NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardina, Jorge E.
1995-01-01
The objective of this work is to develop, verify, and incorporate the baseline two-equation turbulence models which account for the effects of compressibility into the three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code and to provide documented descriptions of the models and their numerical procedures so that they can be implemented into 3-D CFD codes for engineering applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubesin, Morris W.
1987-01-01
Recent developments at several levels of statistical turbulence modeling applicable to aerodynamics are briefly surveyed. Emphasis is on examples of model improvements for transonic, two-dimensional flows. Experience with the development of these improved models is cited to suggest methods of accelerating the modeling process necessary to keep abreast of the rapid movement of computational fluid dynamics into the computation of complex three-dimensional flows.
Modeling Compressed Turbulence
Israel, Daniel M.
2012-07-13
From ICE to ICF, the effect of mean compression or expansion is important for predicting the state of the turbulence. When developing combustion models, we would like to know the mix state of the reacting species. This involves density and concentration fluctuations. To date, research has focused on the effect of compression on the turbulent kinetic energy. The current work provides constraints to help development and calibration for models of species mixing effects in compressed turbulence. The Cambon, et al., re-scaling has been extended to buoyancy driven turbulence, including the fluctuating density, concentration, and temperature equations. The new scalings give us helpful constraints for developing and validating RANS turbulence models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bihlo, Alexander; Dos Santos Cardoso-Bihlo, Elsa Maria; Nave, Jean-Christophe; Popovych, Roman
2012-11-01
Various subgrid-scale closure models break the invariance of the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations and thus violate the geometric structure of these equations. A method is shown which allows one to systematically derive invariant turbulence models starting from non-invariant turbulence models and thus to correct artificial symmetry-breaking. The method is illustrated by finding invariant hyperdiffusion schemes to be applied in the two-dimensional turbulence problem.
Characterization of Turbulent Flows for Turbulence Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynolds, W. C.; Haire, S. L.
1998-11-01
A diagram for the characterization of turbulent flows using the invariants of the mean velocity gradient tensor is introduced. All mean flows, from irrotationally strained flows to shearing flows, to purely rotational flows, can be identified on this diagram. Different flow fields which occupy the same region on the diagram are said to be comprised of the same topological features. The current state of turbulence modeling can be identified on the diagram based on the type of mean flow fields which can be accurately computed. Regions on the diagram can be shown for which current capabilities in turbulence modeling fail to accurately resolve the turbulent structures. Relevant mean field topology is identified for future work in turbulence modeling. Using this analysis, we suggest a number of flows to be computed by DNS or LES and used as testing cases for new models.
Brady 1D seismic velocity model ambient noise prelim
Mellors, Robert J.
2013-10-25
Preliminary 1D seismic velocity model derived from ambient noise correlation. 28 Green's functions filtered between 4-10 Hz for Vp, Vs, and Qs were calculated. 1D model estimated for each path. The final model is a median of the individual models. Resolution is best for the top 1 km. Poorly constrained with increasing depth.
Modeling turbulent flame propagation
Ashurst, W.T.
1994-08-01
Laser diagnostics and flow simulation techniques axe now providing information that if available fifty years ago, would have allowed Damkoehler to show how turbulence generates flame area. In the absence of this information, many turbulent flame speed models have been created, most based on Kolmogorov concepts which ignore the turbulence vortical structure, Over the last twenty years, the vorticity structure in mixing layers and jets has been shown to determine the entrainment and mixing behavior and these effects need to be duplicated by combustion models. Turbulence simulations reveal the intense vorticity structure as filaments and simulations of passive flamelet propagation show how this vorticity Creates flame area and defines the shape of the expected chemical reaction surface. Understanding how volume expansion interacts with flow structure should improve experimental methods for determining turbulent flame speed. Since the last decade has given us such powerful new tools to create and see turbulent combustion microscopic behavior, it seems that a solution of turbulent combustion within the next decade would not be surprising in the hindsight of 2004.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zang, Thomas A.; Mathelin, Lionel; Hussaini, M. Yousuff; Bataille, Francoise
2003-01-01
This paper describes a fully spectral, Polynomial Chaos method for the propagation of uncertainty in numerical simulations of compressible, turbulent flow, as well as a novel stochastic collocation algorithm for the same application. The stochastic collocation method is key to the efficient use of stochastic methods on problems with complex nonlinearities, such as those associated with the turbulence model equations in compressible flow and for CFD schemes requiring solution of a Riemann problem. Both methods are applied to compressible flow in a quasi-one-dimensional nozzle. The stochastic collocation method is roughly an order of magnitude faster than the fully Galerkin Polynomial Chaos method on the inviscid problem.
Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, J.-Y.
1995-01-01
Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.
Turbulence Modeling: A NASA Perspective
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatski, T. B.
2001-01-01
This paper presents turbulence modeling from NASA's perspective. The topics include: 1) Hierarchy of Solution Methods; 2) Turbulence Modeling Focus; 3) Linear Eddy Viscosity Models; and 4) Nonlinear Eddy Viscosity Algebraic Stress Models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, R. (Editor); Rumsey, C. L. (Editor); Salas, M. D. (Editor); Thomas, J. L. (Editor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Advances in turbulence modeling are needed in order to calculate high Reynolds number flows near the onset of separation and beyond. To this end, the participants in this workshop made the following recommendations. (1) A national/international database and standards for turbulence modeling assessment should be established. Existing experimental data sets should be reviewed and categorized. Advantage should be taken of other efforts already under-way, such as that of the European Research Community on Flow, Turbulence, and Combustion (ERCOFTAC) consortium. Carefully selected "unit" experiments will be needed, as well as advances in instrumentation, to fill the gaps in existing datasets. A high priority should be given to document existing turbulence model capabilities in a standard form, including numerical implementation issues such as grid quality and resolution. (2) NASA should support long-term research on Algebraic Stress Models and Reynolds Stress Models. The emphasis should be placed on improving the length-scale equation, since it is the least understood and is a key component of two-equation and higher models. Second priority should be given to the development of improved near-wall models. Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) would provide valuable guidance in developing and validating new Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models. Although not the focus of this workshop, DNS, LES, and hybrid methods currently represent viable approaches for analysis on a limited basis. Therefore, although computer limitations require the use of RANS methods for realistic configurations at high Reynolds number in the foreseeable future, a balanced effort in turbulence modeling development, validation, and implementation should include these approaches as well.
Swirl flow turbulence modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abujelala, M. T.; Jackson, T. W.; Lilley, D. G.
1984-01-01
Confined turbulent swirling flow data obtained from a single hot-wire using a six-orientation technique are analyzed numerically. The effects of swirl strength and the presence of a strong contraction nozzle further downstream on deduced parameters is also presented and discussed for the case of chamber-to-inlet diameter ratio D/d = 2. Three swirl strengths are considered with inlet swirl vane angles of 0, 45 and 70 deg. A strong contraction nozzle with an area ratio of 4 is located two chamber-diameters downstream of the inlet to the flowfield. It is found that both the swirl strength and the contraction have strong effects on the turbulence parameters. Generally, the most dramatic effect of increase of swirl strength is the considerable increase in values of all the parameters considered, (rx-viscosity, kinetic energy of turbulence, length scales, and degree of nonisotropy). The presence of a strong contraction nozzle tends to increase the turbulence parameter values in regions of acceleration and to reduce them in deceleration regions. Based on similarity of viscosity and length scale profiles, a C sub mu formulation is deduced which is shown to improve the predictive capability of the standard k-epsilon turbulence model in swirling recirculating flows.
GIS-BASED 1-D DIFFUSIVE WAVE OVERLAND FLOW MODEL
KALYANAPU, ALFRED; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY N.; BURIAN, STEVEN J.
2007-01-17
This paper presents a GIS-based 1-d distributed overland flow model and summarizes an application to simulate a flood event. The model estimates infiltration using the Green-Ampt approach and routes excess rainfall using the 1-d diffusive wave approximation. The model was designed to use readily available topographic, soils, and land use/land cover data and rainfall predictions from a meteorological model. An assessment of model performance was performed for a small catchment and a large watershed, both in urban environments. Simulated runoff hydrographs were compared to observations for a selected set of validation events. Results confirmed the model provides reasonable predictions in a short period of time.
Workshop on Computational Turbulence Modeling
Not Available
1993-01-01
This document contains presentations given at Workshop on Computational Turbulence Modeling held 15-16 Sep. 1993. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the current status and future development of turbulence modeling in computational fluid dynamics for aerospace propulsion systems. Papers cover the following topics: turbulence modeling activities at the Center for Modeling of Turbulence and Transition (CMOTT); heat transfer and turbomachinery flow physics; aerothermochemistry and computational methods for space systems; computational fluid dynamics and the k-epsilon turbulence model; propulsion systems; and inlet, duct, and nozzle flow. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report.
Workshop on Computational Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1993-01-01
This document contains presentations given at Workshop on Computational Turbulence Modeling held 15-16 Sep. 1993. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss the current status and future development of turbulence modeling in computational fluid dynamics for aerospace propulsion systems. Papers cover the following topics: turbulence modeling activities at the Center for Modeling of Turbulence and Transition (CMOTT); heat transfer and turbomachinery flow physics; aerothermochemistry and computational methods for space systems; computational fluid dynamics and the k-epsilon turbulence model; propulsion systems; and inlet, duct, and nozzle flow.
Turbulence modeling and experiments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shabbir, Aamir
1992-01-01
The best way of verifying turbulence is to do a direct comparison between the various terms and their models. The success of this approach depends upon the availability of the data for the exact correlations (both experimental and DNS). The other approach involves numerically solving the differential equations and then comparing the results with the data. The results of such a computation will depend upon the accuracy of all the modeled terms and constants. Because of this it is sometimes difficult to find the cause of a poor performance by a model. However, such a calculation is still meaningful in other ways as it shows how a complete Reynolds stress model performs. Thirteen homogeneous flows are numerically computed using the second order closure models. We concentrate only on those models which use a linear (or quasi-linear) model for the rapid term. This, therefore, includes the Launder, Reece and Rodi (LRR) model; the isotropization of production (IP) model; and the Speziale, Sarkar, and Gatski (SSG) model. Which of the three models performs better is examined along with what are their weaknesses, if any. The other work reported deal with the experimental balances of the second moment equations for a buoyant plume. Despite the tremendous amount of activity toward the second order closure modeling of turbulence, very little experimental information is available about the budgets of the second moment equations. Part of the problem stems from our inability to measure the pressure correlations. However, if everything else appearing in these equations is known from the experiment, pressure correlations can be obtained as the closing terms. This is the closest we can come to in obtaining these terms from experiment, and despite the measurement errors which might be present in such balances, the resulting information will be extremely useful for the turbulence modelers. The purpose of this part of the work was to provide such balances of the Reynolds stress and heat
Aircraft Dynamic Modeling in Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunninham, Kevin
2012-01-01
A method for accurately identifying aircraft dynamic models in turbulence was developed and demonstrated. The method uses orthogonal optimized multisine excitation inputs and an analytic method for enhancing signal-to-noise ratio for dynamic modeling in turbulence. A turbulence metric was developed to accurately characterize the turbulence level using flight measurements. The modeling technique was demonstrated in simulation, then applied to a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft in flight. Comparisons of modeling results obtained in turbulent air to results obtained in smooth air were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.
Non-cooperative Brownian donkeys: A solvable 1D model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez de Cisneros, B.; Reimann, P.; Parrondo, J. M. R.
2003-12-01
A paradigmatic 1D model for Brownian motion in a spatially symmetric, periodic system is tackled analytically. Upon application of an external static force F the system's response is an average current which is positive for F < 0 and negative for F > 0 (absolute negative mobility). Under suitable conditions, the system approaches 100% efficiency when working against the external force F.
Quasi 1-D Analysis of a Circular, Compressible, Turbulent Jet Laden with Water Droplets. Appendix C
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2001-01-01
Recent experimental studies indicate that presence of small amount of liquid droplets reduces the Overall Sound Pressure Level (OASPL) of a jet. Present study is aimed at numerically investigating the effect of liquid particles on the overall flow quantities of a heated, compressible round jet. The jet is assumed perfectly expanded. A quasi-1D model was developed for this purpose which uses area-averaged quantities that satisfy integral conservation equations. Special attention is given to represent the early development region since it is acoustically important. Approximate velocity and temperature profiles were assumed in this region to evaluate entrainment rate. Experimental correlations were used to obtain spreading rate of shear layer. The base flow thus obtained is then laden with water droplets at the exit of the nozzle. Mass, momentum and energy coupling between the two phases is represented using empirical relations. Droplet size and mass loading are varied to observe their effect on flow variables.
Workshop on Computational Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shabbir, A. (Compiler); Shih, T.-H. (Compiler); Povinelli, L. A. (Compiler)
1994-01-01
The purpose of this meeting was to discuss the current status and future development of turbulence modeling in computational fluid dynamics for aerospace propulsion systems. Various turbulence models have been developed and applied to different turbulent flows over the past several decades and it is becoming more and more urgent to assess their performance in various complex situations. In order to help users in selecting and implementing appropriate models in their engineering calculations, it is important to identify the capabilities as well as the deficiencies of these models. This also benefits turbulence modelers by permitting them to further improve upon the existing models. This workshop was designed for exchanging ideas and enhancing collaboration between different groups in the Lewis community who are using turbulence models in propulsion related CFD. In this respect this workshop will help the Lewis goal of excelling in propulsion related research. This meeting had seven sessions for presentations and one panel discussion over a period of two days. Each presentation session was assigned to one or two branches (or groups) to present their turbulence related research work. Each group was asked to address at least the following points: current status of turbulence model applications and developments in the research; progress and existing problems; and requests about turbulence modeling. The panel discussion session was designed for organizing committee members to answer management and technical questions from the audience and to make concluding remarks.
Structural stability of a 1D compressible viscoelastic fluid model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huo, Xiaokai; Yong, Wen-An
2016-07-01
This paper is concerned with a compressible viscoelastic fluid model proposed by Öttinger. Although the model has a convex entropy, the Hessian matrix of the entropy does not symmetrize the system of first-order partial differential equations due to the non-conservative terms in the constitutive equation. We show that the corresponding 1D model is symmetrizable hyperbolic and dissipative and satisfies the Kawashima condition. Based on these, we prove the global existence of smooth solutions near equilibrium and justify the compatibility of the model with the Navier-Stokes equations.
Advanced Turbulence Modeling Concepts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing
2005-01-01
The ZCET program developed at NASA Glenn Research Center is to study hydrogen/air injection concepts for aircraft gas turbine engines that meet conventional gas turbine performance levels and provide low levels of harmful NOx emissions. A CFD study for ZCET program has been successfully carried out. It uses the most recently enhanced National combustion code (NCC) to perform CFD simulations for two configurations of hydrogen fuel injectors (GRC- and Sandia-injector). The results can be used to assist experimental studies to provide quick mixing, low emission and high performance fuel injector designs. The work started with the configuration of the single-hole injector. The computational models were taken from the experimental designs. For example, the GRC single-hole injector consists of one air tube (0.78 inches long and 0.265 inches in diameter) and two hydrogen tubes (0.3 inches long and 0.0226 inches in diameter opposed at 180 degree). The hydrogen tubes are located 0.3 inches upstream from the exit of the air element (the inlet location for the combustor). To do the simulation, the single-hole injector is connected to a combustor model (8.16 inches long and 0.5 inches in diameter). The inlet conditions for air and hydrogen elements are defined according to actual experimental designs. Two crossing jets of hydrogen/air are simulated in detail in the injector. The cold flow, reacting flow, flame temperature, combustor pressure and possible flashback phenomena are studied. Two grid resolutions of the numerical model have been adopted. The first computational grid contains 0.52 million elements, the second one contains over 1.3 million elements. The CFD results have shown only about 5% difference between the two grid resolutions. Therefore, the CFD result obtained from the model of 1.3-million grid resolution can be considered as a grid independent numerical solution. Turbulence models built in NCC are consolidated and well tested. They can handle both coarse and
Conceptual dynamical models for turbulence.
Majda, Andrew J; Lee, Yoonsang
2014-05-01
Understanding the complexity of anisotropic turbulent processes in engineering and environmental fluid flows is a formidable challenge with practical significance because energy often flows intermittently from the smaller scales to impact the largest scales in these flows. Conceptual dynamical models for anisotropic turbulence are introduced and developed here which, despite their simplicity, capture key features of vastly more complicated turbulent systems. These conceptual models involve a large-scale mean flow and turbulent fluctuations on a variety of spatial scales with energy-conserving wave-mean-flow interactions as well as stochastic forcing of the fluctuations. Numerical experiments with a six-dimensional conceptual dynamical model confirm that these models capture key statistical features of vastly more complex anisotropic turbulent systems in a qualitative fashion. These features include chaotic statistical behavior of the mean flow with a sub-Gaussian probability distribution function (pdf) for its fluctuations whereas the turbulent fluctuations have decreasing energy and correlation times at smaller scales, with nearly Gaussian pdfs for the large-scale fluctuations and fat-tailed non-Gaussian pdfs for the smaller-scale fluctuations. This last feature is a manifestation of intermittency of the small-scale fluctuations where turbulent modes with small variance have relatively frequent extreme events which directly impact the mean flow. The dynamical models introduced here potentially provide a useful test bed for algorithms for prediction, uncertainty quantification, and data assimilation for anisotropic turbulent systems. PMID:24753605
Conceptual dynamical models for turbulence
Majda, Andrew J.; Lee, Yoonsang
2014-01-01
Understanding the complexity of anisotropic turbulent processes in engineering and environmental fluid flows is a formidable challenge with practical significance because energy often flows intermittently from the smaller scales to impact the largest scales in these flows. Conceptual dynamical models for anisotropic turbulence are introduced and developed here which, despite their simplicity, capture key features of vastly more complicated turbulent systems. These conceptual models involve a large-scale mean flow and turbulent fluctuations on a variety of spatial scales with energy-conserving wave–mean-flow interactions as well as stochastic forcing of the fluctuations. Numerical experiments with a six-dimensional conceptual dynamical model confirm that these models capture key statistical features of vastly more complex anisotropic turbulent systems in a qualitative fashion. These features include chaotic statistical behavior of the mean flow with a sub-Gaussian probability distribution function (pdf) for its fluctuations whereas the turbulent fluctuations have decreasing energy and correlation times at smaller scales, with nearly Gaussian pdfs for the large-scale fluctuations and fat-tailed non-Gaussian pdfs for the smaller-scale fluctuations. This last feature is a manifestation of intermittency of the small-scale fluctuations where turbulent modes with small variance have relatively frequent extreme events which directly impact the mean flow. The dynamical models introduced here potentially provide a useful test bed for algorithms for prediction, uncertainty quantification, and data assimilation for anisotropic turbulent systems. PMID:24753605
Workshop on Engineering Turbulence Modeling
Povinelli, L.A.; Liou, W.W.; Shabbir, A.; Shih, T.H.
1992-03-01
Discussed here is the future direction of various levels of engineering turbulence modeling related to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations for propulsion. For each level of computation, there are a few turbulence models which represent the state-of-the-art for that level. However, it is important to know their capabilities as well as their deficiencies in order to help engineers select and implement the appropriate models in their real world engineering calculations. This will also help turbulence modelers perceive the future directions for improving turbulence models. The focus is on one-point closure models (i.e., from algebraic models to higher order moment closure schemes and partial differential equation methods) which can be applied to CFD computations. However, other schemes helpful in developing one-point closure models, are also discussed.
Workshop on Engineering Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Povinelli, Louis A. (Editor); Liou, W. W. (Editor); Shabbir, A. (Editor); Shih, T.-H. (Editor)
1992-01-01
Discussed here is the future direction of various levels of engineering turbulence modeling related to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations for propulsion. For each level of computation, there are a few turbulence models which represent the state-of-the-art for that level. However, it is important to know their capabilities as well as their deficiencies in order to help engineers select and implement the appropriate models in their real world engineering calculations. This will also help turbulence modelers perceive the future directions for improving turbulence models. The focus is on one-point closure models (i.e., from algebraic models to higher order moment closure schemes and partial differential equation methods) which can be applied to CFD computations. However, other schemes helpful in developing one-point closure models, are also discussed.
Turbulence Modeling Verification and Validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.
2014-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations has been in routine use for more than a quarter of a century. It is currently employed not only for basic research in fluid dynamics, but also for the analysis and design processes in many industries worldwide, including aerospace, automotive, power generation, chemical manufacturing, polymer processing, and petroleum exploration. A key feature of RANS CFD is the turbulence model. Because the RANS equations are unclosed, a model is necessary to describe the effects of the turbulence on the mean flow, through the Reynolds stress terms. The turbulence model is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in RANS CFD, and most models are known to be flawed in one way or another. Alternative methods such as direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large eddy simulations (LES) rely less on modeling and hence include more physics than RANS. In DNS all turbulent scales are resolved, and in LES the large scales are resolved and the effects of the smallest turbulence scales are modeled. However, both DNS and LES are too expensive for most routine industrial usage on today's computers. Hybrid RANS-LES, which blends RANS near walls with LES away from walls, helps to moderate the cost while still retaining some of the scale-resolving capability of LES, but for some applications it can still be too expensive. Even considering its associated uncertainties, RANS turbulence modeling has proved to be very useful for a wide variety of applications. For example, in the aerospace field, many RANS models are considered to be reliable for computing attached flows. However, existing turbulence models are known to be inaccurate for many flows involving separation. Research has been ongoing for decades in an attempt to improve turbulence models for separated and other nonequilibrium flows. When developing or improving turbulence models, both verification and validation are important
Turbulence modeling for separated flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durbin, Paul A.
1994-01-01
Two projects are described in this report. The first involves assessing turbulence models in separated flow. The second addresses the anomalous behavior of certain turbulence models in stagnation point flow. The primary motivation for developing turbulent transport models is to provide tools for computing non-equilibrium, or complex, turbulent flows. Simple flows can be analyzed using data correlations or algebraic eddy viscosities, but in more complicated flows such as a massively separated boundary layer, a more elaborate level of modeling is required. It is widely believed that at least a two-equation transport model is required in such cases. The transport equations determine the evolution of suitable velocity and time-scales of the turbulence. The present study included assessment of second-moment closures in several separated flows, including sharp edge separation; smooth wall, pressure driven separation; and unsteady vortex shedding. Flows with mean swirl are of interest for their role in enhancing mixing both by turbulent and mean motion. The swirl can have a stabilizing effect on the turbulence. An axi-symmetric extension to the INS-2D computer program was written adding the capability of computing swirling flow. High swirl can produce vortex breakdown on the centerline of the jet and it occurs in various combustors.
A 1-D morphodynamic model of postglacial valley incision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tunnicliffe, Jon F.; Church, Michael
2015-11-01
Chilliwack River is typical of many Cordilleran valley river systems that have undergone dramatic Holocene degradation of valley fills that built up over the course of Pleistocene glaciation. Downstream controls on base level, mainly blockage of valleys by glaciers, led to aggradation of significant glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine valley fills and fan deposits, subsequently incised by fluvial action. Models of such large-scale, long-term degradation present a number of important challenges since the evolution of model parameters, such as the rate of bedload transport and grain size characteristics, are governed by the nature of the deposit. Sediment sampling in the Chilliwack Valley reveals a complex sequence of very coarse to fine textural modes. We present a 1-D numerical morphodynamic model for the river-floodplain system tailored to conditions in the valley. The model is adapted to dynamically adjust channel width to optimize sediment transporting capacity and to integrate relict valley fill material as the channel incises through valley deposits. Sensitivity to model parameters is studied using four principal criteria: profile concavity, rate of downstream grain size fining, bed surface sand content, and the timescale to equilibrium. Model results indicate that rates of abrasion and coarsening of the grain size distributions exert the strongest controls on all of the interrelated model performance criteria. While there are a number of difficulties in satisfying all model criteria simultaneously, results indicate that 1-D models of valley bottom sedimentary systems can provide a suitable framework for integrating results from sediment budget studies and chronologies of sediment evacuation established from dating.
Turbulence modeling for compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, J. G.
1977-01-01
Material prepared for a course on Applications and Fundamentals of Turbulence given at the University of Tennessee Space Institute, January 10 and 11, 1977, is presented. A complete concept of turbulence modeling is described, and examples of progess for its use in computational aerodynimics are given. Modeling concepts, experiments, and computations using the concepts are reviewed in a manner that provides an up-to-date statement on the status of this problem for compressible flows.
Advancements in engineering turbulence modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, T.-H.
1991-01-01
Some new developments in two-equation models and second order closure models are presented. Two-equation models (k-epsilon models) have been widely used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for engineering problems. Most of low-Reynolds number two-equation models contain some wall-distance damping functions to account for the effect of wall on turbulence. However, this often causes the confusion and difficulties in computing flows with complex geometry and also needs an ad hoc treatment near the separation and reattachment points. A set of modified two-equation models is proposed to remove the aforementioned shortcomings. The calculations using various two-equation models are compared with direct numerical simulations of channel flow and flat boundary layers. Development of a second order closure model is also discussed with emphasis on the modeling of pressure related correlation terms and dissipation rates in the second moment equations. All the existing models poorly predict the normal stresses near the wall and fail to predict the 3-D effect of mean flow on the turbulence (e.g. decrease in the shear stress caused by the cross flow in the boundary layer). The newly developed second order near-wall turbulence model is described and is capable of capturing the near-wall behavior of turbulence as well as the effect of 3-D mean flow on the turbulence.
Examination of 1D Solar Cell Model Limitations Using 3D SPICE Modeling: Preprint
McMahon, W. E.; Olson, J. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.
2012-06-01
To examine the limitations of one-dimensional (1D) solar cell modeling, 3D SPICE-based modeling is used to examine in detail the validity of the 1D assumptions as a function of sheet resistance for a model cell. The internal voltages and current densities produced by this modeling give additional insight into the differences between the 1D and 3D models.
Structure and modeling of turbulence
Novikov, E.A.
1995-12-31
The {open_quotes}vortex strings{close_quotes} scale l{sub s} {approximately} LRe{sup -3/10} (L-external scale, Re - Reynolds number) is suggested as a grid scale for the large-eddy simulation. Various aspects of the structure of turbulence and subgrid modeling are described in terms of conditional averaging, Markov processes with dependent increments and infinitely divisible distributions. The major request from the energy, naval, aerospace and environmental engineering communities to the theory of turbulence is to reduce the enormous number of degrees of freedom in turbulent flows to a level manageable by computer simulations. The vast majority of these degrees of freedom is in the small-scale motion. The study of the structure of turbulence provides a basis for subgrid-scale (SGS) models, which are necessary for the large-eddy simulations (LES).
Turbulence modeling in aircraft icing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Potapczuk, Mark G.
1993-01-01
The Icing and Cryogenic Technology Branch develops computational tools which predict ice growth on aircraft surfaces and uses existing CFD technology to evaluate the aerodynamic changes associated with such accretions. Surface roughness, transition location, and laminar, transition, or turbulent convective heat transfer all influence the ice growth process on aircraft surfaces. Turbulence modeling is a critical element within the computational tools used for both ice shape prediction and for performance degradation evaluation.
Modeling of Turbulent Swirling Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Liou, William; Chen, Kuo-Huey; Liu, Nan-Suey; Lumley, John L.
1997-01-01
Aircraft engine combustors generally involve turbulent swirling flows in order to enhance fuel-air mixing and flame stabilization. It has long been recognized that eddy viscosity turbulence models are unable to appropriately model swirling flows. Therefore, it has been suggested that, for the modeling of these flows, a second order closure scheme should be considered because of its ability in the modeling of rotational and curvature effects. However, this scheme will require solution of many complicated second moment transport equations (six Reynolds stresses plus other scalar fluxes and variances), which is a difficult task for any CFD implementations. Also, this scheme will require a large amount of computer resources for a general combustor swirling flow. This report is devoted to the development of a cubic Reynolds stress-strain model for turbulent swirling flows, and was inspired by the work of Launder's group at UMIST. Using this type of model, one only needs to solve two turbulence equations, one for the turbulent kinetic energy k and the other for the dissipation rate epsilon. The cubic model developed in this report is based on a general Reynolds stress-strain relationship. Two flows have been chosen for model evaluation. One is a fully developed rotating pipe flow, and the other is a more complex flow with swirl and recirculation.
PDF turbulence modeling and DNS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, A. T.
1992-01-01
The problem of time discontinuity (or jump condition) in the coalescence/dispersion (C/D) mixing model is addressed in probability density function (pdf). A C/D mixing model continuous in time is introduced. With the continuous mixing model, the process of chemical reaction can be fully coupled with mixing. In the case of homogeneous turbulence decay, the new model predicts a pdf very close to a Gaussian distribution, with finite higher moments also close to that of a Gaussian distribution. Results from the continuous mixing model are compared with both experimental data and numerical results from conventional C/D models. The effect of Coriolis forces on compressible homogeneous turbulence is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The numerical method used in this study is an eight order compact difference scheme. Contrary to the conclusions reached by previous DNS studies on incompressible isotropic turbulence, the present results show that the Coriolis force increases the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, and that anisotropy develops as the Coriolis force increases. The Taylor-Proudman theory does apply since the derivatives in the direction of the rotation axis vanishes rapidly. A closer analysis reveals that the dissipation rate of the incompressible component of the turbulent kinetic energy indeed decreases with a higher rotation rate, consistent with incompressible flow simulations (Bardina), while the dissipation rate of the compressible part increases; the net gain is positive. Inertial waves are observed in the simulation results.
1-D Modeling of Massive Particle Injection (MPI) in Tokamaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, W.; Parks, P. B.; Izzo, V. A.
2008-11-01
A 1-D Fast Current Quench (FCQ) model is developed to study current evolution and runaway electron suppression under massive density increase. The model consists of coupled toroidal electric field and energy equations, and it is solved numerically for DIII-D and ITER operating conditions. Simulation results suggest that fast shutdown by D2 liquid jet/pellet injection is in principle achievable for the desired plasma cooling time (˜15 ms for DIII-D and ˜50 ms for ITER) under ˜150x or higher densification. The current density and pressure profile are practically unaltered during the initial phase of jet propagation when dilution cooling dominates. With subsequent radiation cooling, the densified discharge enters the strongly collisional regime where Pfirsch-Schluter thermal diffusion can inhibit current contraction on the magnetic axis. Often the 1/1 kink instability, addressed by Kadomtsev's magnetic reconnection model, can be prevented. Our results are compared with NIMROD simulations in which the plasma is suddenly densified by ˜100x and experiences instantaneous dilution cooling, allowing for use of actual (lower) Lundquist numbers.
Turbulence Modeling in Dust Forming Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helling, Ch.; Lüttke, M.; Sedlmayr, E.; Oeverman, M.; Klein, R.
The process of dust formation is considered in a turbulent medium. The modeling for hydro- and thermodynamics follows the classical approach for an inviscid, compressible fluid and the dust formation process is described as a two step process, nucleation and growth, including element conservation. Our approach is to combine asymptotic techniques and multi-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS). The turbulence modeling will be performed by the simulation of regime-wise increased scales allowing for a detailed study of the corresponding behavior of the dust forming gas flow. Our investigations have been started in the microscopic scale regime (Kolmogoroff scale << lref << density scale height) where acoustic waves are continuously generated by turbulent motions caused by large-scale convection. We show that the local gas temperature can fall below a temperature threshold for efficient dust nucleation by the superposition of acoustic expansion waves. As the formed seed particles subsequently grow, radiation cooling is intensified causing new dust to form and a runaway effect sets in. An asymptotic model serves as an independent test of our DNS results and allows an investigation of the long term behavior of our dust forming system. Adopting the example of a brown dwarf atmosphere, intermittent dust distributions in space and time (clouds) are predicted by asymptotic calculations of stochastic acoustic interaction and have been studied further by 1D and 2D DNS.
Models for Turbulent Transport Processes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, James C.
1979-01-01
Since the statistical theories of turbulence that have developed over the last twenty or thirty years are too abstract and unreliable to be of much use to chemical engineers, this paper introduces the techniques of single point models and suggests some areas of needed research. (BB)
One-Equation Algebraic Model Of Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baldwin, B. S.; Barth, T. J.
1993-01-01
One-equation model of turbulence based on standard equations of k-epsilon model of turbulence, where k is turbulent energy and e is rate of dissipation of k. Derivation of one-equation model motivated partly by inaccuracies of flows computed by some Navier-Stokes-equations-solving algorithms incorporating algebraic models of turbulence. Satisfies need to avoid having to determine algebraic length scales.
Transonic Turbulent Flow Predictions With Two-Equation Turbulence Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, William W.; Shih, Tsan-Hsing
1996-01-01
Solutions of the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for two well-documented transonic turbulent flows are compared in detail with existing experimental data. While the boundary layer in the first case remains attached, a region of extensive flow separation has been observed in the second case. Two recently developed k-epsilon, two-equation, eddy-viscosity models are used to model the turbulence field. These models satisfy the realizability constraints of the Reynolds stresses. Comparisons with the measurements are made for the wall pressure distribution, the mean streamwise velocity profiles, and turbulent quantities. Reasonably good agreement is obtained with the experimental data.
Turbulence modeling for hypersonic flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardina, Jorge E.
1993-01-01
The objective of the proposed work is to continue to develop, verify, and incorporate the baseline two-equation turbulence models, which account for the effects of compressibility at high speeds, into a three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code. Additionally, we plan to provide documented descriptions of the models and their numerical procedures so that they can be implemented into the NASP CFD codes.
Multifractal model for heliospheric turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szczepaniak, Anna
Multifractal characteristics and models for astrophysical plasma at different regions of heliosphere are considered. We analyze the time series of the solar wind parameters measured in situby Helios 2 (0.3-1 AU), ACE (1 AU), and Voyager 2 (1-75 AU) spacecrafts [1]. We focus on the intermittent nature of the cascading eddies for solar wind turbulence. To look at intermittency we construct the multifractal measure describing energy transfer rate and we analyze its scaling properties [2,3]. This allows us to obtain generalized dimensions and multifractality spectra for different state of the solar wind depending on heliocentric distance and solar activity cycle. We also propose a generalization of the usual p-model [2] for the case when the turbulent cascade involves eddies of different sizes. Our model has two scaling parameters and a probability measure parameter allowing to decribe more intermittent data [4,5]. We compare the resulting generalized dimensions and singularity spectra for the solar wind with that for the generalized p-model. In this way we obtain a much better agreement with the solar wind data. Hence we hope that our model will be a useful tool to study complex nature of intermittent turbulence. [1] Burlaga, L. F.: Multifractal structure of the interplanetary magnetic field: Voyager 2 observations near 25 AU, 1987-1988, Geophys. Res. Lett. 18, 69-72, 1991. [2] Meneveau, C., and Sreenivasan, K. R.: Simple multifractal cascade model for fully developed turbulence, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1424-1427, 1987. [3] Marsch, E., Tu, C.-Y., and Rosenbauer, H.: Multifractal scaling of the kinetic energy flux in solar wind turbulence, Ann. Geophys. 14, 259-269, 1996. [4] Macek, W. M. : Multifractality and intermittency in the solar wind, Nonlinear Proc. Geophys., 14, 695-700, 2007. [5] Macek, W. M., and Szczepaniak, A.: Generalized two-scale weighted Cantor set model for solar wind turbulence, Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L02108, doi:10.1029/2007GL032263, 2008.
Study Of Compressibility Corrections To Turbulence Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Viegas, J. R.; Rubesin, M. W.
1993-01-01
Effects on shear layers in simulated confined and unconfined flows studied. Report presents comparative study of some terms that correct for effects of compressibility in standard k-epsilon mathematical model of turbulence where k denotes turbulence kinetic energy and epsilon denotes rate of dissipation of turbulence kenetic energy. Involved simulation of flows by numerical solution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations.
Turbulence modeling for hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, J. G.; Coakley, T. J.
1989-01-01
Turbulence modeling for high speed compressible flows is described and discussed. Starting with the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, methods of statistical averaging are described by means of which the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are developed. Unknown averages in these equations are approximated using various closure concepts. Zero-, one-, and two-equation eddy viscosity models, algebraic stress models and Reynolds stress transport models are discussed. Computations of supersonic and hypersonic flows obtained using several of the models are discussed and compared with experimental results. Specific examples include attached boundary layer flows, shock wave boundary layer interactions and compressible shear layers. From these examples, conclusions regarding the status of modeling and recommendations for future studies are discussed.
Experience with turbulence interaction and turbulence-chemistry models at Fluent Inc.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choudhury, D.; Kim, S. E.; Tselepidakis, D. P.; Missaghi, M.
1995-01-01
This viewgraph presentation discusses (1) turbulence modeling: challenges in turbulence modeling, desirable attributes of turbulence models, turbulence models in FLUENT, and examples using FLUENT; and (2) combustion modeling: turbulence-chemistry interaction and FLUENT equilibrium model. As of now, three turbulence models are provided: the conventional k-epsilon model, the renormalization group model, and the Reynolds-stress model. The renormalization group k-epsilon model has broadened the range of applicability of two-equation turbulence models. The Reynolds-stress model has proved useful for strongly anisotropic flows such as those encountered in cyclones, swirlers, and combustors. Issues remain, such as near-wall closure, with all classes of models.
Linear stability analysis of swirling turbulent flows with turbulence models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Vikrant; Juniper, Matthew
2013-11-01
In this paper, we consider the growth of large scale coherent structures in turbulent flows by performing linear stability analysis around a mean flow. Turbulent flows are characterized by fine-scale stochastic perturbations. The momentum transfer caused by these perturbations affects the development of larger structures. Therefore, in a linear stability analysis, it is important to include the perturbations' influence. One way to do this is to include a turbulence model in the stability analysis. This is done in the literature by using eddy viscosity models (EVMs), which are first order turbulence models. We extend this approach by using second order turbulence models, in this case explicit algebraic Reynolds stress models (EARSMs). EARSMs are more versatile than EVMs, in that they can be applied to a wider range of flows, and could also be more accurate. We verify our EARSM-based analysis by applying it to a channel flow and then comparing the results with those from an EVM-based analysis. We then apply the EARSM-based stability analysis to swirling pipe flows and Taylor-Couette flows, which demonstrates the main benefit of EARSM-based analysis. This project is supported by EPSRC and Rolls-Royce through a Dorothy Hodgkin Research Fellowship.
One-dimensional turbulence modeling of a turbulent counterflow flame with comparison to DNS
Jozefik, Zoltan; Kerstein, Alan R.; Schmidt, Heiko; Lyra, Sgouria; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jackie H.
2015-06-01
The one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is applied to a reactant-to-product counterflow configuration and results are compared with DNS data. The model employed herein solves conservation equations for momentum, energy, and species on a one dimensional (1D) domain corresponding to the line spanning the domain between nozzle orifice centers. The effects of turbulent mixing are modeled via a stochastic process, while the Kolmogorov and reactive length and time scales are explicitly resolved and a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used. Comparisons between model and DNS results for spatial mean and root-meansquare (RMS) velocity, temperature, and major and minor species profiles are shown. The ODT approach shows qualitatively and quantitatively reasonable agreement with the DNS data. Scatter plots and statistics conditioned on temperature are also compared for heat release rate and all species. ODT is able to capture the range of results depicted by DNS. However, conditional statistics show signs of underignition.
Quasi 1D Modeling of Mixed Compression Supersonic Inlets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kopasakis, George; Connolly, Joseph W.; Paxson, Daniel E.; Woolwine, Kyle J.
2012-01-01
The AeroServoElasticity task under the NASA Supersonics Project is developing dynamic models of the propulsion system and the vehicle in order to conduct research for integrated vehicle dynamic performance. As part of this effort, a nonlinear quasi 1-dimensional model of the 2-dimensional bifurcated mixed compression supersonic inlet is being developed. The model utilizes computational fluid dynamics for both the supersonic and subsonic diffusers. The oblique shocks are modeled utilizing compressible flow equations. This model also implements variable geometry required to control the normal shock position. The model is flexible and can also be utilized to simulate other mixed compression supersonic inlet designs. The model was validated both in time and in the frequency domain against the legacy LArge Perturbation INlet code, which has been previously verified using test data. This legacy code written in FORTRAN is quite extensive and complex in terms of the amount of software and number of subroutines. Further, the legacy code is not suitable for closed loop feedback controls design, and the simulation environment is not amenable to systems integration. Therefore, a solution is to develop an innovative, more simplified, mixed compression inlet model with the same steady state and dynamic performance as the legacy code that also can be used for controls design. The new nonlinear dynamic model is implemented in MATLAB Simulink. This environment allows easier development of linear models for controls design for shock positioning. The new model is also well suited for integration with a propulsion system model to study inlet/propulsion system performance, and integration with an aero-servo-elastic system model to study integrated vehicle ride quality, vehicle stability, and efficiency.
New Atmospheric Turbulence Model for Shuttle Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Justus, C. G.; Campbell, C. W.; Doubleday, M. K.; Johnson, D. L.
1990-01-01
An updated NASA atmospheric turbulence model, from 0 to 200 km altitude, which was developed to be more realistic and less conservative when applied to space shuttle reentry engineering simulation studies involving control system fuel expenditures is presented. The prior model used extreme turbulence (3 sigma) for all altitudes, whereas in reality severe turbulence is patchy within quiescent atmospheric zones. The updated turublence model presented is designed to be more realistic. The prior turbulence statistics (sigma and L) were updated and were modeled accordingly.
Validation of 1-D transport and sawtooth models for ITER
Connor, J.W.; Turner, M.F.; Attenberger, S.E.; Houlberg, W.A.
1996-12-31
In this paper the authors describe progress on validating a number of local transport models by comparing their predictions with relevant experimental data from a range of tokamaks in the ITER profile database. This database, the testing procedure and results are discussed. In addition a model for sawtooth oscillations is used to investigate their effect in an ITER plasma with alpha-particles.
Kinetic and Stochastic Models of 1D yeast ``prions"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunes, Kay
2005-03-01
Mammalian prion proteins (PrP) are of public health interest because of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. Yeasts have proteins, which can undergo similar reconformation and aggregation processes to PrP; yeast ``prions" are simpler to experimentally study and model. Recent in vitro studies of the SUP35 protein (1), showed long aggregates and pure exponential growth of the misfolded form. To explain this data, we have extended a previous model of aggregation kinetics along with our own stochastic approach (2). Both models assume reconformation only upon aggregation, and include aggregate fissioning and an initial nucleation barrier. We find for sufficiently small nucleation rates or seeding by small dimer concentrations that we can achieve the requisite exponential growth and long aggregates.
Structure and scales in turbulence modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynolds, W. C.; Langer, C. A.; Kassinos, S. C.
2002-07-01
The enstrophy of the large-scale energy-containing turbulence is proposed as the second turbulence scale for use, in conjunction with the turbulence energy, in two-scale one-point engineering turbulence models. Its transport equation is developed in general and modeled for homogeneous turbulence in terms of the two scales and our new one-point structure tensors. The model produces the correct behavior of the scales for both two- and three-dimensional turbulence. Constants in the high Reynolds number model are evaluated only by reference to asymptotic analysis for decaying turbulence in stationary and rotating frames, and this model is then shown to provide an excellent prediction of homogeneous turbulent shear flow when used with the structure tensors for that flow. The low Reynolds number constant in the model is evaluated using the asymptotic decay rate for isotropic turbulence at zero Reynolds number, and numerical simulations of decay for intermediate Reynolds numbers are used to establish one remaining constant, the value of which does not affect high Reynolds number predictions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, S.-W.; Chen, C.-P.
1988-01-01
The paper presents a multiple-time-scale turbulence model of a single point closure and a simplified split-spectrum method. Consideration is given to a class of turbulent boundary layer flows and of separated and/or swirling elliptic turbulent flows. For the separated and/or swirling turbulent flows, the present turbulence model yielded significantly improved computational results over those obtained with the standard k-epsilon turbulence model.
Kinetic Model for 1D aggregation of yeast ``prions''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunes, Kay; Cox, Daniel; Singh, Rajiv
2004-03-01
Mammalian prion proteins (PrP) are of public health interest because of mad cow and chronic wasting diseases. Yeast have proteins which can undergo similar reconformation and aggregation processes to PrP; yeast forms are simpler to experimentally study and model. Recent in vitro studies of the SUP35 protein(1), showed long aggregates and pure exponential growth of the misfolded form. To explain this data, we have extended a previous model of aggregation kinetics(2). The model assumes reconformation only upon aggregation, and includes aggregate fissioning and an initial nucleation barrier. We find for sufficiently small nucleation rates or seeding by small dimer concentrations that we can achieve the requisite exponential growth and long aggregates. We will compare to a more realistic stochastic kinetics model and present prelimary attempts to describe recent experiments on SUP35 strains. *-Supported by U.S. Army Congressionally Mandated Research Fund. 1) P. Chien and J.S. Weissman, Nature 410, 223 (2001); http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/bionet03/collins/. 2) J. Masel, V.A.> Jansen, M.A. Nowak, Biophys. Chem. 77, 139 (1999).
A 1D model of the arterial circulation in mice.
Aslanidou, Lydia; Trachet, Bram; Reymond, Philippe; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Segers, Patrick; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos
2016-01-01
At a time of growing concern over the ethics of animal experimentation, mouse models are still an indispensable source of insight into the cardiovascular system and its most frequent pathologies. Nevertheless, reference data on the murine cardiovascular anatomy and physiology are lacking. In this work, we developed and validated an in silico, one dimensional model of the murine systemic arterial tree consisting of 85 arterial segments. Detailed aortic dimensions were obtained in vivo from contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography in 3 male, C57BL/6J anesthetized mice and 3 male ApoE(-/-) mice, all 12-weeks old. Physiological input data were gathered from a wide range of literature data. The integrated form of the Navier-Stokes equations was solved numerically to yield pressures and flows throughout the arterial network. The resulting model predictions have been validated against invasive pressure waveforms and non-invasive velocity and diameter waveforms that were measured in vivo on an independent set of 47 mice. In conclusion, we present a validated one-dimensional model of the anesthetized murine cardiovascular system that can serve as a versatile tool in the field of preclinical cardiovascular research. PMID:26555250
Exploiting similarity in turbulent shear flows for turbulence modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Robinson, David F.; Harris, Julius E.; Hassan, H. A.
1992-01-01
It is well known that current k-epsilon models cannot predict the flow over a flat plate and its wake. In an effort to address this issue and other issues associated with turbulence closure, a new approach for turbulence modeling is proposed which exploits similarities in the flow field. Thus, if we consider the flow over a flat plate and its wake, then in addition to taking advantage of the log-law region, we can exploit the fact that the flow becomes self-similar in the far wake. This latter behavior makes it possible to cast the governing equations as a set of total differential equations. Solutions of this set and comparison with measured shear stress and velocity profiles yields the desired set of model constants. Such a set is, in general, different from other sets of model constants. The rational for such an approach is that if we can correctly model the flow over a flat plate and its far wake, then we can have a better chance of predicting the behavior in between. It is to be noted that the approach does not appeal, in any way, to the decay of homogeneous turbulence. This is because the asymptotic behavior of the flow under consideration is not representative of the decay of homogeneous turbulence.
Single point modeling of rotating turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hadid, A. H.; Mansour, N. N.; Zeman, O.
1994-01-01
A model for the effects of rotation on turbulence is proposed and tested. These effects which influence mainly the rate of turbulence decay are modeled in a modified turbulent energy dissipation rate equation that has explicit dependence on the mean rotation rate. An appropriate definition of the rotation rate derived from critical point theory and based on the invariants of the deformation tensor is proposed. The modeled dissipation rate equation is numerically well behaved and can be used in conjunction with any level of turbulence closure. The model is applied to the two-equation kappa-epsilon turbulence model and is used to compute separated flows in a backward-facing step and an axisymmetric swirling coaxial jets into a sudden expansion. In general, the rotation modified dissipation rate model shows some improvements over the standard kappa-epsilon model.
Single point modeling of rotating turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hadid, A. H.; Mansour, N. N.; Zeman, O.
1994-12-01
A model for the effects of rotation on turbulence is proposed and tested. These effects which influence mainly the rate of turbulence decay are modeled in a modified turbulent energy dissipation rate equation that has explicit dependence on the mean rotation rate. An appropriate definition of the rotation rate derived from critical point theory and based on the invariants of the deformation tensor is proposed. The modeled dissipation rate equation is numerically well behaved and can be used in conjunction with any level of turbulence closure. The model is applied to the two-equation kappa-epsilon turbulence model and is used to compute separated flows in a backward-facing step and an axisymmetric swirling coaxial jets into a sudden expansion. In general, the rotation modified dissipation rate model shows some improvements over the standard kappa-epsilon model.
Approximate Model for Turbulent Stagnation Point Flow.
Dechant, Lawrence
2016-01-01
Here we derive an approximate turbulent self-similar model for a class of favorable pressure gradient wedge-like flows, focusing on the stagnation point limit. While the self-similar model provides a useful gross flow field estimate this approach must be combined with a near wall model is to determine skin friction and by Reynolds analogy the heat transfer coefficient. The combined approach is developed in detail for the stagnation point flow problem where turbulent skin friction and Nusselt number results are obtained. Comparison to the classical Van Driest (1958) result suggests overall reasonable agreement. Though the model is only valid near the stagnation region of cylinders and spheres it nonetheless provides a reasonable model for overall cylinder and sphere heat transfer. The enhancement effect of free stream turbulence upon the laminar flow is used to derive a similar expression which is valid for turbulent flow. Examination of free stream enhanced laminar flow suggests that the rather than enhancement of a laminar flow behavior free stream disturbance results in early transition to turbulent stagnation point behavior. Excellent agreement is shown between enhanced laminar flow and turbulent flow behavior for high levels, e.g. 5% of free stream turbulence. Finally the blunt body turbulent stagnation results are shown to provide realistic heat transfer results for turbulent jet impingement problems.
Wave turbulence in one-dimensional models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharov, V. E.; Guyenne, P.; Pushkarev, A. N.; Dias, F.
2001-05-01
A two-parameter nonlinear dispersive wave equation proposed by Majda, McLaughlin and Tabak is studied analytically and numerically as a model for the study of wave turbulence in one-dimensional systems. Our ultimate goal is to test the validity of weak turbulence theory. Although weak turbulence theory is independent on the sign of the nonlinearity of the model, the numerical results show a strong dependence on the sign of the nonlinearity. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is the strong influence of coherent structures - wave collapses and quasisolitons - in wave turbulence.
Introduction to Drift Wave Turbulence Modeling
Garbet, X.
2004-03-15
This tutorial presents the techniques that are used to build a transport model from turbulence simulations. Achievements and limitations are reviewed. The main mechanisms leading to an improved confinement are also addressed. The results of turbulence modelling regarding this issue are assessed.
Two-fluid models of turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spalding, D. B.
1985-01-01
The defects of turbulence models are summarized and the importance of so-called nongradient diffusion in turbulent fluxes is discussed. The mathematical theory of the flow of two interpenetrating continua is reviewed, and the mathematical formulation of the two fluid model is outlined. Results from plane wake, axisymmetric jet, and combustion studies are shown.
Stochastic models for turbulent reacting flows
Kerstein, A.
1993-12-01
The goal of this program is to develop and apply stochastic models of various processes occurring within turbulent reacting flows in order to identify the fundamental mechanisms governing these flows, to support experimental studies of these flows, and to further the development of comprehensive turbulent reacting flow models.
TURBULENCE MODELING APPLIED TO BUOYANT PLUMES
A viable computer model was developed that is based on second-order closure of the turbulent correlation equations for predicting the fate of nonchemically reacting contaminants released in the atmospheric boundary layer. The invariant turbulence model discussed in previous repor...
Turbulent transport models for scramjet flowfields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sindir, M. M.; Harsha, P. T.
1984-01-01
Turbulence modeling approaches were examined from the standpoint of their capability to predict the complex flowfield features observed in scramjet combustions. Thus, for example, the accuracy of each turbulence model, with respect to the prediction of recirculating flows, was examined. It was observed that for large diameter ratio axisymmetric sudden expansion flows, a choice of turbulence model was not critical because of the domination of their flowfields by pressure forces. For low diameter ratio axisymmetric sudden expansions and planar backward-facing steps flows, where turbulent shear stresses are of greater significance, the algebraic Reynolds stress approach, modified to increase its sensitivity to streamline curvature, was found to provide the best results. Results of the study also showed that strongly swirling flows provide a stringent test of turbulence model assumptions. Thus, although flows with very high swirl are not of great practical interest, they are useful for turbulence model development. Finally, it was also noted that numerical flowfields solution techniques have a strong interrelation with turbulence models, particularly with the turbulent transport models which involve source-dominated transport equations.
Advanced in turbulence physics and modeling by direct numerical simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, W. C.
1987-01-01
The advent of direct numerical simulations of turbulence has opened avenues for research on turbulence physics and turbulence modeling. Direct numerical simulation provides values for anything that the scientist or modeler would like to know about the flow. An overview of some recent advances in the physical understanding of turbulence and in turbulence modeling obtained through such simulations is presented.
Turbulence Modeling for Shock Wave/Turbulent Boundary Layer Interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lillard, Randolph P.
2011-01-01
Accurate aerodynamic computational predictions are essential for the safety of space vehicles, but these computations are of limited accuracy when large pressure gradients are present in the flow. The goal of the current project is to improve the state of compressible turbulence modeling for high speed flows with shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interactions (SWTBLI). Emphasis will be placed on models that can accurately predict the separated region caused by the SWTBLI. These flows are classified as nonequilibrium boundary layers because of the very large and variable adverse pressure gradients caused by the shock waves. The lag model was designed to model these nonequilibrium flows by incorporating history effects. Standard one- and two-equation models (Spalart Allmaras and SST) and the lag model will be run and compared to a new lag model. This new model, the Reynolds stress tensor lag model (lagRST), will be assessed against multiple wind tunnel tests and correlations. The basis of the lag and lagRST models are to preserve the accuracy of the standard turbulence models in equilibrium turbulence, when the Reynolds stresses are linearly related to the mean strain rates, but create a lag between mean strain rate effects and turbulence when nonequilibrium effects become important, such as in large pressure gradients. The affect this lag has on the results for SWBLI and massively separated flows will be determined. These computations will be done with a modified version of the OVERFLOW code. This code solves the RANS equations on overset grids. It was used for this study for its ability to input very complex geometries into the flow solver, such as the Space Shuttle in the full stack configuration. The model was successfully implemented within two versions of the OVERFLOW code. Results show a substantial improvement over the baseline models for transonic separated flows. The results are mixed for the SWBLI assessed. Separation predictions are not as good as the
GaAs solar cell photoresponse modeling using PC-1D V2.1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huber, D. A.; Olsen, L. C.; Dunham, G.; Addis, F. W.
1991-01-01
Photoresponse data of high efficiency GaAs solar cells were analyzed using PC-1D V2.1. The approach required to use PC-1D for photoresponse data analysis, and the physical insights gained from performing the analysis are discussed. In particular, the effect of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As heteroface quality was modeled. Photoresponse or spectral quantum efficiency is an important tool in characterizing material quality and predicting cell performance. The strength of the photoresponse measurement lies in the ability to precisely fit the experimental data with a physical model. PC-1D provides a flexible platform for calculations based on these physical models.
Potent neutralizing anti-CD1d antibody reduces lung cytokine release in primate asthma model
Nambiar, Jonathan; Clarke, Adam W; Shim, Doris; Mabon, David; Tian, Chen; Windloch, Karolina; Buhmann, Chris; Corazon, Beau; Lindgren, Matilda; Pollard, Matthew; Domagala, Teresa; Poulton, Lynn; Doyle, Anthony G
2015-01-01
CD1d is a receptor on antigen-presenting cells involved in triggering cell populations, particularly natural killer T (NKT) cells, to release high levels of cytokines. NKT cells are implicated in asthma pathology and blockade of the CD1d/NKT cell pathway may have therapeutic potential. We developed a potent anti-human CD1d antibody (NIB.2) that possesses high affinity for human and cynomolgus macaque CD1d (KD ∼100 pM) and strong neutralizing activity in human primary cell-based assays (IC50 typically <100 pM). By epitope mapping experiments, we showed that NIB.2 binds to CD1d in close proximity to the interface of CD1d and the Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain. Together with data showing that NIB.2 inhibited stimulation via CD1d loaded with different glycolipids, this supports a mechanism whereby NIB.2 inhibits NKT cell activation by inhibiting Type 1 NKT cell receptor β-chain interactions with CD1d, independent of the lipid antigen in the CD1d antigen-binding cleft. The strong in vitro potency of NIB.2 was reflected in vivo in an Ascaris suum cynomolgus macaque asthma model. Compared with vehicle control, NIB.2 treatment significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) levels of Ascaris-induced cytokines IL-5, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist, and significantly reduced baseline levels of GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-15, IL-12/23p40, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and VEGF. At a cellular population level NIB.2 also reduced numbers of BAL lymphocytes and macrophages, and blood eosinophils and basophils. We demonstrate that anti-CD1d antibody blockade of the CD1d/NKT pathway modulates inflammatory parameters in vivo in a primate inflammation model, with therapeutic potential for diseases where the local cytokine milieu is critical. PMID:25751125
Reduced order modeling of wall turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moin, Parviz
2015-11-01
Modeling turbulent flow near a wall is a pacing item in computational fluid dynamics for aerospace applications and geophysical flows. Gradual progress has been made in statistical modeling of near wall turbulence using the Reynolds averaged equations of motion, an area of research where John Lumley has made numerous seminal contributions. More recently, Lumley and co-workers pioneered dynamical systems modeling of near wall turbulence, and demonstrated that the experimentally observed turbulence dynamics can be predicted using low dimensional dynamical systems. The discovery of minimal flow unit provides further evidence that the near wall turbulence is amenable to reduced order modeling. The underlying rationale for potential success in using low dimensional dynamical systems theory is based on the fact that the Reynolds number is low in close proximity to the wall. Presumably for the same reason, low dimensional models are expected to be successful in modeling of the laminar/turbulence transition region. This has been shown recently using dynamic mode decomposition. Furthermore, it is shown that the near wall flow structure and statistics in the late and non-linear transition region is strikingly similar to that in higher Reynolds number fully developed turbulence. In this presentation, I will argue that the accumulated evidence suggests that wall modeling for LES using low dimensional dynamical systems is a profitable avenue to pursue. The main challenge would be the numerical integration of such wall models in LES methodology.
A new approach to turbulence modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Perot, B.; Moin, P.
1996-01-01
A new approach to Reynolds averaged turbulence modeling is proposed which has a computational cost comparable to two equation models but a predictive capability approaching that of Reynolds stress transport models. This approach isolates the crucial information contained within the Reynolds stress tensor, and solves transport equations only for a set of 'reduced' variables. In this work, Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data is used to analyze the nature of these newly proposed turbulence quantities and the source terms which appear in their respective transport equations. The physical relevance of these quantities is discussed and some initial modeling results for turbulent channel flow are presented.
Grinberg, L; Cheever, E; Anor, T; Madsen, J R; Karniadakis, G E
2011-01-01
We compare results from numerical simulations of pulsatile blood flow in two patient-specific intracranial arterial networks using one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) models. Specifically, we focus on the pressure and flowrate distribution at different segments of the network computed by the two models. Results obtained with 1D and 3D models with rigid walls show good agreement in massflow distribution at tens of arterial junctions and also in pressure drop along the arteries. The 3D simulations with the rigid walls predict higher amplitude of the flowrate and pressure temporal oscillations than the 1D simulations with compliant walls at various segments even for small time-variations in the arterial cross-sectional areas. Sensitivity of the flow and pressure with respect to variation in the elasticity parameters is investigated with the 1D model. PMID:20661645
Supersonic boundary-layer flow turbulence modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Chi-Rong
1993-01-01
Baldwin-Lomax and kappa-epsilon turbulence models were modified for use in Navier-Stokes numerical computations of Mach 2.9 supersonic turbulent boundary layer flows along compression ramps. The computational results of Reynolds shear stress profiles were compared with experimental data. The Baldwin-Lomax model was modified to account for the Reynolds shear stress amplification within the flow field. A hybrid kappa-epsilon model with viscous sublayer turbulence treatment was constructed to predict the Reynolds shear stress profiles within the entire flow field. These modified turbulence models were effective for the computations of the surface pressure and the skin friction factor variations along an 8 deg ramp surface. The hybrid kappa-epsilon model could improve the predictions of the Reynolds shear stress profile and the skin friction factor near the corner of a 16 deg ramp.
Signal modeling of turbulence-distorted imagery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, S. Susan; Driggers, Ronald G.; Krapels, Keith; Espinola, Richard L.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Cha, Jae
2009-05-01
Understanding turbulence effects on wave propagation and imaging systems has been an active research area for more than 50 years. Conventional atmospheric optics methods use statistical models to analyze image degradation effects that are caused by turbulence. In this paper, we intend to understand atmospheric turbulence effects using a deterministic signal processing and imaging theory point of view and modeling. The model simulates the formed imagery by a lens by tracing the optical rays from the target through a band of turbulence. We examine the nature of the turbulence-degraded image, and identify its characteristics as the parameters of the band of turbulence, e.g., its width, angle, and index of refraction, are varied. Image degradation effects due to turbulence, such as image blurring and image dancing, are revealed by this signal modeling. We show that in fact these phenomena can be related not only to phase errors in the frequency domain of the image but also a 2D modulation effect in the image spectrum. Results with simulated and realistic data are provided.
Two-loop effective action of O(N) spin models in 1/D expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsui, T.; Kleinert, H.; Ami, S.
1984-08-01
We calculate the two-loop effective action of O(N) spin models on the lattice in a 1/D expansion to order 1/D2. The resulting free energy depends on β = 1/T and the order parameter Φ. It matches the high and low temperature regimes and is quite reliable close to the phase transition where it has a simple Landau expansion.
Closure models for turbulent reacting flows
Dutta, A.; Tarbell, J.M. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)
1989-12-01
In this paper, a simple procedure based on fast and slow reaction asymptotics has been employed to drive first-order closure models for the nonlinear reaction terms in turbulent mass balances from mechanistic models of turbulent mixing and reaction. The coalescence-redispersion (CRD) model, the interaction by exchange with the mean (IEM) model, the three-environment (3E) model, and the four-environment (4E) model have been used to develop closure equations. The closure models have been tested extensively against experimental data for both single and multiple reactions. The closures based on slow asymptotics for the CRD, 3E and 4E models provide very good predictions of all of the experimental data, while other models available either in the literature or derived here are not adequate. The simple new closure equations developed in this paper may be useful in modeling systems involving turbulent mixing and complex chemical reactions.
Benchmarks and models for 1-D radiation transport in stochastic participating media
Miller, D S
2000-08-21
Benchmark calculations for radiation transport coupled to a material temperature equation in a 1-D slab and 1-D spherical geometry binary random media are presented. The mixing statistics are taken to be homogeneous Markov statistics in the 1-D slab but only approximately Markov statistics in the 1-D sphere. The material chunk sizes are described by Poisson distribution functions. The material opacities are first taken to be constant and then allowed to vary as a strong function of material temperature. Benchmark values and variances for time evolution of the ensemble average of material temperature energy density and radiation transmission are computed via a Monte Carlo type method. These benchmarks are used as a basis for comparison with three other approximate methods of solution. One of these approximate methods is simple atomic mix. The second approximate model is an adaptation of what is commonly called the Levermore-Pomraning model and which is referred to here as the standard model. It is shown that recasting the temperature coupling as a type of effective scattering can be useful in formulating the third approximate model, an adaptation of a model due to Su and Pomraning which attempts to account for the effects of scattering in a stochastic context. This last adaptation shows consistent improvement over both the atomic mix and standard models when used in the 1-D slab geometry but shows limited improvement in the 1-D spherical geometry. Benchmark values are also computed for radiation transmission from the 1-D sphere without material heating present. This is to evaluate the performance of the standard model on this geometry--something which has never been done before. All of the various tests demonstrate the importance of stochastic structure on the solution. Also demonstrated are the range of usefulness and limitations of a simple atomic mix formulation.
Deconvolution of Complex 1D NMR Spectra Using Objective Model Selection.
Hughes, Travis S; Wilson, Henry D; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S; Kojetin, Douglas J
2015-01-01
Fluorine (19F) NMR has emerged as a useful tool for characterization of slow dynamics in 19F-labeled proteins. One-dimensional (1D) 19F NMR spectra of proteins can be broad, irregular and complex, due to exchange of probe nuclei between distinct electrostatic environments; and therefore cannot be deconvoluted and analyzed in an objective way using currently available software. We have developed a Python-based deconvolution program, decon1d, which uses Bayesian information criteria (BIC) to objectively determine which model (number of peaks) would most likely produce the experimentally obtained data. The method also allows for fitting of intermediate exchange spectra, which is not supported by current software in the absence of a specific kinetic model. In current methods, determination of the deconvolution model best supported by the data is done manually through comparison of residual error values, which can be time consuming and requires model selection by the user. In contrast, the BIC method used by decond1d provides a quantitative method for model comparison that penalizes for model complexity helping to prevent over-fitting of the data and allows identification of the most parsimonious model. The decon1d program is freely available as a downloadable Python script at the project website (https://github.com/hughests/decon1d/). PMID:26241959
Turbulent motion of mass flows. Mathematical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eglit, Margarita; Yakubenko, Alexander; Yakubenko, Tatiana
2016-04-01
New mathematical models for unsteady turbulent mass flows, e.g., dense snow avalanches and landslides, are presented. Such models are important since most of large scale flows are turbulent. In addition to turbulence, the two other important points are taken into account: the entrainment of the underlying material by the flow and the nonlinear rheology of moving material. The majority of existing models are based on the depth-averaged equations and the turbulent character of the flow is accounted by inclusion of drag proportional to the velocity squared. In this paper full (not depth-averaged) equations are used. It is assumed that basal entrainment takes place if the bed friction equals the shear strength of the underlying layer (Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011). The turbulent characteristics of the flow are calculated using a three-parameter differential model (Lushchik et al., 1978). The rheological properties of moving material are modeled by one of the three types of equations: 1) Newtonian fluid with high viscosity, 2) power-law fluid and 3) Bingham fluid. Unsteady turbulent flows down long homogeneous slope are considered. The flow dynamical parameters and entrainment rate behavior in time as well as their dependence on properties of moving and underlying materials are studied numerically. REFERENCES M.E. Eglit and A.E. Yakubenko, 2014. Numerical modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 108, 139-148 Margarita E. Eglit and Alexander E. Yakubenko, 2016. The effect of bed material entrainment and non-Newtonian rheology on dynamics of turbulent slope flows. Fluid Dynamics, 51(3) Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011. Interplay of entrainment and rheology in snow avalanches; a numerical study. Annals of Glaciology, 52(58), 143-147 Lushchik, V.G., Paveliev, A.A. , and Yakubenko, A.E., 1978. Three-parameter model of shear turbulence. Fluid Dynamics, 13, (3), 350-362
Assessment of turbulent models for scramjet flowfields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sindir, M. M.; Harsha, P. T.
1982-01-01
The behavior of several turbulence models applied to the prediction of scramjet combustor flows is described. These models include the basic two equation model, the multiple dissipation length scale variant of the two equation model, and the algebraic stress model (ASM). Predictions were made of planar backward facing step flows and axisymmetric sudden expansion flows using each of these approaches. The formulation of each of these models are discussed, and the application of the different approaches to supersonic flows is described. A modified version of the ASM is found to provide the best prediction of the planar backward facing step flow in the region near the recirculation zone, while the basic ASM provides the best results downstream of the recirculation. Aspects of the interaction of numerica modeling and turbulences modeling as they affect the assessment of turbulence models are discussed.
Compressible turbulent flows: Modeling and similarity considerations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeman, Otto
1991-01-01
With the recent revitalization of high speed flow research, compressibility presents a new set of challenging problems to turbulence researchers. Questions arise as to what extent compressibility affects turbulence dynamics, structures, the Reynolds stress-mean velocity (constitutive) relation, and the accompanying processes of heat transfer and mixing. In astrophysical applications, compressible turbulence is believed to play an important role in intergalactic gas cloud dynamics and in accretion disk convection. Understanding and modeling of the compressibility effects in free shear flows, boundary layers, and boundary layer/shock interactions is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haji Mohammadi, M.; Kang, S.; Sotiropoulos, F.
2011-12-01
It is well-known that meander bends impose local losses of energy to the flow in rivers. These local losses should be added together with friction loss to get the total loss of energy. In this work, we strive to develop a framework that considers the effect of bends in meandering rivers for one-dimensional (1-D) homogenous equations of flow. Our objective is to develop a simple, yet physically sound, and efficient model for carrying out engineering computations of flow through meander bends. We consider several approaches for calculating 1-D hydraulic properties of meandering rivers such as friction factor and Manning coefficient. The method of Kasper et al. (2005), which is based on channel top width, aspect ratio and radius of curvature, is adopted for further calculations. In this method, a correction is implemented in terms of local energy loss, due to helical motion and secondary currents of fluid particles driven by centrifugal force, in meanders. To validate the model, several test cases are simulated and the computed results are compared with the reported data in the literature in terms of water surface elevation, shear velocity, etc. For all cases the computed results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. 3-D RANS turbulent flow simulations are also carried out, using the method of Kang et al. (Adv. In Water Res., vol. 34, 2011), for different geometrical parameters of Kinoshita Rivers to determine the spatial distribution of shear stress on river bed and banks, which is the key factor in scour/deposition patterns. The 3-D solutions are then cross-sectionally averaged and compared with the respective solutions from the 1-D model. The comparisons show that the improved 1D model, which incorporates the effect of local bend loss, captures key flow parameters with reasonable accuracy. Our results also underscore the range of validity and limitations of 1D models for meander bend simulations. This work was supported by NSF Grants (as part of
Estimating Resolution Lengths of Hybrid Turbulence Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Girimaji, Sharath S.
2006-01-01
A two-stage procedure has been devised for estimating the spatial resolution achievable in the simulation of a given flow on a given computational grid by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code that incorporates a hybrid model of turbulence. The hybrid models to which this procedure is especially relevant are those of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and the partial-averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) approaches. This procedure represents the first step toward adding variable-resolution turbulence-modeling capabilities to CFD codes as part of a continuing effort to increase the accuracy and robustness of CFD simulations of unsteady flows. Some background information is prerequisite to a meaningful summary of the procedure. Among experts in CFD, it is well known that combination of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach and eddy-viscosity turbulence models offers limited capability for simulating unsteady and complex flows. The RANS approach includes an assumption that most of the energy in a given flow is modeled through turbulence-transport equations and is resolved in a computational grid used to simulate the flow. RANS also overpredicts eddy viscosity, thereby yielding excessive damping of unsteady motion. The eddy viscosity attains an unphysically large value because of unresolved scales, and suppresses most temporal and spatial fluctuations in the resolved flow field. One approach used to overcome this deficiency is to provide a mechanism for the RANS equations to resolve motion only on the largest scales and to use a hybrid model to represent effects at smaller scales. The RANS approach involves the use of a standard two-equation turbulence model in which the effect of turbulence is summarized by a viscosity that is a function of (1) the time-averaged kinetic- energy density (k) associated with the local fluctuating (turbulent) component of flow and (2) the time-averaged rate of dissipation of the turbulent-kinetic- energy density ( ). In
Advanced Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Atmospheric Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kühnlein, Christian; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Gerz, Thomas
The present chapter introduces the method of computational simulation to predict and study turbulent atmospheric flows. This includes a description of the fundamental approach to computational simulation and the practical implementation using the technique of large-eddy simulation. In addition, selected contributions from IPA scientists to computational model development and various examples for applications are given. These examples include homogeneous turbulence, convective boundary layers, heated forest canopy, buoyant thermals, and large-scale flows with baroclinic wave instability.
A Mathematical Model of T1D Acceleration and Delay by Viral Infection.
Moore, James R; Adler, Fred
2016-03-01
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is often triggered by a viral infection, but the T1D prevalence is rising among populations that have a lower exposure to viral infection. In an animal model of T1D, the NOD mouse, viral infection at different ages may either accelerate or delay disease depending on the age of infection and the type of virus. Viral infection may affect the progression of T1D via multiple mechanisms: triggering inflammation, bystander activation of self-reactive T-cells, inducing a competitive immune response, or inducing a regulatory immune response. In this paper, we create mathematical models of the interaction of viral infection with T1D progression, incorporating each of these four mechanisms. Our goal is to understand how each viral mechanism interacts with the age of infection. The model predicts that each viral mechanism has a unique pattern of interaction with disease progression. Viral inflammation always accelerates disease, but the effect decreases with age of infection. Bystander activation has little effect at younger ages and actually decreases incidence at later ages while accelerating disease in mice that do get the disease. A competitive immune response to infection can decrease incidence at young ages and increase it at older ages, with the effect decreasing over time. Finally, an induced Treg response decreases incidence at any age of infection, but the effect decreases with age. Some of these patterns resemble those seen experimentally. PMID:27030351
Philosophies and fallacies in turbulence modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spalart, Philippe R.
2015-04-01
We present a set of positions, likely to be controversial, on turbulence modeling for the Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations. The paper has three themes. First is what we call the "fundamental paradox" of turbulence modeling, between the local character of the Partial Differential Equations strongly favored by CFD methods and the nonlocal physical nature of turbulence. Second, we oppose two philosophies. The "Systematic" philosophy attempts to model the exact transport equations for the Reynolds stresses or possibly higher moments term by term, gradually relegating the Closure Problem to higher moments and invoking the "Principle of Receding Influence" (although rarely formulating it). In contrast, the "Openly Empirical" philosophy produces models which satisfy strict constraints such as Galilean invariance, but lack an explicit connection with terms in the exact turbulence equations. The prime example is the eddy-viscosity assumption. Third, we explain a series of what we perceive as fallacies, many of them widely held and by senior observers, in turbulence knowledge, leading to turbulence models. We divide them into "hard" fallacies for which a short mathematical argument demonstrates that a particular statement is wrong or meaningless, and "soft" fallacies for which approximate physical arguments can be opposed, but we contend that a clear debate is overdue and wishful thinking has been involved. Some fallacies appear to be "intermediate." An example in the hard class is the supposed isotropy of the diagonal Reynolds stresses. Examples in the soft class are the need to match the decay rate of isotropic turbulence, and the value of realizability in a model. Our hope is to help the direct effort in this field away from simplistic and hopeless lines of work, and to foster debates.
Nonlinear gyrofluid model of ITG turbulence
Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.w.; Hahm, T.S.; Beer, M.A. )
1994-05-01
Early results from nonlinear simulations and analysis based on a recently derived nonlinear gyrofluid model [W. Dorland and G. W. Hammett, Phys. Fluids B, 812 (1993)] of electrostatic ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence are presented. Comparisons with gyrokinetic particle simulations reveal a few important simulation requirements (such as enforcing radial periodicity), and indicate that the gyrofluid description is probably adequate to describe three-dimensional, low-frequency drift-type turbulence. Results from a detailed weak-turbulence analysis of drift wave turbulence are presented which support this conclusion. The importance of keeping the proper adiabatic electron response is also discussed. In particular, perpendicular velocity shear is greatly enhanced when the magnetic shear is weak if the nonphysical radial transport of electrons is disallowed.
Comparison of 1D and 2D modelling with soil erosion model SMODERP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kavka, Petr; Weyskrabova, Lenka; Zajicek, Jan
2013-04-01
The contribution presents a comparison of a runoff simulated by profile method (1D) and spatially distributed method (2D). Simulation model SMODERP is used for calculation and prediction of soil erosion and surface runoff from agricultural land. SMODERP is physically based model that includes the processes of infiltration (Phillips equation), surface runoff (kinematic wave based equation), surface retention, surface roughness and vegetation impact on runoff. 1D model was developed in past, new 2D model was developed in last two years. The model is being developed at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, CTU in Prague. 2D model was developed as a tool for widespread GIS software ArcGIS. The physical relations were implemented through Python script. This script uses ArcGIS system tools for raster and vectors treatment of the inputs. Flow direction is calculated by Steepest Descent algorithm in the preliminary version of 2D model. More advanced multiple flow algorithm is planned in the next version. Spatially distributed models enable to estimate not only surface runoff but also flow in the rills. Surface runoff is described in the model by kinematic wave equation. Equation uses Manning roughness coefficient for surface runoff. Parameters for five different soil textures were calibrated on the set of forty measurements performed on the laboratory rainfall simulator. For modelling of the rills a specific sub model was created. This sub model uses Manning formula for flow estimation. Numerical stability of the model is solved by Courant criterion. Spatial scale is fixed. Time step is dynamically changed depending on how flow is generated and developed. SMODERP is meant to be used not only for the research purposes, but mainly for the engineering practice. We also present how the input data can be obtained based on available resources (soil maps and data, land use, terrain models, field research, etc.) and how can
Turbulence modeling for non-equilibrium flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durbin, Paul A.
1993-01-01
Two projects are reported. The first is the development and testing of an eddy viscosity transport model. This project also is a starting point for our work on developing computational tools for solving turbulence models in complex geometries. The second project is a stochastic analysis of the realizability of Reynolds stress transport models.
Turbulent Convection: Old and New Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canuto, V. M.
1996-08-01
This paper contains (1) a physical argument to show that the one-eddy MLT model underestimates the convective flux Fc in the high-efficiency regime, while it overestimates Fc in the low-efficiency regime, and (2) a new derivation of the Fc(MLT) using a turbulence model in the one-eddy approximation. (3) We forsake the one-eddy approximation and adopt the Kolmogorov spectrum to represent the turbulent energy spectrum. The resulting Fc > Fc(MLT) in the high-efficiency regime, and Fc
One-dimensional turbulence modeling of a turbulent counterflow flame with comparison to DNS
Jozefik, Zoltan; Kerstein, Alan R.; Schmidt, Heiko; Lyra, Sgouria; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jackie H.
2015-06-01
The one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is applied to a reactant-to-product counterflow configuration and results are compared with DNS data. The model employed herein solves conservation equations for momentum, energy, and species on a one dimensional (1D) domain corresponding to the line spanning the domain between nozzle orifice centers. The effects of turbulent mixing are modeled via a stochastic process, while the Kolmogorov and reactive length and time scales are explicitly resolved and a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used. Comparisons between model and DNS results for spatial mean and root-meansquare (RMS) velocity, temperature, and major and minor species profiles aremore » shown. The ODT approach shows qualitatively and quantitatively reasonable agreement with the DNS data. Scatter plots and statistics conditioned on temperature are also compared for heat release rate and all species. ODT is able to capture the range of results depicted by DNS. However, conditional statistics show signs of underignition.« less
Turbulence and modeling in transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubesin, Morris W.; Viegas, John R.
1989-01-01
A review is made of the performance of a variety of turbulence models in the evaluation of a particular well documented transonic flow. This is done to supplement a previous attempt to calibrate and verify transonic airfoil codes by including many more turbulence models than used in the earlier work and applying the calculations to an experiment that did not suffer from uncertainties in angle of attack and was free of wind tunnel interference. It is found from this work, as well as in the earlier study, that the Johnson-King turbulence model is superior for transonic flows over simple aerodynamic surfaces, including moderate separation. It is also shown that some field equation models with wall function boundary conditions can be competitive with it.
Turbulence models for compressible boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, P. G.; Bradshaw, P.; Coakley, T. J.
1994-01-01
It is shown that to satisfy the general accepted compressible law of the wall derived from the Van Driest transformation, turbulence modeling coefficients must actually be functions of density gradients. The transformed velocity profiles obtained by using standard turbulence model constants have too small a value of the effective von Karman constant kappa in the log-law region (inner layer). Thus, if the model is otherwise accurate, the wake component is overpredicted and the predicted skin friction is lower than the expected value.
Shell model for buoyancy-driven turbulence.
Kumar, Abhishek; Verma, Mahendra K
2015-04-01
In this paper we present a unified shell model for stably stratified and convective turbulence. Numerical simulation of this model for stably stratified flow shows Bolgiano-Obukhbov scaling in which the kinetic energy spectrum varies as k(-11/5). The shell model of convective turbulence yields Kolmogorov's spectrum. These results are consistent with the energy flux and energy feed due to buoyancy, and are in good agreement with direct numerical simulations of Kumar et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 023016 (2014)]. PMID:25974587
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raybaud, V.; Nival, P.; Prieur, L.
2011-01-01
Modelling was used as a tool to better understand the physical and biological processes observed during the multidisciplinary cruise DYNAPROC 2 (DYNAmic of rapid PROCesses in the water column), which took place in the Ligurian Sea in September-October 2004. The aim of the cruise was to study the short time-scale physical and biological processes that occur when the ecosystem switches from summer oligotrophy to autumnal mesotrophy. In this study, we have tested two 1D physical-biological coupled models. The first was a classical model in which surface layer dynamics were obtained using the turbulent kinetic energy model of Gaspar [Gaspar et al., 1990]. The simulated food-web took into account ten state variables: three nutrients, three classes of phytoplankton, two classes of zooplankton and two types of detritus. The second model (called IDA, Isopycnals Depth Adjustment) was based on the initial one but it took into account the measured variations of isopycnals depths. The results showed that the IDA model most efficiently reproduced the observed ecosystem dynamics. We have therefore used the IDA model to show that physical processes observed during the cruise had a major effect on biological compartment, mainly on nano- and picophytoplankton.
HYDRUS-1D Modeling of an Irrigated Agricultural Plot with Application to Aquifer Recharge Estimation
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A variety of methods are available for estimating aquifer recharge in semi-arid regions, each with advantages and disadvantages. We are investigating a procedure for estimating recharge in an irrigated basin. The method involves computing irrigation return flows based on HYDRUS-1D modeling of root z...
Minimum 1D P- and S- Velocity Models for Montenegro and Vicinity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vucic, Ljiljana; Kissling, Edi; Spakman, Wim; Glavatovic, Branislav
2015-04-01
The territory of Montenegro and its vicinity are characterized by high-seismicity rate and very complex tectonics. Namely, southern Adria microplate subducts beneath Eurasia, forming the Dinarides fold-and-thrust belt which spreads through whole Montenegro and the western Balkans. Present-day lithosphere structure of the Adria-Dinarides collision zone in general is not constrained very well and, consequently, there is a lack of three-dimensional (3D) velocity models in this region. For these reasons, high resolution 3D tomography modeling of this area is considered to be of great importance. As part of preparatory phase for conducting a 3D local earthquake tomography study, a substantial amount of waveform data was collected, from all surroundings national seismic networks including 130 seismic stations from 11 countries. The data set comprises waveforms from 1452 earthquakes in the region recorded during time period 1990 - 2014. The collected data were obtained in different formats and the data base was harmonized by converting and integrating all data to miniseed format. The potential resolution of collected data for seismic tomography purpose was analyzed by ray density testing, using specially developed software for this specific purpose. The result is expressed as the number of rays between selected group of earthquake hypocenters and seismic stations, penetrating through the 3D model of the Earth crust and it documents the great potential of the data set for 3D seismic tomography. As a prerequisite to 3D tomography and for consistent high-precision earthquake locations, a minimum 1D velocity model has been calculated. The data set of around 400 earthquakes was selected from the main database and consistent wave onsets picking was performed, including seismic phase interpretation and its quality assessment. This highly consistent travel time data set is used for calculation of 1D velocity models for the region under study. The minimum 1D models were derived
West, W.P.; Evans, T.E.; Brooks, N.H.
1996-10-01
NEWT1D, a one dimensional multifluid model of the scrape-off layer and divertor plasma, has been used to model the plasma including the distribution of carbon ionization states in the SOL and divertor of ELMing H-mode at two injected power levels in DIII-D. Comparison of the code predictions to the measured divertor and scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma density and temperature shows good agreement. Comparison of the predicted line emissions to the spectroscopic data suggests that physically sputtered carbon from the strike point is not transported up the flux tube; a distributed source of carbon a few centimeters up the flux tube is required to achieve reasonable agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, D.; Nakamura, N.
2009-12-01
Spontaneous formation of a vorticity staircase and multiple jets is simulated using a one dimensional barotropic model on a beta-plane with parameterized eddy mixing. The model represents nearly inviscid geostrophic turbulence characterized by a uniform forcing of pseudomomentum, nonuniform dissipation due to mixing, and no frictional damping of the mean flow. The dissipation of pseudomomentum (diffusive flux of vorticity) is modeled with the effective diffusivity parameterization proposed recently by Ferrari and Nikurashin(2009). Rossby wave dynamics and upscale energy cascade are not modeled explicitly but implicit in the parameterization. The parameterized effective diffusivity is a decreasing function of squared vorticity gradient, revealing the active role of (potential) vorticity gradient as a barrier to mixing, consistent with the Rossby elasticity idea. Not only does the parameterized diffusivity agree well with the effective diffusivity of a direct numerical simulation, but it allows the 1D model to reproduce other salient features of the direct simulation, most notably the formation of a welldefined vorticity staircase from a uniform vorticity gradient, through inhomogeneous mixing of vorticity. The staircase formation starts as a small-scale, antidiffusive instability in vorticity gradient that develops when the eddy scale is comparable to the Rhines scale. This spawns numerous gaps (barriers) in diffusivity and corresponding small steps in vorticity, but many of them become unstable and disappear later, until a few stable ones remain. The final number of barriers (vorticity steps) is predictable to a good approximation with a few model parameters.
An algebraic turbulence model for turbomachinery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chima, Rodrick V.
This paper presents a description and verification of RVC3D (rotor viscous code 3-D) which provides a Euler or Navier-Stokes analysis for steady three dimensional flows in turbomachinery. A motivation for this analysis is the calculation of turbine endwall heat transfer. Features of the turbulence model code include thin-layer formulation, Baldwin-Lomax or Cebeci-Smith turbulence models, node-centered finite difference formulation, and explicit four-stage Runge-Kutta time marching scheme. Results for flat plate, annular turbine cascade, turbine endwall heat transfer, and supersonic compressor blade test cases are presented.
Numerical simulations and modeling of turbulent combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuenot, B.
Turbulent combustion is the basic physical phenomenon responsible for efficient energy release by any internal combustion engine. However it is accompanied by other undesirable phenomena such as noise, pollutant species emission or damaging instabilities that may even lead to the system desctruction. It is then crucial to control this phenomenon, to understand all its mecanisms and to master it in industrial systems. For long time turbulent combustion has been explored only through theory and experiment. But the rapid increase of computers power during the last years has allowed an important development of numerical simulation, that has become today an essential tool for research and technical design. Direct numerical simulation has then allowed to rapidly progress in the knowledge of turbulent flame structures, leading to new modelisations for steady averaged simulations. Recently large eddy simulation has made a new step forward by refining the description of complex and unsteady flames. The main problem that arises when performing numerical simulation of turbulent combustion is linked to the description of the flame front. Being very thin, it can not however be reduced to a simple interface as it is the location of intense chemical transformation and of strong variations of thermodynamical quantities. Capturing the internal structure of a zone with a thickness of the order of 0.1 mm in a computation with a mesh step 10 times larger being impossible, it is necessary to model the turbulent flame. Models depend on the chemical structure of the flame, on the ambiant turbulence, on the combustion regime (flamelets, distributed combustion, etc.) and on the reactants injection mode (premixed or not). One finds then a large class of models, from the most simple algebraic model with a one-step chemical kinetics, to the most complex model involving probablity density functions, cross-correlations and multiple-step or fully complex chemical kinetics.
Review of Zero-D and 1-D Models of Blood Flow in the Cardiovascular System
2011-01-01
Background Zero-dimensional (lumped parameter) and one dimensional models, based on simplified representations of the components of the cardiovascular system, can contribute strongly to our understanding of circulatory physiology. Zero-D models provide a concise way to evaluate the haemodynamic interactions among the cardiovascular organs, whilst one-D (distributed parameter) models add the facility to represent efficiently the effects of pulse wave transmission in the arterial network at greatly reduced computational expense compared to higher dimensional computational fluid dynamics studies. There is extensive literature on both types of models. Method and Results The purpose of this review article is to summarise published 0D and 1D models of the cardiovascular system, to explore their limitations and range of application, and to provide an indication of the physiological phenomena that can be included in these representations. The review on 0D models collects together in one place a description of the range of models that have been used to describe the various characteristics of cardiovascular response, together with the factors that influence it. Such models generally feature the major components of the system, such as the heart, the heart valves and the vasculature. The models are categorised in terms of the features of the system that they are able to represent, their complexity and range of application: representations of effects including pressure-dependent vessel properties, interaction between the heart chambers, neuro-regulation and auto-regulation are explored. The examination on 1D models covers various methods for the assembly, discretisation and solution of the governing equations, in conjunction with a report of the definition and treatment of boundary conditions. Increasingly, 0D and 1D models are used in multi-scale models, in which their primary role is to provide boundary conditions for sophisticate, and often patient-specific, 2D and 3D models
Simulation and Modeling of Homogeneous, Compressed Turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Chung-Teh
Low Reynolds number homogeneous turbulence undergoing low Mach number isotropic and one-dimensional compression has been simulated by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical simulations were carried out on a CYBER 205 computer using a 64 x 64 x 64 mesh. A spectral method was used for spatial differencing and the second -order Runge-Kutta method for time advancement. A variety of statistical information was extracted from the computed flow fields. These include three-dimensional energy and dissipation spectra, two-point velocity correlations, one -dimensional energy spectra, turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate, integral length scales, Taylor microscales, and Kolmogorov length scale. It was found that the ratio of the turbulence time scale to the mean-flow time scale is an important parameter in these flows. When this ratio is large, the flow is immediately affected by the mean strain in a manner similar to that predicted by rapid distortion theory. When this ratio is small, the flow retains the character of decaying isotropic turbulence initially; only after the strain has been applied for a long period does the flow accumulate a significant reflection of the effect of mean strain. In these flows, the Kolmogorov length scale decreases rapidly with increasing total strain, due to the density increase that accompanies compression. Results from the simulated flow fields were used to test one-point-closure, two-equation turbulence models. The two-equation models perform well only when the compression rate is small compared to the eddy turn-over rate. A new one-point-closure, three-equation turbulence model which accounts for the effect of compression is proposed. The new model accurately calculates four types of flows (isotropic decay, isotropic compression, one-dimensional compression, and axisymmetric expansion flows) for a wide range of strain rates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kyzyurov, Yu.
Motions of neutral gas play the important role in creating irregularities of different scales in the ionospheric plasma. In particular, experimental data reveal that mid-latitude sporadic-E layer is formed by a vertical shear in the horizontal east-west wind due to tides or gravity waves. Below the homopause level (100-120 km) turbulent motions of neutral gas exhibit an essential influence on the layer. Neutral turbulence is responsible for the many-cloud structure of spread sporadic-E layers. This report is devoted to small-scale electron-density fluctuations produced by the turbulence in sporadic-E. Length-scales of the fluctuations correspond to the inertial range of turbulence and are small compared with the local scale of mean plasma-density gradient. We discuss an expected shape of the 1D fluctuation spectrum that can be measured during rocket experiments. The discussion is based on an analytical expression for the spectrum. The main steps necessary for obtaining the expression within the framework of macroscopic description are outlined too. Possible parabolic trajectories of two rockets which can be used for measurements of the sporadic-E electron-density fluctuations in the mid-latitude ionosphere (a magnetic dip angle of 45°) are chosen for a comparison. Parameters of the hypothetical flights were the following: (1) an apogee hmax=180 km, a distance between start and final points R=280 km; and (2) hmax=125 km, R=67 km. Mean values of characteristics for the sporadic-E and the neutral turbulence were fixed at around 97 km in this consideration. We have chosen the layer with a thickness of 2 km, a maximum electron density of 2\\cdot1010 m-3, and concentration of Fe^+ ions of 80 % (i.e. the mean ion mass is about 51 AMU). The mean rate of the turbulent energy dissipation was about 0.1 m^2s-3. Under these circumstances, the rms level of relative fluctuations in electron density may be about 10 % in the range of length-scales 10-400 m. The shape of
Yokoi, N.; Higashimori, K.; Hoshino, M.
2013-12-15
Through the enhancement of transport, turbulence is expected to contribute to the fast reconnection. However, the effects of turbulence are not so straightforward. In addition to the enhancement of transport, turbulence under some environment shows effects that suppress the transport. In the presence of turbulent cross helicity, such dynamic balance between the transport enhancement and suppression occurs. As this result of dynamic balance, the region of effective enhanced magnetic diffusivity is confined to a narrow region, leading to the fast reconnection. In order to confirm this idea, a self-consistent turbulence model for the magnetic reconnection is proposed. With the aid of numerical simulations where turbulence effects are incorporated in a consistent manner through the turbulence model, the dynamic balance in the turbulence magnetic reconnection is confirmed.
ODTLES : a model for 3D turbulent flow based on one-dimensional turbulence modeling concepts.
McDermott, Randy; Kerstein, Alan R.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon
2005-01-01
This report describes an approach for extending the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model of Kerstein [6] to treat turbulent flow in three-dimensional (3D) domains. This model, here called ODTLES, can also be viewed as a new LES model. In ODTLES, 3D aspects of the flow are captured by embedding three, mutually orthogonal, one-dimensional ODT domain arrays within a coarser 3D mesh. The ODTLES model is obtained by developing a consistent approach for dynamically coupling the different ODT line sets to each other and to the large scale processes that are resolved on the 3D mesh. The model is implemented computationally and its performance is tested and evaluated by performing simulations of decaying isotropic turbulence, a standard turbulent flow benchmarking problem.
Time dependent turbulence modeling and analytical theories of turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, R.
1993-01-01
By simplifying the direct interaction approximation (DIA) for turbulent shear flow, time dependent formulas are derived for the Reynolds stresses which can be included in two equation models. The Green's function is treated phenomenologically, however, following Smith and Yakhot, we insist on the short and long time limits required by DIA. For small strain rates, perturbative evaluation of the correlation function yields a time dependent theory which includes normal stress effects in simple shear flows. From this standpoint, the phenomenological Launder-Reece-Rodi model is obtained by replacing the Green's function by its long time limit. Eddy damping corrections to short time behavior initiate too quickly in this model; in contrast, the present theory exhibits strong suppression of eddy damping at short times. A time dependent theory for large strain rates is proposed in which large scales are governed by rapid distortion theory while small scales are governed by Kolmogorov inertial range dynamics. At short times and large strain rates, the theory closely matches rapid distortion theory, but at long times it relaxes to an eddy damping model.
Lipkens, B; Blackstock, D T
1998-09-01
A model experiment was reported to be successful in simulating the propagation of sonic booms through a turbulent atmosphere [B. Lipkens and D. T. Blackstock, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 148-158 (1998)]. In this study the effect on N wave characteristics of turbulence intensity and propagation distance through turbulence are investigated. The main parameters of interest are the rise time and the peak pressure. The effect of turbulence intensity and propagation distance is to flatten the rise time and peak pressure distributions. Rise time and peak pressure distributions always have positive skewness after propagation through turbulence. Average rise time grows with turbulence intensity and propagation distance. The scattering of rise time data is one-sided, i.e., rise times are almost always increased by turbulence. Average peak pressure decreases slowly with turbulence intensity and propagation distance. For the reported data a threefold increase in average rise time is observed and a maximum decrease of about 20% in average peak pressure. Rise times more than ten times that of the no turbulence value are observed. At most, the maximum peak pressure doubles after propagation through turbulence, and the minimum peak pressure values are about one-half the no-turbulence values. Rounded waveforms are always more common than peaked waveforms. PMID:9745733
Continuous representation for shell models of turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mailybaev, Alexei A.
2015-07-01
In this work we construct and analyze continuous hydrodynamic models in one space dimension, which are induced by shell models of turbulence. After Fourier transformation, such continuous models split into an infinite number of uncoupled subsystems, which are all identical to the same shell model. The two shell models, which allow such a construction, are considered: the dyadic (Desnyansky-Novikov) model with the intershell ratio λ = 23/2 and the Sabra model of turbulence with λ = \\sqrt{2+\\sqrt{5}} ≈ 2.058 . The continuous models allow for understanding of various properties of shell model solutions and provide their interpretation in physical space. We show that the asymptotic solutions of the dyadic model with Kolmogorov scaling correspond to the shocks (discontinuities) for the induced continuous solutions in physical space, and the finite-time blowup together with its viscous regularization follow the scenario similar to the Burgers equation. For the Sabra model, we provide the physical space representation for blowup solutions and intermittent turbulent dynamics.
Coupled 1D-3D hydrodynamic modelling, with application to the Pearl River Delta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Twigt, Daniel J.; de Goede, Erik D.; Zijl, Firmijn; Schwanenberg, Dirk; Chiu, Alex Y. W.
2009-12-01
Within the hydrodynamic modelling community, it is common practice to apply different modelling systems for coastal waters and river systems. Whereas for coastal waters 3D finite difference or finite element grids are commonly used, river systems are generally modelled using 1D networks. Each of these systems is tailored towards specific applications. Three-dimensional coastal water models are designed to model the horizontal and vertical variability in coastal waters and are less well suited for representing the complex geometry and cross-sectional areas of river networks. On the other hand, 1D river network models are designed to accurately represent complex river network geometries and complex structures like weirs, barrages and dams. A disadvantage, however, is that they are unable to resolve complex spatial flow variability. In real life, however, coastal oceans and rivers interact. In deltaic estuaries, both tidal intrusion of seawater into the upstream river network and river discharge into open waters play a role. This is frequently approached by modelling the systems independently, with off-line coupling of the lateral boundary forcing. This implies that the river and the coastal model run sequentially, providing lateral discharge (1D) and water level (3D) forcing to each other without the possibility of direct feedback or interaction between these processes. An additional disadvantage is that due to the time aggregation usually applied to exchanged quantities, mass conservation is difficult to ensure. In this paper, we propose an approach that couples a 3D hydrodynamic modelling system for coastal waters (Delft3D) with a 1D modelling system for river hydraulics (SOBEK) online. This implies that contrary to off-line coupling, the hydrodynamic quantities are exchanged between the 1D and 3D domains during runtime to resolve the real-time exchange and interaction between the coastal waters and river network. This allows for accurate and mass conserving
Computation of turbulent flows using an extended k-epsilon turbulence closure model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Y.-S.; Kim, S.-W.
1987-01-01
An extended kappa-epsilon turbulence model is proposed and tested with successful results. An improved transport equation for the rate of dissipation of the turbulent kinetic energy, epsilon, is proposed. The proposed model gives more effective response to the energy production rate than does the standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model. An extra time scale of the production range is included in the dissipation rate equation. This enables the present model to perform equally well for several turbulent flows with different characteristics, e.g., plane and axisymmetric jets, turbulent boundary layer flow, turbulent flow over a backward-facing step, and a confined turbulent swirling flow. A second-order accurate finite difference boundary layer code and a nearly second-order accurate finite difference elliptic flow solver are used for the present numerical computations.
Stochastic Modeling of Laminar-Turbulent Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Robert; Choudhari, Meelan
2002-01-01
Stochastic versions of stability equations are developed in order to develop integrated models of transition and turbulence and to understand the effects of uncertain initial conditions on disturbance growth. Stochastic forms of the resonant triad equations, a high Reynolds number asymptotic theory, and the parabolized stability equations are developed.
Turbulence Modeling: Progress and Future Outlook
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, Joseph G.; Huang, George P.
1996-01-01
Progress in the development of the hierarchy of turbulence models for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes codes used in aerodynamic applications is reviewed. Steady progress is demonstrated, but transfer of the modeling technology has not kept pace with the development and demands of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. An examination of the process of model development leads to recommendations for a mid-course correction involving close coordination between modelers, CFD developers, and application engineers. In instances where the old process is changed and cooperation enhanced, timely transfer is realized. A turbulence modeling information database is proposed to refine the process and open it to greater participation among modeling and CFD practitioners.
The Use of DNS in Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mansour, Nagi N.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The use of Direct numerical simulations (DNS) data in developing and testing turbulence models is reviewed. The data is used to test turbulence models at all levels: algebraic, one-equation, two-equation and full Reynolds stress models were tested. Particular examples on the development of models for the dissipation rate equation are presented. Homogeneous flows are used to test new scaling arguments for the various terms in the dissipation rate equation. The channel flow data is used to develop modifications to the equation model that take into account near-wall effects. DNS of compressible flows under mean compression are used in testing new compressible modifications to the two-equation models.
Zero finite-temperature charge stiffness within the half-filled 1D Hubbard model
Carmelo, J.M.P.; Gu, Shi-Jian; Sacramento, P.D.
2013-12-15
Even though the one-dimensional (1D) Hubbard model is solvable by the Bethe ansatz, at half-filling its finite-temperature T>0 transport properties remain poorly understood. In this paper we combine that solution with symmetry to show that within that prominent T=0 1D insulator the charge stiffness D(T) vanishes for T>0 and finite values of the on-site repulsion U in the thermodynamic limit. This result is exact and clarifies a long-standing open problem. It rules out that at half-filling the model is an ideal conductor in the thermodynamic limit. Whether at finite T and U>0 it is an ideal insulator or a normal resistor remains an open question. That at half-filling the charge stiffness is finite at U=0 and vanishes for U>0 is found to result from a general transition from a conductor to an insulator or resistor occurring at U=U{sub c}=0 for all finite temperatures T>0. (At T=0 such a transition is the quantum metal to Mott–Hubbard-insulator transition.) The interplay of the η-spin SU(2) symmetry with the hidden U(1) symmetry beyond SO(4) is found to play a central role in the unusual finite-temperature charge transport properties of the 1D half-filled Hubbard model. -- Highlights: •The charge stiffness of the half-filled 1D Hubbard model is evaluated. •Its value is controlled by the model symmetry operator algebras. •We find that there is no charge ballistic transport at finite temperatures T>0. •The hidden U(1) symmetry controls the U=0 phase transition for T>0.
Turbulence Modeling Validation, Testing, and Development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardina, J. E.; Huang, P. G.; Coakley, T. J.
1997-01-01
The primary objective of this work is to provide accurate numerical solutions for selected flow fields and to compare and evaluate the performance of selected turbulence models with experimental results. Four popular turbulence models have been tested and validated against experimental data often turbulent flows. The models are: (1) the two-equation k-epsilon model of Wilcox, (2) the two-equation k-epsilon model of Launder and Sharma, (3) the two-equation k-omega/k-epsilon SST model of Menter, and (4) the one-equation model of Spalart and Allmaras. The flows investigated are five free shear flows consisting of a mixing layer, a round jet, a plane jet, a plane wake, and a compressible mixing layer; and five boundary layer flows consisting of an incompressible flat plate, a Mach 5 adiabatic flat plate, a separated boundary layer, an axisymmetric shock-wave/boundary layer interaction, and an RAE 2822 transonic airfoil. The experimental data for these flows are well established and have been extensively used in model developments. The results are shown in the following four sections: Part A describes the equations of motion and boundary conditions; Part B describes the model equations, constants, parameters, boundary conditions, and numerical implementation; and Parts C and D describe the experimental data and the performance of the models in the free-shear flows and the boundary layer flows, respectively.
Thermodynamic nature of vitrification in a 1D model of a structural glass former
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, A. N.
2015-07-01
We propose a new spin-glass model with no positional quenched disorder which is regarded as a coarse-grained model of a structural glass-former. The model is analyzed in the 1D case when the number N of states of a primary cell is large. For N → ∞, the model exhibits a sharp freezing transition of the thermodynamic origin. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the glass transition is accompanied by a significant growth of a static length scale ξ pointing to the structural (equilibrium) nature of dynamical slowdown effects in supercooled liquids.
Thermodynamic nature of vitrification in a 1D model of a structural glass former.
Semenov, A N
2015-07-28
We propose a new spin-glass model with no positional quenched disorder which is regarded as a coarse-grained model of a structural glass-former. The model is analyzed in the 1D case when the number N of states of a primary cell is large. For N → ∞, the model exhibits a sharp freezing transition of the thermodynamic origin. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the glass transition is accompanied by a significant growth of a static length scale ξ pointing to the structural (equilibrium) nature of dynamical slowdown effects in supercooled liquids. PMID:26233148
SILVA: EDF two-phase 1D annular model of a CFB boiler furnace
Montat, D.; Fauquet, P.; Lafanechere, L.; Bursi, J.M.
1997-12-31
Aiming to improve its knowledge of CFB boilers, EDF has initiated a R and D program including: laboratory work on mock-ups, numerical modelling and on-site tests in CFB power plants. One of the objectives of this program is the development of a comprehensive steady-state 1D model of the solid circulation loop, named SILVA, for plant operation and design evaluation purposes. This paper describes its mathematical and physical modelling. Promising validation of the model on cold mock-up and industrial CFB is presented.
Thermodynamic nature of vitrification in a 1D model of a structural glass former
Semenov, A. N.
2015-07-28
We propose a new spin-glass model with no positional quenched disorder which is regarded as a coarse-grained model of a structural glass-former. The model is analyzed in the 1D case when the number N of states of a primary cell is large. For N → ∞, the model exhibits a sharp freezing transition of the thermodynamic origin. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the glass transition is accompanied by a significant growth of a static length scale ξ pointing to the structural (equilibrium) nature of dynamical slowdown effects in supercooled liquids.
Experiences with two-equation turbulence models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singhal, Ashok K.; Lai, Yong G.; Avva, Ram K.
1995-01-01
This viewgraph presentation discusses the following: introduction to CFD Research Corporation; experiences with two-equation models - models used, numerical difficulties, validation and applications, and strengths and weaknesses; and answers to three questions posed by the workshop organizing committee - what are your customers telling you, what are you doing in-house, and how can NASA-CMOTT (Center for Modeling of Turbulence and Transition) help.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cebeci, T.; Carr, L. W.
1981-01-01
A procedure which solves the governing boundary layer equations within Keller's box method was developed for calculating unsteady laminar flows with flow reversal. This method is extended to turbulent boundary layers with flow reversal. Test cases are used to investigate the proposition that unsteady turbulent boundary layers also remain free of singularities. Turbulent flow calculations are performed. The governing equations for both models are solved. As in laminar flows, the unsteady turbulent boundary layers are free from singularities, but there is a clear indication of rapid thickening of the boundary layer with increasing flow reversal. Predictions of both turbulence models are the same for all practical purposes.
Assessment of improved root growth representation in a 1-D, field scale crop model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miltin Mboh, Cho; Gaiser, Thomas; Ewert, Frank
2015-04-01
Many 1-D, field scale crop models over-simplify root growth. The over-simplification of this "hidden half" of the crop may have significant consequences on simulated root water and nutrient uptake with a corresponding reflection on the simulated crop yields. Poor representation of root growth in crop models may therefore constitute a major source of uncertainty propagation. In this study we assess the effect of an improved representation of root growth in a model solution of the model framework SIMPLACE (Scientific Impact assessment and Modeling PLatform for Advanced Crop and Ecosystem management) compared to conventional 1-D approaches. The LINTUL5 crop growth model is coupled to the Hillflow soil water balance model within the SIMPLACE modeling framework (Gaiser et al, 2013). Root water uptake scenarios in the soil hydrological simulator Hillflow (Bronstert, 1995) together with an improved representation of root growth is compared to scenarios for which root growth is simplified. The improvement of root growth is achieved by integrating root growth solutions from R-SWMS (Javaux et al., 2008) into the SIMPLACE model solution. R-SWMS is a three dimensional model for simultaneous modeling of root growth, soil water fluxes and solute transport and uptake. These scenarios are tested by comparing how well the simulated water contents match with the observed soil water dynamics. The impacts of the scenarios on above ground biomass and wheat grain are assessed
Box model and 1D longitudinal model of flow and transport in Bosten Lake, China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ning; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Li, WenPeng; Dong, XinGuang
2015-05-01
Bosten Lake in the southeast of Yanqi Catchment, China, supports the downstream agricultural and natural environments. Over the last few decades the intensive agricultural activities in Yanqi Catchment resulted in decreased lake levels and deteriorated lake water quality. A two-box model is constructed to understand the evolution of lake level and salinity between 1958 and 2008. The two-box model of the lake indicates that the evaporation does have the same trend as the observed lake area and the annual average evaporation agrees with the value obtained from the Penman-Monteith approach. To achieve a correct salt balance, the ratio of outflow concentration and average lake concentration has to be around 0.7. This is due to the incomplete mixing of the lake caused by short-circuiting between tributary inflow and the main outflow via the pump stations abstracting water from the lake. This short-circuiting is investigated in more detail by a 1D numerical flow and transport model of the lake calibrated with observations of lake level and lake concentrations. The distributed model reproduces the correct time-varying outflow concentration. It is used for the assessment of two basic management options: increasing river discharge (by water saving irrigation, reduction of phreatic evaporation or reduction of agricultural area) and diverting saline drainage water to the desert. Increasing river discharge to the lake by 20% reduces the east basin salt concentration by 0.55 kg/m3, while capturing all the drainage water and discharging it to depressions instead of the lake reduces the east basin salt concentration by 0.63 kg/m3. A combination of increasing river inflow and decreasing drainage salt flux is sufficient to bring future lake TDS below the required 1 kg/m3, to keep a lake level that sustains the lake ecosystem, and to supply more water for downstream development and ecosystem rehabilitation.
Modeling of Turbulent Free Shear Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoder, Dennis A.; DeBonis, James R.; Georgiadis, Nicolas J.
2013-01-01
The modeling of turbulent free shear flows is crucial to the simulation of many aerospace applications, yet often receives less attention than the modeling of wall boundary layers. Thus, while turbulence model development in general has proceeded very slowly in the past twenty years, progress for free shear flows has been even more so. This paper highlights some of the fundamental issues in modeling free shear flows for propulsion applications, presents a review of past modeling efforts, and identifies areas where further research is needed. Among the topics discussed are differences between planar and axisymmetric flows, development versus self-similar regions, the effect of compressibility and the evolution of compressibility corrections, the effect of temperature on jets, and the significance of turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers for reacting shear flows. Large eddy simulation greatly reduces the amount of empiricism in the physical modeling, but is sensitive to a number of numerical issues. This paper includes an overview of the importance of numerical scheme, mesh resolution, boundary treatment, sub-grid modeling, and filtering in conducting a successful simulation.
A RATIONALE FOR IMPLICIT TURBULENCE MODELING
L. G. MARGOLIN; W. J. RIDER
2001-04-01
We present a rationale for the success of nonoscillatory finite volume (NFV) difference schemes in modeling turbulent flows without need of subgrid scale models. Our exposition focuses on certain truncation terms that appear in the modified equation of one particular NFV scheme, MPDATA. We demonstrate that these truncation terms have physical justification, representing the modifications to the governing equations that arise when one considers the motion of finite volumes of fluid over finite intervals of time.
Verification and comparison of four numerical schemes for a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model.
Wang, Xiaofei; Fullana, Jose-Maria; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves
2015-01-01
A reliable and fast numerical scheme is crucial for the 1D simulation of blood flow in compliant vessels. In this paper, a 1D blood flow model is incorporated with a Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic arterial wall. This leads to a nonlinear hyperbolic-parabolic system, which is then solved with four numerical schemes, namely: MacCormack, Taylor-Galerkin, monotonic upwind scheme for conservation law and local discontinuous Galerkin. The numerical schemes are tested on a single vessel, a simple bifurcation and a network with 55 arteries. The numerical solutions are checked favorably against analytical, semi-analytical solutions or clinical observations. Among the numerical schemes, comparisons are made in four important aspects: accuracy, ability to capture shock-like phenomena, computational speed and implementation complexity. The suitable conditions for the application of each scheme are discussed. PMID:25145651
Cascade modeling of single and two-phase turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolotnov, Igor A.
The analysis of turbulent two-phase flows requires closure models in order to perform reliable computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CFMD) analyses. A turbulence cascade model, which tracks the evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy between the various eddy sizes, has been developed for the analysis of the single and bubbly two-phase turbulence. Various flows are considered including the decay of isotropic grid-induced turbulence, uniform shear flow and turbulent channel flow. The model has been developed using a "building block" approach by moving from modeling of simpler turbulent flows (i.e., homogeneous, isotropic decay) to more involved turbulent flows (i.e., non-homogeneous channel flow). The spectral cascade-transport model's performance has been assessed against a number of experimental and direct numerical simulation (DNS) results.
Simulations of turbulent mixing and reacting flows and their applications to turbulence modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferziger, J. H.; Cantwell, B. J.
1986-01-01
The method of full simulation is applied to reacting turbulent flows. Full simulation has proven of great value as a complement to experiments for the study of nonreacting turbulent flows. It provides insight into the physics of turbulent flows and their modeling. It is natural to try to extend these methods to the simulation of reacting turbulent flows. Because this is one of the first attempts at this type of simulation, a subsidiary goal of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using simulation to study turbulent reacting flows. In addition, it is shown that such simulations can be used to provide physical insight into the nature of turbulent combustion and to provide data that will help to construct models that can be used in engineering simulations of turbulent reacting flows.
Closed Field Coronal Heating Models Inspired by Wave Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Downs, C.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J.; Velli, M. M.
2013-12-01
To simulate the energy balance of coronal plasmas on macroscopic scales, we often require the specification of the coronal heating mechanism in some functional form. To go beyond empirical formulations and to build a more physically motivated heating function, we investigate the wave-turbulence dissipation (WTD) phenomenology for the heating of closed coronal loops. To do so, we employ an implementation of non-WKB equations designed to capture the large-scale propagation, reflection, and dissipation of wave turbulence along a loop. The parameter space of this model is explored by solving the coupled WTD and hydrodynamic equations in 1D for an idealized loop, and the relevance to a range of solar conditions is established by computing solutions for several hundred loops extracted from a realistic 3D coronal field. Due to the implicit dependence of the WTD heating model on loop geometry and plasma properties along the loop and at the footpoints, we find that this model can significantly reduce the number of free parameters when compared to traditional empirical heating models, and still robustly describe a broad range of quiet-sun and active region conditions. The importance of the self-reflection term in producing realistic heating scale heights and thermal non-equilibrium cycles is discussed, and preliminary 3D thermodynamic MHD simulations using this formulation are presented. Research supported by NASA and NSF.
Nested 1D-2D approach for urban surface flood modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murla, Damian; Willems, Patrick
2015-04-01
Floods in urban areas as a consequence of sewer capacity exceedance receive increased attention because of trends in urbanization (increased population density and impermeability of the surface) and climate change. Despite the strong recent developments in numerical modeling of water systems, urban surface flood modeling is still a major challenge. Whereas very advanced and accurate flood modeling systems are in place and operation by many river authorities in support of flood management along rivers, this is not yet the case in urban water management. Reasons include the small scale of the urban inundation processes, the need to have very high resolution topographical information available, and the huge computational demands. Urban drainage related inundation modeling requires a 1D full hydrodynamic model of the sewer network to be coupled with a 2D surface flood model. To reduce the computational times, 0D (flood cones), 1D/quasi-2D surface flood modeling approaches have been developed and applied in some case studies. In this research, a nested 1D/2D hydraulic model has been developed for an urban catchment at the city of Gent (Belgium), linking the underground sewer (minor system) with the overland surface (major system). For the overland surface flood modelling, comparison was made of 0D, 1D/quasi-2D and full 2D approaches. The approaches are advanced by considering nested 1D-2D approaches, including infiltration in the green city areas, and allowing the effects of surface storm water storage to be simulated. An optimal nested combination of three different mesh resolutions was identified; based on a compromise between precision and simulation time for further real-time flood forecasting, warning and control applications. Main streets as mesh zones together with buildings as void regions constitute one of these mesh resolution (3.75m2 - 15m2); they have been included since they channel most of the flood water from the manholes and they improve the accuracy of
Evaluation of 2 1-D cloud models for the analysis of VAS soundings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Emmitt, G. D.
1984-01-01
Evaluation of the satellite Visual Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VISSR) has begun to document several of its critical shortcomings as far as numerical cloud models are concerned: excessive smoothing of thermal inversions; imprecise measurement of boundary layer moisture; and tendency to exaggerate atmospheric stability. The sensitivity of 1-D cloud models to their required inputs is stressed with special attention to those parameters obtained from atmospheric soundings taken by the VAS or rawinsonde. In addition to performing model experiments using temperature and moisture profiles having the general characteristics of VAS soundings, standard input sensitivity tests were made and 1-D model performance was compared with observations and the results of a 2-D model experiment using AVE/VAS data (Atmospheric Variability Experiment). Although very encouraging, the results are not sufficient to make any specific conclusions. In general, the VAS soundings are likely to be inadequate to provide the cloud base (and subcloud layer) information needed for inputs to current cumulus models. Above cloud base, the tendency to exaggerate the stability of the atmosphere requires solution before meaningful model experiments are run.
Optimisation of A 1d-ecosystem Model To Observations In The North Atlantic Ocean
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schartau, M.; Oschlies, A.
An optimisation experiment is performed with a vertically resolved, nitrogen based ecosystem model, comprising four state variables (1D-NPZD model): dissolved inor- ganic nitrogen (N), phytoplankton (P), herbivorous zooplankton (Z) and detritus (D). Parameter values of the NPZD-model are optimised while regarding observational data from three locations in the North Atlantic simultaneously: Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS), data of the North Atlantic Bloom Experiment (NABE) and observations from Ocean Weather Ship-India (OWS-INDIA). The simultaneous opti- misation yields a best parameter set which can be utilized for basin wide simulations in coupled physical-biological (general circulation) models of the North Atlantic. After optimisation of the 1D-NPZD model, systematic discrepancies between 14C-fixation rates and modelled primary production are emphasized. Using the optimal parame- ter estimates for coupled 3D-simulations, the biogeochemical fluxes show substantial differences in contrast to previous model results. For instance, rapid recycling of or- ganic matter enhances primary production rates. This becomes most evident within the oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyre.
Cascade Models of Turbulence and Mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kadanoff, Leo P.
1997-01-01
This note describes two kinds of work on turbulence. First it describes a simplified model of turbulent energy-cascades called the GOY model. Second it mentions work on a model of mixing in fluids. In addition to a brief historical discussion, I include some mention of our own work carried on at the University of Chicago by Jane Wang, Detlef Lohse, Roberto Benzi, Norbert Schörghofer, Scott Wunsch, Tong Zhou and myself. Our own studies are in large measure the outgrowth of a paper by M. H. Jensen, G. Paladin, and A. Vulpiani [1]. I mention this connection with some sadness because I recall Paladin's recent death in a mountain accident.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, S.-W.; Chen, C.-P.
1987-01-01
A multiple-time-scale turbulence model of a single point closure and a simplified split-spectrum method is presented. In the model, the effect of the ratio of the production rate to the dissipation rate on eddy viscosity is modeled by use of the multiple-time-scales and a variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum. The concept of a variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum and the rest of the model details are based on the previously reported algebraic stress turbulence model. Example problems considered include: a fully developed channel flow, a plane jet exhausting into a moving stream, a wall jet flow, and a weakly coupled wake-boundary layer interaction flow. The computational results compared favorably with those obtained by using the algebraic stress turbulence model as well as experimental data. The present turbulence model, as well as the algebraic stress turbulence model, yielded significantly improved computational results for the complex turbulent boundary layer flows, such as the wall jet flow and the wake boundary layer interaction flow, compared with available computational results obtained by using the standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model.
Prediction of car cabin environment by means of 1D and 3D cabin model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fišer, J.; Pokorný, J.; Jícha, M.
2012-04-01
Thermal comfort and also reduction of energy requirements of air-conditioning system in vehicle cabins are currently very intensively investigated and up-to-date issues. The article deals with two approaches of modelling of car cabin environment; the first model was created in simulation language Modelica (typical 1D approach without cabin geometry) and the second one was created in specialized software Theseus-FE (3D approach with cabin geometry). Performance and capabilities of this tools are demonstrated on the example of the car cabin and the results from simulations are compared with the results from the real car cabin climate chamber measurements.
A turbulence model for buoyant flows based on vorticity generation.
Domino, Stefan Paul; Nicolette, Vernon F.; O'Hern, Timothy John; Tieszen, Sheldon R.; Black, Amalia Rebecca
2005-10-01
A turbulence model for buoyant flows has been developed in the context of a k-{var_epsilon} turbulence modeling approach. A production term is added to the turbulent kinetic energy equation based on dimensional reasoning using an appropriate time scale for buoyancy-induced turbulence taken from the vorticity conservation equation. The resulting turbulence model is calibrated against far field helium-air spread rate data, and validated with near source, strongly buoyant helium plume data sets. This model is more numerically stable and gives better predictions over a much broader range of mesh densities than the standard k-{var_epsilon} model for these strongly buoyant flows.
Dynamic stall simulation including turbulence modeling
Allet, A.; Halle, S.; Paraschivoiu, I.
1995-09-01
The objective of this study is to investigate the two-dimensional unsteady flow around an airfoil undergoing a Darrieus motion in dynamic stall conditions. For this purpose, a numerical solver based on the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations expressed in a streamfunction-vorticity formulation in a non-inertial frame of reference was developed. The governing equations are solved by the streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin finite element method (FEM). Temporal discretization is achieved by second-order-accurate finite differences. The resulting global matrix system is linearized by the Newton method and solved by the generalized minimum residual method (GMRES) with an incomplete triangular factorization preconditioning (ILU). Turbulence effects are introduced in the solver by an eddy viscosity model. The investigation centers on an evaluation of the possibilities of several turbulence models, including the algebraic Cebeci-Smith model (CSM) and the nonequilibrium Johnson-King model (JKM). In an effort to predict dynamic stall features on rotating airfoils, first the authors present some testing results concerning the performance of both turbulence models for the flat plate case. Then, computed flow structure together with aerodynamic coefficients for a NACA 0015 airfoil in Darrieus motion under stall conditions are presented.
A GLOBAL TURBULENCE MODEL FOR NEUTRINO-DRIVEN CONVECTION IN CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE
Murphy, Jeremiah W.; Meakin, Casey
2011-12-01
Simulations of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) result in successful explosions once the neutrino luminosity exceeds a critical curve, and recent simulations indicate that turbulence further enables explosion by reducing this critical neutrino luminosity. We propose a theoretical framework to derive this result and take the first steps by deriving the governing mean-field equations. Using Reynolds decomposition, we decompose flow variables into background and turbulent flows and derive self-consistent averaged equations for their evolution. As basic requirements for the CCSN problem, these equations naturally incorporate steady-state accretion, neutrino heating and cooling, non-zero entropy gradients, and turbulence terms associated with buoyant driving, redistribution, and dissipation. Furthermore, analysis of two-dimensional (2D) CCSN simulations validate these Reynolds-averaged equations, and we show that the physics of turbulence entirely accounts for the differences between 1D and 2D CCSN simulations. As a prelude to deriving the reduction in the critical luminosity, we identify the turbulent terms that most influence the conditions for explosion. Generically, turbulence equations require closure models, but these closure models depend upon the macroscopic properties of the flow. To derive a closure model that is appropriate for CCSNe, we cull the literature for relevant closure models and compare each with 2D simulations. These models employ local closure approximations and fail to reproduce the global properties of neutrino-driven turbulence. Motivated by the generic failure of these local models, we propose an original model for turbulence which incorporates global properties of the flow. This global model accurately reproduces the turbulence profiles and evolution of 2D CCSN simulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, S.-W.
1990-01-01
A numerical investigation of transonic turbulent flows separated by curvature and shock wave - boundary layer interaction is presented. The free stream Mach numbers considered are 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.825, 0.85, 0.875, 0.90, and 0.925. In the numerical method, the conservation of mass equation is replaced by a pressure correction equation for compressible flows and thus incremental pressure is solved for instead of density. The turbulence is described by a multiple-time-scale turbulence model supplemented with a near-wall turbulence model. The present numerical results show that there exists a reversed flow region at all free stream Mach numbers considered whereas various k-epsilon turbulence models fail to predict such a reversed flow region at low free stream Mach numbers. The numerical results also show that the size of the reversed flow region grows extensively due to the shock wave - turbulent boundary layer interaction as the free stream Mach number is increased. These numerical results show that the turbulence model can resolve the turbulence field subjected to extra strains caused by the curvature and the shock wave - turbulent boundary layer interaction and that the numerical method yields a significantly accurate solution for the complex compressible turbulent flow.
A 1-D model study of Arctic sea-ice salinity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Griewank, P. J.; Notz, D.
2014-03-01
We use a 1-D model to study how salinity evolves in Arctic sea ice. To do so, we first explore how sea-ice surface melt and flooding can be incorporated into the 1-D thermodynamic SAMSIM sea-ice model presented by Griewank and Notz (2013). We introduce flooding and a flushing parametrization which treats sea ice as a hydraulic network of horizontal and vertical fluxes. Forcing SAMSIM with 36 years of ERA-interim atmospheric reanalysis data, we obtain a modeled Arctic sea-ice salinity that agrees well with ice-core measurements. The simulations hence allow us to identify the main drivers of the observed mean salinity profile in Arctic sea ice. Our results show a 1.5-4 g kg-1 decrease of bulk salinity via gravity drainage after ice growth has ceased and before flushing sets in, which hinders approximating bulk salinity from ice thickness beyond the first growth season. In our simulations, salinity variability of first-year ice is mostly restricted to the top 20 cm. We find that ice thickness, thermal resistivity, freshwater column, and stored energy change by less than 5% on average when the full salinity parametrization is replaced with a prescribed salinity profile. We conclude that for earth system models the impact of fully parametrizing the Arctic temporal salinity evolution is too small to justify the increase in computational cost and model complexity.
Assessing the impact of different sources of topographic data on 1-D hydraulic modelling of floods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, A. Md; Solomatine, D. P.; Di Baldassarre, G.
2015-01-01
Topographic data, such as digital elevation models (DEMs), are essential input in flood inundation modelling. DEMs can be derived from several sources either through remote sensing techniques (spaceborne or airborne imagery) or from traditional methods (ground survey). The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the light detection and ranging (lidar), and topographic contour maps are some of the most commonly used sources of data for DEMs. These DEMs are characterized by different precision and accuracy. On the one hand, the spatial resolution of low-cost DEMs from satellite imagery, such as ASTER and SRTM, is rather coarse (around 30 to 90 m). On the other hand, the lidar technique is able to produce high-resolution DEMs (at around 1 m), but at a much higher cost. Lastly, contour mapping based on ground survey is time consuming, particularly for higher scales, and may not be possible for some remote areas. The use of these different sources of DEM obviously affects the results of flood inundation models. This paper shows and compares a number of 1-D hydraulic models developed using HEC-RAS as model code and the aforementioned sources of DEM as geometric input. To test model selection, the outcomes of the 1-D models were also compared, in terms of flood water levels, to the results of 2-D models (LISFLOOD-FP). The study was carried out on a reach of the Johor River, in Malaysia. The effect of the different sources of DEMs (and different resolutions) was investigated by considering the performance of the hydraulic models in simulating flood water levels as well as inundation maps. The outcomes of our study show that the use of different DEMs has serious implications to the results of hydraulic models. The outcomes also indicate that the loss of model accuracy due to re-sampling the highest resolution DEM (i.e. lidar 1 m) to lower resolution is much less than the loss of model accuracy due
Survey of Turbulence Models for the Computation of Turbulent Jet Flow and Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nallasamy, N.
1999-01-01
The report presents an overview of jet noise computation utilizing the computational fluid dynamic solution of the turbulent jet flow field. The jet flow solution obtained with an appropriate turbulence model provides the turbulence characteristics needed for the computation of jet mixing noise. A brief account of turbulence models that are relevant for the jet noise computation is presented. The jet flow solutions that have been directly used to calculate jet noise are first reviewed. Then, the turbulent jet flow studies that compute the turbulence characteristics that may be used for noise calculations are summarized. In particular, flow solutions obtained with the k-e model, algebraic Reynolds stress model, and Reynolds stress transport equation model are reviewed. Since, the small scale jet mixing noise predictions can be improved by utilizing anisotropic turbulence characteristics, turbulence models that can provide the Reynolds stress components must now be considered for jet flow computations. In this regard, algebraic stress models and Reynolds stress transport models are good candidates. Reynolds stress transport models involve more modeling and computational effort and time compared to algebraic stress models. Hence, it is recommended that an algebraic Reynolds stress model (ASM) be implemented in flow solvers to compute the Reynolds stress components.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmidt, J. F.; Boldman, D. R.; Todd, C.
1972-01-01
A laminarization model which consists of a completely laminar sublayer region near the wall and a turbulent wake region is developed for the turbulent eddy transport in accelerated turbulent boundary layers. This laminarization model is used in a differential boundary layer calculation which was applied to nozzle flows. The resulting theoretical velocity profiles are in good agreement with the experimental nozzle data in the convergent region.
Stochastic modeling of turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fox, R. O.; Hill, J. C.; Gao, F.; Moser, R. D.; Rogers, M. M.
1992-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of a single-step irreversible chemical reaction with non-premixed reactants in forced isotropic turbulence at R(sub lambda) = 63, Da = 4.0, and Sc = 0.7 were made using 128 Fourier modes to obtain joint probability density functions (pdfs) and other statistical information to parameterize and test a Fokker-Planck turbulent mixing model. Preliminary results indicate that the modeled gradient stretching term for an inert scalar is independent of the initial conditions of the scalar field. The conditional pdf of scalar gradient magnitudes is found to be a function of the scalar until the reaction is largely completed. Alignment of concentration gradients with local strain rate and other features of the flow were also investigated.
Simulation and modeling of homogeneous, compressed turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, C. T.; Ferziger, J. H.; Chapman, D. R.
1985-01-01
Low Reynolds number homogeneous turbulence undergoing low Mach number isotropic and one-dimensional compression was simulated by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical simulations were performed on a CYBER 205 computer using a 64 x 64 x 64 mesh. A spectral method was used for spatial differencing and the second-order Runge-Kutta method for time advancement. A variety of statistical information was extracted from the computed flow fields. These include three-dimensional energy and dissipation spectra, two-point velocity correlations, one-dimensional energy spectra, turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate, integral length scales, Taylor microscales, and Kolmogorov length scale. Results from the simulated flow fields were used to test one-point closure, two-equation models. A new one-point-closure, three-equation turbulence model which accounts for the effect of compression is proposed. The new model accurately calculates four types of flows (isotropic decay, isotropic compression, one-dimensional compression, and axisymmetric expansion flows) for a wide range of strain rates.
Simulation and modeling of homogeneous, compressed turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, C. T.; Ferziger, J. H.; Chapman, D. R.
1985-05-01
Low Reynolds number homogeneous turbulence undergoing low Mach number isotropic and one-dimensional compression was simulated by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical simulations were performed on a CYBER 205 computer using a 64 x 64 x 64 mesh. A spectral method was used for spatial differencing and the second-order Runge-Kutta method for time advancement. A variety of statistical information was extracted from the computed flow fields. These include three-dimensional energy and dissipation spectra, two-point velocity correlations, one-dimensional energy spectra, turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate, integral length scales, Taylor microscales, and Kolmogorov length scale. Results from the simulated flow fields were used to test one-point closure, two-equation models. A new one-point-closure, three-equation turbulence model which accounts for the effect of compression is proposed. The new model accurately calculates four types of flows (isotropic decay, isotropic compression, one-dimensional compression, and axisymmetric expansion flows) for a wide range of strain rates.
A multiple-scale model for compressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, William W.; Shih, Tsan-Hsing
1993-01-01
A multiple-scale model for compressible turbulent flows is proposed. It is assumed that turbulent eddy shocklets are formed primarily by the 'collisions' of large energetic eddies. The extra straining of the large eddy, due to their interactions with shocklets, enhances the energy cascade to smaller eddies. Model transport equations are developed for the turbulent kinetic energies and the energy transfer rates of the different scale. The turbulent eddy viscosity is determined by the total turbulent kinetic energy and the rate of energy transfer from the large scale to the small scale, which is different from the energy dissipation rate. The model coefficients in the modeled turbulent transport equations depend on the ratio of the turbulent kinetic energy of the large scale to that of the small scale, which renders the model more adaptive to the characteristics of individual flow. The model is tested against compressible free shear layers. The results agree satisfactorily with measurements.
An Improved Model for the Turbulent PBL
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Y.; Canuto, V. M.; Howard, A. M.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Second order turbulence models of the Mellor and Yamada type have been widely used to simulate the PBL. It is however known that these models have several deficiencies. For example, they all predict a critical Richardson number which is about four times smaller than the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) data, they are unable to match the surface data, and they predict a boundary layer height lower than expected. In the present model, we show that these difficulties are all overcome by a single new physical input: the use of the most complete expression for both the pressure-velocity and the pressure-temperature correlations presently available. Each of the new terms represents a physical process that, was not accounted for by previous models. The new model is presented in three different levels according to Mellor and Yamada's terminology, with new, ready-to-use expressions for the turbulent, moments. We show that the new model reproduces several experimental and LES data better than previous models. As far as the PBL is concerned, we show that the model reproduces both the Kansas data as analyzed by Businger et al. in the context of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory for smaller Richardson numbers, as well as the LES and laboratory data up to Richardson numbers of order unity. We also show that the model yields a higher PBL height than the previous models.
Higher order turbulence closure models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Amano, Ryoichi S.; Chai, John C.; Chen, Jau-Der
1988-01-01
Theoretical models are developed and numerical studies conducted on various types of flows including both elliptic and parabolic. The purpose of this study is to find better higher order closure models for the computations of complex flows. This report summarizes three new achievements: (1) completion of the Reynolds-stress closure by developing a new pressure-strain correlation; (2) development of a parabolic code to compute jets and wakes; and, (3) application to a flow through a 180 deg turnaround duct by adopting a boundary fitted coordinate system. In the above mentioned models near-wall models are developed for pressure-strain correlation and third-moment, and incorporated into the transport equations. This addition improved the results considerably and is recommended for future computations. A new parabolic code to solve shear flows without coordinate tranformations is developed and incorporated in this study. This code uses the structure of the finite volume method to solve the governing equations implicitly. The code was validated with the experimental results available in the literature.
Periodic solutions for a 1D-model with nonlocal velocity via mass transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, Lucas C. F.; Valencia-Guevara, Julio C.
2016-05-01
This paper concerns periodic solutions for a 1D-model with nonlocal velocity given by the periodic Hilbert transform. There is a rich literature showing, via numerics and rigorous analysis, that this model presents singular behavior of solutions. For instance, they can blow up by forming mass-concentration. We develop a global well-posedness theory for periodic measure initial data that allows, in particular, to analyze how the model evolves from those singularities. Our results are based on periodic mass transport theory and the abstract gradient flow theory in metric spaces developed by Ambrosio et al. (2005). A viscous version of the model is also analyzed and inviscid limit properties are obtained.
Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models
Gasenzer, Thomas; McLerran, Larry; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Sexty, Dénes
2014-07-28
The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixed point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang–Mills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.
Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models
Gasenzer, Thomas; McLerran, Larry; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Sexty, Dénes
2014-07-28
The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixedmore » point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang–Mills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.« less
Optimal modeling of 1D azimuth correlations in the context of Bayesian inference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Kock, Michiel B.; Eggers, Hans C.; Trainor, Thomas A.
2015-09-01
Analysis and interpretation of spectrum and correlation data from high-energy nuclear collisions is currently controversial because two opposing physics narratives derive contradictory implications from the same data, one narrative claiming collision dynamics is dominated by dijet production and projectile-nucleon fragmentation, the other claiming collision dynamics is dominated by a dense, flowing QCD medium. Opposing interpretations seem to be supported by alternative data models, and current model-comparison schemes are unable to distinguish between them. There is clearly need for a convincing new methodology to break the deadlock. In this study we introduce Bayesian inference (BI) methods applied to angular correlation data as a basis to evaluate competing data models. For simplicity the data considered are projections of two-dimensional (2D) angular correlations onto a 1D azimuth from three centrality classes of 200-GeV Au-Au collisions. We consider several data models typical of current model choices, including Fourier series (FS) and a Gaussian plus various combinations of individual cosine components. We evaluate model performance with BI methods and with power-spectrum analysis. We find that FS-only models are rejected in all cases by Bayesian analysis, which always prefers a Gaussian. A cylindrical quadrupole cos(2 ϕ ) is required in some cases but rejected for 0%-5%-central Au-Au collisions. Given a Gaussian centered at the azimuth origin, "higher harmonics" cos(m ϕ ) for m >2 are rejected. A model consisting of Gaussian +dipole cos(ϕ )+quadrupole cos(2 ϕ ) provides good 1D data descriptions in all cases.
Numerical comparison of strong Langmuir turbulence models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shen, Mei-Mei; Nicholson, D. R.
1987-01-01
Two models of Langmuir turbulence, the nonlinear Schroedinger equation and the Zakharov equations, are solved numerically for an initial value problem in which the electric field evolves from an almost flat initial condition via the modulational instability and finally saturates into a set of solitons. The two models agree well with each other only when the initial dimensionless electric field has an amplitude less than unity. An analytic soliton gas model consisting of equal-amplitude, randomly spaced, zero-speed solitons is remarkably good at reproducing the time-averaged Fourier spectra in both cases.
Parallel Computatinal Technology for Atmospheric Turbulence Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bian, Randy X.
1997-08-01
Desktop Atmospheric Turbulence Diffussion Modeling System (DATDMS) is used by analysts with varied backgrounds for performing air quality assessment and emergency response activities. This modeling system must be robust, well documented, have minimal and well controlled user inputs, and have clear outputs. Existing coarse-grained parallel computers can provide significant increases in computation speed in desktop atmospheric dispersion modeling without considerable increases in hardware cost. This increased speed will allow for significant improvements to be made in the scientific foundations of these applied models, in the form of more advanced diffusion schemes and better representation of the wind and turbulence fields. This is especially attractive for emergency response applications where speed and accuracy are of utmost importance. This presentation describes one particular application of coarse-grained parallel computer technology to a desktop complex terrain atmospheric dispersion modeling system. By comparing performance characteristics of the coarse-grained parallel version of the model with the single-processor version, we will demonstrate that applying coarse-grained parallel computer technology to desktop atmospheric dispersion modeling systems will allow us to address critical issues facing future requirements of this class of dispersion models.
A Baroclinic Model of turbulent dusty flows
Kuhl, A.L.
1992-04-01
The problem considered here is the numerical simulation of the turbulent dusty flow induced by explosions over soil surfaces. Some of the unresolved issues are: (1) how much dust is scoured from such surfaces; (2) where does the dust go in the boundary layer; (3) what is the dusty boundary layer height versus time; (4) what are the dusty boundary layer profiles; (5) how much of the dust mass becomes entrained into the dust stem; and (6) where does the dust go in the buoyant cloud? The author proposes a Baroclinic Model for flows with large density variations that actually calculates the turbulent mixing and transport of dust on an adaptive grid. The model is based on the following idealizations: (1) a loose dust bed; (2) an instantaneous shock fluidization of the dust layer; (3) the dust and air are in local equilibrium (so air viscosity enforces the no-slip condition); (4) the dust-air mixture is treated as a continuum dense fluid with zero viscosity; and (5) the turbulent mixing is dominated by baroclinically-generated vorticity. These assumptions lead to an inviscid set of conservation laws for the mixture, which are solved by means of a high-order Godunov algorithm for gasdynamics. Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is used to capture the turbulent mixing processes on the grid. One of the unique characteristics of these flows is that mixing occurs because vorticity is produced by an inviscid, baroclinic mechanism. A number of examples are presented to illustrate these baroclinic effects including shock interactions with dense-gas layers and dust beds, and dusty wall jets of airblast precursors. The conclusion of these studies is that dusty boundary layers grow because of mass entrainment from the fluidized bed (and not because of viscous wall drag) as proven by the Mass Integral Equation.
Survey of Multi-Material Closure Models in 1D Lagrangian Hydrodynamics
Maeng, Jungyeoul Brad; Hyde, David Andrew Bulloch
2015-07-28
Accurately treating the coupled sub-cell thermodynamics of computational cells containing multiple materials is an inevitable problem in hydrodynamics simulations, whether due to initial configurations or evolutions of the materials and computational mesh. When solving the hydrodynamics equations within a multi-material cell, we make the assumption of a single velocity field for the entire computational domain, which necessitates the addition of a closure model to attempt to resolve the behavior of the multi-material cells’ constituents. In conjunction with a 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, we present a variety of both the popular as well as more recently proposed multi-material closure models and survey their performances across a spectrum of examples. We consider standard verification tests as well as practical examples using combinations of fluid, solid, and composite constituents within multi-material mixtures. Our survey provides insights into the advantages and disadvantages of various multi-material closure models in different problem configurations.
Turbulence modeling for non-equilibrium flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durbin, P. A.
1995-01-01
The work performed during this year has involved further assessment and extension of the k-epsilon-v(exp 2) model, and initiation of work on scalar transport. The latter is introduced by the contribution of Y. Shabany to this volume. Flexible, computationally tractable models are needed for engineering CFD. As computational technology has progressed, the ability and need to use elaborate turbulence closure models has increased. The objective of our work is to explore and develop new analytical frameworks that might extend the applicability of the modeling techniques. In past years the development of a method for near-wall modeling was described. The method has been implemented into a CFD code and its viability has been demonstrated by various test cases. Further tests are reported herein. Non-equilibrium near-wall models are needed for some heat transfer applications. Scalar transport seems generally to be more sensitive to non-equilibrium effects than is momentum transport. For some applications turbulence anisotropy plays a role and an estimate of the full Reynolds stress tensor is needed. We have begun work on scalar transport per se, but in this brief I will only report on an extension of the k-epsilon-v(exp 2) model to predict the Reynolds stress tensor.
Rollin, Bertrand; Andrews, Malcolm J.
2012-07-17
Importance of initial conditions for turbulence 'design' and prediction are that initial conditions could affect 'late-time' turbulent transport and mixing effectiveness. Hence, a challenge for prediction, but also an opportunity for turbulence 'design'. The objective is to provide a rational basis for setting up initial conditions in turbulence models. Conclusions are: (1) We constructed a modal model for multimode RT; (2) We use a two-fluid formulation for generating profiles of turbulence model variables in the self-similar regime; and (3) We defined an approach to remove any guess from initializing a turbulence model for Rayleigh-Taylor turbulent mixing.
This technical report describes the new one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and sediment transport model EFDC1D. This model that can be applied to stream networks. The model code and two sample data sets are included on the distribution CD. EFDC1D can simulate bi-directional unstea...
Turbulence modeling for complex hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, P. G.; Coakley, T. J.
1993-01-01
The paper presents results of calculations for a range of 2D turbulent hypersonic flows using two-equation models. The baseline models and the model corrections required for good hypersonic-flow predictions will be illustrated. Three experimental data sets were chosen for comparison. They are: (1) the hypersonic flare flows of Kussoy and Horstman, (2) a 2D hypersonic compression corner flow of Coleman and Stollery, and (3) the ogive-cylinder impinging shock-expansion flows of Kussoy and Horstman. Comparisons with the experimental data have shown that baseline models under-predict the extent of flow separation but over-predict the heat transfer rate near flow reattachment. Modifications to the models are described which remove the above-mentioned deficiencies. Although we have restricted the discussion only to the selected baseline models in this paper, the modifications proposed are universal and can in principle be transferred to any existing two-equation model formulation.
A simplified Reynolds stress model for unsteady turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fan, Sixin; Lakshminarayana, Budugur
1993-01-01
A simplified Reynolds stress model has been developed for the prediction of unsteady turbulent boundary layers. By assuming that the net transport of Reynolds stresses is locally proportional to the net transport of the turbulent kinetic energy, the time dependent full Reynolds stress model is reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations. These equations contain only time derivatives and can be readily integrated in a time dependent boundary layer or Navier-Stokes code. The turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate needed for the model are obtained by solving the k-epsilon equations. This simplified Reynolds stress turbulence model (SRSM) does not use the eddy viscosity assumption, which may not be valid for unsteady turbulent flows. The anisotropy of both the steady and the unsteady turbulent normal stresses can be captured by the SRSM model. Through proper damping of the shear stresses, the present model can be used in the near wall region of turbulent boundary layers. This model has been validated against data for steady and unsteady turbulent boundary layers, including periodic turbulent boundary layers subjected to a mean adverse pressure gradient. For the cases tested, the predicted unsteady velocity and turbulent stress components agree well with the experimental data. Comparison between the predictions from the SRSM model and a k-epsilon model is also presented.
Evaluation of a Revised Interplanetary Shock Prediction Model: 1D CESE-HD-2 Solar-Wind Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Du, A. M.; Du, D.; Sun, W.
2014-08-01
We modified the one-dimensional conservation element and solution element (CESE) hydrodynamic (HD) model into a new version [ 1D CESE-HD-2], by considering the direction of the shock propagation. The real-time performance of the 1D CESE-HD-2 model during Solar Cycle 23 (February 1997 - December 2006) is investigated and compared with those of the Shock Time of Arrival Model ( STOA), the Interplanetary-Shock-Propagation Model ( ISPM), and the Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry version 2 ( HAFv.2). Of the total of 584 flare events, 173 occurred during the rising phase, 166 events during the maximum phase, and 245 events during the declining phase. The statistical results show that the success rates of the predictions by the 1D CESE-HD-2 model for the rising, maximum, declining, and composite periods are 64 %, 62 %, 57 %, and 61 %, respectively, with a hit window of ± 24 hours. The results demonstrate that the 1D CESE-HD-2 model shows the highest success rates when the background solar-wind speed is relatively fast. Thus, when the background solar-wind speed at the time of shock initiation is enhanced, the forecasts will provide potential values to the customers. A high value (27.08) of χ 2 and low p-value (< 0.0001) for the 1D CESE-HD-2 model give considerable confidence for real-time forecasts by using this new model. Furthermore, the effects of various shock characteristics (initial speed, shock duration, background solar wind, longitude, etc.) and background solar wind on the forecast are also investigated statistically.
Model of non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragg, Andrew D.; Kurien, Susan; Clark, Timothy T.
2016-07-01
We compare results from a spectral model for non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence (Besnard et al. in Theor Comp Fluid Dyn 8:1-35, 1996) with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a shear-free mixing layer (SFML) (Tordella et al. in Phys Rev E 77:016309, 2008). The SFML is used as a test case in which the efficacy of the model closure for the physical-space transport of the fluid velocity field can be tested in a flow with inhomogeneity, without the additional complexity of mean-flow coupling. The model is able to capture certain features of the SFML quite well for intermediate to long times, including the evolution of the mixing-layer width and turbulent kinetic energy. At short-times, and for more sensitive statistics such as the generation of the velocity field anisotropy, the model is less accurate. We propose two possible causes for the discrepancies. The first is the local approximation to the pressure-transport and the second is the a priori spherical averaging used to reduce the dimensionality of the solution space of the model, from wavevector to wavenumber space. DNS data are then used to gauge the relative importance of both possible deficiencies in the model.
Improved engineering models for turbulent wall flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
She, Zhen-Su; Chen, Xi; Zou, Hong-Yue; Hussain, Fazle
2015-11-01
We propose a new approach, called structural ensemble dynamics (SED), involving new concepts to describe the mean quantities in wall-bounded flows, and its application to improving the existing engineering turbulence models, as well as its physical interpretation. First, a revised k - ω model for pipe flows is obtained, which accurately predicts, for the first time, both mean velocity and (streamwise) kinetic energy for a wide range of the Reynolds number (Re), validated by Princeton experimental data. In particular, a multiplicative factor is introduced in the dissipation term to model an anomaly in the energy cascade in a meso-layer, predicting the outer peak of agreeing with data. Secondly, a new one-equation model is obtained for compressible turbulent boundary layers (CTBL), building on a multi-layer formula of the stress length function and a generalized temperature-velocity relation. The former refines the multi-layer description - viscous sublayer, buffer layer, logarithmic layer and a newly defined bulk zone - while the latter characterizes a parabolic relation between the mean velocity and temperature. DNS data show our predictions to have a 99% accuracy for several Mach numbers Ma = 2.25, 4.5, improving, up to 10%, a previous similar one-equation model (Baldwin & Lomax, 1978). Our results promise notable improvements in engineering models.
Fluid friction and wall viscosity of the 1D blood flow model.
Wang, Xiao-Fei; Nishi, Shohei; Matsukawa, Mami; Ghigo, Arthur; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria
2016-02-29
We study the behavior of the pulse waves of water into a flexible tube for application to blood flow simulations. In pulse waves both fluid friction and wall viscosity are damping factors, and difficult to evaluate separately. In this paper, the coefficients of fluid friction and wall viscosity are estimated by fitting a nonlinear 1D flow model to experimental data. In the experimental setup, a distensible tube is connected to a piston pump at one end and closed at another end. The pressure and wall displacements are measured simultaneously. A good agreement between model predictions and experiments was achieved. For amplitude decrease, the effect of wall viscosity on the pulse wave has been shown as important as that of fluid viscosity. PMID:26862041
Evaluation of laminar-turbulent transition and equilibrium near wall turbulence models
He, X.; Senocak, I.; Shyy, W.; Gangadharan, S.N.; Thakur, S.
2000-02-11
Accurate prediction of laminar-turbulent transition as well as fully turbulent flows is of much practical importance. In this study, both topics are investigated. The e{sup n} method is used to predict transition locations for flows with various angles of attack around on NACA 0012 airfoil. After the transition point the {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model is adopted. Computations for flow over a flat plate are done to understand the impact of grid distribution and the wall function treatment on the performance of the {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model. In attached and mildly separated flows, satisfactory predictions can be made with the pragmatic e{sup n} transition model and the {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model.
A k-epsilon modeling of near wall turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yang, Z.; Shih, T. H.
1991-01-01
A k-epsilon model is proposed for turbulent bounded flows. In this model, the turbulent velocity scale and turbulent time scale are used to define the eddy viscosity. The time scale is shown to be bounded from below by the Kolmogorov time scale. The dissipation equation is reformulated using the time scale, removing the need to introduce the pseudo-dissipation. A damping function is chosen such that the shear stress satisfies the near wall asymptotic behavior. The model constants used are the same as the model constants in the commonly used high turbulent Reynolds number k-epsilon model. Fully developed turbulent channel flows and turbulent boundary layer flows over a flat plate at various Reynolds numbers are used to validate the model. The model predictions were found to be in good agreement with the direct numerical simulation data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klimeck, Gerhard
2001-03-01
The quantum mechanical functionality of commercially pursued heterostructure devices such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), quantum well infrared photodetectors, and quantum well lasers are enabled by material variations on an atomic scale. The creation of these heterostructure devices is realized in a vast design space of material compositions, layer thicknesses and doping profiles. The full experimental exploration of this design space is unfeasible and a reliable design tool is needed. The Nanoelectronic Modeling tool (NEMO) is one of the first commercial grade attempts for such a modeling tool. NEMO was developed as a general-purpose quantum mechanics-based 1-D device design and analysis tool from 1993-97 by the Central Research Laboratory of Texas Instruments (later Raytheon Systems). NEMO enables(R. Lake, G. Klimeck, R. C. Bowen, and D. Jovanovic, J. Appl. Phys. 81), 7845 (1997). the fundamentally sound inclusion of the required(G. Klimeck et al.), in the 1997 55th Annual Device Research Conference Digest, (IEEE, NJ, 1997), p. 92^,(R. C. Bowen et al.), J. Appl. Phys 81, 3207 (1997). physics: bandstructure, scattering, and charge self-consistency based on the non-equilibrium Green function approach. A new class of devices which require full 3-D quantum mechanics based models is starting to emerge: quantum dots, or in general semiconductor based deca-nano devices. We are currently building a 3-D modeling tool based on NEMO to include the important physics to understand electronic stated in such superscaled structures. This presentation will overview various facets of the NEMO 1-D tool such electron transport physics in RTDs, numerical technology, software engineering and graphical user interface. The lessons learned from that work are now entering the NEMO 3-D development and first results using the NEMO 3-D prototype will be shown. More information about
Spectral models of strongly inhomogeneous turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragg, Andrew; Kurien, Susan; Clark, Timothy
2015-11-01
We compare results from a spectral model for inhomogeneous turbulence (Besnard et al., Theor. Comp. Fluid. Dyn., vol. 8, pp 1-35, 1996) with DNS data of a shear-free mixing layer (SFML) (Tordella et al., Phys. Rev. E, vol. 77, 016309, 2008). The SFML is used as a test case in which the efficacy of the model closure for the physical-space energy transport can be tested in a flow with strong inhomogeneity, without the additional complexity of mean-flow coupling. The model is able to capture certain features of the SFML quite well for intermediate to long-times, including the evolution of the mixing-layer width and turbulent kinetic energy. At short-times, and for more sensitive statistics such as the generation of the velocity field anisotropy, the model does not work so well. It may be argued that the discrepancy arises due to the local approximation to the intrinsically non-local pressure transport in physical-space, the effect of which would be particularly strong at short-times when the inhomogeneity of the SFML is strongest. Motivated by these results, we briefly discuss a new model that captures the non-local transport effects, for arbitrarily strong inhomogeneities of the flow.
Multigrid solution of incompressible turbulent flows by using two-equation turbulence models
Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Sung, C.H.
1996-12-31
Most of practical flows are turbulent. From the interest of engineering applications, simulation of realistic flows is usually done through solution of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and turbulence model equations. It has been widely accepted that turbulence modeling plays a very important role in numerical simulation of practical flow problem, particularly when the accuracy is of great concern. Among the most used turbulence models today, two-equation models appear to be favored for the reason that they are more general than algebraic models and affordable with current available computer resources. However, investigators using two-equation models seem to have been more concerned with the solution of N-S equations. Less attention is paid to the solution method for the turbulence model equations. In most cases, the turbulence model equations are loosely coupled with N-S equations, multigrid acceleration is only applied to the solution of N-S equations due to perhaps the fact the turbulence model equations are source-term dominant and very stiff in sublayer region.
Full Waveform 3D Synthetic Seismic Algorithm for 1D Layered Anelastic Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwaiger, H. F.; Aldridge, D. F.; Haney, M. M.
2007-12-01
Numerical calculation of synthetic seismograms for 1D layered earth models remains a significant aspect of amplitude-offset investigations, surface wave studies, microseismic event location approaches, and reflection interpretation or inversion processes. Compared to 3D finite-difference algorithms, memory demand and execution time are greatly reduced, enabling rapid generation of seismic data within workstation or laptop computational environments. We have developed a frequency-wavenumber forward modeling algorithm adapted to realistic 1D geologic media, for the purpose of calculating seismograms accurately and efficiently. The earth model consists of N layers bounded by two halfspaces. Each layer/halfspace is a homogeneous and isotropic anelastic (attenuative and dispersive) solid, characterized by a rectangular relaxation spectrum of absorption mechanisms. Compressional and shear phase speeds and quality factors are specified at a particular reference frequency. Solution methodology involves 3D Fourier transforming the three coupled, second- order, integro-differential equations for particle displacements to the frequency-horizontal wavenumber domain. An analytic solution of the resulting ordinary differential system is obtained. Imposition of welded interface conditions (continuity of displacement and stress) at all interfaces, as well as radiation conditions in the two halfspaces, yields a system of 6(N+1) linear algebraic equations for the coefficients in the ODE solution. An optimized inverse 2D Fourier transform to the space domain gives the seismic wavefield on a horizontal plane. Finally, three-component seismograms are obtained by accumulating frequency spectra at designated receiver positions on this plane, followed by a 1D inverse FFT from angular frequency ω to time. Stress-free conditions may be applied at the top or bottom interfaces, and seismic waves are initiated by force or moment density sources. Examples reveal that including attenuation
1D numerical model of muddy subaqueous and subaerial debris flows
Imran, J.; Parker, G.; Locat, J.; Lee, H.
2001-01-01
A 1D numerical model of the downslope flow and deposition of muddy subaerial and subaqueous debris flows is presented. The model incorporates the Herschel-Bulkley and bilinear rheologies of viscoplastic fluid. The more familiar Bingham model is integrated into the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model. The conservation equations of mass and momentum of single-phase laminar debris flow are layer-integrated using the slender flow approximation. They are then expressed in a Lagrangian framework and solved numerically using an explicit finite difference scheme. Starting from a given initial shape, a debris flow is allowed to collapse and propagate over a specified topography. Comparison between the model predictions and laboratory experiments shows reasonable agreement. The model is used to study the effect of the ambient fluid density, initial shape of the failed mass, and rheological model on the simulated propagation of the front and runout characteristics of muddy debris flows. It is found that initial failure shape influence the front velocity but has little bearing on the final deposit shape. In the Bingham model, the excess of shear stress above the yield strength is proportional to the strain rate to the first power. This exponent is free to vary in the Herschel-Bulkley model. When it is set at a value lower than unity, the resulting final deposits are thicker and shorter than in the case of the Bingham rheology. The final deposit resulting from the bilinear model is longer and thinner than that from the Bingham model due to the fact that the debris flow is allowed to act as a Newtonian fluid at low shear rate in the bilinear model.
Toward Better Modeling of Supercritical Turbulent Mixing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Selle, Laurent; Okongo'o, Nora; Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth
2008-01-01
study was done as part of an effort to develop computational models representing turbulent mixing under thermodynamic supercritical (here, high pressure) conditions. The question was whether the large-eddy simulation (LES) approach, developed previously for atmospheric-pressure compressible-perfect-gas and incompressible flows, can be extended to real-gas non-ideal (including supercritical) fluid mixtures. [In LES, the governing equations are approximated such that the flow field is spatially filtered and subgrid-scale (SGS) phenomena are represented by models.] The study included analyses of results from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of several such mixing layers based on the Navier-Stokes, total-energy, and conservation- of-chemical-species governing equations. Comparison of LES and DNS results revealed the need to augment the atmospheric- pressure LES equations with additional SGS momentum and energy terms. These new terms are the direct result of high-density-gradient-magnitude regions found in the DNS and observed experimentally under fully turbulent flow conditions. A model has been derived for the new term in the momentum equation and was found to perform well at small filter size but to deteriorate with increasing filter size. Several alternative models were derived for the new SGS term in the energy equation that would need further investigations to determine if they are too computationally intensive in LES.
Finite-element numerical modeling of atmospheric turbulent boundary layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, H. N.; Kao, S. K.
1979-01-01
A dynamic turbulent boundary-layer model in the neutral atmosphere is constructed, using a dynamic turbulent equation of the eddy viscosity coefficient for momentum derived from the relationship among the turbulent dissipation rate, the turbulent kinetic energy and the eddy viscosity coefficient, with aid of the turbulent second-order closure scheme. A finite-element technique was used for the numerical integration. In preliminary results, the behavior of the neutral planetary boundary layer agrees well with the available data and with the existing elaborate turbulent models, using a finite-difference scheme. The proposed dynamic formulation of the eddy viscosity coefficient for momentum is particularly attractive and can provide a viable alternative approach to study atmospheric turbulence, diffusion and air pollution.
Turner, A J; Gogoberidze, G; Chapman, S C
2012-02-24
Single point spacecraft observations of the turbulent solar wind flow exhibit a characteristic nonaxisymmetric anisotropy that depends sensitively on the perpendicular power spectral exponent. We use this nonaxisymmetric anisotropy as a function of wave vector direction to test models of MHD turbulence. Using Ulysses magnetic field observations in the fast, quiet polar solar wind we find that the Goldreich-Sridhar model of MHD turbulence is not consistent with the observed anisotropy, whereas the observations are well reproduced by the "slab+2D" model. The Goldreich-Sridhar model alone cannot account for the observations unless an additional component is also present. PMID:22463536
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artemov, V. I.; Sinkevich, O. A.
1986-02-01
A semiempirical turbulence model describing the interaction between an electric arc and a turbulent gas flow is proposed which is based on the closure of the balance equations of second-order moments. The model accounts for the effect of gas density and electrodynamic parameter fluctuations. Based on the model proposed here, an algorithm is developed for calculating turbulent plasma flows in channels with complex boundary conditions, such as injection and suction. The efficiency of the model is verified experimentally.
Stellarator Turbulence: Subdominant Eigenmodes and Quasilinear Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pueschel, M. J.; Faber, B. J.; Citrin, J.; Hegna, C. C.; Terry, P. W.; Hatch, D. R.
2016-02-01
Owing to complex geometry, gyrokinetic simulations in stellarator geometry produce large numbers of subdominant unstable and stable, near-orthogonal eigenmodes. Here, results based on the full eigenmode spectrum in stellarator geometry are presented for the first time. In the nonlinear state of a low-magnetic-shear ion-temperature-gradient-driven case, a multitude of these modes are active and imprint the system. Turbulent frequency spectra are broadband as a consequence, in addition to a nonlinear, narrow signature at electron frequencies. It is shown that successful quasilinear, mixing-length transport modeling is possible in stellarators, where it is essential to account for all subdominant unstable modes.
Low dimensional modeling of wall turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aubry, Nadine
2015-11-01
In this talk we will review the original low dimensional dynamical model of the wall region of a turbulent boundary layer [Aubry, Holmes, Lumley and Stone, Journal of Fluid Dynamics 192, 1988] and discuss its impact on the field of fluid dynamics. We will also invite a few researchers who would like to make brief comments on the influence Lumley had on their research paths. In collaboration with Philip Holmes, Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.
Uniform Contractivity in Wasserstein Metric for the Original 1D Kac's Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hauray, Maxime
2016-03-01
We study here a very popular 1D jump model introduced by Kac: it consists of N velocities encountering random binary collisions at which they randomly exchange energy. We show the uniform (in N) exponential contractivity of the dynamics in a non-standard Monge-Kantorovich-Wasserstein: precisely the MKW metric of order 2 on the energy. The result is optimal in the sense that for each N, the contractivity constant is equal to the L^2 spectral gap of the generator associated to Kac's dynamic. As a corollary, we get an uniform but non optimal contractivity in the MKW metric of order 4. We use a simple coupling that works better that the parallel one. The estimates are simple and new (to the best of our knowledge).
Initial Stage of the Microwave Ionization Wave Within a 1D Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, V. E.; Rakova, E. I.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Nusinovich, G. S.
2016-06-01
The dynamics of the microwave breakdown in a gas is simulated numerically within a simple 1D model which takes into account such processes as the impact ionization of gas molecules, the attachment of electrons to neutral molecules, and plasma diffusion. Calculations are carried out for different spatial distributions of seed electrons with account for reflection of the incident electromagnetic wave from the plasma. The results reveal considerable dependence of the ionization wave evolution on the relation between the field frequency and gas pressure, as well as on the existence of extended rarefied halo of seed electrons. At relatively low gas pressures (or high field frequencies), the breakdown process is accompanied by the stationary ionization wave moving towards the incident electromagnetic wave. In the case of a high gas pressure (or a relatively low field frequency), the peculiarities of the breakdown are associated with the formation of repetitive jumps of the ionization front.
Turbulence modeling in non-inertial frames of reference
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Speziale, Charles G.
1988-01-01
The effect of an arbitrary change of frame on the structure of turbulence models is examined from a fundamental theoretical standpoint. It is proven, as a rigorous consequence of the Navier-Stokes equations, that turbulence models must be form invariant under arbitrary translational accelerations of the reference frame and should only be affected by rotations through the intrinsic mean vorticity. A direct application of the invariance property along with the Taylor-Proudman Theorem, material frame-indifference in the limit of two-dimensional turbulence and Rapid Distortion Theory is shown to yield powerful constraints on the allowable form of turbulence models. Most of the commonly used turbulence models are demonstrated to be in serious violation of these constraints and consequently are inconsistent with the Navier-Stokes equations in non-inertial frames. Alternative models with improved non-inertial properties are developed and some simple applications to rotating turbulent flows are considered.
Turbulence Modeling of Non-equilibrium Flows Using Turbulent Body Force Potentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hudong; Perot, Blair
1998-11-01
Results of a new turbulence model for non-equilibrium flow which is based on turbulent body force potentials are presented. Initial predictions of the model for basic turbulent flows produced promising results. This work concentrates on predicting more complex and realistic turbulent flows that are similar to the problems in design and manufacturing process. Three major cases are presented and the computational results are compared with existing experimental data and DNS data whenever possible. First, backwards-facing step flows at both high and low Reynolds numbers are investigated in order to evaluate the model's ability for correctly predicting separation and reattachment. Second, two adverse pressure gradient flows are analyzed, namely, the classic Samuel & Joubert flow and more severe case documented by Schubauer & Spangenberg. Finally, the performance of the model in predicting stagnation flows is evaluated by investigating planar and axisymmetric impinging jets. Comparisons show that model predictions match well with experimental data and DNS data. It is demonstrated that by introducing turbulent body force potentials this new non-equilibrium turbulence model is able to predict complex turbulent flows as well as Reynolds stress transport models with significant less computational cost and complexity.
HELIOS-CR A 1-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code with inline atomic kinetics modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macfarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. E.; Woodruff, P. R.
2006-05-01
HELIOS-CR is a user-oriented 1D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code to simulate the dynamic evolution of laser-produced plasmas and z-pinch plasmas. It includes an in-line collisional-radiative (CR) model for computing non-LTE atomic level populations at each time step of the hydrodynamics simulation. HELIOS-CR has been designed for ease of use, and is well-suited for experimentalists, as well as graduate and undergraduate student researchers. The energy equations employed include models for laser energy deposition, radiation from external sources, and high-current discharges. Radiative transport can be calculated using either a multi-frequency flux-limited diffusion model, or a multi-frequency, multi-angle short characteristics model. HELIOS-CR supports the use of SESAME equation of state (EOS) tables, PROPACEOS EOS/multi-group opacity data tables, and non-LTE plasma properties computed using the inline CR modeling. Time-, space-, and frequency-dependent results from HELIOS-CR calculations are readily displayed with the HydroPLOT graphics tool. In addition, the results of HELIOS simulations can be post-processed using the SPECT3D Imaging and Spectral Analysis Suite to generate images and spectra that can be directly compared with experimental measurements. The HELIOS-CR package runs on Windows, Linux, and Mac OSX platforms, and includes online documentation. We will discuss the major features of HELIOS-CR, and present example results from simulations.
Application of HYDRUS 1D model for assessment of phenol-soil adsorption dynamics.
Pal, Supriya; Mukherjee, Somnath; Ghosh, Sudipta
2014-04-01
Laboratory-scale batch, vertical, and horizontal column experiments were conducted to investigate the attenuative capacity of a fine-grained clayey soil of local origin in the surrounding of a steel plant wastewater discharge site in West Bengal, India, for removal of phenol. Linear, Langmuir, and Freundlich isotherm plots from batch experimental data revealed that Freundlich isotherm model was reasonably fitted (R (2) = 0.94). The breakthrough column experiments were also carried out with different soil bed heights (5, 10, and 15 cm) under uniform flow to study the hydraulic movements of phenol by evaluating time concentration flow behavior using bromide as a tracer. The horizontal migration test was also conducted in the laboratory using adsorptive phenol and nonreactive bromide tracer to explore the movement of solute in a horizontal distance. The hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients (D) in the vertical and horizontal directions in the soil were estimated using nonlinear least-square parameter optimization method in CXTFIT model. In addition, the equilibrium convection dispersion model in HYDRUS 1D was also examined to simulate the fate and transport of phenol in vertical and horizontal directions using Freundlich isotherm constants and estimated hydrodynamic parameters as input in the model. The model efficacy and validation were examined through statistical parameters such as the coefficient of determination (R (2)), root mean square error and design of index (d). PMID:24407784
Wave turbulence in shallow water models.
Clark di Leoni, P; Cobelli, P J; Mininni, P D
2014-06-01
We study wave turbulence in shallow water flows in numerical simulations using two different approximations: the shallow water model and the Boussinesq model with weak dispersion. The equations for both models were solved using periodic grids with up to 2048{2} points. In all simulations, the Froude number varies between 0.015 and 0.05, while the Reynolds number and level of dispersion are varied in a broader range to span different regimes. In all cases, most of the energy in the system remains in the waves, even after integrating the system for very long times. For shallow flows, nonlinear waves are nondispersive and the spectrum of potential energy is compatible with ∼k{-2} scaling. For deeper (Boussinesq) flows, the nonlinear dispersion relation as directly measured from the wave and frequency spectrum (calculated independently) shows signatures of dispersion, and the spectrum of potential energy is compatible with predictions of weak turbulence theory, ∼k{-4/3}. In this latter case, the nonlinear dispersion relation differs from the linear one and has two branches, which we explain with a simple qualitative argument. Finally, we study probability density functions of the surface height and find that in all cases the distributions are asymmetric. The probability density function can be approximated by a skewed normal distribution as well as by a Tayfun distribution. PMID:25019897
Turbulence modeling for impinging jet flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Childs, Robert E.; Rodman, Laura C.; Bradshaw, Peter; Bott, Donald M.; Shoemaker, William C.
1992-01-01
The objective of the present work is to improve the accuracy of the k-epsilon turbulence model for flows involving one or more jets impinging on a plate in a crossflow which generate a horseshoe vortex. The k-epsilon model is modified by adding source terms to the epsilon equation, which enables it to more accurately predict the shear stress in flows subject to streamline curvature and vortex stretching (or lateral divergence). Calculations with the modified model predict the ground vortex core to be about 15 percent upstream of its experimental location. This is a significant improvement over the standard model which yields higher errors for calculation of the vortex-core location.
Multigrid acceleration and turbulence models for computations of 3D turbulent jets in crossflow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, A. O.
1992-01-01
A multigrid method is presented for the calculation of three-dimensional turbulent jets in crossflow. Turbulence closure is achieved with either the standard k-epsilon model or a Reynolds stress model (RSM). Multigrid acceleration enables convergence rates which are far superior to that for a single grid method to be obtained with both turbulence models. With the k-epsilon model the rate approaches that for laminar flow, but with RSM it is somewhat slower. The increased stiffness of the system of equation in the latter may be responsible. Computed results with both turbulence models are compared to experimental data for a pair of opposed jets in crossflow. Both models yield reasonable agreement for the mean flow velocity, but RSM yields better predictions of the Reynolds stresses.
Kolmogorov Behavior of Near-Wall Turbulence and Its Application in Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.
1992-01-01
The near-wall behavior of turbulence is re-examined in a way different from that proposed by Hanjalic and Launder and followers. It is shown that at a certain distance from the wall, all energetic large eddies will reduce to Kolmogorov eddies (the smallest eddies in turbulence). All the important wall parameters, such as friction velocity, viscous length scale, and mean strain rate at the wall, are characterized by Kolmogorov microscales. According to this Kolmogorov behavior of near-wall turbulence, the turbulence quantities, such as turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate, etc. at the location where the large eddies become Kolmogorov eddies, can be estimated by using both direct numerical simulation (DNS) data and asymptotic analysis of near-wall turbulence. This information will provide useful boundary conditions for the turbulent transport equations. As an example, the concept is incorporated in the standard k-epsilon model which is then applied to channel and boundary flows. Using appropriate boundary conditions (based on Kolmogorov behavior of near-wall turbulence), there is no need for any wall-modification to the k-epsilon equations (including model constants). Results compare very well with the DNS and experimental data.
A near-wall turbulence model and its application to fully developed turbulent channel and pipe flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, S.-W.
1988-01-01
A near wall turbulence model and its incorporation into a multiple-time-scale turbulence model are presented. In the method, the conservation of mass, momentum, and the turbulent kinetic energy equations are integrated up to the wall; and the energy transfer rate and the dissipation rate inside the near wall layer are obtained from algebraic equations. The algebraic equations for the energy transfer rate and the dissipation rate inside the near wall layer were obtained from a k-equation turbulence model and the near wall analysis. A fully developed turbulent channel flow and fully developed turbulent pipe flows were solved using a finite element method to test the predictive capability of the turbulence model. The computational results compared favorably with experimental data. It is also shown that the present turbulence model could resolve the over shoot phenomena of the turbulent kinetic energy and the dissipation rate in the region very close to the wall.
Algebraic Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norris, Andrew T.
2012-01-01
The results of a series of Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) and Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) simulations are compared to each other over a wide range of operating conditions. It is found that the PaSR results can be simulated by a PSR solution with just an adjusted chemical reaction rate. A simple expression has been developed that gives the required change in reaction rate for a PSR solution to simulate the PaSR results. This expression is the basis of a simple turbulence-chemistry interaction model. The interaction model that has been developed is intended for use with simple one-step global reaction mechanisms and for steady-state flow simulations. Due to the simplicity of the model there is very little additional computational cost in adding it to existing CFD codes.
Assessing the habitability of planets with Earth-like atmospheres with 1D and 3D climate modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godolt, M.; Grenfell, J. L.; Kitzmann, D.; Kunze, M.; Langematz, U.; Patzer, A. B. C.; Rauer, H.; Stracke, B.
2016-07-01
Context. The habitable zone (HZ) describes the range of orbital distances around a star where the existence of liquid water on the surface of an Earth-like planet is in principle possible. The applicability of one-dimensional (1D) climate models for the estimation of the HZ boundaries has been questioned by recent three-dimensional (3D) climate studies. While 3D studies can calculate the water vapor, ice albedo, and cloud feedback self-consistently and therefore allow for a deeper understanding and the identification of relevant climate processes, 1D model studies rely on fewer model assumptions and can be more easily applied to the large parameter space possible for extrasolar planets. Aims: We evaluate the applicability of 1D climate models to estimate the potential habitability of Earth-like extrasolar planets by comparing our 1D model results to those of 3D climate studies in the literature. We vary the two important planetary properties, surface albedo and relative humidity, in the 1D model. These depend on climate feedbacks that are not treated self-consistently in most 1D models. Methods: We applied a cloud-free 1D radiative-convective climate model to calculate the climate of Earth-like planets around different types of main-sequence stars with varying surface albedo and relative humidity profile. We compared the results to those of 3D model calculations available in the literature and investigated to what extent the 1D model can approximate the surface temperatures calculated by the 3D models. Results: The 1D parameter study results in a large range of climates possible for an Earth-sized planet with an Earth-like atmosphere and water reservoir at a certain stellar insolation. At some stellar insolations the full spectrum of climate states could be realized, i.e., uninhabitable conditions due to surface temperatures that are too high or too low as well as habitable surface conditions, depending only on the relative humidity and surface albedo assumed. When
An abbreviated Reynolds stress turbulence model for airfoil flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaffney, R. L., Jr.; Hassan, H. A.; Salas, M. D.
1990-01-01
An abbreviated Reynolds stress turbulence model is presented for solving turbulent flow over airfoils. The model consists of two partial differential equations, one for the Reynolds shear stress and the other for the turbulent kinetic energy. The normal stresses and the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy are computed from algebraic relationships having the correct asymptotic near wall behavior. This allows the model to be integrated all the way to the wall without the use of wall functions. Results for a flat plate at zero angle of attack, a NACA 0012 airfoil and a RAE 2822 airfoil are presented.
Testing the accuracy of a 1-D volcanic plume model in estimating mass eruption rate
Mastin, Larry G.
2014-01-01
During volcanic eruptions, empirical relationships are used to estimate mass eruption rate from plume height. Although simple, such relationships can be inaccurate and can underestimate rates in windy conditions. One-dimensional plume models can incorporate atmospheric conditions and give potentially more accurate estimates. Here I present a 1-D model for plumes in crosswind and simulate 25 historical eruptions where plume height Hobs was well observed and mass eruption rate Mobs could be calculated from mapped deposit mass and observed duration. The simulations considered wind, temperature, and phase changes of water. Atmospheric conditions were obtained from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis 2.5° model. Simulations calculate the minimum, maximum, and average values (Mmin, Mmax, and Mavg) that fit the plume height. Eruption rates were also estimated from the empirical formula Mempir = 140Hobs4.14 (Mempir is in kilogram per second, Hobs is in kilometer). For these eruptions, the standard error of the residual in log space is about 0.53 for Mavg and 0.50 for Mempir. Thus, for this data set, the model is slightly less accurate at predicting Mobs than the empirical curve. The inability of this model to improve eruption rate estimates may lie in the limited accuracy of even well-observed plume heights, inaccurate model formulation, or the fact that most eruptions examined were not highly influenced by wind. For the low, wind-blown plume of 14–18 April 2010 at Eyjafjallajökull, where an accurate plume height time series is available, modeled rates do agree better with Mobs than Mempir.
1D Chemical Modeling of coupled snow-atmosphere chemistry at Dome C Antarctica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gil, Jaime E.; Thomas, Jennie; von Glasgow, Roland; Bekki, Slimane; Kukui, Alexandre; Frey, Markus; Jourdain, Bruno; Kerbrat, Michel; Genthon, Christophe; Preuknert, Susanne; Legrand, Michel
2013-04-01
High levels of nitrogen oxides NOx (NOx=NO+NO2) generated by the photolysis of nitrate present in surface snow profoundly impact atmospheric composition and oxidizing capacity in the Antarctic boundary layer. In particular, NOx emissions from sunlit snow increase OH values by effectively recycling HO2 to OH. In order to better characterize this chemistry the OPALE campaign was conducted in December 2011/January 2012 at Dome C, Antarctica (altitude of 3,233 meters, 75 ° S, 123 ° E). The campaign included boundary layer profiling, measurements of the physical properties of snow, as well as a comprehensive suite of atmospheric chemistry measurements (including NOx, HONO, OH and RO2, H2O2, CH2O, O3). We present results using the 1-D coupled snow-boundary layer model MISTRA-SNOW in combination with observations made during the measurement campaign to understand this chemistry. The model includes both chemistry at the surface of snow grains (aqueous chemistry), in firn air (gas phase chemistry), and gas/aerosol chemistry in the boundary layer. Model predictions of NOx mixing ratios using a model sensitivity analysis approach are presented. The model was initialized using measured snow properties, including temperature, density, and snow grain size. In addition, the model dynamics are driven using the measured surface temperature at Dome C. To calculate the rate of snowpack ventilation, measured wind speeds during the campaign were used. The model was run varying the amount of nitrate and bromide available for reaction at the surface of snow grains and results are compared to measurements made in the atmospheric boundary from 2-4 January 2012. We test the hypothesis that very low concentrations of bromine may alter the ratio of NO/NO2. We also investigate the influence of NOx emissions from snow, and bromine (if present), on OH concentrations in the boundary layer on the Antarctic plateau.
Second-order closure models for supersonic turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Speziale, Charles G.; Sarkar, Sutanu
1991-01-01
Recent work on the development of a second-order closure model for high-speed compressible flows is reviewed. This turbulent closure is based on the solution of modeled transport equations for the Favre-averaged Reynolds stress tensor and the solenoidal part of the turbulent dissipation rate. A new model for the compressible dissipation is used along with traditional gradient transport models for the Reynolds heat flux and mass flux terms. Consistent with simple asymptotic analyses, the deviatoric part of the remaining higher-order correlations in the Reynolds stress transport equations are modeled by a variable density extension of the newest incompressible models. The resulting second-order closure model is tested in a variety of compressible turbulent flows which include the decay of isotropic turbulence, homogeneous shear flow, the supersonic mixing layer, and the supersonic flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. Comparisons between the model predictions and the results of physical and numerical experiments are quite encouraging.
The optimization of high resolution topographic data for 1D hydrodynamic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ales, Ronovsky; Michal, Podhoranyi
2016-06-01
The main focus of our research presented in this paper is to optimize and use high resolution topographical data (HRTD) for hydrological modelling. Optimization of HRTD is done by generating adaptive mesh by measuring distance of coarse mesh and the surface of the dataset and adapting the mesh from the perspective of keeping the geometry as close to initial resolution as possible. Technique described in this paper enables computation of very accurate 1-D hydrodynamic models. In the paper, we use HEC-RAS software as a solver. For comparison, we have chosen the amount of generated cells/grid elements (in whole discretization domain and selected cross sections) with respect to preservation of the accuracy of the computational domain. Generation of the mesh for hydrodynamic modelling is strongly reliant on domain size and domain resolution. Topographical dataset used in this paper was created using LiDAR method and it captures 5.9km long section of a catchment of the river Olše. We studied crucial changes in topography for generated mesh. Assessment was done by commonly used statistical and visualization methods.
A 1-D evolutionary model for icy satellites, applied to Enceladus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malamud, Uri; Prialnik, Dina
2016-04-01
We develop a long-term 1-D evolution model for icy satellites that couples multiple processes: water migration and differentiation, geochemical reactions and silicate phase transitions, compaction by self-gravity, and ablation. The model further considers the following energy sources and sinks: tidal heating, radiogenic heating, geochemical energy released by serpentinization or absorbed by mineral dehydration, gravitational energy and insolation, and heat transport by conduction, convection, and advection. We apply the model to Enceladus, by guessing the initial conditions that would render a structure compatible with present-day observations, assuming the initial structure to have been homogeneous. Assuming the satellite has been losing water continually along its evolution, we postulate that it was formed as a more massive, more icy and more porous satellite, and gradually transformed into its present day state due to sustained long-term tidal heating. We consider several initial compositions and evolution scenarios and follow the evolution for the age of the Solar System, testing the present day model results against the available observational constraints. Our model shows the present configuration to be differentiated into a pure icy mantle, several tens of km thick, overlying a rocky core, composed of dehydrated rock at the center and hydrated rock in the outer part. For Enceladus, it predicts a higher rock/ice mass ratio than previously assumed and a thinner ice mantle, compatible with recent estimates based on gravity field measurements. Although, obviously, the model cannot be used to explain local phenomena, it sheds light on the internal structure invoked in explanations of localized features and activities.
Numerical modeling of pulsatile turbulent flow in stenotic vessels.
Varghese, Sonu S; Frankel, Steven H
2003-08-01
Pulsatile turbulent flow in stenotic vessels has been numerically modeled using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation approach. The commercially available computational fluid dynamics code (CFD), FLUENT, has been used for these studies. Two different experiments were modeled involving pulsatile flow through axisymmetric stenoses. Four different turbulence models were employed to study their influence on the results. It was found that the low Reynolds number k-omega turbulence model was in much better agreement with previous experimental measurements than both the low and high Reynolds number versions of the RNG (renormalization-group theory) k-epsilon turbulence model and the standard k-epsilon model, with regard to predicting the mean flow distal to the stenosis including aspects of the vortex shedding process and the turbulent flow field. All models predicted a wall shear stress peak at the throat of the stenosis with minimum values observed distal to the stenosis where flow separation occurred. PMID:12968569
Subgrid models for mass and thermal diffusion in turbulent mixing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, H.; Yu, Y.; Glimm, J.; Li, X.-L.; Sharp, D. H.
2010-12-01
We propose a new method for the large eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent mixing flows. The method yields convergent probability distribution functions (PDFs) for temperature and concentration and a chemical reaction rate when applied to reshocked Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) unstable flows. Because such a mesh convergence is an unusual and perhaps original capability for LES of RM flows, we review previous validation studies of the principal components of the algorithm. The components are (i) a front tracking code, FronTier, to control numerical mass diffusion and (ii) dynamic subgrid scale (SGS) models to compensate for unresolved scales in the LES. We also review the relevant code comparison studies. We compare our results to a simple model based on 1D diffusion, taking place in the geometry defined statistically by the interface (the 50% isoconcentration surface between the two fluids). Several conclusions important to physics could be drawn from our study. We model chemical reactions with no closure approximations beyond those in the LES of the fluid variables itself, and as with dynamic SGS models, these closures contain no adjustable parameters. The chemical reaction rate is specified by the joint PDF for temperature and concentration. We observe a bimodal distribution for the PDF and we observe significant dependence on fluid transport parameters.
Turbulence Modeling for Unsteady Transonic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, J. G.; Levy, L. L., Jr.; Seegmiller, H. L.
1980-01-01
Conditionally sampled, ensemble-averaged velocity measurements, made with a laser velocimeter, were taken in the flowfield over the rear half of an 18% thick circular arc airfoil at zero incidence tested at M = 0.76 and at a Reynolds number based on chord of 11 x 10(exp 6). Data for one cycle of periodic unsteady flow having a reduced frequency f of 0.49 are analyzed. A series of compression waves, which develop in the early stages of the cycle, strengthen and coalesce into a strong shock wave that moves toward the airfoil leading edge. A thick shear layer forms downstream of the shock wave. The kinetic energy and shear stresses increase dramatically, reach a maximum when dissipation and diffusion of the turbulence exceed production, and then decrease substantially. The response lime of the turbulence to the changes brought about by the shock-wave passage upstream depends on the shock-wave strength and position in the boundary layer. The cycle completes itself when the shock wave passes the midchord, weakens, and the shear layer collapses. Remarkably good comparisons are found with computations that employ the time-dependent Reynolds averaged form of the Navier-Stokes equations using an algebraic eddy viscosity model, developed for steady flows.
Topological order in 1D super-lattice Bose-Hubbard models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleischhauer, Michael; Grusdt, Fabian; Hoening, Michael
2013-05-01
After the discovery of topological insulators as a new state of matter and their consequent classification for free fermions, the question arises what kind of topological order can be supported by incompressible systems of interacting bosons. We consider a 1D super-lattice Hamiltonian with a non-trivial band structure (the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model) and show that its Mott-insulating (MI) states can be classified by a quantized many-body winding number. This quantization is protected by sub-lattice and time-reversal symmetries, and it allows the implementation of a quantized cyclic pumping process (Thouless pump) in a simple super-lattice Bose-Hubbard model (BHM). For extended BHMs we discuss a connection of such a pump with the fractional quantum Hall effect. Furthermore we show that the quantization of the winding number leads to localized, protected edge states at sharp interfaces between topologically distinct MI phases which can be experimentally realized using Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical superlattices. DMRG simulations show that these edge states manifest themself either in localized density maxima or localized density minima, which can easily be detected. Supported by research center OPTIMAS and graduate school MAINZ.
1D Tight-Binding Models Render Quantum First Passage Time "Speakable"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranjith, V.; Kumar, N.
2015-12-01
The calculation of First Passage Time (moreover, even its probability density in time) has so far been generally viewed as an ill-posed problem in the domain of quantum mechanics. The reasons can be summarily seen in the fact that the quantum probabilities in general do not satisfy the Kolmogorov sum rule: the probabilities for entering and non-entering of Feynman paths into a given region of space-time do not in general add up to unity, much owing to the interference of alternative paths. In the present work, it is pointed out that a special case exists (within quantum framework), in which, by design, there exists one and only one available path (i.e., door-way) to mediate the (first) passage -no alternative path to interfere with. Further, it is identified that a popular family of quantum systems - namely the 1d tight binding Hamiltonian systems - falls under this special category. For these model quantum systems, the first passage time distributions are obtained analytically by suitably applying a method originally devised for classical (stochastic) mechanics (by Schroedinger in 1915). This result is interesting especially given the fact that the tight binding models are extensively used in describing everyday phenomena in condense matter physics.
1D-3D hybrid modeling—from multi-compartment models to full resolution models in space and time
Grein, Stephan; Stepniewski, Martin; Reiter, Sebastian; Knodel, Markus M.; Queisser, Gillian
2014-01-01
Investigation of cellular and network dynamics in the brain by means of modeling and simulation has evolved into a highly interdisciplinary field, that uses sophisticated modeling and simulation approaches to understand distinct areas of brain function. Depending on the underlying complexity, these models vary in their level of detail, in order to cope with the attached computational cost. Hence for large network simulations, single neurons are typically reduced to time-dependent signal processors, dismissing the spatial aspect of each cell. For single cell or networks with relatively small numbers of neurons, general purpose simulators allow for space and time-dependent simulations of electrical signal processing, based on the cable equation theory. An emerging field in Computational Neuroscience encompasses a new level of detail by incorporating the full three-dimensional morphology of cells and organelles into three-dimensional, space and time-dependent, simulations. While every approach has its advantages and limitations, such as computational cost, integrated and methods-spanning simulation approaches, depending on the network size could establish new ways to investigate the brain. In this paper we present a hybrid simulation approach, that makes use of reduced 1D-models using e.g., the NEURON simulator—which couples to fully resolved models for simulating cellular and sub-cellular dynamics, including the detailed three-dimensional morphology of neurons and organelles. In order to couple 1D- and 3D-simulations, we present a geometry-, membrane potential- and intracellular concentration mapping framework, with which graph- based morphologies, e.g., in the swc- or hoc-format, are mapped to full surface and volume representations of the neuron and computational data from 1D-simulations can be used as boundary conditions for full 3D simulations and vice versa. Thus, established models and data, based on general purpose 1D-simulators, can be directly coupled to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassan, Kazi; Allen, Deonie; Haynes, Heather
2016-04-01
This paper considers 1D hydraulic model data on the effect of high flow clusters and sequencing on sediment transport. Using observed flow gauge data from the River Caldew, England, a novel stochastic modelling approach was developed in order to create alternative 50 year flow sequences. Whilst the observed probability density of gauge data was preserved in all sequences, the order in which those flows occurred was varied using the output from a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) with generalised Pareto distribution (GP). In total, one hundred 50 year synthetic flow series were generated and used as the inflow boundary conditions for individual flow series model runs using the 1D sediment transport model HEC-RAS. The model routed graded sediment through the case study river reach to define the long-term morphological changes. Comparison of individual simulations provided a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of channel capacity to flow sequence. Specifically, each 50 year synthetic flow sequence was analysed using a 3-month, 6-month or 12-month rolling window approach and classified for clusters in peak discharge. As a cluster is described as a temporal grouping of flow events above a specified threshold, the threshold condition used herein is considered as a morphologically active channel forming discharge event. Thus, clusters were identified for peak discharges in excess of 10%, 20%, 50%, 100% and 150% of the 1 year Return Period (RP) event. The window of above-peak flows also required cluster definition and was tested for timeframes 1, 2, 10 and 30 days. Subsequently, clusters could be described in terms of the number of events, maximum peak flow discharge, cumulative flow discharge and skewness (i.e. a description of the flow sequence). The model output for each cluster was analysed for the cumulative flow volume and cumulative sediment transport (mass). This was then compared to the total sediment transport of a single flow event of equivalent flow volume
Gyrofluid-Gyrokinetic Hybrid Turbulence Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorland, William; Mandell, Noah
2015-11-01
Gyrofluid models of tokamak turbulence are efficient compared to gyrokinetic models, in three senses. First, it is typically easier to develop one's intuition from fluid equations than kinetic equations. Second, because gyrofluid equations are only three-dimensional (instead of 5D or 6D), simulations with gyrofluid models require less memory than kinetic simulations and can therefore more easily fit on highly-optimized computing hardware, such as graphics processors. The third advantage is a result of the first two: one can develop and test ideas quickly with gyrofluid models. The disadvantage of gyrofluid models is their potential lack of physics fidelity. In this poster, we present our attempt to take full advantage of gyrofluid models, without sacrificing physics fidelity. Our approach is encapsulated in the Gryf-X code, which is an implementation of hybrid gyrofluid/gyrokinetic equations. The key improvements that we have brought to bear are: an improved understanding of the cascade of free energy simultaneously in k⊥ and v⊥ an improved model of zonal flow physics; and an implementation of the equations on modern heterogeneous computing platforms, both as a standalone simulation tool and as a component of TRINITY (a transport modeling code for tokamaks).
1D-coupled photochemical model of neutrals, cations and anions in the atmosphere of Titan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobrijevic, M.; Loison, J. C.; Hickson, K. M.; Gronoff, G.
2016-04-01
Many models with different characteristics have been published so far to study the chemical processes at work in Titan's atmosphere. Some models focus on neutral species in the stratosphere or ionic species in the ionosphere, but few of them couple all the species throughout the whole atmosphere. Very few of these emphasize the importance of uncertainties in the chemical scheme and study their propagation in the model. We have developed a new 1D-photochemical model of Titan's atmosphere coupling neutral species with positive and negative ions from the lower atmosphere up to the ionosphere and have compared our results with observations to have a comprehensive view of the chemical processes driving the composition of the stratosphere and ionosphere of Titan. We have updated the neutral, positive ion and negative ion chemistry and have improved the description of N2 photodissociation by introducing high resolution N2 absorption cross sections. We performed for the first time an uncertainty propagation study in a fully coupled ion-neutral model. We determine how uncertainties on rate constants on both neutral and ionic reactions influence the model results and pinpoint the key reactions responsible for this behavior. We find very good agreement between our model results and observations in both the stratosphere and in the ionosphere for most neutral compounds. Our results are also in good agreement with an average INMS mass spectrum and specific flybys in the dayside suggesting that our chemical model (for both neutral and ions) provides a good approximation of Titan's atmospheric chemistry as a whole. Our uncertainty propagation study highlights the difficulty to interpret the INMS mass spectra for masses 14, 31, 41 and we identified the key reactions responsible for these ambiguities. Despite an overall improvement in the chemical model, disagreement for some specific compounds (HC3N, C2H5CN, C2H4) highlights the role that certain physical processes could play
A weakened cascade model for turbulence in astrophysical plasmas
Howes, G. G.; TenBarge, J. M.; Dorland, W.
2011-10-15
A refined cascade model for kinetic turbulence in weakly collisional astrophysical plasmas is presented that includes both the transition between weak and strong turbulence and the effect of nonlocal interactions on the nonlinear transfer of energy. The model describes the transition between weak and strong MHD turbulence and the complementary transition from strong kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) turbulence to weak dissipating KAW turbulence, a new regime of weak turbulence in which the effects of shearing by large scale motions and kinetic dissipation play an important role. The inclusion of the effect of nonlocal motions on the nonlinear energy cascade rate in the dissipation range, specifically the shearing by large-scale motions, is proposed to explain the nearly power-law energy spectra observed in the dissipation range of both kinetic numerical simulations and solar wind observations.
On specification of initial conditions in turbulence models
Rollin, Bertrand; Andrews, Malcolm J
2010-12-01
Recent research has shown that initial conditions have a significant influence on the evolution of a flow towards turbulence. This important finding offers a unique opportunity for turbulence control, but also raises the question of how to properly specify initial conditions in turbulence models. We study this problem in the context of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is an interfacial fluid instability that leads to turbulence and turbulent mixing. It occurs when a light fluid is accelerated in to a heavy fluid because of misalignment between density and pressure gradients. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability plays a key role in a wide variety of natural and man-made flows ranging from supernovae to the implosion phase of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Our approach consists of providing the turbulence models with a predicted profile of its key variables at the appropriate time in accordance to the initial conditions of the problem.
Cenozoic ice volume and temperature simulations with a 1-D ice-sheet model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Boer, B.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; Bintanja, R.; Lourens, L. J.; Tuenter, E.
2009-04-01
Ice volume and temperature for the past 35 Million years is investigated with a 1-D ice-sheet model, simulating ice-sheets on both hemispheres. The simulations include two continental Northern Hemisphere (NH) ice-sheets representative for glaciation on the two major continents, i.e. Eurasia (EAZ) and North America (NAM). Antarctic glaciation is simulated with two separate ice-sheets, respectively for West and East Antarctica. The surface air temperature is reconstructed with an inventive inverse procedure, forced with benthic δ18O data. The procedure linearly relates the temperature to the difference between the modelled and observed marine δ18O 100 years later. The derived temperature, representative for the NH, is used to run the ice-sheet model over 100 years, to obtain a mutually consistent record of marine δ18O, sea level and temperature for the last 35 Ma of the Cenozoic. For Northern Hemispheric glaciations results are good compared to similar simulations performed with a much more comprehensive 3-D ice-sheet model. On average, differences are only 1.9 ˚ C for temperature and 6.1 m for sea level. Results with ice-sheets on both hemispheres are very similar. Most notably, the reconstructed ice volume as function of temperature shows a transition from climate dominated by Antarctic ice volume variation towards NH ice-sheets controlled climate. The transition period falls within the range of interglacials (about -2 to +8 ˚ C with respect to present day) and is thus characterized by lower ice volume changes per ˚ C. The relationship between temperature, sea level and δ18O input is tested with an equilibrium experiment, which results in a linear and symmetric relationship for both temperature and total sea level, providing limited evidence for hysteresis, though transient behaviour is still important. Furthermore results show a rather good comparison with other simulations of Antarctic ice volume and observed sea level and deep-sea temperature.
Turbulence model development and application at Lockheed Fort Worth Company
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Brian R.
1995-01-01
This viewgraph presentation demonstrates that computationally efficient k-l and k-kl turbulence models have been developed and implemented at Lockheed Fort Worth Company. Many years of experience have been gained applying two equation turbulence models to complex three-dimensional flows for design and analysis.
Industry-Wide Workshop on Computational Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shabbir, Aamir (Compiler)
1995-01-01
This publication contains the presentations made at the Industry-Wide Workshop on Computational Turbulence Modeling which took place on October 6-7, 1994. The purpose of the workshop was to initiate the transfer of technology developed at Lewis Research Center to industry and to discuss the current status and the future needs of turbulence models in industrial CFD.
Turbulence modeling for high speed compressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandra, Suresh
1993-01-01
The following grant objectives were delineated in the proposal to NASA: to offer course work in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and related areas to enable mechanical engineering students at North Carolina A&T State University (N.C. A&TSU) to pursue M.S. studies in CFD, and to enable students and faculty to engage in research in high speed compressible flows. Since no CFD-related activity existed at N.C. A&TSU before the start of the NASA grant period, training of students in the CFD area and initiation of research in high speed compressible flows were proposed as the key aspects of the project. To that end, graduate level courses in CFD, boundary layer theory, and fluid dynamics were offered. This effort included initiating a CFD course for graduate students. Also, research work was performed on studying compressibility effects in high speed flows. Specifically, a modified compressible dissipation model, which included a fourth order turbulent Mach number term, was incorporated into the SPARK code and verified for the air-air mixing layer case. The results obtained for this case were compared with a wide variety of experimental data to discern the trends in the mixing layer growth rates with varying convective Mach numbers. Comparison of the predictions of the study with the results of several analytical models was also carried out. The details of the research study are described in the publication entitled 'Compressibility Effects in Modeling Turbulent High Speed Mixing Layers,' which is attached to this report.
Turbulence modeling for high speed compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandra, Suresh
1993-08-01
The following grant objectives were delineated in the proposal to NASA: to offer course work in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and related areas to enable mechanical engineering students at North Carolina A&T State University (N.C. A&TSU) to pursue M.S. studies in CFD, and to enable students and faculty to engage in research in high speed compressible flows. Since no CFD-related activity existed at N.C. A&TSU before the start of the NASA grant period, training of students in the CFD area and initiation of research in high speed compressible flows were proposed as the key aspects of the project. To that end, graduate level courses in CFD, boundary layer theory, and fluid dynamics were offered. This effort included initiating a CFD course for graduate students. Also, research work was performed on studying compressibility effects in high speed flows. Specifically, a modified compressible dissipation model, which included a fourth order turbulent Mach number term, was incorporated into the SPARK code and verified for the air-air mixing layer case. The results obtained for this case were compared with a wide variety of experimental data to discern the trends in the mixing layer growth rates with varying convective Mach numbers. Comparison of the predictions of the study with the results of several analytical models was also carried out. The details of the research study are described in the publication entitled 'Compressibility Effects in Modeling Turbulent High Speed Mixing Layers,' which is attached to this report.
Analysis of two-equation turbulence models for recirculating flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thangam, S.
1991-01-01
The two-equation kappa-epsilon model is used to analyze turbulent separated flow past a backward-facing step. It is shown that if the model constraints are modified to be consistent with the accepted energy decay rate for isotropic turbulence, the dominant features of the flow field, namely the size of the separation bubble and the streamwise component of the mean velocity, can be accurately predicted. In addition, except in the vicinity of the step, very good predictions for the turbulent shear stress, the wall pressure, and the wall shear stress are obtained. The model is also shown to provide good predictions for the turbulence intensity in the region downstream of the reattachment point. Estimated long time growth rates for the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate of homogeneous shear flow are utilized to develop an optimal set of constants for the two equation kappa-epsilon model. The physical implications of the model performance are also discussed.
Comparing turbulence models for flow through a rigid glottal model.
Suh, Jungsoo; Frankel, Steven H
2008-03-01
Flow through a rigid model of the human vocal tract featuring a divergent glottis was numerically modeled using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach. A number of different turbulence models, available in a widely used commercial computational fluid dynamics code, were tested to determine their ability to capture various flow features recently observed in laboratory experiments and large eddy simulation studies. The study reveals that results from unsteady simulations employing the k-omega shear stress transport model were in much better agreement with previous measurements and predictions with regard to the ability to predict glottal jet skewing due to the Coanda effect and the intraglottal pressure distribution or related skin friction coefficient, than either steady or unsteady simulations using the Spalart-Allmaras model or any other two-equation turbulence model investigated in this study. PMID:18345812
Self-assembling morphologies in a 1D model of two-inclusion-containing lipid membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Ling; Cheng, Mingfei; Fang, Jinghuai; Peng, Ju
2016-08-01
The self-assembling morphologies in a 1D model of two-inclusion-containing lipid membranes are investigated by using self-consistent field theory. It is found that the shape and overall volume fraction of lipids, the hydrophobic strength and the distance of inclusions play important roles in the morphology of lipid membrane. The membrane consisting of cylindrical lipids with a symmetrical head and tail only forms the well-known normal morphology. However, for the membrane consisting of cone-like lipids with a relatively big head, the increase of the hydrophobic strength of inclusions can realize the membrane transition from the normal morphology to the pore morphologies. With increasing distance between two inclusions, two pores, three pores and four pores appear in turn. Conversely, the increase of the overall volume fraction of lipids can make the membrane undergo a reentrant transition from pore morphologies to normal morphologies. The results may be helpful in our understanding of the pore-forming mechanism.
Modelling hydrology of a single bioretention system with HYDRUS-1D.
Meng, Yingying; Wang, Huixiao; Chen, Jiangang; Zhang, Shuhan
2014-01-01
A study was carried out on the effectiveness of bioretention systems to abate stormwater using computer simulation. The hydrologic performance was simulated for two bioretention cells using HYDRUS-1D, and the simulation results were verified by field data of nearly four years. Using the validated model, the optimization of design parameters of rainfall return period, filter media depth and type, and surface area was discussed. And the annual hydrologic performance of bioretention systems was further analyzed under the optimized parameters. The study reveals that bioretention systems with underdrains and impervious boundaries do have some detention capability, while their total water retention capability is extremely limited. Better detention capability is noted for smaller rainfall events, deeper filter media, and design storms with a return period smaller than 2 years, and a cost-effective filter media depth is recommended in bioretention design. Better hydrologic effectiveness is achieved with a higher hydraulic conductivity and ratio of the bioretention surface area to the catchment area, and filter media whose conductivity is between the conductivity of loamy sand and sandy loam, and a surface area of 10% of the catchment area is recommended. In the long-term simulation, both infiltration volume and evapotranspiration are critical for the total rainfall treatment in bioretention systems. PMID:25133240
Modelling Hydrology of a Single Bioretention System with HYDRUS-1D
Meng, Yingying; Wang, Huixiao; Chen, Jiangang; Zhang, Shuhan
2014-01-01
A study was carried out on the effectiveness of bioretention systems to abate stormwater using computer simulation. The hydrologic performance was simulated for two bioretention cells using HYDRUS-1D, and the simulation results were verified by field data of nearly four years. Using the validated model, the optimization of design parameters of rainfall return period, filter media depth and type, and surface area was discussed. And the annual hydrologic performance of bioretention systems was further analyzed under the optimized parameters. The study reveals that bioretention systems with underdrains and impervious boundaries do have some detention capability, while their total water retention capability is extremely limited. Better detention capability is noted for smaller rainfall events, deeper filter media, and design storms with a return period smaller than 2 years, and a cost-effective filter media depth is recommended in bioretention design. Better hydrologic effectiveness is achieved with a higher hydraulic conductivity and ratio of the bioretention surface area to the catchment area, and filter media whose conductivity is between the conductivity of loamy sand and sandy loam, and a surface area of 10% of the catchment area is recommended. In the long-term simulation, both infiltration volume and evapotranspiration are critical for the total rainfall treatment in bioretention systems. PMID:25133240
Investigating the Response of Greenland Outlet Glaciers to Perturbations Using a 1D Flowline Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrakopoulos, K.; Stearns, L. A.; van der Veen, C. J.
2015-12-01
Over the past two decades, the behavior of many Greenland tidewater outlet glaciers has been characterized by dramatic acceleration, thinning, and retreat. In some cases this behavior is followed by re-advance, thickening and deceleration. The mechanisms that control glacier stability are not fully understood, and hinder ice sheet mass balance projections. Many studies suggest that accelerations are caused exclusively by processes at the terminus, namely by mechanisms that result in increases in iceberg calving rates. In this study we investigate whether comparable accelerations can initiate at different places along the glacier trunk due to changes in subglacial processes or shear margin evolution. We begin our experiments using a prognostic depth integrated (1-D) flowline model applied to Helheim Glacier, and investigate its flow response to perturbations at the terminus and up-flow. Our work shows that large-scale accelerations could have initiated up-flow far from the terminus. The results of this study will contribute to the long-lasting debate about the role of terminus dynamics, and thus ocean conditions, in modulating ice sheet mass balance.
Spectral functions in the 1D and 2D Bose Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivancic, Robert; Duchon, Eric; Trivedi, Nandini
2014-03-01
We use state of the art numerical techniques including quantum Monte Carlo and maximum entropy methods to obtain the low energy excitation spectra in the superfluid and Mott-insulator phases of the Bose Hubbard model. These results are checked in 1D against Bethe Ansatz and tDMRG results and extended to 2D where such approaches are impossible. In the superfluid, we find linearly dispersing Bogoliubov sound modes as well as additional gapped modes broadened by interaction effects. In the Mott insulator, we find evidence for a finite gap and well defined quasiparticle excitations. We examine properties such as the excitation lifetime, density of states, and speed of sound as the system is tuned across the quantum phase transition that separates the superfluid and Mott states. These results provide an important theoretical framework for upcoming ultracold atom experiments in one and two dimensions. We acknowledge support from the NSF DMR-0907275 (R.I., E.D. and N.T.).
Column Testing and 1D Reactive Transport Modeling to Evaluate Uranium Plume Persistence Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, R. H.; Morrison, S.; Morris, S.; Tigar, A.; Dam, W. L.; Dayvault, J.
2015-12-01
At many U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management sites, 100 year natural flushing was selected as a remedial option for groundwater uranium plumes. However, current data indicate that natural flushing is not occurring as quickly as expected and solid-phase and aqueous uranium concentrations are persistent. At the Grand Junction, Colorado office site, column testing was completed on core collected below an area where uranium mill tailings have been removed. The total uranium concentration in this core was 13.2 mg/kg and the column was flushed with laboratory-created water with no uranium and chemistry similar to the nearby Gunnison River. The core was flushed for a total of 91 pore volumes producing a maximum effluent uranium concentration of 6,110 μg/L at 2.1 pore volumes and a minimum uranium concentration of 36.2 μg/L at the final pore volume. These results indicate complex geochemical reactions at small pore volumes and a long tailing affect at greater pore volumes. Stop flow data indicate the occurrence of non-equilibrium processes that create uranium concentration rebound. These data confirm the potential for plume persistence, which is occurring at the field scale. 1D reactive transport modeling was completed using PHREEQC (geochemical model) and calibrated to the column test data manually and using PEST (inverse modeling calibration routine). Processes of sorption, dual porosity with diffusion, mineral dissolution, dispersion, and cation exchange were evaluated separately and in combination. The calibration results indicate that sorption and dual porosity are major processes in explaining the column test data. These processes are also supported by fission track photographs that show solid-phase uranium residing in less mobile pore spaces. These procedures provide valuable information on plume persistence and secondary source processes that may be used to better inform and evaluate remedial strategies, including natural flushing.
1-D/3-D geologic model of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin
Higley, D.K.; Henry, M.; Roberts, L.N.R.; Steinshouer, D.W.
2005-01-01
The 3-D geologic model of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin comprises 18 stacked intervals from the base of the Devonian Woodbend Group and age equivalent formations to ground surface; it includes an estimated thickness of eroded sediments based on 1-D burial history reconstructions for 33 wells across the study area. Each interval for the construction of the 3-D model was chosen on the basis of whether it is primarily composed of petroleum system elements of reservoir, hydrocarbon source, seal, overburden, or underburden strata, as well as the quality and areal distribution of well and other data. Preliminary results of the modeling support the following interpretations. Long-distance migration of hydrocarbons east of the Rocky Mountains is indicated by oil and gas accumulations in areas within which source rocks are thermally immature for oil and (or) gas. Petroleum systems in the basin are segmented by the northeast-trending Sweetgrass Arch; hydrocarbons west of the arch were from source rocks lying near or beneath the Rocky Mountains, whereas oil and gas east of the arch were sourced from the Williston Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and migration are primarily due to increased burial associated with the Laramide Orogeny. Hydrocarbon sources and migration were also influenced by the Lower Cretaceous sub-Mannville unconformity. In the Peace River Arch area of northern Alberta, Jurassic and older formations exhibit high-angle truncations against the unconformity. Potential Paleozoic though Mesozoic hydrocarbon source rocks are in contact with overlying Mannville Group reservoir facies. In contrast, in Saskatchewan and southern Alberta the contacts are parallel to sub-parallel, with the result that hydrocarbon source rocks are separated from the Mannville Group by seal-forming strata within the Jurassic. Vertical and lateral movement of hydrocarbons along the faults in the Rocky Mountains deformed belt probably also resulted in mixing of oil and gas from numerous
1D and 2D urban dam-break flood modelling in Istanbul, Turkey
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozdemir, Hasan; Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Döker, Fatih
2014-05-01
Urban flood events are increasing in frequency and severity as a consequence of several factors such as reduced infiltration capacities due to continued watershed development, increased construction in flood prone areas due to population growth, the possible amplification of rainfall intensity due to climate change, sea level rise which threatens coastal development, and poorly engineered flood control infrastructure (Gallegos et al., 2009). These factors will contribute to increased urban flood risk in the future, and as a result improved modelling of urban flooding according to different causative factor has been identified as a research priority (Gallegos et al., 2009; Ozdemir et al. 2013). The flooding disaster caused by dam failures is always a threat against lives and properties especially in urban environments. Therefore, the prediction of dynamics of dam-break flows plays a vital role in the forecast and evaluation of flooding disasters, and is of long-standing interest for researchers. Flooding occurred on the Ayamama River (Istanbul-Turkey) due to high intensity rainfall and dam-breaching of Ata Pond in 9th September 2009. The settlements, industrial areas and transportation system on the floodplain of the Ayamama River were inundated. Therefore, 32 people were dead and millions of Euros economic loses were occurred. The aim of this study is 1 and 2-Dimensional flood modelling of the Ata Pond breaching using HEC-RAS and LISFLOOD-Roe models and comparison of the model results using the real flood extent. The HEC-RAS model solves the full 1-D Saint Venant equations for unsteady open channel flow whereas LISFLOOD-Roe is the 2-D shallow water model which calculates the flow according to the complete Saint Venant formulation (Villanueva and Wright, 2006; Neal et al., 2011). The model consists a shock capturing Godunov-type scheme based on the Roe Riemann solver (Roe, 1981). 3 m high resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM), natural characteristics of the pond
Modelling turbulent flame ignition and blowout
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Radhakrishnan, K.; Heywood, J. B.
1979-01-01
A statistical mixing model incorporating an overall rate equation to describe the fuel oxidation process was developed for studies of ignition and blowout in a combustor primary zone. This zone is treated as a partially stirred reactor whose composition is described by a statistical ensemble of equal mass fluid elements. This ensemble experiences mixing interactions, which represent the turbulent mixing process, at time intervals governed by an empirically determined mixing frequency. Each mixing interaction is computed by ramdomly selecting two different elements which are then allowed to mix completely so that they reach a mean composition depending on their thermodynamic states prior to mixing. The two elements then separate, and the chemical kinetics proceed depending on their new composition and temperature.
Turbulence modeling in supersonic combusting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chitsomboon, Tawit
1991-01-01
To support the National Aerospace Plane project, the RPLUS3D CFD code has been developed at NASA Lewis. The code has the ability to solve three-dimensional flowfields with finite rate combustion of hydrogen and air. The combustion processes of the hydrogen-air system are simulated by an 18-reaction path, 8-species chemical kinetic mechanism. The code uses a Lower-Upper (LU) decomposition numerical algorithm as its basis, making it a very efficient and robust code. Except for the Jacobian matrix for the implicit chemistry source terms, there is no inversion of a matrix even though it uses a fully implicit numerical algorithm. A k-epsilon (two equation) turbulence model is incorporated into the RPLUS3D code.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, S.-W.
1989-01-01
Numerical calculations of turbulent reattaching shear layers in a divergent channel are presented. The turbulence is described by a multiple-time-scale turbulence model. The turbulent flow equations are solved by a control-volume based finite difference method. The computational results are compared with those obtained using k-epsilon turbulence models and algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence models. It is shown that the multiple-time-scale turbulence model yields significantly improved computational results than the other turbulence models in the region where the turbulence is in a strongly inequilibrium state.
A 1-D radiative conductive model to study the SOIR/VEx thermal profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahieux, Arnaud; Erwin, Justin T.; Chamberlain, Sarah; Robert, Séverine; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Wilquet, Valérie; Thomas, Ian; Yelle, Roger V.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup
2015-04-01
SOIR is an infrared spectrometer on board Venus Express that probes the Venus terminator region since 2006. The measurements are taken on the morning and evening sides of the terminator, covering all latitudes from the North Pole to the South Pole. Its wavelength range - 2.2 to 4.3 μm - allows a detailed chemical inventory of the Venus atmosphere [1-5], such as CO2, CO, H2O, HCl, HF, SO2 and aerosols. CO2 is detected from 70 km up to 165 km, CO from 70 km to 140 km, and the minor species typically below 110 km down to 70 km. Number density profiles of these species are computed from the measured spectra. Temperature profiles are obtained while computing the spectral inversion of the CO2 spectra combined with the hydrostatic law [6]. These temperature measurements show a striking permanent temperature minimum (at 125 km) and a weaker temperature maximum (over 100-115 km). The time variability of the CO2 density profiles spans over two orders of magnitude, and a clear trend is seen with latitude. The temperature variations are also important, of the order of 35 K for a given pressure level, but the latitude variation are small. Miss-RT, a 1D radiative transfer model has been developed to reproduce the SOIR terminator profiles, derived from the Mars thermosphere code presented in [7]. This model has been expanded to better account for the CO2, CO, and O non-LTE radiative heating and cooling processes which have to be considered in the dense atmosphere of Venus. Radiative cooling by minor species detected by SOIR (e.g. HCl, SO2, and H2O) are found to be small in comparison to the 15 μm CO2 cooling. Aerosol cooling in the 60-90km altitude range may be important to the thermal balance. There is a good agreement between the 1D model temperature profile and the mean SOIR temperature profile. Further we can suggest parameters that can be adjusted to improve the agreement between the model and measurements. The remaining differences can be attributed to the atmosphere
A critical comparison of two-equation turbulence models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lang, N. J.; Shih, T. H.
1991-01-01
Several two-equation models were proposed and tested against benchmark flows by various researchers. For each study, different numerical methods or codes were used to obtain the results which were reported to be an improvement over other models. However, these comparisons may be overshadowed by the different numerical schemes used to obtain the results. With this in mind, several existing two-equation turbulence models, including k-epsilon, k-tau, k-omega, and q-omega models, are implemented into a common flow solver code for near wall turbulent flows. The quality of each model is based on several criteria, including robustness and accuracy of predicting the turbulent quantities.
Modeling of Turbulence Effect on Liquid Jet Atomization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trinh, H. P.
2007-01-01
Recent studies indicate that turbulence behaviors within a liquid jet have considerable effect on the atomization process. Such turbulent flow phenomena are encountered in most practical applications of common liquid spray devices. This research aims to model the effects of turbulence occurring inside a cylindrical liquid jet to its atomization process. The two widely used atomization models Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability of Reitz and the Taylor analogy breakup (TAB) of O'Rourke and Amsden portraying primary liquid jet disintegration and secondary droplet breakup, respectively, are examined. Additional terms are formulated and appropriately implemented into these two models to account for the turbulence effect. Results for the flow conditions examined in this study indicate that the turbulence terms are significant in comparison with other terms in the models. In the primary breakup regime, the turbulent liquid jet tends to break up into large drops while its intact core is slightly shorter than those without turbulence. In contrast, the secondary droplet breakup with the inside liquid turbulence consideration produces smaller drops. Computational results indicate that the proposed models provide predictions that agree reasonably well with available measured data.
Liang, Xiaoyan; Schnaper, H. William; Matsusaka, Taiji; Pastan, Ira; Ledbetter, Steve; Hayashida, Tomoko
2016-01-01
Fibrosis is a final common pathway leading to loss of kidney function, in which the fibrogenic cytokine, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), plays a central role. While previous studies showed that TGF-β antagonism by various means prevents fibrosis in mouse models, clinical approaches based on these findings remain elusive. 1D11 is a neutralizing antibody to all three isoforms of TGF-β. In both adriamycin (ADR)-induced nephropathy and NEP25 podocyte ablation nephropathy, thrice-weekly intraperitoneal administration of 1D11 from the day of disease induction until the mice were sacrificed (day 14 for ADR and day 28 for NEP25), significantly reduced glomerular COL1A2 mRNA accumulation and histological changes. Consistent with our previous findings, proteinuria remained overt in the mice treated with 1D11, suggesting distinct mechanisms for proteinuria and fibrogenesis. Podocyte numbers determined by WT1 staining were significantly reduced in NEP25-model glomeruli as expected, while WT1-positive cells were preserved in mice receiving 1D11. Even when 1D11 was administered after the onset of proteinuria on day 3, 1D11 preserved WT1-positive cell numbers in glomeruli and significantly reduced glomerular scar score (2.5 ± 0.2 [control IgG] vs. 1.8 ± 0.2 [1D11], P < 0.05) and glomerular COL1A2 mRNA expression (19.3 ± 4.4 [control IgG] vs. 8.4 ± 2.4 [1D11] fold increase over the healthy control, P < 0.05). Transmission electron microscopy revealed loss of podocytes and denuded glomerular basement membrane in NEP25 mice with disease, whereas podocytes remained attached to the basement membrane, though effaced and swollen, in those receiving 1D11 from day 3. Together, these data suggest that TGF-β neutralization by 1D11 prevents glomerular fibrosis even when started after the onset of proteinuria. While overt proteinuria and podocyte effacement persist, 1D11 prevents total podocytes detachment, which might be a key event activating fibrogenic events in glomeruli
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmelo, J. M. P.; Čadež, T.
2016-03-01
A modified version of the metallic-phase pseudofermion dynamical theory (PDT) of the 1D Hubbard model is introduced for the spin dynamical correlation functions of the half-filled 1D Hubbard model Mott-Hubbard phase. The Mott-Hubbard insulator phase PDT is applied to the study of the model longitudinal and transverse spin dynamical structure factors at finite magnetic field h, focusing in particular on the singularities at excitation energies in the vicinity of the lower thresholds. The relation of our theoretical results to both condensed-matter and ultra-cold atom systems is discussed.
Rayleigh Wave Dispersion and A 1d S-velocity Model of The Fennoscandian Mantle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Funke, S.; Friederich, W.; Sstwg, The
We derive a Rayleigh wave dispersion curve from surface wave data recorded at the SVEKALAPKO tomographic array deployed in Southern Finland from September 1998 to March 1999. After a suite of processing steps, complex spectral amplitudes of the Rayleigh wave train are determined for each available seismogram. The process- ing includes low-pass filtering, instrument correction, deconvolution using a standard earth model to compress the Rayleigh wave train, computation of Gabor matrices (sonograms) to pick group travel times, and finally estimation of complex spectral amplitudes in a Gaussian time window of frequency-dependent width centered on the group travel time. Spectral amplitude values are only accepted if the signal-to-noise ratio in the considered frequency interval is above a pre-chosen threshold and if the picked group travel time does not deviate too strongly from that predicted by a stan- dard earth model. The final dataset contains spectral amplitude values at 34 selected periods from 52 earthquakes observed at on average 25 stations. For each selected frequency, we determine a phase velocity by fitting plane waves propagating across the array with this velocity to the complex spectral amplitudes of all earthquakes and stations. Errors are estimated with a bootstrap method. We obtain reliable phase velocities in the frequency band from 8 mHz to 50 mHz. Phase veloci- ties for lower frequencies exhibit large errors due to the lack of big earthquakes during the time of deployment. The phase velocities are substantially higher than predicted by standard earth model ak135 below 20 mHz and slightly lower above 25 mHz. We have inverted the dispersion curve for a 1D shear wave velocity model down to about 400 km depth and obtain a 50 km thick crust and a fast upper mantle with a sub- Moho velocity of 4.7 km/s. Our data do not require a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle. Indeed, the dispersion curve can be explained by a nearly straight velocity profile from
Computation of turbulent boundary layer flows with an algebraic stress turbulence model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Sang-Wook; Chen, Yen-Sen
1986-01-01
An algebraic stress turbulence model is presented, characterized by the following: (1) the eddy viscosity expression is derived from the Reynolds stress turbulence model; (2) the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate equation is improved by including a production range time scale; and (3) the diffusion coefficients for turbulence equations are adjusted so that the kinetic energy profile extends further into the free stream region found in most experimental data. The turbulent flow equations were solved using a finite element method. Examples include: fully developed channel flow, fully developed pipe flow, flat plate boundary layer flow, plane jet exhausting into a moving stream, circular jet exhausting into a moving stream, and wall jet flow. Computational results compare favorably with experimental data for most of the examples considered. Significantly improved results were obtained for the plane jet flow, the circular jet flow, and the wall jet flow; whereas the remainder are comparable to those obtained by finite difference methods using the standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model. The latter seems to be promising with further improvement of the expression for the eddy viscosity coefficient.
Modeling turbulent boundary layers in adverse pressure gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Belcher, Stephen E.
1991-01-01
Many of the turbulent layers encountered in practical flows develop in adverse pressure gradients; hence, the dynamics of the thickening and possible separation of the boundary layer has important implications for design practices. What are the key physical processes that govern how a turbulent boundary layer responds to an adverse pressure gradient, and how should these processes be modeled? Despite the ubiquity of such flows in engineering and nature, these equations remain largely unanswered. The turbulence closure models presently used to describe these flows commonly use 'wall functions' that have ad hoc corrections for the effects of pressure gradients. There is, therefore, a practical and theoretical need to examine the effects of adverse pressure gradients on wall bounded turbulent flows in order to develop models based on sound physical principle. The evolution of a turbulent boundary layer on a flat wall with an externally imposed pressure gradient is studied.
Development of a 1D canopy module to couple mesoscale meteorogical model with building energy model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mauree, Dasaraden; Kohler, Manon; Blond, Nadège; Clappier, Alain
2013-04-01
The actual global warming, highlighted by the scientific community, is due to the greenhouse gases emissions resulting from our energy consumption. This energy is mainly produced in cities (about 70% of the total energy use). Around 36% of this energy are used in buildings (residential/tertiary) and this accounts for about 20% of the greenhouse gases emissions. Moreover, the world population is more and more concentrated in urban areas, 50% of the actual world population already lives in cities and this ratio is expected to reach 70% by 2050. With the obviously increasing responsibility of cities in climate change in the future, it is of great importance to go toward more sustainable cities that would reduce the energy consumption in urban areas. The energy use inside buildings is driven by two factors: (1) the level of comfort wished by the inhabitants and (2) the urban climate. On the other hand, the urban climate is influenced by the presence of buildings. Indeed, artificial surfaces of urban areas modify the energy budget of the Earth's surface and furthermore, heat is released into the atmosphere due to the energy used by buildings. Modifications at the building scale (micro-scale) can thus have an influence on the climate of the urban areas and surroundings (meso-scale), and vice and versa. During the last decades, meso-scale models have been developed to simulate the atmospheric conditions for domain of 100-1000km wide with a resolution of few kilometers. Due to their low resolution, the effects of small obstacles (such as buildings, trees, ...) near the ground are not reproduced properly and parameterizations have been developed to represent such effects in meso-scale models. On the other side, micro-scale models have a higher resolution (around 1 meter) and consequently can better simulate the impact of obstacles on the atmospheric heat flux exchanges with the earth surface. However, only a smaller domain (less than 1km) can be simulated for the same
Status of turbulence modeling for hypersonic propulsion flowpaths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Yoder, Dennis A.; Vyas, Manan A.; Engblom, William A.
2014-06-01
This report provides an assessment of current turbulent flow calculation methods for hypersonic propulsion flowpaths, particularly the scramjet engine. Emphasis is placed on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods, but some discussion of newer methods such as large eddy simulation (LES) is also provided. The report is organized by considering technical issues throughout the scramjet-powered vehicle flowpath, including laminar-to-turbulent boundary layer transition, shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions, scalar transport modeling (specifically the significance of turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers), and compressible mixing. Unit problems are primarily used to conduct the assessment. In the combustor, results from calculations of a direct connect supersonic combustion experiment are also used to address the effects of turbulence model selection and in particular settings for the turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers. It is concluded that RANS turbulence modeling shortfalls are still a major limitation to the accuracy of hypersonic propulsion simulations, whether considering individual components or an overall system. Newer methods such as LES-based techniques may be promising, but are not yet at a maturity to be used routinely by the hypersonic propulsion community. The need for fundamental experiments to provide data for turbulence model development and validation is discussed.
Turbulence modeling of gas-solid suspension flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.
1988-01-01
The purpose here is to discuss and review advances in two-phase turbulent modeling techniques and their applications in various gas-solid suspension flow situations. In addition to the turbulence closures, heat transfer effect, particle dispersion and wall effects are partially covered.
Status of Turbulence Modeling for Hypersonic Propulsion Flowpaths
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Yoder, Dennis A.; Vyas, Manan A.; Engblom, William A.
2012-01-01
This report provides an assessment of current turbulent flow calculation methods for hypersonic propulsion flowpaths, particularly the scramjet engine. Emphasis is placed on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods, but some discussion of newer meth- ods such as Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is also provided. The report is organized by considering technical issues throughout the scramjet-powered vehicle flowpath including laminar-to-turbulent boundary layer transition, shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interactions, scalar transport modeling (specifically the significance of turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers) and compressible mixing. Unit problems are primarily used to conduct the assessment. In the combustor, results from calculations of a direct connect supersonic combustion experiment are also used to address the effects of turbulence model selection and in particular settings for the turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers. It is concluded that RANS turbulence modeling shortfalls are still a major limitation to the accuracy of hypersonic propulsion simulations, whether considering individual components or an overall system. Newer methods such as LES-based techniques may be promising, but are not yet at a maturity to be used routinely by the hypersonic propulsion community. The need for fundamental experiments to provide data for turbulence model development and validation is discussed.
Analysis of an RNG based turbulence model for separated flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Speziale, C. G.; Thangam, S.
1992-01-01
A two-equation turbulence model of the K-epsilon type was recently derived by using Renormalization Group (RNG) methods. It was later reported that this RNG based model yields substantially better predictions than the standard K-epsilon model for turbulent flow over a backward facing step - a standard test case used to benchmark the performance of turbulence models in separated flows. The improvements obtained from the RNG K-epsilon model were attributed to the better treatment of near wall turbulence effects. In contrast to these earlier claims, it is shown in this paper that the original version of the RNG K-epsilon model substantially underpredicts the reattachment point in the backstep problem. This is a deficiency that is traced to the modeling of the production of dissipation term. However, with the most recent improvements in the RNG K-epsilon model, excellent results for the backstep problem are now obtained.
Diesel Engine performance improvement in a 1-D engine model using Particle Swarm Optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karra, Prashanth
2015-12-01
A particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique was implemented to improve the engine development and optimization process to simultaneously reduce emissions and improve the fuel efficiency. The optimization was performed on a 4-stroke 4-cylinder GT-Power based 1-D diesel engine model. To achieve the multi-objective optimization, a merit function was defined which included the parameters to be optimized: Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Nonmethyl hydro carbons (NMHC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC). EPA Tier 3 emissions standards for non-road diesel engines between 37 and 75 kW of output were chosen as targets for the optimization. The combustion parameters analyzed in this study include: Start of main Injection, Start of Pilot Injection, Pilot fuel quantity, Swirl, and Tumble. The PSO was found to be very effective in quickly arriving at a solution that met the target criteria as defined in the merit function. The optimization took around 40-50 runs to find the most favourable engine operating condition under the constraints specified in the optimization. In a favourable case with a high merit function values, the NOx+NMHC and CO values were reduced to as low as 2.9 and 0.014 g/kWh, respectively. The operating conditions at this point were: 10 ATDC Main SOI, -25 ATDC Pilot SOI, 0.25 mg of pilot fuel, 0.45 Swirl and 0.85 tumble. These results indicate that late main injections preceded by a close, small pilot injection are most favourable conditions at the operating condition tested.
Testing the early Mars H2-CO2 greenhouse hypothesis with a 1-D photochemical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batalha, Natasha; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Ramirez, Ramses; Kasting, James F.
2015-09-01
A recent study by Ramirez et al. (Ramirez, R.M. et al. [2014]. Nat. Geosci. 7(1), 59-63.) demonstrated that an atmosphere with 1.3-4 bar of CO2 and H2O, in addition to 5-20% H2, could have raised the mean annual and global surface temperature of early Mars above the freezing point of water. Such warm temperatures appear necessary to generate the rainfall (or snowfall) amounts required to carve the ancient martian valleys. Here, we use our best estimates for early martian outgassing rates, along with a 1-D photochemical model, to assess the conversion efficiency of CO, CH4, and H2S to CO2, SO2, and H2. Our outgassing estimates assume that Mars was actively recycling volatiles between its crust and interior, as Earth does today. H2 production from serpentinization and deposition of banded iron-formations is also considered. Under these assumptions, maintaining an H2 concentration of ˜1-2% by volume is achievable, but reaching 5% H2 requires additional H2 sources or a slowing of the hydrogen escape rate below the diffusion limit. If the early martian atmosphere was indeed H2-rich, we might be able to see evidence of this in the rock record. The hypothesis proposed here is consistent with new data from the Curiosity Rover, which show evidence for a long-lived lake in Gale Crater near Mt. Sharp. It is also consistent with measured oxygen fugacities of martian meteorites, which show evidence for progressive mantle oxidation over time.
Recent Developments on the Turbulence Modeling Resource Website (Invited)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumssey, Christopher L.
2015-01-01
The NASA Langley Turbulence Model Resource (TMR) website has been active for over five years. Its main goal of providing a one-stop, easily accessible internet site for up-to-date information on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence models remains unchanged. In particular, the site strives to provide an easy way for users to verify their own implementations of widely-used turbulence models, and to compare the results from different models for a variety of simple unit problems covering a range of flow physics. Some new features have been recently added to the website. This paper documents the site's features, including recent developments, future plans, and open questions.
Modeling of general 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media using EIGER.
Wilton, Donald R.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Celepcikay, Ferhat T.; Johnson, William Arthur; Baccarelli, Paolo; Valerio, Guido; Paulotto, Simone; Langston, William L.; Jackson, David R.
2010-09-01
This paper presents a mixed-potential integral-equation formulation for analyzing 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media. The structures are periodic in one dimension and finite in the other two dimensions. The unit cell consists of an arbitrary-shaped metallic/dielectric structure. The formulation has been implemented in the EIGER{trademark} code in order to obtain the real and complex propagation wavenumbers of the bound and leaky modes of such structures. Validation results presented here include a 1-D periodic planar leaky-wave antenna and a fully 3-D waveguide test case.
Modeling of general 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media with EIGER.
Wilton, Donald R.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Celepcikay, F. T.; Johnson, William Arthur; Baccarelli, Paolo; Valerio, G.; Paulotto, Simone; Langston, William L.; Jackson, David R.
2010-06-01
This paper presents a mixed-potential integral-equation formulation for analyzing 1-D periodic leaky-wave antennas in layered media. The structures are periodic in one dimension and finite in the other two dimensions. The unit cell consists of an arbitrary-shaped metallic/dielectric structure. The formulation has been implemented in the EIGER{trademark} code in order to obtain the real and complex propagation wavenumbers of the bound and leaky modes of such structures. Validation results presented here include a 1-D periodic planar leaky-wave antenna and a fully 3-D waveguide test case.
Comparison of Turbulent Thermal Diffusivity and Scalar Variance Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yoder, Dennis A.
2016-01-01
In this study, several variable turbulent Prandtl number formulations are examined for boundary layers, pipe flow, and axisymmetric jets. The model formulations include simple algebraic relations between the thermal diffusivity and turbulent viscosity as well as more complex models that solve transport equations for the thermal variance and its dissipation rate. Results are compared with available data for wall heat transfer and profile measurements of mean temperature, the root-mean-square (RMS) fluctuating temperature, turbulent heat flux and turbulent Prandtl number. For wall-bounded problems, the algebraic models are found to best predict the rise in turbulent Prandtl number near the wall as well as the log-layer temperature profile, while the thermal variance models provide a good representation of the RMS temperature fluctuations. In jet flows, the algebraic models provide no benefit over a constant turbulent Prandtl number approach. Application of the thermal variance models finds that some significantly overpredict the temperature variance in the plume and most underpredict the thermal growth rate of the jet. The models yield very similar fluctuating temperature intensities in jets from straight pipes and smooth contraction nozzles, in contrast to data that indicate the latter should have noticeably higher values. For the particular low subsonic heated jet cases examined, changes in the turbulent Prandtl number had no effect on the centerline velocity decay.
Multigrid acceleration and turbulence models for computations of 3D turbulent jets in crossflow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demuren, A. O.
1991-01-01
A multigrid method is presented for the calculation of three-dimensional turbulent jets in crossflow. Turbulence closure is achieved with either the standard k-epsilon model or a Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). Multigrid acceleration enables convergence rates which are far superior to that for a single grid method. With the k-epsilon model the rate approaches that for laminar flow, but with RSM it is somewhat slower. The increased stiffness of the system of equations in the latter may be responsible. Computed results with both turbulence models are compared with experimental data for a pair of opposed jets in crossflow. Both models yield reasonable agreement with mean flow velocity but RSM yields better prediction of the Reynolds stresses.
Turbulence modeling in three-dimensional stenosed arterial bifurcations.
Banks, J; Bressloff, N W
2007-02-01
Under normal healthy conditions, blood flow in the carotid artery bifurcation is laminar. However, in the presence of a stenosis, the flow can become turbulent at the higher Reynolds numbers during systole. There is growing consensus that the transitional k-omega model is the best suited Reynolds averaged turbulence model for such flows. Further confirmation of this opinion is presented here by a comparison with the RNG k-epsilon model for the flow through a straight, nonbifurcating tube. Unlike similar validation studies elsewhere, no assumptions are made about the inlet profile since the full length of the experimental tube is simulated. Additionally, variations in the inflow turbulence quantities are shown to have no noticeable affect on downstream turbulence intensity, turbulent viscosity, or velocity in the k-epsilon model, whereas the velocity profiles in the transitional k-omega model show some differences due to large variations in the downstream turbulence quantities. Following this validation study, the transitional k-omega model is applied in a three-dimensional parametrically defined computer model of the carotid artery bifurcation in which the sinus bulb is manipulated to produce mild, moderate, and severe stenosis. The parametric geometry definition facilitates a powerful means for investigating the effect of local shape variation while keeping the global shape fixed. While turbulence levels are generally low in all cases considered, the mild stenosis model produces higher levels of turbulent viscosity and this is linked to relatively high values of turbulent kinetic energy and low values of the specific dissipation rate. The severe stenosis model displays stronger recirculation in the flow field with higher values of vorticity, helicity, and negative wall shear stress. The mild and moderate stenosis configurations produce similar lower levels of vorticity and helicity. PMID:17227097
Review and assessment of turbulence models for hypersonic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Christopher J.; Blottner, Frederick G.
2006-10-01
Accurate aerodynamic prediction is critical for the design and optimization of hypersonic vehicles. Turbulence modeling remains a major source of uncertainty in the computational prediction of aerodynamic forces and heating for these systems. The first goal of this article is to update the previous comprehensive review of hypersonic shock/turbulent boundary-layer interaction experiments published in 1991 by Settles and Dodson (Hypersonic shock/boundary-layer interaction database. NASA CR 177577, 1991). In their review, Settles and Dodson developed a methodology for assessing experiments appropriate for turbulence model validation and critically surveyed the existing hypersonic experiments. We limit the scope of our current effort by considering only two-dimensional (2D)/axisymmetric flows in the hypersonic flow regime where calorically perfect gas models are appropriate. We extend the prior database of recommended hypersonic experiments (on four 2D and two 3D shock-interaction geometries) by adding three new geometries. The first two geometries, the flat plate/cylinder and the sharp cone, are canonical, zero-pressure gradient flows which are amenable to theory-based correlations, and these correlations are discussed in detail. The third geometry added is the 2D shock impinging on a turbulent flat plate boundary layer. The current 2D hypersonic database for shock-interaction flows thus consists of nine experiments on five different geometries. The second goal of this study is to review and assess the validation usage of various turbulence models on the existing experimental database. Here we limit the scope to one- and two-equation turbulence models where integration to the wall is used (i.e., we omit studies involving wall functions). A methodology for validating turbulence models is given, followed by an extensive evaluation of the turbulence models on the current hypersonic experimental database. A total of 18 one- and two-equation turbulence models are reviewed
Pool Formation in Boulder-Bed Streams: Implications From 1-D and 2-D Numerical Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harrison, L. R.; Keller, E. A.
2003-12-01
In mountain rivers of Southern California, boulder-large roughness elements strongly influence flow hydraulics and pool formation and maintenance. In these systems, boulders appear to control the stream morphology by converging flow and producing deep pools during channel forming discharges. Our research goal is to develop quantitative relationships between boulder roughness elements, temporal patterns of scour and fill, and geomorphic processes that are important in producing pool habitat. The longitudinal distribution of shear stress, unit stream power and velocity were estimated along a 48 m reach on Rattlesnake Creek, using the HEC-RAS v 3.0 and River 2-D numerical models. The reach has an average slope of 0.02 and consists of a pool-riffle sequence with a large boulder constriction directly above the pool. Model runs were performed for a range of stream discharges to test if scour and fill thresholds for pool and riffle environments could be identified. Results from the HEC-RAS simulations identified that thresholds in shear stress, unit stream power and mean velocity occur above a discharge of 5.0 cms. Results from the one-dimensional analysis suggest that the reversal in competency is likely due to changes in cross-sectional width at varying flows. River 2-D predictions indicated that strong transverse velocity gradients were present through the pool at higher modeled discharges. At a flow of 0.5 cms (roughly 1/10th bankfull discharge), velocities are estimated at 0.6 m/s and 1.3 m/s for the pool and riffle, respectively. During discharges of 5.15 cms (approximate bankfull discharge), the maximum velocity in the pool center increased to nearly 3.0 m/s, while the maximum velocity over the riffle is estimated at approximately 2.5 cms. These results are consistent with those predicted by HEC-RAS, though the reversal appears to be limited to a narrow jet that occurs through the pool head and pool center. Model predictions suggest that the velocity reversal is
Effects of Lewis number on turbulent scalar transport and its modelling in turbulent premixed flames
Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Cant, R.S.
2009-07-15
The behaviour of the turbulent scalar flux in premixed flames has been studied using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) with emphasis on the effects of Lewis number in the context of Reynolds-averaged closure modelling. A database was obtained from DNS of three-dimensional freely propagating statistically planar turbulent premixed flames with simplified chemistry and a range of global Lewis numbers from 0.34 to 1.2. Under the same initial conditions of turbulence, flames with low Lewis numbers are found to exhibit counter-gradient transport, whereas flames with higher Lewis numbers tend to exhibit gradient transport. The Reynolds-averaged transport equation for the turbulent scalar flux is analysed in detail and the performance of existing models for the unclosed terms is assessed with respect to corresponding quantities extracted from DNS data. Based on this assessment, existing models which are able to address the effects of non-unity Lewis number on turbulent scalar flux transport are identified, and new or modified models are suggested wherever necessary. In this way, a complete set of closure models for the scalar flux transport equation is prescribed for use in Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations. (author)
A review of Reynolds stress models for turbulent shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Speziale, Charles G.
1995-01-01
A detailed review of recent developments in Reynolds stress modeling for incompressible turbulent shear flows is provided. The mathematical foundations of both two-equation models and full second-order closures are explored in depth. It is shown how these models can be systematically derived for two-dimensional mean turbulent flows that are close to equilibrium. A variety of examples are provided to demonstrate how well properly calibrated versions of these models perform for such flows. However, substantial problems remain for the description of more complex turbulent flows where there are large departures from equilibrium. Recent efforts to extend Reynolds stress models to nonequilibrium turbulent flows are discussed briefly along with the major modeling issues relevant to practical naval hydrodynamics applications.
A turbulence model for nonequilibrium adverse pressure gradient flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horstman, C. C.
1976-01-01
This paper presents a method for calculating compressible adverse pressure gradient boundary layers by using an algebraic eddy viscosity turbulence model that has been modified for variable pressure gradient and turbulence memory effects. The pressure gradient corrections are based on previous incompressible data correlations. Several methods for including the effects of turbulence memory are evaluated. A new lag model, which gives good agreement with available experimental data, is developed. Finally, a correlation is developed for the lag length parameter employed in the model as a function of the known experimental flow variables.
On the subgrid-scale modeling of compressible turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Speziale, C. G.; Erlebacher, G.; Zang, T. A.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1987-01-01
A subgrid-scale model recently derived for use in the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows is examined from a fundamental theoretical and computational standpoint. It is demonstrated that this model, which is applicable only to compressible turbulent flows in the limit of small density fluctuations, correlates somewhat poorly with the results of direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence at low Mach numbers. An alternative model, based on Favre-filtered fields, is suggested which appears to reduce these limitations.
The subgrid-scale modeling of compressible turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Speziale, C. G.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Erlebacher, G.; Zang, T. A.
1988-01-01
A subgrid-scale model recently derived for use in the large-eddy simulation of compressible turbulent flows is examined from a fundamental theoretical and computational standpoint. It is demonstrated that this model, which is applicable only to compressible turbulent flows in the limit of small density fluctuations, correlates somewhat poorly with the results of direct numerical simulations of compressible isotropic turbulence at low Mach numbers. An alternative model, based on Favre-filtered fields, is suggested which appears to reduce these limitations.
Implicit turbulence modeling for high reynolds number flows.
Margolin, L. G.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.; Wyszogrodzki, A. A.
2001-01-01
We continue our investigation of the implicit turbulence modeling property of the nonoscillatory finite volume scheme MPDATA. We start by comparing MPDATA simulations of decaying turbulence in a triply periodic cube with analogous pseudospectral studies. In the regime of direct numerical simulation, MPDATA is shown to agree closely with the pseudospectral model. As viscosity is reduced, the two model results diverge. We study the MPDATA results in the inviscid limit, using a combination of mathematical analysis and computational experiment. We validate the inviscid MPDATA results as representing the turbulent flow in the limit of very high Reynolds number.
Atmospheric turbulence parameters for modeling wind turbine dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holley, W. E.; Thresher, R. W.
1982-01-01
A model which can be used to predict the response of wind turbines to atmospheric turbulence is given. The model was developed using linearized aerodynamics for a three-bladed rotor and accounts for three turbulent velocity components as well as velocity gradients across the rotor disk. Typical response power spectral densities are shown. The system response depends critically on three wind and turbulence parameters, and models are presented to predict desired response statistics. An equation error method, which can be used to estimate the required parameters from field data, is also presented.
Modeling Scramjet Flows with Variable Turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt Numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xiao, X.; Hassan, H. A.; Baurle, R. A.
2006-01-01
A complete turbulence model, where the turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers are calculated as part of the solution and where averages involving chemical source terms are modeled, is presented. The ability of avoiding the use of assumed or evolution Probability Distribution Functions (PDF's) results in a highly efficient algorithm for reacting flows. The predictions of the model are compared with two sets of experiments involving supersonic mixing and one involving supersonic combustion. The results demonstrate the need for consideration of turbulence/chemistry interactions in supersonic combustion. In general, good agreement with experiment is indicated.
Stellar Turbulent Convection: A Self-consistent Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.; Mazzitelli, I.
1996-12-01
We present a self-consistent model for stellar turbulent convection that is similar in spirit to the CM model (Canuto & Mazzitelli 1991) since it accounts for the full spectrum of the turbulent eddies rather than only one eddy, as done in the mixing length theory (MLT). The model differs from the CM model in the treatment of the rate of energy input nS(k) from the source that generates the turbulence. In the present model, nS(k) is controlled by both the source and the turbulence it ultimately generates, thus ensuring a self-consistent modeling of the turbulence. This improves the CM model in which nS(k) was taken to be equal to the growth rate of the linear unstable convective modes. However, since the formulation of a self-consistent treatment is far from simple, we were forced to use a representation of the nonlinear interactions less complete than the one in the CM model. The ensuing equations were solved numerically for a wide range of convective efficiencies. The results are the convective flux, the mean square turbulent velocity, the root mean squared turbulent pressure and the turbulent viscosity. We implemented the model in the ATON stellar structure code and computed the evolution of a solar model. The results are generally similar to those of the CM model and thus quite different from the MLT. The present model requires a smaller overshoot into the upper radiative zone than does the CM model, in accord with recent empirical estimates. Application to Population II stars and comparison with the very metal-poor globular cluster M68 yields an age in the range 11-12 Gyr. This is somewhat younger than the CM age, which in turn is younger than the corresponding MLT age, a result of possible cosmological interest
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subin, Z. M.; Riley, W. J.
2009-12-01
Compared to solid ground, lakes tend to have decreased albedo, increased ground heat conductance, and increased effective ground heat capacity. These features alter local surface fluxes compared to nearby vegetation, which in turn alter the climate of the nearby atmosphere and surrounding land areas. Interest in feedbacks between lake behavior and climate change provides motivation for including lakes in global climate models, as does the desire to do effective regional downscaling of climate model predictions over regions with large lake area fraction, like the Great Lakes region. Finally, the initiation, warming, and expansion of Arctic thermokarst lakes could provide an important geophysical and biogeochemical feedback to climate warming. The Community Land Model (CLM) 3.5 currently uses a 1D Hostetler lake scheme. We have updated this model to improve the characterization of surface fluxes, eddy diffusivity, and convective mixing. We also link the lake model with the full snow physics found over other land surface types (including 5 snow layers, aerosol deposition, partial transparency of snow layers, and snow aging), add phase change & ice physics to the lake model, and include soil layers beneath lakes. These soil layers will be an important component of future thermokarst lake modeling, as thermokarst lakes tend to form regions of unfrozen soil (talik) beneath them that become active sites for anaerobic decomposition of pre-modern peat. We have also integrated the updated lake model into a modified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model 3.0. We will present comparisons between predicted and observed thermal conditions, snow and ice depths, and surface energy fluxes at several lake sites, using local meteorological forcing or integrated regional atmospheric coupling. The thermal predictions are generally reasonable and show a marked improvement from runs performed with the baseline CLM 3.5 version of the lake model. Over Sparkling Lake
A dynamical model of plasma turbulence in the solar wind
Howes, G. G.
2015-01-01
A dynamical approach, rather than the usual statistical approach, is taken to explore the physical mechanisms underlying the nonlinear transfer of energy, the damping of the turbulent fluctuations, and the development of coherent structures in kinetic plasma turbulence. It is argued that the linear and nonlinear dynamics of Alfvén waves are responsible, at a very fundamental level, for some of the key qualitative features of plasma turbulence that distinguish it from hydrodynamic turbulence, including the anisotropic cascade of energy and the development of current sheets at small scales. The first dynamical model of kinetic turbulence in the weakly collisional solar wind plasma that combines self-consistently the physics of Alfvén waves with the development of small-scale current sheets is presented and its physical implications are discussed. This model leads to a simplified perspective on the nature of turbulence in a weakly collisional plasma: the nonlinear interactions responsible for the turbulent cascade of energy and the formation of current sheets are essentially fluid in nature, while the collisionless damping of the turbulent fluctuations and the energy injection by kinetic instabilities are essentially kinetic in nature. PMID:25848075
Two-equation turbulence modeling for 3-D hypersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardina, J. E.; Coakley, T. J.; Marvin, J. G.
1992-01-01
An investigation to verify, incorporate and develop two-equation turbulence models for three-dimensional high speed flows is presented. The current design effort of hypersonic vehicles has led to an intensive study of turbulence models for compressible hypersonic flows. This research complements an extensive review of experimental data and the current development of 2D turbulence models. The review of experimental data on 2D and 3D flows includes complex hypersonic flows with pressure profiles, skin friction, wall heat transfer, and turbulence statistics data. In a parallel effort, turbulence models for high speed flows have been tested against flat plate boundary layers, and are being tested against the 2D database. In the present paper, we present the results of 3D Navier-Stokes numerical simulations with an improved k-omega two-equation turbulence model against experimental data and empirical correlations of an adiabatic flat plate boundary layer, a cold wall flat plate boundary layer, and a 3D database flow, the interaction of an oblique shock wave and a thick turbulent boundary layer with a free stream Mach number = 8.18 and Reynolds number = 5 x 10 to the 6th.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhikari, L.; Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Bruno, R.; Telloni, D.; Marino, R.
2016-03-01
Turbulence in the solar wind is ubiquitous. To understand the transport of low-frequency turbulence in the sub- and super-Alfvénic solar wind flow, Zank et al. 2012 developed an extensive turbulence transport model that describes the evolution of the energy in forward and backward propagating modes, the total turbulent energy, the cross-helicity, the residual energy, the correlation lengths corresponding to forward and backward propagating modes, and the correlation length of the residual energy. Adhikari et. al. 2015 presented the first detailed solution of Zank et al., and found good agreement between the Zank et al. model and observations. Here, we solve the 1D steady-state turbulence transport equations with and without sources of turbulence, and show that all the identified sources are required to reproduce the theoretical results to be consistent with the observations.
NATURALIST'S APPLICATION OF A PROMISING TURBULENCE MODEL
Turbulence has infinite applications to the biological sciences, affecting distributions, transport, feeding, mating, and other biological processes. The topic is like the universe for which five successive magnefications are required to finally focus on a topic that can be grasp...
1D Runoff-runon stochastic model in the light of queueing theory : heterogeneity and connectivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harel, M.-A.; Mouche, E.; Ledoux, E.
2012-04-01
Runoff production on a hillslope during a rainfall event may be simplified as follows. Given a soil of constant infiltrability I, which is the maximum amount of water that the soil can infiltrate, and a constant rainfall intensity R, runoff is observed where R is greater than I. The infiltration rate equals the infiltrability when runoff is produced, R otherwise. When ponding time, topography, and overall spatial and temporal variations of physical parameters, such as R and I, are neglected, the runoff equation remains simple. In this study, we consider soils of spatially variable infiltrability. As runoff can re-infiltrate on down-slope areas of higher infiltrabilities (runon), the resulting process is highly non-linear. The stationary runoff equation is: Qn+1 = max(Qn + (R - In)*Δx , 0) where Qn is the runoff arriving on pixel n of size Δx [L2/T], R and In the rainfall intensity and infiltrability on that same pixel [L/T]. The non-linearity is due to the dependence of infiltration on R and Qn, that is runon. This re-infiltration process generates patterns of runoff along the slope, patterns that organise and connect to each other differently depending on the rainfall intensity and the nature of the soil heterogeneity. The runoff connectivity, assessed using the connectivity function of Allard (1993), affects greatly the dynamics of the runoff hillslope. Our aim is to assess, in a stochastic framework, the runoff organization on 1D slopes with random infiltrabilities (log-normal, exponential, bimodal and uniform distributions) by means of theoretical developments and numerical simulations. This means linking the nature of soil heterogeneity with the resulting runoff organisation. In term of connectivity, we investigate the relations between structural (infiltrability) and functional (runoff) connectivity. A theoretical framework based on the queueing theory is developed. We implement the idea of Jones et al. (2009), who remarked that the above formulation is
Comparison of the 1D flux theory with a 2D hydrodynamic secondary settling tank model.
Ekama, G A; Marais, P
2004-01-01
The applicability of the 1D idealized flux theory (1DFT) for design of secondary settling tanks (SSTs) is evaluated by comparing its predicted maximum surface overflow (SOR) and solids loading (SLR) rates with that calculated from the 2D hydrodynamic model SettlerCAD using as a basis 35 full scale SST stress tests conducted on different SSTs with diameters from 30 to 45m and 2.25 to 4.1 m side water depth, with and without Stamford baffles. From the simulations, a relatively consistent pattern appeared, i.e. that the 1DFT can be used for design but its predicted maximum SLR needs to be reduced by an appropriate flux rating, the magnitude of which depends mainly on SST depth and hydraulic loading rate (HLR). Simulations of the sloping bottom shallow (1.5-2.5 m SWD) Dutch SSTs tested by STOWa and the Watts et al. SST, all with doubled SWDs, and the Darvill new (4.1 m) and old (2.5 m) SSTs with interchanged depths, were run to confirm the sensitivity of the flux rating to depth and HLR. Simulations with and without a Stamford baffle were also done. While the design of the internal features of the SST, such as baffling, have a marked influence on the effluent SS concentration for underloaded SSTs, these features appeared to have only a small influence on the flux rating, i.e. capacity, of the SST, In the meantime until more information is obtained, it would appear that from the simulations so far that the flux rating of 0.80 of the 1DFT maximum SLR recommended by Ekama and Marais remains a reasonable value to apply in the design of full scale SSTs--for deep SSTs (4 m SWD) the flux rating could be increased to 0.85 and for shallow SSTs (2.5 m SWD) decreased to 0.75. It is recommended that (i) while the apparent interrelationship between SST flux rating and depth suggests some optimization of the volume of the SST, that this be avoided and that (ii) the depth of the SST be designed independently of the surface area as is usually the practice and once selected, the
A model for reaction rates in turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chinitz, W.; Evans, J. S.
1984-01-01
To account for the turbulent temperature and species-concentration fluctuations, a model is presented on the effects of chemical reaction rates in computer analyses of turbulent reacting flows. The model results in two parameters which multiply the terms in the reaction-rate equations. For these two parameters, graphs are presented as functions of the mean values and intensity of the turbulent fluctuations of the temperature and species concentrations. These graphs will facilitate incorporation of the model into existing computer programs which describe turbulent reacting flows. When the model was used in a two-dimensional parabolic-flow computer code to predict the behavior of an experimental, supersonic hydrogen jet burning in air, some improvement in agreement with the experimental data was obtained in the far field in the region near the jet centerline. Recommendations are included for further improvement of the model and for additional comparisons with experimental data.
Recent Turbulence Model Advances Applied to Multielement Airfoil Computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Gatski, Thomas B.
2000-01-01
A one-equation linear turbulence model and a two-equation nonlinear explicit algebraic stress model (EASM) are applied to the flow over a multielement airfoil. The effect of the K-epsilon and K-omega forms of the two-equation model are explored, and the K-epsilon form is shown to be deficient in the wall-bounded regions of adverse pressure gradient flows. A new K-omega form of EASM is introduced. Nonlinear terms present in EASM are shown to improve predictions of turbulent shear stress behind the trailing edge of the main element and near midflap. Curvature corrections are applied to both the one- and two-equation turbulence models and yield only relatively small local differences in the flap region, where the flow field undergoes the greatest curvature. Predictions of maximum lift are essentially unaffected by the turbulence model variations studied.
Algebraic turbulence modeling for unstructured and adaptive meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1990-01-01
An algebraic turbulence model based on the Baldwin-Lomax model, has been implemented for use on unstructured grids. The implementation is based on the use of local background structured turbulence meshes. At each time-step, flow variables are interpolated from the unstructured mesh onto the background structured meshes, the turbulence model is executed on these meshes, and the resulting eddy viscosity values are interpolated back to the unstructured mesh. Modifications to the algebraic model were required to enable the treatment of more complicated flows, such as confluent boundary layers and wakes. The model is used in conjuction with an efficient unstructured multigrid finite-element Navier-Stokes solver in order to compute compressible turbulent flows on fully unstructured meshes. Solutions about single and multiple element airfoils are obtained and compared with experimental data.
A One-Dimensional (1-D) Three-Region Model for a Bubbling Fluidized-Bed Adsorber
Lee, Andrew; Miller, David C.
2012-01-01
A general one-dimensional (1-D), three-region model for a bubbling fluidized-bed adsorber with internal heat exchangers has been developed. The model can predict the hydrodynamics of the bed and provides axial profiles for all temperatures, concentrations, and velocities. The model is computationally fast and flexible and allows for any system of adsorption and desorption reactions to be modeled, making the model applicable to any adsorption process. The model has been implemented in both gPROMS and Aspen Custom Modeler, and the behavior of the model has been verified.
Sabtaji, Agung E-mail: agung.sabtaji@bmkg.go.id; Nugraha, Andri Dian
2015-04-24
West Papua region has fairly high of seismicity activities due to tectonic setting and many inland faults. In addition, the region has a unique and complex tectonic conditions and this situation lead to high potency of seismic hazard in the region. The precise earthquake hypocenter location is very important, which could provide high quality of earthquake parameter information and the subsurface structure in this region to the society. We conducted 1-D P-wave velocity using earthquake data catalog from BMKG for April, 2009 up to March, 2014 around West Papua region. The obtained 1-D seismic velocity then was used as input for improving hypocenter location using double-difference method. The relocated hypocenter location shows fairly clearly the pattern of intraslab earthquake beneath New Guinea Trench (NGT). The relocated hypocenters related to the inland fault are also observed more focus in location around the fault.
Computer modelling of turbulent recirculating flows in engineering applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalil, E. E.; Assaf, H. M. W.
A numerical computation procedure for solving the partial differential equations governing turbulent flows is presented, with an emphasis on swirling flows. The conservation equations for mass and momentum are defined, noting the inclusion of turbulence characteristics in Reynolds stress terms. A two-dimensional turbulence model is used, based on an eddy viscosity concept, with the Reynolds stress described in terms of the mean velocity gradient and the eddy viscosity. The model is used for the flow in a rotary air garbage classifier and the flow in a vortex tube. The flexibility of the technique is demonstrated through variations of the initial flow parameters.
Second order closure modeling of turbulent buoyant wall plumes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, Gang; Lai, Ming-Chia; Shih, Tsan-Hsing
1992-01-01
Non-intrusive measurements of scalar and momentum transport in turbulent wall plumes, using a combined technique of laser Doppler anemometry and laser-induced fluorescence, has shown some interesting features not present in the free jet or plumes. First, buoyancy-generation of turbulence is shown to be important throughout the flow field. Combined with low-Reynolds-number turbulence and near-wall effect, this may raise the anisotropic turbulence structure beyond the prediction of eddy-viscosity models. Second, the transverse scalar fluxes do not correspond only to the mean scalar gradients, as would be expected from gradient-diffusion modeling. Third, higher-order velocity-scalar correlations which describe turbulent transport phenomena could not be predicted using simple turbulence models. A second-order closure simulation of turbulent adiabatic wall plumes, taking into account the recent progress in scalar transport, near-wall effect and buoyancy, is reported in the current study to compare with the non-intrusive measurements. In spite of the small velocity scale of the wall plumes, the results showed that low-Reynolds-number correction is not critically important to predict the adiabatic cases tested and cannot be applied beyond the maximum velocity location. The mean and turbulent velocity profiles are very closely predicted by the second-order closure models. but the scalar field is less satisfactory, with the scalar fluctuation level underpredicted. Strong intermittency of the low-Reynolds-number flow field is suspected of these discrepancies. The trends in second- and third-order velocity-scalar correlations, which describe turbulent transport phenomena, are also predicted in general, with the cross-streamwise correlations better than the streamwise one. Buoyancy terms modeling the pressure-correlation are shown to improve the prediction slightly. The effects of equilibrium time-scale ratio and boundary condition are also discussed.
A new energy transfer model for turbulent free shear flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, William W.-W.
1992-01-01
A new model for the energy transfer mechanism in the large-scale turbulent kinetic energy equation is proposed. An estimate of the characteristic length scale of the energy containing large structures is obtained from the wavelength associated with the structures predicted by a weakly nonlinear analysis for turbulent free shear flows. With the inclusion of the proposed energy transfer model, the weakly nonlinear wave models for the turbulent large-scale structures are self-contained and are likely to be independent flow geometries. The model is tested against a plane mixing layer. Reasonably good agreement is achieved. Finally, it is shown by using the Liapunov function method, the balance between the production and the drainage of the kinetic energy of the turbulent large-scale structures is asymptotically stable as their amplitude saturates. The saturation of the wave amplitude provides an alternative indicator for flow self-similarity.
Bengoechea, Rocio; Pittman, Sara K; Tuck, Elizabeth P; True, Heather L; Weihl, Conrad C
2015-12-01
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1D (LGMD1D) is caused by dominantly inherited missense mutations in DNAJB6, an Hsp40 co-chaperone. LGMD1D muscle has rimmed vacuoles and inclusion bodies containing DNAJB6, Z-disc proteins and TDP-43. DNAJB6 is expressed as two isoforms; DNAJB6a and DNAJB6b. Both isoforms contain LGMD1D mutant residues and are expressed in human muscle. To identify which mutant isoform confers disease pathogenesis and generate a mouse model of LGMD1D, we evaluated DNAJB6 expression and localization in skeletal muscle as well as generating DNAJB6 isoform specific expressing transgenic mice. DNAJB6a localized to myonuclei while DNAJB6b was sarcoplasmic. LGMD1D mutations in DNAJB6a or DNAJB6b did not alter this localization in mouse muscle. Transgenic mice expressing the LGMD1D mutant, F93L, in DNAJB6b under a muscle-specific promoter became weak, had early lethality and developed muscle pathology consistent with myopathy after 2 months; whereas mice expressing the same F93L mutation in DNAJB6a or overexpressing DNAJB6a or DNAJB6b wild-type transgenes remained unaffected after 1 year. DNAJB6b localized to the Z-disc and DNAJB6b-F93L expressing mouse muscle had myofibrillar disorganization and desmin inclusions. Consistent with DNAJB6 dysfunction, keratin 8/18, a DNAJB6 client also accumulated in DNAJB6b-F93L expressing mouse muscle. The RNA-binding proteins hnRNPA1 and hnRNPA2/B1 accumulated and co-localized with DNAJB6 at sarcoplasmic stress granules suggesting that these proteins maybe novel DNAJB6b clients. Similarly, hnRNPA1 and hnRNPA2/B1 formed sarcoplasmic aggregates in patients with LGMD1D. Our data support that LGMD1D mutations in DNAJB6 disrupt its sarcoplasmic function suggesting a role for DNAJB6b in Z-disc organization and stress granule kinetics. PMID:26362252
A one-equation turbulence model for recirculating flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yang; Bai, JunQiang; Xu, JingLei; Li, Yi
2016-06-01
A one-equation turbulence model which relies on the turbulent kinetic energy transport equation has been developed to predict the flow properties of the recirculating flows. The turbulent eddy-viscosity coefficient is computed from a recalibrated Bradshaw's assumption that the constant a 1 = 0.31 is recalibrated to a function based on a set of direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. The values of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy consist of the near-wall part and isotropic part, and the isotropic part involves the von Karman length scale as the turbulent length scale. The performance of the new model is evaluated by the results from DNS for fully developed turbulence channel flow with a wide range of Reynolds numbers. However, the computed result of the recirculating flow at the separated bubble of NACA4412 demonstrates that an increase is needed on the turbulent dissipation, and this leads to an advanced tuning on the self-adjusted function. The improved model predicts better results in both the non-equilibrium and equilibrium flows, e.g. channel flows, backward-facing step flow and hump in a channel.
Apparent Transition Behavior of Widely-Used Turbulence Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.
2007-01-01
The Spalart-Allmaras and the Menter SST k-omega turbulence models are shown to have the undesirable characteristic that, for fully turbulent computations, a transition region can occur whose extent varies with grid density. Extremely fine two-dimensional grids over the front portion of an airfoil are used to demonstrate the effect. As the grid density is increased, the laminar region near the nose becomes larger. In the Spalart-Allmaras model this behavior is due to convergence to a laminar-behavior fixed point that occurs in practice when freestream turbulence is below some threshold. It is the result of a feature purposefully added to the original model in conjunction with a special trip function. This degenerate fixed point can also cause non-uniqueness regarding where transition initiates on a given grid. Consistent fully turbulent results can easily be achieved by either using a higher freestream turbulence level or by making a simple change to one of the model constants. Two-equation k-omega models, including the SST model, exhibit strong sensitivity to numerical resolution near the area where turbulence initiates. Thus, inconsistent apparent transition behavior with grid refinement in this case does not appear to stem from the presence of a degenerate fixed point. Rather, it is a fundamental property of the k-omega model itself, and is not easily remedied.
Apparent Transition Behavior of Widely-Used Turbulence Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.
2006-01-01
The Spalart-Allmaras and the Menter SST kappa-omega turbulence models are shown to have the undesirable characteristic that, for fully turbulent computations, a transition region can occur whose extent varies with grid density. Extremely fine two-dimensional grids over the front portion of an airfoil are used to demonstrate the effect. As the grid density is increased, the laminar region near the nose becomes larger. In the Spalart-Allmaras model this behavior is due to convergence to a laminar-behavior fixed point that occurs in practice when freestream turbulence is below some threshold. It is the result of a feature purposefully added to the original model in conjunction with a special trip function. This degenerate fixed point can also cause nonuniqueness regarding where transition initiates on a given grid. Consistent fully turbulent results can easily be achieved by either using a higher freestream turbulence level or by making a simple change to one of the model constants. Two-equation kappa-omega models, including the SST model, exhibit strong sensitivity to numerical resolution near the area where turbulence initiates. Thus, inconsistent apparent transition behavior with grid refinement in this case does not appear to stem from the presence of a degenerate fixed point. Rather, it is a fundamental property of the kappa-omega model itself, and is not easily remedied.
On explicit algebraic stress models for complex turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatski, T. B.; Speziale, C. G.
1992-01-01
Explicit algebraic stress models that are valid for three-dimensional turbulent flows in noninertial frames are systematically derived from a hierarchy of second-order closure models. This represents a generalization of the model derived by Pope who based his analysis on the Launder, Reece, and Rodi model restricted to two-dimensional turbulent flows in an inertial frame. The relationship between the new models and traditional algebraic stress models -- as well as anistropic eddy visosity models -- is theoretically established. The need for regularization is demonstrated in an effort to explain why traditional algebraic stress models have failed in complex flows. It is also shown that these explicit algebraic stress models can shed new light on what second-order closure models predict for the equilibrium states of homogeneous turbulent flows and can serve as a useful alternative in practical computations.
A compressible Navier-Stokes code for turbulent flow modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coakley, T. J.
1984-01-01
An implicit, finite volume code for solving two dimensional, compressible turbulent flows is described. Second order upwind differencing of the inviscid terms of the equations is used to enhance stability and accuracy. A diagonal form of the implicit algorithm is used to improve efficiency. Several zero and two equation turbulence models are incorporated to study their impact on overall flow modeling accuracy. Applications to external and internal flows are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Persson, O. P.; Solomon, A.
2013-12-01
Though leads only represent a small portion of the Arctic sea-ice area, their contribution to the surface turbulent energy and momentum fluxes can be significant. Numerous modeling studies presented in the literature have been conducted examining these effects. The results of such studies have indicated the importance of the environmental large-scale stability, the environmental humidity, the lead width, the ice (lead) concentration, the lead size distribution, the character of the leads (open water, refrozen), etc. Because global climate models (GCMs) show significant sensitivity to the large-scale net energy flux from the heterogeneous sea-ice surface, and because thinner ice in the projected future Arctic climate will likely result in increasing lead fractions, the appropriate GCM representation of this complex system is important. This study presents modeling results based on observations from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment, for which the mid-winter sea-ice was greatly heterogeneous. In mid-January, the 100x100 km region surrounding the SHEBA ice camp consisted of a lead fraction of ~16-33% as revealed by SAR data. This included primarily older refrozen lead areas that were generated at least a month earlier (~16-25% areal coverage), with a smaller fraction of newly opened leads (~4-9% areal coverage). Utilizing the sequence of SAR images, the atmospheric observations at the SHEBA site, and a 1-D snow and ice model, the spatial distribution of sea-ice thickness, snow depth, and surface temperatures within this domain were estimated over a 6-week period, revealing the significant impact of leads in all stages on GCM-scale temperatures and fluxes. This combined observational/model data series is used to evaluate a variety of one-dimensional turbulent flux aggregation techniques (e.g., mosaic) that use different assumptions. Furthermore, by using the spatial distribution of these surface characteristics, three-dimensional large eddy
Effect of turbulence models on the submerged hydraulic jump simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shekari, Y.; Javan, M.; Eghbalzadeh, A.
2015-05-01
This study presents a numerical investigation and prediction of the flow field in threedimensional submerged hydraulic jumps. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used to simulate the free surface. The turbulent structure is simulated by using different turbulence models, such as the standard k-ɛ model, RNG k-ɛ model, realizable k-ɛ model, and Reynolds-stress model (RSM) closure schemes. The capabilities of the turbulence models are investigated with the standard wall functions and enhanced wall treatment methods. A comparison between the numerical and experimental results shows that the numerical model is adequate for predicting the flow pattern and free surface of submerged hydraulic jumps. The RNG k-ɛ turbulence model with the enhanced wall treatment method ensures the highest accuracy in the water surface simulation. Near the channel bed of a fully developed region, the RSM model with the enhanced wall treatment method shows better agreement with the experimental longitudinal velocity than the other turbulence models. The standard k-ɛ model predicts the longitudinal velocity more accurately than the RNG and realizable k-ɛ models.
Predictive modeling of particle-laden, turbulent flows
Sinclair, J.L.
1992-01-01
The successful prediction of particle-laden, turbulent flows relies heavily on the representation of turbulence in the gas phase. Several types of turbulence models for single-phase gas flow have been developed which compare reasonably well with experimental data. In the present work, a low-Reynolds'' k-[epsilon], closure model is chosen to describe the Reynolds stresses associated with gas-phase turbulence. This closure scheme, which involves transport equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate, is valid in the turbulent core as well as the viscous sublayer. Several versions of the low-Reynolds k-[epsilon] closure are documented in the literature. However, even those models which are similar in theory often differ considerably in their quantitative and qualitative predictions, making the selection of such a model a difficult task. The purpose of this progress report is to document our findings on the performance of ten different versions of the low-Reynolds k-[epsilon] model on predicting fully developed pipe flow. The predictions are compared with the experimental data of Schildknecht, et al. (1979). With the exception of the model put forth by Hoffman (1975), the predictions of all the closures show reasonable agreement for the mean velocity profile. However, important quantitative differences exist for the turbulent kinetic energy profile. In addition, the predicted eddy viscosity profile and the wall-region profile of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate exhibit both quantitative and qualitative differences. An effort to extend the present comparisons to include experimental measurements of other researchers is recommended in order to further evaluate the performance of the models.
Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Good, Levi B.; Ma, Qian; Duarte, Joao; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Sinton, Christopher M.; Heilig, Charles W.; Pascual, Juan M.
2012-01-01
Brain glucose supplies most of the carbon required for acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) generation (an important step for myelin synthesis) and for neurotransmitter production via further metabolism of acetyl-CoA in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. However, it is not known whether reduced brain glucose transporter type I (GLUT-1) activity, the hallmark of the GLUT-1 deficiency (G1D) syndrome, leads to acetyl-CoA, TCA or neurotransmitter depletion. This question is relevant because, in its most common form in man, G1D is associated with cerebral hypomyelination (manifested as microcephaly) and epilepsy, suggestive of acetyl-CoA depletion and neurotransmitter dysfunction, respectively. Yet, brain metabolism in G1D remains underexplored both theoretically and experimentally, partly because computational models of limited brain glucose transport are subordinate to metabolic assumptions and partly because current hemizygous G1D mouse models manifest a mild phenotype not easily amenable to investigation. In contrast, adult antisense G1D mice replicate the human phenotype of spontaneous epilepsy associated with robust thalamocortical electrical oscillations. Additionally, and in consonance with human metabolic imaging observations, thalamus and cerebral cortex display the lowest GLUT-1 expression and glucose uptake in the mutant mouse. This depletion of brain glucose is associated with diminished plasma fatty acids and elevated ketone body levels, and with decreased brain acetyl-CoA and fatty acid contents, consistent with brain ketone body consumption and with stimulation of brain beta-oxidation and/or diminished cerebral lipid synthesis. In contrast with other epilepsies, astrocyte glutamine synthetase expression, cerebral TCA cycle intermediates, amino acid and amine neurotransmitter contents are also intact in G1D. The data suggest that the TCA cycle is preserved in G1D because reduced glycolysis and acetyl-CoA formation can be balanced by enhanced ketone body
A non-isotropic multiple-scale turbulence model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.
1990-01-01
A newly developed non-isotropic multiple scale turbulence model (MS/ASM) is described for complex flow calculations. This model focuses on the direct modeling of Reynolds stresses and utilizes split-spectrum concepts for modeling multiple scale effects in turbulence. Validation studies on free shear flows, rotating flows and recirculating flows show that the current model perform significantly better than the single scale k-epsilon model. The present model is relatively inexpensive in terms of CPU time which makes it suitable for broad engineering flow applications.
Modeling crowd turbulence by many-particle simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Wenjian; Johansson, Anders
2007-10-01
A recent study [D. Helbing, A. Johansson, and H. Z. Al-Abideen, Phys. Rev. E 75, 046109 (2007)] has revealed a “turbulent” state of pedestrian flows, which is characterized by sudden displacements and causes the falling and trampling of people. However, turbulent crowd motion is not reproduced well by current many-particle models due to their insufficient representation of the local interactions in areas of extreme densities. In this contribution, we extend the repulsive force term of the social force model to reproduce crowd turbulence. We perform numerical simulations of pedestrians moving through a bottleneck area with this model. The transitions from laminar to stop-and-go and turbulent flows are observed. The empirical features characterizing crowd turbulence, such as the structure function and the probability density function of velocity increments, are reproduced well; i.e., they are well compatible with an analysis of video data during the annual Muslim pilgrimage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frisch, Uriel
1996-01-01
Written five centuries after the first studies of Leonardo da Vinci and half a century after A.N. Kolmogorov's first attempt to predict the properties of flow, this textbook presents a modern account of turbulence, one of the greatest challenges in physics. "Fully developed turbulence" is ubiquitous in both cosmic and natural environments, in engineering applications and in everyday life. Elementary presentations of dynamical systems ideas, probabilistic methods (including the theory of large deviations) and fractal geometry make this a self-contained textbook. This is the first book on turbulence to use modern ideas from chaos and symmetry breaking. The book will appeal to first-year graduate students in mathematics, physics, astrophysics, geosciences and engineering, as well as professional scientists and engineers.
Efficiency of a statistical transport model for turbulent particle dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litchford, Ron J.; Jeng, San-Mou
1992-05-01
In developing its theory for turbulent dispersion transport, the Litchford and Jeng (1991) statistical transport model for turbulent particle dispersion took a generalized approach in which the perturbing influence of each turbulent eddy on consequent interactions was transported through all subsequent eddies. Nevertheless, examinations of this transport relation shows it to be able to decay rapidly: this implies that additional computational efficiency may be obtained via truncation of unneccessary transport terms. Attention is here given to the criterion for truncation, as well as to expected efficiency gains.
Efficiency of a statistical transport model for turbulent particle dispersion
Litchford, R.J.; Jeng, San-Mou )
1992-05-01
In developing its theory for turbulent dispersion transport, the Litchford and Jeng (1991) statistical transport model for turbulent particle dispersion took a generalized approach in which the perturbing influence of each turbulent eddy on consequent interactions was transported through all subsequent eddies. Nevertheless, examinations of this transport relation shows it to be able to decay rapidly: this implies that additional computational efficiency may be obtained via truncation of unneccessary transport terms. Attention is here given to the criterion for truncation, as well as to expected efficiency gains. 2 refs.
Efficiency of a statistical transport model for turbulent particle dispersion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Litchford, Ron J.; Jeng, San-Mou
1992-01-01
In developing its theory for turbulent dispersion transport, the Litchford and Jeng (1991) statistical transport model for turbulent particle dispersion took a generalized approach in which the perturbing influence of each turbulent eddy on consequent interactions was transported through all subsequent eddies. Nevertheless, examinations of this transport relation shows it to be able to decay rapidly: this implies that additional computational efficiency may be obtained via truncation of unneccessary transport terms. Attention is here given to the criterion for truncation, as well as to expected efficiency gains.
The one dimensional collapse models of turbulent protostellar clouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamozdra, S. N.
The spherically-symmetric numerical modelling of the gravitational collapse of protostellar clouds is carried out, taking ambipolar diffusion and the pressure of Alfvenic turbulence into account. It is shown that the dependency of protostar formation time on ekg (the initial turbulent-to-gravitational energies ratio) is non-monotonic because it is determined by the complex interaction of large scale magnetosonic waves with the waves of turbulence amplification. Protostellar mass is almost independent on ekg while accretion rate variations with ekg can be of order of 10%.
A study of hydrogen diffusion flames using PDF turbulence model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, Andrew T.
1991-01-01
The application of probability density function (pdf) turbulence models is addressed in this work. For the purpose of accurate prediction of turbulent combustion, an algorithm that combines a conventional CFD flow solver with the Monte Carlo simulation of the pdf evolution equation has been developed. The algorithm has been validated using experimental data for a heated turbulent plane jet. The study of H2-F2 diffusion flames has been carried out using this algorithm. Numerical results compared favorably with experimental data. The computuations show that the flame center shifts as the equivalence ratio changes, and that for the same equivalence ratio, similarity solutions for flames exist.
A study of hydrogen diffusion flames using PDF turbulence model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, Andrew T.
1991-01-01
The application of probability density function (pdf) turbulence models is addressed. For the purpose of accurate prediction of turbulent combustion, an algorithm that combines a conventional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow solver with the Monte Carlo simulation of the pdf evolution equation was developed. The algorithm was validated using experimental data for a heated turbulent plane jet. The study of H2-F2 diffusion flames was carried out using this algorithm. Numerical results compared favorably with experimental data. The computations show that the flame center shifts as the equivalence ratio changes, and that for the same equivalence ratio, similarity solutions for flames exist.
The study of PDF turbulence models in combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, Andrew T.
1991-01-01
The accurate prediction of turbulent combustion is still beyond reach for today's computation techniques. It is the consensus of the combustion profession that the predictions of chemically reacting flow were poor if conventional turbulence models were used. The main difficulty lies in the fact that the reaction rate is highly nonlinear, and the use of averaged temperature, pressure, and density produces excessively large errors. The probability density function (PDF) method is the only alternative at the present time that uses local instant values of the temperature, density, etc. in predicting chemical reaction rate, and thus it is the only viable approach for turbulent combustion calculations.
An improved k-epsilon model for near wall turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, T. H.; Hsu, Andrew T.
1991-01-01
An improved k-epsilon model for low Reynolds number turbulence near a wall is presented. In the first part of this work, the near-wall asymptotic behavior of the eddy viscosity and the pressure transport term in the turbulent kinetic energy equation are analyzed. Based on these analyses, a modified eddy viscosity model with the correct near-wall behavior is suggested, and a model for the pressure transport term in the k-equation is proposed. In addition, a modeled dissipation rate equation is reformulated, and a boundary condition for the dissipation rate is suggested. In the second part of the work, one of the deficiencies of the existing k-epsilon models, namely, the wall distance dependency of the equations and the damping functions, is examined. An improved model that does not depend on any wall distance is introduced. Fully developed turbulent channel flows and turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate are studied as validations for the proposed new models. Numerical results obtained from the present and other previous k-epsilon models are compared with data from direct numerical simulation. The results show that the present k-epsilon model, with added robustness, performs as well as or better than other existing models in predicting the behavior of near-wall turbulence.
Turbulence modeling for sharp-fin-induced shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horstman, C. C.
1990-01-01
Solutions of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations are presented and compared with a family of experimental results for the 3-D interaction of a sharp fin induced shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer. Several algebraic and two equation eddy viscosity turbulence models are employed. The computed results are compared with experimental surface pressure, skin friction, and yaw angle data as well as the overall size of the interaction. Although the major feature of the flow fields are correctly predicted, several discrepancies are noted. Namely, the maximum skin friction values are significantly underpredicted for the strongest interaction cases. These and other deficiencies are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harley, P.; Spence, S.; Early, J.; Filsinger, D.; Dietrich, M.
2013-12-01
Single-zone modelling is used to assess different collections of impeller 1D loss models. Three collections of loss models have been identified in literature, and the background to each of these collections is discussed. Each collection is evaluated using three modern automotive turbocharger style centrifugal compressors; comparisons of performance for each of the collections are made. An empirical data set taken from standard hot gas stand tests for each turbocharger is used as a baseline for comparison. Compressor range is predicted in this study; impeller diffusion ratio is shown to be a useful method of predicting compressor surge in 1D, and choke is predicted using basic compressible flow theory. The compressor designer can use this as a guide to identify the most compatible collection of losses for turbocharger compressor design applications. The analysis indicates the most appropriate collection for the design of automotive turbocharger centrifugal compressors.
Turbulence and transition modeling for high-speed flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilcox, David C.
1993-01-01
Research conducted during the past three and a half years aimed at developing and testing a turbulence/transition model applicable to high-speed turbulent flows is summarized. The first two years of the project focused on fully turbulent flows, while emphasis shifted to boundary-layer development in the transition region during the final year and a half. A brief summary of research accomplished during the first three years is included and publications that describe research results in greater detail are cited. Research conducted during the final six months of the period of performance is summarized. The primary results of the last six months of the project are elimination of the k-omega model's sensitivity to the freestream value of omega and development of a method for triggering transition at a specified location, independent of the freestream turbulence level.
SOLAR WIND MODELING WITH TURBULENCE TRANSPORT AND HEATING
Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Matthaeus, William H.; Breech, Benjamin A.
2011-02-01
We have developed an axisymmetric steady-state solar wind model that describes properties of the large-scale solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, and turbulence throughout the heliosphere from 0.3 AU to 100 AU. The model is based on numerical solutions of large-scale Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamic equations coupled with a set of small-scale transport equations for the turbulence energy, normalized cross helicity, and correlation scale. The combined set of time-dependent equations is solved in the frame of reference corotating with the Sun using a time-relaxation method. We use the model to study the self-consistent interaction between the large-scale solar wind and smaller-scale turbulence and the role of the turbulence in the large-scale structure and temperature distribution in the solar wind. To illuminate the roles of the turbulent cascade and the pickup protons in heating the solar wind depending on the heliocentric distance, we compare the model results with and without turbulence/pickup protons. The variations of plasma temperature in the outer heliosphere are compared with Ulysses and Voyager 2 observations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, S.-W.; Chen, C.-P.
1989-01-01
A multiple-time-scale turbulence model of a single point closure and a simplified split-spectrum method is presented. In the model, the effect of the ratio of the production rate to the dissipation rate on eddy viscosity is modeled by use of the multiple-time-scales and a variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum. The concept of a variable partitioning of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum and the rest of the model details are based on the previously reported algebraic stress turbulence model. Example problems considered include: a fully developed channel flow, a plane jet exhausting into a moving stream, a wall jet flow, and a weakly coupled wake-boundary layer interaction flow. The computational results compared favorably with those obtained by using the algebraic stress turbulence model as well as experimental data. The present turbulence model, as well as the algebraic stress turbulence model, yielded significantly improved computational results for the complex turbulent boundary layer flows, such as the wall jet flow and the wake boundary layer interaction flow, compared with available computational results obtained by using the standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model.
Particle dispersion in homogeneous turbulence using the one-dimensional turbulence model
Sun, Guangyuan; Lignell, David O.; Hewson, John C.; Gin, Craig R.
2014-10-09
Lagrangian particle dispersion is studied using the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model in homogeneous decaying turbulence configurations. The ODT model has been widely and successfully applied to a number of reacting and nonreacting flow configurations, but only limited application has been made to multiphase flows. We present a version of the particle implementation and interaction with the stochastic and instantaneous ODT eddy events. The model is characterized by comparison to experimental data of particle dispersion for a range of intrinsic particle time scales and body forces. Particle dispersion, velocity, and integral time scale results are presented. Moreover, the particle implementation introduces a single model parameter β p , and sensitivity to this parameter and behavior of the model are discussed. Good agreement is found with experimental data and the ODT model is able to capture the particle inertial and trajectory crossing effects. Our results serve as a validation case of the multiphase implementations of ODT for extensions to other flow configurations.
Particle dispersion in homogeneous turbulence using the one-dimensional turbulence model
Sun, Guangyuan Lignell, David O.; Hewson, John C.; Gin, Craig R.
2014-10-15
Lagrangian particle dispersion is studied using the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model in homogeneous decaying turbulence configurations. The ODT model has been widely and successfully applied to a number of reacting and nonreacting flow configurations, but only limited application has been made to multiphase flows. Here, we present a version of the particle implementation and interaction with the stochastic and instantaneous ODT eddy events. The model is characterized by comparison to experimental data of particle dispersion for a range of intrinsic particle time scales and body forces. Particle dispersion, velocity, and integral time scale results are presented. The particle implementation introduces a single model parameter β{sub p}, and sensitivity to this parameter and behavior of the model are discussed. Good agreement is found with experimental data and the ODT model is able to capture the particle inertial and trajectory crossing effects. These results serve as a validation case of the multiphase implementations of ODT for extensions to other flow configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matrullo, Emanuela; De Matteis, Raffaella; Satriano, Claudio; Amoroso, Ortensia; Zollo, Aldo
2013-10-01
We present a 1-D velocity model of the Earth's crust in Campania-Lucania region obtained by solving the coupled hypocentre-velocity inverse problem for 1312 local earthquakes recorded at a dense regional network. The model is constructed using the VELEST program, which calculates 1-D `minimum' velocity model from body wave traveltimes, together with station corrections, which account for deviations from the simple 1-D structure. The spatial distribution of station corrections correlates with the P-wave velocity variations of a preliminary 3-D crustal velocity model that has been obtained from the tomographic inversion of the same data set of P traveltimes. We found that station corrections reflect not only inhomogeneous near-surface structures, but also larger-scale geological features associated to the transition between carbonate platform outcrops at Southwest and Miocene sedimentary basins at Northeast. We observe a significant trade-off between epicentral locations and station corrections, related to the existence of a thick low-velocity layer to the NE. This effect is taken into account and minimized by re-computing station corrections, fixing the position of a subset of well-determined hypocentres, located in the 3-D tomographic model.
History of wind shear turbulence models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cusimano, Lou
1987-01-01
The Office of Flight Operations, Flight Technical Programs Div., at the FAA Headquarters, interfaces with industry, R&D communities and air carriers during the introduction of new types of equipment into operational services. A brief highlight of the need which FAA operations sees for new wind shear and turbulence data sets from the viewpoint of equipment certification and simulation is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutanto, S. J.; Wenninger, J.; Coenders-Gerrits, A. M. J.; Uhlenbrook, S.
2012-08-01
Knowledge of the water fluxes within the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system is crucial to improve water use efficiency in irrigated land. Many studies have tried to quantify these fluxes, but they encountered difficulties in quantifying the relative contribution of evaporation and transpiration. In this study, we compared three different methods to estimate evaporation fluxes during simulated summer conditions in a grass-covered lysimeter in the laboratory. Only two of these methods can be used to partition total evaporation into transpiration, soil evaporation and interception. A water balance calculation (whereby rainfall, soil moisture and percolation were measured) was used for comparison as a benchmark. A HYDRUS-1D model and isotope measurements were used for the partitioning of total evaporation. The isotope mass balance method partitions total evaporation of 3.4 mm d-1 into 0.4 mm d-1 for soil evaporation, 0.3 mm d-1 for interception and 2.6 mm d-1 for transpiration, while the HYDRUS-1D partitions total evaporation of 3.7 mm d-1 into 1 mm d-1 for soil evaporation, 0.3 mm d-1 for interception and 2.3 mm d-1 for transpiration. From the comparison, we concluded that the isotope mass balance is better for low temporal resolution analysis than the HYDRUS-1D. On the other hand, HYDRUS-1D is better for high temporal resolution analysis than the isotope mass balance.
A 1D Model For Describing Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating At Arbitrary Cyclotron Harmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Eester, Dirk; Lerche, Ernesto
2011-12-01
Both at low and higher cyclotron harmonics, properly accounting for finite Larmor radius effects is crucial in many ICRF heating scenario's creating high energy tails. The present paper discusses an extension of the 1D TOMCAT wave equation solver [1] to arbitrary harmonics and arbitrary wavelengths. Rather than adopting the particle position, the guiding center position is used as the independent variable when writing down an expression for the dielectric response that is suitable for numerical application. This choice of variable yields symmetric and intuitive expressions, and guarantees that a positive definite power absorption is obtained for any of the wave modes in the plasma. Rather than relying on a truncated Taylor series expansion of the dielectric response, an integro-differential approach is proposed. To keep the required computation time for this generalized description reasonable tabulation of integrals is intensively used. An example is provided to illustrate the potential of the new wave code.
Modelling atmospheric turbulence effects on ground-based telescope systems
Bradford, L.W.; Flatte, S.M.; Max, C.E.
1993-09-30
Questions still exist concerning the appropriate model for turbulence- induced phase fluctuations seen in ground-based telescopes. Bester et al. used a particular observable (slope of the Allan variance) with an infrared interferometer in an attempt to distinguish models. The authors have calculated that observable for Kolmogorov and {open_quotes}random walk{close_quotes} models with a variety of outer scales and altitude-dependent turbulence and wind velocity. The authors have found that clear distinction between models requires good data on the vertical distribution of wind and turbulence. Furthermore, measurements at time separations of order 60 s are necessary to distinguish the {open_quotes}random walk{close_quotes} model from the Kolmogorov model.
Modeling of Turbulence Effects on Liquid Jet Atomization and Breakup
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trinh, Huu P.; Chen, C. P.
2005-01-01
Recent experimental investigations and physical modeling studies have indicated that turbulence behaviors within a liquid jet have considerable effects on the atomization process. This study aims to model the turbulence effect in the atomization process of a cylindrical liquid jet. Two widely used models, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability of Reitz (blob model) and the Taylor-Analogy-Breakup (TAB) secondary droplet breakup by O Rourke et al, are further extended to include turbulence effects. In the primary breakup model, the level of the turbulence effect on the liquid breakup depends on the characteristic scales and the initial flow conditions. For the secondary breakup, an additional turbulence force acted on parent drops is modeled and integrated into the TAB governing equation. The drop size formed from this breakup regime is estimated based on the energy balance before and after the breakup occurrence. This paper describes theoretical development of the current models, called "T-blob" and "T-TAB", for primary and secondary breakup respectivety. Several assessment studies are also presented in this paper.
Performance study for Francis-99 by using different turbulence models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yaping, Zhao; Weili, Liao; Hui, Ruan; Xingqi, Luo
2015-01-01
The three-dimensional numerical investigation for turbine-99 at the best efficiency operation point, part load operation point and full load operation point was conducted by using the different turbulence models. By comparing the results of numerical simulation and experimental results, it was found that: there is a certain deviation between the numerical simulation results obtained by different turbulence models and experimental values, and the deviation increase with the reduction of output. Compared to other turbulence model, the result obtained by the standard k-e turbulent model has a relatively small difference with the experimental results. The main causes for the big difference between the numerical simulation and model test include two aspects: (1) the mesh generation and boundary conditions setting lead to differences between the research object and the actual model, (2) it is difficult to accurately simulate the unstable flow such as impact, flow separation and vortex in the turbine. Therefore, in the future actual flow pattern simulation, besides the reasonable choice of turbulence model, based on the actual flow characteristics, the boundary conditions and the simulation results will be amended to reduce the deviation between the numerical simulation and experimental results as much as possible.
Turbulence Modeling and Computation of Turbine Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lakshminarayana, B.; Luo, J.
1996-01-01
The objective of the present research is to develop improved turbulence models for the computation of complex flows through turbomachinery passages, including the effects of streamline curvature, heat transfer and secondary flows. Advanced turbulence models are crucial for accurate prediction of rocket engine flows, due to existance of very large extra strain rates, such as strong streamline curvature. Numerical simulation of the turbulent flows in strongly curved ducts, including two 180-deg ducts, one 90-deg duct and a strongly concave curved turbulent boundary layer have been carried out with Reynolds stress models (RSM) and algebraic Reynolds stress models (ARSM). An improved near-wall pressure-strain correlation has been developed for capturing the anisotropy of turbulence in the concave region. A comparative study of two modes of transition in gas turbine, the by-pass transition and the separation-induced transition, has been carried out with several representative low-Reynolds number (LRN) k-epsilon models. Effects of blade surface pressure gradient, freestream turbulence and Reynolds number on the blade boundary layer development, and particularly the inception of transition are examined in detail. The present study indicates that the turbine blade transition, in the presence of high freestream turbulence, is predicted well with LRN k-epsilon models employed. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes procedure developed by the present authors has been used to compute the three-dimensional viscous flow through the turbine nozzle passage of a single stage turbine. A low Reynolds number k-epsilon model and a zonal k-epsilon/ARSM (algebraic Reynolds stress model) are utilized for turbulence closure. An assessment of the performance of the turbulence models has been carried out. The two models are found to provide similar predictions for the mean flow parameters, although slight improvement in the prediction of some secondary flow quantities has been obtained by the
A local eddy viscosity model for turbulent shear flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ortwerth, P. J.; Rabe, D. C.; Mcerlean, D. P.
1973-01-01
In the model described, the eddy viscosity is assumed to be a fluid property dependent on the state of the fluid locally, namely the local density, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulence scale, and Mach number. An empirical law was found which related eddy viscosity to these properties satisfactorily for free jets. This law is used without modification for a set of test cases in free shear layers, free-jet decay, coaxial mixing, and wakes. The scale of turbulence is taken as a constant at any axial location equal to the width of the shear layer. By utilizing the boundary-layer order-of-magnitude analysis, a coupled set of fluid dynamic equations is formulated, which of necessity includes the equation for the production of turbulent kinetic energy.
Prediction of High-Lift Flows using Turbulent Closure Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Gatski, Thomas B.; Ying, Susan X.; Bertelrud, Arild
1997-01-01
The flow over two different multi-element airfoil configurations is computed using linear eddy viscosity turbulence models and a nonlinear explicit algebraic stress model. A subset of recently-measured transition locations using hot film on a McDonnell Douglas configuration is presented, and the effect of transition location on the computed solutions is explored. Deficiencies in wake profile computations are found to be attributable in large part to poor boundary layer prediction on the generating element, and not necessarily inadequate turbulence modeling in the wake. Using measured transition locations for the main element improves the prediction of its boundary layer thickness, skin friction, and wake profile shape. However, using measured transition locations on the slat still yields poor slat wake predictions. The computation of the slat flow field represents a key roadblock to successful predictions of multi-element flows. In general, the nonlinear explicit algebraic stress turbulence model gives very similar results to the linear eddy viscosity models.
Atmospheric turbulence optical model (ATOM) based on fractal theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Scoggins, Jim; Carroll, Marvin P.
1994-06-01
An Atmospheric Turbulence Optical Model (ATOM) is presented that used cellular automata (CA) rules as the basis for modeling synthetic phase sheets. This method allows image fracture, scintillation and blur to be correctly models using the principle of convolution with a complex kernel derived from CA rules interaction. The model takes into account the changing distribution of turbules from micro-turbule domination at low altitudes to macro-domination at high altitudes. The wavelength of propagating images (such as a coherent laser beam) and the range are taken into account. The ATOM model is written in standard FORTRAN 77 and enables high-speed in-line calculation of atmospheric effects to be performed without resorting to computationally intensive solutions of Navier Stokes equations or Cn2 profiles.
Center for Modeling of Turbulence and Transition: Research Briefs, 1995
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
This research brief contains the progress reports of the research staff of the Center for Modeling of Turbulence and Transition (CMOTT) from July 1993 to July 1995. It also constitutes a progress report to the Institute of Computational Mechanics in Propulsion located at the Ohio Aerospace Institute and the Lewis Research Center. CMOTT has been in existence for about four years. In the first three years, its main activities were to develop and validate turbulence and combustion models for propulsion systems, in an effort to remove the deficiencies of existing models. Three workshops on computational turbulence modeling were held at LeRC (1991, 1993, 1994). At present, CMOTT is integrating the CMOTT developed/improved models into CFD tools which can be used by the propulsion systems community. This activity has resulted in an increased collaboration with the Lewis CFD researchers.
Modeling turbulence in flows with a strong rotational component
Burgess, D.E.; O`Rourke, P.J.
1993-11-01
We consider the effectiveness of various turbulence models in flows with a strong rotational component. To evaluate the models, we implement them into a one-dimensional test code and make comparisons with experimental data for swirling flow in a cylinder. The K - {epsilon} type turbulence models do poorly in predicting the experimental results. However, we find that the incorporation of a Reynolds stress evolution equation gives good agreement with the experimentally measured mean flow. Modeling the pressure-strain correlation tensor correctly is the key for obtaining good results. A combination of Launder`s basic model together with Yakhot`s dissipation rate equation {sup 3} works best in predicting both the mean flow and the turbulence intensity.
Predictive modeling of particle-laden turbulent flows. Final report
Shaffer, F.; Bolio, E.J.; Hrenya, C.M.
1993-12-31
Earlier work of Sinclair and Jackson which treats the laminar flow of gas-solid suspensions is extended to model dilute turbulent flow. The random particle motion, often exceeding the turbulent fluctuations in the gas, is obtained using a model based on kinetic theory of granular materials. A two-equation low Reynolds number turbulence model is, modified to account for the presence of the dilute particle phase. Comparisons of the model predictions with available experimental data for the mean and fluctuating velocity profiles for both phases indicate that the resulting theory captures many of the flow features observed in the pneumatic transport of large particles. The model predictions did not manifest an extreme sensitivity to the degree of inelasticity in the particle-particle collisions for the range of solid loading ratios investigated.
Validating the BHR RANS model for variable density turbulence
Israel, Daniel M; Gore, Robert A; Stalsberg - Zarling, Krista L
2009-01-01
The BHR RANS model is a turbulence model for multi-fluid flows in which density variation plays a strong role in the turbulence processes. In this paper they demonstrate the usefulness of BHR over a wide range of flows which include the effects of shear, buoyancy, and shocks. The results are in good agreement with experimental and DNS data across the entire set of validation cases, with no need to retune model coefficients between cases. The model has potential application to a number of aerospace related flow problems.
The analysis and modeling of dilatational terms in compressible turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarkar, S.; Erlebacher, G.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Kreiss, H. O.
1989-01-01
It is shown that the dilatational terms that need to be modeled in compressible turbulence include not only the pressure-dilatation term but also another term - the compressible dissipation. The nature of these dilatational terms in homogeneous turbulence is explored by asymptotic analysis of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A non-dimensional parameter which characterizes some compressible effects in moderate Mach number, homogeneous turbulence is identified. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of isotropic, compressible turbulence are performed, and their results are found to be in agreement with the theoretical analysis. A model for the compressible dissipation is proposed; the model is based on the asymptotic analysis and the direct numerical simulations. This model is calibrated with reference to the DNS results regarding the influence of compressibility on the decay rate of isotropic turbulence. An application of the proposed model to the compressible mixing layer has shown that the model is able to predict the dramatically reduced growth rate of the compressible mixing layer.
Turbulence model form uncertainty quantification in OpenFOAM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Zengrong; Zeoli, Stéphanie; Bricteux, Laurent; Gorlé, Catherine; CFD; UQ Team; Fluids-Machines Team
2015-11-01
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations with a two-equation linear eddy-viscosity turbulence model remain a commonly used computational technique for engineering design and analysis of turbulent flows. The accuracy of the results is however limited by the inability of the turbulence model to correctly predict the complex flow features relevant to engineering applications. To enable supporting critical design decisions based on these imperfect model results it is essential to quantify the uncertainty related to the turbulence model form and define confidence levels for the results. The objective of this study is the implementation and validation of a previously developed approach for quantifying the uncertainty in RANS predictions of a turbulent flow in the open source code OpenFOAM. The methodology is based on two steps: 1. calculate a marker to determine where in the flow the model is plausibly inaccurate, and 2. perturb the modeled Reynolds stresses in the momentum equations. The perturbations are defined in terms of the decomposed Reynolds stress tensor, i.e., the tensor magnitude and the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the normalized anisotropy tensor. Results for a square duct and the flow over a wavy wall will be presented for validation of the implementation.
Compressible Turbulent Channel Flows: DNS Results and Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, P. G.; Coleman, G. N.; Bradshaw, P.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
The present paper addresses some topical issues in modeling compressible turbulent shear flows. The work is based on direct numerical simulation of two supersonic fully developed channel flows between very cold isothermal walls. Detailed decomposition and analysis of terms appearing in the momentum and energy equations are presented. The simulation results are used to provide insights into differences between conventional time-and Favre-averaging of the mean-flow and turbulent quantities. Study of the turbulence energy budget for the two cases shows that the compressibility effects due to turbulent density and pressure fluctuations are insignificant. In particular, the dilatational dissipation and the mean product of the pressure and dilatation fluctuations are very small, contrary to the results of simulations for sheared homogeneous compressible turbulence and to recent proposals for models for general compressible turbulent flows. This provides a possible explanation of why the Van Driest density-weighted transformation is so successful in correlating compressible boundary layer data. Finally, it is found that the DNS data do not support the strong Reynolds analogy. A more general representation of the analogy is analysed and shown to match the DNS data very well.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bardino, J.; Ferziger, J. H.; Reynolds, W. C.
1983-01-01
The physical bases of large eddy simulation and subgrid modeling are studied. A subgrid scale similarity model is developed that can account for system rotation. Large eddy simulations of homogeneous shear flows with system rotation were carried out. Apparently contradictory experimental results were explained. The main effect of rotation is to increase the transverse length scales in the rotation direction, and thereby decrease the rates of dissipation. Experimental results are shown to be affected by conditions at the turbulence producing grid, which make the initial states a function of the rotation rate. A two equation model is proposed that accounts for effects of rotation and shows good agreement with experimental results. In addition, a Reynolds stress model is developed that represents the turbulence structure of homogeneous shear flows very well and can account also for the effects of system rotation.
Radio Wave Scintillations and Models of Interstellar Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spangler, Steven R.
1998-05-01
There are a number of well-established observational results from radio scintillations which have implications for the nature of interstellar turbulence. Among such results are evidence for anisotropy and a Kolmogorov spectrum for the density irregularities. It is probable the galactic magnetic field organizes these irregularities so that spatial gradients along the field are much less than those perpendicular to the field. Such a behavior for turbulence is predicted by theories of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in which the amplitude is small. The turbulence is then described by a theory termed reduced magnetohydrodynamics. A limiting case of reduced magnetohydrodynamics is two dimensional magnetohydrodynamics, in which the direction of the large scale magnetic field z defines the ignorable coordinate. Two dimensional magnetohydrodynamics consists of a pair of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for the velocity stream function psi and the z component of the magnetic vector potential A_z. A number of observed features of interstellar turbulence can be identified with solutions to the equations of two dimensional magnetohydrodynamics. Examples are the development of Kolmogorov-like spectra for the velocity and magnetic field from a wide class (although not totally general) initial conditions, a natural explanation for the formation of intermittancy in turbulence, and the rapid development of small scale, large spatial wavenumber fluctuations, in contrast to the eddy cascade of hydrodynamic turbulence. The equations of two dimensional magnetohydrodynamics may serve as a simple but tractable model of interstellar plasma turbulence that may complement and be superior to the traditional model of an ensemble of magnetohydrodynamic waves.
Center for modeling of turbulence and transition: Research briefs, 1993
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, William W. (Editor)
1994-01-01
This research brief contains the progress reports of the research staff of the Center for Modeling of Turbulence and Transition (CMOTT) from June 1992 to July 1993. It is also an annual report to the Institute for Computational Mechanics in Propulsion located at Ohio Aerospace Institute and NASA Lewis Research Center. The main objectives of the research activities at CMOTT are to develop, validate, and implement turbulence and transition models for flows of interest in propulsion systems. Currently, our research covers eddy viscosity one- and two-equation models, Reynolds-stress algebraic equation models, Reynolds-stress transport equation models, nonequilibrium multiple-scale models, bypass transition models, joint scalar probability density function models, and Renormalization Group Theory and Direct Interaction Approximation methods. Some numerical simulations (LES and DNS) have also been carried out to support the development of turbulence modeling. Last year was CMOTT's third year in operation. During this period, in addition to the above mentioned research, CMOTT has also hosted the following programs: an eighteen-hour short course on 'Turbulence--Fundamentals and Computational Modeling (Part I)' given by CMOTT at the NASA Lewis Research Center; a productive summer visitor research program that has generated many encouraging results; collaborative programs with industry customers to help improve their turbulent flow calculations for propulsion system designs; a biweekly CMOTT seminar series with speakers from within and without the NASA Lewis Research Center including foreign speakers. In addition, CMOTT members have been actively involved in the national and international turbulence research activities. The current CMOTT roster and organization are listed in Appendix A. Listed in Appendix B are the abstracts of the biweekly CMOTT seminar. Appendix C lists the papers contributed by CMOTT members.
Mathematical and Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Flows.
Vedovoto, João M; Serfaty, Ricardo; Da Silveira Neto, Aristeu
2015-01-01
The present work is devoted to the development and implementation of a computational framework to perform numerical simulations of low Mach number turbulent flows over complex geometries. The algorithm under consideration is based on a classical predictor-corrector time integration scheme that employs a projection method for the momentum equations. The domain decomposition strategy is adopted for distributed computing, displaying very satisfactory levels of speed-up and efficiency. The Immersed Boundary Methodology is used to characterize the presence of a complex geometry. Such method demands two separate grids: An Eulerian, where the transport equations are solved with a Finite Volume, second order discretization and a Lagrangian domain, represented by a non-structured shell grid representing the immersed geometry. The in-house code developed was fully verified by the Method of Manufactured Solutions, in both Eulerian and Lagrangian domains. The capabilities of the resulting computational framework are illustrated on four distinct cases: a turbulent jet, the Poiseuille flow, as a matter of validation of the implemented Immersed Boundary methodology, the flow over a sphere covering a wide range of Reynolds numbers, and finally, with the intention of demonstrating the applicability of Large Eddy Simulations - LES - in an industrial problem, the turbulent flow inside an industrial fan. PMID:26131642
Optical Turbulence Characterization by WRF model above Ali, Tibet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hongshuai; Yao, Yongqiang; Liu, Liyong; Qian, Xuan; Yin, Jia
2015-04-01
Atmospheric optical turbulence modeling and forecast for astronomy is a relatively recent discipline, but has played important roles in site survey, optimization of large telescope observing tables, and in the applications of adaptive optics technique. The numerical approach, by using of meteorological parameters and parameterization of optical turbulence, can provide all the optical turbulence parameters related, such as C2n profile, coherent length, wavefront coherent time, seeing, isoplanatic angle, and so on. This is particularly interesting for searching new sites without the long and expensive site testing campaigns with instruments. Earlier site survey results by the site survey team of National Astronomical Observatories of China imply that the south-west Tibet, Ali, is one of the world best IR and sub-mm site. For searching the best site in Ali area, numerical approach by Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model had been used to evaluate the climatology of the optical turbulence. The WRF model is configured over a domain 200km×200km with 1km horizontal resolution and 65 vertical levels from ground to the model top(10millibars) in 2010. The initial and boundary conditions for the model are provided by the 1° × 1° Global Final Analysis data from NCEP. The distribution and seasonal variation of optical turbulence parameters over this area are presented.
Near-wall turbulence modeling for boundary layers with separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, S. H.
1991-12-01
As a turbulent boundary layer undergoes a strong adverse pressure gradient, the flow may separate from the wall, and the use of empirical wall functions is inappropriate. The turbulence transport equations as well as the momentum equations must be solved through the laminar sublayer to the wall. The laminar sublayer encompasses a region where viscous effects become increasingly important. For the past two decades, many proposals for near-wall turbulence models of the kappa-epsilon type have been presented for calculating near-wall flows. A thorough review and a systematic evaluation of these models was previously given. It was found that some of the models tested failed to reproduce even the simple flat-plate boundary layer flow. Overall, the authors concluded that the near-wall turbulence models needed further refinement if they were to be used with confidence to calculate near-wall flows. Recently, the use of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) data base has provided new insight and data for development and testing of near-wall turbulence models.
Modelling Unsteady Wall Pressures Beneath Turbulent Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahn, B-K.; Graham, W. R.; Rizzi, S. A.
2004-01-01
As a structural entity of turbulence, hairpin vortices are believed to play a major role in developing and sustaining the turbulence process in the near wall region of turbulent boundary layers and may be regarded as the simplest conceptual model that can account for the essential features of the wall pressure fluctuations. In this work we focus on fully developed typical hairpin vortices and estimate the associated surface pressure distributions and their corresponding spectra. On the basis of the attached eddy model, we develop a representation of the overall surface pressure spectra in terms of the eddy size distribution. Instantaneous wavenumber spectra and spatial correlations are readily derivable from this representation. The model is validated by comparison of predicted wavenumber spectra and cross-correlations with existing emperical models and experimental data.
Turbulence radiation interaction modeling in hydrocarbon pool fire simulations
BURNS,SHAWN P.
1999-12-01
The importance of turbulent fluctuations in temperature and species concentration in thermal radiation transport modeling for combustion applications is well accepted by the radiation transport and combustion communities. A number of experimental and theoretical studies over the last twenty years have shown that fluctuations in the temperature and species concentrations may increase the effective emittance of a turbulent flame by as much as 50% to 300% over the value that would be expected from the mean temperatures and concentrations. With the possibility of such a large effect on the principal mode of heat transfer from a fire, it is extremely important for fire modeling efforts that turbulence radiation interaction be well characterized and possible modeling approaches understood. Toward this end, this report seeks to accomplish three goals. First, the principal turbulence radiation interaction closure terms are defined. Second, an order of magnitude analysis is performed to understand the relative importance of the various closure terms. Finally, the state of the art in turbulence radiation interaction closure modeling is reviewed. Hydrocarbon pool fire applications are of particular interest in this report and this is the perspective from which this review proceeds. Experimental and theoretical analysis suggests that, for this type of heavily sooting flame, the turbulent radiation interaction effect is dominated by the nonlinear dependence of the Planck function on the temperature. Additional effects due to the correlation between turbulent fluctuations in the absorptivity and temperature may be small relative to the Planck function effect for heavily sooting flames. This observation is drawn from a number of experimental and theoretical discussions. Nevertheless, additional analysis and data is needed to validate this observation for heavily sooting buoyancy dominated plumes.
An analytical 1-D model for vertical momentum and energy flux through a fully developed wind farm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markfort, Corey D.; Zhang, Wei; Porté-Agel, Fernando
2014-05-01
Wind farms capture momentum from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) both at the leading edge and from the atmosphere above. Momentum is advected into the wind farm and wake turbulence draws excess momentum in from between turbines until momentum is only available from above the wind farm. This distance can be described by the so-called drag development length scale, which arises from the canopy drag force term in the momentum equation. At this point the flow can be considered fully developed. The horizontally-averaged velocity profile for a fully developed wind farm flow exhibits a characteristic inflection point near the top of the wind farm, similar to that of sparse canopy-type flows (Markfort et al., JoT, 2012). The inflected vertical velocity profile is associated with the presence of a dominant characteristic turbulence scale, which may be responsible for a significant portion of the vertical momentum flux. We evaluate an analytical canopy-type flow model for wind farm-atmosphere interaction by testing it against wind-tunnel experimental data of flow through a model wind farm. The model is adapted to predict the mean flow, vertical momentum flux, and the mean kinetic energy flux as well as kinetic energy dissipation within the wind farm. This model is particularly useful for wind farm configuration optimization, considering wind turbine spacing and surface roughness and can also be useful to represent wind farms in regional scale atmospheric simulations.
Modeling of confined turbulent fluid-particle flows using Eulerian and Lagrangian schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adeniji-Fashola, A.; Chen, C. P.
1990-01-01
Two important aspects of fluid-particulate interaction in dilute gas-particle turbulent flows (the turbulent particle dispersion and the turbulence modulation effects) are addressed, using the Eulerian and Lagrangian modeling approaches to describe the particulate phase. Gradient-diffusion approximations are employed in the Eulerian formulation, while a stochastic procedure is utilized to simulate turbulent dispersion in the Lagrangina formulation. The k-epsilon turbulence model is used to characterize the time and length scales of the continuous phase turbulence. Models proposed for both schemes are used to predict turbulent fully-developed gas-solid vertical pipe flow with reasonable accuracy.
A minimal model of self-sustaining turbulence
Thomas, Vaughan L.; Gayme, Dennice F.; Farrell, Brian F.; Ioannou, Petros J.
2015-10-15
In this work, we examine the turbulence maintained in a Restricted Nonlinear (RNL) model of plane Couette flow. This model is a computationally efficient approximation of the second order statistical state dynamics obtained by partitioning the flow into a streamwise averaged mean flow and perturbations about that mean, a closure referred to herein as the RNL{sub ∞} model. The RNL model investigated here employs a single member of the infinite ensemble that comprises the covariance of the RNL{sub ∞} dynamics. The RNL system has previously been shown to support self-sustaining turbulence with a mean flow and structural features that are consistent with direct numerical simulations (DNS). Regardless of the number of streamwise Fourier components used in the simulation, the RNL system’s self-sustaining turbulent state is supported by a small number of streamwise varying modes. Remarkably, further truncation of the RNL system’s support to as few as one streamwise varying mode can suffice to sustain the turbulent state. The close correspondence between RNL simulations and DNS that has been previously demonstrated along with the results presented here suggest that the fundamental mechanisms underlying wall-turbulence can be analyzed using these highly simplified RNL systems.
Turbulence transport modeling of the temporal outer heliosphere
Adhikari, L.; Zank, G. P.; Hu, Q.; Dosch, A.
2014-09-20
The solar wind can be regarded as a turbulent magnetofluid, evolving in an expanding solar wind and subject to turbulent driving by a variety of in situ sources. Furthermore, the solar wind and the drivers of turbulence are highly time-dependent and change with solar cycle. Turbulence transport models describing low-frequency magnetic and velocity fluctuations in the solar wind have so far neglected solar cycle effects. Here we consider the effects of solar cycle variability on a turbulence transport model developed by Zank et al. This model is appropriate for the solar wind beyond about 1 AU, and extensions have described the steady-state dependence of the magnetic energy density fluctuations, correlation length, and solar wind temperature throughout the outer heliosphere. We find that the temporal solar wind introduces a periodic variability, particularly beyond ∼10 AU, in the magnetic energy density fluctuations, correlation length, and solar wind temperature. The variability is insufficient to account for the full observed variability in these quantities, but we find that the time-dependent solutions trace the steady-state solutions quite well, suggesting that the steady-state models are reasonable first approximations.
The lagRST Model: A Turbulence Model for Non-Equilibrium Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lillard, Randolph P.; Oliver, A. Brandon; Olsen, Michael E.; Blaisdell, Gregory A.; Lyrintzis, Anastasios S.
2011-01-01
This study presents a new class of turbulence model designed for wall bounded, high Reynolds number flows with separation. The model addresses deficiencies seen in the modeling of nonequilibrium turbulent flows. These flows generally have variable adverse pressure gradients which cause the turbulent quantities to react at a finite rate to changes in the mean flow quantities. This "lag" in the response of the turbulent quantities can t be modeled by most standard turbulence models, which are designed to model equilibrium turbulent boundary layers. The model presented uses a standard 2-equation model as the baseline for turbulent equilibrium calculations, but adds transport equations to account directly for non-equilibrium effects in the Reynolds Stress Tensor (RST) that are seen in large pressure gradients involving shock waves and separation. Comparisons are made to several standard turbulence modeling validation cases, including an incompressible boundary layer (both neutral and adverse pressure gradients), an incompressible mixing layer and a transonic bump flow. In addition, a hypersonic Shock Wave Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction with separation is assessed along with a transonic capsule flow. Results show a substantial improvement over the baseline models for transonic separated flows. The results are mixed for the SWTBLI flows assessed. Separation predictions are not as good as the baseline models, but the over prediction of the peak heat flux downstream of the reattachment shock that plagues many models is reduced.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Daehwan; Heo, Seung; Cheong, Cheolung
2015-03-01
The present paper deals with development of the synthetic turbulence inflow boundary condition (STIBC) to predict inflow broadband noise generated by interaction between turbulence and an airfoil/a cascade of airfoils in the time-domain. The STIBC is derived by combining inflow boundary conditions that have been successfully applied in external and internal computational aeroacoustics (CAA) simulations with a synthetic turbulence model. The random particle mesh (RPM) method based on a digital filter is used as the synthetic turbulence model. Gaussian and Liepmann spectra are used to define the filters for turbulence energy spectra. The linearized Euler equations are used as governing equations to evaluate the suitability of the STIBC in time-domain CAA simulations. First, the velocity correlations and energy spectra of the synthesized turbulent velocities are compared with analytic ones. The comparison results reveal that the STIBC can reproduce a turbulent velocity field satisfying the required statistical characteristics of turbulence. Particularly, the Liepmann filter representing a non-Gaussian filter is shown to be effectively described by superposing the Gaussian filters. Each Gaussian filter has a different turbulent kinetic energy and integral length scale. Second, two inflow noise problems are numerically solved using the STIBC: the turbulence-airfoil interaction and the turbulence-a cascade of airfoils interaction problems. The power spectrum of noise due to an isolated flat plate airfoil interacting with incident turbulence is predicted, and its result is successfully validated against Amiet's analytic model (Amiet, 1975) [4]. The prediction results of the upstream and downstream acoustic power spectra from a cascade of flat plates are then compared with Cheong's analytic model (Cheong et al., 2006) [30]. These comparisons are also in excellent agreement. On the basis of these illustrative computation results, the STIBC is expected to be applied to
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kopasakis, George
2014-01-01
The presentation covers a recently developed methodology to model atmospheric turbulence as disturbances for aero vehicle gust loads and for controls development like flutter and inlet shock position. The approach models atmospheric turbulence in their natural fractional order form, which provides for more accuracy compared to traditional methods like the Dryden model, especially for high speed vehicle. The presentation provides a historical background on atmospheric turbulence modeling and the approaches utilized for air vehicles. This is followed by the motivation and the methodology utilized to develop the atmospheric turbulence fractional order modeling approach. Some examples covering the application of this method are also provided, followed by concluding remarks.
Turbulence Model Selection for Low Reynolds Number Flows
2016-01-01
One of the major flow phenomena associated with low Reynolds number flow is the formation of separation bubbles on an airfoil’s surface. NACA4415 airfoil is commonly used in wind turbines and UAV applications. The stall characteristics are gradual compared to thin airfoils. The primary criterion set for this work is the capture of laminar separation bubble. Flow is simulated for a Reynolds number of 120,000. The numerical analysis carried out shows the advantages and disadvantages of a few turbulence models. The turbulence models tested were: one equation Spallart Allmars (S-A), two equation SST K-ω, three equation Intermittency (γ) SST, k-kl-ω and finally, the four equation transition γ-Reθ SST. However, the variation in flow physics differs between these turbulence models. Procedure to establish the accuracy of the simulation, in accord with previous experimental results, has been discussed in detail. PMID:27104354
Turbulence Model Selection for Low Reynolds Number Flows.
Aftab, S M A; Mohd Rafie, A S; Razak, N A; Ahmad, K A
2016-01-01
One of the major flow phenomena associated with low Reynolds number flow is the formation of separation bubbles on an airfoil's surface. NACA4415 airfoil is commonly used in wind turbines and UAV applications. The stall characteristics are gradual compared to thin airfoils. The primary criterion set for this work is the capture of laminar separation bubble. Flow is simulated for a Reynolds number of 120,000. The numerical analysis carried out shows the advantages and disadvantages of a few turbulence models. The turbulence models tested were: one equation Spallart Allmars (S-A), two equation SST K-ω, three equation Intermittency (γ) SST, k-kl-ω and finally, the four equation transition γ-Reθ SST. However, the variation in flow physics differs between these turbulence models. Procedure to establish the accuracy of the simulation, in accord with previous experimental results, has been discussed in detail. PMID:27104354
Temperature-Corrected Model of Turbulence in Hot Jet Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Pao, S. Paul; Massey, Steven J.; Elmiligui, Alaa
2007-01-01
An improved correction has been developed to increase the accuracy with which certain formulations of computational fluid dynamics predict mixing in shear layers of hot jet flows. The CFD formulations in question are those derived from the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations closed by means of a two-equation model of turbulence, known as the k-epsilon model, wherein effects of turbulence are summarized by means of an eddy viscosity. The need for a correction arises because it is well known among specialists in CFD that two-equation turbulence models, which were developed and calibrated for room-temperature, low Mach-number, plane-mixing-layer flows, underpredict mixing in shear layers of hot jet flows. The present correction represents an attempt to account for increased mixing that takes place in jet flows characterized by high gradients of total temperature. This correction also incorporates a commonly accepted, previously developed correction for the effect of compressibility on mixing.
The Lag Model, a Turbulence Model for Wall Bounded Flows Including Separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olsen, Michael E.; Coakley, Thomas J.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A new class of turbulence model is described for wall bounded, high Reynolds number flows. A specific turbulence model is demonstrated, with results for favorable and adverse pressure gradient flowfields. Separation predictions are as good or better than either Spalart Almaras or SST models, do not require specification of wall distance, and have similar or reduced computational effort compared with these models.
1D Nonisothermal Fiber Spinning Models for Thermotropic Polymeric Liquid Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hong; Forest, M. Gregory; Wang, Qi
1997-11-01
Previous slender one-dimensional models for axisymmetric filaments of liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) are extended to include temperature-dependent material behavior and an energy equation. A two-phase model is posited, where below the glass transition temperature the material is modeled as a rigid cooling LCP fiber. We present families of numerical steady boundary-value solutions for thermal spinning flows; effects of temperature-dependent viscosity, LCP relaxation, excluded-volume potential, and viscous heating are modeled and exhibited. The predictions focus on thermal influence on spun fiber performance properties, such as birefringence and axial force, and process stability. A cooling ambient clearly contributes to faster stable spinning speeds.
A new turbulence-based model for sand transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayaud, Jerome; Wiggs, Giles; Bailey, Richard
2016-04-01
Knowledge of the changing rate of sediment flux in space and time is essential for quantifying surface erosion and deposition in desert landscapes. While many aeolian studies have relied on time-averaged parameters such as wind velocity (U) and wind shear velocity (u*) to determine sediment flux, there is increasing evidence that high-frequency turbulence is an important driving force behind the entrainment and transport of sand. However, turbulence has yet to be incorporated into a functional sand transport model that can be used for predictive purposes. In this study we present a new transport model (the 'turbulence model') that accounts for high-frequency variations in the horizontal (u) and vertical (w) components of wind flow. The turbulence model is fitted to wind velocity and sediment transport data from a field experiment undertaken in Namibia's Skeleton Coast National Park, and its performance at three temporal resolutions (10 Hz, 1 Hz, 1 min) is compared to two existing models that rely on time-averaged wind velocity data (Radok, 1977; Dong et al., 2003). The validity of the three models is analysed under a variety of saltation conditions, using a 2-hour (1 Hz measurement resolution) dataset from the Skeleton Coast and a 5-hour (1 min measurement resolution) dataset from the southwestern Kalahari Desert. The turbulence model is shown to outperform the Radok and Dong models when predicting total saltation count over the three experimental periods. For all temporal resolutions presented in this study (10 Hz-10 min), the turbulence model predicted total saltation count to within at least 0.34%, whereas the Radok and Dong models over- or underestimated total count by up to 5.50% and 20.53% respectively. The strong performance of the turbulence model can be attributed to a lag in mass flux response built into its formulation, which can be adapted depending on the temporal resolution of investigation. This accounts for the inherent lag within the physical
On the limiters of two-equation turbulence models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Chang Hwan; Park, Seung O.
2005-01-01
When two-equation turbulence models are used, unrealistically large values of turbulence variables can appear due to the infringement of a realizability condition or to numerical error. To cure this in practical calculations, various limiters on the source terms are often employed. In the present work, a mathematically correct bound for eddy viscosity is obtained from the realizability condition itself. From this, realizability bounds for several terms of model equations are given. The effects of various bounds including the present one, are investigated on the predictions of fundamental flows including simple shear flows, supersonic compression ramp flow and supersonic base flow. It is shown that the limiter affects the prediction very significantly.
Modeling of Turbulence Generated Noise in Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khavaran, Abbas; Bridges, James
2004-01-01
A numerically calculated Green's function is used to predict jet noise spectrum and its far-field directivity. A linearized form of Lilley's equation governs the non-causal Green s function of interest, with the non-linear terms on the right hand side identified as the source. In this paper, contributions from the so-called self- and shear-noise source terms will be discussed. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solution yields the required mean flow as well as time- and length scales of a noise-generating turbulent eddy. A non-compact source, with exponential temporal and spatial functions, is used to describe the turbulence velocity correlation tensors. It is shown that while an exact non-causal Green's function accurately predicts the observed shift in the location of the spectrum peak with angle as well as the angularity of sound at moderate Mach numbers, at high subsonic and supersonic acoustic Mach numbers the polar directivity of radiated sound is not entirely captured by this Green's function. Results presented for Mach 0.5 and 0.9 isothermal jets, as well as a Mach 0.8 hot jet conclude that near the peak radiation angle a different source/Green's function convolution integral may be required in order to capture the peak observed directivity of jet noise.
On the modeling of low-Reynolds-number turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
So, R. M. C.; Yoo, G. J.
1986-01-01
A full Reynolds-stress closure that is capable of describing the flow all the way to the wall was formulated for turbulent flow through circular pipe. Since viscosity does not appear explicitly in the pressure redistribution terms, conventional high-number models for these terms are found to be applicable. However, the models for turbulent diffusion and viscous dissipation have to be modified to account for viscous diffusion near a wall. Two redistribution and two diffusion models are investigated for their effects on the model calculations. Wall correction to pressure redistribution modeling is also examined. Diffusion effects on calculated turbulent properties are further investigated by simplifying the transport equations to algebraic equations for Reynolds stress. Two approximations are explored. These are the equilibrium and nonequilibrium turbulence assumptions. Finally, the two-equation closure is also used to calculate the flow in question and the results compared with all the other model calculations. Fully developed pipe flows at two moderate Reynolds numbers are used to validate these model calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pekşen, Ertan; Yas, Türker; Kıyak, Alper
2014-09-01
We examine the one-dimensional direct current method in anisotropic earth formation. We derive an analytic expression of a simple, two-layered anisotropic earth model. Further, we also consider a horizontally layered anisotropic earth response with respect to the digital filter method, which yields a quasi-analytic solution over anisotropic media. These analytic and quasi-analytic solutions are useful tests for numerical codes. A two-dimensional finite difference earth model in anisotropic media is presented in order to generate a synthetic data set for a simple one-dimensional earth. Further, we propose a particle swarm optimization method for estimating the model parameters of a layered anisotropic earth model such as horizontal and vertical resistivities, and thickness. The particle swarm optimization is a naturally inspired meta-heuristic algorithm. The proposed method finds model parameters quite successfully based on synthetic and field data. However, adding 5 % Gaussian noise to the synthetic data increases the ambiguity of the value of the model parameters. For this reason, the results should be controlled by a number of statistical tests. In this study, we use probability density function within 95 % confidence interval, parameter variation of each iteration and frequency distribution of the model parameters to reduce the ambiguity. The result is promising and the proposed method can be used for evaluating one-dimensional direct current data in anisotropic media.
Optimal thermalization in a shell model of homogeneous turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thalabard, Simon; Turkington, Bruce
2016-04-01
We investigate the turbulence-induced dissipation of the large scales in a statistically homogeneous flow using an ‘optimal closure,’ which one of us (BT) has recently exposed in the context of Hamiltonian dynamics. This statistical closure employs a Gaussian model for the turbulent scales, with corresponding vanishing third cumulant, and yet it captures an intrinsic damping. The key to this apparent paradox lies in a clear distinction between true ensemble averages and their proxies, most easily grasped when one works directly with the Liouville equation rather than the cumulant hierarchy. We focus on a simple problem for which the optimal closure can be fully and exactly worked out: the relaxation arbitrarily far-from-equilibrium of a single energy shell towards Gibbs equilibrium in an inviscid shell model of 3D turbulence. The predictions of the optimal closure are validated against DNS and contrasted with those derived from EDQNM closure.
Modeling of Turbulent Flow in Electromagnetically Levitated Metal Droplets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, S.; Hyers, R. W.; Abedian, B.; Racz, L. M.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This article details an effort to improve the understanding and prediction of turbulent flow inside a droplet of molten metal levitated in an electromagnetic field. It is shown that the flow field in a test case, a nickel droplet levitated under microgravity conditions, is in the transitional regime between laminar and turbulent flow. Past research efforts have used laminar, enhanced viscosity, and k-epsilon turbulence models to describe the flow. The method highlighted in our study is the renormalization group (RNG) algorithm. We show that an accurate description of the turbulent eddy viscosity is critical in order to obtain realistic velocity fields, and that the turbulent eddy viscosity cannot be uniform in levitated droplets. The RNG method does not impose isotropic length or time scales on the flow field, thus allowing such nonuniform features to be captured. A number of other materials processing applications exhibit similarly complex flow characteristics, such as highly recirculating, transitional, and free surface flows, for which this modeling approach may prove useful.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hooshyar, M.; Hagen, S. C.; Wang, D.
2014-12-01
Hydrodynamic models are widely applied to coastal areas in order to predict water levels and flood inundation and typically involve solving a form of the Shallow Water Equations (SWE). The SWE are routinely discretized by applying numerical methods, such as the finite element method. Like other numerical models, hydrodynamic models include uncertainty. Uncertainties are generated due to errors in the discrete approximation of coastal geometry, bathymetry, bottom friction and forcing functions such as tides and wind fields. Methods to counteract these uncertainties should always begin with improvements to physical characterization of: the geometric description through increased resolution, parameters that describe land cover variations in the natural and urban environment, parameters that enhance transfer of surface forcings to the water surface, open boundary forcings, and the wetting/drying brought upon by flood and ebb cycles. When the best possible physical representation is achieved, we are left with calibration and data assimilation to reduce model uncertainty. Data assimilation has been applied to coastal hydrodynamic models to better estimate system states and/or system parameters by incorporating observed data into the model. Kalman Filter is one of the most studied data assimilation methods that minimizes the mean square errors between model state estimations and the observed data in linear systems (Kalman , 1960). For nonlinear systems, as with hydrodynamic models, a variation of Kalman filter called Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), is applied to update the system state according to error statistics in the context of Monte Carlo simulations (Evensen , 2003) & (Hitoshi et. al, 2014). In this research, Kalman Filter is incorporated to simultaneously estimate an influential parameter used in the shallow water equations, bottom roughness, and to adjust the physical feature of bathymetry. Starting from an initial estimate of bottom roughness and bathymetry, and
Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Zhou, Fugen
2016-04-01
In this study, the modified anisotropic turbulence refractive-index fluctuations spectral model is derived based on the extended Rytov approximation theory for the theoretical investigations of optical plane and spherical waves propagating through moderate-to-strong anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. The anisotropic factor which parameterizes the asymmetry of turbulence cells or eddies in the horizontal and vertical directions is introduced. The general spectral power law in the range of 3-4 is also considered compared with the conventional classic value of 11/3 for Kolmogorov turbulence. Based on the modified anisotropic turbulence refractive-index fluctuations spectrum, the analytic expressions of the irradiance scintillation index are also derived for optical plane and spherical waves propagating through moderate-to-strong anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. They are applicable in a wide range of turbulence strengths and can reduce correctly to the previously published results in the special cases of weak anisotropic turbulence and moderate-to-strong isotropic turbulence. Calculations are performed to analyze the derived models. PMID:27140754
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Baumgartner, François
2006-11-01
We have constructed a forward modelling code in Matlab, capable of handling several commonly used electrical and electromagnetic methods in a 1D environment. We review the implemented electromagnetic field equations for grounded wires, frequency and transient soundings and present new solutions in the case of a non-magnetic first layer. The CR1Dmod code evaluates the Hankel transforms occurring in the field equations using either the Fast Hankel Transform based on digital filter theory, or a numerical integration scheme applied between the zeros of the Bessel function. A graphical user interface allows easy construction of 1D models and control of the parameters. Modelling results are in agreement with other authors, but the time of computation is less efficient than other available codes. Nevertheless, the CR1Dmod routine handles complex resistivities and offers solutions based on the full EM-equations as well as the quasi-static approximation. Thus, modelling of effects based on changes in the magnetic permeability and the permittivity is also possible.
Assessing the impact of different sources of topographic data on 1-D hydraulic modelling of floods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, A. Md; Solomatine, D. P.; Di Baldassarre, G.
2014-07-01
Topographic data, such as digital elevation models (DEMs), are essential input in flood inundation modelling. DEMs can be derived from several sources either through remote sensing techniques (space-borne or air-borne imagery) or from traditional methods (ground survey). The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), and topographic contour maps are some of the most commonly used sources of data for DEMs. These DEMs are characterized by different precision and accuracy. On the one hand, the spatial resolution of low-cost DEMs from satellite imagery, such as ASTER and SRTM, is rather coarse (around 30-90 m). On the other hand, LiDAR technique is able to produce a high resolution DEMs (around 1m), but at a much higher cost. Lastly, contour mapping based on ground survey is time consuming, particularly for higher scales, and may not be possible for some remote areas. The use of these different sources of DEM obviously affects the results of flood inundation models. This paper shows and compares a number of hydraulic models developed using HEC-RAS as model code and the aforementioned sources of DEM as geometric input. The study was carried out on a reach of the Johor River, in Malaysia. The effect of the different sources of DEMs (and different resolutions) was investigated by considering the performance of the hydraulic models in simulating flood water levels as well as inundation maps. The outcomes of our study show that the use of different DEMs has serious implications to the results of hydraulic models. The outcomes also indicates the loss of model accuracy due to re-sampling the highest resolution DEM (i.e. LiDAR 1 m) to lower resolution are much less compared to the loss of model accuracy due to the use of low-cost DEM that have not only a lower resolution, but also a lower quality. Lastly, to better explore the sensitivity of the hydraulic models
Space-based Observational Constraints for 1-D Plume Rise Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, Maria Val; Kahn, Ralph A.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Paguam, Ronan; Wooster, Martin; Ichoku, Charles
2012-01-01
We use a space-based plume height climatology derived from observations made by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard the NASA Terra satellite to evaluate the ability of a plume-rise model currently embedded in several atmospheric chemical transport models (CTMs) to produce accurate smoke injection heights. We initialize the plume-rise model with assimilated meteorological fields from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System and estimated fuel moisture content at the location and time of the MISR measurements. Fire properties that drive the plume-rise model are difficult to estimate and we test the model with four estimates for active fire area and four for total heat flux, obtained using empirical data and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) re radiative power (FRP) thermal anomalies available for each MISR plume. We show that the model is not able to reproduce the plume heights observed by MISR over the range of conditions studied (maximum r2 obtained in all configurations is 0.3). The model also fails to determine which plumes are in the free troposphere (according to MISR), key information needed for atmospheric models to simulate properly smoke dispersion. We conclude that embedding a plume-rise model using currently available re constraints in large-scale atmospheric studies remains a difficult proposition. However, we demonstrate the degree to which the fire dynamical heat flux (related to active fire area and sensible heat flux), and atmospheric stability structure influence plume rise, although other factors less well constrained (e.g., entrainment) may also be significant. Using atmospheric stability conditions, MODIS FRP, and MISR plume heights, we offer some constraints on the main physical factors that drive smoke plume rise. We find that smoke plumes reaching high altitudes are characterized by higher FRP and weaker atmospheric stability conditions than those at low altitude, which tend to remain confined
Turbulent flow in a 180 deg bend: Modeling and computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaul, Upender K.
1989-01-01
A low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model was presented which yields accurate predictions of the kinetic energy near the wall. The model is validated with the experimental channel flow data of Kreplin and Eckelmann. The predictions are also compared with earlier results from direct simulation of turbulent channel flow. The model is especially useful for internal flows where the inflow boundary condition of epsilon is not easily prescribed. The model partly derives from some observations based on earlier direct simulation results of near-wall turbulence. The low Reynolds number turbulence model together with an existing curvature correction appropriate to spinning cylinder flows was used to simulate the flow in a U-bend with the same radius of curvature as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Turn-Around Duct (TAD). The present computations indicate a space varying curvature correction parameter as opposed to a constant parameter as used in the spinning cylinder flows. Comparison with limited available experimental data is made. The comparison is favorable, but detailed experimental data is needed to further improve the curvature model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Seongryong; Rhie, Junkee; Kim, Geunyoung
2011-04-01
We propose a full-grid search procedure for broad-band waveform modelling to determine a 1-D crustal velocity model. The velocity model can be more constrained because of the use of broad-band waveforms instead of traveltimes for the crustal phases, although only a small number of event-station pairs were employed. Despite the time-consuming nature of the full-grid search method to search the whole model parameter space, the use of an empirical relationship between the P- and S-wave velocities can significantly reduce computation time. The proposed method was applied to a case in the southern Korean Peninsula. Broad-band waveforms obtained from two inland earthquakes that occurred on 2007 January 20 (Mw 4.6) and 2004 April 26 (Mw 3.6) were used to test the method. The three-layers over half-space crustal velocity model of the P- and S-wave velocities was estimated. Comparisons of waveform fitness between the final model and previously published models demonstrate advancements in the average value of waveform fitness for the inland earthquakes. In addition, 1-D velocity models were determined for three distinct tectonic regions, namely, the Gyonggi Massif, the Okcheon Belt and the Gyeongsang Basin, which are all located inside the study area. A comparison between the three models demonstrates that the crustal thickness of the southern Korean Peninsula increases from NW to SE and that the lower crustal composition of the Okcheon belt differs from that of the other tectonic regions.
Data Assimilation Using a Variational Method for a 1D Radiation Belt Diffusion Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchand, R.; Degeling, A. W.; O'Donnell, S.; Rankin, R.; Kabin, K.
2009-12-01
A variational data assimilation algorithm has been developed to incorporate electron flux time-series data from satellites into a simple one dimensional diffusion model for the radial transport of radiation belt electrons. The model developed assumes a power law scaling for the radial diffusion coefficient with L shell. The effectiveness of this method is investigated by means of a series of identical twin numerical experiments. This involves using the diffusion model to produce synthetic observations along various satellite trajectories. These observations are in turn used to estimate time-dependent parameters input to the diffusion model, which are compared against the values initially used. The data assimilation algorithm considers the time dependent source located at the outer boundary as a function to be determined. Using synthetic satellite electron flux observations, the algorithm computes a source function that, when used as an input to the diffusion model, most closely reproduces the synthetic observations in a least-squares sense. Observational errors are taken into account, and an estimate of the uncertainty in the output source function is also produced. This uncertainty is found to consistently reflect the quality of the source function estimation during identical twin numerical experiments. Initial tests indicate that the quality of the outer boundary source estimation is strongly dependent on the satellite location, indicating that the outer boundary source estimation becomes poor as information relating to the outer boundary contained in the observations is reduced. The potential of using this data assimilation method to estimate one or more parameters that determine the radial diffusion coefficient, and the possibility of determining whether physical processes affecting the observations are missing in the dynamical model will be discussed.
PROM4: 1D isothermal and isobaric modeler for solar prominences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gouttebroze, P.; Labrosse, N.
2013-06-01
PROM4 computes simple models of solar prominences which consist of plane-parallel slabs standing vertically above the solar surface. Each model is defined by 5 parameters: temperature, density, geometrical thickness, microturbulent velocity and height above the solar surface. PROM4 solves the equations of radiative transfer, statistical equilibrium, ionization and pressure equilibria, and computes electron and hydrogen level populations and hydrogen line profiles. Written in Fortran 90 and with two versions available (one with text in English, one with text in French), the code needs 64-bit arithmetic for real numbers.
Strong decays of excited 1D charmed(-strange) mesons in the covariant oscillator quark model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maeda, Tomohito; Yoshida, Kento; Yamada, Kenji; Ishida, Shin; Oda, Masuho
2016-05-01
Recently observed charmed mesons, D1* (2760), D3* (2760) and charmed-strange mesons, Ds1 * (2860), Ds3 * (2860), by BaBar and LHCb collaborations are considered to be plausible candidates for c q ¯ 13 DJ (q = u, d, s) states. We calculate the strong decays with one pion (kaon) emission of these states including well-established 1S and 1P charmed(-strange) mesons within the framework of the covariant oscillator quark model. The results obtained are compared with the experimental data and the typical nonrelativistic quark-model calculations. Concerning the results for 1S and 1P states, we find that, thanks to the relativistic effects of decay form factors, our model parameters take reasonable values, though our relativistic approach and the nonrelativistic quark model give similar decay widths in agreement with experiment. While the results obtained for 13 DJ=1,3 states are roughly consistent with the present data, they should be checked by the future precise measurement.
Validation of two-equation turbulence models for propulsion flowfields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deshpande, Manish; Venkateswaran, S.; Merkle, Charles L.
1994-01-01
The objective of the study is to assess the capability of two-equation turbulence models for simulating propulsion-related flowfields. The standard kappa-epsilon model with Chien's low Reynolds number formulation for near-wall effects is used as the baseline turbulence model. Several experimental test cases, representative of rocket combustor internal flowfields, are used to catalog the performance of the baseline model. Specific flowfields considered here include recirculating flow behind a backstep, mixing between coaxial jets and planar shear layers. Since turbulence solutions are notoriously dependent on grid and numerical methodology, the effects of grid refinement and artificial dissipation on numerical accuracy are studied. In the latter instance, computational results obtained with several central-differenced and upwind-based formulations are compared. Based on these results, improved turbulence modes such as enhanced kappa-epsilon models as well as other two-equation formulations (e.g., kappa-omega) are being studied. In addition, validation of swirling and reacting flowfields are also currently underway.
Computation of confined coflow jets with three turbulence models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, J.; Shih, T. H.
1993-01-01
A numerical study of confined jets in a cylindrical duct is carried out to examine the performance of two recently proposed turbulence models: an RNG-based K-epsilon model and a realizable Reynolds stress algebraic equation model. The former is of the same form as the standard K-epsilon model but has different model coefficients. The latter uses an explicit quadratic stress-strain relationship to model the turbulent stresses and is capable of ensuring the positivity of each turbulent normal stress. The flow considered involves recirculation with unfixed separation and reattachment points and severe adverse pressure gradients, thereby providing a valuable test of the predictive capability of the models for complex flows. Calculations are performed with a finite-volume procedure. Numerical credibility of the solutions is ensured by using second-order accurate differencing schemes and sufficiently fine grids. Calculations with the standard K-epsilon model are also made for comparison. Detailed comparisons with experiments show that the realizable Reynolds stress algebraic equation model consistently works better than does the standard K-epsilon model in capturing the essential flow features, while the RNG-based K-epsilon model does not seem to give improvements over the standard K-epsilon model under the flow conditions considered.
Computation of confined coflow jets with three turbulence models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, J.; Shih, T. H.
1993-07-01
A numerical study of confined jets in a cylindrical duct is carried out to examine the performance of two recently proposed turbulence models: an RNG-based K-epsilon model and a realizable Reynolds stress algebraic equation model. The former is of the same form as the standard K-epsilon model but has different model coefficients. The latter uses an explicit quadratic stress-strain relationship to model the turbulent stresses and is capable of ensuring the positivity of each turbulent normal stress. The flow considered involves recirculation with unfixed separation and reattachment points and severe adverse pressure gradients, thereby providing a valuable test of the predictive capability of the models for complex flows. Calculations are performed with a finite-volume procedure. Numerical credibility of the solutions is ensured by using second-order accurate differencing schemes and sufficiently fine grids. Calculations with the standard K-epsilon model are also made for comparison. Detailed comparisons with experiments show that the realizable Reynolds stress algebraic equation model consistently works better than does the standard K-epsilon model in capturing the essential flow features, while the RNG-based K-epsilon model does not seem to give improvements over the standard K-epsilon model under the flow conditions considered.
Modeling complex chemical effects in turbulent nonpremixed combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Nigel S. A.
1995-01-01
Virtually all of the energy derived from the consumption of combustibles occurs in systems which utilize turbulent fluid motion. Since combustion is largely related to the mixing of fluids and mixing processes are orders of magnitude more rapid when enhanced by turbulent motion, efficiency criteria dictate that chemically powered devices necessarily involve fluid turbulence. Where combustion occurs concurrently with mixing at an interface between two reactive fluid bodies, this mode of combustion is called nonpremixed combustion. This is distinct from premixed combustion where flame-fronts propagate into a homogeneous mixture of reactants. These two modes are limiting cases in the range of temporal lag between mixing of reactants and the onset of reaction. Nonpremixed combustion occurs where this lag tends to zero, while premixed combustion occurs where this lag tends to infinity. Many combustion processes are hybrids of these two extremes with finite non-zero lag times. Turbulent nonpremixed combustion is important from a practical standpoint because it occurs in gas fired boilers, furnaces, waste incinerators, diesel engines, gas turbine combustors, and afterburners etc. To a large extent, past development of these practical systems involved an empirical methodology. Presently, efficiency standards and emission regulations are being further tightened (Correa 1993), and empiricism has had to give way to more fundamental research in order to understand and effectively model practical combustion processes (Pope 1991). A key element in effective modeling of turbulent combustion is making use of a sufficiently detailed chemical kinetic mechanism. The prediction of pollutant emission such as oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) and sulphur (SO(x)) unburned hydrocarbons, and particulates demands the use of detailed chemical mechanisms. It is essential that practical models for turbulent nonpremixed combustion are capable of handling large numbers of 'stiff' chemical species
Reactive Transport Modeling of Microbially-Mediated Chromate Reduction in 1-D Soil Columns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, H.; Viamajala, S.; Alam, M. M.; Peyton, B. M.; Petersen, J. N.; Yonge, D. R.
2002-12-01
Cr(VI) reduction tests were performed with the well known metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in liquid phase batch reactors and continuous flow soil columns under anaerobic conditions. In the batch tests, the cultures were grown with fumarate as the terminal electron acceptor and lactate as the electron donor in a simulated groundwater medium to determine yield coefficients and specific growth rates. The bench-scale soil column experiments were carried out with MR-1 to test the hypothesis that the kinetic parameters obtained in batch studies, combined with microbial attachment /detachment processes, will accurately predict reactive transport of Cr(VI) during bacterial Cr(VI) reduction in a soil matrix. Cr(VI)-free simulated groundwater media containing fumarate as the limiting substrate and lactate was supplied to a 2.1cm (ID) x 15 cm soil column inoculated with MR-1 for a duration of 9 residence times to allow for biomass to build-up in the column. Thereafter the column was supplied with both Cr(VI) and substrate. The concentrations of effluent substrate, biomass and Cr(VI) were monitored on a periodic basis and attached biomass in the column was measured in the termination of each column test. A reactive transport model was developed in which 6 governing equations deal with Cr(VI) bioreaction, fumarate (as electron donor) consumption, aqueous biomass growth and transport, solid biomass detachment and attachment kinetics, aqueous and solid phase enzyme reaction and transport, respectively. The model incorporating the enzyme reaction kinetics for Cr(VI) reduction, Monod kinetic expressions for substrate depletion, nonlinear attachment and detachment kinetics for aqueous and solid phase microorganism concentration, was solved by a fully implicit, finite-difference procedure using RT3D (A Modular Computer Code for Reactive Multi-species Transport in 3-Dimensional Groundwater Systems) platform in one dimension. Cr(VI)-free column data was used to
Stochastic Heat Equation Limit of a (2 + 1)d Growth Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borodin, Alexei; Corwin, Ivan; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio
2016-07-01
We determine a {q to 1} limit of the two-dimensional q-Whittaker driven particle system on the torus studied previously in Corwin and Toninelli (Electron. Commun. Probab. 21(44):1-12, 2016). This has an interpretation as a (2 + 1)-dimensional stochastic interface growth model, which is believed to belong to the so-called anisotropic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) class. This limit falls into a general class of two-dimensional systems of driven linear SDEs which have stationary measures on gradients. Taking the number of particles to infinity we demonstrate Gaussian free field type fluctuations for the stationary measure. Considering the temporal evolution of the stationary measure, we determine that along characteristics, correlations are asymptotically given by those of the (2 + 1)-dimensional additive stochastic heat equation. This confirms (for this model) the prediction that the non-linearity for the anisotropic KPZ equation in (2 + 1)-dimension is irrelevant.
Prediction of the expansion velocity of ultracold 1D quantum gases for integrable models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Zhongtao; Vidmar, Lev; Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Bolech, Carlos
In the theory of Bethe-ansatz integrable quantum systems, rapidities play an important role as they are used to specify many-body states. The physical interpretation of rapidities going back to Sutherland is that they are the asymptotic momenta after letting a quantum gas expand into a larger volume rendering it dilute and noninteracting. We exploit this picture to calculate the expansion velocity of a one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model by using the distribution of rapidities defined by the initial state. Our results are consistent with the ones from time-dependent density-matrix renormalization. We show in addition that an approximate Bethe-ansatz solution works well also for the Bose-Hubbard model. Our results are of interests for future sudden-expansion experiments with ultracold quantum gases.
A 1-D Model of the 4 Bed Molecular Sieve of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coker, Robert; Knox, Jim
2015-01-01
Developments to improve system efficiency and reliability for water and carbon dioxide separation systems on crewed vehicles combine sub-scale systems testing and multi-physics simulations. This paper describes the development of COMSOL simulations in support of the Life Support Systems (LSS) project within NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. Specifically, we model the 4 Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) operating on the International Space Station (ISS).
A Simplified 1-D Model for Calculating CO2 Leakage through Conduits
Zhang, Y.; Oldenburg, C.M.
2011-02-15
In geological CO{sub 2} storage projects, a cap rock is generally needed to prevent CO{sub 2} from leaking out of the storage formation. However, the injected CO{sub 2} may still encounter some discrete flow paths such as a conductive well or fault (here referred to as conduits) through the cap rock allowing escape of CO{sub 2} from the storage formation. As CO{sub 2} migrates upward, it may migrate into the surrounding formations. The amount of mass that is lost to the formation is called attenuation. This report describes a simplified model to calculate the CO{sub 2} mass flux at different locations of the conduit and the amount of attenuation to the surrounding formations. From the comparison among the three model results, we can conclude that the steady-state conduit model (SSCM) provides a more accurate solution than the PMC at a given discretization. When there is not a large difference between the permeability of the surrounding formation and the permeability of the conduits, and there is leak-off at the bottom formation (the formation immediately above the CO{sub 2} plume), a fine discretization is needed for an accurate solution. Based on this comparison, we propose to use the SSCM in the rapid prototype for now given it does not produce spurious oscillations, and is already in FORTRAN and therefore can be easily made into a dll for use in GoldSim.
A spray-suppression model for turbulent combustion
DESJARDIN,PAUL E.; TIESZEN,SHELDON R.; GRITZO,LOUIS A.
2000-02-14
A spray-suppression model that captures the effects of liquid suppressant on a turbulent combusting flow is developed and applied to a turbulent diffusion flame with water spray suppression. The spray submodel is based on a stochastic separated flow approach that accounts for the transport and evaporation of liquid droplets. Flame extinguishment is accounted for by using a perfectly stirred reactor (PSR) submodel of turbulent combustion. PSR pre-calculations of flame extinction times are determined using CHEMKIN and are compared to local turbulent time scales of the flow to determine if local flame extinguishment has occurred. The PSR flame extinguishment and spray submodels are incorporated into Sandia's flow fire simulation code, VULCAN, and cases are run for the water spray suppression studies of McCaffrey for turbulent hydrogen-air jet diffusion flames. Predictions of flame temperature decrease and suppression efficiency are compared to experimental data as a function of water mass loading using three assumed values of drop sizes. The results show that the suppression efficiency is highly dependent on the initial droplet size for a given mass loading. A predicted optimal suppression efficiency was observed for the smallest class of droplets while the larger drops show increasing suppression efficiency with increasing mass loading for the range of mass loadings considered. Qualitative agreement to the experiment of suppression efficiency is encouraging, however quantitative agreement is limited due to the uncertainties in the boundary conditions of the experimental data for the water spray.
MODELING MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS WITH DEAD ZONES
Okuzumi, Satoshi; Hirose, Shigenobu
2011-12-01
Turbulence driven by magnetorotational instability (MRI) crucially affects the evolution of solid bodies in protoplanetary disks. On the other hand, small dust particles stabilize MRI by capturing ionized gas particles needed for the coupling of the gas and magnetic fields. To provide an empirical basis for modeling the coevolution of dust and MRI, we perform three-dimensional, ohmic-resistive MHD simulations of a vertically stratified shearing box with an MRI-inactive 'dead zone' of various sizes and with a net vertical magnetic flux of various strengths. We find that the vertical structure of turbulence is well characterized by the vertical magnetic flux and three critical heights derived from the linear analysis of MRI in a stratified disk. In particular, the turbulent structure depends on the resistivity profile only through the critical heights and is insensitive to the details of the resistivity profile. We discover scaling relations between the amplitudes of various turbulent quantities (velocity dispersion, density fluctuation, vertical diffusion coefficient, and outflow mass flux) and vertically integrated accretion stresses. We also obtain empirical formulae for the integrated accretion stresses as a function of the vertical magnetic flux and the critical heights. These empirical relations allow us to predict the vertical turbulent structure of a protoplanetary disk for a given strength of the magnetic flux and a given resistivity profile.
Turbulence modeling in aerodynamic shear flows - Status and problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.
1991-01-01
This paper briefly summarizes the status and problems of turbulence modeling for aerodynamical applications. For complex flows the 'approach of choice' is (increasingly) full second-order (Reynolds stress equation) closure. These closures have not yet developed to anywhere near their full potential, significant further research is required especially regarding length-scale equations, representation of pressure-strain correlations, and wall region treatments. Recent developments in computer capability, algorithms, numerical simulations, theory and quantitative flow visualization should assist in and hasten this research. Several problem areas such as shock interaction and discrete dynamic instabilities of turbulent flows may require mega-to-large eddy simulation or theoretical adjuncts.
Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence - Cylindrical, non-dissipative model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, D.; Vahala, G.
1979-01-01
Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is treated in the presence of cylindrical boundaries which are perfectly conducting and rigidly smooth. The model treated is non-dissipative and two-dimensional, the variation of all quantities in the axial direction being ignored. Equilibrium Gibbs ensemble predictions are explored assuming the constraint of constant axial current (appropriate to tokamak operation). No small-amplitude approximations are made. The expectation value of the turbulent kinetic energy is found to approach zero for the state of maximum mean-square vector potential to energy ratio. These are the only states for which large velocity fluctuations are not expected.
Large Eddy Simulations and Turbulence Modeling for Film Cooling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acharya, Sumanta
1999-01-01
The objective of the research is to perform Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) for film cooling process, and to evaluate and improve advanced forms of the two equation turbulence models for turbine blade surface flow analysis. The DNS/LES were used to resolve the large eddies within the flow field near the coolant jet location. The work involved code development and applications of the codes developed to the film cooling problems. Five different codes were developed and utilized to perform this research. This report presented a summary of the development of the codes and their applications to analyze the turbulence properties at locations near coolant injection holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauer, Wesley; Viparelli, Enrica; Piegay, Herve
2014-05-01
Sedimentary deposits adjacent to rivers can represent important sources and sinks for bed material sediment, particularly on decadal and longer timescales. The Morphodynamics and Sediment Tracers in 1-D model (MAST-1D) is a size-specific sediment transport model that allows for active exchange between channel and floodplain sediment on river reaches of tens to hundreds of kilometers in length. The model is intended to provide a mechanism for performing a first-order assessment of the likely importance of off-channel sediment exchange in controlling decadal-scale geomorphic trends, thereby helping plan and/or prioritize field data collection and higher resolution modeling work. The model develops a sediment budget for short segments of an alluvial valley. Each segment encompasses several active river bends. In each segment, a sediment transport capacity computation is performed to determine the downstream flux of bed material sediment, following the approach of most other 1-D sediment transport models. However, the model differs from most other bed evolution models in that sediment can be exchanged with the floodplain in each segment, and mass conservation is applied to both the active layer and floodplain sediment storage reservoirs. The potential for net imbalances in overall exchange as well as the size specific nature of the computations allows the model to simulate reach-scale aggradation/degradation and/or changes in bed texture. The inclusion of fine sediment in the model allows it to track geochemical tracer material and also provides a mechanism to simulate, to first order, the effects of changes in the supply of silt and clay on overall channel hydraulic capacity. The model is applied to a ~40 km reach of the Ain River, a tributary of the Rhône River in eastern France that has experienced a significant sediment deficit as a result of the construction of several dams between 1920 and 1970. MAST-1D simulations result in both incision and the formation of a
Constraining the temporal evolution of a deep hypersaline anoxic basin by 1D geochemical modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldhammer, Tobias; Aiello, Ivano; Zabel, Matthias
2014-05-01
Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are seafloor features of the accretionary prism of the Mediterranean Ridge. They have formed by the dissolution of exhumed shallow Messinian evaporites and subsequent concentration of the ultra-saline solutions in depressions on the seafloor. As an example, the horseshoe-shaped Urania basin is a DHAB south of the Peloponnese peninsula contains one of the most saline (about six times higher than Mediterranean seawater) and sulfidic (up to 15mM) water bodies of the Earth. Furthermore, its deepest part is underlain by a mud volcano that is responsible for the injection of fluid mud beneath the brine lake, with exceptionally sharp chemoclines between water column, brine, and mud layer. We here present a model approach to reconstruct the temporal aspects of the formation, dynamics and persistence of the brine-mud-system in the deep pit of the Urania Basin. Based on data from a sampling campaign with RV Meteor (Cruise M84/1 in February 2011), we set up a one-dimensional geochemical model that integrates diffusion, reaction and advective transport and mixing. Using a set of model preconditions, we aimed to answer (1) which processes are required to maintain the current situation of steep chemical gradients of the brine-mud-system, (2) how fast the current situation could have developed under different scenarios, and (3) how long such extraordinary conditions could have persisted through Earth's history. We further discuss the consequences of the temporal framework for the evolution of prokaryotic life in this extreme habitat.
Effects of turbulence on a kinetic auroral arc model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cornwall, J. M.; Chiu, Y. T.
1981-01-01
A plasma kinetic model of an inverted-V auroral arc structure which includes the effects of electrostatic turbulence is proposed. In the absence of turbulence, a parallel potential drop is supported by magnetic mirror forces and charge quasi neutrality, with energetic auroral ions penetrating to low altitudes; relative to the electrons, the ions' pitch angle distribution is skewed toward smaller pitch angles. The electrons energized by the potential drop form a current which excites electrostatic turbulence. In equilibrium the plasma is marginally stable. The conventional anomalous resistivity contribution to the potential drop is very small. Anomalous resistivity processes are far too dissipative to be powered by auroral particles. It is concluded that under certain circumstances equilibrium may be impossible and relaxation oscillations set in.
Dynamical correlation functions of the 1D Bose gas (Lieb Liniger model)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caux, Jean-Sebastien; Calabrese, Pasquale
2007-03-01
The momentum- and frequency-dependent correlation functions (one-body and density-density) of the one-dimensional interacting Bose gas (Lieb-Liniger model) are obtained for any value (repulsive or attractive) of the interaction parameter. In the repulsive regime, we use the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz and the ABACUS method to reconstruct the correlators to high accuracy for systems with finite but large numbers of particles. For attractive interactions, the correlations are computed analytically. Our results are discussed, with particular emphasis on their applications to quasi-one-dimensional atomic gases.
Description of a Website Resource for Turbulence Modeling Verification and Validation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rumsey, Christopher L.; Smith, Brian R.; Huang, George P.
2010-01-01
The activities of the Turbulence Model Benchmarking Working Group - which is a subcommittee of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Fluid Dynamics Technical Committee - are described. The group s main purpose is to establish a web-based repository for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model documentation, including verification and validation cases. This turbulence modeling resource has been established based on feedback from a survey on what is needed to achieve consistency and repeatability in turbulence model implementation and usage, and to document and disseminate information on new turbulence models or improvements to existing models. The various components of the website are described in detail: description of turbulence models, turbulence model readiness rating system, verification cases, validation cases, validation databases, and turbulence manufactured solutions. An outline of future plans of the working group is also provided.
Performance of Smagorinsky and dynamic models in near surface turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brasseur, James G.; Juneja, Anurag
1997-11-01
In LES of high-Reynolds-number wall bounded turbulence such as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), a viscous sublayer either does not exist or is within the first grid cell, and some integral scale motions are necessarily under-resolved at the first few grid locations. Here the subgrid terms dominate the evolution of resolved velocity and the SGS model performance becomes crucial. To develop improved closures for surface layer turbulence (under-resolved and anisotropic), we explore (a) why current SGS closures fail and (b) what needs to be fixed. We evaluate the performance of the Smagorinsky and dynamic models using DNS data from shear- and buoyancy-driven turbulence as a function of filter cutoff location. We find that the underlying assumption of good alignment between the subgrid stress and resolved strain-rate tensors is not correct in general. More importantly, the Smagorinsky model incorrectly predicts a strong preference in the direction of the SGS stress divergence vector, a spurious prediction that is directly related to the anisotropic structure of the resolved turbulence field. This, and its under-estimation of the SGS pressure gradient, are likely sources of the errors observed in LES of the ABL. Whereas the dynamic formulations do a better job predicting some SGS dynamics, the model fails when the filter cutoff is near an integral scale, and predicts unreasonable fluctuation levels-- although performance is sensitive to type of averaging. *supported by ARO grant DAAL03-92-0117.
Zeng, Y; Albertus, P; Klein, R; Chaturvedi, N; Kojic, A; Bazant, MZ; Christensen, J
2013-06-07
Mathematical models of batteries which make use of the intercalation of a species into a solid phase need to solve the corresponding mass transfer problem. Because solving this equation can significantly add to the computational cost of a model, various methods have been devised to reduce the computational time. In this paper we focus on a comparison of the formulation, accuracy, and order of the accuracy for two numerical methods of solving the spherical diffusion problem with a constant or non-constant diffusion coefficient: the finite volume method and the control volume method. Both methods provide perfect mass conservation and second order accuracy in mesh spacing, but the control volume method provides the surface concentration directly, has a higher accuracy for a given numbers of mesh points and can also be easily extended to variable mesh spacing. Variable mesh spacing can significantly reduce the number of points that are required to achieve a given degree of accuracy in the surface concentration (which is typically coupled to the other battery equations) by locating more points where the concentration gradients are highest. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jahromi, Amir E.; Miller, Franklin K.
2016-03-01
A sub Kelvin Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigerator (AMRR) is being developed at the University of Wisconsin - Madison. This AMRR consists of two circulators, two regenerators, one superleak, one cold heat exchanger, and two warm heat exchangers. The circulators are novel non-moving part pumps that reciprocate a superfluid mixture of 4He-3He in the system. Heat from the mixture is removed within the two regenerators of this tandem system. An accurate model of the regenerators in this AMRR is necessary in order to predict the performance of these components, which in turn helps predicting the overall performance of the AMRR system. This work presents modeling methodology along with results from a 1-D transient numerical model of the regenerators of an AMRR capable of removing 2.5 mW at 850 mK at cyclic steady state.
A turbulent inflow model based on velocity modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huyer, Stephen A.; Beal, David
2007-11-01
This article presents a novel turbulent inflow model based on modulation of the velocity field for use with time-domain propulsor calculations. Given an experimental mean and rms turbulent inflow, a model can be constructed by modulating the velocity field over a range of frequencies. Assuming the turbulence is homogeneous, the inflow can be constructed as a Fourier series where the frequencies can also be modulated to smooth the broadband output. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the model, experimental inflow velocity data were acquired for an upstream stator, downstream rotor configuration mounted on an undersea vehicle afterbody. Two main sources of turbulence originated from the vorticity shed from the stator wakes and the boundary layer vorticity produced on the hull body. Three-dimensional, unsteady velocity data were acquired using hot-wire anemometry and reduced to provide mean and rms velocity values. Time-series data were processed to provide velocity power spectra used to calibrate the model. Simulations were performed using a modified version of the propulsor unsteady flow code capable of computing fully turbulent inflows. This solver models the propulsor blade as a vortex lattice and sheds the vorticity into the wake to solve the unsteady potential flow. The no-flux boundary conditions are satisfied at the lattice control points and the resulting unsteady circulation is a function of the instantaneous inflow velocity field over the blade. Vorticity is shed into the wake to account for the full time history of the inflow velocity field. To demonstrate the full effectiveness of the model, computed surface pressure data were exported to a code to compute the far-field radiated noise (both tonal and broadband). Simulated data were compared with experimentally obtained noise data with favorable results. Applications of this methodology in the incompressible flow domain include broadband analysis of propulsor-radiated noise on undersea vehicles and
Comprehensive 1D Modelling of Reactive Chemical Transport in Unsaturated Soil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wissmeier, L.; Barry, D. A.
2007-12-01
Computer models for simulating environmental processes of water flow, solute transport and geochemical reactions have greatly advanced during recent years. However, there is still demand for the development of programs that a capable of simulating the numerous interactions between physical transport processes and biogeochemical reactions in natural soils. We present a new tool for simulating transient vadose zone flow and solute transport according to the moisture- based form of Richards' equation within the widely used geochemical software PHREEQC. The direct implementation into the geochemical framework provides access to comprehensive geochemical models, giving capabilities beyond existing software for coupled unsaturated flow and reaction. Possible reactions include complex aqueous speciation, cation exchange, equilibrium phase dissolution and precipitation, formation of solid solutions, redox reactions, gas phase exchange, surface adsorption considering electrostatics and kinetic reactions with user-defined rate equations, among others. As a result of the close coupling procedure, the influence of geochemical reactions on water content, e.g., through dissolution or precipitation of water-containing phases, can be investigated. For the solution of the partial differential equations of flow and transport, an explicit finite-difference formulation with a second-order space discretization and first-order time discretization was employed. The use of integrated diffusivities transforms Richards' equation into a simple advection-diffusion equation. Changes in water content and solute concentration were conceptualized as local kinetic reactions of individual elements where changes in moisture content result from fluxes of oxygen and hydrogen across cell boundaries. Reactions and chemical element transport are coupled via sequential two-step operator splitting. The scheme was implemented into PHREEQC without any source code modification such that it can be applied by
Hyperbolic reformulation of a 1D viscoelastic blood flow model and ADER finite volume schemes
Montecinos, Gino I.; Müller, Lucas O.; Toro, Eleuterio F.
2014-06-01
The applicability of ADER finite volume methods to solve hyperbolic balance laws with stiff source terms in the context of well-balanced and non-conservative schemes is extended to solve a one-dimensional blood flow model for viscoelastic vessels, reformulated as a hyperbolic system, via a relaxation time. A criterion for selecting relaxation times is found and an empirical convergence rate assessment is carried out to support this result. The proposed methodology is validated by applying it to a network of viscoelastic vessels for which experimental and numerical results are available. The agreement between the results obtained in the present paper and those available in the literature is satisfactory. Key features of the present formulation and numerical methodologies, such as accuracy, efficiency and robustness, are fully discussed in the paper.
Existence of a metallic phase in a 1D Holstein Hubbard model at half filling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishna, Phani Murali; Chatterjee, Ashok
2007-06-01
The one-dimensional half-filled Holstein-Hubbard model is studied using a series of canonical transformations including phonon coherence effect that partly depends on the electron density and is partly independent and also incorporating the on-site and the nearest-neighbour phonon correlations and the exact Bethe-ansatz solution of Lieb and Wu. It is shown that choosing a better variational phonon state makes the polarons more mobile and widens the intermediate metallic region at the charge-density-wave-spin-density-wave crossover recently predicted by Takada and Chatterjee. The presence of this metallic phase is indeed a favourable situation from the point of view of high temperature superconductivity.
Development of a 3D to 1D Particle Transport Model to Predict Deposition in the Lungs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oakes, Jessica M.; Grandmont, Celine; Shadden, Shawn C.; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E.
2014-11-01
Aerosolized particles are commonly used for therapeutic drug delivery as they can be delivered to the body systemically or be used to treat lung diseases. Recent advances in computational resources have allowed for sophisticated pulmonary simulations, however it is currently impossible to solve for airflow and particle transport for all length and time scales of the lung. Instead, multi-scale methods must be used. In our recent work, where computational methods were employed to solve for airflow and particle transport in the rat airways (Oakes et al. (2014), Annals of Biomedical Engineering 42, 899), the number of particles to exit downstream of the 3D domain was determined. In this current work, the time-dependent Lagrangian description of particles was used to numerically solve a 1D convection-diffusion model (trumpet model, Taulbee and Yu (1975), Journal of Applied Physiology, 38, 77) parameterized specifically for the lung. The expansion of the airway dimensions was determined based on data collected from our aerosol exposure experiments (Oakes et al. (2014), Journal of Applied Physiology, 116, 1561). This 3D-1D framework enables us to predict the fate of particles in the whole lung. This work was supported by the Whitaker Foundation at the IIE, a INRIA Associated Team Postdoc Grant, and a UC Presidential Fellowship.
Exact solution of the 1D Hubbard model with NN and NNN interactions in the narrow-band limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mancini, Ferdinando; Plekhanov, Evgeny; Sica, Gerardo
2013-10-01
We present the exact solution, obtained by means of the Transfer Matrix (TM) method, of the 1D Hubbard model with nearest-neighbor (NN) and next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) Coulomb interactions in the atomic limit ( t = 0). The competition among the interactions ( U, V 1, and V 2) generates a plethora of T = 0 phases in the whole range of fillings. U, V 1, and V 2 are the intensities of the local, NN and NNN interactions, respectively. We report the T = 0 phase diagram, in which the phases are classified according to the behavior of the principal correlation functions, and reconstruct a representative electronic configuration for each phase. In order to do that, we make an analytic limit T → 0 in the transfer matrix, which allows us to obtain analytic expressions for the ground state energies even for extended transfer matrices. Such an extension of the standard TM technique can be easily applied to a wide class of 1D models with the interaction range beyond NN distance, allowing for a complete determination of the T = 0 phase diagrams.
Computation of turbulent high speed mixing layers using a two-equation turbulence model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narayan, J. R.; Sekar, B.
1991-01-01
A two-equation turbulence model was extended to be applicable for compressible flows. A compressibility correction based on modelling the dilational terms in the Reynolds stress equations were included in the model. The model is used in conjunction with the SPARK code for the computation of high speed mixing layers. The observed trend of decreasing growth rate with increasing convective Mach number in compressible mixing layers is well predicted by the model. The predictions agree well with the experimental data and the results from a compressible Reynolds stress model. The present model appears to be well suited for the study of compressible free shear flows. Preliminary results obtained for the reacting mixing layers are included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayden-Lesmeister, A.; Remo, J. W.; Piazza, B.
2015-12-01
The Atchafalaya River (AR) in Louisiana is the principal distributary of the Mississippi River (MR), and its basin contains the largest contiguous area of baldcypress-water tupelo swamp forests in North America. After designation of the Atchafalaya River Basin (ARB) as a federal floodway following the destructive 1927 MR flood, it was extensively modified to accommodate a substantial portion of the MR flow (~25%) to mitigate flooding in southern Louisiana. These modifications and increased flows resulted in substantial incision along large portions of the AR, altering connectivity between the river and its associated waterbodies. As a result of incision, the hydroperiod has been substantially altered, which has contributed to a decline in ecological health of the ARB's baldcypress-water tupelo forests. While it is recognized that the altered hydroperiod has negatively affected natural baldcypress regeneration, it is unclear whether proposed projects designed to enhance flow connectivity will increase long-term survival of these forests. In this study, we have constructed a 1D2D hydrodynamic model using SOBEK 2.12 to realistically model key physical parameters such as residence times, inundation extent, water-surface elevations (WSELs), and flow velocities to increase our understanding of the ARB's altered hydroperiod and the consequences for baldcypress-water tupelo forests. While the model encompasses a majority of the ARB, our modeling effort is focused on the Flat Lake Water Management Unit located in the southern portion of the ARB, where it will also be used to evaluate flow connectivity enhancement projects within the management unit. We believe our 1D2D hybrid hydraulic modeling approach will provide the flexibility and accuracy needed to guide connectivity enhancement efforts in the ARB and may provide a model framework for guiding similar efforts along other highly-altered river systems.
Separated transonic airfoil flow calculations with a nonequilibrium turbulence model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, L. S.; Johnson, D. A.
1985-01-01
Navier-Stokes transonic airfoil calculations based on a recently developed nonequilibrium, turbulence closure model are presented for a supercritical airfoil section at transonic cruise conditions and for a conventional airfoil section at shock-induced stall conditions. Comparisons with experimental data are presented which show that this nonequilibrium closure model performs significantly better than the popular Baldwin-Lomax and Cebeci-Smith equilibrium algebraic models when there is boundary-layer separation that results from the inviscid-viscous interactions.
Vlasov dynamics of 1D models with long-range interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Druken, Kelsey A.
Subduction zones, mid-ocean spreading centers and mantle plumes are three of the largest sources for volcanism on Earth. With subduction as the driving tectonic force, these systems are responsible for the evolution of both the crust and mantle and as a result are important processes in our understanding of the solid Earth. Mantle plume processes, however, are still strongly debated within the community, particularly when occurring near subduction zones. Using both laboratory (i.e. analog) and numerical modeling techniques, we examine the dynamic interaction between subduction-driven and plume-driven flow. Results highlight the weak nature of buoyant plumes in comparison to the dominant slab-induced circulation. As a consequence of the subduction-induced flow, surface expressions differ significantly from traditional plume expectations. Variations in slab sinking style and plume position lead to a range in plume head and conduit melting signatures, as well as migrating hotspots. Motivated by the debated origin of recent (< 20 Ma) volcanism in the Northwest U.S., we also report results of the evolution of finite strain within rollback-induced as well as plume-driven flow fields. If the patterns differ between background subduction and plume structures, seismic anisotropy observations could help distinguish the plume and non plume models that are suggested for the region. We find rollback-induced horizontal shear causes predominantly trench-normal strain alignment in the backarc mantle wedge in contrast to longitudinal subduction which, despite the simple flow field, results in complex and variable orientations from the lack of strong horizontal shear. Splitting observations from the High Lava Plains region with the Northwest U.S. are in good agreement with the trench-normal laboratory predictions of strain alignment. Alignment within plume heads are found to exhibit striking tangential patterns that are perpendicular to the plume-driven flow. While we show that
Particle dispersion in homogeneous turbulence using the one-dimensional turbulence model
Sun, Guangyuan; Lignell, David O.; Hewson, John C.; Gin, Craig R.
2014-10-09
Lagrangian particle dispersion is studied using the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model in homogeneous decaying turbulence configurations. The ODT model has been widely and successfully applied to a number of reacting and nonreacting flow configurations, but only limited application has been made to multiphase flows. We present a version of the particle implementation and interaction with the stochastic and instantaneous ODT eddy events. The model is characterized by comparison to experimental data of particle dispersion for a range of intrinsic particle time scales and body forces. Particle dispersion, velocity, and integral time scale results are presented. Moreover, the particle implementation introducesmore » a single model parameter β p , and sensitivity to this parameter and behavior of the model are discussed. Good agreement is found with experimental data and the ODT model is able to capture the particle inertial and trajectory crossing effects. Our results serve as a validation case of the multiphase implementations of ODT for extensions to other flow configurations.« less
A 1D pulse wave propagation model of the hemodynamics of calf muscle pump function.
Keijsers, J M T; Leguy, C A D; Huberts, W; Narracott, A J; Rittweger, J; van de Vosse, F N
2015-07-01
The calf muscle pump is a mechanism which increases venous return and thereby compensates for the fluid shift towards the lower body during standing. During a muscle contraction, the embedded deep veins collapse and venous return increases. In the subsequent relaxation phase, muscle perfusion increases due to increased perfusion pressure, as the proximal venous valves temporarily reduce the distal venous pressure (shielding). The superficial and deep veins are connected via perforators, which contain valves allowing flow in the superficial-to-deep direction. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify the physiological mechanisms of the calf muscle pump, including the effect of venous valves, hydrostatic pressure, and the superficial venous system. Using a one-dimensional pulse wave propagation model, a muscle contraction is simulated by increasing the extravascular pressure in the deep venous segments. The hemodynamics are studied in three different configurations: a single artery-vein configuration with and without valves and a more detailed configuration including a superficial vein. Proximal venous valves increase effective venous return by 53% by preventing reflux. Furthermore, the proximal valves shielding function increases perfusion following contraction. Finally, the superficial system aids in maintaining the perfusion during the contraction phase and reduces the refilling time by 37%. PMID:25766693
Phase transitions at strong coupling in the 2+1-d abelian Higgs model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacKenzie, R. B.; Nebia-Rahal, Faïza; Paranjape, M. B.
2013-12-01
We study, using numerical Monte-Carlo simulations, an effective description of the 2+1 dimensional Abelian Higgs model which is valid at strong coupling, in the broken symmetry sector. In this limit, the massive gauge boson and the massive neutral Higgs decouple leaving only the massive vortices. The vortices have no long range interactions. We find a phase transition as the mass of the vortices is made lighter and lighter. At the transition, the contributions to the functional integral come from a so-called infinite vortex anti-vortex loop. Adding the Chern-Simons term simply counts the linking number between the vortices. We find that the Wilson loop exhibits perimeter law behaviour in both phases, although the polarization cloud increases by an order of magnitude at the transition. We also study the 't Hooft loop. We find the 't Hooft loop exhibits perimeter law behaviour in the presence of the Chern-Simons term but is trivial in its absence. Thus we have a theory with perimeter law for both the Wilson loop and the 't Hooft loop, but contains no massless particles.
A 1D pulse wave propagation model of the hemodynamics of calf muscle pump function
Keijsers, J M T; Leguy, C A D; Huberts, W; Narracott, A J; Rittweger, J; van de Vosse, F N
2015-01-01
The calf muscle pump is a mechanism which increases venous return and thereby compensates for the fluid shift towards the lower body during standing. During a muscle contraction, the embedded deep veins collapse and venous return increases. In the subsequent relaxation phase, muscle perfusion increases due to increased perfusion pressure, as the proximal venous valves temporarily reduce the distal venous pressure (shielding). The superficial and deep veins are connected via perforators, which contain valves allowing flow in the superficial-to-deep direction. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify the physiological mechanisms of the calf muscle pump, including the effect of venous valves, hydrostatic pressure, and the superficial venous system. Using a one-dimensional pulse wave propagation model, a muscle contraction is simulated by increasing the extravascular pressure in the deep venous segments. The hemodynamics are studied in three different configurations: a single artery–vein configuration with and without valves and a more detailed configuration including a superficial vein. Proximal venous valves increase effective venous return by 53% by preventing reflux. Furthermore, the proximal valves shielding function increases perfusion following contraction. Finally, the superficial system aids in maintaining the perfusion during the contraction phase and reduces the refilling time by 37%. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25766693
Group-kinetic theory and modeling of atmospheric turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tchen, C. M.
1989-01-01
A group kinetic method is developed for analyzing eddy transport properties and relaxation to equilibrium. The purpose is to derive the spectral structure of turbulence in incompressible and compressible media. Of particular interest are: direct and inverse cascade, boundary layer turbulence, Rossby wave turbulence, two phase turbulence; compressible turbulence, and soliton turbulence. Soliton turbulence can be found in large scale turbulence, turbulence connected with surface gravity waves and nonlinear propagation of acoustical and optical waves. By letting the pressure gradient represent the elementary interaction among fluid elements and by raising the Navier-Stokes equation to higher dimensionality, the master equation was obtained for the description of the microdynamical state of turbulence.
Modeling of Fine-Particle Formation in Turbulent Flames
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raman, Venkat; Fox, Rodney O.
2016-01-01
The generation of nanostructured particles in high-temperature flames is important both for the control of emissions from combustion devices and for the synthesis of high-value chemicals for a variety of applications. The physiochemical processes that lead to the production of fine particles in turbulent flames are highly sensitive to the flow physics and, in particular, the history of thermochemical compositions and turbulent features they encounter. Consequently, it is possible to change the characteristic size, structure, composition, and yield of the fine particles by altering the flow configuration. This review describes the complex multiscale interactions among turbulent fluid flow, gas-phase chemical reactions, and solid-phase particle evolution. The focus is on modeling the generation of soot particles, an unwanted pollutant from automobile and aircraft engines, as well as metal oxides, a class of high-value chemicals sought for specialized applications, including emissions control. Issues arising due to the numerical methods used to approximate the particle number density function, the modeling of turbulence-chemistry interactions, and model validation are also discussed.
New DNS and modeling results for turbulent pipe flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, Arne; El Khoury, George; Grundestam, Olof; Schlatter, Philipp; Brethouwer, Geert; Linne Flow Centre Team
2013-11-01
The near-wall region of turbulent pipe and channel flows (as well as zero-pressure gradient boundary layers) have been shown to exhibit a very high degree of similarity in terms of all statistical moments and many other features, while even the mean velocity profile in the two cases exhibits significant differences between in the outer region. The wake part of the profile, i.e. the deviation from the log-law, in the outer region is of substantially larger amplitude in pipe flow as compared to channel flow (although weaker than in boundary layer flow). This intriguing feature has been well known but has no simple explanation. Model predictions typically give identical results for the two flows. We have analyzed a new set of DNS for pipe and channel flows (el Khoury et al. 2013, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion) for friction Reynolds numbers up to 1000 and made comparing calculations with differential Reynolds stress models (DRSM). We have strong indications that the key factor behind the difference in mean velocity in the outer region can be coupled to differences in the turbulent diffusion in this region. This is also supported by DRSM results, where interesting differences are seen depending on the sophistication of modeling the turbulent diffusion coefficient.
A Lagrangian model of Copepod dynamics in turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ardeshiri, Hamidreza; Benkeddad, Ibtissem; Schmitt, Francois G.; Souissi, Sami; Toschi, Federico; Calzavarini, Enrico
2016-04-01
Planktonic copepods are small crustaceans that have the ability to swim by quick powerful jumps. Such an aptness is used to escape from high shear regions, which may be caused either by flow perturbations, produced by a large predator such as fish larave, or by the inherent highly turbulent dynamics of the ocean. Through a combined experimental and numerical study, we investigate the impact of jumping behaviour on the small-scale patchiness of copepods in a turbulent environment. Recorded velocity tracks of copepods displaying escape response jumps in still water are used to define and tune a Lagrangian Copepod (LC) model. The model is further employed to simulate the behaviour of thousands of copepods in a fully developed hydrodynamic turbulent flow obtained by direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations. First, we show that the LC velocity statistics is in qualitative agreement with available experimental observations of copepods in turbulence. Second, we quantify the clustering of LC, via the fractal dimension D2. We show that D2 can be as low as 2.3, corresponding to local sheetlike aggregates, and that it critically depends on the shear-rate sensitivity of the proposed LC model. We further investigate the effect of jump intensity, jump orientation and geometrical aspect ratio of the copepods on the small-scale spatial distribution. Possible ecological implications of the observed clustering on encounter rates and mating success are discussed.
Modelling of the pressure-velocity correlation in turbulence diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Song
1993-05-01
In the context of second-moment closure, the mechanism of turbulence diffusion consists of mainly two parts: a triple velocity correlation and a pressure-velocity correlation. The first correlation is measurable and can be analyzed theoretically through its transport equation. The second correlation cannot, however, be obtained directly from experiments and knowledge about it is comparatively limited. Most current computations of turbulent flows adopt diffusion models which neglect the effect of the pressure-velocity correlation in the diffusion process. The importance of this correlation effect is elucidated; the neglect of this effect constitutes some of the major defects in the application of the second-moment closures. Through the relation between the two correlations, established by Lumley (1978), we propose a new type of turbulence diffusion model which takes into account the pressure effect. Application of this new model in the computation of the turbulence shearless mixing layer and plane- and round-jet flows shows that the spreading rates of these flows can be captured satisfactorily.
On the modeling of wave-enhanced turbulence nearshore
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moghimi, Saeed; Thomson, Jim; Özkan-Haller, Tuba; Umlauf, Lars; Zippel, Seth
2016-07-01
A high resolution k-ω two-equation turbulence closure model, including surface wave forcing was employed to fully resolve turbulence dissipation rate profiles close to the ocean surface. Model results were compared with observations from Surface Wave Instrument Floats with Tracking (SWIFTs) in the nearshore region at New River Inlet, North Carolina USA, in June 2012. A sensitivity analysis for different physical parameters and wave and turbulence formulations was performed. The flux of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) prescribed by wave dissipation from a numerical wave model was compared with the conventional prescription using the wind friction velocity. A surface roughness length of 0.6 times the significant wave height was proposed, and the flux of TKE was applied at a distance below the mean sea surface that is half of this roughness length. The wave enhanced layer had a total depth that is almost three times the significant wave height. In this layer the non-dimensionalized Terray scaling with power of - 1.8 (instead of - 2) was applicable.
The study of PDF turbulence models in combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, Andrew T.
1991-01-01
In combustion computations, it is known that the predictions of chemical reaction rates are poor if conventional turbulence models are used. The probability density function (pdf) method seems to be the only alternative that uses local instantaneous values of the temperature, density, etc., in predicting chemical reaction rates, and thus is the only viable approach for more accurate turbulent combustion calculations. The fact that the pdf equation has a very large dimensionality renders finite difference schemes extremely demanding on computer memories and thus impractical. A logical alternative is the Monte Carlo scheme. Since CFD has a certain maturity as well as acceptance, it seems that the use of a combined CFD and Monte Carlo scheme is more beneficial. Therefore, a scheme is chosen that uses a conventional CFD flow solver in calculating the flow field properties such as velocity, pressure, etc., while the chemical reaction part is solved using a Monte Carlo scheme. The discharge of a heated turbulent plane jet into quiescent air was studied. Experimental data for this problem shows that when the temperature difference between the jet and the surrounding air is small, buoyancy effect can be neglected and the temperature can be treated as a passive scalar. The fact that jet flows have a self-similar solution lends convenience in the modeling study. Futhermore, the existence of experimental data for turbulent shear stress and temperature variance make the case ideal for the testing of pdf models wherein these values can be directly evaluated.
Potential capabilities of Reynolds stress turbulence model in the COMMIX-RSM code
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, F. C.; Bottoni, M.
1994-01-01
A Reynolds stress turbulence model has been implemented in the COMMIX code, together with transport equations describing turbulent heat fluxes, variance of temperature fluctuations, and dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy. The model has been verified partially by simulating homogeneous turbulent shear flow, and stable and unstable stratified shear flows with strong buoyancy-suppressing or enhancing turbulence. This article outlines the model, explains the verifications performed thus far, and discusses potential applications of the COMMIX-RSM code in several domains, including, but not limited to, analysis of thermal striping in engineering systems, simulation of turbulence in combustors, and predictions of bubbly and particulate flows.
Development of a recursion RNG-based turbulence model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhou, YE; Vahala, George; Thangam, S.
1993-01-01
Reynolds stress closure models based on the recursion renormalization group theory are developed for the prediction of turbulent separated flows. The proposed model uses a finite wavenumber truncation scheme to account for the spectral distribution of energy. In particular, the model incorporates effects of both local and nonlocal interactions. The nonlocal interactions are shown to yield a contribution identical to that from the epsilon-renormalization group (RNG), while the local interactions introduce higher order dispersive effects. A formal analysis of the model is presented and its ability to accurately predict separated flows is analyzed from a combined theoretical and computational stand point. Turbulent flow past a backward facing step is chosen as a test case and the results obtained based on detailed computations demonstrate that the proposed recursion -RNG model with finite cut-off wavenumber can yield very good predictions for the backstep problem.
Particle-Turbulence Interaction Model for Aluminum Combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Neeraj; Calhoon, William; Tomes, Jeremy
2011-06-01
Particle-turbulence interactions will have a substantial impact on the performance of thermobaric explosives that rely on the particle combustion for secondary heat release. Modeling these interactions from a fundamental perspective is very difficult and intractable for large-scale problems of practical interest. Alternatively, these interactions may be modeled from a macroscopic perspective that seeks to account for the probability distribution function (PDF) of variables within the modeled laminar burning rate for the particulates. Such a formulation would account for the first order effect of turbulent fluctuations on the burning rate within a computationally affordable model. This paper will describe the development of such a model for aluminum particle combustion in both the diffusion and kinetic burning regimes. This formulation is based on an assumed PDF method that may be parameterized into a database that may be deployed within a flow solver. As a result, the formulation is computational efficient and affordable for large-scale simulations.
Studies of turbulent round jets through experimentation, simulation, and modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keedy, Ryan
This thesis studies the physics of the turbulent round jet. In particular, it focuses on three different problems that have the turbulent round jet as their base flow. The first part of this thesis examines a compressible turbulent round jet at its sonic condition. We investigate the shearing effect such a jet has when impinging on a solid surface that is perpendicular to the flow direction. We report on experiments to evaluate the jet's ability to remove different types of explosive particles from a glass surface. Theoretical analysis revealed trends and enabled modeling to improve the predictability of particle removal for various jet conditions. The second part of thesis aims at developing a non-intrusive measurement technique for free-shear turbulent flows in nature. Most turbulent jet investigations in the literature, both in the laboratory and in the field, required specialized intrusive instrumentation and/or complex optical setups. There are many situations in naturally-occurring flows where the environment may prove too hostile or remote for existing instrumentation. We have developed a methodology for analyzing video of the exterior of a naturally-occurring flow and calculating the flow velocity. We found that the presence of viscosity gradients affects the velocity analysis. While these effects produce consistent, predictable changes, we became interested in the mechanism by which the viscosity gradients affect the mixing and development of the turbulent round jet. We conducted a stability analysis of the axisymmetric jet when a viscosity gradient is present. Finally, the third problem addressed in this thesis is the growth of liquid droplets by condensation in a turbulent round jet. A vapor-saturated turbulent jet issues into a cold, dry environment. The resulting mixing produces highly inhomogeneous regions of supersaturation, where droplets grow and evaporate. Non-linear interactions between the droplet growth rate and the supersaturation field make
Turbulence Model Comparisons for a High-Speed Aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rivers, Melissa B.; Wahls, Richard A.
1999-01-01
Four turbulence models are described and evaluated for transonic flows over the High-Speed Research/industry baseline configuration known as Reference H by using the thin-layer, upwind, Navier-Stokes solver known as CFL3D. The turbulence models studied are the equilibrium model of Baldwin-Lomax (B-L) with the Degani-Schiff (D-S) modifications, the one-equation Baldwin-Barth (B-B) model, the one-equation Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) model, and Menter's two-equation Shear Stress Transport (SST) model. The flow conditions, which correspond to tests performed in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at Langley Research Center, are a Mach number of 0.90 and a Reynolds number of 30 x 10 (exp. 6) based on mean aerodynamic chord for angles of attack of 1 deg., 5 deg., and 10 deg. The effects of grid topology and the representation of the actual wind tunnel model geometry are also investigated. Computed forces and surface pressures compare reasonably well with the experimental data for all four turbulence models.
Turbulence Models for Accurate Aerothermal Prediction in Hypersonic Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiang-Hong; Wu, Yi-Zao; Wang, Jiang-Feng
Accurate description of the aerodynamic and aerothermal environment is crucial to the integrated design and optimization for high performance hypersonic vehicles. In the simulation of aerothermal environment, the effect of viscosity is crucial. The turbulence modeling remains a major source of uncertainty in the computational prediction of aerodynamic forces and heating. In this paper, three turbulent models were studied: the one-equation eddy viscosity transport model of Spalart-Allmaras, the Wilcox k-ω model and the Menter SST model. For the k-ω model and SST model, the compressibility correction, press dilatation and low Reynolds number correction were considered. The influence of these corrections for flow properties were discussed by comparing with the results without corrections. In this paper the emphasis is on the assessment and evaluation of the turbulence models in prediction of heat transfer as applied to a range of hypersonic flows with comparison to experimental data. This will enable establishing factor of safety for the design of thermal protection systems of hypersonic vehicle.
Turbulence regulation by stochastic zonal flows in dynamical models
Kim, Eun-jin
2005-09-15
A theory of turbulence reduction by zonal flows is presented in the interchange turbulence model. Zonal flows with a finite correlation time {tau}{sub ZF} are shown to lead to a significant reduction in particle transport and turbulence amplitude, with the scalings {upsilon}{sub x}{proportional_to}{tau}{sub D}{omega}{sub eff}{sup -1}{proportional_to}{omega}{sub eff}{sup -3/2}, n{sup 2}{proportional_to}{tau}{sub D}{proportional_to}{omega}{sub eff}{sup -1/2}, and {upsilon}{sub x}{sup 2}{proportional_to}{tau}{sub D}{omega}{sub eff}{sup -2}{proportional_to}{omega}{sub eff}{sup -5/2}. Here, {omega}{sub eff}={tau}{sub ZF}{omega}{sub rms}{sup 2}, {tau}{sub D}=({tau}{sub {eta}}/{omega}{sub eff}){sup 1/2}, and {tau}{sub {eta}} are the effective shearing rate, effective decorrelation time, and diffusive turbulent scattering time, respectively. Compared to the transport of passive scalar fields [E. Kim and P. H. Diamond, Phys. Plasmas, 11, L77 (2004)], the reduction is much more severe due to the suppression of turbulent velocity. However, the overall transport and turbulence amplitude are still larger compared with the case of coherent shearing because shearing by random zonal flows with a finite correlation time is less efficient, with a longer decorrelation time {tau}{sub D} than ({tau}{sub {eta}}/{omega}{sup 2}){sup 1/3} in the case of coherent shearing.
Adhikari, K; Pal, S; Chakraborty, B; Mukherjee, S N; Gangopadhyay, A
2014-10-01
The movement of contaminants through soil imparts a variety of geo-environmental problem inclusive of lithospheric pollution. Near-surface aquifers are often vulnerable to contamination from surface source if overlying soil possesses poor resilience or contaminant attenuation capacity. The prediction of contaminant transport through soil is urged to protect groundwater from sources of pollutants. Using field simulation through column experiments and mathematical modeling like HYDRUS-1D, assessment of soil resilience and movement of contaminants through the subsurface to reach aquifers can be predicted. An outfall site of effluents of a coke oven plant comprising of alarming concentration of phenol (4-12.2 mg/L) have been considered for studying groundwater condition and quality, in situ soil characterization, and effluent characterization. Hydrogeological feature suggests the presence of near-surface aquifers at the effluent discharge site. Analysis of groundwater of nearby locality reveals the phenol concentration (0.11-0.75 mg/L) exceeded the prescribed limit of WHO specification (0.002 mg/L). The in situ soil, used in column experiment, possess higher saturated hydraulic conductivity (KS = 5.25 × 10(-4) cm/s). The soil containing 47 % silt, 11 % clay, and 1.54% organic carbon content was found to be a poor absorber of phenol (24 mg/kg). The linear phenol adsorption isotherm model showed the best fit (R(2) = 0.977, RMSE = 1.057) to the test results. Column experiments revealed that the phenol removal percent and the length of the mass transfer zone increased with increasing bed heights. The overall phenol adsorption efficiency was found to be 42-49%. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) predicted by HYDRUS-1D model appears to be close fitting with the BTCs derived from the column experiments. The phenol BTC predicted by the HYDRUS-1D model for 1.2 m depth subsurface soil, i.e., up to the depth of groundwater in the study area, showed that the exhaustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minárik, Stanislav
2015-08-01
In this paper, we propose theoretical basis for investigation of dynamics of acoustic phonons in a thin layers containing nano-scale structural inhomogeneities. One-dimensional (1D) model of a crystal lattice was considered to reveal specific features of the processes arising in such system of phonons in equilibrium state. Standard quantization of energy of 1D ionic chain vibrating by acoustic frequencies was carried out while the presence of foreign ions in this chain was taken into account. Since only two dimensions are dominant in thin layers, only longitudinal vibrations of the chain in the plane of the layer were considered. Results showed that foreign ions affect the energy quantization. Phonon-phonon interaction between two phonon`s modes can be expected if the mass of foreign ions implanted by ion-beam differs from the mass of ions in the initial layer. We believe that the obtained results will help to understand the character of phonon systems in nanostructured thin layers prepared by ion-bem technology, and will allow better explain some thermal and electrical phenomena associated with lattice dynamics in such layers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Tianci; Chen, Xiao; Fradkin, Eduardo
We investigate the entanglement entropy(EE) of circular entangling surfaces in the 2+1d quantum Lifshitz model, where the spatially conformal invariant ground state is a Rokhsar-Kivelson state with Gibbs weight of 2d free Boson. We use cut-off independent mutual information regulator to define and calculate the subleading correction in the EE. The subtlety due to the Boson compactification in the replica trick is carefully taken care of. Our results show that for circular entangling surface, the subleading term is a constant on both the sphere of arbitrary radius and infinite plane. For the latter case, it parallels the constancy of disk EE in 2+1d conformal field theory, despite the lack of full space time conformal invariance. In the end, we present the mutual information of two disjoint disks and compare its scaling function in the small parameter regime (radii much smaller than their separation) with Cardy's general CFT results. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation Grants NSF-DMR-13-06011(TZ) and DMR-1408713 (XC, EF).
Measurement of terms and parameters in turbulent models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandborn, Virgil A.
1989-01-01
Experimental measurements of the mean and turbulent velocity field in a water flow, turn-around-duct is documented. The small radius of curvature duct experiments were made over a range of Reynolds numbers (based on a duct height of 10 cm) from 70,000 to 500,000. For this particular channel, the flow is dominated by the inertia forces. Use of the local bulk velocity to non-dimensionalize the local velocity was found to limit Reynolds number effects to the regions very close to the wall. Only secondary effects on the flow field were observed when the inlet or exit boundary conditions were altered. The flow over the central two-thirds of the channel was two-dimensional. Mean tangetial and radial velocities, streamlines, pressure distributions, surface shear stress; tangential, radial and lateral turbulent velocities and the Reynolds turbulent shear values are tabulated in other reports. It is evident from the experimental study that a complex numerical modeling technique must be developed to predict the flow in the turn-around-duct. The model must be able to predict relaminarization along the inner-convex-wall. It must also allow for the major increase in turbulence produced by the outer-concave-wall.
Turbulence and dissipation in a computational model of Luzon Strait
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jalali, Masoud; Sarkar, Sutanu
2014-11-01
Generation sites for topographic internal gravity waves can also be sites of intense turbulence. Bottom-intensified flow at critical slopes leads to convective instability and turbulent overturns [Gayen & Sarkar (2011)]. A steep ridge with small excursion number, Ex , but large super criticality can lead to nonlinear features according to observations [Klymak et al. (2008)] and numerical simulations [Legg & Klymak (2008)]. The present work uses high resolution 3-D LES to simulate flow over a model with multiscale topography patterned after a cross-section of Luzon Strait, a double-ridge generation site which was the subject of the recent IWISE experiment. A 1:100 scaling of topography was employed and environmental parameters were chosen to match the slope criticality and Fr number in the field. Several turbulent zones were identified including breaking lee waves, critical slope boundary layer, downslope jets, internal wave beams, and vortical valley flows. The multiscale model topography has subridges where a local Ex may be defined. Wave breaking and turbulence at these subridges can be understood if the local value of Ex is employed when using the Ex -based regimes identified by Jalali et al. (2014) in their DNS of oscillating flow over a single triangular obstacle.
Turbulence modelling of flow fields in thrust chambers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.
1993-01-01
Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modelling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows, and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.
Turbulence modelling of flow fields in thrust chambers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.
1993-02-01
Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modelling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows, and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.
Magnetic reversals in a modified shell model for magnetohydrodynamics turbulence.
Nigro, Giuseppina; Carbone, Vincenzo
2010-07-01
The aim of the paper is the study of dynamo action using a simple nonlinear model in the framework of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The nonlinear behavior of the system is described by using a shell model for velocity field and magnetic field fluctuations, modified for the magnetic field at the largest scale by a term describing a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. Turbulent fluctuations generate a dynamical situation where the large-scale magnetic field jumps between two states which represent the opposite polarities of the magnetic field. Despite its simplicity, the model has the capability to describe a long time series of reversals from which we infer results about the statistics of persistence times and scaling laws of cancellations between opposite polarities for different magnetic diffusivity coefficients. These properties of the model are compared with real paleomagnetic data, thus revealing the origin of long-range correlations in the process. PMID:20866731
Magnetic reversals in a modified shell model for magnetohydrodynamics turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nigro, Giuseppina; Carbone, Vincenzo
2010-07-01
The aim of the paper is the study of dynamo action using a simple nonlinear model in the framework of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The nonlinear behavior of the system is described by using a shell model for velocity field and magnetic field fluctuations, modified for the magnetic field at the largest scale by a term describing a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. Turbulent fluctuations generate a dynamical situation where the large-scale magnetic field jumps between two states which represent the opposite polarities of the magnetic field. Despite its simplicity, the model has the capability to describe a long time series of reversals from which we infer results about the statistics of persistence times and scaling laws of cancellations between opposite polarities for different magnetic diffusivity coefficients. These properties of the model are compared with real paleomagnetic data, thus revealing the origin of long-range correlations in the process.
The remarkable ability of turbulence model equations to describe transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilcox, David C.
1992-01-01
This paper demonstrates how well the k-omega turbulence model describes the nonlinear growth of flow instabilities from laminar flow into the turbulent flow regime. Viscous modifications are proposed for the k-omega model that yield close agreement with measurements and with Direct Numerical Simulation results for channel and pipe flow. These modifications permit prediction of subtle sublayer details such as maximum dissipation at the surface, k approximately y(exp 2) as y approaches 0, and the sharp peak value of k near the surface. With two transition specific closure coefficients, the model equations accurately predict transition for an incompressible flat-plate boundary layer. The analysis also shows why the k-epsilon model is so difficult to use for predicting transition.
Flamelet Model Application for Non-Premixed Turbulent Combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Secundov, A.; Bezgin, L.; Buriko, Yu.; Guskov, O.; Kopchenov, V.; Laskin, I.; Lomkov, K.; Tshepin, S.; Volkov, D.; Zaitsev, S.
1996-01-01
The current Final Report contains results of the study which was performed in Scientific Research Center 'ECOLEN' (Moscow, Russia). The study concerns the development and verification of non-expensive approach for modeling of supersonic turbulent diffusion flames based on flamelet consideration of the chemistry/turbulence interaction (FL approach). Research work included: development of the approach and CFD tests of the flamelet model for supersonic jet flames; development of the simplified procedure for solution of the flamelet equations based on partial equilibrium chemistry assumption; study of the flame ignition/extinction predictions provided by flamelet model. The performed investigation demonstrated that FL approach allowed to describe satisfactory main features of supersonic H 2/air jet flames. Model demonstrated also high capabilities for reduction of the computational expenses in CFD modeling of the supersonic flames taking into account detailed oxidation chemistry. However, some disadvantages and restrictions of the existing version of approach were found in this study. They were: (1) inaccuracy in predictions of the passive scalar statistics by our turbulence model for one of the considered test cases; and (2) applicability of the available version of the flamelet model to flames without large ignition delay distance only. Based on the results of the performed investigation, we formulated and submitted to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration our Project Proposal for the next step research directed toward further improvement of the FL approach.
Modeling Compressibility Effects in High-Speed Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sarkar, S.
2004-01-01
Man has strived to make objects fly faster, first from subsonic to supersonic and then to hypersonic speeds. Spacecraft and high-speed missiles routinely fly at hypersonic Mach numbers, M greater than 5. In defense applications, aircraft reach hypersonic speeds at high altitude and so may civilian aircraft in the future. Hypersonic flight, while presenting opportunities, has formidable challenges that have spurred vigorous research and development, mainly by NASA and the Air Force in the USA. Although NASP, the premier hypersonic concept of the eighties and early nineties, did not lead to flight demonstration, much basic research and technology development was possible. There is renewed interest in supersonic and hypersonic flight with the HyTech program of the Air Force and the Hyper-X program at NASA being examples of current thrusts in the field. At high-subsonic to supersonic speeds, fluid compressibility becomes increasingly important in the turbulent boundary layers and shear layers associated with the flow around aerospace vehicles. Changes in thermodynamic variables: density, temperature and pressure, interact strongly with the underlying vortical, turbulent flow. The ensuing changes to the flow may be qualitative such as shocks which have no incompressible counterpart, or quantitative such as the reduction of skin friction with Mach number, large heat transfer rates due to viscous heating, and the dramatic reduction of fuel/oxidant mixing at high convective Mach number. The peculiarities of compressible turbulence, so-called compressibility effects, have been reviewed by Fernholz and Finley. Predictions of aerodynamic performance in high-speed applications require accurate computational modeling of these "compressibility effects" on turbulence. During the course of the project we have made fundamental advances in modeling the pressure-strain correlation and developed a code to evaluate alternate turbulence models in the compressible shear layer.
Turbulence modeling for Francis turbine water passages simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maruzewski, P.; Hayashi, H.; Munch, C.; Yamaishi, K.; Hashii, T.; Mombelli, H. P.; Sugow, Y.; Avellan, F.
2010-08-01
The applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, to hydraulic machines life require the ability to handle turbulent flows and to take into account the effects of turbulence on the mean flow. Nowadays, Direct Numerical Simulation, DNS, is still not a good candidate for hydraulic machines simulations due to an expensive computational time consuming. Large Eddy Simulation, LES, even, is of the same category of DNS, could be an alternative whereby only the small scale turbulent fluctuations are modeled and the larger scale fluctuations are computed directly. Nevertheless, the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes, RANS, model have become the widespread standard base for numerous hydraulic machine design procedures. However, for many applications involving wall-bounded flows and attached boundary layers, various hybrid combinations of LES and RANS are being considered, such as Detached Eddy Simulation, DES, whereby the RANS approximation is kept in the regions where the boundary layers are attached to the solid walls. Furthermore, the accuracy of CFD simulations is highly dependent on the grid quality, in terms of grid uniformity in complex configurations. Moreover any successful structured and unstructured CFD codes have to offer a wide range to the variety of classic RANS model to hybrid complex model. The aim of this study is to compare the behavior of turbulent simulations for both structured and unstructured grids topology with two different CFD codes which used the same Francis turbine. Hence, the study is intended to outline the encountered discrepancy for predicting the wake of turbine blades by using either the standard k-epsilon model, or the standard k-epsilon model or the SST shear stress model in a steady CFD simulation. Finally, comparisons are made with experimental data from the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines reduced scale model measurements.
Dynamic formulation of thickened flame model for LES of premixed turbulent combustion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meneveau, C.; Nottin, C.; Veynante, D.
2000-11-01
As demonstrated in Colin et al. (Phys. Fluids 12, p. 1843, 2000) the thickened flame model for LES of premixed combustion (TFLES) has a number of attractive features such as correct asymptotics in the limit of DNS, in the case of a thickened laminar, steady flame, etc.. For the general case of turbulent, unsteady and curved, premixed flames, the model requires empirical parameters to be specified. With the aim of decreasing the dependence on empirical parameters, the dynamic procedure is applied to this problem. We find that the traditional application of the Germano identity, which seeks undetermined multiplicative model coefficients, fails because of a trivial cancellation of the coefficients when inserted in the Germano identity. We suggest that this is a general problem when applying the dynamic model to phenomena that occur at very disparate length-scales (here the true reaction occurs in a region which is typically much thinner than the LES grid-size). On the other hand, we find that the dynamic procedure is well-posed when searching for unknown scaling exponents (instead of coefficients). A new power-law formulation of dynamic TFLES is developed, and tested using a fully compressible, sixth-order finite-difference code (NTMIX). Applications to several cases are discussed: (a) 1-D laminar flame, (b) laminar flame-vortex interaction, and (c) flame propagation through 2-D decaying isotropic turbulence.
Atmospheric Turbulence Modeling for Aero Vehicles: Fractional Order Fits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kopasakis, George
2015-01-01
Atmospheric turbulence models are necessary for the design of both inlet/engine and flight controls, as well as for studying coupling between the propulsion and the vehicle structural dynamics for supersonic vehicles. Models based on the Kolmogorov spectrum have been previously utilized to model atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, a more accurate model is developed in its representative fractional order form, typical of atmospheric disturbances. This is accomplished by first scaling the Kolmogorov spectral to convert them into finite energy von Karman forms and then by deriving an explicit fractional circuit-filter type analog for this model. This circuit model is utilized to develop a generalized formulation in frequency domain to approximate the fractional order with the products of first order transfer functions, which enables accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.
Atmospheric Turbulence Modeling for Aero Vehicles: Fractional Order Fits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kopasakis, George
2010-01-01
Atmospheric turbulence models are necessary for the design of both inlet/engine and flight controls, as well as for studying coupling between the propulsion and the vehicle structural dynamics for supersonic vehicles. Models based on the Kolmogorov spectrum have been previously utilized to model atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, a more accurate model is developed in its representative fractional order form, typical of atmospheric disturbances. This is accomplished by first scaling the Kolmogorov spectral to convert them into finite energy von Karman forms and then by deriving an explicit fractional circuit-filter type analog for this model. This circuit model is utilized to develop a generalized formulation in frequency domain to approximate the fractional order with the products of first order transfer functions, which enables accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.
A comprehensive comparison of turbulence models in the far wake
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cimbala, John M.
1993-01-01
In the present study, the far wake was examined numerically using an implicit, upwind, finite-volume, compressible Navier-Stokes code. The numerical grid started at 500 equivalent circular cylinder diameters in the wave, and extended to 4000 equivalent diameters. By concentrating only on the far wake, the numerical difficulties and fine mesh requirements near the wake-generating body were eliminated. At the time of this writing, results for the K-epsilon and K-omega turbulence models at low Mach number have been completed and show excellent agreement with previous incompressible results and far-wake similarity solutions. The code is presently being used to compare the performance of various other turbulence models, including Reynolds stress models and the new anisotropic two-equation turbulence models being developed at NASA Langley. By increasing our physical understanding of the deficiencies and limits of these models, it is hoped that improvements to the universality of the models can be made. Future plans include examination of two-dimensional momentumless wakes as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lionello, Roberto; Velli, Marco; Downs, Cooper; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran
2014-12-01
Although it is widely accepted that photospheric motions provide the energy source and that the magnetic field must play a key role in the process, the detailed mechanisms responsible for heating the Sun's corona and accelerating the solar wind are still not fully understood. Cranmer et al. developed a sophisticated, one-dimensional (1D), time-steady model of the solar wind with turbulence dissipation. By varying the coronal magnetic field, they obtain, for a single choice of wave properties, a realistic range of slow and fast wind conditions with a sharp latitudinal transition between the two streams. Using a 1D, time-dependent model of the solar wind of Lionello et al., which incorporates turbulent dissipation of Alfvén waves to provide heating and acceleration of the plasma, we have explored a similar configuration, obtaining qualitatively equivalent results. However, our calculations suggest that the rapid transition between slow and fast wind suggested by this 1D model may be disrupted in multidimensional MHD simulations by the requirement of transverse force balance.
Lionello, Roberto; Downs, Cooper; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran; Velli, Marco E-mail: cdowns@predsci.com E-mail: mikic@predsci.com
2014-12-01
Although it is widely accepted that photospheric motions provide the energy source and that the magnetic field must play a key role in the process, the detailed mechanisms responsible for heating the Sun's corona and accelerating the solar wind are still not fully understood. Cranmer et al. developed a sophisticated, one-dimensional (1D), time-steady model of the solar wind with turbulence dissipation. By varying the coronal magnetic field, they obtain, for a single choice of wave properties, a realistic range of slow and fast wind conditions with a sharp latitudinal transition between the two streams. Using a 1D, time-dependent model of the solar wind of Lionello et al., which incorporates turbulent dissipation of Alfvén waves to provide heating and acceleration of the plasma, we have explored a similar configuration, obtaining qualitatively equivalent results. However, our calculations suggest that the rapid transition between slow and fast wind suggested by this 1D model may be disrupted in multidimensional MHD simulations by the requirement of transverse force balance.
Development of one-equation transition/turbulence models
Edwards, J.R.; Roy, C.J.; Blottner, F.G.; Hassan, H.A.
2000-01-14
This paper reports on the development of a unified one-equation model for the prediction of transitional and turbulent flows. An eddy viscosity--transport equation for nonturbulent fluctuation growth based on that proposed by Warren and Hassan is combined with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model for turbulent fluctuation growth. Blending of the two equations is accomplished through a multidimensional intermittency function based on the work of Dhawan and Narasimha. The model predicts both the onset and extent of transition. Low-speed test cases include transitional flow over a flat plate, a single element airfoil, and a multi-element airfoil in landing configuration. High-speed test cases include transitional Mach 3.5 flow over a 5{degree} cone and Mach 6 flow over a flared-cone configuration. Results are compared with experimental data, and the grid-dependence of selected predictions is analyzed.
2D Axisymmetric vs 1D: A PIC/DSMC Model of Breakdown in Triggered Vacuum Spark Gaps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, Stan; Moore, Chris; Boerner, Jeremiah
2015-09-01
Last year at GEC14, we presented results of one-dimensional PIC/DSMC simulations of breakdown in triggered vacuum spark gaps. In this talk, we extend the model to two-dimensional axisymmetric and compare the results to the previous 1D case. Specially, we vary the fraction of the cathode that emits electrons and neutrals (holding the total injection rates over the cathode surface constant) and show the effects of the higher dimensionality on the time to breakdown. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Turbulent Chemical Interaction Models in NCC: Comparison
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norris, Andrew T.; Liu, Nan-Suey
2006-01-01
The performance of a scalar PDF hydrogen-air combustion model in predicting a complex reacting flow is evaluated. In addition the results are compared to those obtained by running the same case with the so-called laminar chemistry model and also a new model based on the concept of mapping partially stirred reactor data onto perfectly stirred reactor data. The results show that the scalar PDF model produces significantly different results from the other two models, and at a significantly higher computational cost.
Progress in the development of PDF turbulence models for combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, Andrew T.
1991-01-01
A combined Monte Carlo-computational fluid dynamic (CFD) algorithm was developed recently at Lewis Research Center (LeRC) for turbulent reacting flows. In this algorithm, conventional CFD schemes are employed to obtain the velocity field and other velocity related turbulent quantities, and a Monte Carlo scheme is used to solve the evolution equation for the probability density function (pdf) of species mass fraction and temperature. In combustion computations, the predictions of chemical reaction rates (the source terms in the species conservation equation) are poor if conventional turbulence modles are used. The main difficulty lies in the fact that the reaction rate is highly nonlinear, and the use of averaged temperature produces excessively large errors. Moment closure models for the source terms have attained only limited success. The probability density function (pdf) method seems to be the only alternative at the present time that uses local instantaneous values of the temperature, density, etc., in predicting chemical reaction rates, and thus may be the only viable approach for more accurate turbulent combustion calculations. Assumed pdf's are useful in simple problems; however, for more general combustion problems, the solution of an evolution equation for the pdf is necessary.
Comparative study of turbulence models in predicting hypersonic inlet flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kapoor, Kamlesh; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Shaw, Robert J.
1992-01-01
A numerical study was conducted to analyze the performance of different turbulence models when applied to the hypersonic NASA P8 inlet. Computational results from the PARC2D code, which solves the full two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation, were compared with experimental data. The zero-equation models considered for the study were the Baldwin-Lomax model, the Thomas model, and a combination of the Baldwin-Lomax and Thomas models; the two-equation models considered were the Chien model, the Speziale model (both low Reynolds number), and the Launder and Spalding model (high Reynolds number). The Thomas model performed best among the zero-equation models, and predicted good pressure distributions. The Chien and Speziale models compared very well with the experimental data, and performed better than the Thomas model near the walls.
Comparative study of turbulence models in predicting hypersonic inlet flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kapoor, Kamlesh; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Shaw, Robert J.
1992-01-01
A numerical study was conducted to analyze the performance of different turbulence models when applied to the hypersonic NASA P8 inlet. Computational results from the PARC2D code, which solves the full two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation, were compared with experimental data. The zero-equation models considered for the study were the Baldwin-Lomax model, the Thomas model, and a combination of the Baldwin-Lomax and Thomas models; the two-equation models considered were the Chien model, the Speziale model (both low Reynolds number), and the Launder and Spalding model (high Reynolds number). The Thomas model performed best among the zero-equation models, and predicted good pressure distributions. The Chien and Speziale models compared wery well with the experimental data, and performed better than the Thomas model near the walls.
Anisotropic Turbulence Modeling for Accurate Rod Bundle Simulations
Baglietto, Emilio
2006-07-01
An improved anisotropic eddy viscosity model has been developed for accurate predictions of the thermal hydraulic performances of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. The proposed model adopts a non-linear formulation of the stress-strain relationship in order to include the reproduction of the anisotropic phenomena, and in combination with an optimized low-Reynolds-number formulation based on Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) to produce correct damping of the turbulent viscosity in the near wall region. This work underlines the importance of accurate anisotropic modeling to faithfully reproduce the scale of the turbulence driven secondary flows inside the bundle subchannels, by comparison with various isothermal and heated experimental cases. The very low scale secondary motion is responsible for the increased turbulence transport which produces a noticeable homogenization of the velocity distribution and consequently of the circumferential cladding temperature distribution, which is of main interest in bundle design. Various fully developed bare bundles test cases are shown for different geometrical and flow conditions, where the proposed model shows clearly improved predictions, in close agreement with experimental findings, for regular as well as distorted geometries. Finally the applicability of the model for practical bundle calculations is evaluated through its application in the high-Reynolds form on coarse grids, with excellent results. (author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Graves, R. W.
2012-12-01
I have performed low frequency (f < 1 Hz) ground motion simulations for the 2008 Mw 5.23 Mt. Carmel, Illinois and 2011 Mw 5.74 Mineral, Virginia earthquakes to calibrate a rock-site 1D crustal velocity and Q structure model for central and eastern US (CEUS). For each earthquake, the observed ground motions were simulated at sites extending out to about 900 km from the epicenter. Sites within the Mississippi embayment are not included in the modeling. The initial 1D velocity model was developed by averaging profiles extracted from the CUS V1.3 3D velocity model (Ramirez-Guzman et al, 2012) at each of the recording sites, with the surface shear wave velocity set at 2200 m/s. The Mt. Carmel earthquake is represented as a point double couple (strike=25, dip=90, rake=-175) at a depth of 14 km and a slip-rate function having a Brune corner frequency of 0.89 Hz (Hartzell and Mendoza, 2011). The Mineral earthquake is represented as a point double couple (strike=26, dip=55, rake=108) at a depth of 6 km and a slip-rate function having a corner frequency of 0.50 Hz. Full waveform Green's functions were computed using the FK method of Zhu and Rivera (2002). The initial model does well at reproducing the median level of observed response spectral acceleration (Sa) for most sites out to 300 km at periods of 2 to 5 sec, including the observed flattening in distance attenuation between 70 and 150 km. However, this model under predicts the motions beyond about 400 km distance. Increasing Q in the mid- and lower crust from the original value of 700 to 5000 removes this under prediction of the larger distance motions. Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) estimates have been computed from the simulations using the ground motion-intensity conversion equations of Atkinson and Kaka (2007; AK2007) and Dangkua and Cramer (2011; DC2011-ENA) for comparison against the observed "Did You Feel It" intensity estimates. Given the bandwidth limitations of the simulations, I use the conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sasmal, Kaushik; Maity, Subhendu; Warrior, Hari V.
2015-07-01
The present work explores the applicability of an alternative eddy viscosity formulation in numerical models dealing with the dynamics of the coastal ocean. The formulation is based on the Reynolds stress anisotropy-anisotropy being an important tool for capturing turbulent mixing. Initially idealized entrainment scenarios are evaluated that are typical for shelf seas viz. entrainment in linearly stratified and two-layer fluids caused by surface wind stress or barotropic pressure gradient-driven bottom stress. An attempt is made to simulate the realistic semi-diurnal cycle of turbulent dissipation in Liverpool Bay Region of Freshwater Inflow (ROFI) in the Irish Sea characterized by strong horizontal gradients and interactions with tidal flow. Turbulent dissipation cycles with a 25-h period using free-falling light yo-yo (FLY) dissipation profiler exhibits a strong asymmetry between ebb and flood. The above dynamics involving tidal straining during the ebb and mixing during the flood has been simulated using k- and the alternative formulated turbulence scheme in a one-dimensional (1-D) dynamic model. The model is forced with observed tidal flow and horizontal gradients of temperature and salinity. Simulated dissipation cycles show good agreement with observation. The present work also involves a comparison of dissipation rate measurements in northern North Sea using the abovementioned turbulence schemes—the measurements being taken using free-falling shear probes and CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) sensors. The main forcing provided for the upper and bottom boundary layers are atmospheric forcing and tides, respectively. To compare the observations and model results, quantitative error measurements have also been studied which reveal the applicability of the alternative turbulence scheme.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reeves, P. M.; Campbell, G. S.; Ganzer, V. M.; Joppa, R. G.
1974-01-01
A method is described for generating time histories which model the frequency content and certain non-Gaussian probability characteristics of atmospheric turbulence including the large gusts and patchy nature of turbulence. Methods for time histories using either analog or digital computation are described. A STOL airplane was programmed into a 6-degree-of-freedom flight simulator, and turbulence time histories from several atmospheric turbulence models were introduced. The pilots' reactions are described.
Comment paper: Workshop on Engineering Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spalart, P. R.
1992-01-01
The speaker for this paper describes and evaluates a k-epsilon model for calculating Samuel-Joubert flow. He proceeds to present both Boeing's and his positions on the state-of-the-art in this area and future goals. Finally, presented is a one equation mathematical model for calculating Samuel-Joubert flow. All results are presented in viewgraph format.
Comment paper: Workshop on Engineering Turbulence Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spalart, P. R.
1992-03-01
The speaker for this paper describes and evaluates a k-epsilon model for calculating Samuel-Joubert flow. He proceeds to present both Boeing's and his positions on the state-of-the-art in this area and future goals. Finally, presented is a one equation mathematical model for calculating Samuel-Joubert flow. All results are presented in viewgraph format.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaplan, Michael L.; Lux, Kevin M.; Cetola, Jeffrey D.; Huffman, Allan W.; Riordan, Allen J.; Slusser, Sarah W.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Charney, Joseph J.; Waight, Kenneth T.
2004-01-01
Real-time prediction of environments predisposed to producing moderate-severe aviation turbulence is studied. We describe the numerical model and its postprocessing system designed for said prediction of environments predisposed to severe aviation turbulence as well as presenting numerous examples of its utility. The numerical model is MASS version 5.13, which is integrated over three different grid matrices in real time on a university work station in support of NASA Langley Research Center s B-757 turbulence research flight missions. The postprocessing system includes several turbulence-related products, including four turbulence forecasting indices, winds, streamlines, turbulence kinetic energy, and Richardson numbers. Additionally, there are convective products including precipitation, cloud height, cloud mass fluxes, lifted index, and K-index. Furthermore, soundings, sounding parameters, and Froude number plots are also provided. The horizontal cross-section plot products are provided from 16 000 to 46 000 ft in 2000-ft intervals. Products are available every 3 hours at the 60- and 30-km grid interval and every 1.5 hours at the 15-km grid interval. The model is initialized from the NWS ETA analyses and integrated two times a day.
The addition of algebraic turbulence modeling to program LAURA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheatwood, F. Mcneil; Thompson, R. A.
1993-01-01
The Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) is modified to allow the calculation of turbulent flows. This is accomplished using the Cebeci-Smith and Baldwin-Lomax eddy-viscosity models in conjunction with the thin-layer Navier-Stokes options of the program. Turbulent calculations can be performed for both perfect-gas and equilibrium flows. However, a requirement of the models is that the flow be attached. It is seen that for slender bodies, adequate resolution of the boundary-layer gradients may require more cells in the normal direction than a laminar solution, even when grid stretching is employed. Results for axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows are presented. Comparison with experimental data and other numerical results reveal generally good agreement, except in the regions of detached flow.
Small Scale Response and Modeling of Periodically Forced Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bos, Wouter; Clark, Timothy T.; Rubinstein, Robert
2007-01-01
The response of the small scales of isotropic turbulence to periodic large scale forcing is studied using two-point closures. The frequency response of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate, and the phase shifts between production, energy and dissipation are determined as functions of Reynolds number. It is observed that the amplitude and phase of the dissipation exhibit nontrivial frequency and Reynolds number dependence that reveals a filtering effect of the energy cascade. Perturbation analysis is applied to understand this behavior which is shown to depend on distant interactions between widely separated scales of motion. Finally, the extent to which finite dimensional models (standard two-equation models and various generalizations) can reproduce the observed behavior is discussed.
New mixing-length model for turbulent high-speed flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Situ, M.; Schetz, J. A.
1989-01-01
A modification of Prandtl's mixing-length model is presented which takes into account the effects of compressibility on turbulence for high speed flows. A parameter is introduced into the turbulent transport formula which acts like an effective turbulent Schmidt number for mixtures of gases or a turbulent Prandtl number for a homogeneous gas. Results presented for such cases as high Mach number turbulent boundary layer flows over a flat surface, tangential slot injection problems, and shock/turbulent shear-layer and boundary-layer interactions agree well with experimental data.
Atmospheric Turbulence Modeling for Aerospace Vehicles: Fractional Order Fit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kopasakis, George (Inventor)
2015-01-01
An improved model for simulating atmospheric disturbances is disclosed. A scale Kolmogorov spectral may be scaled to convert the Kolmogorov spectral into a finite energy von Karman spectral and a fractional order pole-zero transfer function (TF) may be derived from the von Karman spectral. Fractional order atmospheric turbulence may be approximated with an integer order pole-zero TF fit, and the approximation may be stored in memory.
The lag RST turbulence model applied to vortical flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Churchfield, Matthew John
The subject of this work is the application of Olsen and Coakley's Reynolds stress relaxation turbulence model, which they call the lag Reynold stress transport (RST) model, to wingtip vortex flows. The lag RST model is meant for general non-equilibrium turbulent flows, and has not been applied to vortical flows before this work. Such a model relaxes the Reynolds stresses toward their equilibrium value, determined by the Boussinesq approximation, at a rate depending on a model constant, alpha0, multiplied by the specific dissipation rate of the turbulence, o. The alpha 0 constant can be adjusted to vary the rate at which the Reynolds stress tensor relaxes toward its equilibrium value. It performs this relaxation by solving for the equilibrium Reynolds stresses using Wilcox's k-o model, but then uses a relaxation equation to solve for the actual Reynolds stress tensor. The lag RST turbulence model allows the principal axes of the Reynolds stress tensor to be misaligned with those of the mean strain rate tensor, something linear eddy viscosity models cannot do, but something that occurs in actual vortical flows. The lag RST model is used with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations to compute a one-dimensional, time-varying, line vortex with axial flow, called the q-vortex. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) data is available for comparison. Also, a modified version of the OVERFLOW code is used to solve the RANS and lag RST model equations in a three-dimensional wingtip vortex flow, for which there is experimental data. This work shows that computations performed with the lag RST model have a mean flow in much better agreement with the DNS or experimental data than those performed with the k-o model, the lag RST model's base. In fact, the lag RST model performs equally or better in this these flows than the well performing Spalart-Allmaras model with a correction for streamline curvature and rotation. As the lag parameter alpha0 is decreased, the amount
Slagter, W.
1982-11-01
A new form of the one-equation turbulence model has been developed and verified by application to fully developed turbulent flow in smooth, bare rod bundles. The present model allows for the effect of anisotropic eddy viscosities on turbulent flow quantities. The finite element method has been used to predict local values of velocity and turbulent kinetic energy right up to the wall. A variational principle is applied to develop the finite element relationships. The resulting set of nonlinear algebraic equations for the nodal parameters is linearized by the successive-substitution scheme and solved by the frontal solution technique. The numerical results are shown to be in good agreement with available experimental data.
Development of a One-Equation Transition/Turbulence Model
EDWARDS,JACK R.; ROY,CHRISTOPHER J.; BLOTTNER,FREDERICK G.; HASSAN,HASSAN A.
2000-09-26
This paper reports on the development of a unified one-equation model for the prediction of transitional and turbulent flows. An eddy viscosity - transport equation for non-turbulent fluctuation growth based on that proposed by Warren and Hassan (Journal of Aircraft, Vol. 35, No. 5) is combined with the Spalart-Allmaras one-equation model for turbulent fluctuation growth. Blending of the two equations is accomplished through a multidimensional intermittence function based on the work of Dhawan and Narasimha (Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 3, No. 4). The model predicts both the onset and extent of transition. Low-speed test cases include transitional flow over a flat plate, a single element airfoil, and a multi-element airfoil in landing configuration. High-speed test cases include transitional Mach 3.5 flow over a 5{degree} cone and Mach 6 flow over a flared-cone configuration. Results are compared with experimental data, and the spatial accuracy of selected predictions is analyzed.
Stellar turbulent convection - A new model and applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V. M.; Mazzitelli, I.
1991-01-01
Improvements of the mixing-length theory (MLT) of turbulent convection in stellar atmospheres are developed theoretically. It is pointed out that inaccuracies are introduced into MLT by the approximating assumptions of a single large eddy (rather than many eddies of different sizes) and of incompressibility. In the proposed new model, the full spectrum of turbulent eddies is determined using more recent turbulence models (e.g., the eddy-damped quasi-normal Markovian model of Orszag, 1977), and a new formula for the convective flux is obtained which gives values up to 10 times greater than those of the MLT at high convective efficiencies. The problem of compressibility is addressed by adding one of two new expressions (one with no free parameters) for the mixing length. Numerical results from simulations of a solar-type star and a 0.8-solar-mass globular-cluster star are presented in tables and graphs and discussed in detail; the agreement with observations is found to be better than with the MLT.
Realtime capable first principle based modelling of tokamak turbulent transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Citrin, Jonathan; Breton, Sarah; Felici, Federico; Imbeaux, Frederic; Redondo, Juan; Aniel, Thierry; Artaud, Jean-Francois; Baiocchi, Benedetta; Bourdelle, Clarisse; Camenen, Yann; Garcia, Jeronimo
2015-11-01
Transport in the tokamak core is dominated by turbulence driven by plasma microinstabilities. When calculating turbulent fluxes, maintaining both a first-principle-based model and computational tractability is a strong constraint. We present a pathway to circumvent this constraint by emulating quasilinear gyrokinetic transport code output through a nonlinear regression using multilayer perceptron neural networks. This recovers the original code output, while accelerating the computing time by five orders of magnitude, allowing realtime applications. A proof-of-principle is presented based on the QuaLiKiz quasilinear transport model, using a training set of five input dimensions, relevant for ITG turbulence. The model is implemented in the RAPTOR real-time capable tokamak simulator, and simulates a 300s ITER discharge in 10s. Progress in generalizing the emulation to include 12 input dimensions is presented. This opens up new possibilities for interpretation of present-day experiments, scenario preparation and open-loop optimization, realtime controller design, realtime discharge supervision, and closed-loop trajectory optimization.
Effect of Turbulence Modeling on an Excited Jet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Clifford A.; Hixon, Ray
2010-01-01
The flow dynamics in a high-speed jet are dominated by unsteady turbulent flow structures in the plume. Jet excitation seeks to control these flow structures through the natural instabilities present in the initial shear layer of the jet. Understanding and optimizing the excitation input, for jet noise reduction or plume mixing enhancement, requires many trials that may be done experimentally or computationally at a significant cost savings. Numerical simulations, which model various parts of the unsteady dynamics to reduce the computational expense of the simulation, must adequately capture the unsteady flow dynamics in the excited jet for the results are to be used. Four CFD methods are considered for use in an excited jet problem, including two turbulence models with an Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) solver, one Large Eddy Simulation (LES) solver, and one URANS/LES hybrid method. Each method is used to simulate a simplified excited jet and the results are evaluated based on the flow data, computation time, and numerical stability. The knowledge gained about the effect of turbulence modeling and CFD methods from these basic simulations will guide and assist future three-dimensional (3-D) simulations that will be used to understand and optimize a realistic excited jet for a particular application.
Towards CFD modeling of turbulent pipeline material transportation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahirpour, Amir; Herzog, Nicoleta; Egbers, Cristoph
2013-04-01
Safe and financially efficient pipeline transportation of carbon dioxide is a critical issue in the developing field of the CCS Technology. In this part of the process, carbon dioxide is transported via pipes with diameter of 1.5 m and entry pressure of 150 bar, with Reynolds number of 107 and viscosity of 8×10(-5) Pa.s as dense fluid [1]. Presence of large and small scale structures in the pipeline, high Reynolds numbers at which CO2 should be transferred, and 3 dimensional turbulence caused by local geometrical modifications, increase the importance of simulation of turbulent material transport through the individual components of the CO2 chain process. In this study, incompressible turbulent channel flow and pipe flow have been modeled using OpenFoam, an open source CFD software. In the first step, simulation of a turbulent channel flow has been considered using LES for shear Reynolds number of 395. A simple geometry has been chosen with cyclic fluid inlet and outlet boundary conditions to simulate a fully developed flow. The mesh is gradually refined towards the wall to provide values close enough to the wall for the wall coordinate (y+). Grid resolution study has been conducted for One-Equation model. The accuracy of the results is analyzed with respect to the grid smoothness in order to reach an optimized resolution for carrying out the next simulations. Furthermore, three LES models, One-Equation, Smagorinsky and Dynamic Smagorinsky are applied for the grid resolution of (60 × 100 × 80) in (x, y, z) directions. The results are then validated with reference to the DNS carried out by Moser et al.[2] for the similar geometry using logarithmic velocity profile (U+) and Reynolds stress tensor components. In the second step the similar flow is modeled using Reynolds averaged method. Several RANS models, like K-epsilon and Launder-Reece-Rodi are applied and validated against DNS and LES results in a similar fashion. In the most recent step, it has been intended
Gyrofluid turbulence models with kinetic effects
Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.
1992-12-01
Nonlinear gyrofluid equations are derived by taking moments of the nonlinear, electrostatic gyrokinetic equation. The principal model presented includes evolution equations for the guiding center n, u[parallel], T[parallel], and T[perpendicular] along with an equation expressing the quasineutrality constraint. Additional evolution equations for higher moments are derived which may be used if greater accuracy is desired. The moment hierarchy is closed with a Landau-damping model which is equivalent to a multi-pole approximation to the plasma dispersion function, extended to include finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, new dissipative, nonlinear terms are found which model the perpendicular phase-mixing of the distribution function along contours of constant electrostatic potential. These FLR phase-mixing'' terms introduce a hyperviscosity-like damping [proportional to] k[sub [perpendicular
A shell model for turbulent dynamos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nigro, G.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.
2011-06-01
A self-consistent nonlinear dynamo model is presented. The nonlinear behavior of the plasma at small scale is described by using a MHD shell model for fields fluctuations; this allow us to study the dynamo problem in a large parameter regime which characterizes the dynamo phenomenon in many natural systems and which is beyond the power of supercomputers at today. The model is able to reproduce dynamical situations in which the system can undergo transactions to different dynamo regimes. In one of these the large-scale magnetic field jumps between two states reproducing the magnetic polarity reversals. From the analysis of long time series of reversals we infer results about the statistics of persistence times, revealing the presence of hidden long-time correlations in the chaotic dynamo process.
Development of an algebraic turbulence model for analysis of propulsion flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Georgiadis, N. J.; Drummond, J. E.; Leonard, B. P.
1992-01-01
A simple turbulence model that will be applicable to propulsion flows having both wall bounded and unbounded regions was developed and installed within the PARC Navier-Stokes code by linking two existing algebraic turbulence models. The first is the Modified Mixing Length (MML) model which is optimized for wall bounded flows. The second is the Thomas model, the standard algebraic turbulence model in PARC which has been used to calculate both bounded and unbounded turbulent flows but was optimized for the latter. This paper discusses both models and the method employed to link them into one model (referred to as the MMLT model). The PARC code with the MMLT model was applied to two dimensional turbulent flows over a flat plate and over a backward facing step to validate and optimize the model and to compare its predictions to those obtained with the three turbulence models already available in PARC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhanhui; Huang, Qinghua; Xie, Xingbing; Tang, Xingong; Chang, Liao
2016-08-01
We present a generic 1D forward modeling and inversion algorithm for transient electromagnetic (TEM) data with an arbitrary horizontal transmitting loop and receivers at any depth in a layered earth. Both the Hankel and sine transforms required in the forward algorithm are calculated using the filter method. The adjoint-equation method is used to derive the formulation of data sensitivity at any depth in non-permeable media. The inversion algorithm based on this forward modeling algorithm and sensitivity formulation is developed using the Gauss-Newton iteration method combined with the Tikhonov regularization. We propose a new data-weighting method to minimize the initial model dependence that enhances the convergence stability. On a laptop with a CPU of i7-5700HQ@3.5 GHz, the inversion iteration of a 200 layered input model with a single receiver takes only 0.34 s, while it increases to only 0.53 s for the data from four receivers at a same depth. For the case of four receivers at different depths, the inversion iteration runtime increases to 1.3 s. Modeling the data with an irregular loop and an equal-area square loop indicates that the effect of the loop geometry is significant at early times and vanishes gradually along the diffusion of TEM field. For a stratified earth, inversion of data from more than one receiver is useful in noise reducing to get a more credible layered earth. However, for a resistive layer shielded below a conductive layer, increasing the number of receivers on the ground does not have significant improvement in recovering the resistive layer. Even with a down-hole TEM sounding, the shielded resistive layer cannot be recovered if all receivers are above the shielded resistive layer. However, our modeling demonstrates remarkable improvement in detecting the resistive layer with receivers in or under this layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhanhui; Huang, Qinghua; Xie, Xingbing; Tang, Xingong; Chang, Liao
2016-07-01
We present a generic 1D forward modeling and inversion algorithm for transient electromagnetic (TEM) data with an arbitrary horizontal transmitting loop and receivers at any depth in a layered earth. Both the Hankel and sine transforms required in the forward algorithm are calculated using the filter method. The adjoint-equation method is used to derive the formulation of data sensitivity at any depth in non-permeable media. The inversion algorithm based on this forward modeling algorithm and sensitivity formulation is developed using the Gauss-Newton iteration method combined with the Tikhonov regularization. We propose a new data-weighting method to minimize the initial model dependence that enhances the convergence stability. On a laptop with a CPU of i7-5700HQ@3.5 GHz, the inversion iteration of a 200 layered input model with a single receiver takes only 0.34 s, while it increases to only 0.53 s for the data from four receivers at a same depth. For the case of four receivers at different depths, the inversion iteration runtime increases to 1.3 s. Modeling the data with an irregular loop and an equal-area square loop indicates that the effect of the loop geometry is significant at early times and vanishes gradually along the diffusion of TEM field. For a stratified earth, inversion of data from more than one receiver is useful in noise reducing to get a more credible layered earth. However, for a resistive layer shielded below a conductive layer, increasing the number of receivers on the ground does not have significant improvement in recovering the resistive layer. Even with a down-hole TEM sounding, the shielded resistive layer cannot be recovered if all receivers are above the shielded resistive layer. However, our modeling demonstrates remarkable improvement in detecting the resistive layer with receivers in or under this layer.
Numerical model of sonic boom in 3D kinematic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulouvrat, François; Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis
2015-10-01
stratified wind superimposed to a 3D random turbulent realization. Propagation is performed either in the case of a shadow zone or of an atmospheric waveguide. To model the turbulent ABL, the mean flow and the fluctuations are handled separately. The wind fluctuations are generated using the Random Fluctuations Generation method assuming a von Kármán spectrum and a homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. The mean stratified wind is modeled based on the Monin-Obhukov Similarity Theory (MOST). To illustrate the method, the typical case of a sunny day with a strong wind has been chosen. Statistics are obtained on several parameters. It shows the importance of turbulence, which leads to an increase of the mean maximum peak pressure in the shadow zone and to its decrease in the waveguide. Moreover, the formation of random caustics that can lead to an increase of the noise perceived locally is outlined.
One-dimensional hydrodynamic model generating a turbulent cascade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sakajo, Takashi
2016-05-01
As a minimal mathematical model generating cascade analogous to that of the Navier-Stokes turbulence in the inertial range, we propose a one-dimensional partial-differential-equation model that conserves the integral of the squared vorticity analog (enstrophy) in the inviscid case. With a large-scale random forcing and small viscosity, we find numerically that the model exhibits the enstrophy cascade, the broad energy spectrum with a sizable correction to the dimensional-analysis prediction, peculiar intermittency, and self-similarity in the dynamical system structure.
Energy transfers in shell models for magnetohydrodynamics turbulence.
Lessinnes, Thomas; Carati, Daniele; Verma, Mahendra K
2009-06-01
A systematic procedure to derive shell models for magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is proposed. It takes into account the conservation of ideal quadratic invariants such as the total energy, the cross helicity, and the magnetic helicity, as well as the conservation of the magnetic energy by the advection term in the induction equation. This approach also leads to simple expressions for the energy exchanges as well as to unambiguous definitions for the energy fluxes. When applied to the existing shell models with nonlinear interactions limited to the nearest-neighbor shells, this procedure reproduces well-known models but suggests a reinterpretation of the energy fluxes. PMID:19658594
Modeling the dissipation rate in rotating turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Speziale, Charles G.; Raj, Rishi; Gatski, Thomas B.
1990-01-01
A variety of modifications to the modeled dissipation rate transport equation that have been proposed during the past two decades to account for rotational strains are examined. The models are subjected to two crucial test cases: the decay of isotropic turbulence in a rotating frame and homogeneous shear flow in a rotating frame. It is demonstrated that these modifications do not yield substantially improved predictions for these two test cases and in many instances give rise to unphysical behavior. An alternative proposal, based on the use of the tensor dissipation rate, is made for the development of improved models.
Modeling of turbulent separated flows for aerodynamic applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, J. G.
1983-01-01
Steady, high speed, compressible separated flows modeled through numerical simulations resulting from solutions of the mass-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on benchmark flows that represent simplified (but realistic) aerodynamic phenomena. These include impinging shock waves, compression corners, glancing shock waves, trailing edge regions, and supersonic high angle of attack flows. A critical assessment of modeling capabilities is provided by comparing the numerical simulations with experiment. The importance of combining experiment, numerical algorithm, grid, and turbulence model to effectively develop this potentially powerful simulation technique is stressed.
Influence of atmospheric turbulence on OAM-based FSO system with use of realistic link model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ming; Yu, Zhongyuan; Cvijetic, Milorad
2016-04-01
We study the influence of atmospheric turbulence on OAM-based free-space optical (FSO) communication by using the Pump turbulence spectrum model which accurately characterizes the realistic FSO link. A comprehensive comparison is made between the Pump and Kolmogorov spectrum models with respect to the turbulence impact. The calculated results show that obtained turbulence-induced crosstalk is lower, which means that a higher channel capacity is projected when the realistic Pump spectrum is used instead of the Kolmogorov spectrum. We believe that our results prove that performance of practical OAM-based FSO is better than one predicted by using the original Kolmogorov turbulence model.
The Dissipation Rate Transport Equation and Subgrid-Scale Models in Rotating Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Robert; Ye, Zhou
1997-01-01
The dissipation rate transport equation remains the most uncertain part of turbulence modeling. The difficulties arc increased when external agencies like rotation prevent straightforward dimensional analysis from determining the correct form of the modelled equation. In this work, the dissipation rate transport equation and subgrid scale models for rotating turbulence are derived from an analytical statistical theory of rotating turbulence. In the strong rotation limit, the theory predicts a turbulent steady state in which the inertial range energy spectrum scales as k(sup -2) and the turbulent time scale is the inverse rotation rate. This scaling has been derived previously by heuristic arguments.
Gyrofluid turbulence models with kinetic effects
Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.
1992-12-01
Nonlinear gyrofluid equations are derived by taking moments of the nonlinear, electrostatic gyrokinetic equation. The principal model presented includes evolution equations for the guiding center n, u{parallel}, T{parallel}, and T{perpendicular} along with an equation expressing the quasineutrality constraint. Additional evolution equations for higher moments are derived which may be used if greater accuracy is desired. The moment hierarchy is closed with a Landau-damping model which is equivalent to a multi-pole approximation to the plasma dispersion function, extended to include finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, new dissipative, nonlinear terms are found which model the perpendicular phase-mixing of the distribution function along contours of constant electrostatic potential. These ``FLR phase-mixing`` terms introduce a hyperviscosity-like damping {proportional_to} k{sub {perpendicular}}{sup 2}{vert_bar}{Phi}{sub {rvec k}}{rvec k} {times}{rvec k}{prime}{vert_bar} which should provide a physics-based damping mechanism at high k{perpendicular}{rho} which is potentially as important as the usual polarization drift nonlinearity. The moments are taken in guiding center space to pick up the correct nonlinear FLR terms and the gyroaveraging of the shear. The equations are solved with a nonlinear, three dimensional initial value code. Linear results are presented, showing excellent agreement with linear gyrokinetic theory.
Puleo, J.A.; Mouraenko, O.; Hanes, D.M.
2004-01-01
Six one-dimensional-vertical wave bottom boundary layer models are analyzed based on different methods for estimating the turbulent eddy viscosity: Laminar, linear, parabolic, k—one equation turbulence closure, k−ε—two equation turbulence closure, and k−ω—two equation turbulence closure. Resultant velocity profiles, bed shear stresses, and turbulent kinetic energy are compared to laboratory data of oscillatory flow over smooth and rough beds. Bed shear stress estimates for the smooth bed case were most closely predicted by the k−ω model. Normalized errors between model predictions and measurements of velocity profiles over the entire computational domain collected at 15° intervals for one-half a wave cycle show that overall the linear model was most accurate. The least accurate were the laminar and k−ε models. Normalized errors between model predictions and turbulence kinetic energy profiles showed that the k−ω model was most accurate. Based on these findings, when the smallest overall velocity profile prediction error is required, the processing requirements and error analysis suggest that the linear eddy viscosity model is adequate. However, if accurate estimates of bed shear stress and TKE are required then, of the models tested, the k−ω model should be used.
Current Trends in Modeling Research for Turbulent Aerodynamic Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gatski, Thomas B.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Manceau, Remi
2007-01-01
The engineering tools of choice for the computation of practical engineering flows have begun to migrate from those based on the traditional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach to methodologies capable, in theory if not in practice, of accurately predicting some instantaneous scales of motion in the flow. The migration has largely been driven by both the success of Reynolds-averaged methods over a wide variety of flows as well as the inherent limitations of the method itself. Practitioners, emboldened by their ability to predict a wide-variety of statistically steady, equilibrium turbulent flows, have now turned their attention to flow control and non-equilibrium flows, that is, separation control. This review gives some current priorities in traditional Reynolds-averaged modeling research as well as some methodologies being applied to a new class of turbulent flow control problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashworth, K.; Chung, S. H.; Griffin, R. J.; Chen, J.; Forkel, R.; Bryan, A. M.; Steiner, A. L.
2015-11-01
Biosphere-atmosphere interactions play a critical role in governing atmospheric composition, mediating the concentrations of key species such as ozone and aerosol, thereby influencing air quality and climate. The exchange of reactive trace gases and their oxidation products (both gas and particle phase) is of particular importance in this process. The FORCAsT (FORest Canopy Atmosphere Transfer) 1-D model is developed to study the emission, deposition, chemistry and transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their oxidation products in the atmosphere within and above the forest canopy. We include an equilibrium partitioning scheme, making FORCAsT one of the few canopy models currently capable of simulating the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) from VOC oxidation in a forest environment. We evaluate the capability of FORCAsT to reproduce observed concentrations of key gas-phase species and report modeled SOA concentrations within and above a mixed forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) during the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiment (CABINEX) field campaign in the summer of 2009. We examine the impact of two different gas-phase chemical mechanisms on modelled concentrations of short-lived primary emissions, such as isoprene and monoterpenes, and their oxidation products. While the two chemistry schemes perform similarly under high-NOx conditions, they diverge at the low levels of NOx at UMBS. We identify peroxy radical and alkyl nitrate chemistry as the key causes of the differences, highlighting the importance of this chemistry in understanding the fate of biogenic VOCs (bVOCs) for both the modelling and measurement communities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gloesener, Elodie; Karatekin, Özgür; Dehant, Véronique
2016-04-01
MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) performed high-resolution measurements of temperature and relative humidity during more than one Martian year. In this work, a 1D subsurface model is used to study water vapor exchange between the atmosphere and the subsurface at Gale crater using REMS data. The thermal model used includes several layers of varying thickness with depth and properties that can be changed to correspond to those of Martian rocks at locations studied. It also includes the transport of water vapor through porous Martian regolith and the different phases considered are vapor, ice and adsorbed H2O. The total mass flux is given by the sum of diffusive and advective transport. The role of an adsorbing regolith on water transfer as well as the range of parameters with significant effect on water transport in Martian conditions are investigated. In addition, kinetics of the adsorption process is considered to examine its influence on the water vapor exchange between the subsurface and the atmosphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pradel, J.-L.; David, C.; Quinebèche, S.; Blondel, P.
2014-05-01
Industrial scale-up (or scale down) in Compounding and Reactive Extrusion processes is one of the most critical R&D challenges. Indeed, most of High Performances Polymers are obtained within a reactive compounding involving chemistry: free radical grafting, in situ compatibilization, rheology control... but also side reactions: oxidation, branching, chain scission... As described by basic Arrhenius and kinetics laws, the competition between all chemical reactions depends on residence time distribution and temperature. Then, to ensure the best possible scale up methodology, we need tools to match thermal history of the formulation along the screws from a lab scale twin screw extruder to an industrial one. This paper proposes a comparison between standard scale-up laws and the use of Computer modeling Software such as Ludovic® applied and compared to experimental data. Scaling data from a compounding line to another one, applying general rules (for example at constant specific mechanical energy), shows differences between experimental and computed data, and error depends on the screw speed range. For more accurate prediction, 1D-Computer Modeling could be used to optimize the process conditions to ensure the best scale-up product, especially in temperature sensitive reactive extrusion processes. When the product temperature along the screws is the key, Ludovic® software could help to compute the temperature profile along the screws and extrapolate conditions, even screw profile, on industrial extruders.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Matthaeus, William H.
2014-06-01
We have developed a three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a system of co-moving solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons, with separate energy equations for each species. Numerical steady-state solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations for turbulence energy, cross helicity, and correlation length are obtained by the time relaxation method in the corotating with the Sun frame of reference in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU (but still inside the termination shock). The model equations include the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. The turbulence transport model is based on the Reynolds decomposition and turbulence phenomenologies that describe the conversion of fluctuation energy into heat due to a turbulent cascade. In addition to using separate energy equations for the solar wind protons and electrons, a significant improvement over our previous work is that the turbulence model now uses an eddy viscosity approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor and the mean turbulent electric field. The approximation allows the turbulence model to account for driving of turbulence by large-scale velocity gradients. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including embedded turbulence, heating, and acceleration throughout the heliosphere. The model results are
Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.
2014-06-10
We have developed a three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a system of co-moving solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons, with separate energy equations for each species. Numerical steady-state solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations for turbulence energy, cross helicity, and correlation length are obtained by the time relaxation method in the corotating with the Sun frame of reference in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU (but still inside the termination shock). The model equations include the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. The turbulence transport model is based on the Reynolds decomposition and turbulence phenomenologies that describe the conversion of fluctuation energy into heat due to a turbulent cascade. In addition to using separate energy equations for the solar wind protons and electrons, a significant improvement over our previous work is that the turbulence model now uses an eddy viscosity approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor and the mean turbulent electric field. The approximation allows the turbulence model to account for driving of turbulence by large-scale velocity gradients. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including embedded turbulence, heating, and acceleration throughout the heliosphere. The model results are
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobson, I. D.; Joshi, D. S.
1976-01-01
The influence of simulated turbulence on aircraft handling qualities was investigated. Pilot opinion of the handling qualities of a light general aviation aircraft were evaluated in a motion-base simulator using a simulated turbulence environment. A realistic representation of turbulence disturbances is described in terms of rms intensity and scale length and their random variations with time. The time histories generated by the proposed turbulence models showed characteristics which appear to be more similar to real turbulence than the frequently-used Gaussian turbulence model. In addition, the proposed turbulence models can flexibly accommodate changes in atmospheric conditions and be easily implemented in flight simulator studies. Six turbulence time histories, including the conventional Gaussian model, were used in an IFR-tracking task. The realism of each of the turbulence models and the handling qualities of the simulated airplane were evaluated. Analysis of pilot opinions shows that at approximately the same rms intensities of turbulence, the handling quality ratings transit from the satisfactory level, for the simple Gaussian model, to an unacceptable level for more realistic and compositely structured turbulence models.
PDF Modeling of Turbulent Lean Premixed Combustion
Yilmaz, S.L.; •Givi, P.; Strakey, P.A.
2007-10-01
The joint velocity-scalar-frequency probability density function (PDF) methodology is employed for prediction of a bluff-body stabilized lean premixed methane-air flame. A reduced mechanism with CO and NO chemistry is used to describe fuel oxidation. The predicted mean and rms values of the velocity, temperature and concentrations of major and minor species are compared with laboratory measurements. This technical effort was performed in support of the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s on-going research in “Assessment of Turbo-Chemistry Models for Gas Turbine Combustion Emissions” under the RDS contract DE-AC26-04NT41817.
More accurate predictions with transonic Navier-Stokes methods through improved turbulence modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Dennis A.
1989-01-01
Significant improvements in predictive accuracies for off-design conditions are achievable through better turbulence modeling; and, without necessarily adding any significant complication to the numerics. One well established fact about turbulence is it is slow to respond to changes in the mean strain field. With the 'equilibrium' algebraic turbulence models no attempt is made to model this characteristic and as a consequence these turbulence models exaggerate the turbulent boundary layer's ability to produce turbulent Reynolds shear stresses in regions of adverse pressure gradient. As a consequence, too little momentum loss within the boundary layer is predicted in the region of the shock wave and along the aft part of the airfoil where the surface pressure undergoes further increases. Recently, a 'nonequilibrium' algebraic turbulence model was formulated which attempts to capture this important characteristic of turbulence. This 'nonequilibrium' algebraic model employs an ordinary differential equation to model the slow response of the turbulence to changes in local flow conditions. In its original form, there was some question as to whether this 'nonequilibrium' model performed as well as the 'equilibrium' models for weak interaction cases. However, this turbulence model has since been further improved wherein it now appears that this turbulence model performs at least as well as the 'equilibrium' models for weak interaction cases and for strong interaction cases represents a very significant improvement. The performance of this turbulence model relative to popular 'equilibrium' models is illustrated for three airfoil test cases of the 1987 AIAA Viscous Transonic Airfoil Workshop, Reno, Nevada. A form of this 'nonequilibrium' turbulence model is currently being applied to wing flows for which similar improvements in predictive accuracy are being realized.
Modeling anisotropic MHD turbulence in simulations of liquid metal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Widlund, O.
2001-06-01
The dynamical properties of the MHD turbulence model proposed by Widlund etal. are examined for the case of homogeneous decaying turbulence. The model is a Reynolds stress closure, extended with a transport equation for a dimensional anisotropy variable, α, which carries information about length scale anisotropy. The analysis suggests that the model term originally proposed for the nonlinear energy transfer in the α equation should be modified. A unique set of model coefficients could be determined, which makes the model consistent with theory and experiments for interaction parameters N ranging from zero to infinity. The model coincides with the standard K-eps model when there is no magnetic field. In the linear regime of large N, it produces the K˜ t^{-1/2} energy decay predicted by linear theory. When nonlinear effects are important, the model predicts K˜ t^{-1.7} and L_∥ ˜ t^{0.65}, in agreement with the classical experiments by Alemany etal. Figs 5, Refs 11.
Effective Inflow Conditions for Turbulence Models in Aerodynamic Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spalart, Philippe R.; Rumsey, Christopher L.
2007-01-01
The selection of inflow values at boundaries far upstream of an aircraft is considered, for one- and two-equation turbulence models. Inflow values are distinguished from the ambient values near the aircraft, which may be much smaller. Ambient values should be selected first, and inflow values that will lead to them after the decay second; this is not always possible, especially for the time scale. The two-equation decay during the approach to the aircraft is shown; often, the time scale has been set too short for this decay to be calculated accurately on typical grids. A simple remedy for both issues is to impose floor values for the turbulence variables, outside the viscous sublayer, and it is argued that overriding the equations in this manner is physically justified. Selecting laminar ambient values is easy, if the boundary layers are to be tripped, but a more common practice is to seek ambient values that will cause immediate transition in boundary layers. This opens up a wide range of values, and selection criteria are discussed. The turbulent Reynolds number, or ratio of eddy viscosity to laminar viscosity has a huge dynamic range that makes it unwieldy; it has been widely mis-used, particularly by codes that set upper limits on it. The value of turbulent kinetic energy in a wind tunnel or the atmosphere is also of dubious value as an input to the model. Concretely, the ambient eddy viscosity must be small enough to preserve potential cores in small geometry features, such as flap gaps. The ambient frequency scale should also be small enough, compared with shear rates in the boundary layer. Specific values are recommended and demonstrated for airfoil flows
A Study of Two-Equation Turbulence Models on the Elliptic Streamline Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blaisdell, Gregory A.; Qin, Jim H.; Shariff, Karim; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Several two-equation turbulence models are compared to data from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the homogeneous elliptic streamline flow, which combines rotation and strain. The models considered include standard two-equation models and models with corrections for rotational effects. Most of the rotational corrections modify the dissipation rate equation to account for the reduced dissipation rate in rotating turbulent flows, however, the DNS data shows that the production term in the turbulent kinetic energy equation is not modeled correctly by these models. Nonlinear relations for the Reynolds stresses are considered as a means of modifying the production term. Implications for the modeling of turbulent vortices will be discussed.
Iocco, Fabio; /Naples U. /INFN, Naples
2007-09-28
We present preliminary results of 2-D simulations of the effects of turbulence in the mixing of Pair Instability Supenovae. We make use of the FLASH code to evolve initial 1-D models of post-bounce PISNe and seed turbulence in form of velocity perturbations. We identify the energetic and spatial scale for the turbulence to have mixing effects on the metal shells inside the star. Under the conditions we examine, we observe some mixing but the onion structure of the metal distribution is not disrupted.
Three-dimensional Fast Flux Test Facility plenum model turbulent flow prediction and data comparison
Eyler, L.L.; Sawdye, R.W.
1981-01-01
Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent flow in a scaled Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) upper plenum model were performed using the TEMPEST hydrothermal code. A standard k-element of model was used to describe turbulence through an effective viscosity. Comparisons with previously reported mean velocity and turbulence field data measured in the plenum model and two-dimensional numerical simulations using the TEACH code were made. Predicted horizontal and vertical mean velocities and turbulent kinetic energy are shown to be in good agreement with available experimental data when inlet conditions of the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy are appropriately prescribed. The three-dimensional quarter-symmetry simulation predicts the turbulent kinetic energy field significantly better than the two-dimensional centerplane simulations. These results lead to conclusions concerning deficiencies in the experimental data and the turbulence model.
Microburst Simulation via Vortex-Ring and Turbulent Jet Models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Tung
Microbursts, suggested as primary causes of many aircraft fatal crashes, are the subject of this research. A microburst, or low-level intense wind shear, is generated by a thunderstorm or a small rain cloud, and presents hazardous conditions for aircraft during take-off and landing maneuvers. Recently released data show that a microburst resembles a transient vortex ring. Three microburst models have been constructed in this study. First, the turbulent jet model encompasses a free jet at high altitude and a wall jet near the ground surface. Second, the vortex ring model is a combination of a primary and an image vortex ring, with an inviscid -viscous interaction at the central axial and surface regions. An unsteady version of this model is also provided by solving the trajectory equation with the Direct Formal Integration (DFI) method or with the Runge-Kutta method. Third and finally, the complete unsteady microburst model equations (conservation of mass, momentum, and energy), or what has been referred to as the Navier-Stokes model formulation, are solved by the successive over relaxation method. Results show that the microburst can be simulated accurately by impulsive turbulent jet at high altitude and a transient vortex ring in mid-air and near the ground surface. In addition to improved understanding of the physical nature of microbursts, the models presented here can also be used for flight simulation and the pilot training purposes.
Characterizing a Model of Coronal Heating and Solar Wind Acceleration Based on Wave Turbulence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Downs, C.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J.; Velli, M.
2014-12-01
Understanding the nature of coronal heating and solar wind acceleration is a key goal in solar and heliospheric research. While there have been many theoretical advances in both topics, including suggestions that they may be intimately related, the inherent scale coupling and complexity of these phenomena limits our ability to construct models that test them on a fundamental level for realistic solar conditions. At the same time, there is an ever increasing impetus to improve our spaceweather models, and incorporating treatments for these processes that capture their basic features while remaining tractable is an important goal. With this in mind, I will give an overview of our exploration of a wave-turbulence driven (WTD) model for coronal heating and solar wind acceleration based on low-frequency Alfvénic turbulence. Here we attempt to bridge the gap between theory and practical modeling by exploring this model in 1D HD and multi-dimensional MHD contexts. The key questions that we explore are: What properties must the model possess to be a viable model for coronal heating? What is the influence of the magnetic field topology (open, closed, rapidly expanding)? And can we simultaneously capture coronal heating and solar wind acceleration with such a quasi-steady formulation? Our initial results suggest that a WTD based formulation performs adequately for a variety of solar and heliospheric conditions, while significantly reducing the number of free parameters when compared to empirical heating and solar wind models. The challenges, applications, and future prospects of this type of approach will also be discussed.
Modeling extinction and reignition in turbulent flames
Kronenburg, A.; Kostka, M.
2005-12-01
The conditional moment closure method (CMC) has been extended to improve reactive species predictions in flames with significant local extinction and reignition. Simple first-order closure of the conditionally averaged reaction rate term does not give satisfactory results due to large fluctuations around the conditional mean and an alternative closure is suggested here. The new closure is based on a precomputed parameterized reference field that maps reactive species mass fractions as functions of mixture fraction and sensible enthalpy. During the computations, the reference field is continuously adjusted to ensure consistency with the CMC solution and doubly conditioned chemical source terms that are functions of time, space, mixture fraction, and sensible enthalpy can thus be obtained. Integration over sensible enthalpy space yields the improved singly conditioned chemical source term that can be used for the solution of the CMC equations. Full closure can be achieved by assuming a {beta}-PDF for the probability distribution in sensible enthalpy space and an additional conditional variance equation needs to be solved. The overall agreement between the measured and the computed variance is satisfactory and the extended CMC model is applied to Sandia Flames D, E, and F. Excellent predictions of temperature, major species, intermediates, and NO are obtained in Flames D and E while temperature predictions can be significantly improved in Sandia Flame F.
Uncertainty Quantification and Validation for RANS Turbulence Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliver, Todd; Moser, Robert
2011-11-01
Uncertainty quantification and validation procedures for RANS turbulence models are developed and applied. The procedures used here rely on a Bayesian view of probability. In particular, the uncertainty quantification methodology requires stochastic model development, model calibration, and model comparison, all of which are pursued using tools from Bayesian statistics. Model validation is also pursued in a probabilistic framework. The ideas and processes are demonstrated on a channel flow example. Specifically, a set of RANS models--including Baldwin-Lomax, Spalart-Allmaras, k- ɛ, k- ω, and v2- f--and uncertainty representations are analyzed using DNS data for fully-developed channel flow. Predictions of various quantities of interest and the validity (or invalidity) of the various models for making those predictions will be examined. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].
Modeling Turbulent Combustion for Variable Prandtl and Schmidt Number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hassan, H. A.
2004-01-01
This report consists of two abstracts submitted for possible presentation at the AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting to be held in January 2005. Since the submittal of these abstracts we are continuing refinement of the model coefficients derived for the case of a variable Turbulent Prandtl number. The test cases being investigated are a Mach 9.2 flow over a degree ramp and a Mach 8.2 3-D calculation of crossing shocks. We have developed an axisymmetric code for treating axisymmetric flows. In addition the variable Schmidt number formulation was incorporated in the code and we are in the process of determining the model constants.
Turbulent Impurity Transport Modeling for C-Mod
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Xiangrong; Horton, Wendell; Rowan, William; Bespamyatnov, Igor; Benkadda, Sadruddin; Fiore, Catherine
2012-03-01
Turbulent particle transport is investigated by analyzing boron impurity transport experiments in the Alcator C-Mod transport experiments with a quasilinear theory. Eigenvalue problems for sets of reduced fluid equations for the multi-component plasmas are solved to get the fluctuating field vector composed of the electric potential φ, the main ion density δni, the impurity density δnz and the ion temperature fluctuation δTi(for ITG). For Alcator C-Mod parameters, we investigate three drift waves models (1) the usual drift waves driven by density gradients, (2)impurity drift waves supported by the impurity density gradients and (3)turbulence driven by ITG mode. With turbulent spectrum obtained from simulations or nonlinear theories, we calculate particle transport coefficients and compare with the experiment and the neoclassical theory. This procedure results in a fast code that could run in real-time on the transport time scale to give the particle fluxes as a function of the state of the plasma. The code may be extended to include multiple modes for a more complete description of plasmas. Examples for the particle fluxes are given for C-Mod in the H modes and newly discovered I modes. Recent experiments reported on LHD are briefly discussed.
Modeling the Effects of Turbulence in Rotating Detonation Engines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Towery, Colin; Smith, Katherine; Hamlington, Peter; van Schoor, Marthinus; TESLa Team; Midé Team
2014-03-01
Propulsion systems based on detonation waves, such as rotating and pulsed detonation engines, have the potential to substantially improve the efficiency and power density of gas turbine engines. Numerous technical challenges remain to be solved in such systems, however, including obtaining more efficient injection and mixing of air and fuels, more reliable detonation initiation, and better understanding of the flow in the ejection nozzle. These challenges can be addressed using numerical simulations. Such simulations are enormously challenging, however, since accurate descriptions of highly unsteady turbulent flow fields are required in the presence of combustion, shock waves, fluid-structure interactions, and other complex physical processes. In this study, we performed high-fidelity three dimensional simulations of a rotating detonation engine and examined turbulent flow effects on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the engine. Along with experimental data, these simulations were used to test the accuracy of commonly-used Reynolds averaged and subgrid-scale turbulence models when applied to detonation engines. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).
Dynamic and Thermal Turbulent Time Scale Modelling for Homogeneous Shear Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwab, John R.; Lakshminarayana, Budugur
1994-01-01
A new turbulence model, based upon dynamic and thermal turbulent time scale transport equations, is developed and applied to homogeneous shear flows with constant velocity and temperature gradients. The new model comprises transport equations for k, the turbulent kinetic energy; tau, the dynamic time scale; k(sub theta), the fluctuating temperature variance; and tau(sub theta), the thermal time scale. It offers conceptually parallel modeling of the dynamic and thermal turbulence at the two equation level, and eliminates the customary prescription of an empirical turbulent Prandtl number, Pr(sub t), thus permitting a more generalized prediction capability for turbulent heat transfer in complex flows and geometries. The new model also incorporates constitutive relations, based upon invariant theory, that allow the effects of nonequilibrium to modify the primary coefficients for the turbulent shear stress and heat flux. Predictions of the new model, along with those from two other similar models, are compared with experimental data for decaying homogeneous dynamic and thermal turbulence, homogeneous turbulence with constant temperature gradient, and homogeneous turbulence with constant temperature gradient and constant velocity gradient. The new model offers improvement in agreement with the data for most cases considered in this work, although it was no better than the other models for several cases where all the models performed poorly.
A Two-length Scale Turbulence Model for Single-phase Multi-fluid Mixing
Schwarzkopf, J. D.; Livescu, D.; Baltzer, J. R.; Gore, R. A.; Ristorcelli, J. R.
2015-09-08
A two-length scale, second moment turbulence model (Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes, RANS) is proposed to capture a wide variety of single-phase flows, spanning from incompressible flows with single fluids and mixtures of different density fluids (variable density flows) to flows over shock waves. The two-length scale model was developed to address an inconsistency present in the single-length scale models, e.g. the inability to match both variable density homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence and Rayleigh-Taylor induced turbulence, as well as the inability to match both homogeneous shear and free shear flows. The two-length scale model focuses on separating the decay and transport length scales, as the two physical processes are generally different in inhomogeneous turbulence. This allows reasonable comparisons with statistics and spreading rates over such a wide range of turbulent flows using a common set of model coefficients. The specific canonical flows considered for calibrating the model include homogeneous shear, single-phase incompressible shear driven turbulence, variable density homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence, Rayleigh-Taylor induced turbulence, and shocked isotropic turbulence. The second moment model shows to compare reasonably well with direct numerical simulations (DNS), experiments, and theory in most cases. The model was then applied to variable density shear layer and shock tube data and shows to be in reasonable agreement with DNS and experiments. Additionally, the importance of using DNS to calibrate and assess RANS type turbulence models is highlighted.
Novel phase-space Monte-Carlo method for quench dynamics in 1D and 2D spin models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pikovski, Alexander; Schachenmayer, Johannes; Rey, Ana Maria
2015-05-01
An important outstanding problem is the effcient numerical computation of quench dynamics in large spin systems. We propose a semiclassical method to study many-body spin dynamics in generic spin lattice models. The method, named DTWA, is based on a novel type of discrete Monte-Carlo sampling in phase-space. We demonstare the power of the technique by comparisons with analytical and numerically exact calculations. It is shown that DTWA captures the dynamics of one- and two-point correlations 1D systems. We also use DTWA to study the dynamics of correlations in 2D systems with many spins and different types of long-range couplings, in regimes where other numerical methods are generally unreliable. Computing spatial and time-dependent correlations, we find a sharp change in the speed of propagation of correlations at a critical range of interactions determined by the system dimension. The investigations are relevant for a broad range of systems including solids, atom-photon systems and ultracold gases of polar molecules, trapped ions, Rydberg, and magnetic atoms. This work has been financially supported by JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF-1211914, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.
Thermal characterization of large size lithium-ion pouch cell based on 1d electro-thermal model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vertiz, G.; Oyarbide, M.; Macicior, H.; Miguel, O.; Cantero, I.; Fernandez de Arroiabe, P.; Ulacia, I.
2014-12-01
Thermal management is one of the key factors to keep lithium-ion cells in optimum electrical performance, under safe working conditions and into a reasonably low ageing process. This issue is becoming particularly relevant due to the heterogeneous heat generation along the cell. Cell working temperature is determined by ambient temperature, heat generation and evacuation capacity. Therefore, thermal management is established by: i) the intrinsic thermal properties (heat capacity & thermal conductivity) and ii) the heat generation electro-thermal parameters (internal resistance, open circuit voltage & entropic factor). In this research, different methods - calculated and experimental - are used to characterize the main heat properties of a 14Ah -LiFePO4/graphite-commercial large sizes pouch cell. In order to evaluate the accuracy of methods, two comparisons were performed. First, Newman heat generation estimations were compared with experimental heat measurements. Secondly, empirical thermal cell behaviour was match with 1D electro-thermal model response. Finally, considering the results, the most adequate methodology to evaluate the key thermal parameters of a large size Lithium-ion pouch cell are proposed to be: i) pulse method for internal resistance, ii)heat loss method for entropic factor; and iii)experimental measurement (ARC calorimeter and C-177-97 standard method) for heat capacity and thermal conductivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dekker, H.; de Leeuw, G.; van den Brink, A. Maassen
A nonlocal turbulence transport theory is presented by means of a novel analysis of the Reynolds stress, inter alia involving the construct of a sample path space and a stochastic hypothesis. An analytical sampling rate model (satisfying exchange) and a nonlinear scaling relation (mapping the path space onto the boundary layer) lead to an integro-differential equation for the mixing of scalar densities, which represents fully-developed boundary-layer turbulence as a nondiffusive (Kubo-Anderson or kangaroo) type stochastic process. The underlying near-wall behavior (i.e. for y +→0) of fluctuating velocities fully agrees with recent direct numerical simulations. The model involves a scaling exponent ɛ, with ɛ→∞ in the diffusion limit. For the (partly analytical) solution for the mean velocity profile, excellent agreement with the experimental data yields ɛ≈0.58. The significance of ɛ as a turbulence Cantor set dimension (in the logarithmic profile region, i.e. for y +→∞) is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Maciejewska, A.; Osiński, R.; Jakacki, J.; Jędrasik, J.
2009-04-01
This paper presents a one-dimensional Ecosystem Model. Mathematically, the pelagic variables in the model are described by a second-order partial differential equation of the diffusion type with biogeochemical sources and sinks. The temporal changes in the phytoplankton biomass are caused by primary production, respiration, mortality, grazing by zooplankton and sinking. The zooplankton biomass is affected by ingestion, excretion, respiration, fecal production, mortality, and carnivorous grazing. The changes in the pelagic detritus concentration are determined by input of: dead phytoplankton and zooplankton, natural mortality of predators, fecal pellets, and sinks: sedimentation, zooplankton grazing and decomposition. The nutrient concentration is caused by nutrient release, zooplankton excretion, predator excretion, detritus decomposition and benthic regeneration as sources and by nutrient uptake by phytoplankton as sinks. However, the benthic detritus is described by phytoplankton sedimentation, detritus sedimentation and remineralisation. The particulate organic carbon concentration is determined as the sum of phytoplankton, zooplankton and dead organic matter (detritus) concentrations. The 1D ecosystem model was used to simulate the seasonal dynamics of pelagic variables (phytoplankton, zooplankton, pelagic detritus and POC) in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep, Bornholm Deep and Gotland Deep). The calculations were made assuming: 1) increase in the water temperature in the upper layer - 0.008oC per year, 2) increase in the available light - 0.2% per year. Based on this trend, daily, monthly and seasonal and annual variability of phytoplankton, zooplankton, pelagic detritus and particulate organic carbon in different areas of the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep, Borrnholm Deep and Gotland Deep) in the euphotic layer was calculated for the years: 2000, 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goldberg, Louis F.
1990-01-01
Investigations of one- and two-dimensional (1- or 2-D) simulations of Stirling machines centered around experimental data generated by the U. of Minnesota Mechanical Engineering Test Rig (METR) are covered. This rig was used to investigate oscillating flows about a zero mean with emphasis on laminar/turbulent flow transitions in tubes. The Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) and in particular, its heater, were the subjects of the simulations. The heater was treated as a 1- or 2-D entity in an otherwise 1-D system. The 2-D flow effects impacted the transient flow predictions in the heater itself but did not have a major impact on overall system performance. Information propagation effects may be a significant issue in the simulation (if not the performance) of high-frequency, high-pressure Stirling machines. This was investigated further by comparing a simulation against an experimentally validated analytic solution for the fluid dynamics of a transmission line. The applicability of the pressure-linking algorithm for compressible flows may be limited by characteristic number (defined as flow path information traverses per cycle); this warrants further study. Lastly the METR was simulated in 1- and 2-D. A two-parameter k-w foldback function turbulence model was developed and tested against a limited set of METR experimental data.
Modeling atmospheric turbulence effects on ground-based telescope systems
Flatte, S.M.; Bradford, L.W.; Max, C.E.
1994-12-31
Bester et al. report measurements of atmospheric fluctuations made with the Infrared Spatial Interferometer, which indicated behavior not in accord with the standard Kolmogorov model with only a single constant wind velocity. The numerical simulations use relatively complex models of the atmosphere to investigate both Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov models. The authors find that the measurements of Bester et al. for light passing through the upper atmosphere are within the limits of behavior for Kolmogorov models, but often only if the outer scale of turbulent fluctuations is between 15 to 100 meters. The possibility that the measured behavior might be non-Kolmogorov is not excluded. They also examine measurements made along short paths in the surface boundary layer, where some measurements of Bester et al. showed variations in the atmospheric fluctuations with seeing conditions which appeared to be non-Kolmogorov. These variations can perhaps be explained by standard models, but require that seeing improve with increasing wind speed in the surface layer. They discuss some other measurements which lend some support to that idea. However, they cannot exclude non-Kolmogorov behavior. They find that meteorological data is needed concurrent with astronomical observations, to help constrain the models. The size of the outer scale, the wind velocity profile and the turbulence spectrum are important to the ultimate capabilities of interferometers and other systems with adaptive optics.
Near-wall modelling of compressible turbulent flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
So, Ronald M. C.
1990-01-01
Work was carried out to formulate near-wall models for the equations governing the transport of the temperature-variance and its dissipation rate. With these equations properly modeled, a foundation is laid for their extension together with the heat-flux equations to compressible flows. This extension is carried out in a manner similar to that used to extend the incompressible near-wall Reynolds-stress models to compressible flows. The methodology used to accomplish the extension of the near-wall Reynolds-stress models is examined and the actual extension of the models for the Reynolds-stress equations and the near-wall dissipation-rate equation to compressible flows is given. Then the formulation of the near-wall models for the equations governing the transport of the temperature variance and its dissipation rate is discussed. Finally, a sample calculation of a flat plate compressible turbulent boundary-layer flow with adiabatic wall boundary condition and a free-stream Mach number of 2.5 using a two-equation near-wall closure is presented. The results show that the near-wall two-equation closure formulated for compressible flows is quite valid and the calculated properties are in good agreement with measurements. Furthermore, the near-wall behavior of the turbulence statistics and structure parameters is consistent with that found in incompressible flows.
Evaluation of Turbulence-Model Performance in Jet Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodruff, S. L.; Seiner, J. M.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Erlebacher, G.
2001-01-01
The importance of reducing jet noise in both commercial and military aircraft applications has made jet acoustics a significant area of research. A technique for jet noise prediction commonly employed in practice is the MGB approach, based on the Lighthill acoustic analogy. This technique requires as aerodynamic input mean flow quantities and turbulence quantities like the kinetic energy and the dissipation. The purpose of the present paper is to assess existing capabilities for predicting these aerodynamic inputs. Two modern Navier-Stokes flow solvers, coupled with several modern turbulence models, are evaluated by comparison with experiment for their ability to predict mean flow properties in a supersonic jet plume. Potential weaknesses are identified for further investigation. Another comparison with similar intent is discussed by Barber et al. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop a reliable flow solver applicable to the low-noise, propulsion-efficient, nozzle exhaust systems being developed in NASA focused programs. These programs address a broad range of complex nozzle geometries operating in high temperature, compressible, flows. Seiner et al. previously discussed the jet configuration examined here. This convergent-divergent nozzle with an exit diameter of 3.6 inches was designed for an exhaust Mach number of 2.0 and a total temperature of 1680 F. The acoustic and aerodynamic data reported by Seiner et al. covered a range of jet total temperatures from 104 F to 2200 F at the fully-expanded nozzle pressure ratio. The aerodynamic data included centerline mean velocity and total temperature profiles. Computations were performed independently with two computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, ISAAC and PAB3D. Turbulence models employed include the k-epsilon model, the Gatski-Speziale algebraic-stress model and the Girimaji model, with and without the Sarkar compressibility correction. Centerline values of mean velocity and mean temperature are
Turbulent Mixing Chemistry in Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, D.; Wiebe, D.
2006-11-01
A gas-grain chemical model with surface reaction and 1D/2D turbulent mixing is available for protoplanetary disks and molecular clouds. Current version is based on the updated UMIST'95 database with gas-grain interactions (accretion, desorption, photoevaporation, etc.) and modified rate equation approach to surface chemistry (see also abstract for the static chemistry code).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartels, Robert E.
2001-01-01
Three-dimensional transonic flow over a delta wing is investigated using several turbulence models. The performance of linear eddy viscosity models and an explicit algebraic stress model is assessed at the start of vortex flow, and the results compared with experimental data. To assess the effect of transition location, computations that either fix transition aft of the leading edge or are fully turbulent are performed. These computations show that grid resolution, transition location and turbulence model significantly affect the 3D flowfield.
On the coalescence-dispersion modeling of turbulent molecular mixing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Kosaly, George
1987-01-01
The general coalescence-dispersion (C/D) closure provides phenomenological modeling of turbulent molecular mixing. The models of Curl and Dopazo and O'Brien appear as two limiting C/D models that bracket the range of results one can obtain by various models. This finding is used to investigate the sensitivtiy of the results to the choice of the model. Inert scalar mixing is found to be less model-sensitive than mixing accompanied by chemical reaction. Infinitely fast chemistry approximation is used to relate the C/D approach to Toor's earlier results. Pure mixing and infinite rate chemistry calculations are compared to study further a recent result of Hsieh and O'Brien who found that higher concentration moments are not sensitive to chemistry.