localized than the bulk modes by increasing the nonlinear parameter. The calculated effective beam width versus propagation distance for off-diagonal disordered arrays confirms these results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiao-Rui; Yang, Lu; Tan, Xin-Zhou; Xiong, Hong-Wei; Lu, Bao-Long
2009-08-01
We study the phase coherence property of Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by a standing-wave laser field. The lattice depth is determined using a method of Kapitza-Dirac scattering between a condensate and a short pulse lattice potential. Condensates are then adiabatically loaded into the optical lattice. The phase coherence property of the confined condensates is reflected by the interference patterns of the expanded atomic cloud released from the optical lattice. For weak lattice, nearly all of the atoms stay in a superfluid state. However, as the lattice depth is increased, the phase coherence of the whole condensate sample is gradually lost, which confirms that the sub-condensates in each lattice well have evolved into number-squeezed states.
Kumar, Manish Joseph, Joby
2014-08-04
We propose a simple and straightforward method to generate spatially variant lattice structures by optical interference lithography method. Using this method, it is possible to independently vary the orientation and period of the two-dimensional lattice. The method consists of two steps which are: numerical synthesis of corresponding phase mask by employing a two-dimensional integrated gradient calculations and experimental implementation of synthesized phase mask by making use of a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. As a working example, we provide the experimental fabrication of a spatially variant square lattice structure which has the possibility to guide a Gaussian beam through a 90° bend by photonic crystal self-collimation phenomena. The method is digitally reconfigurable, is completely scalable, and could be extended to other kind of lattices as well.
All optical active high decoder using integrated 2D square lattice photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moniem, Tamer A.
2015-11-01
The paper introduces a novel all optical active high 2 × 4 decoder based on 2D photonic crystals (PhC) of silicon rods with permittivity of ε = 10.1 × 10-11 farad/m. The main structure of optical decoder is designed using a combination of five nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonator, set of T-type waveguide, and line defect of Y and T branch splitters. The proposed structure has two logic input ports, four output ports, and one bias input port. The total size of the proposed 2 × 4 decoder is equal to 40 μm × 38 μm. The PhC structure has a square lattice of silicon rod with refractive index of 3.39 in air. The overall design and the results are discussed through the realization and the numerically simulation to confirm its operation and feasibility.
Cold-collision-shift cancellation and inelastic scattering in a Yb optical lattice clock
Ludlow, A. D.; Lemke, N. D.; Sherman, J. A.; Oates, C. W.; Quemener, G.; Stecher, J. von; Rey, A. M.
2011-11-15
Recently, p-wave cold collisions were shown to dominate the density-dependent shift of the clock transition frequency in a {sup 171}Yb optical lattice clock. Here we demonstrate that by operating such a system at the proper excitation fraction, the cold-collision shift is canceled below the 5x10{sup -18} fractional frequency level. We report inelastic two-body loss rates for {sup 3} P{sub 0} -{sup 3} P{sub 0} and {sup 1} S{sub 0} -{sup 3} P{sub 0} scattering. We also measure interaction shifts in an unpolarized atomic sample. Collision measurements for this spin-1/2 {sup 171}Yb system are relevant for high-performance optical clocks as well as strongly interacting systems for quantum information and quantum simulation applications.
Using superlattice potentials to probe long-range magnetic correlations in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedersen, Kim G. L.; Andersen, Brian M.; Bruun, Georg M.; Sørensen, Anders S.
2015-12-01
We previously proposed [K. G. L. Pedersen, B. M. Andersen, G. M. Bruun, O. F. Syljuåsen, and A. S. Sørensen, Phys. Rev. A 84, 041603 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.041603] a method to utilize a temporally dependent superlattice potential to mediate spin-selective transport and thereby probe long- and short-range magnetic correlations in optical lattices. Specifically, this can be used for detecting antiferromagnetic ordering in repulsive fermionic optical lattice systems, but more generally it can serve as a means of directly probing correlations among the atoms by measuring the mean value of an observable, the number of double occupied sites. Here we provide a detailed investigation of the physical processes that limit the effectiveness of this "conveyer belt method." Furthermore, we propose a simple way to improve the procedure, resulting in an essentially perfect (error-free) probing of the magnetic correlations. These results shows that suitably constructed superlattices constitute a promising way of manipulating atoms of different spin species as well as probing their interactions.
Stability of emergent kinetics in optical lattices with artificial spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Mengsu; Scarola, V. W.
2016-10-01
Artificial spin-orbit coupling in optical lattices can be engineered to tune band structure into extreme regimes where the single-particle band flattens leaving only interparticle interactions to define many-body states of matter. Lin et al. [F. Lin, C. Zhang, and V. W. Scarola, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 110404 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.110404] showed that under such conditions interactions lead to a Wigner crystal of fermionic atoms under approximate conditions: no bandwidth or band mixing. The excitations were shown to possess emergent kinetics with fractionalized charge derived entirely from interactions. In this work we use numerical exact diagonalization to study a more realistic model with nonzero bandwidth and band mixing. We map out the stability phase diagram of the Wigner crystal. We find that emergent properties of the Wigner crystal excitations remain stable for realistic experimental parameters. Our results validate the approximations made by Lin et al. and define parameter regimes where strong interaction effects generate emergent kinetics in optical lattices.
Polaron-induced lattice distortion of (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots by optically excited carriers.
Tiemeyer, S; Bombeck, M; Göhring, H; Paulus, M; Sternemann, C; Nase, J; Wirkert, F J; Möller, J; Büning, T; Seeck, O H; Reuter, D; Wieck, A D; Bayer, M; Tolan, M
2016-10-21
We report on a high resolution x-ray diffraction study unveiling the effect of carriers optically injected into (In,Ga)As quantum dots on the surrounding GaAs crystal matrix. We find a tetragonal lattice expansion with enhanced elongation along the [001] crystal axis that is superimposed on an isotropic lattice extension. The isotropic contribution arises from excitation induced lattice heating as confirmed by temperature dependent reference studies. The tetragonal expansion on the femtometer scale is tentatively attributed to polaron formation by carriers trapped in the quantum dots.
Polaron-induced lattice distortion of (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots by optically excited carriers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiemeyer, S.; Bombeck, M.; Göhring, H.; Paulus, M.; Sternemann, C.; Nase, J.; Wirkert, F. J.; Möller, J.; Büning, T.; Seeck, O. H.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; Bayer, M.; Tolan, M.
2016-10-01
We report on a high resolution x-ray diffraction study unveiling the effect of carriers optically injected into (In,Ga)As quantum dots on the surrounding GaAs crystal matrix. We find a tetragonal lattice expansion with enhanced elongation along the [001] crystal axis that is superimposed on an isotropic lattice extension. The isotropic contribution arises from excitation induced lattice heating as confirmed by temperature dependent reference studies. The tetragonal expansion on the femtometer scale is tentatively attributed to polaron formation by carriers trapped in the quantum dots.
Polaron-induced lattice distortion of (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots by optically excited carriers.
Tiemeyer, S; Bombeck, M; Göhring, H; Paulus, M; Sternemann, C; Nase, J; Wirkert, F J; Möller, J; Büning, T; Seeck, O H; Reuter, D; Wieck, A D; Bayer, M; Tolan, M
2016-10-21
We report on a high resolution x-ray diffraction study unveiling the effect of carriers optically injected into (In,Ga)As quantum dots on the surrounding GaAs crystal matrix. We find a tetragonal lattice expansion with enhanced elongation along the [001] crystal axis that is superimposed on an isotropic lattice extension. The isotropic contribution arises from excitation induced lattice heating as confirmed by temperature dependent reference studies. The tetragonal expansion on the femtometer scale is tentatively attributed to polaron formation by carriers trapped in the quantum dots. PMID:27622774
Xiao, Fajun; Li, Baoran; Wang, Meirong; Zhu, Weiren; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Sheng; Premaratne, Malin; Zhao, Jianlin
2014-09-22
We theoretically report the existence of optical Bloch oscillations (BO) of an Airy beam in a one-dimensional optically induced photonic lattice with a linear transverse index gradient. The Airy beam experiencing optical BO shows a more robust non-diffracting feature than its counterparts in free space or in a uniform photonic lattice. Interestingly, a periodical recurrence of Airy shape accompanied with constant alternation of its acceleration direction is also found during the BO. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the period and amplitude of BO of an Airy beam can be readily controlled over a wide range by varying the index gradient and/or the lattice period. Exploiting these features, we propose a scheme to rout an Airy beam to a predefined output channel without losing its characteristics by longitudinally modulating the transverse index gradient.
Frequency ratio measurement of 171Yb and 87Sr optical lattice clocks.
Akamatsu, Daisuke; Yasuda, Masami; Inaba, Hajime; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Tanabe, Takehiko; Onae, Atsushi; Hong, Feng-Lei
2014-04-01
The frequency ratio of the (1)S(0)(F = 1/2)-(3)P(0)(F = 1/2) clock transition in (171)Yb and the (1)S(0)(F = 9/2)-(3)P(0)(F = 9/2) clock transition in (87)Sr is measured by an optical-optical direct frequency link between two optical lattice clocks. We determined the ratio (ν(Yb)/ν(Sr)) to be 1.207 507 039 343 341 2(17) fractional standard uncertainty of 1.4 × 10(-15) [corrected]. The measurement uncertainty of the frequency ratio is smaller than that obtained from absolute frequency measurements using the International Atomic Time (TAI) link. The measured ratio agrees well with that derived from the absolute frequency measurement results obtained at NIST and JILA, Boulder, CO using their Cs-fountain clock. Our measurement enables the first international comparison of the frequency ratios of optical clocks. The measured frequency ratio will be reported to the International Committee for Weights and Measures for a discussion related to the redefinition of the second.
Frequency ratio measurement of 171Yb and 87Sr optical lattice clocks.
Akamatsu, Daisuke; Yasuda, Masami; Inaba, Hajime; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Tanabe, Takehiko; Onae, Atsushi; Hong, Feng-Lei
2014-04-01
The frequency ratio of the (1)S(0)(F = 1/2)-(3)P(0)(F = 1/2) clock transition in (171)Yb and the (1)S(0)(F = 9/2)-(3)P(0)(F = 9/2) clock transition in (87)Sr is measured by an optical-optical direct frequency link between two optical lattice clocks. We determined the ratio (ν(Yb)/ν(Sr)) to be 1.207 507 039 343 341 2(17) fractional standard uncertainty of 1.4 × 10(-15) [corrected]. The measurement uncertainty of the frequency ratio is smaller than that obtained from absolute frequency measurements using the International Atomic Time (TAI) link. The measured ratio agrees well with that derived from the absolute frequency measurement results obtained at NIST and JILA, Boulder, CO using their Cs-fountain clock. Our measurement enables the first international comparison of the frequency ratios of optical clocks. The measured frequency ratio will be reported to the International Committee for Weights and Measures for a discussion related to the redefinition of the second. PMID:24718165
An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10(-18) level.
Bloom, B J; Nicholson, T L; Williams, J R; Campbell, S L; Bishof, M; Zhang, X; Zhang, W; Bromley, S L; Ye, J
2014-02-01
Progress in atomic, optical and quantum science has led to rapid improvements in atomic clocks. At the same time, atomic clock research has helped to advance the frontiers of science, affecting both fundamental and applied research. The ability to control quantum states of individual atoms and photons is central to quantum information science and precision measurement, and optical clocks based on single ions have achieved the lowest systematic uncertainty of any frequency standard. Although many-atom lattice clocks have shown advantages in measurement precision over trapped-ion clocks, their accuracy has remained 16 times worse. Here we demonstrate a many-atom system that achieves an accuracy of 6.4 × 10(-18), which is not only better than a single-ion-based clock, but also reduces the required measurement time by two orders of magnitude. By systematically evaluating all known sources of uncertainty, including in situ monitoring of the blackbody radiation environment, we improve the accuracy of optical lattice clocks by a factor of 22. This single clock has simultaneously achieved the best known performance in the key characteristics necessary for consideration as a primary standard-stability and accuracy. More stable and accurate atomic clocks will benefit a wide range of fields, such as the realization and distribution of SI units, the search for time variation of fundamental constants, clock-based geodesy and other precision tests of the fundamental laws of nature. This work also connects to the development of quantum sensors and many-body quantum state engineering (such as spin squeezing) to advance measurement precision beyond the standard quantum limit.
An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10(-18) level.
Bloom, B J; Nicholson, T L; Williams, J R; Campbell, S L; Bishof, M; Zhang, X; Zhang, W; Bromley, S L; Ye, J
2014-02-01
Progress in atomic, optical and quantum science has led to rapid improvements in atomic clocks. At the same time, atomic clock research has helped to advance the frontiers of science, affecting both fundamental and applied research. The ability to control quantum states of individual atoms and photons is central to quantum information science and precision measurement, and optical clocks based on single ions have achieved the lowest systematic uncertainty of any frequency standard. Although many-atom lattice clocks have shown advantages in measurement precision over trapped-ion clocks, their accuracy has remained 16 times worse. Here we demonstrate a many-atom system that achieves an accuracy of 6.4 × 10(-18), which is not only better than a single-ion-based clock, but also reduces the required measurement time by two orders of magnitude. By systematically evaluating all known sources of uncertainty, including in situ monitoring of the blackbody radiation environment, we improve the accuracy of optical lattice clocks by a factor of 22. This single clock has simultaneously achieved the best known performance in the key characteristics necessary for consideration as a primary standard-stability and accuracy. More stable and accurate atomic clocks will benefit a wide range of fields, such as the realization and distribution of SI units, the search for time variation of fundamental constants, clock-based geodesy and other precision tests of the fundamental laws of nature. This work also connects to the development of quantum sensors and many-body quantum state engineering (such as spin squeezing) to advance measurement precision beyond the standard quantum limit. PMID:24463513
Competing orders in a dipolar Bose-Fermi mixture on a square optical lattice: mean-field perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scaramazza, Jasen A.; Kain, Ben; Ling, Hong Y.
2016-07-01
We consider a mixture of a two-component Fermi gas and a single-component dipolar Bose gas in a square optical lattice and reduce it into an effective Fermi system where the Fermi-Fermi interaction includes the attractive interaction induced by the phonons of a uniform dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate. Focusing on this effective Fermi system in the parameter regime that preserves the symmetry of D4, the point group of a square, we explore, within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field theory, the phase competition among density wave orderings and superfluid pairings. We construct the matrix representation of the linearized gap equation in the irreducible representations of D4. We show that in the weak coupling regime, each matrix element, which is a four-dimensional (4D) integral in momentum space, can be put in a separable form involving a 1D integral, which is only a function of temperature and the chemical potential, and a pairing-specific "effective" interaction, which is an analytical function of the parameters that characterize the Fermi-Fermi interactions in our system. We analyze the critical temperatures of various competing orders as functions of different system parameters in both the absence and presence of the dipolar interaction. We find that close to half filling, the dx2 - y2-wave pairing with a critical temperature in the order of a fraction of Fermi energy (at half filling) may dominate all other phases, and at a higher filling factor, the p-wave pairing with a critical temperature in the order of a hundredth of Fermi energy may emerge as a winner. We find that tuning a dipolar interaction can dramatically enhance the pairings with dxy- and g-wave symmetries but not enough for them to dominate other competing phases.
From optical lattice clocks to the measurement of forces in the Casimir regime
Wolf, Peter; Lemonde, Pierre; Bize, Sebastien; Landragin, Arnaud; Clairon, Andre; Lambrecht, Astrid
2007-06-15
We describe an experiment based on atoms trapped close to a macroscopic surface, to study the interactions between the atoms and the surface at very small separations (0.6-10 {mu}m). In this range the dominant potential is the QED interaction (Casimir-Polder and van der Waals) between the surface and the atom. Additionally, several theoretical models suggest the possibility of Yukawa-type potentials with sub-millimeter range, arising from new physics related to gravity. The proposed setup is very similar to neutral atom optical lattice clocks, but with the atoms trapped in lattice sites close to the reflecting mirror. A sequence of pulses of the probe laser at different frequencies is then used to create an interferometer with a coherent superposition between atomic states at different distances from the mirror (in different lattice sites). Assuming atom interferometry state-of-the-art measurement of the phase difference and a duration of the superposition of about 0.1 s, we expect to be able to measure the potential difference between separated states with an uncertainty of {approx_equal}10{sup -4} Hz. An analysis of systematic effects for different atoms and surfaces indicates no fundamentally limiting effect at the same level of uncertainty, but does influence the choice of atom and surface material. Based on those estimates, we expect that such an experiment would improve the best existing measurements of the atom-wall QED interaction by {>=} 2 orders of magnitude, while gaining up to four orders of magnitude on the best present limits on new interactions in the range between 100 nm and 100 {mu}m.
Inhomogeneous BCS-BEC crossover for trapped cold atoms in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amaricci, A.; Privitera, A.; Capone, M.
2014-05-01
The BCS-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) crossover in a lattice is a powerful paradigm that describes how a superconductor deviates from the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer physics as the attractive interaction increases. Optical lattices loaded with binary mixtures of cold atoms allow one to access this phenomenon experimentally in a clean and controlled way. We show that, however, the possibility to study this phenomenon in actual cold-atoms experiments is limited by the effect of the trapping potential. Real-space dynamical mean-field theory calculations show indeed that interactions and the confining potential conspire to pack the fermions in the center of the trap, which approaches a band insulator when the attraction becomes sizeable. Interestingly, the energy gap is spatially more homogeneous than the superfluid condensate order parameter. We show how this physics reflects in several observables, and we propose an alternative strategy to disentangle the effect of the harmonic potential and measure the intrinsic properties resulting from the interaction strength.
Robust site-resolvable quantum gates in an optical lattice via inhomogeneous control.
Lee, J H; Montano, E; Deutsch, I H; Jessen, P S
2013-01-01
The power of optical lattices for quantum simulation and computation is greatly enhanced when atoms at individual lattice sites can be accessed for measurement and control. Experiments routinely use high-resolution microscopy to obtain site-resolved images in real time, and site-resolved spin flips have been implemented using microwaves resonant with frequency-shifted target atoms in focused light fields. Here we show that methods adapted from inhomogeneous control can greatly increase the performance of such resonance addressing, allowing the targeting of arbitrary single-qubit quantum gates on selected sites with minimal cross-talk to neighbouring sites and significant robustness against uncertainty in the atom position. We further demonstrate the simultaneous implementation of different gates at adjacent sites with a single global microwave pulse. Coherence is verified through two-pulse experiments, and the average gate fidelity is measured to be 95±3%. Our approach may be useful in other contexts such as ion traps and nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond. PMID:23774119
Bloch oscillations and quench dynamics of interacting bosons in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmud, K. W.; Jiang, L.; Tiesinga, E.; Johnson, P. R.
2014-02-01
We study the dynamics of interacting superfluid bosons in a one-dimensional vertical optical lattice after a sudden increase of the lattice potential depth. We show that this system can be exploited to investigate the effects of strong interactions on Bloch oscillations. We perform theoretical modeling of this system, identify experimental challenges, and explore a regime of Bloch oscillations characterized by interaction-induced matter-wave collapse and revivals which modify the Bloch oscillations dynamics. In addition, we study three dephasing mechanisms: finite value of tunneling, effective three-body interactions, and a background harmonic potential. We also find that the center-of-mass motion in the presence of finite tunneling goes through collapse and revivals, giving an example of quantum transport where interaction-induced revivals are important. We quantify the effects of residual harmonic trapping on the momentum distribution dynamics and show the occurrence of an interaction-modified temporal Talbot effect. Finally, we analyze the prospects and challenges of exploiting Bloch oscillations of cold atoms in the strongly interacting regime for precision measurement of the gravitational acceleration g.
Gauge-invariant implementation of the Abelian-Higgs model on optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazavov, A.; Meurice, Y.; Tsai, S.-W.; Unmuth-Yockey, J.; Zhang, Jin
2015-10-01
We present a gauge-invariant effective action for the Abelian-Higgs model (scalar electrodynamics) with a chemical potential μ on a (1 +1 )-dimensional lattice. This formulation provides an expansion in the hopping parameter κ which we test with Monte Carlo simulations for a broad range of the inverse gauge coupling βp l=1 /g2 and small values of the scalar self-coupling λ . In the opposite limit of infinitely large λ , the partition function can be written as a traced product of local tensors which allows us to write exact blocking formulas. Gauss's law is automatically satisfied and the introduction of μ has consequences only if we have an external electric field, g2=0 or an explicit gauge symmetry breaking. The time-continuum limit of the blocked transfer matrix can be obtained numerically and, for g2=0 and a spin-1 truncation, the small volume energy spectrum is identical to the low energy spectrum of a two-species Bose-Hubbard model in the limit of large on-site repulsion. We extend this procedure for finite βp l and derive a spin-1 approximation of the Hamiltonian. It involves new terms corresponding to transitions among the two species in the Bose-Hubbard model. We propose an optical lattice implementation involving a ladder structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charukhchyan, M. V.; Sedov, E. S.; Arakelian, S. M.; Alodjants, A. P.
2014-06-01
We consider the problem of formation of small-amplitude spatially localized oscillatory structures for atomic Bose-Einstein condensates confined in two- and three-dimensional optical lattices, respectively. Our approach is based on applying the regions with different signs of atomic effective masses where an atomic system exhibits effective hyperbolic dispersion within the first Brillouin zone. By using the kp method we have demonstrated mapping of the initial Gross-Pitaevskii equation on nonlinear Klein-Gordon and/or Ginzburg-Landau-Higgs equations, which is inherent in matter fields within ϕ4-field theories. Formation of breatherlike oscillating localized states—atomic oscillons—as well as kink-shaped states have been predicted in this case. Apart from classical field theories atomic field oscillons occurring in finite lattice structures possess a critical number of particles for their formation. The obtained results pave the way to simulating some analogues of fundamental cosmological processes occurring during our Universe's evolution and to modeling nonlinear hyperbolic metamaterials with condensed matter (atomic) systems.
Quantum anomalous Hall states in the p-orbital honeycomb optical lattices
Zhang Machi; Hung Hsianghsuan; Wu Congjun; Zhang Chuanwei
2011-02-15
We study the quantum anomalous Hall states in the p-orbital bands of the honeycomb optical lattices loaded with single-component fermions. Such an effect has not yet been realized in both condensed-matter and cold-atom systems. By applying the available experimental techniques to rotate each lattice site around its own center, the band structures become topologically nontrivial. At a certain rotation angular velocity {Omega}, a flat band structure appears with localized eigenstates carrying chiral current moments. By imposing the soft confining potential, the density profile exhibits a wedding-cake-shaped distribution with insulating plateaus at commensurate fillings. Moreover, the inhomogeneous confining potential induces dissipationless circulation currents, the magnitudes and chiralities of which vary with the distance from the trap center. In the insulating regions, the Hall conductances are quantized, and in the metallic regions, the directions and magnitudes of chiral currents can not be described by the usual local-density approximation. The quantum anomalous Hall effects are robust at temperature scales that are small compared to band gaps, which increase the feasibility of experimental realizations.
Li, Pan; Fan, Weiliu; Li, Yanlu; Sun, Honggang; Cheng, Xiufeng; Zhao, Xian; Jiang, Minhua
2010-08-01
First-principles calculations of the electronic, optical properties and lattice dynamics of tantalum oxynitride are performed with the density functional theory plane-wave pseudopotential method. The analysis of the electronic structure shows a covalent nature in Ta-N bonds and Ta-O bonds. The hybridization of anion 2p and Ta 5d states results in enhanced dispersion of the valence band, raising the top of the valence band and leading to the visible-light response in TaON. It has a high dielectric constant, and the anisotropy is displayed obviously in the lower energy region. Our calculation indicated that TaON has excellent dielectric properties along [010] direction. Various optical properties, including the reflectivity, absorption coefficient, refractive index, and the energy-loss spectrum are derived from the complex dielectric function. We also present phonon dispersion relation, zone-center optical mode frequency, density of phonon states, and some thermodynamic properties. The experimental IR modes (B(u) at 808 cm(-1) and A(u) at 863 cm(-1)) are reproduced well and assigned to a combination of stretching and bending vibrations for the Ta-N bond and Ta-O bond. The thermodynamic properties of TaON, such as heat capacity and Debye temperature, which were important parameters for the measurement of crystal physical properties, were first given for reference. Our investigations provide useful information for the potential application of this material.
Zhu Jiang; Dong Guangjiong; Zhang Weiping; Shneider, Mikhail N.
2011-05-27
We study a recent experiment [K. Li et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 250401 (2008)] on diffracting a Bose-Einstein condensate by two counterpropagating optical fields. Including the local-field effect, we explain the asymmetric momentum distribution and self-imaging of the Bose-Einstein condensate self-consistently. Moreover, we find that the two counterpropagating optical fields could not produce a perfect optical lattice, which is actually deformed by the local-field effect. Our work implies that the local-field effect could be essential for getting a better quantitative analysis of other optical lattice experiments. In particular, the intensity imbalance of the two optical fields could act as a new means to tailor both cold atom dynamics and light propagation.
Xianlong, Gao; Polini, Marco; Tosi, M. P.; Campo, Vivaldo L. Jr.; Capelle, Klaus; Rigol, Marcos
2006-04-15
We present an extensive numerical study of the ground-state properties of confined repulsively interacting fermions in one-dimensional optical lattices. Detailed predictions for the atom-density profiles are obtained from parallel Kohn-Sham density-functional calculations and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The density-functional calculations employ a Bethe ansatz based local-density approximation for the correlation energy that accounts for Luttinger-liquid and Mott-insulator physics. Semianalytical and fully numerical formulations of this approximation are compared with each other and with a cruder Thomas-Fermi-type local-density approximation for the total energy. Precise quantum Monte Carlo simulations are used to assess the reliability of the various local-density approximations, and in conjunction with these provide a detailed microscopic picture of the consequences of the interplay between particle-particle interactions and confinement in one-dimensional systems of strongly correlated fermions.
Cavity quantum optomechanics of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice: Normal-mode splitting
Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.
2009-10-15
We consider the dynamics of a movable mirror (cantilever) of a cavity coupled through radiation pressure to the light scattered from ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. Scattering from different atomic quantum states creates different quantum states of the scattered light, which can be distinguished by measurements of the displacement spectrum of the cantilever. We show that for large pump intensities the steady-state displacement of the cantilever shows bistable behavior. Due to atomic back action, the displacement spectrum of the cantilever is modified and depends on the position of the condensate in the Brillouin zone. We further analyze the occurrence of splitting of the normal mode into three modes due to mixing of the mechanical motion with the fluctuations of the cavity field and the fluctuations of the condensate with finite atomic two-body interaction.
Simulation of the many-body dynamical quantum Hall effect in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Dan-Wei; Yang, Xu-Chen
2016-05-01
We propose an experimental scheme to simulate the many-body dynamical quantum Hall effect with ultra-cold bosonic atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice. We first show that the required model Hamiltonian of a spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with an effective magnetic field and tunable parameters can be realized in this system. For dynamical response to ramping the external fields, the quantized plateaus emerge in the Berry curvature of the interacting atomic spin chain as a function of the effective spin-exchange interaction. The quantization of this response in the parameter space with the interaction-induced topological transition characterizes the many-body dynamical quantum Hall effect. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this phenomenon can be observed in practical cold atom experiments with numerical simulations.
Vortices of a rotating two-component dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lin-Xue; Dong, Biao; Chen, Guang-Ping; Han, Wei; Zhang, Shou-Gang; Shi, Yu-Ren; Zhang, Xiao-Fei
2016-01-01
We consider a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate, which consists of both dipolar and scalar bosonic atoms, in a confinement that is composed of a harmonic oscillator and an underlying optical lattice set rotation. When the dipoles are polarized along the symmetry axis of the harmonic potential, the ground-state density distributions of such a system are investigated as a function of the relative strength between the dipolar and contact interactions, and of the rotation frequency. Our results show that the number of vortices and its related vortex structures of such a system depend strongly on such system parameters. The special two-component system considered here opens up alternate ways for exploring the rich physics of dipolar quantum gases.
Magnetic phase transitions of spin-1 ultracold bosons in a cubic optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yongqiang; He, Liang; Hofstetter, Walter
2016-03-01
We investigate strongly correlated spin-1 ultracold bosons with antiferromagnetic interactions in a cubic optical lattice, based on bosonic dynamical mean-field theory. Rich phase diagrams of the system are mapped out at both zero and finite temperature, and in particular the existence of a spin-singlet condensate is established. Interestingly, at finite temperature, we find that the superfluid can be heated into a Mott insulator with even (odd) filling via a first- (second-) order phase transition, analogous to the Pomeranchuk effect in 3He. Moreover, for typical experimental setups, we estimate the critical temperature (entropy) for different ordered phases and our results suggest that direct experimental observation of these phases is promising.
Magnetic phases of mass- and population-imbalanced ultracold fermionic mixtures in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotnikov, Andrii; Snoek, Michiel; Hofstetter, Walter
2013-05-01
We study magnetic phases of two-component mixtures of ultracold fermions with repulsive interactions in optical lattices in the presence of both hopping and population imbalance by means of dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). It is shown that these mixtures can have easy-axis antiferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, charge-density wave, and canted-antiferromagnetic order or be unordered depending on parameters of the system. We study the resulting phase diagram in detail and investigate the stability of the different phases with respect to thermal fluctuations. We also perform a quantitative analysis for a gas confined in a harmonic trap, both within the local density approximation and using a full real-space generalization of DMFT.
Bishof, M.; Martin, M. J.; Swallows, M. D.; Benko, C.; Lin, Y.; Quemener, G.; Rey, A. M.; Ye, J.
2011-11-15
We observe two-body loss of {sup 3} P{sub 0} {sup 87}Sr atoms trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice. We measure loss rate coefficients for atomic samples between 1 and 6 {mu}K that are prepared either in a single nuclear-spin sublevel or with equal populations in two sublevels. The measured temperature and nuclear-spin preparation dependence of rate coefficients agree well with calculations and reveal that rate coefficients for distinguishable atoms are only slightly enhanced over those of indistinguishable atoms. We further observe a suppression of excitation and losses during interrogation of the {sup 1} S{sub 0}-{sup 3} P{sub 0} transition as density increases and Rabi frequency decreases, which suggests the presence of strong interactions in our dynamically driven many-body system.
The Sagnac effect in optical lattices with laser-assisted tunneling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Bo-Nan; Wei, Xiao-Gang; Zhang, Guo-Wan; Li, Jia-Hua; Cheng, Yong-Jie; Xu, Cheng
2016-05-01
We propose a scheme to realize rotation sensing through the use of optical lattices with laser-assisted tunneling. We theoretically demonstrate that competition between the rotation and the spin-orbit coupling governs the spin-dependent response of the cyclotron dynamics of the spin-orbit coupled bosons. The Sagnac-type cumulative phase can be read out from the envelope of a beat-frequency time evolution of the population imbalance in the spin-balanced system and enhanced by cyclotron motion. We also theoretically show that the sensitivity limit of the spin-orbit-coupled system to rotational motion can reach 4×10-7 \\text{rads}-1\\text{Hz}-1/2 .
Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates in two-dimensional optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rojas-Rojas, Santiago; Naether, Uta; Delgado, Aldo; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.
2016-09-01
We analyze the existence and properties of discrete localized excitations in a Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into a periodic two-dimensional optical lattice, when a dipolar interaction between atoms is present. The dependence of the Number of Atoms (Norm) on the energy of solutions is studied, along with their stability. Two important features of the system are shown, namely, the absence of the Norm threshold required for localized solutions to exist in finite 2D systems, and the existence of regions in the parameter space where two fundamental solutions are simultaneously unstable. This feature enables mobility of localized solutions, which is an uncommon feature in 2D discrete nonlinear systems. With attractive dipolar interaction, a non-trivial behavior of the Norm dependence is obtained, which is well described by an analytical model.
Hur, G.; Creffield, C.E.; Jones, P.H.; Monteiro, T.S.
2005-07-15
Recently, cesium atoms in optical lattices subjected to cycles of unequally spaced pulses have been found to show interesting behavior: they represent an experimental demonstration of a Hamiltonian ratchet mechanism, and they show strong variability of the dynamical localization lengths as a function of initial momentum. The behavior differs qualitatively from corresponding atomic systems pulsed with equal periods, which are a textbook implementation of a well-studied quantum chaos paradigm, the quantum {delta}-kicked rotor ({delta}-QKR). We investigate here the properties of the corresponding eigenstates (Floquet states) in the parameter regime of the recent experiments and compare them with those of the eigenstates of the {delta}-QKR at similar kicking strengths. We show that by studying the properties of the Floquet states we can shed light on the form of the observed ratchet current, as well as variations in the dynamical localization length.
A quantum many-body spin system in an optical lattice clock.
Martin, M J; Bishof, M; Swallows, M D; Zhang, X; Benko, C; von-Stecher, J; Gorshkov, A V; Rey, A M; Ye, Jun
2013-08-01
Strongly interacting quantum many-body systems arise in many areas of physics, but their complexity generally precludes exact solutions to their dynamics. We explored a strongly interacting two-level system formed by the clock states in (87)Sr as a laboratory for the study of quantum many-body effects. Our collective spin measurements reveal signatures of the development of many-body correlations during the dynamical evolution. We derived a many-body Hamiltonian that describes the experimental observation of atomic spin coherence decay, density-dependent frequency shifts, severely distorted lineshapes, and correlated spin noise. These investigations open the door to further explorations of quantum many-body effects and entanglement through use of highly coherent and precisely controlled optical lattice clocks. PMID:23929976
Density-induced geometric frustration of ultra-cold bosons in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, T.; Greschner, S.; Santos, L.
2016-04-01
A density-dependent gauge field may induce density-induced geometric frustration, leading to a non-trivial interplay between density modulation and frustration, which we illustrate for the particular case of ultra-cold bosons in zig-zag optical lattices with a density-dependent hopping amplitude. We show that the density-induced frustration leads to a rich landscape of quantum phases, including Mott insulator, bond-order insulator, two-component superfluids, chiral superfluids, and partially paired superfluids. We show as well that the density-dependent hopping results in an effective repulsive or attractive interaction, and that for the latter case the vacuum may be destabilized leading to a strong compressibility. Finally, we discuss the characteristic momentum distribution of the predicted phases, which can be used to detect the phases in time-of-flight measurements.
High-temperature properties of fermionic alkaline-earth-metal atoms in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazzard, Kaden R. A.; Gurarie, Victor; Hermele, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria
2012-04-01
We calculate experimentally relevant properties of trapped fermionic alkaline-earth-metal atoms in an optical lattice, modeled by the SU(N) Hubbard model. We employ a high-temperature expansion that is accurate when the temperature is larger than the tunneling rate, similar to current regimes in ultracold atom experiments. In addition to exploring the Mott insulator-metal crossover, we calculate final temperatures achieved by the standard experimental protocol of adiabatically ramping from a noninteracting gas, as a function of initial gas temperature. Of particular experimental interest, we find that increasing N for fixed particle numbers and initial temperatures gives substantially colder Mott insulators after the adiabatic ramping, up to more than a factor of 5 for relevant parameters. This cooling happens for all N, fixing the initial entropy, or for all N≲20 (the exact value depends on dimensionality), at fixed, experimentally relevant initial temperatures.
Multi-peak solitons in PT-symmetric Bessel optical lattices with defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hongcheng
2016-10-01
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the existence and stability of multi-peak solitons in parity-time-symmetric Bessel optical lattices with defects in nonlinear media. The results demonstrate that there always exists a critical propagation constant μ c for the existence of multi-peak solitons regardless of whether the nonlinearity is self-focusing or self-defocusing. In self-focusing media, multi-peak solitons exist when the propagation constant μ > μ c . In the self-defocusing case, solitons exist only when μ < μ c . Only low-power solitons can propagate stably when random noise perturbations are present. Positive defects help stabilize the propagation of multi-peak solitons when the nonlinearity is self-focusing. When the nonlinearity is self-defocusing, however, multi-peak solitons in negative defects have wider stable regions than those in positive defects.
Observation of many-body localization of interacting fermions in a quasirandom optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreiber, Michael; Hodgman, Sean S.; Bordia, Pranjal; Lüschen, Henrik P.; Fischer, Mark H.; Vosk, Ronen; Altman, Ehud; Schneider, Ulrich; Bloch, Immanuel
2015-08-01
Many-body localization (MBL), the disorder-induced localization of interacting particles, signals a breakdown of conventional thermodynamics because MBL systems do not thermalize and show nonergodic time evolution. We experimentally observed this nonergodic evolution for interacting fermions in a one-dimensional quasirandom optical lattice and identified the MBL transition through the relaxation dynamics of an initially prepared charge density wave. For sufficiently weak disorder, the time evolution appears ergodic and thermalizing, erasing all initial ordering, whereas above a critical disorder strength, a substantial portion of the initial ordering persists. The critical disorder value shows a distinctive dependence on the interaction strength, which is in agreement with numerical simulations. Our experiment paves the way to further detailed studies of MBL, such as in noncorrelated disorder or higher dimensions.
Superfluid state of repulsively interacting three-component fermionic atoms in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suga, Sei-Ichiro; Inaba, Kensuke
2013-03-01
We investigate the superfluid state of repulsively interacting three-component (color) fermionic atoms in optical lattices using Feynman diagrammatic approaches and the dynamical mean field theory. When the anisotropy of the three repulsive interactions is strong, atoms of two of the three colors form Cooper pairs and atoms of the third color remain a Fermi liquid. This superfluid emerges close to half filling at which the Mott insulating state characteristic of the three-component repulsive fermions appears. An effective attractive interaction is induced by density fluctuations of the third-color atoms. The superfluid state is stable against the phase separation that occurs in the strongly repulsive region. We determine the phase diagrams in terms of temperature, filling, and the anisotropy of the repulsive interactions. This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (No. 23540467) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.
Phase separation of trapped spin-imbalanced Fermi gases in one-dimensional optical lattices
Heidrich-Meisner, F.; Orso, G.; Feiguin, A. E.
2010-05-15
We calculate the density profiles of a trapped spin-imbalanced Fermi gas with attractive interactions in a one-dimensional optical lattice, using both the local-density approximation (LDA) and density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) simulations. Based on the exact equation of state obtained by Bethe ansatz, the LDA predicts that the gas phase separates into shells with a partially polarized core and fully paired wings, the latter occurring below a critical spin polarization. This behavior is also seen in numerically exact DMRG calculations at sufficiently large particle numbers. We show that, unlike in the continuum case, the critical polarization is a nonmonotonic function of the interaction strength and vanishes in the limit of large interactions.
Antiferromagnetism and superfluidity of a dipolar Fermi gas in a two-dimensional optical lattice
Liu Bo; Yin Lan
2011-10-15
In a dipolar Fermi gas, the dipole-dipole interaction between fermions can be turned into a dipolar Ising interaction between pseudospins in the presence of an ac electric field. When trapped in a two-dimensional optical lattice, this dipolar Fermi gas has a very rich phase diagram at zero temperature, due to the competition between antiferromagnetism and superfluidity. At half-filling, the antiferromagnetic state is the favored ground state. The superfluid state appears as the ground state at a smaller filling factor. In between there is a phase-separated region. The order parameter of the superfluid state can display different symmetries depending on the filling factor and interaction strength, including the d-wave (d), the extended s-wave (xs), or their linear combination (xs+id). Implications for the current experiment are discussed.
Suppression of Faraday waves in a Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of an optical lattice
Capuzzi, Pablo; Gattobigio, Mario; Vignolo, Patrizia
2011-01-15
We study the formation of Faraday waves in an elongated Bose-Einstein condensate in the presence of a one-dimensional optical lattice. The waves are parametrically excited by modulating the radial confinement of the condensate close to a transverse breathing mode of the system. For very shallow optical lattices, phonons with a well-defined wave vector propagate along the condensate, as in the absence of the lattice, and we observe the formation of a Faraday pattern. We find that by increasing the potential depth the local sound velocity decreases, and when it equals the condensate local phase velocity, the condensate develops an incoherent superposition of several modes and the parametric excitation of Faraday waves is suppressed.
Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Li, Yuewen; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Mengal, Naveed; Memon, Anam Ali; Jeong, Sung Hoon
2016-09-01
Different nanostructures of TiO2 play an important role in the photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications. TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) have received increasing attention for these applications due to their unique physicochemical properties. Focusing on highly functional TNTs (HF-TNTs) for photocatalytic and photoelectronic applications, this study describes the facile hydrothermal synthesis of HF-TNTs by using commercial and cheaper materials for cost-effective manufacturing. To prove the functionality and applicability, these TNTs are used as scattering structure in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photocatalytic, optical, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), electrochemical impedance spectrum, incident-photon-to-current efficiency, and intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy characterizations are proving the functionality of HF-TNTs for DSSCs. HF-TNTs show 50% higher photocatalytic degradation rate and also 68% higher dye loading ability than conventional TNTs (C-TNTs). The DSSCs having HF-TNT and its composite-based multifunctional overlayer show effective light absorption, outstanding light scattering, lower interfacial resistance, longer electron lifetime, rapid electron transfer, and improved diffusion length, and consequently, J SC , quantum efficiency, and record photoconversion efficiency of 10.1% using commercial N-719 dye is achieved, for 1D-based DSSCs. These new and highly functional TNTs will be a concrete fundamental background toward the development of more functional applications in fuel cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, Li-ion batteries, photocatalysis process, ion-exchange/adsorption process, and photoelectrochemical devices. PMID:27432775
Static and dynamic properties of interacting spin-1 bosons in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Natu, Stefan S.; Pixley, J. H.; Das Sarma, S.
2015-04-01
We study the physics of interacting spin-1 bosons in an optical lattice using a variational Gutzwiller technique. We compute the mean-field ground state wave function and discuss the evolution of the condensate, spin, nematic, and singlet order parameters across the superfluid-Mott transition. We then extend the Gutzwiller method to derive the equations governing the dynamics of low energy excitations in the lattice. Linearizing these equations, we compute the excitation spectra in the superfluid and Mott phases for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic spin-spin interactions. In the superfluid phase, we recover the known excitation spectrum obtained from Bogoliubov theory. In the nematic Mott phase, we obtain gapped, quadratically dispersing particle and hole-like collective modes, whereas in the singlet Mott phase, we obtain a nondispersive gapped mode, corresponding to the breaking of a singlet pair. For the ferromagnetic Mott insulator, the Gutzwiller mean-field theory only yields particle-hole-like modes but no Goldstone mode associated with long-range spin order. To overcome this limitation, we supplement the Gutzwiller theory with a Schwinger boson mean-field theory which captures superexchange-driven fluctuations. In addition to the gapped particle-hole-like modes, we obtain a gapless quadratically dispersing ferromagnetic spin-wave Goldstone mode. We discuss the evolution of the singlet gap, particle-hole gap, and the effective mass of the ferromagnetic Goldstone mode as the superfluid-Mott phase boundary is approached from the insulating side. We discuss the relevance and validity of Gutzwiller mean-field theories to spinful systems, and potential extensions of this framework to include more exotic physics which appears in the presence of spin-orbit coupling or artificial gauge fields.
Hannah, Daniel C; Brown, Kristen E; Young, Ryan M; Wasielewski, Michael R; Schatz, George C; Co, Dick T; Schaller, Richard D
2013-09-01
We report femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy measurements of lattice dynamics in semiconductor nanocrystals and characterize longitudinal optical (LO) phonon production during confinement-enhanced, ultrafast intraband relaxation. Stimulated Raman signals from unexcited CdSe nanocrystals produce a spectral shape similar to spontaneous Raman signals. Upon photoexcitation, stimulated Raman amplitude decreases owing to experimentally resolved ultrafast phonon generation rates within the lattice. We find a ∼600 fs, particle-size-independent depletion time attributed to hole cooling, evidence of LO-to-acoustic down-conversion, and LO phonon mode softening. PMID:25166708
Poli, N; Wang, F-Y; Tarallo, M G; Alberti, A; Prevedelli, M; Tino, G M
2011-01-21
We report on a precision measurement of gravitational acceleration using ultracold strontium atoms confined in an amplitude-modulated vertical optical lattice. An uncertainty Δg/g ≈ 10(-7) is reached by measuring at the 5th harmonic of the Bloch frequency. The value obtained with this microscopic quantum system is consistent with the one measured with a classical gravimeter. Using lattice modulation to prepare the atomic sample, we also achieve high visibility of Bloch oscillations for ∼ 20 s. These results can be of relevance for testing gravitational redshift and Newtonian law at micrometer scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poli, N.; Wang, F.-Y.; Tarallo, M. G.; Alberti, A.; Prevedelli, M.; Tino, G. M.
2011-01-01
We report on a precision measurement of gravitational acceleration using ultracold strontium atoms confined in an amplitude-modulated vertical optical lattice. An uncertainty Δg/g≈10-7 is reached by measuring at the 5th harmonic of the Bloch frequency. The value obtained with this microscopic quantum system is consistent with the one measured with a classical gravimeter. Using lattice modulation to prepare the atomic sample, we also achieve high visibility of Bloch oscillations for ˜20s. These results can be of relevance for testing gravitational redshift and Newtonian law at micrometer scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hur, Gwang-Ok
The -kicked rotor is a paradigm of quantum chaos. Its realisation with clouds of cold atoms in pulsed optical lattices demonstrated the well-known quantum chaos phenomenon of 'dynamical localisation'. In those experi ments by several groups world-wide, the £-kicks were applied at equal time intervals. However, recent theoretical and experimental work by the cold atom group at UCL Monteiro et al 2002, Jonckheere et al 2003, Jones et al 2004 showed that novel quantum and classical dynamics arises if the atomic cloud is pulsed with repeating sequences of unequally spaced kicks. In Mon teiro et al 2002 it was found that the energy absorption rates depend on the momentum of the atoms relative to the optical lattice hence a type of chaotic ratchet was proposed. In Jonckheere et al and Jones et al, a possible mechanism for selecting atoms according to their momenta (velocity filter) was investigated. The aim of this thesis was to study the properties of the underlying eigen values and eigenstates. Despite the unequally-spaced kicks, these systems are still time-periodic, so we in fact investigated the Floquet states, which are eigenstates of U(T), the one-period time evolution operator. The Floquet states and corresponding eigenvalues were obtained by diagonalising a ma trix representation of the operator U(T). It was found that the form of the eigenstates enables us to analyse qual itatively the atomic momentum probability distributions, N(p) measured experimentally. In particular, the momentum width of the individual eigen states varies strongly with < p > as expected from the theoretical and ex- perimental results obtained previously. In addition, at specific < p > close to values which in the experiment yield directed motion (ratchet transport), the probability distribution of the individual Floquet states is asymmetric, mirroring the asymmetric N(p) measured in clouds of cesium atoms. In the penultimate chapter, the spectral fluctuations (eigenvalue statis tics) are
Production of three-body Efimov molecules in an optical lattice
Stoll, Martin; Koehler, Thorsten
2005-08-15
We study the possibility of associating metastable Efimov trimers from three free Bose atoms in a tight trap realized, for instance, via an optical lattice site or a microchip. The suggested scheme for the production of these molecules is based on magnetically tunable Feshbach resonances and takes advantage of the Efimov effect in three-body energy spectra. Our predictions of the energy levels and wave functions of three pairwise interacting {sup 85}Rb atoms rely upon exact solutions of the Faddeev equations and include the tightly confining potential of an isotropic harmonic atom trap. The magnetic field dependence of these energy levels indicates that it is the lowest-energetic Efimov trimer state that can be associated in an adiabatic sweep of the field strength. We show that the binding energies and spatial extents of the trimer molecules produced are comparable, in their magnitudes, to those of the associated diatomic Feshbach molecule. The three-body molecular state follows Efimov's scenario when the pairwise attraction of the atoms is strengthened by tuning the magnetic field strength.
Dirac and Weyl rings in three-dimensional cold-atom optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yong; Zhang, Chuanwei
2016-06-01
Recently three-dimensional topological quantum materials with gapless energy spectra have attracted considerable interest in many branches of physics. Besides the celebrated example, Dirac and Weyl points which possess gapless point structures in the underlying energy dispersion, the topologically protected gapless spectrum, can also occur along a ring, named Dirac and Weyl nodal rings. Ultracold atomic gases provide an ideal platform for exploring new topological materials with designed symmetries and dispersion. However, whether Dirac and Weyl rings can exist in the single-particle spectrum of cold atoms remains elusive. Here we propose a realistic model for realizing Dirac and Weyl rings in the single-particle band dispersion of a cold-atom optical lattice. Our scheme is based on a previously experimentally implemented Raman coupling setup for realizing spin-orbit coupling. Without the Zeeman field, the model preserves both pseudo-time-reversal and inversion symmetries, allowing Dirac rings. The Dirac rings split into Weyl rings with a Zeeman field that breaks the pseudo-time-reversal symmetry. We examine the superfluidity of attractive Fermi gases in this model and also find Dirac and Weyl rings in the quasiparticle spectrum.
Optical Lattice Bose-Einstein Condensates and the dd Fusion - Iwamura Connection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chubb, Talbot
2003-03-01
My conjecture: LENR dd fusion occurs in PdDx when a subset of the interstitial deuterons occupy tetrahedral sites in a PdDx crystallite. The tetrahedral deuterons(d's), which occupy shallow potential wells, behave as a superfluid, similar to ultracold Na atoms in shallow-well optical traps, as modeled by Jaksch et al.(D. Jaksch, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, 3108 (1998).) The tetrahedral d's form a deuteron (d) subsystem, which is neutralized by an electron subsystem containing an equal number of electrons. In the superfluid all the properties of each quasiparticle d are partitioned among N_s_i_te equivalent sites. The partitioning of the d point charge reduces the Coulomb self-repulsion within each quasiparticle pair, which causes wave function overlap at large N_s_i_t_e, allowing d-d fusion. Similarly, partitioning of the point charge of each single quasiparticle d reduces the Coulomb repulsion between it and an obstructing impurity atom, which causes wave function overlap between quasiparticle and atom at large N_s_i_t_e, allowing transmutation of the impurity atom. The Iwamura reaction(Y. Iwamura, et al, Japan J. of Appl. Physics, 41A, 4642 (2002).) is 4 ^2D^+_B_l_o_ch + 4 e^-_B_l_o_ch + ^1^3^3Cs arrow ^1^4^1Pr, with the reaction energy incoherently transferred to the lattice.
Light scattering and dissipative dynamics of many fermionic atoms in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarkar, S.; Langer, S.; Schachenmayer, J.; Daley, A. J.
2014-08-01
We investigate the many-body dissipative dynamics of fermionic atoms in an optical lattice in the presence of incoherent light scattering. Deriving and solving a master equation to describe this process microscopically for many particles, we observe contrasting behavior in terms of the robustness against this type of heating for different many-body states. In particular, we find that the magnetic correlations exhibited by a two-component gas in the Mott insulating phase should be particularly robust against decoherence from light scattering, because the decoherence in the lowest band is suppressed by a larger factor than the time scales for effective superexchange interactions that drive coherent dynamics. Furthermore, the derived formalism naturally generalizes to analogous states with SU(N) symmetry. In contrast, for typical atomic and laser parameters, two-particle correlation functions describing bound dimers for strong attractive interactions exhibit superradiant effects due to the indistinguishability of off-resonant photons scattered by atoms in different internal states. This leads to rapid decay of correlations describing off-diagonal long-range order for these states. Our predictions should be directly measurable in ongoing experiments, providing a basis for characterizing and controlling heating processes in quantum simulation with fermions.
Localization of a Bose-Einstein-condensate vortex in a bichromatic optical lattice
Adhikari, S. K.
2010-04-15
By numerical simulation of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation we show that a weakly interacting or noninteracting Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) vortex can be localized in a three-dimensional bichromatic quasiperiodic optical-lattice (OL) potential generated by the superposition of two standing-wave polarized laser beams with incommensurate wavelengths. We also study the localization of a (nonrotating) BEC in two and three dimensions by bichromatic OL potentials along orthogonal directions. This is a generalization of the localization of a BEC in a one-dimensional bichromatic OL as studied in a recent experiment [Roati et al., Nature 453, 895 (2008)]. We demonstrate the stability of the localized state by considering its time evolution in the form of a stable breathing oscillation in a slightly altered potential for a large period of time. Finally, we consider the localization of a BEC in a random one-dimensional potential in the form of several identical repulsive spikes arbitrarily distributed in space.
Cheng Yongshan; Adhikari, S. K.
2010-02-15
By direct numerical simulation of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation using the split-step Fourier spectral method, we study different aspects of the localization of a cigar-shaped interacting binary (two-component) Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a one-dimensional bichromatic quasiperiodic optical-lattice potential, as used in a recent experiment on the localization of a BEC [Roati et al., Nature 453, 895 (2008)]. We consider two types of localized states: (i) when both localized components have a maximum of density at the origin x=0, and (ii) when the first component has a maximum of density and the second a minimum of density at x=0. In the noninteracting case, the density profiles are symmetric around x=0. We numerically study the breakdown of this symmetry due to interspecies and intraspecies interactions acting on the two components. Where possible, we have compared the numerical results with a time-dependent variational analysis. We also demonstrate the stability of the localized symmetry-broken BEC states under small perturbation.
Noise spectroscopy for detecting multi-atomic composite states in optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moritz, Henning; Kuklov, Anatoly
2007-03-01
We propose and discuss methods for detecting quasi-molecular complexes which are expected to form in strongly interacting optical lattice systems. Particular emphasis is placed on the detection of composite fermions forming in Bose-Fermi mixtures. We argue that, as an indirect indication of the composite fermions and a generic consequence of strong interactions, periodic correlations must appear in the atom shot noise of bosonic absorption images, similar to the bosonic Mott insulator. The composites can also be detected directly and their quasi-momentum distribution measured. This method -- an extension of the technique of noise correlation interferometry -- relies on measuring higher order correlations between the bosonic and fermionic shot noise in the absorption images.The method is expected to work well for fermionic composites consisting of less than four atoms and for bosonic ones consisting of less than six atoms. Above these numbers, the uncorrelated noise becomes too large. [1]A.B. Kuklov, H. Moritz, cond-mat/0609531 [2]S. F"olling, et al., Nature 434, 481 (2005). [3]E. Altman et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 013603 (2004)
Magnetizm Localization and Hole Localization in Fermionic Atoms Loaded on Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okumura, Masahiko; Yamada, Susumu; Taniguchi, Nobuhiko; Machida, Masahiko
2009-03-01
In order to study an interplay of disorder, correlation, and spin imbalance on antiferromagnetism, we systematically explore the ground state of one-dimensional spin-imbalanced Fermionic atoms loaded on an optical lattice by using the density-matrix renormalization group method [1]. We find that disorders localize the antiferromagnetic spin density wave induced by imbalanced fermions and the increase of the disorder magnitude shrinks the areas of the localized antiferromagnetized regions. Moreover, the antiferromagnetism finally disappears above a large disorder. We also study hole doped cases [2]. Concentrating on the doped-hole density profile, we find in a large U/t regime that the clean system exhibits a simple fluid-like behavior whereas finite disorders create locally Mott regions which expand their area with increasing the disorder strength contrary to the conventional sense. References [1] M. Okumura, S. Yamada, N. Taniguchi, and M. Machida, arXiv:0810:3953. [2] M. Okumura, S. Yamada, N. Taniguchi, and M. Machida, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 016407 (2008).
Detecting π -phase superfluids with p -wave symmetry in a quasi-one-dimensional optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Hulet, Randall G.; Liu, W. Vincent
2016-09-01
We propose an experimental protocol to study p -wave superfluidity in a spin-polarized cold Fermi gas tuned by an s -wave Feshbach resonance. A crucial ingredient is to add a quasi-one-dimensional optical lattice and tune the fillings of two spins to the s and p band, respectively. The pairing order parameter is confirmed to inherit p -wave symmetry in its center-of-mass motion. We find that it can further develop into a state of unexpected π -phase modulation in a broad parameter regime. Experimental signatures are predicted in the momentum distributions, density of states, and spatial densities for a realistic experimental setup with a shallow trap. The π -phase p -wave superfluid is reminiscent of the π state in superconductor-ferromagnet heterostructures but differs in symmetry and physical origin. The spatially varying phases of the superfluid gap provide an approach to synthetic magnetic fields for neutral atoms. It would represent another example of p -wave pairing, first discovered in 3He liquids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamakoshi, Tomotake; Watanabe, Shinichi
2015-06-01
The recent Aarhus experiment [Phys. Rev. A 88, 023620 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.023620] produced wave packets by applying amplitude modulation to a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of 87Rb using an optical lattice. The present paper renders a theoretical account of this experimental production of wave packets and their subsequent time evolution, focusing on a one-dimensional noninteracting bosonic system as a fundamental starting point for accurate quantum analysis. Since experimental manipulation requires efficient wave-packet creation, we introduce the "single-Q Rabi model" to give a simple and reliable description of the interband transition. As a natural extension, we demonstrate enhancement of the wave-packet production by the "two-step Rabi oscillation method" using either one or two frequencies. The subsequent time evolution is affected by the intertwining of Bragg reflection and the Landau-Zener transition at each band gap, which is analyzed with the aid of a semiclassical theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 085302 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.085302].
Rashba Spin-Orbit-Coupled Atomic Fermi Gases in a Two-Dimensional Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koinov, Zlatko; Mendoza, Rafael
2015-11-01
The collective-mode excitation energy of a population-imbalanced spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas loaded in a two-dimensional optical lattice at zero temperature is calculated within the Gaussian approximation, and from the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the generalized random-phase approximation assuming the existence of a Sarma superfluid state. It is found that the Gaussian approximation overestimates the speed of sound of the Goldstone mode. More interestingly, the Gaussian approximation fails to reproduce the roton-like structure of the collective-mode dispersion which appears after the linear part of the dispersion in the Bethe-Salpeter approach. We investigate the speed of sound of a balanced spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas near the boundary of the topological phase transition driven by an out-of-plane Zeeman field. It is shown that the minimum of the speed of sound is located at the topological phase transition boundary, and this fact can be used to confirm the existence of a topological phase transition.
Non-equilibrium dynamics and state preparation in bilayer optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langer, Stephan; Daley, Andrew J.
2014-03-01
We study dynamical schemes to obtain low entropy ground states of strongly interacting many body systems. The focus of our work is on ultra-cold Bose and Fermi gases in bilayer optical lattice systems with separately tunable interlayer coupling, energy offset between the layers and repulsive interactions. The case of two coupled one-dimensional chains is treated in a numerically exact manner using the adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group which allows us to study the change of offset and interlayer coupling in real time. We identify parameter regimes where the ground state of the coupled system in the limit of small interlayer coupling consists of a Mott insulator in one layer and a superfluid/metallic state in the other layer can serve as an entropy reservoir. We then investigate the time-dependent dynamics of this system, studying entropy transfer between layers and the emergence of characteristic many-body correlations as we change the layer offset energy and coupling strength. In addition to applications as a preparation scheme for fully interacting Mott-insulator states, feasible with available experimental techniques, the investigated protocols could be easily adapted to also allow for a controlled preparation of highly excited states.
Mesoscopic effects in quantum phases of ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices
Carr, L. D.; Schirmer, D. G.; Wall, M. L.; Brown, R. C.; Williams, J. E.; Clark, Charles W.
2010-01-15
We present a wide array of quantum measures on numerical solutions of one-dimensional Bose- and Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonians for finite-size systems with open boundary conditions. Finite-size effects are highly relevant to ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, where an external trap creates smaller effective regions in the form of the celebrated 'wedding cake' structure and the local density approximation is often not applicable. Specifically, for the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian we calculate number, quantum depletion, local von Neumann entropy, generalized entanglement or Q measure, fidelity, and fidelity susceptibility; for the Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian we also calculate the pairing correlations, magnetization, charge-density correlations, and antiferromagnetic structure factor. Our numerical method is imaginary time propagation via time-evolving block decimation. As part of our study we provide a careful comparison of canonical versus grand canonical ensembles and Gutzwiller versus entangled simulations. The most striking effect of finite size occurs for bosons: we observe a strong blurring of the tips of the Mott lobes accompanied by higher depletion, and show how the location of the first Mott lobe tip approaches the thermodynamic value as a function of system size.
Quantum bright solitons in a quasi-one-dimensional optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbiero, Luca; Salasnich, Luca
2014-06-01
We study a quasi-one-dimensional attractive Bose gas confined in an optical lattice with a superimposed harmonic potential by analyzing the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian of the system. Starting from the three-dimensional many-body quantum Hamiltonian, we derive strong inequalities involving the transverse degrees of freedom under which the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian can be safely used. To have a reliable description of the one-dimensional ground state, which we call a quantum bright soliton, we use the density-matrix-renormalization-group (DMRG) technique. By comparing DMRG results with mean-field (MF) ones, we find that beyond-mean-field effects become relevant by increasing the attraction between bosons or by decreasing the frequency of the harmonic confinement. In particular, we find that, contrary to the MF predictions based on the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation, average density profiles of quantum bright solitons are not shape-invariant. We also use the time-evolving-block-decimation method to investigate the dynamical properties of bright solitons when the frequency of the harmonic potential is suddenly increased. This quantum quench induces a breathing mode whose period crucially depends on the final strength of the superimposed harmonic confinement.
Cai Zi; Wu Congjun; Wang Yupeng
2011-06-15
We present the study of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) pairing states in the p-orbital bands in both two- and three-dimensional optical lattices. Due to the quasi-one-dimensional band structure which arises from the unidirectional hopping of the orthogonal p orbitals, the pairing phase space is not affected by spin imbalance. Furthermore, interactions build up high-dimensional phase coherence which stabilizes the FFLO states in 2D and 3D optical lattices in a large parameter regime in the phase diagram. These FFLO phases are stable with the imposition of the inhomogeneous trapping potential. Their entropies are comparable to the normal states at finite temperatures.
A topological semimetal model with f-wave symmetry in a non-Abelian triangular optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ling; Bai, Zhiming; Hao, Ningning; Liu, Guocai
2016-08-01
We demonstrate that an chiral f-wave topological semimetal can be induced in a non-Abelian triangular optical lattice. We show that the f-wave symmetry topological semimetal is characterized by the topological invariant, i.e., the winding number W, with W=3 and is different from the semimetal with W=1 and 2 which have the p-wave and d-wave symmetry, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, W. J.; Bose, Sumanta; Zhang, D. H.
2016-09-01
Dilute nitride bismide GaNBiAs is a potential semiconductor alloy for near- and mid-infrared applications, particularly in 1.55 μm optical communication systems. Incorporating dilute amounts of bismuth (Bi) into GaAs reduces the effective bandgap rapidly, while significantly increasing the spin-orbit-splitting energy. Additional incorporation of dilute amounts of nitrogen (N) helps to attain lattice matching with GaAs, while providing a route for flexible bandgap tuning. Here we present a study of the electronic bandstructure and optical gain of the lattice matched GaNxBiy As1 -x -y /GaAs quaternary alloy quantum well (QW) based on the 16-band k .p model. We have taken into consideration the interactions between the N and Bi impurity states with the host material based on the band anticrossing and valence band anticrossing model. The optical gain calculation is based on the density matrix theory. We have considered different lattice matched GaNBiAs QW cases and studied their energy dispersion curves, optical gain spectrum, maximum optical gain, and differential gain and compared their performances based on these factors. The thickness and composition of these QWs were varied in order to keep the emission peak fixed at 1.55 μm. The well thickness has an effect on the spectral width of the gain curves. On the other hand, a variation in the injection carrier density has different effects on the maximum gain and differential gain of QWs of varying thicknesses. Among the cases studied, we found that the 6.3 nm thick GaN3 Bi5.17 As91.83 lattice matched QW was most suited for 1.55 μm (0.8 eV) GaAs-based photonic applications.
Menapace, J A; Schaffers, K I; Bayramian, A J; Davis, P J; Ebbers, C A; Wolfe, J E; Caird, J A; Barty, C J; Joyce, D B; Schmid, K; Schmid, F
2007-10-09
Ti:sapphire has become the premier lasing medium material for use in solid-state femtosecond high-peak power laser systems because of its wide wavelength tuning range. With a tuneable range from 680 to 1100 nm, peaking at 800 nm, Ti:sapphire lasing crystals can easily be tuned to the required pump wavelength and provide very high pump brightness due to their good beam quality and high output power of typically several watts. Femtosecond lasers are used for precision cutting and machining of materials ranging from steel to tooth enamel to delicate heart tissue and high explosives. These ultra-short pulses are too brief to transfer heat or shock to the material being cut, which means that cutting, drilling, and machining occur with virtually no damage to surrounding material. Furthermore, these lasers can cut with high precision, making hairline cuts of less than 100 microns in thick materials along a computer-generated path. Extension of laser output to higher energies is limited by the size of the amplification medium. Yields of high quality large diameter crystals have been constrained by lattice distortions that may appear in the boule limiting the usable area from which high quality optics can be harvested. Lattice distortions affect the transmitted wavefront of these optics which ultimately limits the high-end power output and efficiency of the laser system, particularly when operated in multi-pass mode. To make matters even more complicated, Ti:sapphire is extremely hard (Mohs hardness of 9 with diamond being 10) which makes it extremely difficult to accurately polish using conventional methods without subsurface damage or significant wavefront error. In this presentation, we demonstrate for the first time that Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) can be used to compensate for the lattice distortions in Ti:sapphire by perturbing the transmitted wavefront. The advanced MRF techniques developed allow for precise polishing of the optical inverse of lattice
Ye, XC; Chen, J; Diroll, BT; Murray, CB
2013-03-01
We study the plasmonic properties of self-assembled binary nanocrystal superlattices (BNSLs) using correlated optical microspectrophotometry and electron microscopy performed on individual BNSL domains. The strength of near-field couplings between adjacent plasmonic nanocrystals (NCs) can be systematically engineered by varying the NC size, composition, and the lattice symmetry of BNSLs, leading to broadband spectral tunability of the collective plasmonic response of BNSLs across the entire visible spectrum. Self-assembled multicomponent NC superlattices represent a versatile platform for the rational design of macroscopic three-dimensional plasmonic metamaterials with emergent optical characteristics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Hassan A.; Rezazadeh, Ali A.; Saleem, Rashid
2012-07-01
Absolute spectral response modeling of lattice matched Npn InP/In0.53Ga0.47As heterojunction phototransistors (HPTs), for communication wavelength detection, is presented in this paper. Parameters such as collection efficiency, quantum efficiency and doping concentrations affecting the flux absorption profile are discussed. The effect of collection efficiency on the optical responsivity is also highlighted and its variation with device vertical width is discussed. Measured results for optical responsivity, at several incident wavelengths, show close agreement to the modeling data for the HPTs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasuda, Masami; Inaba, Hajime; Kohno, Takuya; Tanabe, Takehiko; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Akamatsu, Daisuke; Onae, Atsushi; Suzuyama, Tomonari; Amemiya, Masaki; Hong, Feng-Lei
2012-10-01
We demonstrate an improved absolute frequency measurement of the 1S0–3P0 clock transition at 578 nm in 171Yb atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice. The clock laser linewidth is reduced to ≈2 Hz by phase-locking the laser to an ultrastable neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser at 1064 nm through an optical frequency comb with an intracavity electrooptic modulator to achieve a high servo bandwidth. The absolute frequency is determined as 518 295 836 590 863.1(2.0) Hz relative to the SI second, and will be reported to the International Committee for Weights and Measures.
Tunable spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in deep optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salerno, M.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Gammal, A.; Tomio, Lauro
2016-10-01
Binary mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in deep optical lattices and subjected to equal contributions of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (SOC) are investigated in the presence of a periodic time modulation of the Zeeman field. SOC tunability is explicitly demonstrated by adopting a mean-field tight-binding model for the BEC mixture and by performing an averaging approach in the strong modulation limit. In this case, the system can be reduced to an unmodulated vector discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a rescaled SOC tuning parameter α , which depends only on the ratio between amplitude and frequency of the applied Zeeman field. We consider the attractive interaction case and focus on the effect of the SOC tuning on the localized ground states. The dependence of the spectrum of the linear system on α has been analytically characterized. In particular, we show that extremal curves (ground and highest excited states) of the linear spectrum are continuous piecewise functions (together with their derivatives) of α , which consist of a finite number of decreasing band lobes joined by constant lines. This structure also remains in the presence of inter- and intra-species interactions, the nonlinearity mainly introducing a number of localized states in the band gaps. The stability of ground states in the presence of the modulating field has been demonstrated by real-time evolutions of the original (unaveraged) system. Localization properties of the ground state induced by the SOC tuning, and a parameter design for possible experimental observation, have also been discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakagawa, Shigeru
2001-12-01
The purpose of this dissertation is to realize reliable and practical long-wavelength vertical-cavity surface- emitting lasers (VCSELs) for real optical fiber communications. The approach is to deploy all-lattice- matched structures on InP, which have been already proven to provide high performance, reliability, low cost, and high manufacturability by GaAs-based shorter-wavelength (850-980 nm) VCSELs. AlGaAsSb is a promising material to implement highly reflecting distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) which are lattice-matched to InP. However, the high operating voltage and high thermal impedance caused by the AlGaAsSb/AlAsSb DBRs result in the large temperature rise, preventing CW operation. The primary advance in this dissertation is a double- intracavity contacted structure. This structure allows generated heat and injected current to bypass the Sb- based mirrors, reducing the temperature increase. The device has demonstrated excellent performance such as high maximum output power (>1 mW at 20°C and >100 μW at 80°C) and high maximum operation temperature (88°C) for the 8 μm aperture. The InP-lattice- matched VCSEL fully benefits from the double-intracavity contacted structure in terms of the device temperature, since the measured operating voltage and thermal impedance are comparable with the GaAs-lattice-matched structures. There are several parameters to be improved for the higher temperature and higher output operation. The low injection efficiency results from the small overlap of optical mode and current density profile, which will be increased using two separate oxide apertures for current and optical confinements. The relatively low characteristic temperature of the injection efficiency and threshold current must be improved by optimizing the material quality of the active region.
Entangling Dipole-Dipole Interactions for Quantum Logic in Optical Lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deutsch, Ivan
2000-06-01
The ability to engineer the quantum state of a many-body system represents the ``holy grail" of coherent control and opens the door to a host of new applications and fundamental studies ranging from improvements in precision measurement to quantum computation. At the heart of these quantum-information processing tasks are entangled states. These can be created through a ``quantum-circuit" consisting of a series of simple quantum logic gates acting only on single or pairs of qubits. Any physical implementation of a quantum circuit must contend with an inherent conflict. Qubits must strongly couple to one another and to an external classical field which drives the algorithm, while simultaneously coupling very weakly to the noisy environment which decoheres the quantum superpositions. We have identified a new system for quantum-information processing: ultra-cold trapped neutral atoms (G. K. Brennen et al. ), Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 , 1060 (1999); see also eprint quant- ph/9910031. Neutrals interact very weakly with the environment and coupling between them can be induced on demand through resonant excitation or elastic collisions via direct overlap between wavepackets(D. Jaksch et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 1975 (1999).. The ability to turn interactions on and off reduces decoherence and the spread of errors amongst qubits. In the implementation presented here I will discuss entangling atoms with electric dipole-dipole interactions in optical lattices (P.S. Jessen and I. H. Deutsch, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 36), 91 (1996).. These traps provide an extremely flexible environment for coherent control of both internal and external degrees of freedom of atom wave packets as in ion traps(D. Wineland et al.), Fortschr. Phys. 46, 363 (1998).. Dipole-dipole interactions can be coherent when atoms are tightly localized at a distance small compared to the optical wavelength. By inducing dipoles conditional on the logical state of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grossert, Christopher; Leder, Martin; Weitz, Martin
2016-10-01
The dispersion relation of ultracold atoms in variably shaped optical lattices can be tuned to resemble that of a relativistic particle, i.e. be linear instead of the usual nonrelativistic quadratic dispersion relation of a free atom. Cold atoms in such a lattice can be used to carry out quantum simulations of relativistic wave equation predictions. We begin this article by describing a Raman technique that allows to selectively load atoms into a desired Bloch band of the lattice near a band crossing. Subsequently, we review two recent experiments with quasirelativistic rubidium atoms in a bichromatic lattice, demonstrating the analogues of Klein tunnelling and Veselago lensing with ultracold atoms, respectively.
Dimensional phase transition from an array of 1D Luttinger liquids to a 3D Bose-Einstein condensate.
Vogler, Andreas; Labouvie, Ralf; Barontini, Giovanni; Eggert, Sebastian; Guarrera, Vera; Ott, Herwig
2014-11-21
We study the thermodynamic properties of a 2D array of coupled one-dimensional Bose gases. The system is realized with ultracold bosonic atoms loaded in the potential tubes of a two-dimensional optical lattice. For negligible coupling strength, each tube is an independent weakly interacting 1D Bose gas featuring Tomonaga Luttinger liquid behavior. By decreasing the lattice depth, we increase the coupling strength between the 1D gases and allow for the phase transition into a 3D condensate. We extract the phase diagram for such a system and compare our results with theoretical predictions. Because of the high effective mass across the periodic potential and the increased 1D interaction strength, the phase transition is shifted to large positive values of the chemical potential. Our results are prototypical to a variety of low-dimensional systems, where the coupling between the subsystems is realized in a higher spatial dimension such as coupled spin chains in magnetic insulators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Kuei; Bolech, Carlos J.
2014-03-01
We study a Bose-Hubbard model with a nearest-neighbor occupation-parity coupling that can be considered as energy cost for a domain-wall link between two adjacent sites if their occupation parity is different (one even and the other odd). Our analysis shows that the parity coupling has non-trivial interplay with the tunneling and onsite repulsion, resulting in several exotic quantum phases. For example, a uniform system with zero tunneling can exhibit a pair-liquid phase or phase separation of two Mott insulators, while a trapped system with finite tunneling shows a wedding-cake structure of only even-filling Mott insulators or a structure of central regular superfluid and outer pair superfluid. In addition, we find similar physics in a recent experimental system of imbalanced Fermi gases in optical lattices producing a 2D array of 1D tubes, with the presence of an oscillatory superfluid order parameter (the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov or FFLO state). We show that the unpaired majority fermions on each tube have a bosonic behavior with cross-tube tunneling, on-tube repulsion, and interplay with the spatial parity of the FFLO order that contributes to the occupation-parity coupling. Therefore, such system provides a realization of our model in two dimensions. Supported by the DARPA-ARO Award No. W911NF-07-1-0464 and by the University of Cincinnati.
The effect of lattice temperature on surface damage in fused silica optics
Bude, J; Guss, G; Matthews, M; Spaeth, M L
2007-10-31
We examine the effect of lattice temperature on the probability of surface damage initiation for 355nm, 7ns laser pulses for surface temperatures below the melting point to temperatures well above the melting point of fused silica. At sufficiently high surface temperatures, damage thresholds are dramatically reduced. Our results indicate a temperature activated absorption and support the idea of a lattice temperature threshold of surface damage. From these measurements, we estimate the temperature dependent absorption coefficient for intrinsic silica.
Pal, S.; Das, K.; Barman, A.; Klos, J. W.; Gruszecki, P.; Krawczyk, M.; Hellwig, O.
2014-10-20
We present an all-optical time-resolved measurement of spin wave (SW) dynamics in a series of antidot lattices based on [Co(0.75 nm)/Pd(0.9 nm)]{sub 8} multilayer (ML) systems with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The spectra depend significantly on the areal density of the antidots. The observed SW modes are qualitatively reproduced by the plane wave method. The interesting results found in our measurements and calculations at small lattice constants can be attributed to the increase of areal density of the shells with modified magnetic properties probably due to distortion of the regular ML structure by the Ga ion bombardment and to increased coupling between localized modes. We propose and discuss the possible mechanisms for this coupling including exchange interaction, tunnelling, and dipolar interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Ying
2016-09-01
By treating the hopping parameter as a perturbation, with the help of cumulant expansion and the re-summing technique, the one-particle Green’s function of a spin-1 Bose system in a honeycomb optical lattice is calculated analytically. By the use of the re-summed Green’s function, the quantum phase diagrams of the system in ferromagnetic cases as well as in antiferromagnetic cases are determined. It is found that in antiferromagnetic cases the Mott insulating states with even filling factor are more robust against the hopping parameter than that with odd filling factor, in agreement with results via other different approaches. Moreover, in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the re-summed Green’s function method in calculating time-of-flight pictures, the momentum distribution function of a honeycomb lattice spin-1 Bose system in the antiferromagnetic case is also calculated analytically and the corresponding time-of-flight absorption pictures are plotted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kennedy, Colin; Miyake, Hiro; Burton, Cody; Chung, Woo Chang; Siviloglou, Georgios; Ketterle, Wolfgang
2014-05-01
The study of charged particles in a magnetic field has led to paradigm shifts in condensed matter physics including the discovery of topologically ordered states like the quantum Hall and fractional quantum Hall states. Quantum simulation of such systems using neutral atoms has drawn much interest recently in the atomic physics community due to the versatility and defect-free nature of such systems. We discuss our recent experimental realization of the Harper Hamiltonian and strong, uniform effective magnetic fields for neutral particles in an optical lattice. Additionally, our scheme represents a promising system to realize spin-orbit coupling and the quantum spin Hall states without flipping atomic spin states and thus without the intrinsic heating that comes with near-resonant Raman lasers. We point out that our scheme can be implemented all optically through the use of a period-tripling superlattice, offering faster switching times and more precise control than with magnetic field gradients. Finally, we show that this method is very general for engineering novel single particle spectra in an optical lattice and can be used to map out Hofstadter's butterfly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mistakidis, Simeon; Koutentakis, Georgios; Schmelcher, Peter; Theory Group of Fundamental Processes in Quantum Physics Team
2016-05-01
Recent experimental advances have introduced an interplay in the trapping length scales of the lattice and the harmonic confinement. This fact motivates the investigation to prepare atomic gases at certain quantum states by utilizing a composite atomic trap consisting of a lattice potential that is embedded inside an overlying harmonic trap. In the present work, we examine how frequency modulations of the overlying harmonic trap stimulate the dynamics of an 1D few-boson gas. The gas is initially prepared at a highly confined state, and the subsequent dynamics induced by a quench of the harmonic trap frequency to a lower value is examined. It is shown that a non-interacting gas always diffuses to the outer sites. In contrast the response of the interacting system is more involved and is dominated by a resonance, which is induced by the bifurcation of the low-lying eigenstates. Our study reveals that the position of the resonance depends both on the atom number and the interaction coupling, manifesting its many body nature. The corresponding mean field treatment as well as the single-band approximation have been found to be inadequate for the description of the tunneling dynamics in the interacting case. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, SFB 925 ``Light induced dynamics and control of correlated quantum systems''.
Cladé, Pierre; de Mirandes, Estefania; Cadoret, Malo; Guellati-Khélifa, Saïda; Schwob, Catherine; Nez, François; Julien, Lucile; Biraben, François
2006-01-27
We report an accurate measurement of the recoil velocity of 87Rb atoms based on Bloch oscillations in a vertical accelerated optical lattice. We transfer about 900 recoil momenta with an efficiency of 99.97% per recoil. A set of 72 measurements of the recoil velocity, each one with a relative uncertainty of about 33 ppb in 20 min integration time, leads to a determination of the fine structure constant with a statistical relative uncertainty of 4.4 ppb. The detailed analysis of the different systematic errors yields to a relative uncertainty of 6.7 ppb. The deduced value of alpha-1 is 137.035 998 78(91).
All-optical controllable channel-drop filters in two-dimensional square-lattice photonic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fasihi, K.
2016-05-01
A novel all-optical controllable channel-drop filter in photonic crystals (PC) of square lattice is presented. We show that using a resonant-cavity-based add-drop filter with a wavelength-selective reflection feedback and a single-control switching module which is based on nonlinear PC microcavities, the dropped channel can be routed to the drop port or returned to the bus waveguide. Using the temporal coupled-mode theory and two-dimensional nonlinear finite-difference time-domain method, the performance of the proposed device is investigated and the simulation results show the validity of the proposed design.
Dynamical quantum phase transition of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice
Collin, Anssi; Martikainen, Jani-Petri; Larson, Jonas
2010-01-15
We study the dynamics of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate where the two components are coupled via an optical lattice. In particular, we focus on the dynamics as one drives the system through a critical point of a first-order phase transition characterized by a jump in the internal populations. Solving the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we analyze the breakdown of adiabaticity, impact of nonlinear atom-atom scattering, and role of a harmonic trapping potential. Our findings demonstrate that the phase transition is resilient to both contact interaction between atoms and external trapping confinement.
Zelan, M; Hagman, H; Labaigt, G; Jonsell, S; Dion, C M
2011-02-01
The rectification of noise into directed movement or useful energy is utilized by many different systems. The peculiar nature of the energy source and conceptual differences between such Brownian motor systems makes a characterization of the performance far from straightforward. In this work, where the Brownian motor consists of atoms interacting with dissipative optical lattices, we adopt existing theory and present experimental measurements for both the efficiency and the transport coherence. We achieve up to 0.3% for the efficiency and 0.01 for the Péclet number.
Dynamical instability and dispersion management of an attractive condensate in an optical lattice
Barontini, G.; Modugno, M.
2007-10-15
We investigate the stability of an attractive Bose-Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional lattice in the presence of radial confinement. We find that the system is dynamically unstable for low quasimomenta and becomes stable near the band edge, in a specular fashion with respect to the repulsive case. For low interactions the instability occurs via long-wavelength excitations that produce an oscillating density pattern in both real and momentum space instead of spoiling the condensate coherence. This behavior is illustrated by simulations for the expansion of the condensate in a moving lattice.
Simulating and detecting the quantum spin Hall effect in the kagome optical lattice
Liu Guocai; Jiang Shaojian; Sun Fadi; Liu, W. M.; Zhu Shiliang
2010-11-15
We propose a model which includes a nearest-neighbor intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and a trimerized Hamiltonian in the kagome lattice and promises to host the transition from the quantum spin Hall insulator to the normal insulator. In addition, we design an experimental scheme to simulate and detect this transition in the ultracold atom system. The lattice intrinsic spin-orbit coupling is generated via the laser-induced-gauge-field method. Furthermore, we establish the connection between the spin Chern number and the spin-atomic density which enables us to detect the quantum spin Hall insulator directly by the standard density-profile technique used in atomic systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Jian-Song; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can
2016-10-01
In a recent experiment (Z. Wu, L. Zhang, W. Sun, X.-T. Xu, B.-Z. Wang, S.-C. Ji, Y. Deng, S. Chen, X.-J. Liu, and J.-W. Pan, arXiv:1511.08170 [cond-mat.quant-gas]), a Raman-assisted two-dimensional spin-orbit coupling has been realized for a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice potential. In light of this exciting progress, we study in detail key properties of the system. As the Raman lasers inevitably couple atoms to high-lying bands, the behaviors of the system in both the single- and many-particle sectors are significantly affected. In particular, the high-band effects enhance the plane-wave phase and lead to the emergence of "roton" gaps at low Zeeman fields. Furthermore, we identify high-band-induced topological phase boundaries in both the single-particle and the quasiparticle spectra. We then derive an effective two-band model, which captures the high-band physics in the experimentally relevant regime. Our results not only offer valuable insights into the two-dimensional lattice spin-orbit coupling, but also provide a systematic formalism to model high-band effects in lattice systems with Raman-assisted spin-orbit couplings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grygiel, B.; Patucha, K.; Zaleski, T. A.
2016-05-01
We study the behavior of interacting ultracold bosons in optical lattices in synthetic magnetic fields with wide range of in-cell fluxes α =p /q . The problem is similar to the one of an electron moving in a tight-binding scheme in the magnetic field and becomes difficult to tackle for a growing number of magnetic subbands, q . To overcome this, we focus on the interplay of the width, shape, and number of the subbands on the formation of the coherent state of cold bosons. Using the quantum rotor approach, which goes beyond the mean-field approximation, we are able to pinpoint the elements of the band structure, which are the most significant in a proper theoretical description of the synthetic magnetic field in a bosonic lattice system. As a result, we propose a method of reconstruction of the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum by replacing the magnetic subbands with renormalized bands of a square lattice. This allows us to effectively investigate the properties of the studied system for a wide range of magnetic fluxes and their impact on the Mott-insulator-superfluid transition.
Makino, Kotaro; Saito, Yuta; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V; Nakano, Takashi; Tominaga, Junji; Hase, Muneaki
2016-01-01
Optical excitation of matter with linearly-polarized femtosecond pulses creates a transient non-equilibrium lattice displacement along a certain direction. Here, the pump and probe pulse polarization dependence of the photo-induced ultrafast lattice dynamics in (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)4 interfacial phase change memory material is investigated under obliquely incident conditions. Drastic pump polarization dependence of the coherent phonon amplitude is observed when the probe polarization angle is parallel to the c-axis of the sample, while the pump polarization dependence is negligible when the probe polarization angle is perpendicular to the c-axis. The enhancement of phonon oscillation amplitude due to pump polarization rotation for a specific probe polarization angle is only found in the early time stage (≤2 ps). These results indicate that the origin of the pump and probe polarization dependence is dominantly attributable to the anisotropically-formed photo-excited carriers which cause the directional lattice dynamics. PMID:26805401
Stripe glass and stripe supersolid of two-dimensional dipolar bosons in an optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roscilde, Tommaso; Boninsegni, Massimo
2010-03-01
Making use of mean-field theory and quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the zero-temperature phase diagram of dipolar bosons (with hardcore on-site interactions) on a square and triangular lattice. We consider dipoles forming an angle of 45 degrees with respect to the lattice plane, so that the dipolar interaction takes a spatially anisotropic nature, and it is attractive along the dipole direction and repulsive perpendicular to it. In the case of the square lattice, the attractive part of the interaction leads to the collapse of the dipolar gas and phase separation. On the contrary, in the case of the triangular lattice a stripe crystal is stabilized at most commensurate fillings of the form n/L, where 1 < n < L and L is the linear size. Yet, dislocations in the stripe crystal give rise to highly metastable states, which can be systematically studied at the mean-field level. Metastability is most pronounced close to half filling, and it leads to a strong tendency towards the formation of a ``stripe glass,'' which exhibits a characteristic signature in the structure factor. For higher fillings crystal phase exhibits strong quantum fluctuations, and it hosts a superfluid fraction for sufficiently low strength of the dipolar potential, resulting in a stripe supersolid phase.
Inaba, Hajime; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Yasuda, Masami; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Iwakuni, Kana; Akamatsu, Daisuke; Okubo, Sho; Kohno, Takuya; Onae, Atsushi; Hong, Feng-Lei
2013-04-01
We propose a novel, high-performance, and practical laser source system for optical clocks. The laser linewidth of a fiber-based frequency comb is reduced by phase locking a comb mode to an ultrastable master laser at 1064 nm with a broad servo bandwidth. A slave laser at 578 nm is successively phase locked to a comb mode at 578 nm with a broad servo bandwidth without any pre-stabilization. Laser frequency characteristics such as spectral linewidth and frequency stability are transferred to the 578-nm slave laser from the 1064-nm master laser. Using the slave laser, we have succeeded in observing the clock transition of (171)Yb atoms confined in an optical lattice with a 20-Hz spectral linewidth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hohenberger, M.; Shvydky, A.; Marozas, J. A.; Fiksel, G.; Bonino, M. J.; Canning, D.; Collins, T. J. B.; Dorrer, C.; Kessler, T. J.; Kruschwitz, B. E.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Zuegel, J. D.
2016-09-01
Direct-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires single-beam smoothing to minimize imprinting of laser nonuniformities that can negatively affect implosion performance. One-dimensional, multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) has been proposed to provide the required smoothing [Marozas et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 55, 294 (2010)]. A prototype multi-FM SSD system has been integrated into the NIF-like beamline of the OMEGA EP Laser System. Experiments have been performed to verify the smoothing performance by measuring Rayleigh-Taylor growth rates in planar targets of laser-imprinted and preimposed surface modulations. Multi-FM 1-D SSD has been observed to reduce imprint levels by ˜50% compared to the nominal OMEGA EP SSD system. The experimental results are in agreement with 2-D DRACO simulations using realistic, time-dependent far-field spot-intensity calculations that emulate the effect of SSD.
Hou, Jing-Min; Chen, Wei
2016-01-01
We propose to realize Weyl semimetals in a cubic optical lattice. We find that there exist three distinct Weyl semimetal phases in the cubic optical lattice for different parameter ranges. One of them has two pairs of Weyl points and the other two have one pair of Weyl points in the Brillouin zone. For a slab geometry with (010) surfaces, the Fermi arcs connecting the projections of Weyl points with opposite topological charges on the surface Brillouin zone is presented. By adjusting the parameters, the Weyl points can move in the Brillouin zone. Interestingly, for two pairs of Weyl points, as one pair of them meet and annihilate, the originial two Fermi arcs coneect into one. As the remaining Weyl points annihilate further, the Fermi arc vanishes and a gap is opened. Furthermore, we find that there always exists a hidden symmetry at Weyl points, regardless of anywhere they located in the Brillouin zone. The hidden symmetry has an antiunitary operator with its square being −1. PMID:27644114
Hou, Jing-Min; Chen, Wei
2016-01-01
We propose to realize Weyl semimetals in a cubic optical lattice. We find that there exist three distinct Weyl semimetal phases in the cubic optical lattice for different parameter ranges. One of them has two pairs of Weyl points and the other two have one pair of Weyl points in the Brillouin zone. For a slab geometry with (010) surfaces, the Fermi arcs connecting the projections of Weyl points with opposite topological charges on the surface Brillouin zone is presented. By adjusting the parameters, the Weyl points can move in the Brillouin zone. Interestingly, for two pairs of Weyl points, as one pair of them meet and annihilate, the originial two Fermi arcs coneect into one. As the remaining Weyl points annihilate further, the Fermi arc vanishes and a gap is opened. Furthermore, we find that there always exists a hidden symmetry at Weyl points, regardless of anywhere they located in the Brillouin zone. The hidden symmetry has an antiunitary operator with its square being -1. PMID:27644114
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gadzuk, J. W.
1998-09-01
The phenomenon of breathing mode excitation or bound-state wavepacket squeezing and spreading driven by a time-dependent oscillator frequency (due to either a transient force constant or mass) is considered here. An easily implemented theory of stimulated wavepacket dynamics for near-harmonic systems is presented which describes a variety of generic time dependences such as single sudden excitation, double switching (excitation/time delay/de-excitation) and decaying initially excited states which characterize many processes in spectroscopy, pump-probe control in intramolecular dynamics, and femtochemistry. The model is used as the theoretical basis for understanding such diverse phenomena as quantum excitation due to temporary neutron capture, stimulated bond-breaking resulting in delocalization, desorption, or dissociation, and breathing mode excitation of ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices. Whilst the first two examples are speculative, results for transient wavepacket dynamics of the occupied excited optical lattice are in accord with recent experimental observations reported by the NIST Laser Cooling Group. Emphasis on the inherent theoretical simplicity and the multidisciplinary aspects of near-harmonic breathing mode excitation, as exemplified by the specific realizations considered here, has been a major intent of this topical review.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teo, Selin H. G.; Liu, A. Q.; Yu, M. B.; Singh, J.
2006-05-01
This paper reports fabrication and demonstration of optical intersections in two-dimensional (2D) rod-type photonic crystal (PhC) structures. High resolution and aspect ratio 2D square lattice PhC waveguide intersections were designed and fabricated for application at the optical communication wavelengths centered at 1550 nm. In the silicon processing front, challenges resolved to overcome issues of drastically reduced process windows caused by the dense PhC rods arrays with critical dimensions (CDs) reduced to only a few hundred nanometers were addressed not only in terms of critical process flow design but also in the development of each processing module. In the lithographic process of deep ultraviolet laser system working at 248 nm, PhC rods of sub-lithographic wavelength CDs (115 nm in radii) were realized in high resolution, even near periphery regions where proximity errors were prone. In the deep etching module, stringent requirements on etch angle control and low sidewall scallops (undulations arising from time multiplexed etch and passivation actions) were satisfied, to prevent catastrophic etch failures, and enable optical quality facets. The successfully fabricated PhCs were also monolithically integrated with large scale optical testing fiber grooves that enabled macro optical fiber assisted coupling to the micro scale PhC devices. In the optical experiments, the transmission and crosstalk properties for the PhC intersection devices with different rod radii at the center of the PhC optical waveguides crossings were measured with repeatability. The properties of the PhC intersections were therefore optimized and verified to correspond well with first principle finite difference time domain simulations.
Hohenberger, M.; Shvydky, A.; Marozas, J. A.; Fiksel, G.; Bonino, M. J.; Canning, D.; Collins, T. J. B.; Dorrer, C.; Kessler, T. J.; Kruschwitz, B. E.; et al
2016-09-07
Direct-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires single-beam smoothing to minimize imprinting of laser nonuniformities that can negatively affect implosion performance. One-dimensional, multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) has been proposed to provide the required smoothing [J. A. Marozas, J. D. Zuegel, and T. J. B. Collins, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 55, 294 (2010)]. A prototype multi-FM SSD system has been integrated into the NIF-like beamline of the OMEGA EP Laser System. Experiments have been performed to verify the smoothing performance by measuring Rayleigh–Taylor growth rates in planar targets of laser-imprinted and preimposed surface modulations. Multi-FM 1-D SSDmore » has been observed to reduce imprint levels by ~50% compared to the nominal OMEGA EP SSD system. In conclusion, the experimental results are in agreement with 2-D DRACO simulations using realistic, time-dependent far-field spot-intensity calculations that emulate the effect of SSD.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Ming; Duan, Wen-Shan; Dou, Fu-Quan; Gou, Xue-Qiang; Zhang, Heng
2014-08-01
We study the tunneling dynamics of superfluid Fermi gases in an optical lattice from BEC to unitarity regime. Four different cases are found, namely Josephson oscillations (JO), oscillating-phase-type self-trapping (OST), running-phase-type self-trapping (RST) and self-trapping (ST). We find that the s-wave scattering length has a crucial role on the tunneling dynamics. Periodic modulation can also affect the tunneling phenomena, for example, in the high frequency modulation, the optical lattice is splitted at the zero points of the zeroth order Bessel function J 0 and strong suppression of tunneling by the modulation is observed at these points.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Tin-Lun
2008-03-01
Cold atoms in optical lattices show great promise to generate a whole host of new strongly correlated states and to emulate many theoretical models for strongly interacting electronic systems. However, to reach these strongly correlated regimes, we need to reach unprecedented low temperatures within current experimental settings. To achieve this, it is necessary to remove considerable amount of entropy from the system. Here, we point out a general principle for removing entropies of quantum gases in optical lattices which will allow one to reach some extraordinarily low temperature scales.
Han, Jinkyu; McBean, Coray; Wang, Lei; Hoy, Jessica; Jaye, Cherno; Liu, Haiqing; Li, Zhuo-Qun; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Fischer, Daniel A.; Taylor, Gordon T.; Misewich, James A.; Wong, Stanislaus S.
2015-01-30
In this report, we synthesize and characterize the structural and optical properties of novel heterostructures composed of (i) semiconducting nanocrystalline CdSe quantum dot (QDs) coupled with (ii) both one and zero-dimensional (1D and 0D) motifs of self-activated luminescence CaWO₄ metal oxides. Specifically, ~4 nm CdSe QDs have been anchored onto (i) high-aspect ratio 1D nanowires, measuring ~230 nm in diameter and ~3 μm in length, as well as onto (ii) crystalline 0D nanoparticles (possessing an average diameter of ~ 80 nm) of CaWO₄ through the mediation of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a connecting linker. Composite formation was confirmed by complementary electron microscopy and spectroscopy (i.e. IR and Raman) data. In terms of luminescent properties, our results show that our 1D and 0D heterostructures evince photoluminescence (PL) quenching and shortened PL lifetimes of CaWO₄ as compared with unbound CaWO₄. We propose that a photo-induced electron transfer process occurs from CaWO₄ to CdSe QDs, a scenario which has been confirmed by NEXAFS measurements and which highlights a decrease in the number of unoccupied orbitals in the conduction bands of CdSe QDs. By contrast, the PL signature and lifetimes of MPA-capped CdSe QDs within these heterostructures do not exhibit noticeable changes as compared with unbound MPA-capped CdSe QDs. The striking difference in optical behavior between CaWO₄ nanostructures and CdSe QDs within our heterostructures can be correlated with the relative positions of their conduction and valence energy band levels. In addition, the PL quenching behaviors for CaWO₄ within the heterostructure configuration were examined by systematically varying (i) the quantities and coverage densities of CdSe QDs as well as (ii) the intrinsic morphology (and by extension, the inherent crystallite size) of CaWO₄ itself.
Hybrid atom-nanophotonic lattices for quantum optics and many-body physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hung, Chen-Lung
2016-05-01
Interfacing light with cold atoms localized near photonic crystal cavities and waveguides presents new opportunities for realizing scalable quantum networks and novel quantum phases of light and matter. Such hybrid system could bring together excellent mobility of photons, and quantum non-linearity as well as control toolbox available for cold atoms in a highly engineered setting. In this talk, I will discuss recent experimental progress toward achieving strong atom-atom interactions in a nanophotonic lattice for light, and theory prospects for inducing long-range quantum dynamics for quantum network and many-body physics.
Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov critical polarization in one-dimensional fermionic optical lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
França, Vivian V.; Hörndlein, Dominik; Buchleitner, Andreas
2012-09-01
We deduce an expression for the critical polarization PC below which the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state emerges in one-dimensional lattices with spin-imbalanced populations. We provide and explore the phase diagram of unconfined chains as a function of polarization, interaction, and particle density. For harmonically confined systems, we supply a quantitative mapping, which also allows applying our phase diagram for confined chains. We find analytically and confirm numerically that the upper bound for the critical polarization is universal: PCmax=1/3 for any density, interaction, and confinement strength.
High accuracy correction of blackbody radiation shift in an optical lattice clock.
Middelmann, Thomas; Falke, Stephan; Lisdat, Christian; Sterr, Uwe
2012-12-28
We have determined the frequency shift that blackbody radiation is inducing on the 5s2 (1)S0-5s5p (3)P0 clock transition in strontium. Previously its uncertainty limited the uncertainty of strontium lattice clocks to 1×10(-16). Now the uncertainty associated with the blackbody radiation shift correction translates to a 5×10(-18) relative frequency uncertainty at room temperature. Our evaluation is based on a measurement of the differential dc polarizability of the two clock states and on a modeling of the dynamic contribution using this value and experimental data for other atomic properties. PMID:23368558
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakoda, Kazuaki; Ohtaka, Kazuo
1996-08-01
We have formulated a Green's function method for the radiation field in an arbitrary three-dimensional photonic lattice to deal with the source term of an extrinsic polarization field Pex(r,t). It is shown that the induced field is expressed as a superposition of Pex(r,t) itself and the photonic-band eigenmodes of a nonzero frequency. The longitudinal eigenmodes of zero frequency, which are important for the closure relation of photonic bands, is shown to contribute nothing to the propagating electric field. We have applied this method to the treatments of sum frequency generation, dipole radiation, and free induction decay.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Hui; Wang, An-Bang; Yi, Su; Liu, Xia-Ji
2016-05-01
We theoretically investigate the behavior of a moving impurity immersed in a sea of fermionic atoms that are confined in a quasiperiodic (bichromatic) optical lattice within a standard variational approach. We consider both repulsive and attractive contact interactions for such a simple many-body localization problem of Fermi polarons. The variational approach enables us to access relatively large systems and therefore may be used to understand many-body localization in the thermodynamic limit. The energy and wave function of the polaron states are found to be strongly affected by the quasirandom lattice potential and their experimental measurements (i.e., via radio-frequency spectroscopy or quantum gas microscope) therefore provide a sensitive way to underpin the localization transition. We determine a phase diagram by calculating two critical quasirandom disorder strengths, which correspond to the onset of the localization of the ground-state polaron state and the many-body localization of all polaron states, respectively. Our predicted phase diagram could be straightforwardly examined in current cold-atom experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Jian-Song; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Wei Yi Team; Wei Zhang Team
2016-05-01
In a recent experiment by Wu et al., a Raman-induced two-dimensional spin-orbit coupling has been realized for a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice potential. In light of this exciting progress, we investigate key properties of the system including single-particle spectrum, many-body phase diagram, and quasi-particle excitations. As the lasers generating the spin-orbit coupling inevitably couple atoms to high-lying bands, all of these properties can be greatly affected. In particular, we show that high-band induced ``roton'' gaps emerge in the quasi-particle excitation spectrum, which become softened as the system approaches the stripe phase. We also calculate the topological invariants of the lowest bands in both the single-particle and the quasi-particle spectra, from which high-band induced topological boundaries are identified. These non-trivial band topologies can give rise to topological transitions in Fermi systems or to chiral edge excitations in Bose gases. Our results can be readily observed in current experiments and provide valuable insights that are helpful for future exploration of this novel two-dimensional lattice spin-orbit coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pichler, H.; Daley, A. J.; Zoller, P.
2010-12-01
We analyze in detail the heating of bosonic atoms in an optical lattice due to incoherent scattering of light from the lasers forming the lattice. Because atoms scattered into higher bands do not thermalize on the time scale of typical experiments, this process cannot be described by the total energy increase in the system alone (which is determined by single-particle effects). The heating instead involves an important interplay between the atomic physics of the heating process and the many-body physics of the state. We characterize the effects on many-body states for various system parameters, where we observe important differences in the heating for strongly and weakly interacting regimes, as well as a strong dependence on the sign of the laser detuning from the excited atomic state. We compute heating rates and changes to characteristic correlation functions based on both perturbation-theory calculations and a time-dependent calculation of the dissipative many-body dynamics. The latter is made possible for one-dimensional systems by combining time-dependent density-matrix-renormalization-group methods with quantum trajectory techniques.